National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for melter thermal treatment

  1. EA-0821: Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to use an existing glass melter thermal treatment unit (also known as a Penberthy Pyro-Converter joule-heated glass furnace) for the...

  2. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE GLASS MELTER FEEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R; PIERCE DA

    2011-10-21

    Melter feeds for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) typically contain a large number of constituents that evolve gas on heating, Multiple gas-evolving reactions are both successive and simultaneous, and include the release of chemically bonded water, reactions of nitrates with organics, and reactions of molten salts with solid silica. Consequently, when a sample of a HLW feed is subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the rate of change of the sample mass reveals multiple overlapping peaks. In this study, a melter feed, formulated for a simulated high-alumina HLW to be vitrified in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction at the Hanford Site in Washington State, USA, was subjected to TGA. In addition, a modified melter feed was prepared as an all-nitrate version of the baseline feed to test the effect of sucrose addition on the gas-evolving reactions. Activation energies for major reactions were determined using the Kissinger method. The ultimate aim of TGA studies is to obtain a kinetic model of the gas-evolving reactions for use in mathematical modeling of the cold cap as an element of the overall model of the waste-glass melter. In this study, we focused on computing the kinetic parameters of individual reactions without identifying their actual chemistry, The rough provisional model presented is based on the first-order kinetics.

  3. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  4. Environmental Assessment for the Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the US Department of Energy`s Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The glass melter would thermally treat mixed waste (hazardous waste contaminated with radioactive constituents largely tritium, Pu-238, and/or Th-230) that was generated at the Mound Plant and is now in storage, by stabilizing the waste in glass blocks. Depending on the radiation level of the waste, the glass melter may operate for 1 to 6 years. Two onsite alternatives and seven offsite alternatives were considered. This environmental assessment indicates that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA, and therefore the finding of no significant impact is made, obviating the need for an environmental impact statement.

  5. Thermal Cycling on Fatigue Failure of the Plutonium Vitrification Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Jeffrey; Gorczyca, Jennifer

    2009-02-11

    One method for disposition of excess plutonium is vitrification into cylindrical wasteforms. Due to the hazards of working with plutonium, the vitrification process must be carried out remotely in a shielded environment. Thus, the equipment must be easily maintained. With their simple design, induction melters satisfy this criterion, making them ideal candidates for plutonium vitrification. However, due to repeated heating and cooling cycles and differences in coefficients of thermal expansion of contacting materials fatigue failure of the induction melter is of concern. Due to the cost of the melter, the number of cycles to failure is critical. This paper presents a method for determining the cycles to failure for an induction melter by using the results from thermal and structural analyses as input to a fatigue failure model.

  6. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vance, R.F.

    1991-12-01

    The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems.

  7. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  8. Melter Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been utilizing vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are utilized for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life, on the order of two to three years, at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods, due to the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life span has, to date, have exceeded original life span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storage or disposal of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size reduction and/or melter refurbishment. In particular, removal of glass as a part of a refurbishment or for the purposes of reducing contamination levels (allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste) will be addressed.

  9. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  10. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  11. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  12. Pilot-scale ceramic melter 1985-1986 rebuild: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koegler, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) was subsequently dismantled, and the damaged and corroded components were repaired or replaced. The PSCM rebuild ensures that the melter will be available for an additional three to five years of planned testing. An analysis of the corrosion products and the failed electrodes indicated that the electrode bus connection welds may have failed due to a combination of chemical and mechanical effects. The electrodes were replaced with a design similar to the original electrodes, but with improved electrical bus connections. The implications of the PSCM electrode corrosion evaluation are that, although Inconel 690 has excellent corrosion resistance to molten glass, corrosion at the melt line in stagnant regions is a significant concern. Functional changes made during the rebuild included increases in wall and floor insulation to better simulate well-insulated melters, a decrease in the lid height for more prototypical plenum and off-gas conditions, and installation of an Inconel 690 trough and dam to improve glass pouring and prevent glass seepage. 9 refs., 33 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. MELTER: A model of the thermal response of cargos transported in the Safe-Secure Trailer subject to fire environments for risk assessment applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    MELTER is an analysis of cargo responses inside a fire-threatened Safe-Secure Trailer (SST) developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA). Many simplifying assumptions are required to make the subject problem tractable. MELTER incorporates modeling which balances the competing requirements of execution speed, generality, completeness of essential physics, and robustness. Input parameters affecting the analysis include those defining the fire scenario, those defining the cargo loaded in the SST, and those defining properties of the SST. For a specified fire, SST, and cargo geometry MELTER predicts the critical fire duration that will lead to a failure. The principal features of the analysis include: (a) Geometric considerations to interpret fire-scenario descriptors in terms of a thermal radiation boundary condition, (b) a simple model of the SST`s wall combining the diffusion model for radiation through optically-thick media with an endothermic reaction front to describe the charring of dimensional, rigid foam in the SST wall, (c) a transient radiation enclosure model, (d) a one-dimensional, spherical idealization of the shipped cargos providing modularity so that cargos of interest can be inserted into the model, and (e) associated numerical methods to integrate coupled, differential equations and find roots.

  14. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  15. High Level Waste Remote Handling Equipment in the Melter Cave Support Handling System at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardal, M.A.; Darwen, N.J.

    2008-07-01

    Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. Bechtel National, Inc. is building the largest nuclear Waste Treatment Plant in the world located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site to immobilize the millions of gallons of radioactive waste. The site comprises five main facilities; Pretreatment, High Level Waste vitrification, Low Active Waste vitrification, an Analytical Lab and the Balance of Facilities. The pretreatment facilities will separate the high and low level waste. The high level waste will then proceed to the HLW facility for vitrification. Vitrification is a process of utilizing a melter to mix molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable product for storage. The melter cave is designated as the High Level Waste Melter Cave Support Handling System (HSH). There are several key processes that occur in the HSH cell that are necessary for vitrification and include: feed preparation, mixing, pouring, cooling and all maintenance and repair of the process equipment. Due to the cell's high level radiation, remote handling equipment provided by PaR Systems, Inc. is required to install and remove all equipment in the HSH cell. The remote handling crane is composed of a bridge and trolley. The trolley supports a telescoping tube set that rigidly deploys a TR 4350 manipulator arm with seven degrees of freedom. A rotating, extending, and retracting slewing hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and is centered about the telescoping tube set. Both the manipulator and slewer are unique to this cell. The slewer can reach into corners and the manipulator's cross pivoting wrist provides better operational dexterity and camera viewing angles at the end of the arm. Since the crane functions will be operated remotely, the entire cell and crane have been modeled with 3-D software. Model simulations have been used to confirm operational and maintenance

  16. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record for the Review of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant High-Level Waste Facility Concentrate Receipt/Melter Feed/Glass Formers Reagent Hazards Analysis Event Tables – June 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operational Awareness Record for the Review of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant High-Level Waste Facility Concentrate Receipt/Melter Feed/Glass Formers Reagent Hazards Analysis Event Tables

  17. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  18. Induction melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  19. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  20. Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

  1. NEXT GENERATION MELTER(S) FOR VITRIFICATION OF HANFORD WASTE STATUS AND DIRECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAMSEY WG; GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; EDGE JA; GARRETT BG

    2011-01-13

    Vitrification technology has been selected to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the Hanford Site, the West Valley Demonstration Project and the Savannah River Site (SRS), and low activity waste (LAW) at Hanford. In addition, it may potentially be applied to other defense waste streams such as sodium bearing tank waste or calcine. Joule-heated melters (already in service at SRS) will initially be used at the Hanford Site's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to vitrify tank waste fractions. The glass waste content and melt/production rates at WTP are limited by the current melter technology. Significant reductions in glass volumes and mission life are only possible with advancements in melter technology coupled with new glass formulations. The Next Generation Melter (NGM) program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), Environmental Management Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) to develop melters with greater production capacity (absolute glass throughput rate) and the ability to process melts with higher waste fractions. Advanced systems based on Joule-Heated Ceramic Melter (JHCM) and Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technologies will be evaluated for HLW and LAW processing. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), DOE's tank waste contractor, is developing and evaluating these systems in cooperation with EM-31, national and university laboratories, and corporate partners. A primary NGM program goal is to develop the systems (and associated flowsheets) to Technology Readiness Level 6 by 2016. Design and testing are being performed to optimize waste glass process envelopes with melter and balance of plant requirements. A structured decision analysis program will be utilized to assess the performance of the competing melter technologies. Criteria selected for the decision analysis program will include physical process operations, melter performance, system compatibility and other parameters.

  2. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; McCabe, D.

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  3. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.

    2014-02-27

    processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 °C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 °C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 °C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been

  4. Milliwave melter monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniel, William E.; Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, Shanmugavelayutham K.

    2011-08-16

    A milliwave melter monitoring system is presented that has a waveguide with a portion capable of contacting a molten material in a melter for use in measuring one or more properties of the molten material in a furnace under extreme environments. A receiver is configured for use in obtaining signals from the melt/material transmitted to appropriate electronics through the waveguide. The receiver is configured for receiving signals from the waveguide when contacting the molten material for use in determining the viscosity of the molten material. Other embodiments exist in which the temperature, emissivity, viscosity and other properties of the molten material are measured.

  5. Operating an induction melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Jay A.; Richardson, John G.; Raivo, Brian D.; Soelberg, Nicholas R.

    2006-01-31

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  6. Preliminary melter performance assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Cooper, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.; Shafer, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    The Melter Performance Assessment activity, a component of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) effort, was designed to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter. The melter performance assessment consisted of several activities, including a literature review of all work done with noble metals in glass, gradient furnace testing to study the behavior of noble metals during the melting process, research-scale and engineering-scale melter testing to evaluate effects of noble metals on melter operation, and computer modeling that used the experimental data to predict effects of noble metals on the full-scale melter. Feed used in these tests simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed. This report summarizes the results of the melter performance assessment and predicts the lifetime of the HWVP melter. It should be noted that this work was conducted before the recent Tri-Party Agreement changes, so the reference melter referred to here is the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter design.

  7. Melter viewing system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Brenden, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    Melter viewing systems are an integral component of the monitoring and control systems for liquid-fed ceramic melters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has designed cameras for use with glass melters at PNL, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This report is a compilation of these designs. Operating experiences with one camera designed for the PNL melter are discussed. A camera has been fabricated and tested on the High-Bay Ceramic Melter (HBCM) and the Pilot-Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) at PNL. The camera proved to be an effective tool for monitoring the cold cap formed as the feed pool developed on the molten glass surface and for observing the physical condition of the melter. Originally, the camera was built to operate using the visible light spectrum in the melter. It was later modified to operate using the infrared (ir) spectrum. In either configuration, the picture quality decreases as the size of the cold cap increases. Large cold caps cover the molten glass, reducing the amount of visible light and reducing the plenum temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. This temperature corresponds to the lowest level of blackbody radiation to which the video tube is sensitive. The camera has been tested in melter environments for about 1900 h. The camera has withstood mechanical shocks and vibrations. The cooling system in the camera has proved effective in maintaining the optical and electronic components within acceptable temperature ranges. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  8. Tunable, self-powered integrated arc plasma-melter vitrification system for waste treatment and resource recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a relatively compact self-powered, tunable waste conversion system and apparatus which has the advantage of highly robust operation which provides complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The system provides the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or by an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a self-powered or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production.

  9. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, T.D.

    1993-12-14

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

  10. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Terrance D.

    1993-01-01

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

  11. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  12. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suer, A.

    1996-02-28

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

  13. Graphite electrode arc melter demonstration Phase 2 test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Oden, L.L.; Turner, P.C.

    1996-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Energy organizations and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been collaboratively conducting mixed waste treatment process demonstration testing on the near full-scale graphite electrode submerged arc melter system at the Bureau`s Albany (Oregon) Research Center. An initial test series successfully demonstrated arc melter capability for treating surrogate incinerator ash of buried mixed wastes with soil. The conceptual treatment process for that test series assumed that buried waste would be retrieved and incinerated, and that the incinerator ash would be vitrified in an arc melter. This report presents results from a recently completed second series of tests, undertaken to determine the ability of the arc melter system to stably process a wide range of {open_quotes}as-received{close_quotes} heterogeneous solid mixed wastes containing high levels of organics, representative of the wastes buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Phase 2 demonstration test results indicate that an arc melter system is capable of directly processing these wastes and could enable elimination of an up-front incineration step in the conceptual treatment process.

  14. Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

    1990-02-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

  15. Enterprise Assessments Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low-Activity Waste Facility Hazards Analysis Reports for the Melter and Melter Offgas Systems - September 2015 Enterprise Assessments Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and ...

  16. Literature Review: Assessment of DWPF Melter and Melter Off-gas System Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2015-07-30

    Testing to date for the MOC for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melters is being reviewed with the lessons learned from DWPF in mind and with consideration to the changes in the flowsheet/feed compositions that have occurred since the original testing was performed. This information will be presented in a separate technical report that identifies any potential gaps for WTP processing.

  17. One-dimensional cold cap model for melters with bubblers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pokorny, Richard; Hilliard, Zachary J.; Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Guillen, Donna P.; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel

    2015-07-28

    The rate of glass production during vitrification in an all-electrical melter greatly impacts the cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization. The feed is charged to the melter on the top of the molten glass, where it forms a layer of reacting and melting material, called the cold cap. During the final stages of the batch-to-glass conversion process, gases evolved from reactions produce primary foam, the growth and collapse of which controls the glass production rate. The mathematical model of the cold cap was revised to include functional representation of primary foam behavior and to account for themore » dry cold cap surface. The melting rate is computed as a response to the dependence of the primary foam collapse temperature on the heating rate and melter operating conditions, including the effect of bubbling on the cold cap bottom and top surface temperatures. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data from laboratory-scale and pilot-scale melter studies. Lastly, the cold cap model will become part of the full three-dimensional mathematical model of the waste glass melter.« less

  18. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant – October 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter and Melter Off-gas Process System Hazards Analysis Activities [HIAR-WTP-2013-10-21

  19. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form (Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic). The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  20. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  1. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, April-June 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Allen, C.R.

    1987-02-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to document progress on liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the third quarter of FY 1986 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, off-gas systems, and process/product modeling and control.

  2. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, January--March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brouns, R. A.; Allen, C. R.; Powell, J. A.

    1988-05-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to describe the progress in developing, testing, applying and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the second quarter of FY 1987 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling. 23 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics include: melter overview, design basis, materials, vessel configuration, insulation, refractory configuration, electrical isolation, electrodes, riser and pour spout heater design, dome heaters, feed tubes, drain valves, differential pressure pouring, and melter test results. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  4. Advanced radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    During pilot scale operations of the Scale Glass Melter for the US Department of Energy a team of engineers and scientists was formed to assess the need for continued melter design development to support the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and prioritize future efforts. Recently this has taken on new importance because of selection of the DWPF Melter design as the reference for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), and increased interest at the West Valley Demonstration Project on melter life and replacement. Results of the study are summarized, and goals produced by the study are compared to the results of current programs at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL).

  5. Advanced radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1990-12-31

    During pilot scale operations of the Scale Glass Melter for the US Department of Energy a team of engineers and scientists was formed to assess the need for continued melter design development to support the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and prioritize future efforts. Recently this has taken on new importance because of selection of the DWPF Melter design as the reference for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), and increased interest at the West Valley Demonstration Project on melter life and replacement. Results of the study are summarized, and goals produced by the study are compared to the results of current programs at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL).

  6. Vitrification Melter Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Reprocessing Determination For The West Valley Demonstration Project Concentrator Feed Makeup Tank and Melter Feed Hold Tank Responses to Public Comments on Draft Vitrification...

  7. High-Level Waste Melter Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahearne, J.; Gentilucci, J.; Pye, L. D.; Weber, T.; Woolley, F.; Machara, N. P.; Gerdes, K.; Cooley, C.

    2002-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with a massive cleanup task in resolving the legacy of environmental problems from years of manufacturing nuclear weapons. One of the major activities within this task is the treatment and disposal of the extremely large amount of high-level radioactive (HLW) waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The current planning for the method of choice for accomplishing this task is to vitrify (glassify) this waste for disposal in a geologic repository. This paper describes the results of the DOE-chartered independent review of alternatives for solidification of Hanford HLW that could achieve major cost reductions with reasonable long-term risks, including recommendations on a path forward for advanced melter and waste form material research and development. The potential for improved cost performance was considered to depend largely on increased waste loading (fewer high-level waste canisters for disposal), higher throughput, or decreased vitrification facility size.

  8. Final Vitrification Melter And Vessels Evaluation Documentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has prepared final evaluations and made waste incidental to reprocessing determinations for the vitrification melter and feed vessels (the concentrator feed makeup tank and the melter feed hold tank), used by DOE’s West Valley Demonstration Project as part of the process to vitrify waste from prior commercial reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.

  9. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Plant. Information contained in this document consists solely of a machine drawing and parts list and purchase orders with specifications of equipment used in the development of the melter.

  10. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    treatment. A recent advance in thermal imaging allows more rapid, yet still non-invasive, detection. The process, called three-dimensional thermal tomography, or 3DTT, is...

  11. GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: 100-kg melter offgas report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100-kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek, Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100-kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report (WHC-SD-WM-VI-027).

  12. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast...

  13. HLW Melter Control Strategy Without Visual Feedback VSL-12R2500-1 Rev 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A A.; Joseph, Innocent; Matlack, Keith S.; Callow, Richard A.; Abramowitz, Howard; Pegg, Ian L.; Brandys, Marek; Kot, Wing K.

    2012-11-13

    Plans for the treatment of high level waste (HL W) at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) are based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the pretreatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form [I]. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat and mass transfer and increase glass melting rates. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of ~ 1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HL W waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150°C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage.

  14. Savannah River Site Marks Waste Processing Milestone with Melter...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Marks Waste Processing Milestone with Melter's 2,000th Waste Canister Savannah River Site Marks Waste Processing Milestone with Melter's 2,000th Waste Canister February 1, 2012 - ...

  15. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant- December 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity

  16. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  17. Melter feed system 3-way feed valve Auma motorized operator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, T.D.; O`Rourke, J.M.

    1987-04-07

    This document discusses the Scale Melter currently testing feed systems. One component of that system is a valve operator, which directs the feed slurry or flush water through the 3-way ball valve to the melter. This valve operator may be causing problems on the TNX Scale Melter by failing to accurately align the feed valve ports.

  18. Summary - Building C-400 Thermal Treatment Remedial Design Report...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation, Paducah ... What the ETR Team Recommended The data provide an initial basis for designoperation; ...

  19. Control of radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F. ); Hrma, P. ); Bowan, B.W. II )

    1990-01-01

    Slurries of simulated high level radioactive waste and glass formers have been isothermally reacted and analyzed to identify the sequence of the major chemical reactions in waste vitrification, their effect on glass production rate, and the development of leach resistance. Melting rates of waste batches have been increased by the addition of reducing agents (formic acid, sucrose) and nitrates. The rate increases are attributable in part to exothermic reactions which occur at critical stages in the vitrification process. Nitrates must be balanced by adequate reducing agents to avoid the formation of persistent foam, which would destabilize the melting process. The effect of foaming on waste glass production rates is analyzed, and melt rate limitations defined for waste-glass melters, based upon measurable thermophysical properties. Minimum melter residence times required to homogenize glass and assure glass quality are much smaller than those used in current practice. Thus, melter size can be reduced without adversely affecting glass quality. Physical chemistry and localized heat transfer of the waste-glass melting process are examined, to refine the available models for predicting and assuring glass production rate. It is concluded that the size of replacement melters and future waste processing facilities can be significantly decreased if minimum heat transfer requirements for effective melting are met by mechanical agitation. A new class of waste glass melters has been designed, and proof of concept tests completed on simulated High Level Radioactive Waste slurry. Melt rates have exceeded 155 kg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} with slurry feeds (32 lb ft{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}), and 229 kg kg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} with dry feed (47 lb ft{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}). This is about 8 times the melt rate possible in conventional waste- glass melters of the same size. 39 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Experimental Plan for Crystal Accumulation Studies in the WTP Melter Riser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Fowley, M.

    2015-04-28

    This experimental plan defines crystal settling experiments to be in support of the U.S. Department of Energy – Office of River Protection crystal tolerant glass program. The road map for development of crystal-tolerant high level waste glasses recommends that fluid dynamic modeling be used to better understand the accumulation of crystals in the melter riser and mechanisms of removal. A full-scale version of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter riser constructed with transparent material will be used to provide data in support of model development. The system will also provide a platform to demonstrate mitigation or recovery strategies in off-normal events where crystal accumulation impedes melter operation. Test conditions and material properties will be chosen to provide results over a variety of parameters, which can be used to guide validation experiments with the Research Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and that will ultimately lead to the development of a process control strategy for the full scale WTP melter. The experiments described in this plan are divided into two phases. Bench scale tests will be used in Phase 1 (using the appropriate solid and fluid simulants to represent molten glass and spinel crystals) to verify the detection methods and analytical measurements prior to their use in a larger scale system. In Phase 2, a full scale, room temperature mockup of the WTP melter riser will be fabricated. The mockup will provide dynamic measurements of flow conditions, including resistance to pouring, as well as allow visual observation of crystal accumulation behavior.

  1. Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1993-12-31

    The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE`s needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included.

  2. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast cancer patients. Lowers medical costs due to lessened side effects Noninvasive, enhances healing and detects other conditions PDF icon thermal_tomography

  3. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics discussed include: Information collected during testing, equipment, materials, design basis, feed tubes, and an evaluation of the performance of various components. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  4. Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

  5. Performance test report for the 1000 kg melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100 kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV- 384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100 kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the ``GTS Duratek, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report`` (WHC-SD-VI-027).

  6. Retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment scoring interaction report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raivo, B.D.; Richardson, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment technology process for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory transuranic waste pits and trenches is present. A system performance score is calculated, and assumptions, requirements, and reference baseline technologies for all subelements are included.

  7. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

  8. Responses to Public Comments on Draft Vitrification Melter Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation for the Vitrification Melter" (Draft WIR Evaluation) available for public and state review and comment and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) consultation review. ...

  9. Effect of Bubbles and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Effect of Bubbles and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology during Conversion to Glass Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Bubbles and Silica ...

  10. Waste simulant development for evaluation of LLW melter system technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shade, J.W.

    1994-05-25

    This document describes the LLW simulant compositions, basis for the simulants, and recipes for preparing nonradioactive simulants for LLW melter tests.

  11. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Hector (Evans, GA); Bickford, Dennis (Folly Beach, SC)

    2007-06-05

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  12. Letter report: Cold crucible melter assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, M.L.

    1996-03-01

    One of the activities of the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project is to assist the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program in determining which melter systems should be performance tested for potential implementation in the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant. The Richland Operations Office (RL) has recommended that the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) be evaluated as a candidate ``next generation`` melter. As a result, the CCM System Evaluation cost account was established under the PVTD Project so that the CCM could be initially assessed on a high-priority basis. This letter report summarizes a brief initial review and assessment of the CCM. Using the recommendations made in this document, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and RL will make a decision regarding the urgency of performance testing the CCM. If the decision is favorable, a subcontract will be negotiated for performance testing of a CCM using Hanford HLW simulants in a pilot-scale facility. Because of the aggressive nature of the schedule, the CCM evaluation was not rigorous. The evaluation consisted of a literature review and interviews with proponents of the technology during a recent trip to France. This letter report summarizes the evaluation and makes recommendations regarding further work in this area.

  13. Building 774A mini-melter restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mensink, D.L.

    1989-04-14

    Large scale mechanical improvements were made on the 100th scale glass melter in building 774A following a shutdown in November, 1988. The circumstances regarding that shutdown were reported by P.M. Allen in DPST-89-345. By request, the Mechanical Development Group assumed responsibility for the work on SRL Service order DS-87042. This report describes the changes which were made, their purpose, and observations as to their effectiveness after approximately 4 weeks of operating with the improvements in-place. Recommendations for further improving the equipment are also noted. The old melter design, now superseded, is documented in drawings ST5-23838 through ST5-23847. As-built drawing arrangements and details for the new work is shown in drawings SK5-6191-LD through SK5-6197-LD. Other design details are referenced in the drawings which were developed for the new shielded cells Research Melter, ST5-25111 through ST5-25124.

  14. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  15. Characterization of high level nuclear waste glass samples following extended melter idling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.

    2015-06-16

    The Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter was recently idled with glass remaining in the melt pool and riser for approximately three months. This situation presented a unique opportunity to collect and analyze glass samples since outages of this duration are uncommon. The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the potential for crystal formation in the glass resulting from an extended idling period. The results will be used to support development of a crystal-tolerant approach for operation of the high level waste melter at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Two glass pour stream samples were collected from DWPF when the melter was restarted after idling for three months. The samples did not contain crystallization that was detectible by X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy identified occasional spinel and noble metal crystals of no practical significance. Occasional platinum particles were observed by microscopy as an artifact of the sample collection method. Reduction/oxidation measurements showed that the pour stream glasses were fully oxidized, which was expected after the extended idling period. Chemical analysis of the pour stream glasses revealed slight differences in the concentrations of some oxides relative to analyses of the melter feed composition prior to the idling period. While these differences may be within the analytical error of the laboratories, the trends indicate that there may have been some amount of volatility associated with some of the glass components, and that there may have been interaction of the glass with the refractory components of the melter. These changes in composition, although small, can be attributed to the idling of the melter for an extended period. The changes in glass composition resulted in a 70-100 °C increase in the predicted spinel liquidus temperature (TL) for the pour stream glass samples relative to the analysis of the melter feed prior to

  16. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  17. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Modified IRC bench-scale arc melter for waste processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the INEL Research Center (IRC) arc melter facility and its recent modifications. The arc melter can now be used to study volatilization of toxic and high vapor pressure metals and the effects of reducing and oxidizing (redox) states in the melt. The modifications include adding an auger feeder, a gas flow control and monitoring system, an offgas sampling and exhaust system, and a baghouse filter system, as well as improving the electrode drive, slag sampling system, temperature measurement and video monitoring and recording methods, and oxidation lance. In addition to the volatilization and redox studies, the arc melter facility has been used to produce a variety of glass/ceramic waste forms for property evaluation. Waste forms can be produced on a daily basis. Some of the melts performed are described to illustrate the melter`s operating characteristics.

  19. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December 2012 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity The Office of Enforcement and...

  20. Volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides from soil heated in an induction ``cold`` crucible melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloy, A.S.; Belov, V.Z.; Trofimenko, A.S. [Khlopin Radium Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, S.A.; Stefanovsky, S.V. [SIA Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gombert, D.; Knecht, D.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of heavy metals and radionuclides during high-temperature treatment is very important for the design and operational capabilities of the off-gas treatment system, as well as for a better understanding of the nature and forms of the secondary waste. In Russia, a process for high-temperature melting in an induction heated cold crucible system is being studied for vitrification of Low Level Waste (LLW) flyash and SYNROC production with simulated high level waste (HLW). This work was done as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) funded research project for thermal treatment of mixed low level waste (LLW). Soil spiked with heavy metals (Cd, Pb) and radionuclides (Cs-137, U-239, Pu-239) was used as a waste surrogate. The soil was melted in an experimental lab-scale system that consisted of a high-frequency generator (1.76 MHz, 60 kW), a cold crucible melter (300 mm high and 90 mm in diameter), a shield box, and an off-gas system. The process temperature was 1,350--1,400 C. Graphite and silicon carbide were used as sacrificial conductive materials to start heating and initial melting of the soil batch. The off-gas system was designed in such a manner that after each experiment, it can be disconnected to collect and analyze all deposits to determine the mass balance. The off-gases were also sampled during an experiment to analyze for hydrogen, NO{sub x}, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and chlorine formation. This paper describes distribution and mass balance of metals and radionuclides in various parts of the off-gas system. The leach rate of the solidified blocks identified by the PCT method is also reported.

  1. CALCULATION OF DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM MELTER INLEAKAGE AND OFF-GAS GENERATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAY TH

    2008-04-16

    The River Protection Project (RPP) mission is to safely store, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is a research and development project whose objective is to demonstrate the suitability of Bulk Vitrification treatment technology waste form for disposing of low-activity waste from the Tank Farms. The objective of this calculation is to determine the DBVS melter inleakage and off-gas generation rate based on full scale testing data from 38D. This calculation estimates the DBVS melter in leakage and gas generation rate based on test data. Inleakage is estimated before the melt was initiated, at one point during the melt, and at the end of the melt. Maximum gas generation rate is also estimated.

  2. Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, D.E.

    1980-09-01

    This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application.

  3. Low temperature thermal treatment for petroleum refinery waste sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayen, R.J.; Swanstrom, C.P. )

    1992-05-01

    Treatment requirements for waste sludges generated by petroleum refinery operations and designated as waste codes K048, K049, K050, K051 and K052 under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) became effective in November, 1990 under the Landban regulations. An experimental program evaluated low temperature thermal treatment of filter cakes produced from these sludges using laboratory and pilot-scale equipment. One set of experiments on waste samples from two different refineries demonstrated the effective removal of organics of concern from the sludges to meet the RCRA Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) treatment standards. Cyanides were also within the acceptable limit. Combined with stabilization of heavy metals in the treatment residues, low temperature thermal treatment therefore provides an effective and efficient means of treating refinery sludges, with most hydrocarbons recovered and recycled to the refinery. A milder thermal treatment was used to remove the bulk of the water from a previously filtered waste sludge, providing effective waste minimization through a 40% decrease in the mass of sludge to be disposed. The heating value of the sludge was increased simultaneously by one-third, thereby producing a residue of greater value in an alternative fuels program. A process based on this approach was successfully designed and commercialized.

  4. Thermal treatment technology at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillary, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Recent surveys of mixed wastes in interim storage throughout the 30-site Department of Energy complex indicate that only 12 of those sites account for 98% of such wastes by volume. Current inventories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) account for 38% of total DOE wastes in interim storage, the largest of any single site. For a large percentage of these waste volumes, as well as the substantial amounts of buried and currently generated wastes, thermal treatment processes have been designated as the technologies of choice. Current facilities and a number of proposed strategies exist for thermal treatment of wastes of this nature at the INEL. High-level radioactive waste is solidified in the Waste Calciner Facility at the Idaho Central Processing Plant. Low-level solid wastes until recently have been processed at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), a compaction, size reduction, and controlled air incineration facility. WERF is currently undergoing process upgrading and RCRA Part B permitting. Recent systems studies have defined effective strategies, in the form of thermal process sequences, for treatment of wastes of the complex and heterogeneous nature in the INEL inventory. This presentation reviews the current status of operating facilities, active studies in this area, and proposed strategies for thermal treatment of INEL wastes.

  5. Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rue

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

  6. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  7. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-10-16

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  8. Low-Level waste phase 1 melter testing off gas and mass balance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1996-06-28

    Commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994-95 as part of a multiphase program to test candidate technologies for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes were also tested. Various feed material samples, product glass samples, and process offgas streams were characterized to provide data for evaluation of process decontamination factors and material mass balances for each vitrification technology. This report describes the melter mass balance evaluations and results for six of the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor demonstration tests.

  9. West Valley Melter Draft Waste Evaluation Released for Public...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The vitrification melter was used from 1996 through 2002 to solidify high-level waste that had been generated by commercial reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at the Western New ...

  10. Energy-Efficient Glass Melting - Next Generation Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-01

    This factsheet describes an R&D project focused on an oxy-gas-fired submerged combustion melter for glass industry that offers decreased operating and capital costs, decreased energy use, simple design, and high reliability.

  11. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  12. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  13. NEXT GENERATION MELTER OPTIONEERING STUDY - INTERIM REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; RAMSEY G; LOMAX J; ALLEN H

    2010-10-19

    The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D{sub 2}0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

  14. FINAL REPORT REGULATORY OFF GAS EMISSIONS TESTING ON THE DM1200 MELTER SYSTEM USING HLW AND LAW SIMULANTS VSL-05R5830-1 REV 0 10/31/05

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The operational requirements for the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) melter systems, together with the feed constituents, impose a number of challenges to the off-gas treatment system. The system must be robust from the standpoints of operational reliability and minimization of maintenance. The system must effectively control and remove a wide range of solid particulate matter, acid mists and gases, and organic constituents (including those arising from products of incomplete combustion of sugar and organics in the feed) to concentration levels below those imposed by regulatory requirements. The baseline design for the RPP-WTP LAW primary off-gas system includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS), a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed (AC-S), a thermal catalytic oxidizer (TCO), a single-stage selective catalytic reduction NOx treatment system (SCR), and a packed-bed caustic scrubber (PBS). The baseline design for the RPP-WTP HLW primary off-gas system includes an SBS, a WESP, a high efficiency mist eliminator (HEME), and a HEPA filter. The HLW secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed, a silver mordenite bed, a TCO, and a single-stage SCR. The one-third scale HLW DM1200 Pilot Melter installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was equipped with a prototypical off-gas train to meet the needs for testing and confirmation of the performance of the baseline off-gas system design. Various modifications have been made to the DM1200 system as the details of the WTP design have evolved, including the installation of a silver mordenite column and an AC-S column for testing on a slipstream of the off-gas flow; the installation of a full-flow AC-S bed for the present tests was completed prior to initiation of testing. The DM1200

  15. U.S. Bureau of Mines, phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: Melter offgas report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-10-27

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the melter offgas report on testing performed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. The Bureau of Mines (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate carbon electrode melter technology (also called carbon arc or electric arc) under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384216. The document contains the complete offgas report for the first 24-hour melter test (WHC-1) as prepared by Entropy Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the``U.S. Bureau of Mines, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report`` (WHC-SD-WM-VI-030).

  16. Enterprise Assessments Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project Engineering Processes ... Design Description HLW High-Level Waste HMH HLW Melter Handling ITS Important to ...

  17. Independent Activity Report, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant- March 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Follow-up of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity Review [HIAR-WTP-2013-03-18

  18. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, J.

    2011-11-14

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from {approx}750 C to {approx}375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a

  20. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  1. Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigation | Department of Energy Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation (2.17 MB) Summary - Building C-400 Thermal Treatment Remedial Design Report and Investigation, Paducah, Kentucky (57.35 KB) More Documents &

  2. Extended Development Work to Validate a HLW Calcine Waste Form via INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. King; Vince Maio

    2011-09-01

    To accomplish calcine treatment objectives, the Idaho Clean-up Project contractor, CWI, has chosen to immobilize the calcine in a glass-ceramic via the use of a Hot-Isostatic-Press (HIP); a treatment selection formally documented in a 2010 Record of Decision (ROD). Even though the HIP process may prove suitable for the calcine as specified in the ROD and validated in a number of past value engineering sessions, DOE is evaluating back-up treatment methods for the calcine as a result of the technical, schedule, and cost risk associated with the HIPing process. Consequently DOE HQ has requested DOE ID to make INL's bench-scale cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) available for investigating its viability as a process alternate to calcine treatment. The waste form is the key component of immobilization of radioactive waste. Providing a solid, stable, and durable material that can be easily be stored is the rationale for immobilization of radioactive waste material in glass, ceramic, or glass-ceramics. Ceramic waste forms offer an alternative to traditional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics can usually accommodate higher waste loadings than borosilicate glass, leading to smaller intermediate and long-term storage facilities. Many ceramic phases are known to possess superior chemical durability as compared to borosilicate glass. However, ceramics are generally multiphase systems containing many minor phase that make characterization and prediction of performance within a repository challenging. Additionally, the technologies employed in ceramic manufacture are typically more complex and expensive. Thus, many have proposed using glass-ceramics as compromise between in the more inexpensive, easier to characterize glass waste forms and the more durable ceramic waste forms. Glass-ceramics have several advantages over traditional borosilicate glasses as a waste form. Borosilicate glasses can inadvertently devitrify, leading to a less durable product that could crack

  3. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  4. Literature review: Assessment of DWPF melter and melter off-gas system lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M. M.

    2015-07-30

    A glass melter for use in processing radioactive waste is a challenging environment for the materials of construction (MOC) resulting from a combination of high temperatures, chemical attack, and erosion/corrosion; therefore, highly engineered materials must be selected for this application. The focus of this report is to review the testing and evaluations used in the selection of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), glass contact MOC specifically the Monofrax® K-3 refractory and Inconel® 690 alloy. The degradation or corrosion mechanisms of these materials during pilot scale testing and in-service operation were analyzed over a range of oxidizing and reducing flowsheets; however, DWPF has primarily processed a reducing flowsheet (i.e., Fe2+/ΣFe of 0.09 to 0.33) since the start of radioactive operations. This report also discusses the materials selection for the DWPF off-gas system and the corrosion evaluation of these materials during pilot scale testing and non-radioactive operations of DWPF Melter #1. Inspection of the off-gas components has not been performed during radioactive operations with the exception of maintenance because of plugging.

  5. Literature review: Assessment of DWPF melter and melter off-gas system lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2015-07-30

    A glass melter for use in processing radioactive waste is a challenging environment for the materials of construction (MOC) resulting from a combination of high temperatures, chemical attack, and erosion/corrosion; therefore, highly engineered materials must be selected for this application. The focus of this report is to review the testing and evaluations used in the selection of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), glass contact MOC specifically the Monofrax® K-3 refractory and Inconel® 690 alloy. The degradation or corrosion mechanisms of these materials during pilot scale testing and in-service operation were analyzed over a range of oxidizing and reducing flowsheets; however, DWPF has primarily processed a reducing flowsheet (i.e., Fe2+/ΣFe of 0.09 to 0.33) since the start of radioactive operations. This report also discusses the materials selection for the DWPF off-gas system and the corrosion evaluation of these materials during pilot scale testing and non-radioactive operations of DWPF Melter #1. Inspection of the off-gas components has not been performed during radioactive operations with the exception of maintenance because of plugging.

  6. Impact Of Melter Internal Design On Off-Gas Flammability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A. S.; Lee, S. Y.

    2012-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) identify the more dominant design parameters that can serve as the quantitative measure of how prototypic a given melter is, (2) run the existing DWPF models to simulate the data collected using both DWPF and non-DWPF melter configurations, (3) confirm the validity of the selected design parameters by determining if the agreement between the model predictions and data is reasonably good in light of the design and operating conditions employed in each data set, and (4) run Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to gain new insights into how fluid mixing is affected by the configuration of melter internals and to further apply the new insights to explaining, for example, why the agreement is not good.

  7. Tunable molten oxide pool assisted plasma-melter vitrification systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced use or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a net energy or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production. Methods and apparatus for converting metals, non-glass forming waste streams and low-ash producing inorganics into a useful gas are also provided. The methods and apparatus for such conversion include the use of a molten oxide pool having predetermined electrical, thermal and physical

  8. Literature review of arc/plasma, combustion, and joule-heated melter vitrification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, C.J.; Abrigo, G.P.; Shafer, P.J.; Merrill, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides reviews of papers and reports for three basic categories of melters: arc/plasma-heated melters, combustion-heated melters, and joule-heated melters. The literature reviewed here represents those publications which may lend insight to phase I testing of low-level waste vitrification being performed at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. For each melter category, information from those papers and reports containing enough information to determine steady-state mass balance data is tabulated at the end of each section. The tables show the composition of the feed processed, the off-gas measured via decontamination factors, gross energy consumptions, and processing rates, among other data.

  9. Extending Fuzzy System Concepts for Control of a Vitrification Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, J.C.; Sorgel, W.; Garrison, A.; Schalkoff, R.J.

    1995-08-16

    Fuzzy systems provide a mathematical framework to capture uncertainty. The complete description of real, complex systems or situations often requires far more detail and information than could ever be obtained (or understood). Fuzzy approaches are an alternative technology for both system control and information processing and management. In this paper, we present the design of a fuzzy control system for a melter used in the vitrification of hazardous waste. Design issues, especially those related to melter shutdown and obtaining smooth control surfaces, are addressed. Several extensions to commonly-applied fuzzy techniques, notably adaptive defuzzification and modified rule structures are developed.

  10. Earth melter with rubble walls and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Chris C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement to the earth melter described and claimed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,443,618. The improvement is the use of rubble for retaining walls. More specifically, the retaining walls rest on ground level and extend above ground level piling rubble around a melt zone. A portion of the melter may be below grade wherein sidewalls are formed by the relatively undisturbed native soil or rock, and the rubble may be used as a backfill liner for the below grade sidewalls.

  11. Effect of Feeding Rate on the Cold Cap Configuration in a Laboratory-Scale Melter - 13362

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel; Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang

    2013-07-01

    High-level-waste melter feed is converted into glass in a joule-heated melter, where it forms a floating layer of reacting feed, called the cold cap. After the glass-forming phase becomes connected, evolving gases produce bubbles that form a foam layer under the feed. The bubbles coalesce into cavities, from which most of the gases are released around the edges of the cold cap while gases also escape through small shafts in the reacting feed. The foam layer insulates the cold cap from the heat transferred from the molten glass below. The cold cap behavior was investigated in a laboratory-scale assembly with a fused silica crucible. A high-alumina waste simulant was fed into the crucible and the feed charging rate was varied from 3 to 7 mL min{sup -1}. After a fixed amount of time (35 min), feed charging was stopped and the crucible was removed from the furnace and quenched on a copper block to preserve the structure of the cold cap during cooling. During the rapid quenching, thermal cracking of the glass and cold cap allowed it to be broken up into sections for analysis. The effect of the charging rate on the height, area and volume of the cold cap was determined. The size of the bubbles collected in the foam layer under the feed increased as the cold cap expanded and the relationship between these bubbles and temperature will be determined for input into a mathematical model. (authors)

  12. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant- June 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Off-gas Process System Hazards Analysis Activity Observation [HIAR-WTP-2013-05-13

  13. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant – July 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operational Awareness of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity [HIAR-WTP-2013-07-31

  14. Preliminary Analysis of Species Partitioning in the DWPF Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.; Kesterson, M.; Johnson, F.; McCabe, D.

    2015-07-15

    The work described in this report is preliminary in nature since its goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating the off-gas entrainment rates from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter based on a simple mass balance using measured feed and glass pour stream compositions and timeaveraged melter operating data over the duration of one canister-filling cycle. The only case considered in this study involved the SB6 pour stream sample taken while Canister #3472 was being filled over a 20-hour period on 12/20/2010, approximately three months after the bubblers were installed. The analytical results for that pour stream sample provided the necessary glass composition data for the mass balance calculations. To estimate the “matching” feed composition, which is not necessarily the same as that of the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) batch being fed at the time of pour stream sampling, a mixing model was developed involving three preceding MFT batches as well as the one being fed at that time based on the assumption of perfect mixing in the glass pool but with an induction period to account for the process delays involved in the calcination/fusion step in the cold cap and the melter turnover.

  15. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonterman, J. Ronald; Weinstein, Michael A.

    2006-10-27

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the energy efficiency and reduced emissions that can be obtained with a dual torch DC plasma transferred arc-melting system. Plasmelt Glass Technologies, LLC was formed to solicit and execute the project, which utilize a full-scale test melter system. The system is similar to the one that was originally constructed by Johns Manville, but Plasmelt has added significant improvements to the torch design and melter system that has extended the original JM short torch lives. The original JM design has been shown to achieve melt rates 5 to 10 times faster than conventional gas or electric melting, with improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions. This project began on 7/28/2003 and ended 7/27/06. A laboratory scale melter was designed, constructed, and operated to conduct multiple experimental melting trials on various glass compositions. Glass quality was assessed. Although the melter design is generic and equally applicable to all sectors within the glass industry, the development of this melter has focused primarily on fiberglass with additional exploratory melting trials of frits, specialty, and minerals-melting applications. Throughput, energy efficiency, and glass quality have been shown to be heavily dependent on the selected glass composition. During this project, Plasmelt completed the proof-of-concept work in our Boulder, CO Lab to show the technical feasibility of this transferred-arc plasma melter. Late in the project, the work was focused on developing the processes and evaluating the economic viability of plasma melting aimed at the specific glasses of interest to specific client companies. Post project work is on going with client companies to address broader non-glass materials such as refractories and industrial minerals. Exploratory melting trials have been conducted on several glasses of commercial interest including: C-glass, E-glass, S-Glass, AR-Glass, B-glass, Lighting Glass, NE-Glass, and various

  16. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and

  17. Modeling of thermal plasma arc technology FY 1994 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkes, G.L.; Nguyen, H.D.; Paik, S.; McKellar, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The thermal plasma arc process is under consideration to thermally treat hazardous and radioactive waste. A computer model for the thermal plasma arc technology was designed as a tool to aid in the development and use of the plasma arc-Joule beating process. The value of this computer model is to: (a) aid in understanding the plasma arc-Joule beating process as applied to buried waste or exhumed buried waste, (b) help design melter geometry and electrode configuration, (c) calculate the process capability of vitrifying waste (i.e., tons/hour), (d) develop efficient plasma and melter operating conditions to optimize the process and/or reduce safety hazards, (e) calculate chemical reactions during treatment of waste to track chemical composition of off-gas products, and composition of final vitrified waste form and (f) help compare the designs of different plasma-arc facilities. A steady-state model of a two-dimensional axisymmetric transferred plasma arc has been developed and validated. A parametric analysis was performed that studied the effects of arc length, plasma gas composition, and input power on the temperatures and velocity profiles of the slag and plasma gas. A two-dimensional transient thermo-fluid model of the US Bureau of Mines plasma arc melter has been developed. This model includes the growth of a slag pool. The thermo-fluid model is used to predict the temperature and pressure fields within a plasma arc furnace. An analysis was performed to determine the effects of a molten metal pool on the temperature, velocity, and voltage fields within the slag. A robust and accurate model for the chemical equilibrium calculations has been selected to determine chemical composition of final waste form and off-gas based on the temperatures and pressures within the plasma-arc furnace. A chemical database has been selected. The database is based on the materials to be processed in the plasma arc furnaces.

  18. Characterization of Ceramic Material Produced From a Cold Crucible Induction Melter Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2015-04-30

    This report summarizes the results from characterization of samples from a melt processed surrogate ceramic waste form. Completed in October of 2014, the first scaled proof of principle cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test was conducted to process a Fe-hollandite-rich titanate ceramic for treatment of high level nuclear waste. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for Cs), and product consistency tests were used to characterize the CCIM material produced. Core samples at various radial locations from the center of the CCIM were taken. These samples were also sectioned and analyzed vertically. Together, the various samples were intended to provide an indication of the homogeneity throughout the CCIM with respect to phase assemblage, chemical composition, and chemical durability. Characterization analyses confirmed that a crystalline ceramic with desirable phase assemblage was produced from a melt using a CCIM. Hollandite and zirconolite were identified in addition to possible highly-substituted pyrochlore and perovskite. Minor phases rich in Fe, Al, or Cs were also identified. Remarkably only minor differences were observed vertically or radially in the CCIM material with respect to chemical composition, phase assemblage, and durability. This recent CCIM test and the resulting characterization in conjunction with demonstrated compositional improvements support continuation of CCIM testing with an improved feed composition and improved melter system.

  19. GTS Duratek, phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-10-26

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the final report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc. in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384215. The report contains description of the tests, observations, test data and some analysis of the data as it pertains to application of this technology for LLW vitrification. The document also contains summaries of the melter offgas reports issued as separate documents for the 100 kg melter (WHC-SD-WM-VI-028) and for the 1000 kg melter (WHC-SD-WM-VI-029).

  20. Cold crucible induction melter studies for making glass ceramic waste forms: A feasibility assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod; Maio, Vince; McCloy, John; Scott, Clark; Riley, Brian; Benefiel, Brad; Vienna, John; Archibald, Kip; Rodriguez, Carmen; Rutledge, Veronica; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joe; Olszta, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being developed to immobilize fission products, separated from used nuclear fuel by aqueous reprocessing, into a stable waste form suitable for disposal in a geological repository. This work documents the glass ceramic formulation at bench scale and for a scaled melter test performed in a pilot-scale (approximately 1/4 scale) cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). Melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling were measured on a small set of compositions to select a formulation for melter testing. Property measurements also identified a temperature range for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form. Bench scale and melter run results successfully demonstrate the processability of the glass ceramic using the CCIM melter technology.

  1. Cold Crucible Induction Melter Technology: Results of Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gombert, Dirk; Richardson, John Grant

    2001-09-01

    This report provides a review of cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) technology and presents summaries of alternatives and design issues associated with major system components. The objective in this report is to provide background systems level information relating to development and application of cold crucible induction-heated melter technology for radiological waste processing. Included is a detailed description of the bench-top melter system at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute currently being used for characterization testing

  2. Technical Exchange on Improved Design and Performance of High Level Waste Melters - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SK Sundaram; ML Elliott; D Bickford

    1999-11-19

    SIA Radon is responsible for management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) produced in Central Russia. In cooperation with Minatom organizations Radon carries out R and D programs on treatment of simulated high level waste (HLW) as well. Radon scientists deal with a study of materials for LILW, HLW, and Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) wastes immobilization, and development and testing of processes and technologies for waste treatment and disposal. Radon is mostly experienced in LILW vitrification. This experience can be carried over to HLW vitrification especially in field of melting systems. The melter chosen as a basic unit for the vitrification plant is a cold crucible. Later on Radon experience in LILW vitrification as well as our results on simulated HLW vitrification are briefly described.

  3. Redox control of electric melters with complex feed compositions. Part I: analytical methods and models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D F; Diemer, Jr, R B

    1985-01-01

    The redox state of glass from electric melters with complex feed compositions is determined by balance between gases above the melt, and transition metals and organic compounds in the feed. Part I discusses experimental and computational methods of relating flowrates and other melter operating conditions to the redox state of glass, and composition of the melter offgas. Computerized thermodynamic computational methods are useful in predicting the sequence and products of redox reactions and in assessing individual process variations. Melter redox state can be predicted by combining monitoring of melter operating conditions, redox measurement of fused melter feed samples, and periodic redox measurement of product. Mossbauer spectroscopy, and other methods which measure Fe(II)/Fe(III) in glass, can be used to measure melter redox state. Part II develops preliminary operating limits for the vitrification of High-Level Radioactive Waste. Limits on reducing potential to preclude the accumulation of combustible gases, accumulation of sulfides and selenides, and degradation of melter components are the most critical. Problems associated with excessively oxidizing conditions, such as glass foaming and potential ruthenium volatility, are controlled when sufficient formic acid is added to adjust melter feed rheology.

  4. Melter system technology testing for Hanford Site low-level tankwaste vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1996-05-03

    Following revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, which specified vitrification for Complete melter feasibility and system operability immobilization of the low-level waste (LLW) tests, select reference melter(s), and establish reference derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive LLW glass formulation that meets complete systems defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks, commercial requirements (June 1996). Available melter technologies were tested during 1994 to 1995 as part of a multiphase program to select reference Submit conceptual design and initiate definitive design technologies for the new LLW vitrification mission.

  5. Temperature control system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1986-10-01

    A temperature-feedback system has been developed for controlling electrical power to liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCM). Software, written for a microcomputer-based data acquisition and process monitoring system, compares glass temperatures with a temperature setpoint and adjusts the electrical power accordingly. Included in the control algorithm are steps to reject failed thermocouples, spatially average the glass temperatures, smooth the averaged temperatures over time using a digital filter, and detect foaming in the glass. The temperature control system has proved effective during all phases of melter operation including startup, steady operation, loss of feed, and shutdown. This system replaces current, power, and resistance feedback control systems used previously in controlling the LFCM process.

  6. Evaluation of melter technologies for vitrification of Hanford site low-level tank waste - phase 1 testing summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-27

    Following negotiation of the fourth amendment to the Tri- Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 and 1995 for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes also were tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection completed. This report describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

  7. Cold-Crucible Design Parameters for Next Generation HLW Melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gombert, D.; Richardson, J.; Aloy, A.; Day, D.

    2002-02-26

    The cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) design eliminates many materials and operating constraints inherent in joule-heated melter (JHM) technology, which is the standard for vitrification of high-activity wastes worldwide. The cold-crucible design is smaller, less expensive, and generates much less waste for ultimate disposal. It should also allow a much more flexible operating envelope, which will be crucial if the heterogeneous wastes at the DOE reprocessing sites are to be vitrified. A joule-heated melter operates by passing current between water-cooled electrodes through a molten pool in a refractory-lined chamber. This design is inherently limited by susceptibility of materials to corrosion and melting. In addition, redox conditions and free metal content have exacerbated materials problems or lead to electrical short-circuiting causing failures in DOE melters. In contrast, the CCIM design is based on inductive coupling of a water-cooled high-frequency electrical coil with the glass, causing eddycurrents that produce heat and mixing. A critical difference is that inductance coupling transfers energy through a nonconductive solid layer of slag coating the metal container inside the coil, whereas the jouleheated design relies on passing current through conductive molten glass in direct contact with the metal electrodes and ceramic refractories. The frozen slag in the CCIM design protects the containment and eliminates the need for refractory, while the corrosive molten glass can be the limiting factor in the JH melter design. The CCIM design also eliminates the need for electrodes that typically limit operating temperature to below 1200 degrees C. While significant marketing claims have been made by French and Russian technology suppliers and developers, little data is available for engineering and economic evaluation of the technology, and no facilities are available in the US to support testing. A currently funded project at the Idaho National Engineering

  8. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment (ANL-IN-07-170)

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2012-02-07

    Because they grow more quickly than healthy cells, cancer cells are typically a few degrees higher in temperature. This attribute makes it possible to detect cancer cells through thermal imaging. In active thermal imaging, heat or cold is applied to an object and an infrared camera is used to observe the resulting temperature change. For this reason, thermal imaging is helpful in detecting breast cancer and determining skin damage as a result of radiation cancer treatment. A recent...

  9. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 5, Modelling of complex redox effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-12-31

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Melter system technology testing for Hanford Site low-level tank waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Following revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, which specified vitrification for immobilization of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 to 1995 as part of a multiphase program to select reference technologies for the new LLW vitrification mission. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes were also tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection and recommendations for Phase 2 testing completed. This paper describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing program and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

  11. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, October-December 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brouns, R.A.; Allen, C.R.; Powell, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the progress in developing, testing, applying, and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1987 is discussed. Topics include melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, off-gas systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling.

  12. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, July-September 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Allen, C.R.; Andersen, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Dierks, R.D.; Faletti, D.W.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Goles, R.W.; Kuhn, W.L.; Nakaoka, R.K.: Perez, J.M Jr.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Reimus, P.W.

    1987-06-01

    Individual papers are processed separately for the data bases. This report documents progress on liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, off-gas systems, and process/product modeling and control is discussed.

  13. A stepwise transition from microporosity to mesoporosity in metal-organic frameworks by thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Daqiang; Zhao, Dan; Timmons, Daren J; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2011-01-01

    A Cd MOF with twisted partially augmented the net was synthesized. Activation at increasing temperatures revealed an unprecedented stepwise transition from microporosity to mesoporosity. This thermal treatment may serve as an alternative approach for the preparation of mesoporous MOFs.

  14. FINAL REPORT TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-02R0100-2 REV 1 2/17/03

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BARDAKCI T; GONG W; D'ANGELO NA; SCHATZ TR; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from a series of nine tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part B1 [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plans. The nine tests reported here were preceded by an initial series of short-duration tests conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Reports. The DM1200 system was deployed for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. These tests include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The primary objective of the present series of tests was to determine the effects of a variety of parameters on the glass production rate in comparison to the RPP-WTP HL W design basis of 400 kg/m{sup 2}/d. Previous testing on the DMIOOO system [1] concluded that achievement of that rate with simulants of projected WTP melter feeds (AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102) was unlikely without the use of bubblers. As part of those tests, the same feed that was used during the cold-commissioning of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) HLW vitrification system was run on the DM1000 system. The DM1000 tests reproduced the rates that were obtained at the

  15. Cold Crucible Induction Melter Studies for Making Glass Ceramic Waste Forms: A Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Maio, Vincent; McCloy, John S.; Scott, Clark; Riley, Brian J.; Benefiel, Bradley; Vienna, John D.; Archibald, Kip; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Rutledge, Veronica; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joseph V.; Olszta, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being developed to immobilize fission products, separated from used nuclear fuel by aqueous reprocessing, into a stable waste form suitable for disposal in a geological repository. This work documents the glass ceramic formulation at bench scale and for a scaled melter test performed in a pilot-scale (~1/4 scale) cold crucible induction meter (CCIM). Melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling were measured on a small set of compositions to select a formulation for melter testing. Property measurements also identified a temperature range for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form. Bench scale and melter run results successfully demonstrate the processability of the glass ceramic using the CCIM melter technology.

  16. Hanford low-level vitrification melter testing -- Master list of data submittals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-03-15

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is conducting a two-phased effort to evaluate melter system technologies for vitrification of liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams. The evaluation effort includes demonstration testing of selected glass melter technologies and technical reports regarding the applicability of the glass melter technologies to the vitrification of Hanford LLW tank waste. The scope of this document is to identify and list vendor document submittals in technology demonstration support of the Hanford Low-Level Waste Vitrification melter testing program. The scope of this document is limited to those documents responsive to the Statement of Work, accepted and issued by the LLW Vitrification Program. The purpose of such a list is to maintain configuration control of vendor supplied data and to enable ready access to, and application of, vendor supplied data in the evaluation of melter technologies for the vitrification of Hanford low-level tank wastes.

  17. Summary - Building C-400 Thermal Treatment Remedial Design Report and Investigation, Paducah, Kentucky

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Paducah, KY EM Project: Building C400 Thermal Treatment ETR Report Date: August 2007 ETR-8 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation, Paducah Kentucky Why DOE-EM Did This Review The groundwater underlying the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is contaminated by chlorinated solvents, principally trichloroethylene (TCE), as well as other

  18. Integrated Pilot Plant for a Large Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do Quang, R.; Jensen, A.; Prod'homme, A.; Fatoux, R.; Lacombe, J.

    2002-02-26

    COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level liquid waste produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing on an industrial scale for over 20 years, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. Research performed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in the 1950s led to the selection of borosilicate glass as the most suitable containment matrix for waste from spent nuclear fuel and to the development of the induction melter technology. This was followed by the commissioning of the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) in 1978. The process was implemented at a larger scale in the late 1980s in the R7 and T7 facilities of the La Hague reprocessing plant. COGEMA facilities have produced more than 11,000 high level glass canisters, representing more than 4,500 metric tons of glass and 4.5 billion curies. To further improve the performance of the vitrification lines in the R7 and T7 facilities, the CEA and COGEMA have been developing the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) technology since the 1980s. This technology benefits from the 20 years of COGEMA HLW vitrification experience and ensures a virtually unlimited equipment service life and extensive flexibility in dealing with different types of waste. The high specific power directly transferred by induction to the melt allows high operating temperatures without any impact on the process equipment. In addition, the mechanical stirring of the melter significantly reduces operating constraints. COGEMA is already providing the CCM technology to international customers for nuclear and non-nuclear applications and plans to implement it in the La Hague vitrification plant for the vitrification of highly concentrated and corrosive solutions produced by uranium/molybdenum fuel reprocessing. The paper presents the CCM project that led to the building and start-up of this evolutionary and flexible pilot plant. It also describes the plant's technical characteristics and

  19. Technical information report: Plasma melter operation, reliability, and maintenance analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, D.W. [ed.

    1995-03-14

    This document provides a technical report of operability, reliability, and maintenance of a plasma melter for low-level waste vitrification, in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. A process description is provided that minimizes maintenance and downtime and includes material and energy balances, equipment sizes and arrangement, startup/operation/maintence/shutdown cycle descriptions, and basis for scale-up to a 200 metric ton/day production facility. Operational requirements are provided including utilities, feeds, labor, and maintenance. Equipment reliability estimates and maintenance requirements are provided which includes a list of failure modes, responses, and consequences.

  20. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  1. Resistance heater for use in a glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routt, K.R.; Porter, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A resistance heating element that includes: a resistance heating medium of a mixture of electrically conductive and insulative particles in powdered form mixed together in predetermined proportions to achieve a given resistivity; a hollow outer electrode surrounding the resistance heating medium; and an inner electrode coaxially disposed within said outer electrode. In its preferred embodiments, the electrically conductive powder is selected from the group consisting essentially of graphite, Inconel alloy, molybdenum, nichrome alloy and stainless steel, while the insulator powder is silicon dioxide or alumina. The resistance heating element, being resistant to damage from mechanical shock and corrosion at elevated temperatures, is used in a glass melter.

  2. Compilation of information on modeling of inductively heated cold crucible melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lessor, D.L.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this communication, Phase B of a two-part report, is to present information on modeling capabilities for inductively heated cold crucible melters, a concept applicable to waste immobilization. Inductively heated melters are those in which heat is generated using coils around, rather than electrodes within, the material to be heated. Cold crucible or skull melters are those in which the melted material is confined within unmelted material of the same composition. This phase of the report complements and supplements Phase A by Loren Eyler, specifically by giving additional information on modeling capabilities for the inductively heated melter concept. Eyler discussed electrically heated melter modeling capabilities, emphasizing heating by electrodes within the melt or on crucible walls. Eyler also discussed requirements and resources for the computational fluid dynamics, heat flow, radiation effects, and boundary conditions in melter modeling; the reader is referred to Eyler`s discussion of these. This report is intended for use in the High Level Waste (HLW) melter program at Hanford. We sought any modeling capabilities useful to the HLW program, whether through contracted research, code license for operation by Department of Energy laboratories, or existing codes and modeling expertise within DOE.

  3. Melter Throughput Enhancements for High-Iron HLW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A. A.; Gan, Hoa; Joseph, Innocent; Pegg, Ian L.; Matlack, Keith S.; Chaudhuri, Malabika; Kot, Wing

    2012-12-26

    This report describes work performed to develop and test new glass and feed formulations in order to increase glass melting rates in high waste loading glass formulations for HLW with high concentrations of iron. Testing was designed to identify glass and melter feed formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts to assess melt rate using a vertical gradient furnace system and to develop new formulations with enhanced melt rate. Testing evaluated the effects of waste loading on glass properties and the maximum waste loading that can be achieved. The results from crucible-scale testing supported subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass and feed formulations on waste processing rate and product quality. The DM100 was selected as the platform for these tests due to its extensive previous use in processing rate determination for various HLW streams and glass compositions.

  4. Operation of a bushing melter system designed for actinide vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, W.G.

    1996-03-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company is developing a melter system to vitrify actinide materials. The melter system will used to vitrify the americium and curium solution which is currently stored in one of the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) processing canyons. This solution is one of the materials designated by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to be dispositioned as part of the DNFSB recommendation 94-1. The Am/Cm solution contains an extremely large fraction (>2 kilograms of Cm and 10 kilograms of Am) of t he United States`s total inventory of both elements. They have an estimated value on the order of one billion dollars - if they are processed through the DOE Isotope Sales program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is therefore deemed highly desirable to transfer the material to Oak Ridge in a form which can allow for recovery of the material. A commercial glass composition has been demonstrated to be compatible with up to 40 weight percent of the Am/Cm solution contents. This glass is also selectively attacked by nitric acid. This allows the actinide to be recovered by common separation processes.

  5. Self-cleaning feed distributing delivery device for glass melters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mensink, Daniel L. (155 Gatewood Dr., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A self cleaning, plug resistant, adjustable parameter feed distributing and delivery apparatus for a glass melter comprising a housing with a passage therethrough for a glass slurry, a cold finger within the passage for creating a dispersion pattern of the slurry, a movable slotted tube for controlling the confluence of air propellant and slurry in the passage, and a plurality of ribs that extend through the slots in the slotted tube to urge the slurry forward if it becomes stuck or resists forward movement. Coolant passages in the housing and the cold finger maintain the slurry temperature below that of the melter plenum. The cold finger is axially movable to adjust the dispersion pattern to the desired consistency. Other design features of size can be applied for use in situations requiring different parameters of pattern, particle size, rate, and feed consistencies. The device utilizes air as both a propellant and a surface cleansing mechanism. Other fluids may be used as propellants where process compatibility requires.

  6. Evaluation Pilot-Scale Melter Systems for the Direct Vitrification Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mc Cray, Casey William; Thomson, Troy David

    2001-09-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation conducted to identify a joule-heated melter system that could be installed in the Idaho Falls area in support of the Direct Vitrification Development Program. The relocation was to be completed by January 1, 2002, within a total budget of one million dollars. Coordination with the Department of Energy Tanks Focus Area identified five melters or melter systems that could potentially support the Direct Vitrification Development Program. Each unit was inspected and evaluated based on qualitative criteria such as availability, completeness of the system, contamination, scalability, materials of construction, facility requirements, and any unique features.

  7. Vectra GSI, Inc. low-level waste melter testing Phase 1 test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stegen, G.E.; Wilson, C.N.

    1996-02-21

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Vectra GSI, Inc. was one of seven vendors selected for Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW that were completed during fiscal year 1995. The attached report prepared by Vectra GSI, Inc. describes results of melter testing using slurry feed and dried feeds. Results of feed drying and prereaction tests using a fluid bed calciner and rotary dryer also are described.

  8. Thermal and high magnetic field treatment of materials and associated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Jaramillo, Roger A.; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail

    2010-06-29

    An apparatus and method for altering characteristics, such as can include structural, magnetic, electrical, optical or acoustical characteristics, of an electrically-conductive workpiece utilizes a magnetic field within which the workpiece is positionable and schemes for thermally treating the workpiece by heating or cooling techniques in conjunction with the generated magnetic field so that the characteristics of the workpiece are effected by both the generated magnetic field and the thermal treatment of the workpiece.

  9. Thermal and high magnetic field treatment of materials and associated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Jaramillo, Roger A.; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail

    2007-01-09

    An apparatus and method for altering characteristics, such as can include structural, magnetic, electrical, optical or acoustical characteristics, of an electrically-conductive workpiece utilizes a magnetic field within which the workpiece is positionable and schemes for thermally treating the workpiece by heating or cooling techniques in conjunction with the generated magnetic field so that the characteristics of the workpiece are effected by both the generated magnetic field and the thermal treatment of the workpiece.

  10. Surface modification of cellulose acetate membrane using thermal annealing to enhance produced water treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusworo, T. D. Aryanti, N. Firdaus, M. M. H.; Sukmawati, H.

    2015-12-29

    This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of surface modification of cellulose acetate using thermal annealing on the enhancement of membrane performance for produced water treatment. In this study, Cellulose Acetate membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effect of additive and post-treatment using thermal annealing on the membrane surface were examined for produced water treatment. Therma annealing was subjected to membrane surface at 60 and 70 °C for 5, 10 and 15 second, respectively. Membrane characterizations were done using membrane flux and rejection with produced water as a feed, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis. Experimental results showed that asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane can be made by dry/wet phase inversion technique. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis was also confirmed that polyethylene glycol as additivie in dope solution and thermal annealing was affected the morphology and membrane performance for produced water treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of membrane became denser and more compact after the thermal annealing processes. Therefore, membrane rejection was significantly increased while the flux was slighty decreased, respectively. The best membrane performance is obtained on the composition of 18 wt % cellulose acetate, poly ethylene glycol 5 wt% with thermal annealing at 70° C for 15 second.

  11. Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Evaluation for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Melter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has evaluated whether the Vitrification Melter at the West Valley Demonstration Project in New York meets the waste-incidental-to reprocessing criteria of Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual.

  12. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  13. Pressurized heat treatment of glass-ceramic to control thermal expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, Daniel P.

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

  14. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  15. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit.

  16. U.S. Bureau of Mines, Phase 1 Hanford low-level waste melter tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K. [Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the melter offgas report on testing performed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. The Bureau of Mines (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate carbon electrode melter technology (also called carbon arc or electric arc) under WHC Subcontract number MMI-SVV-384216. The report contains description of the tests, observation, test data and some analysis of the data as it pertains to application of this technology for LLW vitrification. Testing consisted of melter feed preparation and three melter tests, the first of which was to fulfill the requirements of the statement of work (WHC-SD-EM-RD-044), and the second and third were to address issues identified during the first test. The document also contains summaries of the melter offgas report issued as a separate document U.S. Bureau of Mines, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Melter Offgas Report (WHC-SD-WM-VI-032).

  17. EA-0821: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

  18. EA-0821: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

  19. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 1: Radiological surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Lee, H.T.

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 90}Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium.

  20. SMALL-SCALE MELTER TESTING WITH LAW SIMULANTS TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF HIGHER TEMPERATURE MELTER OPERATIONS - Final Report, VSL-04R49801-1, Rev. 0, 2/13/03, Vitreous State Laboratory, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS

    2012-02-07

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently in storage in underground tanks at The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed of in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHL W product will be directed to the national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. The Office of River Protection is currently examining options to optimize the Low Activity Waste (LAW) facility and the LAW glass waste form. One option under evaluation is to enhance the waste processing rate of the vitrification plant currently under construction. It is likely that the capacity of the LAW vitrification plant can be increased incrementally by implementation of a variety of low-risk, high-probability changes, either separately or in combination. These changes include: (1) Operating at the higher processing rates demonstrated at the LAW Pilot Melter; (2) Increasing the glass pool surface area within the existing external melter envelope; (3) Increasing plant availability; (4) Increasing the glass waste loading; (5) Removing sulfate from the LAW stream; (6) Operating the melter at slightly higher temperature; (7) Installing the third LAW melter into the WTP plant; and (8) Other smaller impact changes. The tests describes in this report utilized blended feed (glass formers plus waste simulant) prepared by Optima Chemicals

  1. Treatment of Y-12 storm sewer sediments and DARA soils by thermal desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, M.I.; Shealy, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    The 1992 Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) listed a number of mixed wastes, subject to land disposal restrictions (LDR), for which no treatment method had been identified, and required DOE to develop strategies for treatment and ultimate disposal of those wastes. This paper presents the results of a program to demonstrate that thermal desorption can remove both organics and mercury from two mixed wastes from the DOE Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first waste, the Y-12 Storm Sewer Sediments (SSSs) was a sediment generated from upgrades to the plant storm sewer system. This material contained over 4 percent mercury, 2 percent uranium and 350 mg/kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Leachable mercury exceeded toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and LDR criteria. The second waste, the Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) Soils, are contaminated with uranium, mercury and PCBs. This treatability study included bench-scale testing of a thermal desorption process. Results of the testing showed that, for the SSSs, total mercury could be reduced to 120 mg/kg by treatment at 600{degrees}C, which is at the high end of the temperature range for typical thermal desorption systems. Leachable TCLP mercury was less than 50 {mu}g/L and PCBs were below 2 mg/kg. Treatment of the DARA Soils at 450{degrees}C for 10 minutes resulted in residual PCBs of 0.6 to 3.0 mg/kg. This is too high (goal < 2mg/kg) and higher treatment temperatures are needed. The testing also provided information on the characteristics and quantities of residuals from the thermal desorption process.

  2. Design of a mixing system for simulated high-level nuclear waste melter feed slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, M.E.; McCarthy, D.; Muhlstein, K.D.

    1986-03-01

    The Nuclear Waste Treatment Program development program consists of coordinated nonradioactive and radioactive testing combined with numerical modeling of the process to provide a complete basis for design and operation of a vitrification facility. The radioactive demonstration tests of equipment and processes are conducted before incorporation in radioactive pilot-scale melter systems for final demonstration. The mixing system evaluation described in this report was conducted as part of the nonradioactive testing. The format of this report follows the sequence in which the design of a large-scale mixing system is determined. The initial program activity was concerned with gaining an understanding of the theoretical foundation of non-Newtonian mixing systems. Section 3 of this report describes the classical rheological models that are used to describe non-Newtonian mixing systems. Since the results obtained here are only valid for the slurries utilized, Section 4, Preparation of Simulated Hanford and West Valley Slurries, describes how the slurries were prepared. The laboratory-scale viscometric and physical property information is summarized in Section 5, Laboratory Rheological Evaluations. The bench-scale mixing evaluations conducted to define the effects of the independent variables described above on the degree of mixing achieved with each slurry are described in Section 6. Bench-scale results are scaled-up to establish engineering design requirements for the full-scale mixing system in Section 7. 24 refs., 37 figs., 44 tabs.

  3. Supplemental Treatment Technologies Hanford Advisory Board Tank...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    next-generation melters such as advanced joule-heated melter and cold crucible induction melter * Develop advance process understanding of cold-cap chemistry Benefits *...

  4. Post-deposition control of ferroelastic stripe domains and internal electric field by thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feigl, L.; Iwanowska, M.; Sandu, C. S.; Setter, N.; Janolin, P.-E.; Yamada, T.

    2015-01-19

    The dependence of the formation of ferroelastic stripe domain patterns on the thermal history is investigated by detailed piezoresponse force microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments after and during annealing of tensile strained tetragonal Pb(Ti,Zr)O{sub 3} epitaxial thin films on DyScO{sub 3} substrates. In particular, the ferroelastic pattern is reversibly interchanged between a cross-hatched and a stripe domain pattern if the films are cooled at different rates after annealing above the formation temperature of a-domains. Different types of 180 and non-180 patterns can be created, depending on the thermal treatment. The changes in the 180 domain structure and lattice parameters are attributed to a change of oxygen vacancy concentration, which results in a modification of the internal electric field and unit cell size, causing also a shift of T{sub C}. Thermal treatment is done on rhombohedral La:BiFeO{sub 3} thin films as well. It is observed that also in these films, appropriate heat treatment modifies the domain pattern and films with a stripe domain pattern can be created, confirming the general validity of the developed model.

  5. Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad; Salleh, Muhamad Mat

    2013-11-27

    This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 °C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

  6. The Effect of Foaming and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology during Conversion to Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcial, Jose; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-11-23

    As the nuclear waste glass melter feed is converted to molten glass, the feed eventually becomes a continuous glass-forming melt in which dissolving refractory constituents are suspended together with numerous gas bubbles. Knowledge of mechanical properties of the melter feed is crucial for understanding the feed-to-glass conversion as it occurs in the cold cap. We measured the viscosity during heating of the feed and correlated it with the independently determined volume fractions of dissolving quartz particles and the gas phase. The measurement was performed with a rotating spindle rheometer on the melter feed heated at 5 K/min starting at several different temperatures. The effect of quartz particles, gas bubbles, and compositional inhomogeneity on the glass-forming melt viscosity was determined by fitting a linear relationship between log viscosity and volume fractions of suspended phases to data.

  7. Volatilization and redox testing in a DC arc melter: FY-93 and FY-94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, J.D.; Sears, J.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the dissolution, retention, volatilization, and trapping of transuranic radionuclide elements (TRUs), mixed fission and activation products, and high vapor pressure metals (HVPMS) during processing in a high temperature arc furnace. In all cases, surrogate elements (lanthanides) were used in place of radioactive ones. The experiments were conducted utilizing a small DC arc melter developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center (IRC). The small arc melter was originally developed in 1992 and has been used previously for waste form studies of iron enriched basalt (IEB) and IEB with zirconium and titanium additions (IEB4). Section 3 contains a description of the small arc melter and its operational capabilities are discussed in Chapter 4. The remainder of the document describes each testing program and then discusses results and findings.

  8. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.; Mayberry, J.; Frazier, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  9. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant- March 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operational Awareness Record for the Observation of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant High Level Waste Facility Concentrate Receipt/Melter Feed/Glass Formers Reagent Hazards Analysis and Review of the Radioactive Liquid Disposal Hazards Analysis Event Tables.

  10. Influence of surface modification adopting thermal treatments on dispersion of detonation nanodiamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Xiangyang . E-mail: xiangyang.xu@sohu.com; Yu Zhiming; Zhu Yongwei; Wang Baichun

    2005-03-15

    In order to improve the dispersion of detonation nanodiamonds (ND) in aqueous and non-aqueous media, a series of thermal treatments have been conducted in air ambient to modify ND surface. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were introduced to observe the primary size of ND. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) methodology, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were adopted to analyze the structure, bonds at surfaces of the treated ND. Malvern instrument Zetasizer3000HS was used for measuring the surface electric potential and the size distribution of ND. As thermal treatments can cause graphitization and oxidization of functional groups at the surface, ND treated at high temperature is correspondingly more negatively charged in an aqueous medium, and the increased absolute value of zeta potential ensures the electrostatic stability of ND particles. Specially, after being treated at a temperature more than 850K, ND can be well dispersed in various media.

  11. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The topic of energy recovery from waste by thermal treatment is reviewed. • Combustion, gasification and pyrolysis were considered. • Data about energy recovery performances were collected and compared. • Main limitations to high values of energy performances were illustrated. • Diffusion of energy recovery from waste in EU, USA and other countries was discussed. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes – Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) – were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities – incineration or gasification – cogeneration is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net

  12. Noble Metals and Spinel Settling in High Level Waste Glass Melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, S. K.; Perez, Joseph M.

    2000-09-30

    In the continuing effort to support the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the noble metals issue is addressed. There is an additional concern about the amount of noble metals expected to be present in the future batches that will be considered for vitrification in the DWPF. Several laboratory, as well as melter-scale, studies have been completed by various organizations (mainly PNNL, SRTC, and WVDP in the USA). This letter report statuses the noble metals issue and focuses at the settling of noble metals in melters.

  13. Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Evaluation for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Melter - 12167

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Jim; Kurasch, David; Sullivan, Dan; Crandall, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the vitrification melter used in the West Valley Demonstration Project can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) after completion of a waste-incidental-to-reprocessing evaluation performed in accordance with the evaluation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. The vitrification melter - which consists of a ceramic lined, electrically heated box structure - was operated for more than 5 years melting and fusing high-level waste (HLW) slurry and glass formers and pouring the molten glass into 275 stainless steel canisters. Prior to shutdown, the melter was decontaminated by processing low-activity decontamination flush solutions and by extracting molten glass from the melter cavity. Because it could not be completely emptied, residual radioactivity conservatively estimated at approximately 170 TBq (4,600 Ci) remained in the vitrification melter. To establish whether the melter was incidental to reprocessing, DOE prepared an evaluation to demonstrate that the vitrification melter: (1) had been processed to remove key radionuclides to the maximum extent technically and economically practical; (2) would be managed to meet safety requirements comparable to the performance objectives for LLW established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and (3) would be managed by DOE in accordance with DOE's requirements for LLW after it had been incorporated in a solid physical form with radionuclide concentrations that do not exceed the NRC concentration limits for Class C LLW. DOE consulted with the NRC on the draft evaluation and gave other stakeholders an opportunity to submit comments before the determination was made. The NRC submitted a request for additional information in connection with staff review of the draft evaluation; DOE provided the additional information and made improvements to the evaluation, which was issued in January 2012. DOE considered the NRC Technical Evaluation Report

  14. Thermal treatment effects on charge storage performance of graphene-based materials for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Bhat, Vinay V; Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I

    2012-01-01

    Graphene materials were synthesized by reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets by hydrazine hydrate and then thermally treated in nitrogen to improve the surface area and their electrochemical performance as electrical double-layer capacitor electrodes. The structural and surface properties of the prepared reduced graphite oxide (RGO) were investigated using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption / desorption. RGO forms a continuous network of crumpled sheets, which consist of numerous few-layer and single-layer graphenes. Electrochemical studies were conducted by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The modified RGO materials showed enhanced electrochemical performance, with maximum specific capacitance of 96 F/g, energy density of 12.8 Wh/kg, and power density of 160 kW/kg. The results demonstrate that thermal treatment of RGO at selected conditions is a convenient and efficient method for improving specific capacitance, energy, and power density.

  15. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy�s extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative

  16. TECHNETIUM RETENTION IN WTP LAW GLASS WITH RECYCLE FLOW-SHEET DM10 MELTER TESTING VSL-12R2640-1 REV 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramowitz, Howard; Brandys, Marek; Cecil, Richard; D'Angelo, Nicholas; Matlack, Keith S.; Muller, Isabelle S.; Pegg, Ian L.; Callow, Richard A.; Joseph, Innocent

    2012-12-11

    Melter tests were conducted to determine the retention of technetium and other volatiles in glass while processing simulated Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams through a DM10 melter equipped with a prototypical off-gas system that concentrates and recycles fluid effiuents back to the melter feed. To support these tests, an existing DM10 system installed at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was modified to add the required recycle loop. Based on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) LAW off-gas system design, suitably scaled versions of the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS), Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP), and TLP vacuum evaporator were designed, built, and installed into the DM10 system. Process modeling was used to support this design effort and to ensure that issues associated with the short half life of the {sup 99m}Tc radioisotope that was used in this work were properly addressed and that the system would be capable of meeting the test objectives. In particular, this required that the overall time constant for the system was sufficiently short that a reasonable approach to steady state could be achieved before the {sup 99m}Tc activity dropped below the analytical limits of detection. The conceptual design, detailed design, flow sheet development, process model development, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) development, control system design, software design and development, system fabrication, installation, procedure development, operator training, and Test Plan development for the new system were all conducted during this project. The new system was commissioned and subjected to a series of shake-down tests before embarking on the planned test program. Various system performance issues that arose during testing were addressed through a series of modifications in order to improve the performance and reliability of the system. The resulting system provided a robust and reliable platform to address the test objectives.

  17. Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S Cherry; Rick A. Wood; Tyler L Westover

    2013-12-01

    Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (+ / - 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per

  18. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs.

  19. FINAL REPORT START-UP AND COMMISSIONING TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-01R0100-2 REV 0 1/20/03

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BRANDYS M; WILSON CN; SCHATZ TR; GONG W; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from commissioning tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM 1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part BI [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plan. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Report. The DM1200 system will be used for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. This will include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The results presented in this report are from the initial series of short-duration tests that were conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system prior to conducting the main body of development tests that have been planned for this system. These tests were directed primarily at system 'debugging,' operator training, and procedure refinement. The AZ-101 waste simulant and glass composition that was used for previous testing was selected for these tests.

  20. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2010-08-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  1. The Production of Advanced Glass Ceramic HLW Forms using Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronica J Rutledge; Vince Maio

    2013-10-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIMs) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in the 21st century. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHMs) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIMs offer unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. This paper discusses advantageous features of the CCIM, with emphasis on features that overcome the historical issues with the JHMs presently utilized, as well as the benefits of glass ceramic waste forms over borosilicate glass waste forms. These advantages are then validated based on recent INL testing to demonstrate a first-of-a-kind formulation of a non-radioactive ceramic-based waste form utilizing a CCIM.

  2. Crystal-Tolerant Glass Approach For Mitigation Of Crystal Accumulation In Continuous Melters Processing Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Matyas, Josef; Owen, Antoinette T.

    2012-08-28

    High-level radioactive waste melters are projected to operate in an inefficient manner as they are subjected to artificial constraints, such as minimum liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) or maximum equilibrium fraction of crystallinity at a given temperature. These constraints substantially limit waste loading, but were imposed to prevent clogging of the melter with spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr){sub 2}O{sub 4}]. In the melter, the glass discharge riser is the most likely location for crystal accumulation during idling because of low glass temperatures, stagnant melts, and small diameter. To address this problem, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed with specially formulated glasses to simulate accumulation of spinel in the riser. Thicknesses of accumulated layers were incorporated into empirical model of spinel settling. In addition, T{sub L} of glasses was measured and impact of particle agglomeration on accumulation rate was evaluated. Empirical model predicted well the accumulation of single crystals and/or smallscale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~14.9 +- 1 nm/s determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.

  3. Initial Laboratory-Scale Melter Test Results for Combined Fission Product Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the methods and results used to vitrify a baseline glass, CSLNTM-C-2.5 in support of the AFCI (Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) using a Quartz Crucible Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Document number AFCI-WAST-PMO-MI-DV-2009-000184.

  4. ROLE OF MANGANESE REDUCTION/OXIDATION (REDOX) ON FOAMING AND MELT RATE IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) MELTERS (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Stone, M

    2007-03-30

    High-level nuclear waste is being immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification into borosilicate glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Control of the Reduction/Oxidation (REDOX) equilibrium in the DWPF melter is critical for processing high level liquid wastes. Foaming, cold cap roll-overs, and off-gas surges all have an impact on pouring and melt rate during processing of high-level waste (HLW) glass. All of these phenomena can impact waste throughput and attainment in Joule heated melters such as the DWPF. These phenomena are caused by gas-glass disequilibrium when components in the melter feeds convert to glass and liberate gases such as H{sub 2}O vapor (steam), CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and/or N{sub 2}. During the feed-to-glass conversion in the DWPF melter, multiple types of reactions occur in the cold cap and in the melt pool that release gaseous products. The various gaseous products can cause foaming at the melt pool surface. Foaming should be avoided as much as possible because an insulative layer of foam on the melt surface retards heat transfer to the cold cap and results in low melt rates. Uncontrolled foaming can also result in a blockage of critical melter or melter off-gas components. Foaming can also increase the potential for melter pressure surges, which would then make it difficult to maintain a constant pressure differential between the DWPF melter and the pour spout. Pressure surges can cause erratic pour streams and possible pluggage of the bellows as well. For these reasons, the DWPF uses a REDOX strategy and controls the melt REDOX between 0.09 {le} Fe{sup 2+}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33. Controlling the DWPF melter at an equilibrium of Fe{sup +2}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33 prevents metallic and sulfide rich species from forming nodules that can accumulate on the floor of the melter. Control of foaming, due to deoxygenation of manganic species, is achieved by converting oxidized MnO{sub 2} or Mn

  5. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  6. Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or Thermal Treatment in a Metal-Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jinhee; Yuan, Daqiang; Pham, Khanh T.; Li, Jian-Rong; Yakovenko, Andrey; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-11

    A metal–organic framework (MOF) for reversible alteration of guest molecule adsorption, here carbon dioxide, upon photochemical or thermal treatment has been discovered. An azobenzene functional group, which can switch its conformation upon light irradiation or heat treatment, has been introduced to the organic linker of a MOF. The resulting MOF adsorbs different amount of CO₂ after UV or heat treatment. This remarkable stimuli-responsive adsorption effect has been demonstrated through experiments.

  7. MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.

    2011-07-08

    Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all

  8. Effects of thermal treatment of nanostructured trititanates on their crystallographic and textural properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgado, Edisson; Jardim, Paula M.; Araujo, Antonio S.

    2007-09-04

    Nanostructured titanates (TTNT) with general formula Na {sub x}H{sub 2-x}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}.nH{sub 2}O were synthesized by hydrothermally reacting different TiO{sub 2} anatase (distinct crystal sizes) with NaOH at 120 deg. C followed by washing with water or diluted acid and drying of the precipitate. The resulting powders with different sodium contents were submitted to various calcination temperatures up to 800 deg. C and each calcined product was characterized as for its phase structure, composition, crystallite size and textural properties, namely BET surface area, mesopore volume and pore size distribution. Thermal transformations of TTNT samples were investigated by monitoring the modifications on crystallographic (X-ray diffraction) and textural (N{sub 2} desorption isotherms) properties, revealing the influence of the type of starting anatase and sodium content over the stability of TTNT. Moreover, a detailed study on the reduction of the interlayer distance in TTNT samples upon thermal treatment allowed corroborating the formation of an intermediate nanostructured hexatitanate, just before phase transformation into the corresponding TiO{sub 2} polymorphs and/or titanate crystals, depending on the sodium content and calcination temperature.

  9. Deformation mechanisms, defects, heat treatment, and thermal conductivity in large grain niobium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieler, Thomas R. Kang, Di Baars, Derek C.; Chandrasekaran, Saravan; Mapar, Aboozar Wright, Neil T.; Ciovati, Gianluigi Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Murphy, James E.; Compton, Chris C.

    2015-12-04

    The physical and mechanical metallurgy underlying fabrication of large grain cavities for superconducting radio frequency accelerators is summarized, based on research of 1) grain orientations in ingots, 2) a metallurgical assessment of processing a large grain single cell cavity and a tube, 3) assessment of slip behavior of single crystal tensile samples extracted from a high purity ingot slice before and after annealing at 800 °C / 2 h, 4) development of crystal plasticity models based upon the single crystal experiments, and 5) assessment of how thermal conductivity is affected by strain, heat treatment, and exposure to hydrogen. Because of the large grains, the plastic anisotropy of deformation is exaggerated, and heterogeneous strains and localized defects are present to a much greater degree than expected in polycrystalline material, making it highly desirable to computationally anticipate potential forming problems before manufacturing cavities.

  10. Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do Quang, R.; Petitjean, V.; Hollebecque, F.; Pinet, O.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2003-02-25

    The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The cold crucible is a compact water-cooled melter in which the radioactive waste and the glass additives are melted by direct high frequency induction. The cooling of the melter produces a solidified glass layer that protects the melter's inner wall from corrosion. Because the heat is transferred directly to the melt, high operating temperatures can be achieved with no impact on the melter itself. COGEMA plans to implement the cold crucible technology to vitrify high level liquid waste from reprocessed spent U-Mo-Sn-Al fuel (used in gas cooled reactor). The cold crucible was selected for the vitrification of this particularly hard-to-process waste stream because it could not be reasonably processed in the standard hot induction melters currently used at the La Hague vitrification facilities : the waste has a high molybdenum content which makes it very corrosive and also requires a special high temperature glass formulation to obtain sufficiently high waste loading factors (12 % in molybdenum). A special glass formulation has been developed by the CEA and has been qualified through lab and pilot testing to meet standard waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the U-Mo waste. The process and the associated technologies have been also being qualified on a full-scale prototype at the CEA pilot facility in Marcoule. Engineering study has been integrated in parallel in order to take into account that the Cold Crucible should be installed

  11. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  12. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  13. Demonstration of an approach to waste form qualification through simulation of liquid-fed ceramic melter process operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, P.W.; Kuhn, W.L.; Peters, R.D.; Pulsipher, B.A.

    1986-07-01

    During fiscal year 1982, the US Department of Energy (DOE) assigned responsibility for managing civilian nuclear waste treatment programs in the United States to the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). One of the principal objectives of this program is to establish relationships between vitrification process control and glass quality. Users of the liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process will need such relationships in order to establish acceptance of vitrified high-level nuclear waste at a licensed federal repository without resorting to destructive examination of the canisters. The objective is to be able to supply a regulatory agency with an estimate of the composition, durability, and integrity of the glass in each waste glass canister produced from an LFCM process simply by examining the process data collected during the operation of the LFCM. The work described here will continue through FY-1987 and culminate in a final report on the ability to control and monitor an LFCM process through sampling and process control charting of the LFCM feed system.

  14. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1 Waste Incidental To Reprocessing Determination For The West Valley Demonstration Project Concentrator Feed Makeup Tank and Melter Feed Hold Tank

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1 Waste Incidental To Reprocessing Determination For The West Valley Demonstration Project Concentrator Feed Makeup Tank and Melter Feed Hold Tank

  15. INTEGRATED DM 1200 MELTER TESTING OF HLW C-106/AY-102 COMPOSITION USING BUBBLERS VSL-03R3800-1 REV 0 9/15/03

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

  16. Test Plan: Phase 1, Hanford LLW melter tests, GTS Duratek, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-06-14

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384215] is GTS Duratek, Inc., Columbia, Maryland. The GTS Duratek project manager for this work is J. Ruller. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a DuraMelter{trademark} vitrification system.

  17. Evaluation of the mixing system for the West Valley melter feed hold tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fow, C.L.; Kurath, D.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes are currently stored in underground tanks at several Department of Energy facilities. The current plan for management of these wastes is to convert them to a durable borosilicate glass, then isolate the glass in a deep geologic repository. The process for converting the wastes to glass involves mixing the high-level wastes with glass-forming chemicals, then transforming the resulting slurry into glass using a high-temperature furnace known as a slurry-fed ceramic melter. Maintaining the quality of the glass product and proficient melter operation depends on the ability of the waste slurry preparation and feed systems to produce and maintain a homogeneous mixture of waste and glass-former materials. This document reviews current technology. 11 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Melter technology evaluation for vitrification of Hanford Site low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.; Burgard, K.C.; Weber, E.T.; Brown, N.R.

    1995-04-01

    The current plan at the Hanford Site, in accordance with the Tri-Party Agreement among Washington State, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Department of Energy, is to convert the low-level tank waste fraction into a silicate glass. The low-level waste will be composed primarily of sodium nitrate and nitrite salts concentrated in a highly alkaline aqueous solution. The capability to process up to 200 metric tons/day off glass will be established to produce an estimated 210,000 m{sup 3} for onsite disposal. A program to test and evaluate high-capacity melter technologies is in progress. Testing performed by seven different industrial sources using Joule heating, combustion, plasma, and carbon arc melters is described.

  19. SETTLING OF SPINEL IN A HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASS MELTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel Hrma; Pert Schill; Lubomir Nemec

    2002-01-07

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors called melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150 decrees C to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling.

  20. Report - Melter Testing of New High Bismuth HLW Formulations VSL-13R2770-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13

    The primary objective of the work described was to test two glasses formulated for a high bismuth waste stream on the DM100 melter system. Testing was designed to determine processing characteristics and production rates, assess the tendency for foaming, and confirm glass properties. The glass compositions tested were previously developed to maintain high waste loadings and processing rates while suppressing the foaming observed in previous tests

  1. Vitrification of simulated radioactive Rocky Flats plutonium containing ash residue with a Stir Melter System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.C.; Kormanyos, K.R.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    A demonstration trial has been completed in which a simulated Rocky Flats ash consisting of an industrial fly-ash material doped with cerium oxide was vitrified in an alloy tank Stir-Melter{trademark} System. The cerium oxide served as a substitute for plutonium oxide present in the actual Rocky Flats residue stream. The glass developed falls within the SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{Sigma}Alkali/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The glass batch contained approximately 40 wt% of ash, the ash was modified to contain {approximately} 5 wt% CeO{sub 2} to simulate plutonium chemistry in the glass. The ash simulant was mixed with water and fed to the Stir-Melter as a slurry with a 60 wt% water to 40 wt% solids ratio. Glass melting temperature was maintained at approximately 1,050 C during the melting trials. Melting rates as functions of impeller speed and slurry feed rate were determined. An optimal melting rate was established through a series of evolutionary variations of the control variables` settings. The optimal melting rate condition was used for a continuous six hour steady state run of the vitrification system. Glass mass flow rates of the melter were measured and correlated with the slurry feed mass flow. Melter off-gas was sampled for particulate and volatile species over a period of four hours during the steady state run. Glass composition and durability studies were run on samples collected during the steady state run.

  2. Experimental Plan for the Cold Demonstration (Scoping Tests) of Glass Removal Methods from a DWPF Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.E.

    2001-09-21

    SRS and WVDP currently do not have the capability to size reduce, decontaminate, classify, and dispose of large, failed, highly contaminated equipment. Tanks Focus Area Task 777 was developed to address this problem. The first activity for Task 777 is to develop and demonstrate techniques suitable for removing the solid HLW glass from HLW melters. This experimental plan describes the work that will be performed for this glass removal demonstration.

  3. INSTALLATION OF BUBBLERS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITED DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Iverson, D.

    2010-12-08

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC assumed the liquid waste contract at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the summer of 2009. The main contractual agreement was to close 22 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks in eight years. To achieve this aggressive commitment, faster waste processing throughout the SRS liquid waste facilities will be required. Part of the approach to achieve faster waste processing is to increase the canister production rate of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) from approximately 200 canisters filled with radioactive waste glass per year to 400 canisters per year. To reach this rate for melter throughput, four bubblers were installed in the DWPF Melter in the late summer of 2010. This effort required collaboration between SRR, SRR critical subcontractor EnergySolutions, and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The tasks included design and fabrication of the bubblers and related equipment, testing of the bubblers for various technical issues, the actual installation of the bubblers and related equipment, and the initial successful operation of the bubblers in the DWPF Melter.

  4. The structure-directed effect of Al-based metal–organic frameworks on fabrication of alumina by thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Dandan; Dai, Fangna; Tang, Zhe; Liu, Yunqi; Liu, Chenguang

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We use Al-MOFs as precursor in the fabrication process of mesoporous alumina by thermal treatment. • The obtained mesoporous alumina has dual pore system and five-fold aluminum. • The aluminum building units in the precursor show structure-directed effect on the formation of alumina. - Abstract: In this work, the block-shaped Al-based metal–organic frameworks (Al-MOFs) MIL-53 have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. To detect the correlation between the structure of Al-MOFs and the formation of alumina, the ligands are eliminated by thermal treatment. MIL-53 and the calcination products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption–desorption and solid-state {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 27}Al NMR). It was found that after calcination, the block-shaped Al-MOFs precursor turns into high-crystallinity mesoporous alumina nanosheets, and the thermal treatment product γ-alumina possesses a dual pore system and a large surface area (146 m{sup 2}/g), with five-fold aluminum. During the thermal treatment process, the structure of MIL-53 and its secondary building units have structure-directed effect in the formation of alumina.

  5. Evaluation of the three-phase, electric arc melting furnace for treatment of simulated, thermally oxidized radioactive and mixed wastes. Part 1: Design criteria and description of integrated waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Hartman, A.D.

    1995-06-01

    The US Bureau of Mines and the Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor EG and G Idaho Inc., are collaborating on a multiyear research project to evaluate the applicability of three-phase, electric-arc furnace melting technology to vitrify materials simulating low-level radioactive and mixed wastes buried or stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and other DOE sites. The melter is sealed, 1-t (1.1-st), three-phase, 800-kV {center_dot} A electric arc melting furnace with 10.2-cm- (4-in-) diameter graphite electrodes, water-cooled roof and sidewalls, and four water-cooled feed tubes. A water-cooled copper fixture provides for continuous tapping of slag. An instrumented air pollution control system (APCS) with access ports for analysis and a feeder based on screw conveyors and a bucket elevator are dedicated to the facility. Test data are provided by an arc furnace analyzer and by sensors indicating feed rate; slag temperature; and temperature, pressure, and velocity in the APCS. These data are received by a data logger, digitized, and transmitted to a personal computer for storage and display. This unique waste treatment facility is available for public and private use on a cost-sharing basis.

  6. Final Report - Testing of Optimized Bubbler Configuration for HLW Melter VSL-13R2950-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Callow, R. A.; Joseph, I.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W. K.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of this work was to determine the glass production rate increase and ancillary effects of adding more bubbler outlets to the current WTP HLW melter baseline. This was accomplished through testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) at VSL. The DM1200 unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with several HLW waste streams including the four tank wastes proposed for initial processing at Hanford. This melter system was also used for the development and optimization of the present baseline WTP HLW bubbler configuration for the WTP HLW melter, as well as for MACT testing for both HLW and LAW. Specific objectives of these tests were to: Conduct DM1200 melter testing with the baseline WTP bubbling configuration and as augmented with additional bubblers. Conduct DM1200 melter testing to differentiate the effects of total bubbler air flow and bubbler distribution on glass production rate and cold cap formation. Collect melter operating data including processing rate, temperatures at a variety of locations within the melter plenum space, melt pool temperature, glass melt density, and melter pressure with the baseline WTP bubbling configuration and as augmented with additional bubblers. Collect melter exhaust samples to compare particulate carryover for different bubbler configurations. Analyze all collected data to determine the effects of adding more bubblers to the WTP HLW melter to inform decisions regarding future lid re-designs. The work used a high aluminum HLW stream composition defined by ORP, for which an appropriate simulant and high waste loading glass formulation were developed and have been previously processed on the DM1200.

  7. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.

    1997-01-01

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

  8. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

    1997-10-28

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

  9. Design and performance of a 100-kg/h, direct calcine-fed electric-melter system for nuclear-waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dierks, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    This report describes the physical characteristics of a ceramic-lined, joule-heated glass melter that is directly connected to the discharge of a spray calciner and is currently being used to study the vitrification of simulated nuclear-waste slurries. Melter performance characteristics and subsequent design improvements are described. The melter contains 0.24 m/sup 3/ of glass with a glass surface area of 0.76 m/sup 2/, and is heated by the flow of an alternating current (ranging from 600 to 1200 amps) between two Inconel-690 slab-type electrodes immersed in the glass at either end of the melter tank. The melter was maintained at operating temperature (900 to 1260/sup 0/C) for 15 months, and produced 62,000 kg of glass. The maximum sustained operating period was 122 h, during which glass was produced at the rate of 70 kg/h.

  10. Evaluation of melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1994-03-21

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is conducting a two-phased demonstration testing and evaluation of candidate melter system technologies for vitrification of Hanford Site low-level tank wastes. The testing is to be performed by melter equipment and vitrification technology commercial suppliers. This Statement of Work is for Phases 1 and 2 of the demonstration testing program. The primary objective of the demonstration testing is to identify the best available melter system technology for the Hanford Site LLW vitrification facility. Data obtained also will support various WHC engineering studies and conceptual design of the LLW vitrification facility. Multiple technologies will be selected for demonstration and evaluation. Testing will be conducted using non-radioactive LLW simulants in Seller-specified pilot/testing facilities.

  11. Solid-state thermal behavior and stability studies of theophylline-citric acid cocrystals prepared by neat cogrinding or thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Hong-Liang; Wang, Shun-Li; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2012-08-15

    To investigate the thermal behavior of cocrystal formed between anhydrous theophylline (TP) and anhydrous citric acid (CA) by neat manual cogrinding or thermal treatment, DSC and FTIR microspectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis were applied. The physical mixture and 60-min ground mixture were stored at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition to determine their stability behavior. Typical TP-CA cocrystals were prepared by slow solvent evaporation method. Results indicate that the cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. The IR spectral peak shift from 3495 to 3512 cm{sup -1} and the stepwise appearance of several new IR peaks at 1731, 1712, 1676, 1651, 1557 and 1265 cm{sup -1} with cogrinding time suggest that the mechanism of TP-CA cocrystal formation was evidenced by interacting TP with CA through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. The stability of 60-min ground mixture of TP-CA was confirmed at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition over a storage time of 60 days. - Garphical abstract: Cogrinding, thermal and solvent-evaporation methods might easily induce the theophylline-citric acid cocrystal formation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TP-CA cocrystal was formed through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was similar to the solvent-evaporated cocrystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal-induced TP-CA cocrystal formation was confirmed by pre-heating the physical mixture to 152 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was stable at accelerated condition over a storage time of 60 days.

  12. Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

  13. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SWENSON JA; CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; PLYS MG

    2010-03-09

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF TOA PARTITIONING ON DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, G.

    2013-06-18

    An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of increasing the amount of TOA in the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon of the current solvent limit (150 ppm) in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would be about 7% higher and the nonvolatile hydrogen would be 2% higher than the actual current solvent (126 ppm) with an addition of up to 3 ppm of TOA when the concentration of Isopar L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm and the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle. Therefore, the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 3 ppm of TOA in the effluent based on these assumptions. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

  15. Vendor glass durability study during evaluation of melter system technologies for vitrification of Hanford low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; Kim, D.; Schweiger, M.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The low level radioactive wastes (LLW) separated from the single-shell tanks and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site will be immobilized into glass. A melter system technology testing, and evaluation program is being conducted to identify the demonstration, best overall melter system technology available to vitrify the Hanford LLW streams. The melter technologies being demonstrated use a variety of heating methods to melt the glass, including plasma torch, fossil-fuel-fired cyclone burner, carbon arc and joule-heating. The Phase I testing is a {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} test to demonstrate that a melter system technology can process a simulated highly alkaline, high nitrate/nitrite content LLW feed and produce a glass product of consistent quality. Target waste oxide loading of LLW simulant was specified to be about 25 wt%. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is providing glass formulation support for this program. The five candidate vendor glasses at 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O level provided by PNL are alumino-borosilicate and aluminosilicate glasses with melting points around 1300{degrees}. Glasses adopted by vendors were tested at PNL to verify the required properties. The testing included durability evaluation through product consistency test, MCC-1 tests, and flow through tests and viscosity measurements.

  16. MASBAL: A computer program for predicting the composition of nuclear waste glass produced by a slurry-fed ceramic melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1987-07-01

    This report is a user's manual for the MASBAL computer program. MASBAL's objectives are to predict the composition of nuclear waste glass produced by a slurry-fed ceramic melter based on a knowledge of process conditions; to generate simulated data that can be used to estimate the uncertainty in the predicted glass composition as a function of process uncertainties; and to generate simulated data that can be used to provide a measure of the inherent variability in the glass composition as a function of the inherent variability in the feed composition. These three capabilities are important to nuclear waste glass producers because there are constraints on the range of compositions that can be processed in a ceramic melter and on the range of compositions that will be acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. MASBAL was developed specifically to simulate the operation of the West Valley Component Test system, a commercial-scale ceramic melter system that will process high-level nuclear wastes currently stored in underground tanks at the site of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center (near West Valley, New York). The program is flexible enough, however, to simulate any slurry-fed ceramic melter system. 4 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. WVDP Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Concentrator Feed Makeup Tank and the Melter Feed Hold Tank

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has evaluated whether the concentrator feed makeup tank and the melter feed hold tank from the West Valley Demonstration Project in New York meet the waste incidental to reprocessing criteria of Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual.

  18. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D.; McMasters, O. D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their Magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900.degree. to 1000.degree. C. for 20 minutes to six hours.

  19. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

  20. Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and DM10 Melter Testing with ORP LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-2, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to extend the glass formulation methodology developed in the earlier work by development of acceptable glass compositions for four LAW compositions specified by ORP that cover the range of sulfate to sodium and potassium to sodium ratios expected in Hanford LAW. The glass formulations were designed to exclude titanium and iron as glass former additives, while tin and vanadium as glass former additives were evaluated for beneficial effects in increasing waste loading in the glasses. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests and tests on the DM10 melter system. This melter is the most efficient melter platform for screening glass compositions over a wide range of sulfate concentrations and therefore was selected for the present tests. The current tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including sulfur incorporation and partitioning.

  1. EA-1189: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to demonstrate the feasibility of commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste to meet existing Federal and State...

  2. Guideline for benchmarking thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.P.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Hermes, W.H.; Bastian, R.E.; Davis, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    A process for benchmarking low-level mixed waste (LLMW) treatment technologies has been developed. When used in conjunction with the identification and preparation of surrogate waste mixtures, and with defined quality assurance and quality control procedures, the benchmarking process will effectively streamline the selection of treatment technologies being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for LLMW cleanup and management. Following the quantitative template provided in the benchmarking process will greatly increase the technical information available for the decision-making process. The additional technical information will remove a large part of the uncertainty in the selection of treatment technologies. It is anticipated that the use of the benchmarking process will minimize technology development costs and overall treatment costs. In addition, the benchmarking process will enhance development of the most promising LLMW treatment processes and aid in transferring the technology to the private sector. To instill inherent quality, the benchmarking process is based on defined criteria and a structured evaluation format, which are independent of any specific conventional treatment or emerging process technology. Five categories of benchmarking criteria have been developed for the evaluation: operation/design; personnel health and safety; economics; product quality; and environmental quality. This benchmarking document gives specific guidance on what information should be included and how it should be presented. A standard format for reporting is included in Appendix A and B of this document. Special considerations for LLMW are presented and included in each of the benchmarking categories.

  3. Final report for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-09-01

    IT Corporation (IT) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the effectiveness of thermal desorption as a remedial technology for removing mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain soil. Previous laboratory studies by Energy Systems suggested that this technology could reduce mercury to very low levels. This pilot-scale demonstration study was initiated to verify on an engineering scale the performance of thermal desorption. This report includes the details of the demonstration study, including descriptions of experimental equipment and procedures, test conditions, sampling and analysis, quality assurance (QA), detailed test results, and an engineering assessment of a conceptual full-scale treatment facility. The specific project tasks addressed in this report were performed between October 1993 and June 1994. These tasks include soil receipt, preparation, and characterization; prepilot (bench-scale) desorption tests; front-end materials handling tests; pilot tests; back-end materials handling tests; residuals treatment; and engineering scale-up assessment.

  4. Adsorption and thermal treatments of 1-dodecene on Si(100) investigated by STM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H. W.; Fujikawa, Y.; Sadowski, J. T.; Xue, Q. -K.; Sakurai, T.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the atomic behaviour of long-chain 1-dodecene adsorbed on Si(100) using a scanning tunnelling microscope with an exposure of 30 to 2.4 Langmuirs. Unlike previous reports on short-chain molecules, remarkable self-ordered assembly of molecules is not observed at room temperature, which is possibly attributed to the asymmetric molecular structure with long chains of 1-dodecene. After annealing at 500580 C, ordered patterns form with a c(4 4) structure, accompanied with thermal decomposition of molecules.

  5. Adsorption and thermal treatments of 1-dodecene on Si(100) investigated by STM

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, H. W.; Fujikawa, Y.; Sadowski, J. T.; Xue, Q. -K.; Sakurai, T.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the atomic behaviour of long-chain 1-dodecene adsorbed on Si(100) using a scanning tunnelling microscope with an exposure of 30 to 2.4 Langmuirs. Unlike previous reports on short-chain molecules, remarkable self-ordered assembly of molecules is not observed at room temperature, which is possibly attributed to the asymmetric molecular structure with long chains of 1-dodecene. After annealing at 500–580 °C, ordered patterns form with a c(4 × 4) structure, accompanied with thermal decomposition of molecules.

  6. Statistical process control applied to the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulsipher, B.A.; Kuhn, W.L.

    1987-09-01

    In this report, an application of control charts to the apparent feed composition of a Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) is demonstrated by using results from a simulation of the LFCM system. Usual applications of control charts require the assumption of uncorrelated observations over time. This assumption is violated in the LFCM system because of the heels left in tanks from previous batches. Methods for dealing with this problem have been developed to create control charts for individual batches sent to the feed preparation tank (FPT). These control charts are capable of detecting changes in the process average as well as changes in the process variation. All numbers reported in this document were derived from a simulated demonstration of a plausible LFCM system. In practice, site-specific data must be used as input to a simulation tailored to that site. These data directly affect all variance estimates used to develop control charts. 64 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Assessment of the impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF melter off-gas flammability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, W. E.

    2013-02-13

    An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of replacing the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process with the Next Generation Solvent (NGS-MCU) and blended solvent. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the current solvent in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would both be about 29% higher than their counterparts of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent in the absence of guanidine partitioning. When 6 ppm of guanidine (TiDG) was added to the effluent transfer to DWPF to simulate partitioning for the NGS-MCU and blended solvent cases and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer was controlled below 87 ppm, the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent were still about 12% and 4% lower, respectively, than those of the current solvent. It is, therefore, concluded that as long as the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm, using the current solvent assumption of 105 ppm Isopar{reg_sign} L or 150 ppm solvent in lieu of NGS-MCU or blended solvent in the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 6 ppm of TiDG in the effluent due to guanidine partitioning. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

  8. Effects of thermal treatment on the co-rolled U-Mo fuel foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Tammy L. Trowbridge; Cynthia R. Breckenridge; Brady L. Mackowiak; Glenn A. Moore; Barry H. Rabin; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2014-11-01

    A monolithic fuel type is being developed to convert US high performance research and test reactors such as Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). The interaction between the cladding and the U-Mo fuel meat during fuel fabrication and irradiation is known to have negative impacts on fuel performance, such as mechanical integrity and dimensional stability. In order to eliminate/minimize the direct interaction between cladding and fuel meat, a thin zirconium diffusion barrier was introduced between the cladding and U-Mo fuel meat through a co-rolling process. A complex interface between the zirconium and U-Mo was developed during the co-rolling process. A predictable interface between zirconium and U-Mo is critical to achieve good fuel performance since the interfaces can be the weakest link in the monolithic fuel system. A post co-rolling annealing treatment is expected to create a well-controlled interface between zirconium and U-Mo. A systematic study utilizing post co-rolling annealing treatment has been carried out. Based on microscopy results, the impacts of the annealing treatment on the interface between zirconium and U-Mo will be presented and an optima annealing treatment schedule will be suggested. The effects of the annealing treatment on the fuel performance will also be discussed.

  9. IMPACT OF ELIMINATING MERCURY REMOVAL PRETREATMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE MELTER OFFGAS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamecnik, J; Alexander Choi, A

    2009-03-17

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: (1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; (2) adjust feed rheology; and (3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid pretreatment has been proposed to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems; alternative reductants would be used to control redox. However, elimination of formic acid would result in significantly more mercury in the melter feed; the current specification is no more than 0.45 wt%, while the maximum expected prior to pretreatment is about 2.5 wt%. An engineering study has been undertaken to estimate the effects of eliminating mercury removal on the melter offgas system performance. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model and an aqueous phase model were developed to study the speciation of mercury in the DWPF melter offgas system. The model was calibrated against available experimental data and then applied to DWPF conditions. The gas-phase model predicted the Hg{sub 2}{sup 2-}/Hg{sup 2+} ratio accurately, but some un-oxidized Hg{sup 0} remained. The aqueous model, with the addition of less than 1 mM Cl{sub 2} showed that this remaining Hg{sup 0} would be oxidized such that the final Hg{sub 2}{sup 2+}/Hg{sup 2+} ratios matched the experimental data. The results of applying the model to DWPF show that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of

  10. Earth melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Christopher C.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed either by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, or by constructing a melt zone in an apparatus above grade and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials.

  11. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

  12. Environmental Assessment Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-05-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) needs to demonstrate the economics and feasibility of offsite commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste (LLMW), containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and other organics, to meet existing regulatory standards for eventual disposal.

  13. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  14. Glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium-content low-level, radioactive, liquid wastes: Phase 1, SBS demonstration with simulated low-level waste. Final test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, M.J.; Scotto, M.V.; Shiao, S.Y.

    1995-12-31

    The attached vendor report was prepared for Westinghouse Hanford Company by Babcock & Wilcox as documentation of the Phase I Final Test Report, Cyclone Combustion Melter Demonstration.

  15. Silicate Based Glass Formulations for Immobilization of U.S. Defense Wastes Using Cold Crucible Induction Melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Gary L.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Marra, James C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Crawford, Charles L.; Vienna, John D.

    2014-05-22

    The cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) is an alternative technology to the currently deployed liquid-fed, ceramic-lined, Joule-heated melter for immobilizing of U.S. tank waste generated from defense related reprocessing. In order to accurately evaluate the potential benefits of deploying a CCIM, glasses must be developed specifically for that melting technology. Related glass formulation efforts have been conducted since the 1990s including a recent study that is first documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to summarize the silicate base glass formulation efforts for CCIM testing of U.S. tank wastes. Summaries of phosphate based glass formulation and phosphate and silicate based CCIM demonstration tests are reported separately (Day and Ray 2013 and Marra 2013, respectively). Combined these three reports summarize the current state of knowledge related to waste form development and process testing of CCIM technology for U.S. tank wastes.

  16. Final Report - Glass Formulation Testing to Increase Sulfate Volatilization from Melter, VSL-04R4970-1, Rev. 0, dated 2/24/05

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. A.; Pegg, I. L.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objectives of the DM100 and DM10 tests were to determine the impact of four different organics and one inorganic feed additive on sulfate volatilization and to determine the sulfur partitioning between the glass and the off-gas system. The tests provided information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data including sulfur incorporation and partitioning. A series of DM10 and DM100 melter tests were conducted using a LAW Envelope A feed. The testing was divided into three parts. The first part involved a series of DM10 melter tests with four different organic feed additives: sugar, polyethylene glycol (PEG), starch, and urea. The second part involved two confirmatory 50-hour melter tests on the DM100 using the best combination of reductants and conditions based on the DM10 results. The third part was performed on the DM100 with feeds containing vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) as an inorganic additive to increase sulfur partitioning to the off-gas. Although vanadium oxide is not a reductant, previous testing has shown that vanadium shows promise for partitioning sulfur to the melter exhaust, presumably through its known catalytic effect on the SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} reaction. Crucible-scale tests were conducted prior to the melter tests to confirm that the glasses and feeds would be processable in the melter and that the glasses would meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements. Thus, the major objectives of these tests were to: Perform screening tests on the DM10 followed by tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed with four organic additives to assess their impact on sulfur volatilization. Perform tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed containing vanadium oxide to assess its impact on sulfur volatilization. Determine feed processability and product quality with the above additives. Collect melter emissions data to determine the effect of additives on sulfur partitioning and melter emissions

  17. Development of the high-level waste high-temperature melter feed preparation flowsheet for vitrification process testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-02-17

    High-level waste (HLW) feed preparation flowsheet development was initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1994 to evaluate alternative flowsheets for preparing melter feed for high-temperature melter (HTM) vitrification testing. Three flowsheets were proposed that might lead to increased processing capacity relative to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and that were flexible enough to use with other HLW melter technologies. This document describes the decision path that led to the selection of flowsheets to be tested in the FY 1994 small-scale HTM tests. Feed preparation flowsheet development for the HLW HTM was based on the feed preparation flowsheet that was developed for the HWVP. This approach allowed the HLW program to build upon the extensive feed preparation flowsheet database developed under the HWVP Project. Primary adjustments to the HWVP flowsheet were to the acid adjustment and glass component additions. Developmental background regarding the individual features of the HLW feed preparation flowsheets is provided. Applicability of the HWVP flowsheet features to the new HLW vitrification mission is discussed. The proposed flowsheets were tested at the laboratory-scale at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Based on the results of this testing and previously established criteria, a reductant-based flowsheet using glycolic acid and a nitric acid-based flowsheet were selected for the FY 1994 small-scale HTM testing.

  18. MX-2500 thermal processor for the treatment of petroleum refining wastes and contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanberg, C. )

    1993-05-01

    Separation and Recovery Systems, Inc. (SRS) of Irvine, California is the market leader in supplying hazardous waste and secondary material dewatering and drying services to the petroleum refining industry. In late 1991, SRS introduced the new generation of dryer technology, the MX-2500. The MX-2500 is an electrically heated dryer system that recovers virtually all of the hydrocarbon value of refinery wastes and secondary materials, while producing a solid residue meeting EPA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment levels which allows the refinery to land dispose of the solids, thereby realizing two objectives: waste minimization and oil recovery/recycling. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. An investigation of gas separation membranes for reduction of thermal treatment emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, D.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Pellegrino, J.J.

    1994-05-16

    Gas permeable membranes were evaluated for possible use as air pollution control devices on a fluidized bed catalytic incineration unit. The unit is a candidate technology for treatment of certain mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cellulose acetate and polyimide membranes were tested to determine the permeance of typical off-gas components such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen. Multi-component permeation studies included gas mixtures containing light hydrocarbons. Experiments were also conducted to discover information about potential membrane degradation in the presence of organic compounds.

  20. Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

    2008-08-17

    The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further

  1. Impact Of Particle Agglomeration On Accumulation Rates In The Glass Discharge Riser Of HLW Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A. A.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Matyas, J.; Owen, A. T.; Jansik, D. P.; Lang, J. B.

    2012-11-12

    The major factor limiting waste loading in continuous high-level radioactive waste (HLW) melters is an accumulation of particles in the glass discharge riser during a frequent and periodic idling of more than 20 days. An excessive accumulation can produce robust layers a few centimeters thick, which may clog the riser, preventing molten glass from being poured into canisters. Since the accumulation rate is driven by the size of particles we investigated with x-ray microtomography, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis the impact of spinel forming components, noble metals, and alumina on the size, concentration, and spatial distribution of particles, and on the accumulation rate. Increased concentrations of Fe and Ni in the baseline glass resulted in the formation of large agglomerates that grew over the time to an average size of ~185+-155 {mu}m, and produced >3 mm thick layer after 120 h at 850 deg C. The noble metals decreased the particle size, and therefore significantly slowed down the accumulation rate. Addition of alumina resulted in the formation of a network of spinel dendrites which prevented accumulation of particles into compact layers.

  2. Combined effects of post-growth thermal treatment and chemical substitution on physical properties of CaFe2As2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ran, Sheng

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes experimental work using process of postgrowth thermal treatment and chemical substitution as tuning parameters in the study of physical properties of CaFe2As2. Details of sample preparation and characterization are given as well as various phase diagrams.

  3. REVIEW REPORT: BUILDING C-400 THERMAL TREATMENT 90 PERCENT REMEDIAL DESIGN REPORT AND SITE INVESTIGATION, PGDP, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B; Jed Costanza, J; Eva Davis, E; Joe Rossabi, J; Lloyd Stewart, L; Hans Stroo, H

    2007-08-15

    On 9 April 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Office of Soil and Groundwater Remediation (EM-22) initiated an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of the 90% Remedial Design Report (RDR) and Site Investigation (RDSI) for thermal treatment of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the soil and groundwater in the vicinity of Building C-400 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The general ITR goals were to assess the technical adequacy of the 90% RDSI and provide recommendations sufficient for DOE to determine if modifications are warranted pertaining to the design, schedule, or cost of implementing the proposed design. The ultimate goal of the effort was to assist the DOE Paducah/Portsmouth Project Office (PPPO) and their contractor team in ''removing'' the TCE source zone located near the C-400 Building. This report provides the ITR findings and recommendations and supporting evaluations as needed to facilitate use of the recommendations. The ITR team supports the remedial action objective (RAO) at C-400 to reduce the TCE source area via subsurface Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH). Further, the ITR team commends PPPO, their contractor team, regulators, and stakeholders for the significant efforts taken in preparing the 90% RDR. To maximize TCE removal at the target source area, several themes emerge from the review which the ITR team believes should be considered and addressed before implementing the thermal treatment. These themes include the need for: (1) Accurate and site-specific models as the basis to verify the ERH design for full-scale implementation for this challenging hydrogeologic setting; (2) Flexible project implementation and operation to allow the project team to respond to observations and data collected during construction and operation; (3) Defensible performance metrics and monitoring, appropriate for ERH, to ensure sufficient and efficient clean-up; and (4) Comprehensive (creative and diverse) contingencies to address the

  4. Thermal stability, acidity, catalytic properties, and deactivation behaviour of SAPO-5 catalysts: Effect of silicon content, acid treatment, and Na exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akolekar, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    Crystalline microporous SAPO-5 molecular sieves with different silicon content, acid-treated SAPO-5 and Na-exchanged SAPO-5 were investigated for their thermal stability, and acidic and catalytic properties. SAPO-5 materials with increasing SI framework content exhibited lower thermal stability. The effects of the thermal treatment and Na exchange on the N{sub 2}-sorption capacity (at 78 K) of these materials were studied. In situ IR spectroscopic investigations of pyridine chemisorbed on the aluminophosphate catalysts revealed that the concentration of Broensted and Lewis acid sites are strongly affected by the Si content in the AlPO{sub 4} framework, acid treatment, and Na exchange. The results of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and stepwise thermal desorption of pyridine suggest that there exists a broad site energy distribution over the aluminophosphate catalysts increases with the increasing Si content in the AlPO{sub 4} framework. The acid treatment and Na exchange showed a decrease in the number of strong acid sites on SAPO-5. The TPD of pyridine over SAPO-5, acid-treated SAPO-5, and Na-exchanged SAPO-5 indicated the presence of two types of acid sites. Correlation between the number of strong acid sites (measured in terms of the chemisorption of pyridine at 673 K) and framework charge on the aluminophosphate catalysts has also been obtained. The catalytic activities of SAPO-5 catalysts in the ethanol, n-hexane, isooctane, toluene, and o-xylene conversion reactions were studied. 22 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING USING AZ 102 AND C 106/AY-102 HLW SIMULANTS: HLW SIMULANT VERIFICATION VSL-05R5800-1 REV 0 6/27/05

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter tests were to determine the effects of feed rheology, feed solid content, and bubbler configuration on glass production rate and off-gas system performance while processing the HLW AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 feed compositions; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components, as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table. The data provided in this Final Report address the impacts of HLW melter feed rheology on melter throughput and validation of the simulated HLW melter feeds. The primary purpose of this testing is to further validate/verify the HLW melter simulants that have been used for previous melter testing and to support their continued use in developing melter and off-gas related processing information for the Project. The primary simulant property in question is rheology. Simulants and melter feeds used in all previous melter tests were produced by direct addition of chemicals; these feed tend to be less viscous than rheological the upper-bound feeds made from actual wastes. Data provided here compare melter processing for the melter feed used in all previous DM100 and DM1200 tests (nominal melter feed) with feed adjusted by the feed vendor (NOAH Technologies) to be more viscous, thereby simulating more closely the upperbounding feed produced from actual waste. This report provides results of tests that are described in the Test Plan for this work. The Test Plan is responsive to one of several test objectives covered in the WTP Test Specification for this work; consequently, only part of the scope described in the Test Specification was addressed in this particular Test Plan. For the purpose of

  6. NOBLE METAL CHEMISTRY AND HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING SIMULATED DWPF MELTER FEED PREPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D

    2008-06-25

    Simulations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell vessels were performed with the primary purpose of producing melter feeds for the beaded frit program plus obtaining samples of simulated slurries containing high concentrations of noble metals for off-site analytical studies for the hydrogen program. Eight pairs of 22-L simulations were performed of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles. These sixteen simulations did not contain mercury. Six pairs were trimmed with a single noble metal (Ag, Pd, Rh, or Ru). One pair had all four noble metals, and one pair had no noble metals. One supporting 4-L simulation was completed with Ru and Hg. Several other 4-L supporting tests with mercury have not yet been performed. This report covers the calculations performed on SRNL analytical and process data related to the noble metals and hydrogen generation. It was originally envisioned as a supporting document for the off-site analytical studies. Significant new findings were made, and many previous hypotheses and findings were given additional support as summarized below. The timing of hydrogen generation events was reproduced very well within each of the eight pairs of runs, e.g. the onset of hydrogen, peak in hydrogen, etc. occurred at nearly identical times. Peak generation rates and total SRAT masses of CO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen were reproduced well. Comparable measures for hydrogen were reproduced with more variability, but still reasonably well. The extent of the reproducibility of the results validates the conclusions that were drawn from the data.

  7. Nuclear Waste Treatment Program annual report for FY 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brouns, R.A.; Powell, J.A.

    1989-11-01

    Much emphasis continues to be on the transfer of remote design technology for components integral to the West Valley Demonstration Project's (WVDP) vitrification process. In addition to preparing equipment specifications and drawings, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff also participated in numerous design coordination meetings and reviews of drawings prepared by other WVDP contractors. Nearly 200 jumper drawings for the vitrification cell were prepared by this program in FY 1988. The remote jumpers connect vessels in the cell to each other for the transfer of solutions and provide for the flow of materials, instrumentation signals, and power from outside the cell. Analysis required in preparing the jumper designs involved balance, thermal stress, seismic, set-down stress, and displacement calculations. Design efforts were begun on the canister decontamination and swipe station and on the remote maintenance station. Equipment selection and layouts of the vitrification off-gas treatment system, including a reamer to remotely clean the melter off-gas line, were finalized. Also finalized were the designs for the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter assemblies for heating, cooling and air conditioning of the vitrification cell.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

    2007-06-06

    This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample

  9. Final Report - Effects of High Spinel and Chromium Oxide Crystal Contents on Simulated HLW Vitrification in DM100 Melter Tests, VSL-09R1520-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/22/09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Lutze, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of spinel and chromium oxide particles on WTP HLW melter operations and potential impacts on melter life. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, settling and rheological tests, and tests on the DM100 melter system. Crucible testing was designed to develop and identify HLW glass compositions with high waste loadings that exhibit formation of crystalline spinel and/or chromium oxide phases up to relatively high crystal contents (i.e., > 1 vol%). Characterization of crystal settling and the effects on melt rheology was performed on the HLW glass formulations. Appropriate candidate HLW glass formulations were selected, based on characterization results, to support subsequent melter tests. In the present work, crucible melts were formulated that exhibit up to about 4.4 vol% crystallization.

  10. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Appendix B, Flow sheets and material balances: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    This document accompanies a full report which describes the testing and evaluation of ten different methods for incinerating mixed low-level radioactive wastes. It consists of flowsheets and diagrams of a rotary kiln, pyrolysis methods, a plasma furnace, a fixed hearth, and thermal desorption methods.

  11. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Chun, Jaehun; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel

    2014-09-01

    In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. Foams from the residual gases can significantly alter the melting rate through mass and heat transfers. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TGA-GC-MS) combination to perform quantitative evolved gas analysis (EGA) and developed a simple calibration model which correlates the overall mass loss rate with the evolution rates for individual gases. The model parameters are obtained from the least squares analysis, assuming that the gas-evolving reactions are independent. Thus, the EGAmore » adds the ‘chemical identity’ to the reactions indicated by the ‘phenomenological’ kinetic model.« less

  12. Final Report: Fiscal Year 1997 demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation of organic solids and liquids using peroxydisulfate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment, chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992. The process uses solutions of the peroxydisulfate ion (typically sodium or ammonium salts) to completely mineralize the organics to carbon dioxide and water. The expended oxidant may be electrolytically regenerated to minimize secondary waste. The paper briefly describes: free radical and secondary oxidant formation; electrochemical regeneration; offgas stream; and throughput.

  13. Surface modification of ultra thin PES-zeolite using thermal annealing to increase flux and rejection of produced water treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusworo, T. D. Widayat,; Pradini, A. W.; Armeli, Y. P.

    2015-12-29

    Membrane technology is an alternative of water treatment based on filtration that is being developed. Surface Modification using heat treatment has been investigated to improve the performance of ultra thin PES-Zeolite nanocomposite membrane for produced water treatment from Pertamina Balongan. Two types of membranes with surface modification and without modification were prepared to study the effect of surface modification on its permeation properties. Asymmetric ultra thin PES-Zeolite nanocomposite membrane for produced water treatment was casted using the dry/wet phase inversion technique from dope solutions containing polyethersulfone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent and zeolite as a filler. Experimental results showed that the heat treatment at near glass transition temperature was increase the rejection of COD, Turbidity and ion Ca{sup 2+}. The better adherence of zeolite particles in the polymer matrix combined with formation of charge transfer complexes (CTCs) and cross-linking might be the main factors to enhance the percent of rejection. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of PES-zeolite membrane became denser and more compact after the heat treatment. The FESEM micrographs also showed that the heat treatment was increased the adherence of zeolite particle and polymer. Membranes treated at 180 °C for 15 seconds indicated increase the rejection and small decrease in flux for produced water treatment.

  14. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higley, B.A.

    1995-03-15

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock & Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing.

  15. Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory‘s Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vince Maio

    2011-08-01

    This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine's make-up is HLW containing

  16. Commercial waste treatment program annual progress report for FY 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McElroy, J.L.; Burkholder, H.C. (comps.)

    1984-02-01

    This annual report describes progress during FY 1983 relating to technologies under development by the Commercial Waste Treatment Program, including: development of glass waste form and vitrification equipment for high-level wastes (HLW); waste form development and process selection for transuranic (TRU) wastes; pilot-scale operation of a radioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) system for verifying the reliability of the reference HLW treatment proces technology; evaluation of treatment requirements for spent fuel as a waste form; second-generation waste form development for HLW; and vitrification process control and product quality assurance technologies.

  17. Assessing the perception and reality of arguments against thermal waste treatment plants in terms of property prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, K.J.O.; Longhurst, P.J.; Wagland, S.T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Previous research studies have shown that EfW facilities negatively impact the local house prices. • In this study property prices surrounding 3 operational EfW plants were analysed. • No significant negative effect on property prices due to an incinerator was found. - Abstract: The thermal processing of waste materials, although considered to be an essential part of waste management, is often sharply contested in the UK. Arguments such as health, depletion of resources, cost, noise, odours, traffic movement and house prices are often cited as reasons against the development of such facilities. This study aims to review the arguments and identify any effect on property prices due to the public perception of the plant. A selection of existing energy from waste (EfW) facilities in the UK, operational for at least 7 years, was selected and property sales data, within 5 km of the sites, was acquired and analysed in detail. The locations of the properties were calculated in relation to the plant using GIS software (ArcGIS) and the distances split into 5 zones ranging from 0 to 5 km from the site. The local property sale prices, normalised against the local house price index, were compared in two time periods, before and after the facility became operational, across each of the 5 zones. In all cases analysed no significant negative effect was observed on property prices at any distance within 5 km from a modern operational incinerator. This indicated that the perceived negative effect of the thermal processing of waste on local property values is negligible.

  18. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 3: Plasma hearth process testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, J.M.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffman, D.P.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The plasma hearth process (PHP) presented in this report has been tested at a facility at Ukiah, California, in a cooperative effort between the Department of Energy (DOE), Science Applications International Corporation, Inc., and ReTech, Inc. The electrically heated plasma gas is used to destroy organic materials and bind radionuclides and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals in the glassy slag. Proof-of-principle tests were conducted successfully using nonhazardous and non-radioactive materials placed in 30-gal steel drums. On-line analyses of the gaseous effluents indicated complete combustion; emissions of CO, NO{sub x}, and particulates were low. The process also produced highly stable solid waste forms. The experiments for the next phase have been planned employing surrogates for the hazardous and radioactive components of the simulated waste streams. Natural cerium oxide is selected to simulate the behavior of radioactive actinide and transuranium elements, while natural cesium chloride is simulated for the study of relatively volatile radioactive fission products. For RCRA organics, naphthalene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene are semivolatile compounds selected to represent significant challenges to thermal destruction, whereas chlorobenzene is selected for the study of relatively volatile organics. Salts of chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium are chosen to represent the twelve regulated toxic metals for emission and partitioning studies. The simulated waste packages presented in the text do not necessarily represent an individual waste stream within the DOE complex; rather, they were formulated to represent the most probable components in generic waste stream categories.

  19. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela; Sisani, Luciano; Damiano, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes.

  20. Evaluation of Exothermic Reactions from Bulk-Vitrification Melter Feeds Containing Cellulose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Bos, Stanley J.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Berry, Pam

    2007-06-25

    PNNL has demonstrated that cellulose effectively reduces the amount of molten ionic salt during Bulk Vitrification of simulated Hanford Low Level Waste (LLW). To address concerns about the potential reactivity of cellulose-LLW, PNNL used thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and accelerating rate calorimetry to determine in these preliminary studies that these mixtures will support a self-sustaining reaction if heated to 110C at adiabatic conditions. Additional testing is recommended.

  1. An integrated study of thermal treatment effects on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Zn-ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antic, Bratislav; Perovic, Marija; Kremenovic, Aleksandar; Blanusa, Jovan; Spasojevic, Vojislav; Vulic, Predrag; Bessais, Lotfi; Bozin, Emil S

    2015-09-30

    The evolution of the magnetic state, crystal structure and microstructure parameters of nanocrystalline zincferrite, tuned by thermal annealing of ~4 nm nanoparticles, was systematically studied by complementary characterization methods. Structural analysis of neutron and synchrotron x-ray radiation data revealed a mixed cation distribution in the nanoparticle samples, with the degree of inversion systematically decreasing from 0.25 in an as-prepared nanocrystalline sample to a non-inverted spinel structure with a normal cation distribution in the bulk counterpart. The results of DC magnetization and Mossbauer spectroscopy experiments indicated a superparamagnetic relaxation in ~4 nm nanoparticles, albeit with different freezing temperatures Tf of 27.5 K and 46 K, respectively. The quadrupole splitting parameter decreases with the annealing temperature due to cation redistribution between the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure and the associated defects. DC magnetization measurements indicated the existence of significant interparticle interactions among nanoparticles (superspins). Additional confirmation for the presence of interparticle interactions was found from the fit of the Tf(H) dependence to the AT line, from which a value of the anisotropy constant of Keff = 5.6 105 erg cm-3 was deduced. Further evidence for strong interparticle interactions was found from AC susceptibility measurements, where the frequency dependence of the freezing temperature Tf() was satisfactory described by both VogelFulcher and dynamic scaling theory, both applicable for interacting systems. The parameters obtained from these fits suggest collective freezing of magnetic moments at Tf .

  2. Feasibility Evaluation and Retrofit Plan for Cold Crucible Induction Melter Deployment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, A.B. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Iverson, D.C.; Adkins, B.J. [Liquid Waste Operations, Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Tchemitcheff, E. [AREVA NC Inc., Richland Office, Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment cost as the advantages over existing Joule Heated Melter (JHM) technology. The CCIM uses induction heating to maintain molten glass at high temperature. A water-cooled helical induction coil is connected to an AC current supply, typically operating at frequencies from 100 kHz to 5 MHz. The oscillating magnetic field generated by the oscillating current flow through the coil induces eddy currents in conductive materials within the coil. Those oscillating eddy currents, in turn, generate heat in the material. In the CCIM, the induction coil surrounds a 'Cold Crucible' which is formed by metal tubes, typically copper or stainless steel. The tubes are constructed such that the magnetic field does not couple with the crucible. Therefore, the field generated by the induction coil couples primarily with the conductive medium (hot glass) within. The crucible tubes are water cooled to maintain their temperature between 100 deg. C to 200 deg. C so that a protective layer of molten glass and/or batch material, referred to as a 'skull', forms between them and the hot, corrosive melt. Because the protective skull is the only material directly in contact with the molten glass, the CCIM doesn't have the temperature limitations of traditional refractory lined JHM. It can be operated at melt temperatures in excess of 2000 deg. C, allowing processing of high waste loading batches and difficult-to-melt compounds. The CCIM is poured through a bottom drain, typically through a water-cooled slide valve that starts and stops the pour stream. To promote uniform temperature

  3. FEASIBILITY EVALUATION AND RETROFIT PLAN FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEPLOYMENT IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 8118

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, A; Dan Iverson, D; Brannen Adkins, B

    2008-02-06

    Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment cost as the advantages over existing Joule Heated Melter (JHM) technology. The CCIM uses induction heating to maintain molten glass at high temperature. A water-cooled helical induction coil is connected to an AC current supply, typically operating at frequencies from 100 KHz to 5 MHz. The oscillating magnetic field generated by the oscillating current flow through the coil induces eddy currents in conductive materials within the coil. Those oscillating eddy currents, in turn, generate heat in the material. In the CCIM, the induction coil surrounds a 'Cold Crucible' which is formed by metal tubes, typically copper or stainless steel. The tubes are constructed such that the magnetic field does not couple with the crucible. Therefore, the field generated by the induction coil couples primarily with the conductive medium (hot glass) within. The crucible tubes are water cooled to maintain their temperature between 100 C to 200 C so that a protective layer of molten glass and/or batch material, referred to as a 'skull', forms between them and the hot, corrosive melt. Because the protective skull is the only material directly in contact with the molten glass, the CCIM doesn't have the temperature limitations of traditional refractory lined JHM. It can be operated at melt temperatures in excess of 2000 C, allowing processing of high waste loading batches and difficult-to-melt compounds. The CCIM is poured through a bottom drain, typically through a water-cooled slide valve that starts and stops the pour stream. To promote uniform temperature distribution and

  4. A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brim, Remy L.; Nance, Mark R.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H.

    2010-09-03

    Rhodococcal cocaine esterase (CocE) is an attractive potential treatment for both cocaine overdose and cocaine addiction. CocE directly degrades cocaine into inactive products, whereas traditional small-molecule approaches require blockade of the inhibitory action of cocaine on a diverse array of monoamine transporters and ion channels. The usefulness of wild-type (wt) cocaine esterase is hampered by its inactivation at 37 C. Herein, we characterize the most thermostable form of this enzyme to date, CocE-L169K/G173Q. In vitro kinetic analyses reveal that CocE-L169K/G173Q displays a half-life of 2.9 days at 37 C, which represents a 340-fold improvement over wt and is 15-fold greater than previously reported mutants. Crystallographic analyses of CocE-L169K/G173Q, determined at 1.6-{angstrom} resolution, suggest that stabilization involves enhanced domain-domain interactions involving van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. In vivo rodent studies reveal that intravenous pretreatment with CocE-L169K/G173Q in mice provides protection from cocaine-induced lethality for longer time periods before cocaine administration than wt CocE. Furthermore, intravenous administration (pretreatment) of CocE-L169K/G173Q prevents self-administration of cocaine in a time-dependent manner. Termination of the in vivo effects of CoCE seems to be dependent on, but not proportional to, its clearance from plasma as its half-life is approximately 2.3 h and similar to that of wt CocE (2.2 h). Taken together these data suggest that CocE-L169K/G173Q possesses many of the properties of a biological therapeutic for treating cocaine abuse but requires additional development to improve its serum half-life.

  5. XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragsdale, R.G., Jr

    1994-12-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented.

  6. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANTIFOAM TRACKING SYSTEM AS AN OPTION TO SUPPORT THE MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY CONTROL STRATEGY AT THE DWPF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.; Lambert, D.

    2014-08-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of an additional strategy for confidently satisfying the flammability controls for DWPF’s melter operation. An initial strategy for implementing the operational constraints associated with flammability control in DWPF was based upon an analytically determined carbon concentration from antifoam. Due to the conservative error structure associated with the analytical approach, its implementation has significantly reduced the operating window for processing and has led to recurrent Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and Melter Feed Tank (MFT) remediation. To address the adverse operating impact of the current implementation strategy, SRR issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to SRNL requesting the development and documentation of an alternate strategy for evaluating the carbon contribution from antifoam. The proposed strategy presented in this report was developed under the guidance of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and involves calculating the carbon concentration from antifoam based upon the actual mass of antifoam added to the process assuming 100% retention. The mass of antifoam in the Additive Mix Feed Tank (AMFT), in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), and in the SME is tracked by mass balance as part of this strategy. As these quantities are monitored, the random and bias uncertainties affecting their values are also maintained and accounted for. This report documents: 1) the development of an alternate implementation strategy and associated equations describing the carbon concentration from antifoam in each SME batch derived from the actual amount of antifoam introduced into the AMFT, SRAT, and SME during the processing of the batch. 2) the equations and error structure for incorporating the proposed strategy into melter off-gas flammability assessments

  8. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanochko, Ronald M; Corcoran, Connie

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  9. Millimeter-Wave Measurements at 137 GHZ of DWPF Black Frit Glass Flow and Salt Layer Pooling in a Pilot Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, S.K.; Miller, Don; Daniel, Gene; Harden, John

    2004-03-31

    Nuclear waste vitrification in joule-heated melters would be greatly facilitated by the availability of on-line monitoring instrumentation for critical process parameters such as viscosity and salt accumulation. A field test of the applicability of millimeter-wave (MMW) technology to providing such tools was carried out on a pilot scale melter (EV-16) at the Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory. Flow measurements of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) black frit glass over a temperature (T) range of 800-1150 C and to depths of over 7 inches (17.8 cm) were made with an immersed ceramic waveguide. Pressure induced melt flow inside the waveguide was observed over an average velocity range of 0.1-10 mm/s consistent with a 1/T viscosity scaling. In another test, sodium sulfate salt (NaSO4) was added to the melt to demonstrate salt layer detection. A 30% decrease in MMW melt emissivity was clearly observed as pools of salt formed and flowed under the waveguide.

  10. Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) Demonstration Using a Representative Savannah River Site Sludge Simulant On the Large-Size Pilot Platform at the CEA-Marcoule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girold, C.; Delaunay, M.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Lacombe, J. [CEA Marcoule, CEA/DEN/DTCD/SCDV, 30 (France); Marra, S.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.; Smith, M.; Edwards, R.; Barnes, A.; Stone, M. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Washington Savannah River Company, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States); Iverson, D. [Liquid Waste Operations, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC), Aiken, SC (United States); Do Quang, R. [AREVA NC, Tour AREVA, 92 - Paris La Defense (France); Tchemitcheff, E. [AREVA Federal Services LLC, Richland Office, Richland, WA (United States); Veyer, C. [Consultant, 59 - Saint Waast la Vallee (France)

    2008-07-01

    The cold-crucible induction melter technology (CCIM) is considered worldwide for industrial implementation to overcome the current limits of high level waste vitrification technologies and to answer future challenges such as: new or difficult sludge compositions, need for improving waste loading, need for high temperatures, and corrosive effluents. More particularly, this technology is being considered for implementation at the US DOE Savannah River site to increase the rate of waste processing while reducing the number of HLW canisters to be produced through increased waste loading and improved waste throughput. A collaborative program involving AREVA, CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission), SRNL (Savannah River National Laboratory) and WSRC (Washington Savannah River Company) has thus been initiated in 2007 to demonstrate vitrification with waste loadings on the order of 50% (versus the current DWPF waste loading of about 35%) with a PUREX-type waste composition (high Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composition), and to perform two pilot-scale runs on the large size platform equipped with a 650 mm diameter CCIM at the CEA Marcoule. The objectives of the demonstrations were 1) to show the feasibility of processing a representative SRS sludge surrogate using continuous slurry feeding, 2) to produce a glass that would meet the acceptance specifications with an increased waste loading when compared to what is presently achieved at the DWPF, and 3) achieve improved waste throughputs. This presentation describes the platform and the very encouraging results obtained from the demonstration performed at temperatures, specific throughputs and waste loadings that overcome current DWPF limits. Results from the initial exploratory run and second demonstration run include 1) production of a glass product that achieved the targeted glass composition that was more durable than the standard Environmental Assessment (EA) glass, 2) successful slurry feeding of the CCIM, and 3) promising waste

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Responses to Public Comments on the Draft Waste- Incidental-to-Reprocessing Evaluation for the West Valley Demonstration Project Concentrator Feed Makeup Tank and Melter Feed Hold Tank

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is providing responses to the comments received from the public and from state and county agencies on the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Draft Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing (WIR) Evaluation for the Concentrator Feed Makeup Tank (CFMT) and the Melter Feed Hold Tank (MFHT), referred to hereafter as the Draft Evaluation.

  12. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF BUBBLER CONFIGURATIONS USING HLW AZ-101 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-4 REV 0 10/5/04

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of six tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the other tests have been reported separately. The solids contents of the melter feeds were based on the WTP baseline value for the solids content of the feeds from pretreatment which changed during these tests from 20% to 15% undissolved solids resulting in tests conducted at two feed solids contents. Based on the results of earlier tests with single outlet 'J' bubblers, initial tests were performed with a total bubbling rate of 651 pm. The first set of tests (Tests 1A-1E) addressed the effects of skewing this total air flow rate back and forth between the two installed bubblers in comparison to a fixed equal division of flow between them. The second set of tests (2A-2D) addressed the effects of bubbler depth. Subsequently, as the location, type and number of bubbling outlets were varied, the optimum bubbling rate for each was determined. A third (3A-3C) and fourth (8A-8C) set of tests evaluated the effects of alternative bubbler designs with two gas outlets per bubbler instead of one by placing four bubblers in positions simulating multiple-outlet bubblers. Data from the simulated multiple outlet bubblers were used to design bubblers with two outlets for an additional set of tests (9A-9C). Test 9 was also used to determine the effect of small sugar additions to the feed on ruthenium volatility. Another set of tests (10A-10D) evaluated the effects on production rate of spiking the feed with chloride and sulfate. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The feed rate was increased to the point that a constant, essentially complete, cold cap was achieved

  13. Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NO{sub x} Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E.

    2013-07-01

    basis with an average concentration of approximately 17 ppm, dry basis. There were no signs of catalyst deactivation throughout the 6 day demonstration program, even under the high steam (>50%) content and chemically reducing conditions inherent to the THOR process. Utilization of the common Three-Way automotive catalyst may prove to be a cost effective method for improving NO{sub x} emissions from thermal treatment processes that utilize similar processing conditions. This paper will discuss the details of the implementation and performance of the Three-Way catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit at the THOR ESTD, as well as a discussion of future work to determine the long-term durability of the catalyst in the THOR process. (authors)

  14. Test plan for evaluation of plasma melter technology for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Gass, W.R.; D`Amico, N.

    1994-10-20

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384212] is the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) in Pittsburgh, PA. WSTC authors of the test plan are D. F. McLaughlin, E. J. Lahoda, W. R. Gass, and N. D`Amico. The WSTC Program Manager for this test is D. F. McLaughlin. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass frit with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a plasma arc fired furnace.

  15. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    waste (LAW) Melter Off-gas system; observed a portion of the HA activities; and met with responsible Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI) personnel to discuss observations. ...

  16. Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms: Report Detailing Data Collection In Support Of Potential FY13 Pilot Scale Melter Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K. S.; Amoroso, J.; Marra, J. C.; Fox, K. M.

    2012-09-21

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to summarize the data collection in support of future melter demonstration testing for crystalline ceramic waste forms. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. The principal difficulties encountered during processing of the ?reference ceramic? waste form by a melt and crystallization process were the incomplete incorporation of Cs into the hollandite phase and the presence of secondary Cs-Mo non-durable phases. In the single phase hollandite system, these issues were addressed in this study by refining the compositions to include Cr as a transition metal element and the use of Ti/TiO{sub 2} buffer to maintain reducing conditions. Initial viscosity studies of ceramic waste

  17. Thermal Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Sciences NETL's Thermal Sciences competency provides the scientific, engineering, and technology development community with innovative and efficient approaches to measure, harness, and convert thermal energy. Research includes sensors, advanced energy concepts, and thermodynamic optimization, specifically: Sensors and Diagnostics Advanced sensor and diagnostic technology to develop and evaluate advanced methods for non-intrusive measurement and measurement in extreme environments.

  18. Final Vitrification Melter Evaluation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... spent nuclear fuel came from commercial nuclear reactors. ... by the addition of sodium hydroxide before transfer ... code for calculating fast neutron and gamma ray ...

  19. FINAL REPORT MELTER TESTS WITH AZ-101 HLW SIMULANT USING A DURAMELTER 100 VITRIFICATION SYSTEM VSL-01R10N0-1 REV 1 2/25/02

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report provides data, analyses, and conclusions from a series of tests that were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic of America (VSL) to determine the processing rates that are achievable with AZ-101 HLW simulants and corresponding melter feeds on a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) vitrification system. One of the most critical pieces of information in determining the required size of the RPP-WTP HLW melter is the specific glass production rate in terms of the mass of glass that can be produced per unit area of melt surface per unit time. The specific glass production rate together with the waste loading (essentially, the ratio of waste-in to glass-out, which is determined from glass formulation activities) determines the melt area that is needed to achieve a given waste processing rate with due allowance for system availability. Tests conducted during Part B1 (VSL-00R2590-2) on the DM1000 vitrification system installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America showed that, without the use of bubblers, glass production rates with AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 simulants were significantly lower than the Project design basis rate of 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d. Conversely, three-fold increases over the design basis rate were demonstrated with the use of bubblers. Furthermore, an un-bubbled control test using a replica of the melter feed used in cold commissioning tests at West Valley reproduced the rates that were observed with that feed on the WVDP production melter. More recent tests conducted on the DM1200 system, which more closely represents the present RPP-WTP design, are in general agreement with these earlier results. Screening tests conducted on the DM10 system have provided good indications of the larger-scale processing rates with bubblers (for both HL W and LAW feeds) but significantly overestimated the DM1000 un-bubbled rate observed for C-106/AY-102 melter feeds. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of the role of

  20. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF REDOX EFFECTS USING HLW AZ-101 AND C-106/AY-102 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-1 REV 0 5/6/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; BIZOT PM; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of three tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the remaining tests will be reported separately. Three nine day tests, one with AZ-101 and two with C-106/AY-102 feeds were conducted with variable amounts of added sugar to address the effects of redox. The test with AZ-101 included ruthenium spikes to also address the effects of redox on ruthenium volatility. One of tests addressed the effects of increased flow-sheet nitrate levels using C-106/AY-102 feeds. With high nitrate/nitrite feeds (such as WTP LAW feeds), reductants are required to prevent melt foaming and deleterious effects on glass production rates. Sugar is the baseline WTP reductant for this purpose. WTP HLW feeds typically have relatively low nitrate/nitrite content in comparison to the organic carbon content and, therefore, have typically not required sugar additions. However, HLW feed variability, particularly with respect to nitrate levels, may necessitate the use of sugar in some instances. The tests reported here investigate the effects of variable sugar additions to the melter feed as well as elevated nitrate levels in the waste. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, bubbling rate, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW feeds with variable amounts of added sugar and increased nitrate levels; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and

  1. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer

  2. Effectiveness of 700{degrees}C thermal treatment on primary water stress corrosion sensitivity of Alloy 600 steam generator tubes: Laboratory tests and in field experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cattant, F.; Keroulas, F. de; Garriga-Majo, D.; Todeschini, P.; Van Duysen, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    In France, the steam generators of some 900 MWe reactors, and of all the 1 300 MWe reactors in service are equipped with heat treated Alloy 600 tubes. The purpose of the heat treatment, performed at 700{degrees}C, is to relieve the residual stresses. Generally, it also increases the SCC resistance of the alloy. A laboratory study has been carried out in order to gain a better understanding of the metallurgical factors influencing the PWSCC resistance of Alloy 600 after heat treatment. It has been shown that there are two kinds of tubes for which the heat treatment does not produce a microstructure having a potentially high resistance to SCC: tubes with a high carbon content (over 0.032%) or tubes mill-annealed at high temperatures and heavily cold-worked by the straightening. The analysis of the behaviour of french steam generators reveals that the heat treatment generally had the expected beneficial effect. However, the early cracking in service of some treated tubes led EDF (national power company) to proceed with removals. The majority of the cracked pulled-out tubes exhibit microstructures having a potentially high PWSCC sensibility in laboratory tests. It has been shown that these microstructures can be correlated to a high carbon content.

  3. Thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.T.; Winchester, C.S.; Jolson, J.D.

    1989-06-20

    A thermal battery is described comprising at least one electrochemical cell comprising an anode of alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or alloys thereof, a fusible salt electrolyte, a fluorocarbon polymer or fluorochlorocarbon polymer depolarizer, and means for heating the cell to melt the electrolyte.

  4. Waste Treatment Plant - 12508

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration equipment, cesium

  5. Performance Enhancements to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low-Activity Waste Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, W. F. [Office of River Protection, U.S. Department of Energy, 2400 Stevens Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Gerdes, K. [U.S. Department of Energy, 19901 Germantown Road, Germantown, MD 20874 (United States); Holton, L. K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Pegg, I.L. [Vitreous State Laboratory, The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Bowan, B.W. [Duratek, Inc., 10100 Old Columbia Road, Columbia, Maryland 21046 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate 1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and 2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOE's initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the treatment rate of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing the cost of waste treatment. (authors)

  6. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste (LAW) Facility Melter and Off-gas systems; observed a portion of the HA activities; and met with Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI) personnel to discuss HE table comments. ...

  7. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  8. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant U. S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - 13460

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanochko, Ronald M. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix [1]. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility [2]. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling. This study [2] concluded that SBS direct disposal is a viable option to the WTP baseline. The results show: - Off-site transportation and disposal of the SBS condensate is achievable and cost effective. - Reduction of approximately 4,325 vitrified WTP Low Activity Waste canisters could be realized. - Positive WTP operational impacts; minimal WTP construction impacts are realized. - Reduction of mass flow from the LAW Facility to the Pretreatment Facility by 66%. - Improved Double Shell Tank (DST) space management is a benefit. (authors)

  9. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This ...

  10. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun’ichi

    2015-03-12

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  11. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  12. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newman, Darrell F.; Ross, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  13. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  14. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances ...

  15. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  16. The CRC handbook of thermal engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.

    1999-12-01

    This book is not a traditional handbook. Engineers in industry need up-to-date, accessible information on the applications of heat and mass transfer. This book is the answer. Contents include: (1) emphasis on applications in thermal design and computer solutions of thermal engineering problems; (2) an introduction to the use of the Second Law of Thermodynamics in analysis, optimization, and economics; (3) information on topics of current interest--in a form convenient and accessible to the average engineer; (4) three chapters of background material--enough to review the basic principles needed to understand specific thermal applications; and (5) extensive treatment of computational tools and numerical analysis.

  17. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  18. thermal energy power conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear ... Climate & Earth Systems Climate Measurement & Modeling ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC ...

  19. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  20. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  1. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4 Average thermal performance rating of solar thermal collectors by type shipped in 2009 ... Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey." ...

  2. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. ); Anderson, G.L. )

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

  3. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-12-01

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneous materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X-ray CT (all previous thermal-imaging software can only produce 2D results). Because thermal effusivity is an intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity, etc.,more » quantitative imaging of effusivity allowed direct visualization of material's internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one-sided, non contact and sensitive to material's thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the measured

  4. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-11-05

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneoirs materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X—ray CT (all previous thepnal—imaging software can only produce 20 results) . Because thermal effusivity is an Intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity,more » etc., quantitative imaging of eftusivity allowed direct visualization of material’s internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one—sided, non contact and sensitive to material’s thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the

  5. US DOE Initiated Performance Enhancements to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-activity Waste Vitrification (LAW) System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, William F.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Holton, Langdon K.; Pegg, Ian L.; Bowen, Brad W.

    2006-03-03

    The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate 1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and 2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOEs initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the capacity of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing both processing time and cost.

  6. Thermal conductivity of tubrostratic carbon nanofiber networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Saltonstall, Chris B.; Leseman, Zayd C.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Composite material systems composed of a matrix of nano materials can achieve combinations of mechanical and thermophysical properties outside the range of traditional systems. While many reports have studied the intrinsic thermal properties of individual carbon fibers, to be useful in applications in which thermal stability is critical, an understanding of heat transport in composite materials is required. In this work, air/ carbon nano fiber networks are studied to elucidate the system parameters influencing thermal transport. Sample thermal properties are measured with varying initial carbon fiber fill fraction, environment pressure, loading pressure, and heat treatment temperature through a bidirectional modificationmore » of the 3ω technique. The nanostructures of the individual fibers are characterized with small angle x-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy providing insight to individual fiber thermal conductivity. Measured thermal conductivity varied from 0.010 W/(m K) to 0.070 W/(m K). An understanding of the intrinsic properties of the individual fibers and the interactions of the two phase composite is used to reconcile low measured thermal conductivities with predictive modeling. This methodology can be more generally applied to a wide range of fiber composite materials and their applications.« less

  7. Thermal conductivity of tubrostratic carbon nanofiber networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Saltonstall, Chris B.; Leseman, Zayd C.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Composite material systems composed of a matrix of nano materials can achieve combinations of mechanical and thermophysical properties outside the range of traditional systems. While many reports have studied the intrinsic thermal properties of individual carbon fibers, to be useful in applications in which thermal stability is critical, an understanding of heat transport in composite materials is required. In this work, air/ carbon nano fiber networks are studied to elucidate the system parameters influencing thermal transport. Sample thermal properties are measured with varying initial carbon fiber fill fraction, environment pressure, loading pressure, and heat treatment temperature through a bidirectional modification of the 3ω technique. The nanostructures of the individual fibers are characterized with small angle x-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy providing insight to individual fiber thermal conductivity. Measured thermal conductivity varied from 0.010 W/(m K) to 0.070 W/(m K). An understanding of the intrinsic properties of the individual fibers and the interactions of the two phase composite is used to reconcile low measured thermal conductivities with predictive modeling. This methodology can be more generally applied to a wide range of fiber composite materials and their applications.

  8. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  9. Solid state thermal rectifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    None

    2016-07-05

    Thermal rectifiers using linear nanostructures as core thermal conductors have been fabricated. A high mass density material is added preferentially to one end of the nanostructures to produce an axially non-uniform mass distribution. The resulting nanoscale system conducts heat asymmetrically with greatest heat flow in the direction of decreasing mass density. Thermal rectification has been demonstrated for linear nanostructures that are electrical insulators, such as boron nitride nanotubes, and for nanostructures that are conductive, such as carbon nanotubes.

  10. Sandia Thermal Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-11-23

    Thermal analysis in 1-D planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries using control volume finite element spatial discretization with 1st and 2nd order implicit time integrators.

  11. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  12. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-09

    This presentation provides an update of NREL's battery thermal characterization efforts for the 2015 U.S. Department of Energy Annual Merit Reviews.

  13. Ambient temperature thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, A. N.; Bliss, D. E.; McManis III

    1985-11-26

    An ambient temperature thermal battery having two relatively high temperature melting electrolytes which form a low melting temperature electrolyte upon activation.

  14. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J.; Quapp, W.J.; Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W.; Swartz, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  15. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  16. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  17. Advanced Wellbore Thermal Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-04

    GEOTEMP2, which is based on the earlier GEOTEMP program, is a wellbore thermal simulator designed for geothermal well drilling and production applications. The code treats natural and forced convection and conduction within the wellbore and heat conduction within the surrounding rock matrix. A variety of well operations can be modeled including injection, production, forward and reverse circulation with gas or liquid, gas or liquid drilling, and two-phase steam injection and production. Well completion with severalmore » different casing sizes and cement intervals can be modeled. The code allows variables, such as flow rate, to change with time enabling a realistic treatment of well operations. Provision is made in the flow equations to allow the flow areas of the tubing to vary with depth in the wellbore. Multiple liquids can exist in GEOTEMP2 simulations. Liquid interfaces are tracked through the tubing and annulus as one liquid displaces another. GEOTEMP2, however, does not attempt to simulate displacement of liquids with a gas or two-phase steam or vice versa. This means that it is not possible to simulate an operation where the type of drilling fluid changes, e.g. mud going to air. GEOTEMP2 was designed primarily for use in predicting the behavior of geothermal wells, but it is flexible enough to handle many typical drilling, production, and injection problems in the oil industry as well. However, GEOTEMP2 does not allow the modeling of gas-filled annuli in production or injection problems. In gas or mist drilling, no radiation losses are included in the energy balance. No attempt is made to model flow in the formation. Average execution time is 50 CP seconds on a CDC CYBER170. This edition of GEOTEMP2 is designated as Version 2.0 by the contributors.« less

  18. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Elder, Michael G.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  19. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  20. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  1. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  2. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  3. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  4. Process system evaluation-consolidated letters. Volume 1. Alternatives for the off-gas treatment system for the low-level waste vitrification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Deforest, T.J; Richards, J.R.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of alternatives for treating off-gas from the low-level waste (LLW) melter. The study used expertise obtained from the commercial nonradioactive off-gas treatment industry. It was assumed that contact maintenance is possible, although the subsequent risk to maintenance personnel was qualitatively considered in selecting equipment. Some adaptations to the alternatives described may be required, depending on the extent of contact maintenance that can be achieved. This evaluation identified key issues for the off-gas system design. To provide background information, technology reviews were assembled for various classifications of off-gas treatment equipment, including off-gas cooling, particulate control, acid gas control, mist elimination, NO{sub x} reduction, and SO{sub 2} removal. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate for one of the off-gas systems considered is provided using both the off-gas characteristics associated with the Joule-heated and combustion-fired melters. The key issues identified and a description of the preferred off-gas system options are provided below. Five candidate treatment systems were evaluated. All of the systems are appropriate for the different melting/feed preparations currently being considered. The lowest technical risk is achieved using option 1, which is similar to designs for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) and the West Valley. Demonstration Project. Option 1 uses a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME) prior to NO{sub x} reduction and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration. However, several advantages were identified for option 2, which uses high-temperature filtration. Based on the evaluation, option 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. The characteristics of this option are described below.

  5. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  6. Thermal insulations using vacuum panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Burke, Melissa S.

    1991-07-16

    Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

  7. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility HomeNational Solar Thermal Test Facility Permalink Pratt Whitney Rocketdyne Testing Concentrating Solar Power, EC, Energy, Facilities, ...

  8. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers National Solar Thermal Test Facility HomeTag:National Solar Thermal Test Facility Permalink Air Force Research Laboratory Testing ...

  9. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility HomeNational Solar Thermal Test Facility Permalink High-Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production Center for ...

  10. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2 Solar thermal collector shipments by type, quantity, revenue, and average price, 2008 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  11. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1 Distribution of domestic solar thermal collector shipments (thousand square feet) 2008 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  12. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by type, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  13. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Shipments of solar thermal collectors ranked by origin and destination, 2009 Origin Top ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  14. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by source, 2000 - 2009 Imports Domestically ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  15. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by disposition, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  16. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7 Percent of solar thermal collector shipments by the 10 largest companies, 2000 - 2009 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  17. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5 Shipments of complete solar thermal collector systems, 2008 and 2009 Shipment ... Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

  18. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Import shipments of solar thermal collectors by country, 2008 and 2009 (square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  19. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7 Import shipments of solar thermal collectors by type, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  20. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  1. Underhood Thermal Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Underhood Thermal Performance This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - Computational Fluid Dynamics Project Leader Background As vehicle technology advances, automakers need a better understanding of underhood heat loads, especially as they relate to emissions and fuel efficiency. Manufacturers of heavy-duty vehicles and off-road machines have similar concerns. Ineffective underhood thermal management can lead to higher emissions, reduced

  2. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances to current land-based turbines are directly linked to our country's economic and energy security. Technical advancement for any type of gas turbine generally implies better performance, greater efficiency, and extended component life. From the standpoint of cycle efficiency and durability, this suggests that a continual

  3. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H.

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  4. Thermal hydraulics development for CASL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrie, Robert B

    2010-12-07

    This talk will describe the technical direction of the Thermal-Hydraulics (T-H) Project within the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Department of Energy Innovation Hub. CASL is focused on developing a 'virtual reactor', that will simulate the physical processes that occur within a light-water reactor. These simulations will address several challenge problems, defined by laboratory, university, and industrial partners that make up CASL. CASL's T-H efforts are encompassed in two sub-projects: (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (2) Interface Treatment Methods (ITM). The CFD subproject will develop non-proprietary, scalable, verified and validated macroscale CFD simulation tools. These tools typically require closures for their turbulence and boiling models, which will be provided by the ITM sub-project, via experiments and microscale (such as DNS) simulation results. The near-term milestones and longer term plans of these two sub-projects will be discussed.

  5. Experience base for Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems: A preliminary survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayberry, J.; Geimer, R.; Gillins, R.; Steverson, E.M.; Dalton, D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    In the process of considering thermal technologies for potential treatment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory mixed transuranic contaminated wastes, a preliminary survey of the experience base available from Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems is reported. A list of known commercial radioactive waste facilities in the United States and some international thermal treatment facilities are provided. Survey focus is upon the US Department of Energy thermal treatment facilities. A brief facility description and a preliminary summary of facility status, and problems experienced is provided for a selected subset of the DOE facilities.

  6. Flameless thermal oxidation. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Flameless Thermal Oxidizer (FTO) is a commercial technology offered by Thermatrix, Inc. The FTO has been demonstrated to be an effective destructive technology for process and waste stream off-gas treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and in the treatment of VOC and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) off-gases generated during site remediation using either baseline or innovative in situ environmental technologies. The FTO process efficiently converts VOCs and CVOCs to carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride. When FTO is coupled with a baseline technology, such as soil vapor extraction (SVE), an efficient in situ soil remediation system is produced. The innovation is in using a simple, reliable, scalable, and robust technology for the destruction of VOC and CVOC off-gases based on a design that generates a uniform thermal reaction zone that prevents flame propagation and efficiently oxidizes off-gases without forming products of incomplete combustion (PICs).

  7. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  8. Hanfords Supplemental Treatment Project: Full-Scale Integrated Testing of In-Container-Vitrification and a 10,000-Liter Dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witwer, Keith S.; Dysland, Eric J.; Garfield, J. S.; Beck, T. H.; Matyas, Josef; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Cooley, Scott K.; Pierce, Eric M.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2008-02-22

    The GeoMelt In-Container Vitrification (ICV) process was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2004 for further evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanfords low-activity waste (LAW). Also referred to as bulk vitrification, this process combines glass forming minerals, LAW, and chemical amendments; dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a refractory-lined steel container. AMEC Nuclear Ltd. (AMEC) is adapting its GeoMelt ICV technology for this application with technical and analytical support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The DVBS project is funded by the DOE Office of River Protection and administered by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification Project (DBVS) was initiated to engineer, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat up to 750,000 liters of LAW from Waste Tank 241-S-109 at the DOE Hanford Site. Since the beginning of the DBVS project in 2004, testing has used laboratory, crucible-scale, and engineering-scale equipment to help establish process limitations of selected glass formulations and identify operational issues. Full-scale testing has provided critical design verification of the ICV process before operating the Hanford pilot-plant. In 2007, the projects fifth full-scale test, called FS-38D, (also known as the Integrated Dryer Melter Test, or IDMT,) was performed. This test had three primary objectives: 1) Demonstrate the simultaneous and integrated operation of the ICV melter with a 10,000-liter dryer, 2) Demonstrate the effectiveness of a new feed reformulation and change in process methodology towards reducing the production and migration of molten ionic salts (MIS), and, 3) Demonstrate that an acceptable glass product is produced under these conditions. Testing was performed from August 8 to 17, 2007. Process and analytical results demonstrated that the primary test objectives, along with a dozen supporting

  9. Hanford's Supplemental Treatment Project: Full-Scale Integrated Testing of In-Container-Vitrification and a 10,000-Liter Dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witwer, K.S.; Dysland, E.J.; Garfield, J.S.; Beck, T.H.; Matyas, J.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Cooley, S.K.; Pierce, E.; Kim, D.S.; Schweiger, M.J.

    2008-07-01

    The GeoMelt{sup R} In-Container Vitrification{sup TM} (ICV{sup TM}) process was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2004 for further evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford's low-activity waste (LAW). Also referred to as 'bulk vitrification', this process combines glass forming minerals, LAW, and chemical amendments; dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a refractory-lined steel container. AMEC Nuclear Ltd. (AMEC) is adapting its GeoMelt ICV{sup TM} technology for this application with technical and analytical support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The DVBS project is funded by the DOE Office of River Protection and administered by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification Project (DBVS) was initiated to engineer, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat up to 750,000 liters of LAW from Waste Tank 241-S-109 at the DOE Hanford Site. Since the beginning of the DBVS project in 2004, testing has used laboratory, crucible-scale, and engineering-scale equipment to help establish process limitations of selected glass formulations and identify operational issues. Full-scale testing has provided critical design verification of the ICV{sup TM} process before operating the Hanford pilot-plant. In 2007, the project's fifth full-scale test, called FS-38D, (also known as the Integrated Dryer Melter Test, or IDMT,) was performed. This test had three primary objectives: 1) Demonstrate the simultaneous and integrated operation of the ICV{sup TM} melter with a 10,000- liter dryer, 2) Demonstrate the effectiveness of a new feed reformulation and change in process methodology towards reducing the production and migration of molten ionic salts (MIS), and, 3) Demonstrate that an acceptable glass product is produced under these conditions. Testing was performed from August 8 to 17, 2007. Process and analytical results demonstrated that the primary test

  10. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  11. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  12. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  13. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  14. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  15. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  16. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  17. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy; Kakwani, Ramesh M.; Valdmanis, Edgars; Woods, Melvins E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  18. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  19. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles; Sabol, Stephen M.; Goedjen, John G.

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  20. Ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, W.H.

    1983-03-17

    A brief explanation of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) concept and an estimate of the amount of energy that can be produced from the ocean resource without introducing environmental concerns are presented. Use of the OTEC system to generate electric power and products which can replace fossil fuels is shown. The OTEC program status and its prospects for the future are discussed.

  1. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  2. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers National Solar Thermal Test Facility HomeTag:National Solar Thermal Test Facility Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a ...

  3. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9 Companies involved in solar thermal collector related activities by type, 2008 and 2009 ... 26 32 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal

  4. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Employment in the solar thermal collector industry, 2000 - 2009 2000 284 2001 256 2002 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal

  5. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Robert P.

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  6. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  7. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers National Solar Thermal Test Facility Home/Tag:National Solar Thermal Test Facility Illuminated receiver on top of tower Permalink Gallery High-Temperature Falling Particle Receiver Reaches New Limits Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, Renewable Energy, Solar, SunShot High-Temperature Falling Particle Receiver Reaches New Limits At its National Solar Thermal Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories

  8. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  9. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, Donald M.; Shires, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  10. THERMAL NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1960-01-12

    A novel thermal reactor was designed in which a first reflector formed from a high atomic weight, nonmoderating material is disposed immediately adjacent to the reactor core. A second reflector composed of a moderating material is disposed outwardly of the first reflector. The advantage of this novel reflector arrangement is that the first reflector provides a high slow neutron flux in the second reflector, where irradiation experiments may be conducted with a small effect on reactor reactivity.

  11. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  12. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  13. Solar Thermal Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Electric Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarThermalEl...

  14. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management

  15. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal ...

  16. Microsoft Word - M117 Melter.DOC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TO AMENDMENTS OF SOLICITATIONS The above numbered solicitation is amended as set forth in Item 14. The hour and date specified for receipt of Offers is extended, is not...

  17. Melter Pours 10 Millionth Pound of Glass

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – The “heart” of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is pumping at a record pace.

  18. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  19. Process and apparatus for thermal enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrill, Jr., Charles E.; Smirlock, Martin E.; Krepchin, Ira P.

    1984-06-26

    Thermal treatment apparatus for downhole deployment comprising a combustion stage with an elongated hot wall combustion zone for the substantially complete combustion of the fuel-air mixture and an ignition zone immediately upstream from the combustion zone in which a mixture of atomized liquid fuel and air at or below stoichiometric ratio is ignited; together with a water injection stage immediately downstream from the combustion zone through which essentially partuculate free high temperature combustion products flow from the combustion zone and into which water is sprayed. The resulting mixture of steam and combustion products is injected into an oil formation for enhancing the speed and effectiveness of reservoir response due to physical, chemical, and/or thermal stimulation interactions.

  20. Thermal denitration and mineralization of waste constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenni, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1997-08-01

    In order to produce a quality grout from LLW using hydraulic cements, proper conditioning of the waste is essential for complete cement curing. Several technologies were investigated as options for conditions. Since the LLW is dilute, removal of all, or most, of the water will significantly reduce the final waste volume. Neutralization of the LLW is also desirable since acidic liquids to not allow cement to cure properly. The nitrate compounds are very soluble and easily leached from solid waste forms; therefore, denitration is desirable. Thermal and chemical denitration technologies have the advantages of water removal, neutralization, and denitration. The inclusion of additives during thermal treatment were investigated as a method of forming insoluable waste conditions.

  1. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.; Cameron, Christopher Stan

    2012-03-13

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  2. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  3. Liquefaction and storage of thermal treatment off-gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, D.M. . Rocky Flats Plant); Golden, J.O. )

    1992-09-08

    A fluidized bed catalytic oxidation unit is being developed for use in the destruction of mixed waste at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cyclones, filters, in situ neutralization of acid gases, and a catalytic converter are used to meet emission standards. Because there is concern by the public that these measures may not be adequate, two off-gas capture systems were evaluated. Both systems involve liquefaction of carbon dioxide produced in the oxidation process. The carbon dioxide would be released only after analysis proved that all appropriate emission standards are met.

  4. Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Technical Review LOI Line of Inquiry MIP Membrane Interface Probe PGDP Paducah Gaseous ... borehole data, groundwater samples, Membrane Interface Probe studies, etc.) to ...

  5. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated performance enhancements to the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP) high-level waste vitrification (HLW) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowan, Bradley [Energy Solutions, LLC (United States); Gerdes, Kurt [United States Department of Energy (United States); Pegg, Ian [Vitreous State Laboratory, Catholic University of America, 400 Hannan Hall 620 Michigan Avenue, NE Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Holton, Langdon [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland WA 99352 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The U.S Department of Energy is currently constructing, at the Hanford, Washington Site, a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and immobilization, by vitrification, of stored underground tank wastes. The WTP is comprised of four major facilities: a Pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste (LAW); a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction and an analytical Laboratory to support the treatment facilities. DOE has strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities, and waste forms, in order to reduce the overall schedule and cost for the treatment of the Hanford tank wastes. One key part of this strategy is to maximize the loading of inorganic waste components in the final glass product (waste loading). For the Hanford tank wastes, this is challenging because of the compositional diversity of the wastes generated over several decades. This paper presents the results of an initial series of HLW waste loading enhancement tests, using diverse HLW compositions that are projected for treatment at the WTP. Specifically, results of glass formulation development and melter testing with simulated Hanford HLW containing high concentrations of troublesome components such as bismuth, aluminum, aluminum-sodium, and chromium will be presented. (authors)

  6. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  7. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  8. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  9. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  10. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  11. Response microcantilever thermal detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Joseph P.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Evans III, Boyd M.

    2004-10-19

    A "folded leg" thermal detector microcantilever constructed of a substrate with at least one leg interposed between a fixed end and a deflective end, each leg having at least three essentially parallel leg segments interconnected on alternate opposing ends and aligned in a serpentine pattern with only the first leg segment attached to the fixed end and only the last leg segment attached to the deflective end. Alternate leg segment are coated on the pentalever with coating applied to the top of the first, third, and fifth leg segments of each leg and to the bottom of the second and fourth leg segments of each leg.

  12. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  13. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, James L.; Vresk, Josip

    1989-01-01

    A thermal transient anemometer having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe.

  14. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, J.L.; Vresk, J.

    1989-07-18

    A thermal transient anemometer is disclosed having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe. 12 figs.

  15. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V.; Bak, Chan S.

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  16. Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal and mechanical measurements for the bent-beam polycrystalline silicon thermal ... SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES; SILICON; VALIDATION Microactuators.; Ceramic ...

  17. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Systems (VTMS) Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Characterization and Development of Advanced...

  18. Solar thermal power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  19. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  20. Nuclear Waste Treatment Program: Qualification of commercial high-level waste forms: Approach and status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brouns, R.A.; Kuhn, W.L.

    1986-12-01

    In this document, the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) proposes an approach for demonstrating compliance with acceptance specifications. The proposed approach relies first on developing models of the process (vitrification) and product (waste form) to relate measurable process variables to the product quality, and then on using process control and sampling of melter feed input as the quality control method. Coordinated test programs, using pilot-scale nonradioactive and radioactive tests, will be used to establish these models at the confidence level needed to assure compliance to waste acceptance specifications. The test programs are broadly focused to encompass the range of anticipated future wastes, but the results should also be equally applicable to current wastes as well. Demonstration of waste form compliance by some other method would likely require extensive product testing, including glass sampling during production and routine destructive examination of canisters. The process and product modeling approach eliminates the need for this type of testing and should result in a very high level of statistical confidence that the individual waste forms are acceptable for disposal.

  1. Calibrating thermal behavior of electronics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2016-05-31

    A method includes determining a relationship between indirect thermal data for a processor and a measured temperature associated with the processor, during a calibration process, obtaining the indirect thermal data for the processor during actual operation of the processor, and determining an actual significant temperature associated with the processor during the actual operation using the indirect thermal data for the processor during actual operation of the processor and the relationship.

  2. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  3. Overview of solar thermal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar-thermal overview section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  4. THERMALLY OPERATED VAPOR VALVE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dorward, J.G. Jr.

    1959-02-10

    A valve is presented for use in a calutron to supply and control the vapor to be ionized. The invention provides a means readily operable from the exterior of the vacuum tank of the apparatuss without mechanical transmission of forces for the quick and accurate control of the ionizing arc by a corresponding control of gas flow theretos thereby producing an effective way of carefully regulating the operation of the calutron. The invention consists essentially of a tube member extending into the charge bottle of a calutron devices having a poppet type valve closing the lower end of the tube. An electrical heating means is provided in the valve stem to thermally vary the length of the stem to regulate the valve opening to control the flow of material from the charge bottle.

  5. SUPERFAST THERMALIZATION OF PLASMA

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, C.C.

    1962-06-12

    A method is given for the superfast thermalization of plasma by shock conversion of the kinetic energy stored in rotating plasma rings or plasmoids colliding at near supersonic speeds in a containment field to heat energy in the resultant confined plasma mass. The method includes means for generating rotating plasmoids at the opposite ends of a Pyrotron or Astron containment field. The plasmoids are magnetically accelerated towards each other into the opposite ends of time containment field. During acceleration of the plasmoids toward the center of the containment field, the intensity of the field is sequentially increased to adiabatically compress the plasmoids and increase the plasma energy. The plasmoids hence collide with a violent shock at the eenter of the containment field, causing the substantial kinetic energy stored in the plasmoids to be converted to heat in the resultant plasma mass. (AEC)

  6. Thermally stabilized heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J.

    1983-01-01

    An improvement in a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement being characterized by an internal support structure within each mirror module and front and back sheets attached to the internal support structure, the front and back sheets having the same coefficient of thermal expansion such that no curvature is induced by temperature change, and a layer of adhesive adhering the mirror to the front sheet. The adhesive is water repellent and has adequate set strength to support the mirror but has sufficient shear tolerance to permit the differential expansion of the mirror and the front sheet without inducing stresses or currature effect. The adhesive also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and to protect the mirror backside against the adverse effects of weather. Also disclosed are specific details of the preferred embodiment.

  7. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  8. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Moore, Troy K.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

  9. Thermal desorption treatability test conducted with VAC*TRAX Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act, requiring the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment standards. In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity, where off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed waste with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of mixed waste. DOE-AL manages nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment units (MTUs) to treat waste at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed wastes must remove the hazardous component (i.e., meet RCRA treatment standards) and contain the radioactive component in a form that will protect the worker, public, and environment. On the basis of the recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (DOE-GJPO) include thermal desorption (TD), evaporative oxidation, and waste water evaporation.

  10. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  11. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  12. Package-interface thermal switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyman, N.L.

    1995-05-24

    The package-interface thermal switch (PITS) is an active temperature control device for modulating the flow of thermal energy from satellite equipment, such as electronic modules or batteries, to the satellite mounting deck which serves as a heat sink. PITS comprises a mounting bolt made of a shaped memory alloy (SMA) actuating bolt and a non-metallic rod with a helical spring surrounding it forming a mounting bolt for a satellite equipment package. At least four mounting bolts are used for installing the equipment package and are preloaded to a predetermined stress representing the desired thermal conductance between the heat sink and the package. The SMA actuating bolt is in thermal contact with the component or package and expands or contracts as the result of changing package temperature and the helical return spring forces against the SMA actuating bolt portion of the PITS, increasing (hot-on`1 condition) or decreasing (cold-off condition) the pressure of the package against the mounting deck. As the PITS changes its total length, the thermal conductance between the two objects is increased or decreased. Thus thermal conductance changes as a direct function of package temperature, resulting in active temperature control. The simple design of the PITS reduces the cost and weight of the thermal control subsystem in satellites and its high reliability eliminates the requirement for thermal design verification testing.

  13. Novel wastewater treatment processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saber, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    Few fermentation processes are as versatile as anaerobic digestion in terms of utility, application and capability to handle feeds of varied chemical complexity and physical characteristics. The anaerobic digestion process has served the pollution control industry in the US for over 100 years in stabilizing organic sludges and wastewaters; treatment of these high-moisture-content and high-strength aqueous wastes by alternative thermal or aerobic biological processes requires much higher energy inputs than that needed to conduct anaerobic digestion. The anaerobic digestion process has taken on new importance and emphasis in recent years because of its potential application for energy and chemical production from various types of renewable-carbon resources, and because it can be coupled with certain electrochemical, thermochemical and biochemical processes to generate electric power, hydrocarbons, methanol and other high-value products. A number of initiatives have been taken to improve the anaerobic digestion process in keeping with the increasing appreciation for its utility and versatility of application in municipal, industrial and rural settings. Using processes based upon the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes, the Institute of Gas Technology has developed technologies applicable for the treatment of a wide variety of organic wastes. Increased methane gas production and enhanced waste reduction can be achieved through the ACIMET, SOLCON and HIMET Processes, depending upon concentration and characteristics of the incoming organic waste stream. These proprietary IGT waste treatment systems are described.

  14. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K; Cuppett, D; Dyer, D

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with Kalwall building panels. An added feature of the Kalwall system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  15. Thermal energy storage apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, P.E.

    1980-04-22

    A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

  16. Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Fulcher, Clay W. G.

    2012-07-31

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) buckling beam thermal actuators are disclosed wherein the buckling direction of a beam is constrained to a desired direction of actuation, which can be in-plane or out-of-plane with respect to a support substrate. The actuators comprise as-fabricated, linear beams of uniform cross section supported above the substrate by supports which rigidly attach a beam to the substrate. The beams can be heated by methods including the passage of an electrical current through them. The buckling direction of an initially straight beam upon heating and expansion is controlled by incorporating one or more directional constraints attached to the substrate and proximal to the mid-point of the beam. In the event that the beam initially buckles in an undesired direction, deformation of the beam induced by contact with a directional constraint generates an opposing force to re-direct the buckling beam into the desired direction. The displacement and force generated by the movement of the buckling beam can be harnessed to perform useful work, such as closing contacts in an electrical switch.

  17. Thermal Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device Thermal Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_coker.pdf (1.85 MB) More Documents & Publications Heavy Duty Vehicle In-Use Emission Performance Why Light Duty Diesels Make Sense in the North American Market Scalable, Low-Cost, High

  18. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  19. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  20. Ceramic thermal barrier coating for rapid thermal cycling applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharman, Alan J.; Yonushonis, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for metal articles subjected to rapid thermal cycling includes a metallic bond coat deposited on the metal article, at least one MCrAlY/ceramic layer deposited on the bond coat, and a ceramic top layer deposited on the MCrAlY/ceramic layer. The M in the MCrAlY material is Fe, Ni, Co, or a mixture of Ni and Co. The ceramic in the MCrAlY/ceramic layer is mullite or Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The ceramic top layer includes a ceramic with a coefficient of thermal expansion less than about 5.4.times.10.sup.-6 .degree.C.sup.-1 and a thermal conductivity between about 1 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1 and about 1.7 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1.

  1. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  2. Multiple station thermal diffusivity instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Gaal, P.S.

    1995-12-31

    A multiple furnace laser flash thermal diffusivity system has been developed. The system is equipped with a movable Nd:Glass laser unit, two IR detectors and furnaces for precise measurements of thermal diffusivity over the temperature range from {minus}150{degree}C to 2500{degree}C. All furnaces can operate in vacuum and inert gas; the environmental effects furnace also supports oxidizing and reducing environments. To increase testing speed the graphite and aluminum furnaces are both equipped with six-sample carousels. Thermal diffusivity measurements of three standard reference materials show excellent results over the entire temperature range.

  3. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Energy Conversion Efficiency/Solar Energy/Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)/National Solar Thermal Test Facility National Solar Thermal Test Facility admin 2016-04-14T21:34:04+00:00 Operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) is the only test facility of this type in the United States. The NSTTF's primary goal is to provide experimental engineering data for the design, construction, and

  4. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  5. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  6. Thermal properties of soils and soils testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-17

    The thermal properties of soils are reviewed with reference to the use of soils as heat sources, heat sinks, or thermal storage. Specific heat and thermal conductivity are discussed. (ACR)

  7. app_c6

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... the melters and the offgas treatment system with its scrubber blowdown processing systems. ... The vitrification system would receive liquid waste, dry calcine, and frit, from separate ...

  8. WATER TREATMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  9. Radiography used to image thermal explosions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October » Radiography used to image thermal explosions Radiography used to image thermal explosions Researchers have gained an understanding of the mechanism of thermal explosions and have created a model capturing the stages of the explosion. October 9, 2012 Tabletop X-ray radiography of a thermal explosion. Tabletop X-ray radiography of a thermal explosion. Researchers have gained an understanding of the mechanism of thermal explosions and have created a model capturing the stages of the

  10. Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: ...

  11. Amulaire Thermal Technology | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Amulaire Thermal Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: Amulaire Thermal Technology Address: 11555 Sorrento Valley Road Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92121 Region:...

  12. Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  13. Alumni | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Visit Website Bo Qiu ThermalMechanical Engineer, Intel Corporation Visit Website Veronika Rinnerbauer Innovation Management, Bosch Visit Website Nitin Shukla Thermal Testing ...

  14. Stewart Thermal Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Stewart Thermal Ltd Place: United Kingdom Sector: Biomass Product: Provides specialist advice in the field of biomass energy....

  15. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual ...

  16. Thermal-Mechanical Technologies | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of thermal-mechanical research includes: Single and two phase heat transfer Nanomaterial synthesis Heat transfer fluids Engine and power electronics cooling Thermal energy...

  17. Thermal Design and Characterization of Heterogeneously Integrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with integrated thermal management on wide-bandgap AlN substrates followed by GaAs substrate removal are demonstrated. Without thermal management, substrate removal after ...

  18. NREL: Energy Storage - Energy Storage Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The lab's performance assessments factor in the design of the thermal management system, the thermal behavior of the cell, battery lifespan, and safety of the energy storage system...

  19. A nanostructure thermal property measurement platform. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    side of the central heater), and this feature permits identification of possible changes in thermal conductance along the wire and measurement of the thermal contact resistance. ...

  20. Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003 Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003 The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a ...

  1. Nextreme Thermal Solutions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nextreme Thermal Solutions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nextreme Thermal Solutions Inc Place: North Carolina Zip: 27709-3981 Product: String representation "Manufactures...

  2. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6 Number of companies expecting to introduce new solar new solar thermal collector products in 2010 Low-Temperature Collectors 4 Medium-Temperature Collectors 16 High-Temperature ...

  3. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    U.S. Total 74 88 Percent of Total Sales Revenue Number of Companies Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers ...

  4. Thermal battery with composite anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higley, L.R.

    1990-11-06

    This patent describes a thermal battery for generating electrical energy. It comprises: a sodium composite electrode comprising sodium metal and a protective metal; a cathode; and a separator located between the sodium composite electrode and the cathode.

  5. Pressurized heat treatment of glass ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, D.P.

    1984-04-19

    A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

  6. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  7. Lih thermal energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olszewski, Mitchell; Morris, David G.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  8. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  9. Power Electronics Thermal Control (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2010-05-05

    Thermal management plays an important part in the cost of electric drives in terms of power electronics packaging. Very promising results have been obtained by using microporous coatings and skived surfaces in conjunction with single-phase and two-phase flows. Sintered materials and thermoplastics with embedded fibers show significant promise as thermal interface materials, or TIMs. Appropriate cooling technologies depend on the power electronics package application and reliability.

  10. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  11. Final Report - Crystal Settling, Redox, and High Temperature Properties of ORP HLW and LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/18/09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Wang, C.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Kot, W.; Feng, Z.; Viragh, C.; McKeown, D. A.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Cecil, R.; Zhao, W.

    2013-11-13

    The radioactive tank waste treatment programs at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) have featured joule heated ceramic melter technology for the vitrification of high level waste (HLW). The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) employs this same basic technology not only for the vitrification of HLW streams but also for the vitrification of Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams. Because of the much greater throughput rates required of the WTP as compared to the vitrification facilities at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) or the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the WTP employs advanced joule heated melters with forced mixing of the glass pool (bubblers) to improve heat and mass transport and increase melting rates. However, for both HLW and LAW treatment, the ability to increase waste loadings offers the potential to significantly reduce the amount of glass that must be produced and disposed and, therefore, the overall project costs. This report presents the results from a study to investigate several glass property issues related to WTP HLW and LAW vitrification: crystal formation and settling in selected HLW glasses; redox behavior of vanadium and chromium in selected LAW glasses; and key high temperature thermal properties of representative HLW and LAW glasses. The work was conducted according to Test Plans that were prepared for the HLW and LAW scope, respectively. One part of this work thus addresses some of the possible detrimental effects due to considerably higher crystal content in waste glass melts and, in particular, the impact of high crystal contents on the flow property of the glass melt and the settling rate of representative crystalline phases in an environment similar to that of an idling glass melter. Characterization of vanadium redox shifts in representative WTP LAW glasses is the second focal point of this work. The third part of this work focused on key high temperature thermal properties of

  12. Options for VOC reduction in a regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldern, P.J.; Nutcher, P.; Lewandowski, D.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental regulations stemming from the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments are requiring treatment of high volume but relatively dilute VOC contaminated air and waste gas streams. Because of its low operating costs, Regenerative Thermal Oxidation (RTO) has emerged as the preferred treatment method for many of these streams. In the past, this technology usually required multiple (3 or more) beds of heat sink packing. However, some new units are being supplied with only two beds. Consequently, capital costs are lower. This paper describes test data from a unique twin bed RTO. Data for two different types of heat sink material will be presented, random packing and structured packing. The effect of cycle time, bed length, and packing type on thermal efficiency will be described. A cost comparison is included showing the effect of packing type on both capital and operating costs for various RTO sizes.

  13. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  14. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the

  15. Thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beatty, Ronald L.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    A thermal energy storage system comprising a germanium phase change material and a graphite container.

  16. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2006-10-01

    Presents the objectives and motivations for a battery thermal management vehicle system design study.

  17. Thermal Decomposition of IMX-104: Ingredient Interactions Govern Thermal Insensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maharrey, Sean; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Highley, Aaron M.; Steill, Jeffrey D.; Behrens, Richard; Kay, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes initial studies into the chemical basis of the thermal insensitivity of INMX-104. The work follows upon similar efforts investigating this behavior for another DNAN-based insensitive explosive, IMX-101. The experiments described demonstrate a clear similarity between the ingredient interactions that were shown to lead to the thermal insensitivity observed in IMX-101 and those that are active in IMX-104 at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the onset of decomposition of RDX is shifted to a lower temperature based on the interaction of the RDX with liquid DNAN. This early onset of decomposition dissipates some stored energy that is then unavailable for a delayed, more violent release.

  18. Device for thermal transfer and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Stanton Earl; Arik, Mehmet

    2011-04-19

    A system is provided. The system includes a device that includes top and bottom thermally conductive substrates positioned opposite to one another, wherein a top surface of the bottom thermally conductive substrate is substantially atomically flat and a thermal blocking layer disposed between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates. The device also includes top and bottom electrodes separated from one another between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates to define a tunneling path, wherein the top electrode is disposed on the thermal blocking layer and the bottom electrode is disposed on the bottom thermally conductive substrate.

  19. Thermal trim for a luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-02-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  20. Solar Thermal Energy Technology; (USA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, L.E.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Solar Thermal Energy Technology (STT) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for the advancement of solar thermal systems as a significant energy source. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in STT and other citations to information on solar thermal energy date back to 1974.

  1. Thermal conductivity of semitransparent materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fine, H.A.; Jury, S.H.; McElroy, D.L.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The three-region approximate solution for coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer and an exact solution for uncoupled conductive and radiative heat transfer in a grey semitransparent medium bounded by infinite parallel isothermal plates are employed to establish the dependence of the apparent thermal conductivity of semitransparent materials on other material properties and boundary conditions. An application of the analyses which uses apparent thermal conductivity versus density data to predict the dependence of apparent thermal conductivity on temperature is demonstrated. The predictions for seven sets of R-11 fiberglass and rock wool insulations agree with published measured values to within the limits of experimental error (+- 3%). Agreement for three sets of R-19 fiberglass insulations was, however, not good.

  2. INITIAL SELECTION OF SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR HANFORDS LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAYMOND, R.E.

    2004-02-20

    In 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified specific technologies to be evaluated for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). In concert with this acceleration plan, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology proposed to accelerate--from 2014 to 2006--the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone (M-62-11) associated with a final decision on the balance of tank waste that is beyond the capacity of the WTP. The DOE Office of River Protection tank farm contractor, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL), was tasked with testing and evaluating selected supplemental technologies to support final decisions on tank waste treatment. Three technologies and corresponding vendors were selected to support an initial technology selection in 2003. The three technologies were containerized grout called cast stone (Fluor Federal Services); bulk vitrification (AMEC Earth and Environmental, Inc.); and steam reforming (THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC.). The cast stone process applies an effective grout waste formulation to the LAW and places the cement-based product in a large container for solidification and disposal. Unlike the WTP LAW treatment, which applies vitrification within continuous-fed joule-heated ceramic melters, bulk vitrification produces a glass waste form using batch melting within the disposal container. Steam reforming produces a granular denitrified mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. An initial supplemental

  3. Sodium-sulfur thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, F.A.

    1990-12-11

    This paper discusses a sodium-sulfur thermal battery for generating electrical energy at temperatures above the melting point of sodium metal and sulfur. It comprises a sodium electrode comprising sodium metal; a sulfur electrode comprising sulfur; and a separator located between the sodium and sulfur electrodes. The separator having sufficient porosity to allow preliminary migration of fluid sodium metal and fluid sulfur and fluid sodium polysulfides therethrough during operation of the thermal battery to form a mixed polysulfides electrolyte gradient within the separator.

  4. Quick estimating for thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastri, S.R.S.; Rao, K.K. )

    1993-08-01

    Accurate values for thermal conductivity--an important engineering property used in heat transfer calculations of liquids--are not as readily available as those for other physical properties. Therefore, it often becomes necessary to use estimated data. A new estimating method combines ease of use with an accuracy that is generally better than existing procedures. The paper discusses how to select terms and testing correlations, then gives two examples of the use of the method for calculation of the thermal conductivity of propionic acid and chlorobenzene.

  5. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  6. What can recycling in thermal reactors accomplish?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2007-07-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives. (authors)

  7. HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE THERMAL LANDSLIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vantine, J.

    1985-01-22

    The large Thermal Landslide overlies the initial area of geothermal development at The Geysers. The landslide is waterbearing while the underlying Franciscan formation bedrock units are essentially non-waterbearing except where affected by hydrothermal alteration. Perched ground water moving through the landslide is heated prior to discharge as spring flow.

  8. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockerby, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is reviewed briefly. The two types of OTEC system (open and closed) are described and limitations are pointed out. A bibliography of 148 references on OTEC is given for the time period 1975 to 1980. Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the author's name. (MJJ)

  9. High energy density thermal cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1980-04-29

    A thermal battery is described that uses a calcium anode and a catholyte consisting of a mixture of lithium, potassium, nitrate and chloride ions. The device is operable over a temperature range of about 150 to 600/sup 0/C and produces a long lasting, high energy density output.

  10. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  11. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  12. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F.

    1981-09-01

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - River Protection Project HAB.ppt [Read-Only]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    River Protection Project Waste Treatment & Disposition January 2009 1 2 Insights From External Review Analyses * No need to make LAW ST decision now: make in 2015 - 2017 once Na/Al uncertainties reduced, M-2/M-3 Pretreatment issues resolved, and improved overall integrated RPP system understanding in place (e.g., System Plan 4) * WTP LAW Facility alone cannot complete LAW immobilization mission in same timeframe as HLW mission even with 3 rd melter or higher capacity melters. Third melter

  14. Coupled Monte Carlo neutronics and thermal hydraulics for power reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernnat, W.; Buck, M.; Mattes, M.; Zwermann, W.; Pasichnyk, I.; Velkov, K.

    2012-07-01

    The availability of high performance computing resources enables more and more the use of detailed Monte Carlo models even for full core power reactors. The detailed structure of the core can be described by lattices, modeled by so-called repeated structures e.g. in Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP5 or MCNPX. For cores with mainly uniform material compositions, fuel and moderator temperatures, there is no problem in constructing core models. However, when the material composition and the temperatures vary strongly a huge number of different material cells must be described which complicate the input and in many cases exceed code or memory limits. The second problem arises with the preparation of corresponding temperature dependent cross sections and thermal scattering laws. Only if these problems can be solved, a realistic coupling of Monte Carlo neutronics with an appropriate thermal-hydraulics model is possible. In this paper a method for the treatment of detailed material and temperature distributions in MCNP5 is described based on user-specified internal functions which assign distinct elements of the core cells to material specifications (e.g. water density) and temperatures from a thermal-hydraulics code. The core grid itself can be described with a uniform material specification. The temperature dependency of cross sections and thermal neutron scattering laws is taken into account by interpolation, requiring only a limited number of data sets generated for different temperatures. Applications will be shown for the stationary part of the Purdue PWR benchmark using ATHLET for thermal- hydraulics and for a generic Modular High Temperature reactor using THERMIX for thermal- hydraulics. (authors)

  15. THERMAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FOR WSB DRUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S

    2008-06-26

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum.

  16. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  17. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  18. Thermal synthesis apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.; Detering, Brent A.

    2004-11-23

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  19. Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, BernardS. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.

  20. Thermal Transistor for Energy Smart Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Transistor for Energy Smart Buildings Thermal Transistor for Energy Smart Buildings Assumptions & Limitations: * Current LANL prototype: ~50 cm 2 active area. Assume it can be scaled to sq.ft size relevant for applications * Switching requires ~200 Volts but only draws a few µA. The associated drive electronics comprises only off-the- shelf components. Thermally adaptive devices and systems may be a game changer in energy efficiency, buildings and beyond: * Thermally agile walls can

  1. Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL battery thermal modeling and testing work for the DOE Annual Merit Review, May 9, 2011.

  2. Tunable Thermal Link - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tunable Thermal Link Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThermal links are incorporated into everything from frying pans to internal combustion engine spark plugs and heat sinks on integrated circuit boards. Typically, the link's thermal resistance is fixed and cannot be tuned after manufacture. While the ability to tune electrical resistors is widespread, virtually no tunable thermal resistance link exists, which has held back the

  3. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

    2006-11-01

    Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

  4. W-320 Project thermal modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathyanarayana, K., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-18

    This report summarizes the results of thermal analysis performed to provide a technical basis in support of Project W-320 to retrieve by sluicing the sludge in Tank 241-C-106 and to transfer into Tank 241-AY-102. Prior theraml evaluations in support of Project W-320 safety analysis assumed the availability of 2000 to 3000 CFM, as provided by Tank Farm Operations, for tank floor cooling channels from the secondary ventilation system. As this flow availability has no technical basis, a detailed Tank 241-AY-102 secondary ventilation and floor coating channel flow model was developed and analysis was performed. The results of the analysis show that only about 150 cfm flow is in floor cooLing channels. Tank 241-AY-102 thermal evaluation was performed to determine the necessary cooling flow for floor cooling channels using W-030 primary ventilation system for different quantities of Tank 241-C-106 sludge transfer into Tank 241-AY-102. These sludge transfers meet different options for the project along with minimum required modification of the ventilation system. Also the results of analysis for the amount of sludge transfer using the current system is presented. The effect of sludge fluffing factor, heat generation rate and its distribution between supernatant and sludge in Tank 241-AY-102 on the amount of sludge transfer from Tank 241-C-106 were evaluated and the results are discussed. Also transient thermal analysis was performed to estimate the time to reach the steady state. For a 2 feet sludge transfer, about 3 months time will be requirad to reach steady state. Therefore, for the purpose of process control, a detailed transient thermal analysis using GOTH Computer Code will be required to determine transient response of the sludge in Tank 241-AY-102. Process control considerations are also discussed to eliminate the potential for a steam bump during retrieval and storage in Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102 respectively.

  5. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

  6. Electric thermal storage demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

  7. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine A.

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  8. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  9. Robotic thermal battery pellet fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbler, D.L.; Townsend, A.S.; Walton, R.D.; Jones, C.W.

    1985-03-01

    Thermal battery manufacturing at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) is a sequence of operations involving materials processing, component manufacture, and assembly. These operations, for the most part, have been manually performed although some operations have been computer- or fixture-assisted. The high labor intensity and the need for process consistency in these operations made the conversion to a robotic work cell appealing in that it could increase productivity while allowing the reassignment of highly-trained workers to other duties. An Alpha robot (Microbot, Inc.) was coupled with a Hewlett-Packard HP-9816 microcomputer, and custom software was developed to control the thermal battery manufacturing process. The software provided a menu-driven main program with feedback at virtually every step to allow technicians with little or no computer experience to operate the system. Previously, one or two workers were assigned to each of several industrial presses used in the manufacture of thermal batteries. With the introduction of a robotic operator and a microcomputer process control, one worker alone could support two to three presses, thus freeing as many as five workers to be assigned to other labor intensive duties. The production rate of the robotic work cell was approximately the same as the manual method, but the consistency of production and yield showed significant improvement.

  10. Thermally stable, plastic-bonded explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benziger, Theodore M.

    1979-01-01

    By use of an appropriate thermoplastic rubber as the binder, the thermal stability and thermal stress characteristics of plastic-bonded explosives may be greatly improved. In particular, an HMX-based explosive composition using an oil-extended styrene-ethylenebutylene-styrene block copolymer as the binder exhibits high explosive energy and thermal stability and good handling safety and physical properties.

  11. Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) AgencyCompany Organization: Biomass Thermal Energy...

  12. MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester Title: MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester A pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting ...

  13. Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator Thermal shock resistant cermet insulators ...

  14. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003-2012 (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. ...

  15. Sandia Energy - Thermal Pulses for Boeing Test Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Pulses for Boeing Test Article Home Renewable Energy Energy Partnership News EC Concentrating Solar Power Solar National Solar Thermal Test Facility Thermal Pulses for...

  16. Thermal Multi-layer Coating Analysis | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Multi-layer Coating Analysis Key to Argonne's thermal multi-layer analysis method is the numerical algorithm used for automated analysis of thermal imaging data for...

  17. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Thermal Performance and Reliability ...

  18. Thermal-sprayed, thin-film pyrite cathodes for thermal batteries -- Discharge-rate and temperature studies in single cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; DAI,JINXIANG; XIAO,T. DANNY; REISNER,DAVID

    2000-05-25

    Using an optimized thermal-spray process, coherent, dense deposits of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) with good adhesion were formed on 304 stainless steel substrates (current collectors). After leaching with CS{sub 2} to remove residual free sulfur, these served as cathodes in Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells. The cells were tested over a temperature range of 450 C to 550 C under baseline loads of 125 and 250 mA/cm{sup 2}, to simulate conditions found in a thermal battery. Cells built with such cathodes outperformed standard cells made with pressed-powder parts. They showed lower interracial resistance and polarization throughout discharge, with higher capacities per mass of pyrite. Post-treatment of the cathodes with Li{sub 2}O coatings at levels of >7% by weight of the pyrite was found to eliminate the voltage transient normally observed for these materials. Results equivalent to those of standard lithiated catholytes were obtained in this manner. The use of plasma-sprayed cathodes allows the use of much thinner cells for thermal batteries since only enough material needs to be deposited as the capacity requirements of a given application demand.

  19. The effect of thermal aging on the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed and EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Beecher, S.C.; Porter, W.D.; Nagaraj, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBCs is of primary importance. Electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EV-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The density of the APS coatings was controlled by varying the spray parameters. The low density APS yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (yttria-PSZ) coatings yielded a thermal conductivity that is lower than both the high density APS coatings and the EB-PVD coatings. The thermal aging of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia are compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposure to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the EB-PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, results suggest that they typically have a higher thermal conductivity than APS coatings before thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia have been found to be less than for plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia coatings.

  20. Investigations of the small-scale thermal behavior of sol-gel thermites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Mial E.; Farrow, Matthew; Tappan, Alexander Smith

    2009-02-01

    Sol-gel thermites, formulated from nanoporous oxides and dispersed fuel particles, may provide materials useful for small-scale, intense thermal sources, but understanding the factors affecting performance is critical prior to use. Work was conducted on understanding the synthesis conditions, thermal treatments, and additives that lead to different performance characteristics in iron oxide sol-gel thermites. Additionally, the safety properties of sol-gel thermites were investigated, especially those related to air sensitivity. Sol-gel thermites were synthesized using a variety of different techniques and there appear to be many viable routes to relatively equivalent thermites. These thermites were subjected to several different thermal treatments under argon in a differential scanning calorimeter, and it was shown that a 65 C hold for up to 200 minutes was effective for the removal of residual solvent, thus preventing boiling during the final thermal activation step. Vacuum-drying prior to this heating was shown to be even more effective at removing residual solvent. The addition of aluminum and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) reduced the total heat release per unit mass upon exposure to air, probably due to a decrease in the amount of reduced iron oxide species in the thermite. For the thermal activation step of heat treatment, three different temperatures were investigated. Thermal activation at 200 C resulted in increased ignition sensitivity over thermal activation at 232 C, and thermal activation at 300 C resulted in non-ignitable material. Non-sol-gel iron oxide did not exhibit any of the air-sensitivity observed in sol-gel iron oxide. In the DSC experiments, no bulk ignition of sol-gel thermites was observed upon exposure to air after thermal activation in argon; however ignition did occur when the material was heated in air after thermal treatment. In larger-scale experiments, up to a few hundred milligrams, no ignition was observed upon exposure to air