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1

EA-0821: Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the U.S.  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1: Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at 1: Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio EA-0821: Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to use an existing glass melter thermal treatment unit (also known as a Penberthy Pyro-Converter joule-heated glass furnace) for the treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive material at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD July 26, 1995 EA-0821: Finding of No Significant Impact Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the U.S. Department

2

THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE GLASS MELTER FEEDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Melter feeds for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) typically contain a large number of constituents that evolve gas on heating, Multiple gas-evolving reactions are both successive and simultaneous, and include the release of chemically bonded water, reactions of nitrates with organics, and reactions of molten salts with solid silica. Consequently, when a sample of a HLW feed is subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the rate of change of the sample mass reveals multiple overlapping peaks. In this study, a melter feed, formulated for a simulated high-alumina HLW to be vitrified in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction at the Hanford Site in Washington State, USA, was subjected to TGA. In addition, a modified melter feed was prepared as an all-nitrate version of the baseline feed to test the effect of sucrose addition on the gas-evolving reactions. Activation energies for major reactions were determined using the Kissinger method. The ultimate aim of TGA studies is to obtain a kinetic model of the gas-evolving reactions for use in mathematical modeling of the cold cap as an element of the overall model of the waste-glass melter. In this study, we focused on computing the kinetic parameters of individual reactions without identifying their actual chemistry, The rough provisional model presented is based on the first-order kinetics.

KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R; PIERCE DA

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

3

THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE GLASS MELTER FEED Pavel Hrma,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE GLASS MELTER FEED Pavel Hrma, (a,b) David A. Pierce, (b) Richard Pokorn (b,c) (a) Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science...

4

Determination of temperature-dependent heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cold cap is a layer of reacting glass batch floating on the surface of melt in an all-electric continuous glass melter. The heat needed for the conversion of the melter feed to molten glass must be transferred to and through the cold cap. Since the heat flux into the cold cap determines the rate of melting, the heat conductivity is a key property of the reacting feed. We designed an experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples that monitors the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible is heated at a constant rate. Then we used two methods to calculate the heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the reacting feed: the approximation of the temperature field by polynomial functions and the finite-volume method coupled with least-squares analysis. Up to 680°C, the heat conductivity of the reacting melter feed was represented by a linear function of temperature.

Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Thermal treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal treatment can be regarded as either a pre-treatment of waste prior to final disposal, or as a means of valorising waste by recovering energy. It includes both the burning of mixed MSW in municipal inciner...

Dr. P. White; Dr. M. Franke; P. Hindle

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Determination of heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed: Extension to high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heat conductivity ({lambda}) and the thermal diffusivity (a) of reacting glass batch, or melter feed, control the heat flux into and within the cold cap, a layer of reacting material floating on the pool of molten glass in an all-electric continuous waste glass melter. After previously estimating {lambda} of melter feed at temperatures up to 680 deg C, we focus in this work on the {lambda}(T) function at T > 680 deg C, at which the feed material becomes foamy. We used a customized experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples, which monitored the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible with feed was heated at a constant rate from room temperature up to 1100°C. Approximating measured temperature profiles by polynomial functions, we used the heat transfer equation to estimate the {lambda}(T) approximation function, which we subsequently optimized using the finite-volume method combined with least-squares analysis. The heat conductivity increased as the temperature increased until the feed began to expand into foam, at which point the conductivity dropped. It began to increase again as the foam turned into a bubble-free glass melt. We discuss the implications of this behavior for the mathematical modeling of the cold cap.

Rice, Jarrett A.; Pokorny, Richard; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

7

Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant LAW Melter and Melter Off-gas Process System Hazards Analysis _Oct 21-31  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HSS Independent Activity Report - HSS Independent Activity Report - Rev. 0 Report Number: HIAR-WTP-2013-10-21 Site: Hanford Site Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter and Melter Off-gas Process System Hazards Analysis Activities Dates of Activity : 10/21/13 - 10/31/13 Report Preparer: James O. Low Activity Description/Purpose: The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations (Independent Oversight) reviewed the Insight software hazard evaluation (HE) tables for hazard analysis (HA) generated to date for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) Melter and Off-gas systems, observed a

8

Followup of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process Systems Hazards Analysis Activity Review, March 2013  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

HSS Independent Activity Report - HSS Independent Activity Report - Rev. 0 Report Number: HIAR-WTP-2013-03-18 Site: Hanford Site Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for Follow-up of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity Review Dates of Activity : 03/18/13 - 03/21/13 Report Preparer: James O. Low Activity Description/Purpose: The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) staff observed a limited portion of the restart of the Hazard Analysis (HA) for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) Melter Process (LMP) System. The primary purpose of this HSS field activity, on March 18-21, 2013, was to observe and understand the revised approach

9

Followup of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process Systems Hazards Analysis Activity Review, March 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HSS Independent Activity Report - HSS Independent Activity Report - Rev. 0 Report Number: HIAR-WTP-2013-03-18 Site: Hanford Site Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for Follow-up of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity Review Dates of Activity : 03/18/13 - 03/21/13 Report Preparer: James O. Low Activity Description/Purpose: The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) staff observed a limited portion of the restart of the Hazard Analysis (HA) for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) Melter Process (LMP) System. The primary purpose of this HSS field activity, on March 18-21, 2013, was to observe and understand the revised approach

10

Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 °C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 °C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 °C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been observed in any of the pour stream glass samples. Spinel was observed at the bottom of DWPF Melter 1 as a result of K-3 refractory corrosion. Issues have occurred with accumulation of spinel in the pour spout during periods of operation at higher waste loadings. Given that both DWPF melters were or have been in operation for greater than 8 years, the service life of the melters has far exceeded design expectations. It is possible that the DWPF liquidus temperature approach is conservative, in that it may be possible to successfully operate the melter with a small degree of allowable crystallization in the glass. This could be a viable approach to increasing waste loading in the glass assuming that the crystals are suspended in the melt and swept out through the riser and pour spout. Additional study is needed, and development work for WTP might be leveraged to support a different operating limit for the DWPF. Several recommendations are made regarding considerations that need to be included as part of the WTP crystal tolerant strategy based on the DWPF development work and operational data reviewed here. These include: Identify and consider the impacts of potential heat sinks in the WTP melter and glass pouring system; Consider the contributions of refractory corrosion products, which may serve to nucleate additional crystals leading to further accumulation; Consider volatilization of components from the melt (e.g., boron, alkali, halides, etc.) and determine their impacts on glass crystallization behavior; Evaluate the impacts of glass REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) conditions and the distribution of temperature within the WTP melt pool and melter pour chamber on crystal accumulation rate; Consider the impact of precipitated crystals on glass viscosity; Consider the impact of an accumulated crystalline layer on thermal convection currents and bubbler effectiveness within the melt pool; Evaluate the impact of spinel accumulation on Joule heating of the WTP melt pool; and Include noble metals in glass melt experiments because of their potential to act as nucleation site

Fox, K. M.

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

11

Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity, December 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

the Hanford Site the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity December 2012 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Background.......................................................................................................................................... 1 3.0 Scope and Methodology... ................................................................................................................... 1

12

Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity, December 2012  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Hanford Site the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity December 2012 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Background.......................................................................................................................................... 1 3.0 Scope and Methodology... ................................................................................................................... 1

13

Induction melter apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

14

Underground Coal Thermal Treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

15

Final Vitrification Melter Evaluation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Evaluation Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Evaluation for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Melter February 2012 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley, New York This page is intentionally blank. WASTE-INCIDENTAL-TO-REPROCESSING EVALUATION FOR THE WVDP VITRIFICATION MELTER CONTENTS Revision 0 i NOTATION (Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Units).................................................. v 1.0 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Purpose. ................................................................................................................. 2 1.2 Scope and Technical Basis ....................................................................................... 2

16

Milliwave melter monitoring system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A milliwave melter monitoring system is presented that has a waveguide with a portion capable of contacting a molten material in a melter for use in measuring one or more properties of the molten material in a furnace under extreme environments. A receiver is configured for use in obtaining signals from the melt/material transmitted to appropriate electronics through the waveguide. The receiver is configured for receiving signals from the waveguide when contacting the molten material for use in determining the viscosity of the molten material. Other embodiments exist in which the temperature, emissivity, viscosity and other properties of the molten material are measured.

Daniel, William E. (North Augusta, SC); Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Sundaram, Shanmugavelayutham K. (Richland, WA)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

17

Tunable, self-powered integrated arc plasma-melter vitrification system for waste treatment and resource recovery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a relatively compact self-powered, tunable waste conversion system and apparatus which has the advantage of highly robust operation which provides complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The system provides the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or by an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a self-powered or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production.

Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Preliminary melter performance assessment report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Melter Performance Assessment activity, a component of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) effort, was designed to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter. The melter performance assessment consisted of several activities, including a literature review of all work done with noble metals in glass, gradient furnace testing to study the behavior of noble metals during the melting process, research-scale and engineering-scale melter testing to evaluate effects of noble metals on melter operation, and computer modeling that used the experimental data to predict effects of noble metals on the full-scale melter. Feed used in these tests simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed. This report summarizes the results of the melter performance assessment and predicts the lifetime of the HWVP melter. It should be noted that this work was conducted before the recent Tri-Party Agreement changes, so the reference melter referred to here is the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter design.

Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Cooper, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.; Shafer, P.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Lid heater for glass melter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

Phillips, Terrance D. (617 Chestnut Ct., Aiken, SC 29803)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Formic acid requirement for the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility melter feed preparation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) will vitrify the high-level radioactive waste into a borosilicate glass wasteform using a slurry-fed, joule-heated melter. Formic acid is used to treat the sludge slurry for melter feed preparation. Both a minimum formate requirement and a maximum allowable formate level need to be established to adequately prepare the sludge for melter feed. The data from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Scale Glass Melter (SGM), Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), and research mini-melter runs were used for this purpose. The stoichiometry for major reactions during formic acid treatment was revised to reflect the more predominant chemical reactions and their yields. A minimum formic acid requirement was established according to this revised stoichiometry. Methods for determining the minimum level of formic acid were specified. An operating envelope that includes the maximum total formate level and the minimum nitrate levels, was also proposed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Hsu, C.W.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF VITREOUS STATE LABORATORY AY102/C106 AND AZ102 HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER FEED SIMULANTS (U)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this task is to characterize and report specified physical properties and pH of simulant high level waste (HLW) melter feeds (MF) processed through the scaled melters at Vitreous State Laboratories (VSL). The HLW MF simulants characterized are VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) AY102/C106 precipitated hydroxide processed sludge blended with glass former chemicals at VSL to make melter feed. The physical properties and pH were characterized using the methods stated in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) characterization procedure (Ref. 7).

Hansen, E

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DOE/EA-0821 FOR THE OPERATION OF THE GLASS MELTER  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

. - . - ..... . - ... .,. ..... .. :,! ~ ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DOE/EA-0821 FOR THE OPERATION OF THE GLASS MELTER THERMAL TREATMENT UNIT AT THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S MOUND PLANT, MIAMISBURG, OHIO . JUNE,1995 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY L..-_ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ DIS _TRIBunON OF !HIS DocM~Sbli R DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. , ' .. TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE . . . .. ..... . .. . ...... .. . . .. .. . . ... . ....... ..*..... ... 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION ...... .. . .. . . ...... . .. . .. *.. .. . . . ***....... 1·1 1.1 PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION .. . . * . . . . . . . . . . * . . . . . .. 1-1 1.2 BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * . * . . . . * * . * * . . . . . . .. 1·2

23

Final Vitrification Melter And Vessels Evaluation Documentation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE has prepared final evaluations and made waste incidental to reprocessing determinations for the vitrification melter and feed vessels (the concentrator feed makeup tank and the melter feed hold...

24

Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant – October 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter and Melter Off-gas Process System Hazards Analysis Activities [HIAR-WTP-2013-10-21

25

Thermal treatment for VOC control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic and thermal oxidation are well-established technologies for controlling volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Oxidation destroys pollutants, rather than capturing them. Oxidation units can destroy nearly 100% of VOC and toxic emissions targeted by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990--some systems attain destruction efficiencies over 99.99%. To assist in the design of these systems, an engineer will often look a/t the heat of combustion of the gas stream, along with the type of pollutant, to best determine the correct type of oxidation device to use. The paper discusses catalytic and thermal oxidation, energy recovery, and equipment for these processes.

Cloud, R.A. [Huntington Environmental Systems, Schaumburg, IL (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation Full Document...

27

Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form (Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic). The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Cold Crucible Induction Melter Studies for Making Glass Ceramic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cold Crucible Induction Melter Studies for Making Glass Ceramic Waste Forms: A Feasibility Assessment. Cold Crucible Induction Melter Studies for Making Glass Ceramic Waste Forms:...

30

Research-scale melter test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Melter Performance Assessment (MPA) activity in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Technology Development (PHTD) effort is intended to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference HWVP melter. As a part of this activity, a parametric melter test was completed using a Research-Scale Melter (RSM). The RSM is a small, approximately 1/100-scale melter, 6-in.-diameter, that allows rapid changing of process conditions and subsequent re-establishment of a steady-state condition. The test matrix contained nine different segments that varied the melter operating parameters (glass and plenum temperatures) and feed properties (oxide concentration, redox potential, and noble metal concentrations) so that the effects of these parameters on noble metal agglomeration on the melter floor could be evaluated. The RSM operated for 48 days and consumed 1,300 L of feed, equating to 153 tank turnovers. The run produced 531 kg of glass. During the latter portion of the run, the resistance between the electrodes decreased. Upon destructive examination of the melter, a layer of noble metals was found on the bottom. This was surprising because the glass residence time in the RSM is only 10% of the HWVP plant melter. The noble metals layer impacted the melter significantly. Approximately 1/3 of one paddle electrode was melted or corroded off. The cause is assumed to be localized heating from short circuiting of the electrode to the noble metal layer. The metal layer also removed approximately 1/2 in. of the refractory on the bottom of the melter. The mechanism for this damage is not presently known.

Cooper, M.F.; Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Freeman, C.J.; Higginson, J.J.; Mahoney, L.A.; Powell, M.R.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cold-Crucible Induction Melter Design and Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The international process for immobilization of high-activity waste from aqueous fuel reprocessing is vitrification. In the United States joule-heated melter technology has been implemented at West Valley and the Savannah River Site, but improved melter concepts are sought to bring down the costs of processing. The cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) design is being evaluated for many applications, including radioactive wastes because it eliminates many materials and operating constraints inherent in the baseline technology. The cold-crucible design is also smaller, less expensive, and generates much less waste for ultimate disposal. In addition, it should allow a much more flexible operating envelope, which will be crucial if the heterogeneous wastes at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing sites are to be vitrified.A joule-heated melter operates by passing current between water-cooled electrodes through a molten pool in a refractory-lined chamber. This design is inherently limited by susceptibility of materials to corrosion and melting. In addition, redox conditions and free metal content have exacerbated materials problems or lead to electrical short-circuiting causing failures in developmental DOE melters. In contrast, the CCIM design is based on inductive coupling of a water-cooled high-frequency electrical coil with the glass, causing eddy currents that produce heat and mixing.While significant marketing claims have been made by technology suppliers and developers, little data is available for engineering and economic evaluation of the technology, and no facilities are available in the United States to support testing. In addition to verifying the capabilities of the technology, further development can exploit opportunities for optimization through better understanding of the electromagnetic thermal phenomena intrinsic to the cold-crucible melter. Induction frequency, applied power, and coil and crucible configuration are all related but independent variables that can be explored to optimize throughput while designing a system for maximum reliability in a remote environment. This paper is an introduction to the technology as it applies to vitrification of materials not electrically conductive at ambient temperatures, the potential for research improvements, and the new system being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

Gombert, Dirk; Richardson, John R. [Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC (United States)

2003-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast...

33

Treatment of nitrocellulose by thermal decomposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste fines generated during the manufacture of nitrocellulose (NC) are classified as a RCRA K044 hazardous waste due to their explosive properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate controlled thermal treatment of NC in order to render it nonhazardous and allow for more economical ultimate disposal. The results indicate that controlled thermal decomposition at 130--150 C is a technically feasible process. Rates improved significantly at higher temperatures. At 150 C, only 10 hours were needed to reduce the nitrogen content of NC from 13.7% to below 10% (versus 105 h at 130 C), a level found in many commercial, nonhazardous grades of NC. The air flow rate over the heated NC, and the moisture content of the NC or air above it had no discernible effect on rates of nitrogen removal. Greater mass loss from the NC than what was attributable to the nitro groups alone indicated that decomposition of the polymer backbone also occurred. This was confirmed by FTIR analyses, the appearance of CO{sub 2} in the off-gas, and a lack of correlation between percent nitrogen and heat of combustion. Samples of thermally treated NC containing 9.7% nitrogen failed three of the basic tests used by the Bureau of Explosives to ascertain explosive characteristics, indicating that the product was no longer hazardous based on its energetic properties. Although technically feasible, use of thermal decomposition to treat NC fines will most likely be restricted by safety concerns. Operating close to 130 C would mitigate the risk, but considerably extends the time required for treatment. The most suitable application of this technology may instead by treatment of NC-contaminated soils.

Campbell, R.K.; Freedman, D.L.; Kim, B.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Use of Optical and Imaging Techniques for Inspection of Off-Line Joule-Heated Melter at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The West Valley melter has been taken out of service. Its design is the direct ancestor of the current melter design for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Over its eight years of service, the West Valley melter has endured many of the same challenges that the Hanford melter will encounter with feeds that are similar to many of the Hanford double shell tank wastes. Thus, inspection of the West Valley melter prior to its disposal could provide valuable--even crucial--information to the designers of the melters to be used at the Hanford Site, particularly if quantitative information can be obtained. The objective of Mississippi State University's Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory's (DIAL) efforts is to develop, fabricate, and deploy inspection tools for the West Valley melter that will (i) be remotely operable in the West Valley process cell; (ii) provide quantitative information on melter refractory wear and deposits on the refractory; and (iii) indicate areas of heterogeneity (e.g., deposits) requiring more detailed characterization. A collaborative arrangement has been established with the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) to inspect their melter.

Plodinec, M. J.; Jang, P-R; Long, Z.; Monts, D. L.; Philip, T.; Su, Y.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

35

HLW Melter Control Strategy Without Visual Feedback VSL-12R2500-1 Rev 0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plans for the treatment of high level waste (HL W) at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) are based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the pretreatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form [I]. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat and mass transfer and increase glass melting rates. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of ~ 1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HL W waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150?C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage.

Kruger, A A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Joseph, Innocent [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Matlack, Keith S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Callow, Richard A. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Abramowitz, Howard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Brandys, Marek [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, Wing K. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

36

Thermal Treatment of Algae for Production of Biofuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal Treatment of Algae for Production of Biofuel ... The pyrolysis, liquefaction, and gasification of algae for the production of biofuels are summarized. ...

M. C. Chow; W. R. Jackson; A. L. Chaffee; M. Marshall

2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

37

DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics discussed include: Information collected during testing, equipment, materials, design basis, feed tubes, and an evaluation of the performance of various components. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

Iverson, D.C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

38

Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment (ANL-IN-07-170) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology

Change in temperature over time...

39

Summary - Building C-400 Thermal Treatment Remedial Design Report...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation, Paducah Kentucky Why DOE-EM Did This Review...

40

Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

42

Performance test report for the 1000 kg melter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100 kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV- 384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100 kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the ``GTS Duratek, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report`` (WHC-SD-VI-027).

Eaton, W.C.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

The Behavior and Effects of the Noble Metals in the DWPF Melter System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Governments worldwide have committed to stabilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) by vitrification to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. All of these nuclear wastes contain the fission-product noble metals: ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium. SRS wastes also contain natural silver from iodine scrubbers. Closely associated with the noble metals are the fission products selenium and tellurium which are chemical analogs of sulfur and which combine with noble metals to influence their behavior and properties. Experience has shown that these melt insoluble metals and their compounds tend to settle to the floor of Joule-heated ceramic melters. In fact, almost all of the major research and production facilities have experienced some operational problem which can be associated with the presence of dense accumulations of these relatively conductive metals and/or their compounds. In most cases, these deposits have led to a loss of production capability, in some cases, to the point that melter operation could not continue. HLW nuclear waste vitrification facilities in the United States are the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the planned Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the operating West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. An extensive noble metals testing program was begun in 1990. The objectives of this task were to explore the effects of the noble metals on the DWPF melter feed preparation and waste vitrification processes. This report focuses on the vitrification portion of the test program.

Smith, M.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bickford, D.F.

1997-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Activity Report for Hanford WTP LAW Melter HA Development, July 31 - August 5, 2013  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

HSS Independent Activity Report HSS Independent Activity Report Report Number: HIAR-WTP-2013-07-31 Site: Hanford Site Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for Operational Awareness of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity Dates of Activity : 07/31/13 - 08/05/13 Report Preparer: James O. Low Activity Description/Purpose: The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) staff observed a limited portion of the hazards analysis (HA) for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) Melter Process (LMP) system. The primary purpose of this HSS field activity, conducted from July 31 to August 5, 2013, was to observe and

46

Activity Report for Hanford WTP LAW Melter HA Development, July 31 - August 5, 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HSS Independent Activity Report HSS Independent Activity Report Report Number: HIAR-WTP-2013-07-31 Site: Hanford Site Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for Operational Awareness of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity Dates of Activity : 07/31/13 - 08/05/13 Report Preparer: James O. Low Activity Description/Purpose: The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) staff observed a limited portion of the hazards analysis (HA) for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) Melter Process (LMP) system. The primary purpose of this HSS field activity, conducted from July 31 to August 5, 2013, was to observe and

47

Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Savannah River Site Marks Waste Processing Milestone with Melter's  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Savannah River Site Marks Waste Processing Milestone with Savannah River Site Marks Waste Processing Milestone with Melter's 2,000th Waste Canister Savannah River Site Marks Waste Processing Milestone with Melter's 2,000th Waste Canister February 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis A Savannah River Remediation employee uses a manipulator located inside a shielded enclosure at the Defense Waste Processing Facility, where a melter pours molten glass into a canister. A Savannah River Remediation employee uses a manipulator located inside a shielded enclosure at the Defense Waste Processing Facility, where a melter pours molten glass into a canister. AIKEN, S.C. - The second melter to operate in the 16-year history of the nation's largest radioactive waste glassification plant shows no signs of slowing after recently pouring its 2,000 canister of glass-formed hazardous

49

West Valley Melter Draft Waste Evaluation Released for Public Comment |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Melter Draft Waste Evaluation Released for Public Melter Draft Waste Evaluation Released for Public Comment West Valley Melter Draft Waste Evaluation Released for Public Comment March 11, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor (513) 246-0539 william.taylor@emcbc.doe.gov West Valley, New York - The U.S. Department of Energy today released a Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing (WIR) Evaluation of a vitrification melter at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for review and comment by the public, states and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This draft evaluation shows that the melter meets the criteria for "waste incidental to reprocessing" and may be managed and disposed of as low-level radioactive waste (LLW). It is an important step in DOE's efforts to clean up the WVDP and meet its obligations under the WVDP Act of

50

Savannah River Site Marks Waste Processing Milestone with Melter's  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Marks Waste Processing Milestone with Marks Waste Processing Milestone with Melter's 2,000th Waste Canister Savannah River Site Marks Waste Processing Milestone with Melter's 2,000th Waste Canister February 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis A Savannah River Remediation employee uses a manipulator located inside a shielded enclosure at the Defense Waste Processing Facility, where a melter pours molten glass into a canister. A Savannah River Remediation employee uses a manipulator located inside a shielded enclosure at the Defense Waste Processing Facility, where a melter pours molten glass into a canister. AIKEN, S.C. - The second melter to operate in the 16-year history of the nation's largest radioactive waste glassification plant shows no signs of slowing after recently pouring its 2,000 canister of glass-formed hazardous

51

Low temperature thermal treatment for petroleum refinery waste sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment requirements for waste sludges generated by petroleum refinery operations and designated as waste codes K048, K049, K050, K051 and K052 under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) became effective in November, 1990 under the Landban regulations. An experimental program evaluated low temperature thermal treatment of filter cakes produced from these sludges using laboratory and pilot-scale equipment. One set of experiments on waste samples from two different refineries demonstrated the effective removal of organics of concern from the sludges to meet the RCRA Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) treatment standards. Cyanides were also within the acceptable limit. Combined with stabilization of heavy metals in the treatment residues, low temperature thermal treatment therefore provides an effective and efficient means of treating refinery sludges, with most hydrocarbons recovered and recycled to the refinery. A milder thermal treatment was used to remove the bulk of the water from a previously filtered waste sludge, providing effective waste minimization through a 40% decrease in the mass of sludge to be disposed. The heating value of the sludge was increased simultaneously by one-third, thereby producing a residue of greater value in an alternative fuels program. A process based on this approach was successfully designed and commercialized.

Ayen, R.J.; Swanstrom, C.P. (Geneva Research Center, IL (United States))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Glass melter off-gas system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method for melting glass in a glass melter in such a way as to reduce deposition of particulates in the off-gas duct. Deposit accumulation is reduced by achieving an off-gas velocity above approximately 15 meters/second and an off-gas temperature as close as possible to, but not higher than, the glass softening point. Because the deposits are largely water-soluble, those that do form on the interior surface of the duct can be readily removed by injecting water or steam directly into the off-gas duct from its entrance or exit.

Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

David Rue

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Responses to Public Comments on Draft Vitrification Melter Evaluation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Comments on Draft WVDP Vitrification Melter WIR Evaluation Comments on Draft WVDP Vitrification Melter WIR Evaluation 1 To provide greater transparency to the Department of Energy's (DOE) cleanup of nuclear legacy waste, DOE made the "West Valley Demonstration Project Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Vitrification Melter" (Draft WIR Evaluation) available for public and state review and comment and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) consultation review. The public comments on the Draft WIR Evaluation were submitted to DOE by one individual and two organizations: ï‚· Raymond C. Vaughan, PhD., ï‚· The West Valley Citizen Task Force, and ï‚· The Coalition on West Valley Nuclear Wastes.

56

Thermal Desorption Treatment of Contaminated Soils in a Novel Batch Thermal Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) Flare pit material (Domtar refinery, Alberta, Canada) contaminated up to 20 wt % with hydrocarbons ranging from C8 to C60 with particularly large quantities of xylene, toluene, and C13?C28 compounds. ... (4)?Hsieh, H. N.; Yu, Q. R.; Chang, J.; Burn, T. Thermal Treatment and Stabilization of the BTM. ...

Marline T. Smith; Franco Berruti; Anil K. Mehrotra

2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

57

Independent Activity Report, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant- March 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Follow-up of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity Review [HIAR-WTP-2013-03-18

58

Comparative environmental analysis of waste brominated plastic thermal treatments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this research activity is to investigate the environmental impact of different thermal treatments of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), applying a life cycle assessment methodology. Two scenarios were assessed, which both allow the recovery of bromine: (A) the co-combustion of WEEE and green waste in a municipal solid waste combustion plant, and (B) the staged-gasification of WEEE and combustion of produced syngas in gas turbines. Mass and energy balances on the two scenarios were set and the analysis of the life cycle inventory and the life cycle impact assessment were conducted. Two impact assessment methods (Ecoindicator 99 and Impact 2002+) were slightly modified and then used with both scenarios. The results showed that scenario B (staged-gasification) had a potentially smaller environmental impact than scenario A (co-combustion). In particular, the thermal treatment of staged-gasification was more energy efficient than co-combustion, and therefore scenario B performed better than scenario A, mainly in the impact categories of 'fossil fuels' and 'climate change'. Moreover, the results showed that scenario B allows a higher recovery of bromine than scenario A; however, Br recovery leads to environmental benefits for both the scenarios. Finally the study demonstrates that WEEE thermal treatment for energy and matter recovery is an eco-efficient way to dispose of this kind of waste.

Bientinesi, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Materials Science (DICCISM), University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: matteo.bientinesi@ing.unipi.it; Petarca, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Materials Science (DICCISM), University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked.

Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled {open_quotes}Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Results{close_quotes} (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was {open_quotes}to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.{close_quotes} The study also {open_quotes}identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.{close_quotes} This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete {open_quotes}cradle-to-grave{close_quotes} systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

NEXT GENERATION MELTER OPTIONEERING STUDY - INTERIM REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D{sub 2}0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; RAMSEY G; LOMAX J; ALLEN H

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

62

Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER SAMPLE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from {approx}750 C to {approx}375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a mixture of sludge and glass frit. The major component was Si along with Fe, Al, and other elements in the radioactive waste being processed. The deposits analyzed also contained U-235 fission products and actinide elements. Prior to that, deposits in the off-gas system in the DWPF nonradioactive half scale melter and the one-tenth scale integrated DWPF melter system were analyzed and determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides entrained with iron oxides, spinels and frit particles formed by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Additional work was performed in 2007 in which researchers similarly found the deposits to be a combination of sludge and frit particles.

Newell, J.

2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

64

Extended Development Work to Validate a HLW Calcine Waste Form via INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To accomplish calcine treatment objectives, the Idaho Clean-up Project contractor, CWI, has chosen to immobilize the calcine in a glass-ceramic via the use of a Hot-Isostatic-Press (HIP); a treatment selection formally documented in a 2010 Record of Decision (ROD). Even though the HIP process may prove suitable for the calcine as specified in the ROD and validated in a number of past value engineering sessions, DOE is evaluating back-up treatment methods for the calcine as a result of the technical, schedule, and cost risk associated with the HIPing process. Consequently DOE HQ has requested DOE ID to make INL's bench-scale cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) available for investigating its viability as a process alternate to calcine treatment. The waste form is the key component of immobilization of radioactive waste. Providing a solid, stable, and durable material that can be easily be stored is the rationale for immobilization of radioactive waste material in glass, ceramic, or glass-ceramics. Ceramic waste forms offer an alternative to traditional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics can usually accommodate higher waste loadings than borosilicate glass, leading to smaller intermediate and long-term storage facilities. Many ceramic phases are known to possess superior chemical durability as compared to borosilicate glass. However, ceramics are generally multiphase systems containing many minor phase that make characterization and prediction of performance within a repository challenging. Additionally, the technologies employed in ceramic manufacture are typically more complex and expensive. Thus, many have proposed using glass-ceramics as compromise between in the more inexpensive, easier to characterize glass waste forms and the more durable ceramic waste forms. Glass-ceramics have several advantages over traditional borosilicate glasses as a waste form. Borosilicate glasses can inadvertently devitrify, leading to a less durable product that could crack during cooling and crystals may be prone to dissolution. By designing a glass-ceramics, the risks of deleterious effects from devitrification are removed. Furthermore, glass-ceramics have higher mechanical strength and impact strengths and possess greater chemical durability as noted above. Glass-ceramics should provide a waste form with the advantages of glass - ease of manufacture - with improved mechanical properties, thermal stability, and chemical durability. This report will cover aspects relevant for the validation of the CCIM use in the production of glass-ceramic waste forms.

James A. King; Vince Maio

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant- June 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Off-gas Process System Hazards Analysis Activity Observation [HIAR-WTP-2013-05-13

66

Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant – July 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Operational Awareness of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity [HIAR-WTP-2013-07-31

67

Microsoft Word - Melter 2 Celebrates 10 Years.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Media contact: Dean Campbell 803.208.8270 dean.campbell@srs.gov DWPF Melter 2 Celebrates 10 th Anniversary AIKEN, S.C. (March 26, 2013) - What has been called the "heart" of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is celebrating its 10 th anniversary, a full eight years beyond its design life expectancy. Melter 2, the 65-ton, teapot-shaped vessel treats high-level radioactive waste being stored in SRS waste tanks by blending it with a borosilicate frit to form a molten glass mixture. The mixture is poured into stainless steel canisters, which are decontaminated and stored on-site until a permanent storage facility is identified. The melter, only the second in the 17-year history of DWPF, is celebrating 10 years of

68

Tunable molten oxide pool assisted plasma-melter vitrification systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced use or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a net energy or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production. Methods and apparatus for converting metals, non-glass forming waste streams and low-ash producing inorganics into a useful gas are also provided. The methods and apparatus for such conversion include the use of a molten oxide pool having predetermined electrical, thermal and physical characteristics capable of maintaining optimal joule heating and glass forming properties during the conversion process.

Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Melter performance during surrogate vitrification campaigns at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results from seven melter campaigns performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University. A brief description of the EnVitco EV-16 Joule heated glass melter and the Stir-Melter WV-0.25 stirred melter are included for reference. The report discusses each waste stream examined, glass formulations developed and utilized, specifics relating to melter operation, and a synopsis of the results from the campaigns. A `lessons learned` section is included for each melter to emphasize repeated processing problems and identify parameters which are considered extremely important to successful melter operation

Marra, J.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Overcamp, T.J.

1995-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

70

Earth melter with rubble walls and method of use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an improvement to the earth melter described and claimed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,443,618. The improvement is the use of rubble for retaining walls. More specifically, the retaining walls rest on ground level and extend above ground level piling rubble around a melt zone. A portion of the melter may be below grade wherein sidewalls are formed by the relatively undisturbed native soil or rock, and the rubble may be used as a backfill liner for the below grade sidewalls.

Chapman, Chris C. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Effect of Feeding Rate on the Cold Cap Configuration in a Laboratory-Scale Melter - 13362  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-level-waste melter feed is converted into glass in a joule-heated melter, where it forms a floating layer of reacting feed, called the cold cap. After the glass-forming phase becomes connected, evolving gases produce bubbles that form a foam layer under the feed. The bubbles coalesce into cavities, from which most of the gases are released around the edges of the cold cap while gases also escape through small shafts in the reacting feed. The foam layer insulates the cold cap from the heat transferred from the molten glass below. The cold cap behavior was investigated in a laboratory-scale assembly with a fused silica crucible. A high-alumina waste simulant was fed into the crucible and the feed charging rate was varied from 3 to 7 mL min{sup -1}. After a fixed amount of time (35 min), feed charging was stopped and the crucible was removed from the furnace and quenched on a copper block to preserve the structure of the cold cap during cooling. During the rapid quenching, thermal cracking of the glass and cold cap allowed it to be broken up into sections for analysis. The effect of the charging rate on the height, area and volume of the cold cap was determined. The size of the bubbles collected in the foam layer under the feed increased as the cold cap expanded and the relationship between these bubbles and temperature will be determined for input into a mathematical model. (authors)

Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Hrma, Pavel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States) [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

EA-1189: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste,  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

9: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed 9: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste, Richland, Washington EA-1189: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste, Richland, Washington SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to demonstrate the feasibility of commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste to meet existing Federal and State regulatory standards for eventual land disposal at the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD September 29, 1998 EA-1189: Finding of No Significant Impact Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste September 29, 1998 EA-1189: Final Environmental Assessment Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste

73

DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and glass melting rate. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of {approx}1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HLW waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150 C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage. The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet WTP contract requirements. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization oftank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste-loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. It is expected that these higher waste loading glasses will reduce the HLW canister production requirement by about 25% or more.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

74

Composition of Municipal Solid Waste-Need for Thermal Treatment in the present Indian context  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Composition of Municipal Solid Waste- Need for Thermal Treatment in the present Indian context of estimating heat value of municipal wastes, from the view point of assessing the waste's amenability for thermal treatment in the Indian context at the present juncture. The paper also seeks to reason out

Columbia University

75

Modeling of thermal plasma arc technology FY 1994 report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal plasma arc process is under consideration to thermally treat hazardous and radioactive waste. A computer model for the thermal plasma arc technology was designed as a tool to aid in the development and use of the plasma arc-Joule beating process. The value of this computer model is to: (a) aid in understanding the plasma arc-Joule beating process as applied to buried waste or exhumed buried waste, (b) help design melter geometry and electrode configuration, (c) calculate the process capability of vitrifying waste (i.e., tons/hour), (d) develop efficient plasma and melter operating conditions to optimize the process and/or reduce safety hazards, (e) calculate chemical reactions during treatment of waste to track chemical composition of off-gas products, and composition of final vitrified waste form and (f) help compare the designs of different plasma-arc facilities. A steady-state model of a two-dimensional axisymmetric transferred plasma arc has been developed and validated. A parametric analysis was performed that studied the effects of arc length, plasma gas composition, and input power on the temperatures and velocity profiles of the slag and plasma gas. A two-dimensional transient thermo-fluid model of the US Bureau of Mines plasma arc melter has been developed. This model includes the growth of a slag pool. The thermo-fluid model is used to predict the temperature and pressure fields within a plasma arc furnace. An analysis was performed to determine the effects of a molten metal pool on the temperature, velocity, and voltage fields within the slag. A robust and accurate model for the chemical equilibrium calculations has been selected to determine chemical composition of final waste form and off-gas based on the temperatures and pressures within the plasma-arc furnace. A chemical database has been selected. The database is based on the materials to be processed in the plasma arc furnaces.

Hawkes, G.L.; Nguyen, H.D.; Paik, S.; McKellar, M.G.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

GTS Duratek, phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the final report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc. in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384215. The report contains description of the tests, observations, test data and some analysis of the data as it pertains to application of this technology for LLW vitrification. The document also contains summaries of the melter offgas reports issued as separate documents for the 100 kg melter (WHC-SD-WM-VI-028) and for the 1000 kg melter (WHC-SD-WM-VI-029).

Eaton, W.C.

1995-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

77

Cold crucible induction melter studies for making glass ceramic waste forms: A feasibility assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glass ceramics are being developed to immobilize fission products, separated from used nuclear fuel by aqueous reprocessing, into a stable waste form suitable for disposal in a geological repository. This work documents the glass ceramic formulation at bench scale and for a scaled melter test performed in a pilot-scale (approximately 1/4 scale) cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). Melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling were measured on a small set of compositions to select a formulation for melter testing. Property measurements also identified a temperature range for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form. Bench scale and melter run results successfully demonstrate the processability of the glass ceramic using the CCIM melter technology.

Jarrod Crum [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vince Maio [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); John McCloy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clark Scott [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brian Riley [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brad Benefiel [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); John Vienna [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kip Archibald [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carmen Rodriguez [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Veronica Rutledge [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zihua Zhu [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joe Ryan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matthew Olszta [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Checkout and start-up of the integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) melter system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a one-ninth-scale demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation, melter, and off-gas systems. The IDMS will be the first engineering-scale melter system at SRL to process mercury and flowsheet levels of halides and sulfates. This report includes a summary of the IDMS program objectives, system and equipment descriptions, and detailed discussions of the system checkout and start-up. 10 refs., 44 figs., 20 tabs.

Smith, M.E.; Hutson, N.D.; Miller, D.H.; Morrison, J.; Shah, H.; Shuford, J.A.; Glascock, J.; Wurzinger, F.H.; Zamecnik, J.R.

1989-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

79

Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

and Model Field Data from a Test of Steam Injection in an Hydraulically Created Fracture, EPA (co-PI) 1994-1998 Field Demonstration of In Situ Thermally Enhanced Extraction...

80

Remote Fiber Laser Cutting System for Dismantling Glass Melter - 13071  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 2008, the equipment for dismantling the used glass melter has been developed in High-level Liquid Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). Due to the high radioactivity of the glass melter, the equipment requires a fully-remote operation in the vitrification cell. The remote fiber laser cutting system was adopted as one of the major pieces of equipment. An output power of fiber laser is typically higher than other types of laser and so can provide high-cutting performance. The fiber laser can cut thick stainless steel and Inconel, which are parts of the glass melter such as casings, electrodes and nozzles. As a result, it can make the whole of the dismantling work efficiently done for a shorter period. Various conditions of the cutting test have been evaluated in the process of developing the remote fiber cutting system. In addition, the expected remote operations of the power manipulator with the laser torch have been fully verified and optimized using 3D simulations. (authors)

Mitsui, Takashi; Miura, Noriaki [IHI Corporation, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)] [IHI Corporation, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Oowaki, Katsura; Kawaguchi, Isao [IHI Inspection and Instrumentation Co., Ltd, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)] [IHI Inspection and Instrumentation Co., Ltd, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Miura, Yasuhiko; Ino, Tooru [Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-Mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan)] [Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-Mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

FINAL REPORT TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-02R0100-2 REV 1 2/17/03  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from a series of nine tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part B1 [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plans. The nine tests reported here were preceded by an initial series of short-duration tests conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Reports. The DM1200 system was deployed for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. These tests include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The primary objective of the present series of tests was to determine the effects of a variety of parameters on the glass production rate in comparison to the RPP-WTP HL W design basis of 400 kg/m{sup 2}/d. Previous testing on the DMIOOO system [1] concluded that achievement of that rate with simulants of projected WTP melter feeds (AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102) was unlikely without the use of bubblers. As part of those tests, the same feed that was used during the cold-commissioning of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) HLW vitrification system was run on the DM1000 system. The DM1000 tests reproduced the rates that were obtained at the larger WVDP facility, lending confidence to the tests results [1]. Since the inclusion or exclusion of a bubbler has significant design implications, the Project commissioned further tests to address this issue. In an effort to identify factors that might increase the glass production rate for projected WTP melter feeds, a subsequent series of tests was performed on the DM100 system. Several tests variables led to glass production rate increases to values significantly above the 400 kg/m2/d requirement. However, while small-scale melter tests are useful for screening relative effects, they tend to overestimate absolute glass production rates, particularly for un-bubbled tests. Consequently, when scale-up effects were taken into account, it was not clear that any of the variables investigated would conclusively meet the 400 kg/m{sup 2}/d requirement without bubbling. The present series of tests was therefore performed on the DM1200 one-third scale HLW pilot melter system to provide the required basis for a final decision on whether bubblers would be included in the HLW melter. The present tests employed the same AZ-101 waste simulant and glass composition that was used for previous testing for consistency and comparability with the results from the earlier tests.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BARDAKCI T; GONG W; D'ANGELO NA; SCHATZ TR; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

82

Standard guide for characterization of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes for thermal treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This guide identifies methods to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes before a waste is processed at high temperatures, for example, vitrification into a homogeneous glass ,glass-ceramic, or ceramic waste form. This includes waste forms produced by ex-situ vitrification (ESV), in-situ vitrification (ISV), slagging, plasma-arc, hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) and/or cold-pressing and sintering technologies. Note that this guide does not specifically address high temperature waste treatment by incineration but several of the analyses described in this guide may be useful diagnostic methods to determine incinerator off-gas composition and concentrations. The characterization of the waste(s) recommended in this guide can be used to (1) choose and develop the appropriate thermal treatment methodology, (2) determine if waste pretreatment is needed prior to thermal treatment, (3) aid in development of thermal treatment process control, (4) develop surrogate wa...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Technical information report: Plasma melter operation, reliability, and maintenance analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a technical report of operability, reliability, and maintenance of a plasma melter for low-level waste vitrification, in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. A process description is provided that minimizes maintenance and downtime and includes material and energy balances, equipment sizes and arrangement, startup/operation/maintence/shutdown cycle descriptions, and basis for scale-up to a 200 metric ton/day production facility. Operational requirements are provided including utilities, feeds, labor, and maintenance. Equipment reliability estimates and maintenance requirements are provided which includes a list of failure modes, responses, and consequences.

Hendrickson, D.W. [ed.

1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

84

Two-stage thermal/nonthermal waste treatment process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An innovative waste treatment technology is being developed in Los Alamos to address the destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The technology described in this report uses two stages: a packed bed reactor (PBR) in the first stage to volatilize and/or combust liquid organics and a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor to remove entrained hazardous compounds in the off-gas to even lower levels. We have constructed pre-pilot-scale PBR-SDP apparatus and tested the two stages separately and in combined modes. These tests are described in the report.

Rosocha, L.A.; Anderson, G.K.; Coogan, J.J.; Kang, M.; Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Vectra GSI, Inc. low-level waste melter testing Phase 1 test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Vectra GSI, Inc. was one of seven vendors selected for Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW that were completed during fiscal year 1995. The attached report prepared by Vectra GSI, Inc. describes results of melter testing using slurry feed and dried feeds. Results of feed drying and prereaction tests using a fluid bed calciner and rotary dryer also are described.

Stegen, G.E.; Wilson, C.N.

1996-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

86

Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

427 427 Rev. 1 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) Review Report: Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation, PGDP, Paducah Kentucky 15 August 2007 Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) Paducah KY Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) Paducah KY Prepared for: Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation Office of Engineering and Technology Review Report - C-400 Thermal Remediation PGDP WSRC-STI-2007-00427 rev. 1 Cover Photo: Oblique view overhead photograph of the Department of Energy Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant near Paducah KY. The TCE source area targeted for thermal treatment is located near the center of the photograph. .

89

Pressurized heat treatment of glass-ceramic to control thermal expansion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

Kramer, Daniel P. (Dayton, OH)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Microsoft PowerPoint - 6- 02 final - Next generation melter deploymet at WTP - Nov10.pptx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ron Calmus, WRPS Ron Calmus, WRPS Ron Calmus, WRPS Terry Sams, WRPS Terry Sams, WRPS Deployment Plan Overview for Next Deployment Plan Overview for Next Generation Melter at WTP Generation Melter at WTP November 17, 2010 November 17, 2010 Print Close Tank Operations Contract 2 Presentation Outline  Introduction and Background  Project Goals and Objectives  Key Programmatic Decisions  New Generation Melters (NGM) Development and Deployment Planning (AJHCM & CCIM)  NGM Development and Deployment Activities and Interfaces  Near-Term NGM Development Costs  Summary - Focus Areas Next Generation Melters 2 Print Close Tank Operations Contract 3 Introduction and Background  National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Recommendations - In 2009 the NAS stated in it's report that:

91

A warm heart in a cold body - melter technology for tomorrow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of its research and development program on waste conditioning, the CEA has developed a cold crucible induction melting technique suitable for a variety of materials: metals, molten salts or oxides including amorphous glass or vitrocrystalline. The technique can be used, for example, to produce containment glass at high temperatures without contamination of the feed material and without corrosion of the crucible itself. The material is heated to the core, but encased in a solidified shell of the same material that forms in contact with the water-cooled melter walls - a very warm {open_quotes}heart{close_quotes} in a cold {open_quotes}body{close_quotes}. This development opens the way to new and even more sophisticated containment matrices; new applications are already envisaged in the area of incineration: burning contaminated chlorinated plastic waste or even sulfonate ion exchange resins from thermal power stations is feasible without risk of corrosion by chlorine or sulfur. Waste incineration and containment of the residue may be performed simultaneously in a single reactor.

Jouan, A.; Boen, R. [Rhone Valley Research Center, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Merlin, S.; Roux, P. [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

Summary - Building C-400 Thermal Treatment Remedial Design Report and Investigation, Paducah, Kentucky  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Paducah, KY Paducah, KY EM Project: Building C400 Thermal Treatment ETR Report Date: August 2007 ETR-8 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation, Paducah Kentucky Why DOE-EM Did This Review The groundwater underlying the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is contaminated by chlorinated solvents, principally trichloroethylene (TCE), as well as other contaminants. TCE was released as a dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) to the subsurface soils and groundwater as a result of operations that began in 1952. The Building C-400 area is coincident with the highest TCE concentrations in the groundwater plumes at PGDP. Based on all characterization data

93

Comparison of discrete and continuous thermal neutron scattering treatments in MCNP5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The standard discrete thermal neutron S({alpha},{beta}) scattering treatment in MCNP5 is compared with a continuous S({alpha},{beta}) scattering treatment using a criticality suite of 119 benchmark cases and ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data. In the analysis, six bound isotopes are considered: beryllium metal, graphite, hydrogen in water, hydrogen in polyethylene, beryllium in beryllium oxide and oxygen in beryllium oxide. Overall, there are only small changes in the eigenvalue (k{sub eff}) between discrete and continuous treatments. In the comparison of 64 cases that utilize S({alpha},{beta}) scattering, 62 agreed at the 95% confidence level, and the 2 cases with differences larger than 3 {sigma} agreed within 1 {sigma} when more neutrons were run in the calculations. The results indicate that the changes in eigenvalue between continuous and discrete treatments are random, small, and well within the uncertainty of measured data for reactor criticality experiments. (authors)

Pavlou, A. T. [Univ. of Michigan, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brown, F. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Martin, W. R. [Univ. of Michigan, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kiedrowski, B. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 °C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

97

Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70{degrees} C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/{degree} C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm{sup 3} at 20{degrees} C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm{sup 3} at 70{degrees} C.

Rudisill, T.S.

1997-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

98

The effect of ultrasound in combination with thermal treatment on the germinated barley’s alpha-amylase activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of ultrasound as emerging technology along with thermal treatment were investigated on the activity of barley’s alpha-amylase after germination. All experiments were carried out ... reducing sugars re...

Maryam Yaldagard; Seyed. Ali. Mortazavi…

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Vitrification of noble metals containing NCAW simulant with an engineering scale melter (ESM): Campaign report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ESM has been designed as a 10th-scale model of the DWPF-type melter, currently the reference melter for nitrification of Hanford double shell tankwaste. ESM and related equipment have been integrated to the existing mockup vitrification plant VA-WAK at KfK. On June 2-July 10, 1992, a shakedown test using 2.61 m{sup 3} of NCAW (neutralized current acid waste) simulant without noble metals was performed. On July 11-Aug. 30, 1992, 14.23 m{sup 3} of the same simulant with nominal concentrations of Ru, Rh, and Pd were vitrified. Objective was to investigate the behavior of such a melter with respect to discharge of noble metals with routine glass pouring via glass overflow. Results indicate an accumulation of noble metals in the bottom area of the flat-bottomed ESM. About 65 wt% of the noble metals fed to the melter could be drained out, whereas 35 wt% accumulated in the melter, based on analysis of glass samples from glass pouring stream in to the canisters. After the melter was drained at the end of the campaign through a bottom drain valve, glass samples were taken from the residual bottom layer. The samples had significantly increased noble metals content (factor of 20-45 to target loading). They showed also a significant decrease of the specific electric resistance compared to bulk glass (factor of 10). A decrease of 10- 15% of the resistance between he power electrodes could be seen at the run end, but the total amount of noble metals accumulated was not yet sufficient enough to disturb the Joule heating of the glass tank severely.

Grunewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W.; Weisenburger, S.; Weiss, K.; Elliott, M.; Eyler, L.L.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy?s extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative sampling directly from the large Tank Farm tanks is a difficult, if not unsolvable enterprise due to li

Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

FINAL REPORT START-UP AND COMMISSIONING TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-01R0100-2 REV 0 1/20/03  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from commissioning tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM 1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part BI [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plan. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Report. The DM1200 system will be used for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. This will include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The results presented in this report are from the initial series of short-duration tests that were conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system prior to conducting the main body of development tests that have been planned for this system. These tests were directed primarily at system 'debugging,' operator training, and procedure refinement. The AZ-101 waste simulant and glass composition that was used for previous testing was selected for these tests.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BRANDYS M; WILSON CN; SCHATZ TR; GONG W; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

102

Advanced thermal treatment of auto shredder residue and refuse derived fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The disposal of End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) results in a highly heterogeneous polymeric waste stream of Automobile shredder residue (ASR). Within Europe, strict legislation, such as the End-of-Life Vehicle Directive and the Landfill Directive, has imposed targets for reducing this waste stream and diverting the material away from landfill. One pathway open to recyclers is to thermally process these wastes, but the presence of chlorine and metallic species can present challenges to traditional incineration technologies. This paper discusses the use of Gasplasma®, an advanced thermal treatment technology, comprising fluidised bed oxy-steam gasification followed by plasma treatment, for ASR, refuse derived fuel (RDF) and blends of ASR and RDF wastes. The work demonstrates the ability to process these highly heterogeneous materials achieving high energy conversion (87–94%) and virtually complete carbon conversion, producing a calorific synthetic gas (syngas) capable of being used for power generation or as a chemical feedstock. The actual conversion efficiency achieved is dependent on feed chemistry and properties. The study also shows that ash components of the feed material can be transformed into an environmentally stable vitrified product.

Richard Taylor; Ruby Ray; Chris Chapman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Melter feed tank operating map from the FA-10.02 test data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operability of the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) feed loops has been tested during the DWPF-FA-10.02 test. The ability to feed the melter at three distinct melter feed rates (0.20, 0.45, and 0.90 gpm), two distinct agitator speeds (65 and 130 rpm), varying liquid levels, and varying slurry rheologies was tested. This report correlates the operability of the feed loops with the above mentioned variables. The data are presented in the form of operating maps, Figs. 1 through 4, which are plots of the liquid level versus the wt% total solids (and yield stress) for two agitator speeds. The maps are divided into regions of acceptable feed loop operation and unacceptable feed loop operation. This report does not consider how closely the compositions of the MFT, the melter feed lines, and the Hydragard samples agree. The significant observations in this report are as follows: Both feed loops satisfy the operability criteria down to a liquid level below the upper impeller blade at low speed agitation (65 rpm). Under high speed agitation (130 rpm), feed loop No. 2 operates much more poorly than feed loop No. 1. The uncertainty associated with the wt% total solids of a slurry sample is larger than the current design basis range for total solids. The dilution of slurry due to pump priming is shown graphically in the chronological presentation of wt% total solids.

Spatz, T.L.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Mathematical Model of Lump Coal Falling in the Freeboard Zone of the COREX Melter Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mathematical Model of Lump Coal Falling in the Freeboard Zone of the COREX Melter Gasifier ... Subrata and Ashok(2) studied the combustion of coal char in the raceway of the moving bed by a two-dimensional mathematical model, considering the gas and solid as continuous medium and the interaction between gas and solid. ...

Xunliang Liu; Gang Pan; Gan Wang; Zhi Wen

2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

105

The production of advanced glass ceramic HLW forms using cold crucible induction melter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIM) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in a near future. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHM) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIM offers unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. It is concluded that glass ceramic waste forms that are tailored to immobilize fission products of HLW can be can be made from the HLW processed with the CCIM. The advantageous higher temperatures reached with the CCIM and unachievable with JHM allows the lanthanides, alkali, alkaline earths, and molybdenum to dissolve into a molten glass. Upon controlled cooling they go into targeted crystalline phases to form a glass ceramic waste form with higher waste loadings than achievable with borosilicate glass waste forms. Natural cooling proves to be too fast for the formation of all targeted crystalline phases.

Rutledge, V.J.; Maio, V. [Idaho National Laboratory: P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID, 83415-2110 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

The Production of Advanced Glass Ceramic HLW Forms using Cold Crucible Induction Melter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIMs) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in the 21st century. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHMs) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIMs offer unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. This paper discusses advantageous features of the CCIM, with emphasis on features that overcome the historical issues with the JHMs presently utilized, as well as the benefits of glass ceramic waste forms over borosilicate glass waste forms. These advantages are then validated based on recent INL testing to demonstrate a first-of-a-kind formulation of a non-radioactive ceramic-based waste form utilizing a CCIM.

Veronica J Rutledge; Vince Maio

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Noble metals-compatible melter features development Phase 1: Establishing functional and design criteria and design concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Premature failures have occurred in melters at Japan`s Tokai Mockup Facility and at the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) PAMELA plant during processing of feeds with high levels of noble metals. Melter failure was due to the accumulation of an electrically conductive, noble metals-containing precipitates in the glass, that then resulted in short circuiting of the electrodes. A comparison was made of the anticipated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) feed with the feeds processed in the FRG and Japanese melters. The evaluation showed that comparable levels of noble metals and other potential precipitate-forming components (e.g. Cr/Fe/Ni-spinels) exist in the HWVP feed. As a result, the HWVP project made a decision to modify the present reference melter design to include features to prevent the precipitation and accumulation or otherwise accommodate precipitated phases on a routine basis without loss of production capacity.

Elmore, M.R.; Siemens, D.H.; Chapman, C.C.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 Annual Report on Clemson/INEEL Melter Work  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements.

Bickford, D.F.

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

109

Thermal treatment modifies the calorific value and ash content in some wood species  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thermo-treated wood is a new material that has recently been introduced to the market. Thus, the increase in the amount of treated wood in the wood industry and in the interior of buildings creates demands for the evaluation of its fire risk. However, few evidences have yet been published on the calorific evaluation and fire load, required in case of building code, for thermo-treated wood products. The main goal of this research was to evaluate how different treatments affect the calorific values and the relative ash content for three cases of thermo-treated woods (Norway spruce, Common ash, and Turkey oak). Norway spruce and Common ash were thermally treated at 190 °C for two hours. Turkey oak logs were initially steamed at 110 °C for 24 h, dried until the 0% of moisture content and then thermo treated at 160 °C for three hours. Low and High calorific values (LCV, HCV) and ash content were evaluated. Ash content and HCV are related to dry mass. After thermo-treatment, the LCV and HCV increased, while the ash content changed significantly in Turkey oak.

Luigi Todaro; Angelo Rita; Paola Cetera; Maurizio D’Auria

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

October 2013 October 2013 Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - October 2013 October 2013 Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter and Melter Off-gas Process System Hazards Analysis Activities [HIAR-WTP-2013-10-21] This Independent Activity Report documents an oversight activity conducted by the Office of Health, Safety and Security's (HSS) Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations from October 21-31, 2013, at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The activity consisted of HSS staff reviewing the Insight software hazard evaluation (HE) tables for hazard analysis (HA) generated to date for the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) Melter and Off-gas systems, observed a limited portion of the HA for the

111

O2, CH4 and CO2 gas retentions by acid smectites before and after thermal treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acid smectites in natural condition and after thermal treatment up to 900 °C were studied for their O2, CH4 and CO2 gas retentions at 25 °C and 1 kg/cm2. Two smectites, one dioctahedral and one trioctahedral, wer...

C. Volzone; J. Ortiga

112

INTEGRATED DM 1200 MELTER TESTING OF HLW C-106/AY-102 COMPOSITION USING BUBBLERS VSL-03R3800-1 REV 0 9/15/03  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

113

Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) where the glass will be poured into stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal in a geologic repository. Experimental glass melters used to develop the vitrification process for immobilization of the waste have experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. Off-gas deposits from the DWPF 1/2 Scale Glass Melter (SGM) and the 1/10th scale Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, spinel, and frit particles. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cement the entrained particulates causing off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggage indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. Scale glass melter operating experience indicates that a velocity of >50 fps is necessary in order to transport the volatile species to the quencher to prevent having condensation occur in the off-gas line. Hotter off-gas line temperatures would retain the alkali compounds as vapors so that they would remain volatile until they reach the quencher. However, hotter off-gas temperatures can only be achieved by using less air/steam flow at the off-gas entrance, e.g. at the off-gas film cooler (OGFC). This would result in lower off-gas velocities. Maintaining a high velocity is, therefore, considered to be a more important criterion for controlling off-gas pluggage than temperature control. 40 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

INSTALLATION OF BUBBLERS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITED DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC assumed the liquid waste contract at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the summer of 2009. The main contractual agreement was to close 22 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks in eight years. To achieve this aggressive commitment, faster waste processing throughout the SRS liquid waste facilities will be required. Part of the approach to achieve faster waste processing is to increase the canister production rate of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) from approximately 200 canisters filled with radioactive waste glass per year to 400 canisters per year. To reach this rate for melter throughput, four bubblers were installed in the DWPF Melter in the late summer of 2010. This effort required collaboration between SRR, SRR critical subcontractor EnergySolutions, and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The tasks included design and fabrication of the bubblers and related equipment, testing of the bubblers for various technical issues, the actual installation of the bubblers and related equipment, and the initial successful operation of the bubblers in the DWPF Melter.

Smith, M.; Iverson, D.

2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

115

Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: A rhodium self-powered neutron detector (Rh SPND) has been specifically developed by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) of Argentina to measure locally and in real time thermal neutron fluxes in patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this work, the thermal and epithermal neutron response of the Rh SPND was evaluated by studying the detector response to two different reactor spectra. In addition, during clinical trials of the BNCT Project of the CNEA, on-line neutron flux measurements using the specially designed detector were assessed. Methods: The first calibration of the detector was done with the well-thermalized neutron spectrum of the CNEA RA-3 reactor thermal column. For this purpose, the reactor spectrum was approximated by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the thermal energy range. The second calibration was done at different positions along the central axis of a water-filled cylindrical phantom, placed in the mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam of CNEA RA-6 reactor. In this latter case, the RA-6 neutron spectrum had been well characterized by both calculation and measurement, and it presented some marked differences with the ideal spectrum considered for SPND calibrations at RA-3. In addition, the RA-6 neutron spectrum varied with depth in the water phantom and thus the percentage of the epithermal contribution to the total neutron flux changed at each measurement location. Local (one point-position) and global (several points-positions) and thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities were determined from these measurements. Thermal neutron flux was also measured during BNCT clinical trials within the irradiation fields incident on the patients. In order to achieve this, the detector was placed on patient's skin at dosimetric reference points for each one of the fields. System stability was adequate for this kind of measurement. Results: Local mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities and global thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities derived from measurements performed at the RA-6 were compared and no significant differences were found. Global RA-6-based thermal neutron sensitivity showed agreement with pure thermal neutron sensitivity measurements performed in the RA-3 spectrum. Additionally, the detector response proved nearly unchanged by differences in neutron spectra from real (RA-6 BNCT beam) and ideal (considered for calibration calculations at RA-3) neutron source descriptions. The results confirm that the special design of the Rh SPND can be considered as having a pure thermal response for neutron spectra with epithermal-to-thermal flux ratios up to 12%. In addition, the linear response of the detector to thermal flux allows the use of a mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivity of 1.95 {+-} 0.05 x 10{sup -21} A n{sup -1}{center_dot}cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s. This sensitivity can be used in spectra with up to 21% epithermal-to-thermal flux ratio without significant error due to epithermal neutron and gamma induced effects. The values of the measured fluxes in clinical applications had discrepancies with calculated results that were in the range of -25% to +30%, which shows the importance of a local on-line independent measurement as part of a treatment planning quality control system. Conclusions: The usefulness of the CNEA Rh SPND for the on-line local measurement of thermal neutron flux on BNCT patients has been demonstrated based on an appropriate neutron spectra calibration and clinical applications.

Miller, Marcelo E.; Sztejnberg, Manuel L.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Longhino, Juan M.; Estryk, Guillermo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1429 (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1429, Argentina and CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1033 (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1429 (Argentina)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Final Report - Testing of Optimized Bubbler Configuration for HLW Melter VSL-13R2950-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of this work was to determine the glass production rate increase and ancillary effects of adding more bubbler outlets to the current WTP HLW melter baseline. This was accomplished through testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) at VSL. The DM1200 unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with several HLW waste streams including the four tank wastes proposed for initial processing at Hanford. This melter system was also used for the development and optimization of the present baseline WTP HLW bubbler configuration for the WTP HLW melter, as well as for MACT testing for both HLW and LAW. Specific objectives of these tests were to: Conduct DM1200 melter testing with the baseline WTP bubbling configuration and as augmented with additional bubblers. Conduct DM1200 melter testing to differentiate the effects of total bubbler air flow and bubbler distribution on glass production rate and cold cap formation. Collect melter operating data including processing rate, temperatures at a variety of locations within the melter plenum space, melt pool temperature, glass melt density, and melter pressure with the baseline WTP bubbling configuration and as augmented with additional bubblers. Collect melter exhaust samples to compare particulate carryover for different bubbler configurations. Analyze all collected data to determine the effects of adding more bubblers to the WTP HLW melter to inform decisions regarding future lid re-designs. The work used a high aluminum HLW stream composition defined by ORP, for which an appropriate simulant and high waste loading glass formulation were developed and have been previously processed on the DM1200.

Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Callow, R. A.; Joseph, I.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W. K.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

117

Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

118

Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Microsoft PowerPoint - 2-05 PEGG-2 - Melter Tests with High Al HLW - Nov 2010 emb.ppt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Melter Melter Testing with High Aluminum HLW Streams Ian L. Pegg, Hao Gan, Wing K. Kot, Keith S. Matlack, and Innocent Joseph * Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC * EnergySolutions, Inc. DOE EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange 2010 Print Close Melter Testing with High Aluminum HLW Streams 2 LAW Vitrification (90+% of waste mass) HLW Vitrification (90+% of waste activity) Pretreatment (solid/liquid separation, Cs-IX, Al, Cr, leaching) SLUDGE SUPERNATE Maximize Mass Maximize Activity Hanford WTP - Key Process Flows LAW glass disposed on site HLW glass disposed of in National Geologic Repository - TBD * Supernate: Solution of Na, Al, P, K, S, Cl, Cs, Tc, nitrates, hydroxides... * Sludge: Solids high in Fe, Al, Zr, Cr, Bi, Sr, TRU, oxides, hydroxides....

120

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

modes are nearly completely restored after ther-mal treatment. Similarly, electronic transitions in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

modes are nearly completely restored after ther- mal treatment. Similarly, electronic transitions, 338 (2003). 13. D. Chattopadhyay, I. Galeska, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 3370

Stüwe, Jogy

122

MATRIX 1 RESULTS OF THE FY07 ENHANCED DOE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). It has been proposed that a team of glass formulation and processing experts at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) at Catholic University of America develop a systematic approach to increase HLW throughput (by increasing WL with minimal or positive impacts on melt rate). Programmatically, this task is aimed at proof-of-principle testing and the development of tools to improve waste loading and melt rate, which will lead to higher waste throughput. The following four specific tasks have been proposed to meet this programmatic objective: (1) Integration and Oversight, (2) Crystal Accumulation Modeling (led by PNNL)/Higher Waste Loading Glasses (led by SRNL), (3) Melt Rate Evaluation and Modeling, and (4) Melter Scale Demonstrations. The details of these tasks can be found in the associated task plan WSRC-STI-2007-00483. The current study is focused on Task 2 (crystal accumulation modeling and higher waste loading glasses) and involves glass formulation and physical property testing by both PNNL and SRNL (as defined in the PNNL and SRNL test plans). The intent of this report is to document the chemical composition and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results and statistical analysis of PNNL's Test Matrix 1 glasses. Note that this document is only a compilation of the data collected by SRNL for PNNL's glasses in support of this task and no conclusions will be drawn.

Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

123

ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF TOA PARTITIONING ON DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of increasing the amount of TOA in the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon of the current solvent limit (150 ppm) in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would be about 7% higher and the nonvolatile hydrogen would be 2% higher than the actual current solvent (126 ppm) with an addition of up to 3 ppm of TOA when the concentration of Isopar? L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm and the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle. Therefore, the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 3 ppm of TOA in the effluent based on these assumptions. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

Daniel, G.

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

124

Numerical simulation on the influence of water spray in thermal plasma treatment of CF4 gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrogen thermal plasma generated by a non-transferred DC arc plasma torch was used to decompose tetrafluoromethane (CF4). In the thermal decomposition process, water was used as a chemical reactant source. Two kinds of water spray methods were compared: water spray directly to the arc plasma flame and indirectly to the reactor tube wall. Although the same operating conditions of input power, waste gas, and sprayed water flow rate were employed for each water spray methods, a relatively higher decomposition rate was achieved in the case of water spray to the reactor wall. In order to investigate the effects of water spraying direction on the thermal decomposition process, a numerical simulation on the thermal plasma flow characteristics was carried out considering water injection in the reactor. The simulation was performed using commercial fluid dynamics software of the FLUENT, which is suitable for calculating a complex flow. From the results, it was revealed that water spray to the reactor wall and use of a relatively small quantity of water are more effective methods for decomposition of CF4, because a sufficiently high temperature area and long reaction time can be maintained over large area.

Tae-Hee Kim; Sooseok Choi; Dong-Wha Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

126

The Development of an Innovative Vertical Floatation Melter and Scrap Dryer for Use in the Aluminum Processing Industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project aimed at the development of a Vertical Floatation melter, for application to the aluminum industry. This is intended to improve both the energy efficiency and environmental performance of aluminum melting furnaces. Phase I of this project dealt primarily with the initial research effort. Phase II, dealt with pilot-scale testing.

Robert De Saro

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

127

Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the melter handling system (LMH), the melter equipment support handling system (LSH), the radioactive solid waste handling system (RWH), and the radioactive liquid waste disposal...

128

Thermal Sensitivity to Single and Double Heat Treatments in Normal Canine Liver  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...magnitude of delayed heat damage in the liver...correlated best with heat dose were: evi dence of hepatocyte loss; focal fibrosis...temperature. The distribution of histopatholog...sensitive to therapeutic heat treatments. Thermotolerance...

Stavros D. Prionas; Mark A. Taylor; Luis F. Fajardo; Nancy I. Kelly; Thomas S. Nelsen; and George M. Hahn

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Thermal Sludge Treatment to Decrease Sludge Volume and Recycle the Sludge to New Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pure water is one of our most important assets today, and that is why we place increasing demands on water treatment. The purer the water we wish to return to nature — from whom we borrowed it — the more impuriti...

Ingemar Karlsson; Jonas Göransson…

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Thermal Properties of Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys: Phase Decomposition Effects of Heat Treatments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to generate computational estimates of the alloys specific heat and thermal conductivity. Section 2 describes the technical background in which this thesis is based, including uranium metal alloy theory and properties. Section 3 describes the experimental... the phases and distorted phases that occur during phase decomposition. The authors conducted numerous experiments involving uranium, plutonium, and neptunium, as well as alloys with other metals. In the a0 = 3.4808 ! 0.00314 xMo !" Mox ? 10 case...

Creasy, John Thomas

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

131

Guideline for benchmarking thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for benchmarking low-level mixed waste (LLMW) treatment technologies has been developed. When used in conjunction with the identification and preparation of surrogate waste mixtures, and with defined quality assurance and quality control procedures, the benchmarking process will effectively streamline the selection of treatment technologies being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for LLMW cleanup and management. Following the quantitative template provided in the benchmarking process will greatly increase the technical information available for the decision-making process. The additional technical information will remove a large part of the uncertainty in the selection of treatment technologies. It is anticipated that the use of the benchmarking process will minimize technology development costs and overall treatment costs. In addition, the benchmarking process will enhance development of the most promising LLMW treatment processes and aid in transferring the technology to the private sector. To instill inherent quality, the benchmarking process is based on defined criteria and a structured evaluation format, which are independent of any specific conventional treatment or emerging process technology. Five categories of benchmarking criteria have been developed for the evaluation: operation/design; personnel health and safety; economics; product quality; and environmental quality. This benchmarking document gives specific guidance on what information should be included and how it should be presented. A standard format for reporting is included in Appendix A and B of this document. Special considerations for LLMW are presented and included in each of the benchmarking categories.

Hoffman, D.P.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Hermes, W.H. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bastian, R.E. [Focus Environmental, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Davis, W.T. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Final report for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IT Corporation (IT) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the effectiveness of thermal desorption as a remedial technology for removing mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain soil. Previous laboratory studies by Energy Systems suggested that this technology could reduce mercury to very low levels. This pilot-scale demonstration study was initiated to verify on an engineering scale the performance of thermal desorption. This report includes the details of the demonstration study, including descriptions of experimental equipment and procedures, test conditions, sampling and analysis, quality assurance (QA), detailed test results, and an engineering assessment of a conceptual full-scale treatment facility. The specific project tasks addressed in this report were performed between October 1993 and June 1994. These tasks include soil receipt, preparation, and characterization; prepilot (bench-scale) desorption tests; front-end materials handling tests; pilot tests; back-end materials handling tests; residuals treatment; and engineering scale-up assessment.

NONE

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and DM10 Melter Testing with ORP LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-2, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/09  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to extend the glass formulation methodology developed in the earlier work by development of acceptable glass compositions for four LAW compositions specified by ORP that cover the range of sulfate to sodium and potassium to sodium ratios expected in Hanford LAW. The glass formulations were designed to exclude titanium and iron as glass former additives, while tin and vanadium as glass former additives were evaluated for beneficial effects in increasing waste loading in the glasses. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests and tests on the DM10 melter system. This melter is the most efficient melter platform for screening glass compositions over a wide range of sulfate concentrations and therefore was selected for the present tests. The current tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including sulfur incorporation and partitioning.

Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

134

Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Environmental Assessment Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) needs to demonstrate the economics and feasibility of offsite commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste (LLMW), containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and other organics, to meet existing regulatory standards for eventual disposal.

N /A

1999-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

136

TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 annual report on Clemson/INEEL melter work. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements.

Bickford, D.F.

1999-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

137

Independent Activity Report, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant -  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Waste Treatment and Immobilization Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - March 2013 Independent Activity Report, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - March 2013 March 2013 Follow-up of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity Review [HIAR-WTP-2013-03-18] The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) staff observed a limited portion of the restart of the Hazard Analysis (HA) for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) Melter Process (LMP) System. The primary purpose of this HSS field activity, on March 18-21, 2013, was to observe and understand the revised approach implemented by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), the contractor responsible for the design and construction of WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of

138

Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Waste Treatment and Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - July 2013 Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - July 2013 July 2013 Operational Awareness of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Process System Hazards Analysis Activity [HIAR-WTP-2013-07-31] This Independent Activity Report documents an oversight activity conducted by the Office of Health, Safety and Security's (HSS) Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations from July 31 - August 5, 2013, at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The activity consisted of HSS staff observing a limited portion of the hazards analysis (HA) for WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) Melter Process system. The primary purpose of this HSS field activity was to observe and

139

RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg(OH){sub 2} and Mn(OH){sub 2} caused the increase in yield stress. The low pH run exhibited as much as an order of magnitude greater B and Li (frit components) leachate concentrations in the supernate. At high pH a decrease of B leaching was found and this was attributed to adsorption onto Mg(OH){sub 2}. A second leaching experiment was performed without any sludge to deconvolute the leach rate behavior of Frit 418 from those of the SB5 sludge-Frit 418 system. At high pH, the sludgeless system demonstrated very fast leaching of all the frit components, primarily due to fast dissolution of the main component, silica, by hydroxide anion; various semiconductor studies have established this reactivity. Overall, the frit-water system exhibited greater leaching from a factor two to almost three orders of magnitude (varying by conditions and species). The slower leaching of the sludge system is possibly due to a greater ionic strength or smaller driving force. Another possible reason is a physical effect, coating of the frit particles with sludge; this would increase the mass transfer resistance to leaching. Based on this study, the cause of clogs in the melter feed loop is still unknown. A possible explanation is that the SME product, like the simulant, is too thin and could contribute to a loss of two-phase flow which could cause plugging of a restricted and poorly mixed zone like the melter feed loop. This is feasible since a previous study of a slurry showed an increase in resistance to flow at lower flow rates. Testing with a radioactive SME sample is underway and should help understand this potential mechanism.

Fernandez, A.

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

140

Assessment of the impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF melter off-gas flammability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of replacing the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process with the Next Generation Solvent (NGS-MCU) and blended solvent. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the current solvent in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would both be about 29% higher than their counterparts of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent in the absence of guanidine partitioning. When 6 ppm of guanidine (TiDG) was added to the effluent transfer to DWPF to simulate partitioning for the NGS-MCU and blended solvent cases and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer was controlled below 87 ppm, the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent were still about 12% and 4% lower, respectively, than those of the current solvent. It is, therefore, concluded that as long as the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm, using the current solvent assumption of 105 ppm Isopar{reg_sign} L or 150 ppm solvent in lieu of NGS-MCU or blended solvent in the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 6 ppm of TiDG in the effluent due to guanidine partitioning. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

Daniel, W. E.

2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Effect of thermal treatment on coke reactivity and catalytic iron mineralogy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iron minerals in coke can catalyze its gasification and may affect coke behavior in the blast furnace. The catalytic behavior of iron depends largely upon the nature of the iron-bearing minerals. To determine the mineralogical changes that iron could undergo in the blast furnace, cokes made from three coals containing iron present in different mineral forms (clays, carbonates, and pyrite) were examined. All coke samples were heat-treated in a horizontal furnace at 1373, 1573, and 1773 K and then gasified with CO{sub 2} at 1173 K in a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Coke mineralogy was characterized using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of coke mineral matter prepared by low-temperature ashing (LTA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (FESEM/EDS). The mineralogy of the three cokes was most notably distinguished by differing proportions of iron-bearing phases. During heat treatment and subsequent gasification, iron-containing minerals transformed to a range of minerals but predominantly iron-silicides and iron oxides, the relative amounts of which varied with heat treatment temperature and gasification conditions. The relationship between initial apparent reaction rate and the amount of catalytic iron minerals - pyrrhotite, metallic iron, and iron oxides - was linear and independent of heat treatment temperature at total catalyst levels below 1 wt %. The study showed that the coke reactivity decreased with increasing temperature of heat treatment due to decreased levels of catalytic iron minerals (largely due to formation of iron silicides) as well as increased ordering of the carbon structure. The study also showed that the importance of catalytic mineral matter in determining reactivity declines as gasification proceeds. 37 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

Byong-chul Kim; Sushil Gupta; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Thermal treatment of historical radioactive solid and liquid waste into the CILVA incinerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the old incinerator, a new industrial incineration plant started nuclear operation in May 1995, as a part of the Belgian Centralized Treatment/Conditioning Facility named CILVA. Up to the end of 2006, the CILVA incinerator has burnt 1660 tonne of solid waste and 419 tonne of liquid waste. This paper describes the type and allowable radioactivity of the waste, the incineration process, heat recovery and the air pollution control devices. Special attention is given to the treatment of several hundreds of tonne historical waste from former reprocessing activities such as alpha suspected solid waste, aqueous and organic liquid waste and spent ion exchange resins. The capacity, volume reduction, chemical and radiological emissions are also evaluated. BELGOPROCESS, a company set up in 1984 at Dessel (Belgium) where a number of nuclear facilities were already installed is specialized in the processing of radioactive waste. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Nuclear Waste Management Agency. According to its mission statement, the activities of BELGOPROCESS focus on three areas: treatment, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste; decommissioning of shut-down nuclear facilities and cleaning of contaminated buildings and land; operating of storage sites for conditioned radioactive waste. (authors)

Deckers, Jan; Mols, Ludo [Belgoprocess NV, Operations Department, Gravenstraat 73, B-2480 Dessel (Belgium)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Earth melter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed either by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, or by constructing a melt zone in an apparatus above grade and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials.

Chapman, Christopher C. (Richland, WA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

An investigation of gas separation membranes for reduction of thermal treatment emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas permeable membranes were evaluated for possible use as air pollution control devices on a fluidized bed catalytic incineration unit. The unit is a candidate technology for treatment of certain mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cellulose acetate and polyimide membranes were tested to determine the permeance of typical off-gas components such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen. Multi-component permeation studies included gas mixtures containing light hydrocarbons. Experiments were also conducted to discover information about potential membrane degradation in the presence of organic compounds.

Stull, D.M.; Logsdon, B.W. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant; Pellegrino, J.J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1994-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

146

Glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium-content low-level, radioactive, liquid wastes: Phase 1, SBS demonstration with simulated low-level waste. Final test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The attached vendor report was prepared for Westinghouse Hanford Company by Babcock & Wilcox as documentation of the Phase I Final Test Report, Cyclone Combustion Melter Demonstration.

Holmes, M.J.; Scotto, M.V.; Shiao, S.Y. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States) Research Center

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

147

Silicate Based Glass Formulations for Immobilization of U.S. Defense Wastes Using Cold Crucible Induction Melters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) is an alternative technology to the currently deployed liquid-fed, ceramic-lined, Joule-heated melter for immobilizing of U.S. tank waste generated from defense related reprocessing. In order to accurately evaluate the potential benefits of deploying a CCIM, glasses must be developed specifically for that melting technology. Related glass formulation efforts have been conducted since the 1990s including a recent study that is first documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to summarize the silicate base glass formulation efforts for CCIM testing of U.S. tank wastes. Summaries of phosphate based glass formulation and phosphate and silicate based CCIM demonstration tests are reported separately (Day and Ray 2013 and Marra 2013, respectively). Combined these three reports summarize the current state of knowledge related to waste form development and process testing of CCIM technology for U.S. tank wastes.

Smith, Gary L.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Marra, James C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Crawford, Charles L.; Vienna, John D.

2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

148

Final Report - Glass Formulation Testing to Increase Sulfate Volatilization from Melter, VSL-04R4970-1, Rev. 0, dated 2/24/05  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objectives of the DM100 and DM10 tests were to determine the impact of four different organics and one inorganic feed additive on sulfate volatilization and to determine the sulfur partitioning between the glass and the off-gas system. The tests provided information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data including sulfur incorporation and partitioning. A series of DM10 and DM100 melter tests were conducted using a LAW Envelope A feed. The testing was divided into three parts. The first part involved a series of DM10 melter tests with four different organic feed additives: sugar, polyethylene glycol (PEG), starch, and urea. The second part involved two confirmatory 50-hour melter tests on the DM100 using the best combination of reductants and conditions based on the DM10 results. The third part was performed on the DM100 with feeds containing vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) as an inorganic additive to increase sulfur partitioning to the off-gas. Although vanadium oxide is not a reductant, previous testing has shown that vanadium shows promise for partitioning sulfur to the melter exhaust, presumably through its known catalytic effect on the SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} reaction. Crucible-scale tests were conducted prior to the melter tests to confirm that the glasses and feeds would be processable in the melter and that the glasses would meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements. Thus, the major objectives of these tests were to: ? Perform screening tests on the DM10 followed by tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed with four organic additives to assess their impact on sulfur volatilization. ? Perform tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed containing vanadium oxide to assess its impact on sulfur volatilization. ? Determine feed processability and product quality with the above additives. ? Collect melter emissions data to determine the effect of additives on sulfur partitioning and melter emissions. ? Collect and analyze discharged glass to determine sulfur retention in the glass. ? Prepare and characterize feeds and glasses with the additives to confirm that the feeds and the glass melts are suitable for processing in the DM100 melter. ? Prepare and characterize glasses with the additives to confirm that the glasses meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements.

Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. A.; Pegg, I. L.; Gong, W.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

149

Connecting section and associated systems concept for the spray calciner/in-can melter process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For a number of years, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have been developing processes and equipment for converting high-level liquid wastes to solid forms. One of these processes is the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system. To immobilize high-level liquid wastes, this system must be operated remotely, and the calcine must be reliably conveyed from the calciner to the melting furnace. A concept for such a remote conveyance system was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and equipment was tested under full-scale, nonradioactive conditions. This concept and the design of demonstration equipment are described, and the results of equipment operation during experimental runs of 7 d are presented. The design includes a connecting section and its associated systems - a canister sypport and alignment concept and a weight-monitoring system for the melting furnace. Overall, the runs demonstrated that the concept design is an acceptable method of connecting the two pieces of process equipment together. Although the connecting section has not been optimized in all areas of concern, it provides a first-generation design of a production-oriented system.

Petkus, L.L.; Gorton, P.S.; Blair, H.T.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatment for improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Surface modifications induced by non-thermal plasma have been used extensively in biomedical applications. The attachment and proliferation of osteoblast cells are important in bone tissue engineering using scaffolds. Hence the effect of non-thermal plasma on hydroxyapatite/?-tri-calcium phosphate (HA/?-TCP) scaffolds in terms of improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation was investigated. Experimental groups were treated with non-thermal plasma for 10 min and 20 min and a control group was not treated with non-thermal plasma. For surface chemistry analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity was determined from contact angle measurement on the surface. Atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM) was used to test the change in surface roughness and cell attachment and proliferation were evaluated using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. XPS spectra revealed a decreased amount of carbon on the surface of the plasma-treated sample. The contact angle was also decreased following plasma treatment, indicating improved hydrophilicity of plasma-treated surfaces compared to the untreated disc. A significant increase in MC3T3E-1 cell attachment and proliferation was noted on plasma-treated samples as compared to untreated specimens. The results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatments provide beneficial surface characteristics on HA/?-TCP scaffolds.

Yu-Ri Choi; Jae-Sung Kwon; Doo-Hoon Song; Eun Ha Choi; Yong-Keun Lee; Kyoung-Nam Kim; Kwang-Mahn Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

REVIEW REPORT: BUILDING C-400 THERMAL TREATMENT 90 PERCENT REMEDIAL DESIGN REPORT AND SITE INVESTIGATION, PGDP, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On 9 April 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Office of Soil and Groundwater Remediation (EM-22) initiated an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of the 90% Remedial Design Report (RDR) and Site Investigation (RDSI) for thermal treatment of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the soil and groundwater in the vicinity of Building C-400 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The general ITR goals were to assess the technical adequacy of the 90% RDSI and provide recommendations sufficient for DOE to determine if modifications are warranted pertaining to the design, schedule, or cost of implementing the proposed design. The ultimate goal of the effort was to assist the DOE Paducah/Portsmouth Project Office (PPPO) and their contractor team in ''removing'' the TCE source zone located near the C-400 Building. This report provides the ITR findings and recommendations and supporting evaluations as needed to facilitate use of the recommendations. The ITR team supports the remedial action objective (RAO) at C-400 to reduce the TCE source area via subsurface Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH). Further, the ITR team commends PPPO, their contractor team, regulators, and stakeholders for the significant efforts taken in preparing the 90% RDR. To maximize TCE removal at the target source area, several themes emerge from the review which the ITR team believes should be considered and addressed before implementing the thermal treatment. These themes include the need for: (1) Accurate and site-specific models as the basis to verify the ERH design for full-scale implementation for this challenging hydrogeologic setting; (2) Flexible project implementation and operation to allow the project team to respond to observations and data collected during construction and operation; (3) Defensible performance metrics and monitoring, appropriate for ERH, to ensure sufficient and efficient clean-up; and (4) Comprehensive (creative and diverse) contingencies to address the potential for system underperformance, and other unforeseen conditions These themes weave through the ITR report and the various analyses and recommendations. The ITR team recognizes that a number of technologies are available for treatment of TCE sources. Further, the team supports the regulatory process through which the selected remedy is being implemented, and concurs that ERH is a potentially viable remedial technology to meet the RAOs adjacent to C-400. Nonetheless, the ITR team concluded that additional efforts are needed to provide an adequate basis for the planned ERH design, particularly in the highly permeable Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA), where sustaining target temperatures present a challenge. The ERH design modeling in the 90% RDR does not fully substantiate that heating in the deep RGA, at the interface with the McNairy formation, will meet the design goals; specifically the target temperatures. Full-scale implementation of ERH to meet the RAOs is a challenge in the complex hydrogeologic setting at PGDP. Where possible, risks to the project identified in this ITR report as ''issues'' and ''recommendations'' should be mitigated as part of the final design process to increase the likelihood of remedial success. The ITR efforts were organized into five lines of inquiry (LOIs): (1) Site investigation and target zone delineation; (2) Performance objectives; (3) Project and design topics; (4) Health and safety; and (5) Cross cutting and independent cost evaluation. Within each of these LOIs, the ITR team identified a series of unresolved issues--topics that have remaining uncertainties or potential project risks. These issues were analyzed and one or more recommendations were developed for each. In the end, the ITR team identified 27 issues and provided 50 recommendations. The issues and recommendations are briefly summarized below, developed in Section 5, and consolidated into a single list in Section 6. The ITR team concluded that there are substantive unresolved issues and system design uncertainties, resulting in technical and financial risks to DOE.

Looney, B; Jed Costanza, J; Eva Davis, E; Joe Rossabi, J; Lloyd (Bo) Stewart, L; Hans Stroo, H

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Iron Phosphate Glass for Vitrifying Hanford AZ102 LAW in Joule Heated and Cold Crucible Induction Melters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An iron phosphate composition for vitrifying a high sulfate (~17 wt%) and high alkali (~80 wt%) low activity Hanford waste, known as AZ102 LAW, has been developed for processing in a Joule Heated Melter (JHM) or a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). This composition produced a glass waste form, designated as MS26AZ102F-2, with a waste loading of 26 wt% of the AZ102 which corresponded to a total alkali and sulfate (SO3) content of 21 and 4.2 wt%, respectively. A slurry (7M Na) of MS26AZ102F-2 simulant was melted continuously at temperatures between 1030 and 1090°C for 10 days in a small JHM at PNNL and for 7 days in a CCIM at INL. The as-cast glasses produced in both melters and in trial laboratory experiments along with their CCC-treated counterparts met the DOE LAW requirements for the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Vapor Hydration Test (VHT). These glass waste forms retained up to 77 % of the SO3 (3.3 wt%), 100% of the Cesium, and 33 to 44% of the rhenium, surrogate for Tc-99, all of which either exceeded or were comparable to the retention limit for these species in borosilicate glass nuclear waste form. Analyses of commercial K-3 refractory lining and the Inconel 693 metal electrodes used in JHM indicated only minimum corrosion of these components by the iron phosphate glass. This is the first time that an iron phosphate composition (slurry feed) was melted continuously in the JHM and CCIM, thereby, demonstrating that iron phosphate glasses can be used as alternative hosts for vitrifying nuclear waste.

Day, Delbert E.; Brow, R. K.; Ray, C. S.; Kim, Cheol-Woon; Reis, Signo T.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.; Johnson, Fabienne; Hansen, E. K.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Pegg, Ian L.; Gan, Hao

2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

153

FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING USING AZ 102 AND C 106/AY-102 HLW SIMULANTS: HLW SIMULANT VERIFICATION VSL-05R5800-1 REV 0 6/27/05  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter tests were to determine the effects of feed rheology, feed solid content, and bubbler configuration on glass production rate and off-gas system performance while processing the HLW AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 feed compositions; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components, as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table. The data provided in this Final Report address the impacts of HLW melter feed rheology on melter throughput and validation of the simulated HLW melter feeds. The primary purpose of this testing is to further validate/verify the HLW melter simulants that have been used for previous melter testing and to support their continued use in developing melter and off-gas related processing information for the Project. The primary simulant property in question is rheology. Simulants and melter feeds used in all previous melter tests were produced by direct addition of chemicals; these feed tend to be less viscous than rheological the upper-bound feeds made from actual wastes. Data provided here compare melter processing for the melter feed used in all previous DM100 and DM1200 tests (nominal melter feed) with feed adjusted by the feed vendor (NOAH Technologies) to be more viscous, thereby simulating more closely the upperbounding feed produced from actual waste. This report provides results of tests that are described in the Test Plan for this work. The Test Plan is responsive to one of several test objectives covered in the WTP Test Specification for this work; consequently, only part of the scope described in the Test Specification was addressed in this particular Test Plan. For the purpose of comparison, the tests reported here were performed with AZ-102 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants and glass compositions that are essentially the same as those used for recent DM1200 tests. One exception was the use of an alternate, higher-waste-loading C-106/AY-102 glass composition that was used in previous DM100 tests to further evaluate the performance of the optimized bubbler configuration.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

154

NOBLE METAL CHEMISTRY AND HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING SIMULATED DWPF MELTER FEED PREPARATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell vessels were performed with the primary purpose of producing melter feeds for the beaded frit program plus obtaining samples of simulated slurries containing high concentrations of noble metals for off-site analytical studies for the hydrogen program. Eight pairs of 22-L simulations were performed of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles. These sixteen simulations did not contain mercury. Six pairs were trimmed with a single noble metal (Ag, Pd, Rh, or Ru). One pair had all four noble metals, and one pair had no noble metals. One supporting 4-L simulation was completed with Ru and Hg. Several other 4-L supporting tests with mercury have not yet been performed. This report covers the calculations performed on SRNL analytical and process data related to the noble metals and hydrogen generation. It was originally envisioned as a supporting document for the off-site analytical studies. Significant new findings were made, and many previous hypotheses and findings were given additional support as summarized below. The timing of hydrogen generation events was reproduced very well within each of the eight pairs of runs, e.g. the onset of hydrogen, peak in hydrogen, etc. occurred at nearly identical times. Peak generation rates and total SRAT masses of CO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen were reproduced well. Comparable measures for hydrogen were reproduced with more variability, but still reasonably well. The extent of the reproducibility of the results validates the conclusions that were drawn from the data.

Koopman, D

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

155

Corrosion of MA754 and MA956 in a Commercial Aluminum Melter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to test two oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys that could be used to construct very high-temperature heat recuperators for the aluminum-melting industry. For the initial tests, uncooled rings of MA754 and MA956 piping were exposed for 5 months to gases leaving an aluminum melter furnace at 1200 1290 C. The MA956 suffered spotty areas of severe corrosion and lost 25% of its weight. Scanning electron microscopy showed that there were small spots of alkali-rich corrosion products on the alloy surfaces, indicating the impact of droplets of fluxing agents. The corrosion products in these areas were mixed Fe, Cr, and Al oxides, which were depleted in Cr near the gas surface. However, Al concentrations in the remaining metal were typically between 3.5% and 4.0%, so there was a sufficient reservoir of Al remaining in the alloy to prevent simple breakaway corrosion which could have occurred if the Al were significantly depleted. The MA754 lost approximately 15% of its weight and showed void formation within 2 mm of the gas metal surfaces. Within the porous area, the Cr had largely segregated into oxide precipitates up to 50 9m in diameter, leaving the remaining metal Ni-rich. Below the porous layer, the alloy composition was relatively unchanged. Remains of Na- and Al-rich particles that had impacted the surface sporadically were visible but had not obviously affected the surface scale as they had with the MA956.

Hurley, John P. [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center] [University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center; Kelley, Carl [Nature’s Fuel, 410 East Cook Road, Fort Wayne, IN 46825, USA] [Nature’s Fuel, 410 East Cook Road, Fort Wayne, IN 46825, USA; Bornstein, Norman S. [Consultant] [Consultant; Wright, Ian G [ORNL] [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Non-thermal Atmospheric Plasma Treatment for Deactivation of Oral Bacteria and Improvement of Dental Composite Restoration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reviews our recent research results of using non-thermal ­atmospheric plasmas for oral bacterial deactivation and for composite...Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acid...

Qing Song Yu; H. Li; A. C. Ritts; B. Yang…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Application of thermal treatment procedure for concrete with the help of solar energy to construction engineering practice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experience of solar energy usage for concreting with the help of different solar radiation devices in Russian regions and in ... reported. Information about the cost efficiency of solar energy usage for thermal

N. I. Podgornov; D. D. Koroteev

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Appendix B, Flow sheets and material balances: Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document accompanies a full report which describes the testing and evaluation of ten different methods for incinerating mixed low-level radioactive wastes. It consists of flowsheets and diagrams of a rotary kiln, pyrolysis methods, a plasma furnace, a fixed hearth, and thermal desorption methods.

Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Final Report - Effects of High Spinel and Chromium Oxide Crystal Contents on Simulated HLW Vitrification in DM100 Melter Tests, VSL-09R1520-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/22/09  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of spinel and chromium oxide particles on WTP HLW melter operations and potential impacts on melter life. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, settling and rheological tests, and tests on the DM100 melter system. Crucible testing was designed to develop and identify HLW glass compositions with high waste loadings that exhibit formation of crystalline spinel and/or chromium oxide phases up to relatively high crystal contents (i.e., > 1 vol%). Characterization of crystal settling and the effects on melt rheology was performed on the HLW glass formulations. Appropriate candidate HLW glass formulations were selected, based on characterization results, to support subsequent melter tests. In the present work, crucible melts were formulated that exhibit up to about 4.4 vol% crystallization.

Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Lutze, W.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

160

Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TGA-GC-MS) combination to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Apart from identifying the gases evolved, we performed quantitative analysis relating the weighed sum of intensities of individual gases linearly proportional with the differential themogravimetry. The proportionality coefficients were obtained by three methods based on the stoichiometry, least squares, and calibration. The linearity was shown to be a good first-order approximation, in spite of the complicated overlapping reactions.

Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Schweiger, Michael J.

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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161

Simulation of the dependence of gas composition on the conditions of the thermal treatment of oil shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Empirical formulas for calculating the concentrations of substances such as hydrogen and carbon(II) oxide and also the smallest possible concentration of carbon(IV) oxide in gas prepared by the steam treatment of...

A. N. Ryzhov; T. A. Avakyan; L. K. Maslova; E. A. Sakharova…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

On the Use of Thermal NF3 as the Fluorination and Oxidation Agent in Treatment of Used Nuclear Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents results of our investigation on the use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorination or fluorination/oxidation agent for use in a process for separating valuable constituents from used nuclear fuels by employing the volatility of many transition metal and actinide fluorides. Nitrogen trifluoride is less chemically and reactively hazardous than the hazardous and aggressive fluorinating agents used to prepare uranium hexafluoride and considered for fluoride volatility based nuclear fuels reprocessing. In addition, nitrogen trifluoride’s less aggressive character may be used to separate the volatile fluorides from used fuel and from themselves based on the fluorination reaction’s temperature sensitivity (thermal tunability) rather than relying on differences in sublimation/boiling temperature and sorbents. Our thermodynamic calculations found that nitrogen trifluoride has the potential to produce volatile fission product and actinide fluorides from candidate oxides and metals. Our simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses found that the oxides of lanthanum, cerium, rhodium, and plutonium fluorinated but did not form volatile fluorides and that depending on temperature volatile fluorides formed from the oxides of niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, tellurium, uranium, and neptunium. We also demonstrated near-quantitative removal of uranium from plutonium in a mixed oxide.

Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Thermal treatment induced change of diluted oxygen doped ZnTe films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the authors report the growth of diluted oxygen doped ZnTe films (ZnTe:O) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The effect of a post thermal annealing on the properties of the highly mismatched films has been investigated. It is found that the in-situ doping leads to an effective incorporation of oxygen into ZnTe films with different occupation configurations either on Zn or on Te site. The subsequent annealing process in a vacuum ambient leads to an enhancement of the oxygen incorporation into the ZnTe:O films due to the diffusion of the residual oxygen while the annealing with the same as-grown sample covered on top of the surface (denoted as “face-to-face” annealing in the text) is beneficial to the improvement of the film quality with manifest intermediate band emission at around 1.9?eV as revealed by the low-temperature photoluminescence. This study indicates that the mass-productive MOCVD technique may be suitable for the growth of highly mismatched ZnTe:O films for the application of the intermediate band solar cell.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

DATA SUMMARY REPORT SMALL SCALE MELTER TESTING OF HLW ALGORITHM GLASSES MATRIX1 TESTS VSL-07S1220-1 REV 0 7/25/07  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eight tests using different HLW feeds were conducted on the DM100-BL to determine the effect of variations in glass properties and feed composition on processing rates and melter conditions (off-gas characteristics, glass processing, foaming, cold cap, etc.) at constant bubbling rate. In over seven hundred hours of testing, the property extremes of glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, and T{sub 1%}, as well as minimum and maximum concentrations of several major and minor glass components were evaluated using glass compositions that have been tested previously at the crucible scale. Other parameters evaluated with respect to glass processing properties were +/-15% batching errors in the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs) to the feed, and variation in the sources of boron and sodium used in the GFCs. Tests evaluating batching errors and GFC source employed variations on the HLW98-86 formulation (a glass composition formulated for HLW C-106/AY-102 waste and processed in several previous melter tests) in order to best isolate the effect of each test variable. These tests are outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to the Test Specification for this work. The present report provides summary level data for all of the tests in the first test matrix (Matrix 1) in the Test Plan. Summary results from the remaining tests, investigating minimum and maximum concentrations of major and minor glass components employing variations on the HLW98-86 formulation and glasses generated by the HLW glass formulation algorithm, will be reported separately after those tests are completed. The test data summarized herein include glass production rates, the type and amount of feed used, a variety of measured melter parameters including temperatures and electrode power, feed sample analysis, measured glass properties, and gaseous emissions rates. More detailed information and analysis from the melter tests with complete emission chemistry, glass durability, and melter operating details will be provided in the final report. A summary of the tests that were conducted is provided in Table 1. Each of the seven tests was of nominally one hundred hours in duration. Test B was conducted in two equal segments: the first with nominal additives, and the second with the replacement of borax with a mixture of boric acid and soda ash to determine the effect of alternative OPC sources on production rates and processing characteristics. Interestingly, sugar additions were required near mid points of Tests W and Z to reduce excessive foaming that severely limited feed processing rates. The sugar additions were very effective in recovering manageable processing conditions, albeit over the relatively short remainder of the test duration. Tests W and Z employed the highest melt viscosities but not by a particularly wide margin. Other tests, which did not exhibit such foaming Issues, employed higher concentrations of manganese or iron or both. These results highlight the need for the development of protocols for the a priori determination of which HLW feeds will require sugar additions and the appropriate amounts of sugar to be added in order to control foaming (and maintain throughput) without over-reduction of the melt (which could lead to molten metal formation). In total, over 8,800 kg of feed was processed to produce over 3200 kg of glass. Steady-state processing rates were achieved, and no secondary sulfate phases were observed during any of the tests. Analysis was performed on samples of the glass product taken throughout the tests to verify composition and properties. Sampling and analysis was also performed on melter exhaust to determine the effect of the feed and glass changes on melter emissions.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

165

Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANTIFOAM TRACKING SYSTEM AS AN OPTION TO SUPPORT THE MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY CONTROL STRATEGY AT THE DWPF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of an additional strategy for confidently satisfying the flammability controls for DWPF’s melter operation. An initial strategy for implementing the operational constraints associated with flammability control in DWPF was based upon an analytically determined carbon concentration from antifoam. Due to the conservative error structure associated with the analytical approach, its implementation has significantly reduced the operating window for processing and has led to recurrent Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and Melter Feed Tank (MFT) remediation. To address the adverse operating impact of the current implementation strategy, SRR issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to SRNL requesting the development and documentation of an alternate strategy for evaluating the carbon contribution from antifoam. The proposed strategy presented in this report was developed under the guidance of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and involves calculating the carbon concentration from antifoam based upon the actual mass of antifoam added to the process assuming 100% retention. The mass of antifoam in the Additive Mix Feed Tank (AMFT), in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), and in the SME is tracked by mass balance as part of this strategy. As these quantities are monitored, the random and bias uncertainties affecting their values are also maintained and accounted for. This report documents: 1) the development of an alternate implementation strategy and associated equations describing the carbon concentration from antifoam in each SME batch derived from the actual amount of antifoam introduced into the AMFT, SRAT, and SME during the processing of the batch. 2) the equations and error structure for incorporating the proposed strategy into melter off-gas flammability assessments. Sample calculations of the system are also included in this report. Please note that the system developed and documented in this report is intended as an alternative to the current, analytically-driven system being utilized by DWPF; the proposed system is not intended to eliminate the current system. Also note that the system developed in this report to track antifoam mass in the AMFT, SRAT, and SME will be applicable beyond just Sludge Batch 8. While the model used to determine acceptability of the SME product with respect to melter off-gas flammability controls must be reassessed for each change in sludge batch, the antifoam mass tracking methodology is independent of sludge batch composition and as such will be transferable to future sludge batches.

Edwards, T.; Lambert, D.

2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

167

Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hanford Waste Treatment and Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - June 2013 Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - June 2013 June 2013 Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter Off-gas Process System Hazards Analysis Activity Observation [HIAR-WTP-2013-05-13] This Independent Activity Report documents an oversight activity conducted by the Office of Health, Safety and Security's (HSS) Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations from May 13 - June 28, 2013, at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The activity consisted of HSS staff observing a limited portion of the start of the hazard analysis (HA) for WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) Primary Off-gas System. The primary purpose of this HSS field activity was to observe and

168

Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NO{sub x} Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studsvik's Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR) steam reforming process has been tested and proven to effectively treat radioactive and hazardous wastes streams with high nitrate contents to produce dry, stable mineral products, while providing high conversion (>98%) of nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. However, increased NO{sub x} reduction may be desired for some waste streams under certain regulatory frameworks. In order to enhance the NO{sub x} reduction performance of the THOR process, a common Three-Way catalytic NO{sub x} reduction unit was installed in the process gas piping of a recently completed Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD). The catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit was located downstream of the main THOR process vessel, and it was designed to catalyze the reduction of residual NO{sub x} to nitrogen gas via the oxidation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds that are inherent to the THOR process gas. There was no need for auxiliary injection of a reducing gas, such as ammonia. The unit consisted of four monolith type catalyst sections positioned in series with a gas mixing section located between each catalyst section. The process gas was monitored for NO{sub x} concentration upstream and downstream of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. Conversion efficiencies ranged from 91% to 97% across the catalytic unit, depending on the composition of the inlet gas. Higher concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the THOR process gas increased the NO{sub x} reduction capability of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. The NO{sub x} destruction performance of THOR process in combination with the Three-Way catalytic unit resulted in overall system NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of greater than 99.9% with an average NO{sub x} reduction efficiency of 99.94% for the entire demonstration program. This allowed the NO{sub x} concentration in the ESTD exhaust gas to be maintained at less than 40 parts per million (ppm), dry basis with an average concentration of approximately 17 ppm, dry basis. There were no signs of catalyst deactivation throughout the 6 day demonstration program, even under the high steam (>50%) content and chemically reducing conditions inherent to the THOR process. Utilization of the common Three-Way automotive catalyst may prove to be a cost effective method for improving NO{sub x} emissions from thermal treatment processes that utilize similar processing conditions. This paper will discuss the details of the implementation and performance of the Three-Way catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit at the THOR ESTD, as well as a discussion of future work to determine the long-term durability of the catalyst in the THOR process. (authors)

Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E. [Studsvik, Inc. 5605 Glenridge Drive Suite 705, Atlanta, GA 30342 (United States)] [Studsvik, Inc. 5605 Glenridge Drive Suite 705, Atlanta, GA 30342 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF BUBBLER CONFIGURATIONS USING HLW AZ-101 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-4 REV 0 10/5/04  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of six tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the other tests have been reported separately. The solids contents of the melter feeds were based on the WTP baseline value for the solids content of the feeds from pretreatment which changed during these tests from 20% to 15% undissolved solids resulting in tests conducted at two feed solids contents. Based on the results of earlier tests with single outlet 'J' bubblers, initial tests were performed with a total bubbling rate of 651 pm. The first set of tests (Tests 1A-1E) addressed the effects of skewing this total air flow rate back and forth between the two installed bubblers in comparison to a fixed equal division of flow between them. The second set of tests (2A-2D) addressed the effects of bubbler depth. Subsequently, as the location, type and number of bubbling outlets were varied, the optimum bubbling rate for each was determined. A third (3A-3C) and fourth (8A-8C) set of tests evaluated the effects of alternative bubbler designs with two gas outlets per bubbler instead of one by placing four bubblers in positions simulating multiple-outlet bubblers. Data from the simulated multiple outlet bubblers were used to design bubblers with two outlets for an additional set of tests (9A-9C). Test 9 was also used to determine the effect of small sugar additions to the feed on ruthenium volatility. Another set of tests (10A-10D) evaluated the effects on production rate of spiking the feed with chloride and sulfate. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The feed rate was increased to the point that a constant, essentially complete, cold cap was achieved, which was used as an indicator of a maximized feed rate for each test. The first day of each test was used to build the cold cap and decrease the plenum temperature. The remainder of each test was split into two- to six-day segments, each with a different bubbling rate, bubbler orientation, or feed concentration of chloride and sulfur.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

170

Novel AC and DC Non-Thermal Plasma Sources for Cold Surface Treatment of Polymer Films and Fabrics at Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Novel types of non-thermal plasma sources at atmospheric pressure based on multi-pin DC (direct ... ofdischarges mentioned and output energy characteristics of new plasma sources as well as data on after-...

Yuri Akishev; Michail Grushin; Anatoly Napartovich…

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

The eco-friendly surface modification of textiles for deep digital textile printing by in-line atmospheric non-thermal plasma treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study evaluated the potential application of an atmospheric plasma (AP) treatment as a pre-treatment for digital textile printing (DTP) of polyester (PET) fabrics and cotton, in order to determine its via...

Youngmi Park; Kang Koo

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Test plan for evaluation of plasma melter technology for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a test plan for the conduct of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384212] is the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) in Pittsburgh, PA. WSTC authors of the test plan are D. F. McLaughlin, E. J. Lahoda, W. R. Gass, and N. D`Amico. The WSTC Program Manager for this test is D. F. McLaughlin. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass frit with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a plasma arc fired furnace.

McLaughlin, D.F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Gass, W.R.; D`Amico, N. [ed.

1994-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms: Report Detailing Data Collection In Support Of Potential FY13 Pilot Scale Melter Test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to summarize the data collection in support of future melter demonstration testing for crystalline ceramic waste forms. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. The principal difficulties encountered during processing of the ?reference ceramic? waste form by a melt and crystallization process were the incomplete incorporation of Cs into the hollandite phase and the presence of secondary Cs-Mo non-durable phases. In the single phase hollandite system, these issues were addressed in this study by refining the compositions to include Cr as a transition metal element and the use of Ti/TiO{sub 2} buffer to maintain reducing conditions. Initial viscosity studies of ceramic waste forms indicated that the pour spout must be maintained above 1400{deg}C to avoid flow blockages due to crystallization. In-situ electron irradiations simulate radiolysis effects indicated hollandite undergoes a crystalline to amorphous transition after a radiation dose of 10{sup 13} Gy which corresponds to approximately 1000 years at anticipated doses (2?10{sup 10}-2?10{sup 11} Gy). Dual-beam ion irradiations employing light ion beam (such as 5 MeV alpha) and heavy ion beam (such as 100 keV Kr) studies indicate that reference ceramic waste forms are radiation tolerant to the ??particles and ?-particles, but are susceptible to a crystalline to amorphous transition under recoil nuclei effects. A path forward for refining the processing steps needed to form the targeted phase assemblages is outlined in this report. Processing modifications including melting in a reducing atmosphere with the use of Ti/TiO2 buffers, and the addition of Cr to the transition metal additives to facilitate Cs-incorporation in the hollandite phase. In addition to melt processing, alternative fabrication routes are being considered including Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP).

Brinkman, K. S.; Amoroso, J.; Marra, J. C.; Fox, K. M.

2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

174

FINAL REPORT MELTER TESTS WITH AZ-101 HLW SIMULANT USING A DURAMELTER 100 VITRIFICATION SYSTEM VSL-01R10N0-1 REV 1 2/25/02  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides data, analyses, and conclusions from a series of tests that were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic of America (VSL) to determine the processing rates that are achievable with AZ-101 HLW simulants and corresponding melter feeds on a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) vitrification system. One of the most critical pieces of information in determining the required size of the RPP-WTP HLW melter is the specific glass production rate in terms of the mass of glass that can be produced per unit area of melt surface per unit time. The specific glass production rate together with the waste loading (essentially, the ratio of waste-in to glass-out, which is determined from glass formulation activities) determines the melt area that is needed to achieve a given waste processing rate with due allowance for system availability. Tests conducted during Part B1 (VSL-00R2590-2) on the DM1000 vitrification system installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America showed that, without the use of bubblers, glass production rates with AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 simulants were significantly lower than the Project design basis rate of 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d. Conversely, three-fold increases over the design basis rate were demonstrated with the use of bubblers. Furthermore, an un-bubbled control test using a replica of the melter feed used in cold commissioning tests at West Valley reproduced the rates that were observed with that feed on the WVDP production melter. More recent tests conducted on the DM1200 system, which more closely represents the present RPP-WTP design, are in general agreement with these earlier results. Screening tests conducted on the DM10 system have provided good indications of the larger-scale processing rates with bubblers (for both HL W and LAW feeds) but significantly overestimated the DM1000 un-bubbled rate observed for C-106/AY-102 melter feeds. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of the role of heat transfer in rate attainment and the much greater role of wall effects in heat transfer when the melt pool is not agitated. The DM100 melter used for the present tests has a surface area of 0.108 m{sup 2}, which is approximately 5 times larger than that of the DM10 (0.021 m{sup 2}) and approximately 11 times smaller than that of the DM1000 (1.2 m{sup 2}) (the DM1000 has since been replaced by a pilot-scale prototypical HLW melter, designated the DM1200, which has the same surface area as the DM1000). Testing on smaller melters is the most economical method for obtaining data over a wide range of operating conditions (particularly at extremes) and for guiding the more expensive tests that are performed at pilot-scale. Thus, one objective of these tests was to determine whether the DM100 melters are sufficiently large to reproduce the un-bubbled melt rates observed at the DM1000 scale, or to determine the extent of any off-set. DM100-scale tests can then be used to screen feed chemistry variations that may serve to increase the un-bubbled production rates prior to confirmation at pilot scale. Finally, extensive characterization data obtained on simulated HLW melter feeds formed from various glass forming additives indicated that there may be advantages in terms of feed rheology and stability to the replacement of some of the hydroxides by carbonates. A further objective of the present tests was therefore to identify any deleterious processing effects of such a change before adopting the carbonate feed as the baseline. Data from the WVDP melter using acidified (nitrated) feeds, and without bubbling, showed productions rates that are higher than those observed with the alkaline RPP feeds at the VSL. Therefore, the effect of feed acidification on production rate also was investigated. This work was performed under Test Specification, 'TSP-W375-00-00019, Rev 0, 'HLW-DM10 and DM100 Melter Tests' dated November 13, 2000 and the corresponding Test Plan. It should be noted, however, that the RPP-WTP Project directed a series of changes to the Test Plan as the result

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

175

Microsoft PowerPoint - ESGCold Cap Melting (2) [Read-Only  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pre-Treatment Facility HLW Vitrification Facility LAW Vitrification Facility Outline * Glass-melting furnace (melter) and cold cap (batch blanket) * Melter feed conversion to...

176

Waste Treatment Plant - 12508  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration equipment, cesium-ion exchange columns, evaporator boilers and recirculation pumps, and various mechanical process pumps for transferring process fluids. During the first phase of pretreatment, the waste will be concentrated using an evaporation process. Solids will be filtered out, and the remaining soluble, highly radioactive isotopes will be removed using an ion-exchange process. The high-level solids will be sent to the High-Level Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility, and the low activity liquids will be sent to the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vitrification Facility for further processing. The high-level waste will be transferred via underground pipes to the HLW Facility from the Pretreatment Facility. The waste first arrives at the wet cell, which rests inside a black-cell area. The pretreated waste is transferred through shielded pipes into a series of melter preparation and feed vessels before reaching the melters. Liquids from various facility processes also return to the wet cell for interim storage before recycling back to the Pretreatment Facility. (authors)

Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

61 - 23770 of 31,917 results. 61 - 23770 of 31,917 results. Page EA-0821: Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to use an existing glass melter thermal treatment unit (also known as a Penberthy Pyro-Converter joule-heated glass furnace) for the... http://energy.gov/nepa/ea-0821-operation-glass-melter-thermal-treatment-unit-us-department-energys-mound-plant Page EA-0843: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Low-Level and Mixed Waste Processing, Idaho Falls, Idaho This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to (1) reduce the volume of the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) generated low-level waste (LLW)...

178

Thermal Processes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass, to release hydrogen, which is part of their molecular structure. In other processes, heat, in...

179

Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

180

LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma induces angiogenesis through reactive oxygen species  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...treatment [56]. Non-thermal plasma devices, specifically...generated at atmospheric pressure in...58]. DBD plasma characteristics...distance [58]. Non-thermal DBD plasma...effects of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma on bacteria...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Thermal Pretreatment For TRU Waste Sorting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency conducted a study on thermal treatment of TRU waste to develop a removal technology for materials that are forbidden for disposal. The thermal pretreatment in which hot nitrogen and/or air is introduced to the waste is a process of removing combustibles, liquids, and low melting point metals from PVC wrapped TRU waste. In this study, thermal pretreatment of simulated waste was conducted using a desktop thermal treatment vessel and a laboratory scale thermal pretreatment system. Combustibles and low melting point metals are effectively separated from wastes by choosing appropriate temperature of flowing gases. Combustibles such as papers, PVC, oil, etc. were removed and low melting point metals such as zinc, lead, and aluminum were separated from the simulated waste by the thermal pretreatment. (authors)

Sasaki, T.; Aoyama, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Yamaguchi, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

Tsang, C.-F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Radioactive waste material melter apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

Newman, Darrell F. (Richland, WA); Ross, Wayne A. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Integrated nonthermal treatment system study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J. [Morrison Knudsen Corp. (United States); Quapp, W.J. [Nuclear Metals (United States); Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swartz, G. [Swartz and Associates (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Seasonal thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Thermal unobtainiums? The perfect thermal conductor and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contribute to thermal resistance · Isotopically pure diamond has highest thermal conductivity of any material materials: disordered layered crystals Conclude with some thoughts on promising, high-risk, research even in a computer model. #12;Thermal resistance is created by Umklapp scattering (U

Braun, Paul

188

Thermal Control & System Integration  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

189

Thermal Management of Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a better thermal conductance and when ceramic particles areor ceramic fillers that enhances thermal conductivity. Solid

Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble components are mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, causing uncertainty in its composition, particularly the radionuclide content. This plan will provide an estimate of the likely composition and the basis for it, assess likely treatment technologies, identify potential disposition paths, establish target treatment limits, and recommend the testing needed to show feasibility. Two primary disposition options are proposed for investigation, one is concentration for storage in the tank farms, and the other is treatment prior to disposition in the Effluent Treatment Facility. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Recycle stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), a long-lived radionuclide with a half-life of 210,000 years. Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass, which will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Because {sup 99}Tc has a very long half-life and is highly mobile, it is the largest dose contributor to the Performance Assessment (PA) of the IDF. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Recycle are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. The concentrations of these radionuclides in this stream will be much lower than in the LAW, but they will still be higher than limits for some of the other disposition pathways currently available. Although the baseline process will recycle this stream to the Pretreatment Facility, if the LAW facility begins operation first, this stream will not have a disposition path internal to WTP. One potential solution is to return the stream to the tank farms where it can be evaporated in the 242-A evaporator, or perhaps deploy an auxiliary evaporator to concentrate it prior to return to the tank farms. In either case, testing is needed to evaluat

McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

191

Contaminated Materials Treatment Program annual report for FY 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Western New York Nuclear Services Center reprocessed nuclear fuel for five years until operations were terminated in 1972. Underground tanks at the site contain high-level waste (HLW) generated during the reprocessing operations. Based on original agreements, the state of New York has assumed responsibility for the wastes and the site. The Department of Energy (DOE) is assisting New York State, through the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), in processing and solidifying the HLW. The site contractor for the WVDP is West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), through the West Valley Support Project, has been supporting WVNS and DOE in establishing vitrification and waste processing technology and capability at the West Valley Site. The specific objective of the West Valley Support Project during FY 1989 were to complete designs of remote equipment, assist in characterizing the WVNS feed, sampling, ceramic melter and off-gas systems, provide chemical analysis of the radioactive wastes and testing of future processes with actual radioactive wastes, provide testing and modeling studies of the reference WV waste product, and conduct special studies, such as evaluating corrosion of the waste tanks and supporting operation of the supernatant treatment system. 13 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

Ross, W.A.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Process system evaluation-consolidated letters. Volume 1. Alternatives for the off-gas treatment system for the low-level waste vitrification process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an evaluation of alternatives for treating off-gas from the low-level waste (LLW) melter. The study used expertise obtained from the commercial nonradioactive off-gas treatment industry. It was assumed that contact maintenance is possible, although the subsequent risk to maintenance personnel was qualitatively considered in selecting equipment. Some adaptations to the alternatives described may be required, depending on the extent of contact maintenance that can be achieved. This evaluation identified key issues for the off-gas system design. To provide background information, technology reviews were assembled for various classifications of off-gas treatment equipment, including off-gas cooling, particulate control, acid gas control, mist elimination, NO{sub x} reduction, and SO{sub 2} removal. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate for one of the off-gas systems considered is provided using both the off-gas characteristics associated with the Joule-heated and combustion-fired melters. The key issues identified and a description of the preferred off-gas system options are provided below. Five candidate treatment systems were evaluated. All of the systems are appropriate for the different melting/feed preparations currently being considered. The lowest technical risk is achieved using option 1, which is similar to designs for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) and the West Valley. Demonstration Project. Option 1 uses a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME) prior to NO{sub x} reduction and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration. However, several advantages were identified for option 2, which uses high-temperature filtration. Based on the evaluation, option 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. The characteristics of this option are described below.

Peurrung, L.M.; Deforest, T.J; Richards, J.R.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Holographic thermalization patterns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the behaviour of various correlators in N=4 super Yang Mills theory, taking finite coupling corrections into account. In the thermal limit we investigate the flow of the quasinormal modes as a function of the 't Hooft coupling. Then by using a specific model of holographic thermalization we investigate the deviation of the spectral densities from their thermal limit in an out-of-equilibrium situation. The main focus lies on the thermalization pattern with which the various plasma constituents of different energies approach their final thermal distribution as the coupling constant decreases from the infinite coupling limit. All results point towards the weakening of the usual top down thermalization pattern.

Stefan Stricker

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

195

Holographic thermalization patterns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the behaviour of various correlators in N=4 super Yang Mills theory, taking finite coupling corrections into account. In the thermal limit we investigate the flow of the quasinormal modes as a function of the 't Hooft coupling. Then by using a specific model of holographic thermalization we investigate the deviation of the spectral densities from their thermal limit in an out-of-equilibrium situation. The main focus lies on the thermalization pattern with which the various plasma constituents of different energies approach their final thermal distribution as the coupling constant decreases from the infinite coupling limit. All results point towards the weakening of the usual top down thermalization pattern.

Stricker, Stefan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Non-thermal Plasma Chemistry Non-thermal Thermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

automotive industry optics biomedical technology environmental technology Plasma Technology Quote from: Pla-thermal Plasma Chemical Flow Reactor #12;Werner von Siemens ,, ... construction of an apparatus generation (1857) pollution control volatile organic components, NOx reforming, ... radiation sources excimer

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

197

Thermal contact resistance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work deals with phenomena of thermal resistance for metallic surfaces in contact. The main concern of the work is to develop reliable and practical methods for prediction of the thermal contact resistance for various ...

Mikic, B. B.

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Solar Thermal Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of solar energy for desalination purposes was one of ... The process is based on the use of solar thermal energy to evaporate water, thus separating pure ... brine. In this chapter an overview of solar thermal

M.T. Chaibi; Ali M. El-Nashar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Thermal Neutron Scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of its title. It is not for the nuclear physicist, nor even for the neutron physicist, but for the student of solids and liquids. "Thermal ... physicist, but for the student of solids and liquids. "Thermal neutron ...

G. E. BACON

1968-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

200

Thermal neutron detection system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

Moreno, G.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Multiwavelength Thermal Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

California at Santa Cruz, University of

203

Heat Treatment of Alumina Aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat Treatment of Alumina Aerogels ... Recently, using supercritical drying, we have obtained alumina aerogel monoliths and films1,2with high porosity and special morphology, different from those of common aerogels films. ... One of the main questions concerning the application of these aerogels is their thermal stability. ...

Shani Keysar; Gennady E. Shter; * Yoram de Hazan; Yachin Cohen; Gideon S. Grader

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

204

Influence of thermally induced, dehydroxylated nanoclay on polymer nanocomposites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work reports a novel approach towards a chemical-free treatment of nanoclay through extensive thermal exposure. Dehydroxylation at high ... temperature was utilized to enhance the influence of nanoclay on th...

Priyanka Pandey; Smita Mohanty…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Thermal Insulation in Solar Thermal Devices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal Insulation is a device or a practice which is used in a system for minimising heat losses caused due to transfer of heat from hotter to colder regions. It is one of the cheapest methods of energy conse...

B. C. Raychaudhuri

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...light into thermal energy. Nonetheless, pioneering...used for treatment planning, localization...the temperature distribution during the treatments...Echospeed, General Electric Medical Systems...Workstation, General Electric Medical Systems...sections to assess the distribution of tissue damage...

L. R. Hirsch; R. J. Stafford; J. A. Bankson; S. R. Sershen; B. Rivera; R. E. Price; J. D. Hazle; N. J. Halas; J. L. West

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Thermal comfort during surgery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THERMAL COMFORT DURING SURGERY A Thesis by DAVID HAROLD MANNING Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject: Industrial... Engineering THERMAL COMFORT DURING SURGERY A Thesis by DAVID HAROLD MANNING Approved as to style and content by: airman of C it ee Head of Department Member Me er December 1978 ABSTRACT Thermal Comfort During Surgery (December 1978) David Harold...

Manning, David Harold

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Developer Installed Treatment Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-installed treatment plants. These treatment plants are more commonly known as package wastewater treatment plants. 1

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

210

NANO REVIEW Open Access Thermal conductivity and thermal boundary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NANO REVIEW Open Access Thermal conductivity and thermal boundary resistance of nanostructures and the thermal transport prop- erties is a key point to design materials with preferred thermal properties with the heat dissipation on them. The influence of the interfacial roughness on the thermal conductivity

Boyer, Edmond

211

Thermal Insulation of Houses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE Thermal Insulation (Dwellings) Bill which Mr. G. Nabarro introduced into the House of Commons on ... , sponsored by members of both major political parties, extends the principle of the Thermal Insulation (Industrial Buildings) Act of July 1957 to all new dwelling houses built in the ...

1958-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

212

Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has, and ground- based mechanical systems. Instrument Design Building on decades of design experience that has evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

213

Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove {sup 90}Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc, and zeolites for {sup 137}Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of {sup 99}Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl{sub 2} as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alka

Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

214

Thermal Recovery Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal Recovery Methods describes the basic concepts of thermal recovery and explains the injection patterns used to exploit reservoir conditions. Basic reservoir engineering is reviewed with an emphasis on changes in flow characteristics caused by temperature. The authors discuss an energy balance for steam and combustion drive, and they explain in situ reactions. Heat loss, combustion drive, and steam displacement also are examined in detail, as well as cyclic steam injection, downhole ignition, well heating, and low-temperature oxidation. Contents: Thermal processes; Formation and reservoir evaluations; Well patterns and spacing; Flow and process equations; Laboratory simulation of thermal recovery; Heat loss and transmission; Displacement and production; Equipment; Basic data for field selection; Laboratory evaluation of combustion characteristics; Thermal properties of reservoirs and fluids.

White, P.D.; Moss, J.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Tunable thermal link  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Solar thermal aircraft  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

217

High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Award Number: DE-EE00025828 Report Date: March 15, 2013 PI: Stephen Obrey * Technical approach is focused on...

218

Flameless thermal oxidation. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Flameless Thermal Oxidizer (FTO) is a commercial technology offered by Thermatrix, Inc. The FTO has been demonstrated to be an effective destructive technology for process and waste stream off-gas treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and in the treatment of VOC and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) off-gases generated during site remediation using either baseline or innovative in situ environmental technologies. The FTO process efficiently converts VOCs and CVOCs to carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride. When FTO is coupled with a baseline technology, such as soil vapor extraction (SVE), an efficient in situ soil remediation system is produced. The innovation is in using a simple, reliable, scalable, and robust technology for the destruction of VOC and CVOC off-gases based on a design that generates a uniform thermal reaction zone that prevents flame propagation and efficiently oxidizes off-gases without forming products of incomplete combustion (PICs).

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Theory of delayed thermal fluorescence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A theory of nonradiative thermal activation involved in delayed thermal fluorescence has been developed from the viewpoint of the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation.

S. H. Lin

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Thermal insulations using vacuum panels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Burke, Melissa S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

E-Print Network 3.0 - alexandrite laser treatment Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

38:137141 (2006) Thermal Responses of Ex Vivo Human Skin During Multiple Summary: heat- ing, CSC decreases treatment pain, allows the safer use of higher laser radiant...

222

Thermally driven circulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several problems connected by the theme of thermal forcing are addressed herein. The main topic is the stratification and flow field resulting from imposing a specified heat flux on a fluid that is otherwise confined to a ...

Nelken, Haim

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Manipulation of Thermal Phonons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to manipulate the behavior of phonons is crucial for both energy applications and the cooling of integrated circuits. A novel class of artificially periodic structured materials — phononic crystals — might make manipulation of thermal phonons possible. In many...

Hsu, Chung-Hao

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

224

Solar Thermal Energy Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various types of thermal energy storage systems are introduced and their importance and desired characteristics are outlined. Sensible heat storage, which is one of the most commonly used storage systems in pract...

E. Paykoç; S. Kakaç

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Contact thermal lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Neutron stars - thermal emitters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Confronting theoretical models with observations of thermal radiation emitted by neutron stars is one of the most important ways to understand the properties of both, superdense matter in the interiors of the neutron stars and dense magnetized plasmas in their outer layers. Here we review the theory of thermal emission from the surface layers of strongly magnetized neutron stars, and the main properties of the observational data. In particular, we focus on the nearby sources for which a clear thermal component has been detected, without being contaminated by other emission processes (magnetosphere, accretion, nebulae). We also discuss the applications of the modern theoretical models of the formation of spectra of strongly magnetized neutron stars to the observed thermally emitting objects.

Potekhin, A Y; Pons, J A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Texas Thermal Comfort Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

thermal comfort thermal comfort Too often, the systems in our houses are both physically and intellectually inaccessible. In the SNAP House, HVAC components are integrated into the overall structure, and act as an experiential threshold between public and private spaces. They are located in a central, structural chase that supports the clerestory and gives the systems a functional presence within the interior. Each individual component is contained within a single chase

228

Photovoltaic-thermal collectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

229

Dynamic modelling for thermal micro-actuators using thermal networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic modelling for thermal micro-actuators using thermal networks Beatriz L´opez-Wallea,1 and analytical calculations. Key words: Micro-actuators, Thermal modelling, Electrical analogy, Thermal network 1 and MicroMechatronic Systems Department (AS2M), 24 rue Alain Savary, 25000 Besan¸con, France Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.22 µm. Seawater, reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate collected from a wastewater reclamation plant for the treatment of saline water and wastewater such as thermal distillation and reverse osmosis [2,3]. MD has several advantages compared to conventional thermal distillation and reverse osmosis processes [3

231

THERMAL NEUTRON BACKSCATTER IMAGING.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objects of various shapes, with some appreciable hydrogen content, were exposed to fast neutrons from a pulsed D-T generator, resulting in a partially-moderated spectrum of backscattered neutrons. The thermal component of the backscatter was used to form images of the objects by means of a coded aperture thermal neutron imaging system. Timing signals from the neutron generator were used to gate the detection system so as to record only events consistent with thermal neutrons traveling the distance between the target and the detector. It was shown that this time-of-flight method provided a significant improvement in image contrast compared to counting all events detected by the position-sensitive {sup 3}He proportional chamber used in the imager. The technique may have application in the detection and shape-determination of land mines, particularly non-metallic types.

VANIER,P.; FORMAN,L.; HUNTER,S.; HARRIS,E.; SMITH,G.

2004-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

232

Thermal ignition combustion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

233

Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

"This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

234

Thermal ignition combustion system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Thermal ignition combustion system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermal ignition combustion system adapted for use with an internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) means for providing ignition chamber walls defining an ignition chamber, the chamber walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m/sup 0/C. and a specific heat greater than 480J/kg/sup 0/C., the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber; (b) means for maintaining the temperature of the chamber walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel; and (c) means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

236

Thermal test options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANTS,”Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWERfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermalfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anCHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWERfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

THERMAL TREATMENT REVIEW . WTE I THERMAL TREATMENT Since the beginning of this century, global waste-to-energy capacity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of new waste-to gasification process at an industrial scale The Waste-To-Energy Research and Technology waste-to-energy capacity has increased steadily at the rate of about four million tonnes of MSW per year solid waste (MSW). Three dominant ,technologies _ those developed by The only true A global perspective

Columbia University

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Thermal barrier coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Thermal management of nanoelectronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-state thermoelectric on- spot cooling, requiring efficient thermoelectric materials that can be integrated with the IC are further complicated by the fact that the material's ability to conduct heat deteriorates when at the packaging level but also at the nanoscale materials and device levels. THERMAL CHALLENGES AT NANOSCALE One

243

Thermal Reactor Safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3 Q1 High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this Los Alamos National Laboratory...

245

Impact of Ageing on Thermal Efficiency of Solar Thermal Collectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Today it is common practice to calculate the performance of solar thermal systems or solar collectors based on the results of a thermal performance test carried out with a new solar collector. However, for an int...

Elke Streicher; Stephan Fischer…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Pressurized heat treatment of glass ceramic  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

Kramer, D.P.

1984-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

247

Preliminary requirements for thermal storage subsystems in solar thermal applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methodologies for the analysis of value and comparing thermal storage concepts are presented. Value is a measure of worth and is determined by the cost of conventional fuel systems. Value data for thermal storage in large solar thermal electric power applications are presented. Thermal storage concepts must be compared when all are performing the same mission. A method for doing that analysis, called the ranking index, is derived. Necessary data to use the methodology are included.

Copeland, R.J.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Process and apparatus for thermal enhancement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal treatment apparatus for downhole deployment comprising a combustion stage with an elongated hot wall combustion zone for the substantially complete combustion of the fuel-air mixture and an ignition zone immediately upstream from the combustion zone in which a mixture of atomized liquid fuel and air at or below stoichiometric ratio is ignited; together with a water injection stage immediately downstream from the combustion zone through which essentially partuculate free high temperature combustion products flow from the combustion zone and into which water is sprayed. The resulting mixture of steam and combustion products is injected into an oil formation for enhancing the speed and effectiveness of reservoir response due to physical, chemical, and/or thermal stimulation interactions.

Burrill, Jr., Charles E. (Billerica, MA); Smirlock, Martin E. (Brimfield, MA); Krepchin, Ira P. (Newton Upper Falls, MA)

1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

249

Mechanical Properties, Thermal Stability and Radiation Damage of Ferritic Steels Processed by Thermal Mechanical Treatments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into a material by extrusion through a channel of constant cross section that contains an abrupt angle. The work presented in this dissertation is an attempt to apply ECAE to reactor steels of interest-namely T91 and 12Cr ODS. T91 (modified 9Cr-1Mo steel...

Song, Miao

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

250

Thermal Storage of Solar Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal storage is needed to improve the efficiency and usefulness of solar thermal systems. The paper indicates the main storage ... which would greatly increase the practical use of solar energy — is more diffi...

H. Tabor

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak Ridgefor Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage: An Overview of the DOE-

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Electric Motor Thermal Management | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape030bennion2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Electric Motor Thermal Management Electric Motor Thermal Management...

253

Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management...

254

THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and Solarsolar captors, thermal effluents, low cost energy duringSeale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and Solar

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal...

256

THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withconcept of thermal energy storage in aquifers was suggestedAnnual Thermal Energy Storage Contractors' Information

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the School conductivity of the coatings. The minimum thermal conductivity occurs at a low rotation rate and is 0.8 W intrinsic thermal conductivity, good phase stability and greater resistance to sintering and CMAS attack

Wadley, Haydn

259

LSPE Interim Stowage Thermal Constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-arm and thermal battery timers require operating temperatures at or above +40°F for reliable starting when·, ' LSPE Interim Stowage Thermal Constraints· Nl,;. ATM1080 PAGE 1 OF 13 DATE 15 December l97l constraints required for thermal integrity are defined. Prepared by:.:Z4·:..=..-~31!::..--.::..·~-:·::....-c

Rathbun, Julie A.

260

Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermal-Hydraulics Thermal-Hydraulics Dr. Tanju Sofu, Argonne National Laboratory In a power reactor, the energy produced in fission reaction manifests itself as heat to be removed by a coolant and utilized in a thermodynamic energy conversion cycle to produce electricity. A simplified schematic of a typical nuclear power plant is shown in the diagram below. Primary coolant loop Steam Reactor Heat exchanger Primary pump Secondary pump Condenser Turbine Water Although this process is essentially the same as in any other steam plant configuration, the power density in a nuclear reactor core is typically four orders of magnitude higher than a fossil fueled plant and therefore it poses significant heat transfer challenges. Maximum power that can be obtained from a nuclear reactor is often limited by the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Thermalization through parton transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A radiative transport model is used to study kinetic equilibration during the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision. The parton system is found to be able to overcome expansion and move toward thermalization via parton collisions. Scaling behaviors show up in both the pressure anisotropy and the energy density evolutions. In particular, the pressure anisotropy evolution shows an approximate alpha_s scaling when radiative processes are included. It approaches an asymptotic time evolution on a time scale of 1 to 2 fm/c. The energy density evolution shows an asymptotic time evolution that decreases slower than the ideal hydro evolution. These observations indicate that partial thermalization can be achieved and viscosity is important for the evolution during the early longitudinal expansion stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision.

Bin Zhang

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

262

Enhanced activity of Pt foil model catalysts thermally treated under UHV conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermal treatment of Pt foil model catalysts under UHV conditions leads to an enhanced activity for...2-D2 exchange. For the enhanced activity, the UHV atmosphere, a temperature of 1073 K and ... surface roug...

Satoru Nishiyama; Masahiro Akemoto…

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Reduction of Thermal Conductivity in Wafer-Bonded Silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Blocks of silicon up to 3-mm thick have been formed by directly bonding stacks of thin wafer chips. These stacks showed significant reductions in the thermal conductivity in the bonding direction. In each sample, the wafer chips were obtained by polishing a commercial wafer to as thin as 36 {micro}m, followed by dicing. Stacks whose starting wafers were patterned with shallow dots showed greater reductions in thermal conductivity. Diluted-HF treatment of wafer chips prior to bonding led to the largest reduction of the effective thermal conductivity, by approximately a factor of 50. Theoretical modeling based on restricted conduction through the contacting dots and some conduction across the planar nanometer air gaps yielded fair agreement for samples fabricated without the HF treatment.

ZL Liau; LR Danielson; PM Fourspring; L Hu; G Chen; GW Turner

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

264

Exfoliation of Graphite Oxide in Propylene Carbonate and Thermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

disper- sions in organic solvents is also highly desir- able and may further broaden the scope organic solvents by diluting the colloidal suspension of RG-O platelets in DMF/H2O (9:1) with solvents as a "green" route to suspensions of RG-O.23 Direct thermal treatment at elevated tem- peratures provides

265

Thermal energy storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various types of thermal stares for solar systems are surveyed which include: long-term water stores for solar systems; ground storage using soil as an interseasonal energy store; ground-water aquifers; pebble or rock bed storage; phase change storage; solar ponds; high temperature storage; and cold stores for solar air conditioning system. The use of mathematical models for analysis of the storage systems is considered

W.E.J. Neal

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Cylindrical thermal contact conductance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Mahr-Federal, Inc. respectively facilitated and provided the necessary surface metrology data of the test pieces. Mr. Claude Davis of Corning, Inc. obtained the thermophysical properties of the Ultra Low Expansion Titanium Silicate glass used... as thermal expansion standard. The engineers at National Instruments provided some much-needed advice and software for programming the data acquisition system. The TAMU Physics Machine Shop provided design advice and a couple of last...

Ayers, George Harold

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

Thermally actuated thermionic switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

268

Mobile Window Thermal Test  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mobile Window Thermal Test (MoWiTT) Facility Mobile Window Thermal Test (MoWiTT) Facility winter.jpg (469135 bytes) The window has come a long way since the days when it was a single pane of glass in a wood frame. Low-emissivity windows were designed to help buildings retain some of the energy that would have leaked out of less efficient windows. Designing efficient window-and-frame systems is one strategy for reducing the energy use of buildings. But the net energy flowing through a window is a combination of temperature- driven thermal flows and transmission of incident solar energy, both of which vary with time. U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), the window properties that control these flows, depend partly on ambient conditions. Window energy flows can affect how much energy a building uses, depending on when the window flows are available to help meet other energy demands within the building, and when they are adverse, adding to building energy use. This leads to a second strategy for reducing building energy use: using the beneficial solar gain available through a window, either for winter heating or for daylighting, while minimizing adverse flows.

269

Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

270

Bionics in textiles: flexible and translucent thermal insulations for solar thermal applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...translucent thermal insulations for solar thermal applications Thomas Stegmaier...Denkendorf73770 Denkendorf, Germany Solar thermal collectors used at present consist...transparent thermal insulation|solar thermal collector| 1. Introduction...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

CALIFORNIA SOLAR INITIATIVE-THERMAL PROGRAMHANDBOOK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA SOLAR INITIATIVE-THERMAL PROGRAMHANDBOOK CALIFORNIA PUBLIC UTILITIES California Solar Initiative Thermal Program Handbook i 1. Introduction to CSI-Thermal Program ..........................................................................3 2.1 Participants in the CSI-Thermal Program

272

Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the coupling of thermal and mechanical behaviors at small scales, a Campaign 6 project was created to investigate thermomechanical phenomena in microsystems. This report documents experimental measurements conducted under the auspices of this project. Since thermal and mechanical measurements for thermal microactuators were not available for a single microactuator design, a comprehensive suite of thermal and mechanical experimental data was taken and compiled for model validation purposes. Three thermal microactuator designs were selected and fabricated using the SUMMiT V{sup TM} process at Sandia National Laboratories. Thermal and mechanical measurements for the bent-beam polycrystalline silicon thermal microactuators are reported, including displacement, overall actuator electrical resistance, force, temperature profiles along microactuator legs in standard laboratory air pressures and reduced pressures down to 50 mTorr, resonant frequency, out-of-plane displacement, and dynamic displacement response to applied voltages.

Baker, Michael Sean; Epp, David S.; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Enhanced performance of high temperature aluminate cementitious materials incorporated with Cu powders for thermal energy storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cementitious materials have been extensively developed in thermal energy storage system of solar thermal power. This paper deals with the volume heat capacity, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, and compressive strength of aluminate cementitious thermal energy storage materials with the addition of metal Cu powders. The specimens were subjected to heat-treatment at 105, 350, and 900 °C, respectively. In the heating process, Cu powders gradually oxidized to Cu2O and CuO, providing a so-called mass compensation mechanism for the composite paste. Meanwhile, it indicates that volume heat capacity and thermal conductivity both increase with increasing Cu powders content and decrease with the rising temperature. The optimum thermal properties were obtained at 15 wt% Cu powders loading. In addition, Calorimetric Test, XRD, TG–DSC, and MIP are performed for characterizing the hydration rates, the phases, the mass/heat evolution, and the pore distribution, respectively.

Huiwen Yuan; Yu Shi; Chunhua Lu; Zhongzi Xu; Yaru Ni; Xianghui Lan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

275

Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Systems (VTMS) Analysis...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Characterization and Development of Advanced Heat Transfer Technologies...

276

Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide...

277

Report on workshop on thermal property measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of thermogravimetric analysis of basalt is discussed. Heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion are specifically addressed. (CBS)

Robertson, E.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wastewater treatment systems use. They remove 85 to 98 percent of the organic matter and solids from the wastewater, producing effluent as clean as that from munici- pal wastewater treatment plants, and cleaner than that from conventional septic tanks.... Onsite wastewater treatment systems Single-compartment trash tank Chlorinator Aerobic treatment unit Spray heads Pump tank Bruce Lesikar Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer The Texas A&M System Aerobic treatment units, which are certified...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

279

Thermally switchable dielectrics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same m...

Saint-Hilaire, P; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Benz, Arnold O.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

A 10% increase in shaft work is directly attributable to modified thermal heat capacity Engineering HTF Specific heat yields modified power output. 27 127 227 327 427 527...

282

Thermal plasmonic interconnects in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As one emerging plasmonic material, graphene can support surface plasmons at infrared and terahertz frequencies with unprecedented properties due to the strong interactions between graphene and low-frequency photons. Since graphene surface plasmons exist in the infrared and terahertz regime, they can be thermally pumped (excited) by the infrared evanescent waves emitted from an object. Here we show that thermal graphene plasmons can be efficiently excited and have monochromatic and tunable spectra, thus paving a way to harness thermal energy for graphene plasmonic devices. We further demonstrate that “thermal information communication” via graphene surface plasmons can be potentially realized by effectively harnessing thermal energy from various heat sources, e.g., the waste heat dissipated from nanoelectronic devices. These findings open up an avenue of thermal plasmonics based on graphene for different applications ranging from infrared emission control, to information processing and communication, to energy harvesting.

Baoan Liu; Yongmin Liu; Sheng Shen

2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

283

Kinetics for the thermal stability of lectin from black turtle bean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The thermal stability of purified lectin from the black turtle bean was studied at temperatures between 70 °C and 90 °C over treatment times from 0 to 30 min. The results of the hemagglutinating activity and the intrinsic fluorescence assays indicated that the thermal inactivation is associated with the unfolding of the protein. Based on the two-way analysis of variance, the heating temperature and treatment time significantly affected the stability of the lectin during thermal treatments. Analysis of kinetic data suggested that the thermal stability of the lectin followed first-order reaction kinetics. The activation energy for the lectin was 78.80 kJ/mol. This higher activation energy suggested hydrophobic stability and thermal sensitivity of the lectin during thermal processing. Additionally, a high temperature and short treatment time might eliminate the anti-nutritional functions of the lectin. The linear relationship observed could be used as a quality indicator for the thermal processing of the black turtle bean.

Shudong He; John Shi; Ying Ma; Sophia Jun Xue; Hongwei Zhang; Shengxin Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Disilane ... Thermal decomposition of disilane was investigated using time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry coupled with vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization (VUV-SPI) at a temperature range of 675?740 K and total pressure of 20?40 Torr. ... Concentrations of disilane and trisilane during thermal decomposition of disilane were quantitatively measured using the VUV-SPI method. ...

Kazumasa Yoshida; Keiji Matsumoto; Tatsuo Oguchi; Kenichi Tonokura; Mitsuo Koshi

2006-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

285

Thermal desorption for passive dosimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ ~ ~ \\ ~ ~ ~ ~ Flare Tubes for Thermal Desorber . . . . . ~. . . . . . ~ ~ . 27 4. 5 ~ Thermal Desorber Manufactured by Century System Sample Flow from Thermal Desorber to Gas Chromatograph 29 6. Direct Injection Port for Therma1 Desorber . . . . . $2... the gas badges and. providing additional guidance in conducting the study. DEDICATZOil This thesis is cedicated to my parents and my wife, Unice, for their support during the last t', o years AHSTHACT ACKI;ODL DG~~. 'ITS D' DICATICI'. LIST OF TABL...

Liu, Wen-Chen

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Actively driven thermal radiation shield  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

288

Thermally induced photon splitting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate thermal corrections to the non-linear QED effective action for low-energy photon interactions in a background electromagnetic field. The high-temperature expansion shows that at $T \\gg m$ the vacuum contribution is exactly cancelled to all orders in the external field except for a non-trivial two-point function contribution. The high-temperature expansion derived reveals a remarkable cancellation of infrared sensitive contributions. As a result photon-splitting in the presence of a magnetic field is suppressed in the presence of an electron-positron QED-plasma at very high temperatures. In a cold and dense plasma a similar suppression takes place. At the same time Compton scattering dominates for weak fields and the suppression is rarely important in physical situations.

Per Elmfors; Bo-Sture Skagerstam

1998-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

289

Thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

290

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE Phase Change Materials for ThermalOF THE THESIS Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energyto utilize phase change materials (PCM’s) to enhance thermal

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHASE CHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLARChange Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in ConcentratedChange Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Peg supported thermal insulation panel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

293

Peg supported thermal insulation panel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

Nowobilski, Jeffert J. (Orchard Park, NY); Owens, William J. (Kenmore, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Thermalization of isolated quantum systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding the evolution towards thermal equilibrium of an isolated quantum system is at the foundation of statistical mechanics and a subject of interest in such diverse areas as cold atom physics or the quantum mechanics of black holes. Since a pure state can never evolve into a thermal density matrix, the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis (ETH) has been put forward by Deutsch and Srednicki as a way to explain this apparent thermalization, similarly to what the ergodic theorem does in classical mechanics. In this paper this hypothesis is tested numerically. First, it is observed that thermalization happens in a subspace of states (the Krylov subspace) with dimension much smaller than that of the total Hilbert space. We check numerically the validity of ETH in such a subspace, for a system of hard core bosons on a two-dimensional lattice. We then discuss how well the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian projected on the Krylov subspace represent the true eigenstates. This discussion is aided by bringing the projected Hamiltonian to the tridiagonal form and interpreting it as an Anderson localization problem for a finite one-dimensional chain. We also consider thermalization of a subsystem and argue that generation of a large entanglement entropy can lead to a thermal density matrix for the subsystem well before the whole system thermalizes. Finally, we comment on possible implications of ETH in quantum gravity.

Sergei Khlebnikov; Martin Kruczenski

2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

295

Thermal Conductivity and Noise Attenuation in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.3.4 Corrosion-resistant and high-temperature filters 9 1.3.5 Acoustic Applications 9 2. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 2.1 THERMAL RESISTANCE 2.1.1 Thermal Conductors in Series 12 2.1.2 Thermal conductors in parallel 13 2 difference RTH Thermal resistance of conductor sb Stefan's constant T4 Temperature difference K* Total

Cambridge, University of

296

Nanoscale Thermal Transport andMicrorefrigeratorsonaChip  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are promising candidates as thermal vias and thermal interface materials due to their inherently high thermal; superlattices; thermal boundary resistance; thermionics; thermotunneling; thermoelectrics I. INTRODUCTIONINVITED P A P E R Nanoscale Thermal Transport andMicrorefrigeratorsonaChip Devices for cooling high

297

MINIMIZING THE BONDLINE THERMAL RESISTANCE IN THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS WITHOUT AFFECTING RELIABILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MINIMIZING THE BONDLINE THERMAL RESISTANCE IN THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS WITHOUT AFFECTING microstructure, and bondline thermal resistance with the tradeoffs between material systems, manufacturability of devices to heat sinks using existing commercial thermal interface materials (TIMs). The present study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

298

Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

299

Thermal diffusion in Au?WTi?Pd metallization on silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of investigation of thermal diffusion in Au?Wti?Pd metallization on (111) n-Si. Thin films were deposited by dc sputtering to the thickness of 50 (Pd), 100–200 (WTi) and 70–200 nm (Au). After deposition the samples were subjected to thermal treatments vacuum 1 × 10?5 mbar, at temperatures up to 600°C. Characterization included RBS, AES, XRD and SEM structural analysis and sheet resistivity measurements. During annealing up to 450°C diffusion occurs only at the Pd?Si interface, at 500°C other components interdiffuse at isolated areas of the samples and at 600°C there is total interdiffusion on components. Thermal degradation oftthe \\{WTi\\} diffusion barrier is enhanced by the growth of Pd2Si phase, during which silicon is released from the substrate and mechanical stress is introduced. Better diffusion barrier properties were obtained when \\{WTi\\} films were deposited in nitrogen or oxygen atmosphere.

M Milosavljevi?; N Bibi?; M Stojanovi?; J Turkovi?; I.H Wilson

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Generating random thermal momenta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generation of random thermal particle momenta is a basic task in many problems, such as microscopic studies of equilibrium and transport properties of systems, or the conversion of a fluid to particles. In heavy-ion physics, the (in)efficiency of the algorithm matters particularly in hybrid hydrodynamics + hadronic transport calculations. With popular software packages, such as UrQMD 3.3p1 or THERMINATOR, it can still take ten hours to generate particles for a single Pb+Pb "event" at the LHC from fluid dynamics output. Below I describe reasonably efficient simple algorithms using the MPC package, which should help speed momentum generation up by at least one order of magnitude. It is likely that this wheel has been reinvented many times instead of reuse, so there may very well exist older and/or better algorithms that I am not aware of (MPC has been around only since 2000). The main goal here is to encourage practitioners to use available efficient routines, and offer a few practical solutions.

Denes Molnar

2012-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Microelectromechanical (MEM) buckling beam thermal actuators are disclosed wherein the buckling direction of a beam is constrained to a desired direction of actuation, which can be in-plane or out-of-plane with respect to a support substrate. The actuators comprise as-fabricated, linear beams of uniform cross section supported above the substrate by supports which rigidly attach a beam to the substrate. The beams can be heated by methods including the passage of an electrical current through them. The buckling direction of an initially straight beam upon heating and expansion is controlled by incorporating one or more directional constraints attached to the substrate and proximal to the mid-point of the beam. In the event that the beam initially buckles in an undesired direction, deformation of the beam induced by contact with a directional constraint generates an opposing force to re-direct the buckling beam into the desired direction. The displacement and force generated by the movement of the buckling beam can be harnessed to perform useful work, such as closing contacts in an electrical switch.

Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM); Fulcher, Clay W. G. (Sandia Park, NM)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

Larson, D.E.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and J. Schwarz, Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in AquifersLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak RidgeAquifers for Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage: An Overview of

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Advanced nanofabrication of thermal emission devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanofabricated thermal emission devices can be used to modify and modulate blackbody thermal radiation. There are many areas in which altering thermal radiation is extremely useful, especially in static power conversion, ...

Hurley, Fergus (Fergus Gerard)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Ceramic thermal barrier coating for rapid thermal cycling applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier coating for metal articles subjected to rapid thermal cycling includes a metallic bond coat deposited on the metal article, at least one MCrAlY/ceramic layer deposited on the bond coat, and a ceramic top layer deposited on the MCrAlY/ceramic layer. The M in the MCrAlY material is Fe, Ni, Co, or a mixture of Ni and Co. The ceramic in the MCrAlY/ceramic layer is mullite or Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The ceramic top layer includes a ceramic with a coefficient of thermal expansion less than about 5.4.times.10.sup.-6 .degree.C.sup.-1 and a thermal conductivity between about 1 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1 and about 1.7 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1.

Scharman, Alan J. (Hebron, CT); Yonushonis, Thomas M. (Columbus, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demandsources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermal energy,

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy,for efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) Technology  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Changing World Technologies' Changing World Technologies' Thermal Conversion Process Commercial Demonstration Plant DOE/EA 1506 Weld County, Colorado December 2004 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GOLDEN FIELD OFFICE 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) Technology Commercial Demonstration - Weld County, CO TABLE OF CONTENTS Environmental Assessment Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) Technology Commercial Demonstration Project Weld County, Colorado SUMMARY............................................................................................................................. S-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................1-1 1.1. National Environmental Policy Act and Related Procedures...........................1-1

309

REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

310

Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment:...

311

NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Thermal Distribution...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

thermal distribution bus consists of a thermal water loop connected to a research boiler and chiller that provide precise and efficient control of the water temperature...

312

Integrated External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Vehicles Integrated External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

313

Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Massachusetts Institute of...

314

Electric Motor Thermal Management | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Peer Evaluation Meeting ape030bennion2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Electric Motor Thermal Management Electric Motor Thermal Management Vehicle Technologies...

315

Thermal Regenerator Testing | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal Regenerator Testing Thermal Regenerator Testing Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007,...

316

NREL: Energy Storage - Energy Storage Thermal Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Storage Thermal Management Infrared image of rectangular battery cell. Infrared thermal image of a lithium-ion battery cell with poor terminal design. Graph of relative...

317

Solar Thermal Process Heat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarThermalProcessHeat&oldid267198" Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

318

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draft Programmaticof ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. Depart~on Ocean TherUial Energy Conversion, June 18, 1979. Ocean

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Laser Texturing for Solar Thermal Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High solar absorptance and low thermal emittance is desired for absorber surface in solar thermal systems. Molybdenum surface was textured by pulsed fiber laser and...

Shah, Ankit; Gupta, Mool

320

Solar Keymark Testing of Solar Thermal Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Solar Keymark is the official CEN certification scheme for thermal solar collectors and factory made thermal solar systems. The Solar Keymark requires that the products fulfil the...

Harald Drück; Stephan Fischer…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Thermal-Mechanical Technologies | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermal-Mechanical Technologies Thermal-Mechanical Technologies Heat management plays a critical role in almost all energy-related applications. Research topics in this area...

322

Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

323

Thermal Shock Resistance (TSR) and Thermal Fatigue Resistance (TFR) of Refractory Materials. Evaluation Method Based on the Dynamic Elastic Modulus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The importance of the thermal shock resistance (TSR) of refractory material is discussed. Understanding the evolution of thermal ... undergo repeated thermal cycling. The thermal fatigue resistance (TFR) behavior...

Nicolás M. Rendtorff; Esteban F. Aglietti

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Radio-frequency Ar plasma treatment on muga silk fiber: correlation between physicochemical and surface morphology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radio-frequency (RF) Ar plasma treatment is carried out on natural muga silk fibers in a capacitively coupled plasma reactor. The physical and thermal properties of the muga fibers are investigated at an RF power...

Dolly Gogoi; Joyanti Chutia…

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Antimicrobial Treatment of Heat Sensitive Products by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The technological potential of non-thermal plasmas for the antimicrobial treatment of heat sensitive ... within the last years the realization of industrial plasma-based decontamination or sterilization technolog...

R. Brandenburg; U. Krohmann; M. Stieber…

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Domestic Heating and Thermal Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... DIGEST 133 of the Building Research Station, entitled "Domestic Heating and Thermal Insulation" (Pp. 7. London : H.M. Stationery Office, 1960. 4insulation, the standard of heating, the ventilation-rate and the length of the heating season ...

1960-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

327

Thermal Insulation for Energy Conservation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of thermal insulations to reduce heat flow across the building ... decades. Materials available for use as building insulation include naturally occurring fibers and particles, man ... plastics, evacuated...

Dr. David W. Yarbrough Ph.D.; PE

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Thermal expansion of SOFC materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A short overview is given for the thermal expansion of solid oxide fuel cell materials. The thermomechanical compatibility of state-of-the-art materials is compared with alternative, new materials. With these ...

F. Tietz

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Thermal Solar Power Plants Experience  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In parallel with rising interest in solar power generation, several solar thermal facilities of different configuration and size were ... were designed as modest-size experimental or prototype solar power plants ...

W. Grasse; H. P. Hertlein; C.-J. Winter; G. W. Braun

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

None

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

331

Enhanced methane production from wool textile residues by thermal and enzymatic pretreatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Methane production from two types of wool textile wastes (TW1 and TW2) was investigated. To improve the digestibility of these textiles, different pretreatments were applied, and comprised thermal treatment (at 120 °C for 10 min), enzymatic hydrolysis (using an alkaline endopeptidase at different levels of enzymatic loading, at 55 °C for 0, 2, and 8 h), and a combination of these two treatments. Soluble protein concentration and sCOD (soluble chemical oxygen demand) were measured to evaluate the effectivity of the different pretreatment conditions to degrade wool keratin. The sCOD as well as the soluble protein content had increased in both textile samples in comparison to untreated samples, as a response to the different pretreatments indicating breakdown of the wool keratin structure. The combined treatments and the thermal treatments were further evaluated by anaerobic batch digestion assays at 55 °C. Combined thermal and enzymatic treatment of TW1 and TW2 resulted in methane productions of 0.43 N m3/kg VS and 0.27 N m3/kg VS, i.e., 20 and 10 times higher yields, respectively, than that gained from untreated samples. The application of thermal treatment by itself was less effective and resulted in increasing the methane production by 10-fold for TW1 and showing no significant improvement for TW2.

Maryam M. Kabir; Gergely Forgács; Ilona Sárvári Horváth

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal energy storage system comprising a germanium phase change material and a graphite container.

Beatty, Ronald L. (Farragut, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

NUMERICAL DESIGN TOOLS FOR THERMAL REPLICATION OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by heating Ceramic block Glass workpiece before heating Figure 1: Thermal Replication (after Smith et al. [14NUMERICAL DESIGN TOOLS FOR THERMAL REPLICATION OF OPTICAL­QUALITY SURFACES Y.M. Stokes 1 Department. #12; Thermal replication of optical surfaces 1 1 Introduction Thermal replication is an industrial

Stokes, Yvonne

334

Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presents the objectives and motivations for a battery thermal management vehicle system design study.

Kim, G-H.; Pesaran, A.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Device for thermal transfer and power generation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is provided. The system includes a device that includes top and bottom thermally conductive substrates positioned opposite to one another, wherein a top surface of the bottom thermally conductive substrate is substantially atomically flat and a thermal blocking layer disposed between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates. The device also includes top and bottom electrodes separated from one another between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates to define a tunneling path, wherein the top electrode is disposed on the thermal blocking layer and the bottom electrode is disposed on the bottom thermally conductive substrate.

Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Arik, Mehmet (Niskayuna, NY)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

336

Surface Treatment by Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By this treatment, new hardenings of the surface can occur; the surface is higher alloyed by remelting, or layers...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

High Performance Thermal Interface Technology Overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An overview on recent developments in thermal interfaces is given with a focus on a novel thermal interface technology that allows the formation of 2-3 times thinner bondlines with strongly improved thermal properties at lower assembly pressures. This is achieved using nested hierarchical surface channels to control the particle stacking with highly particle-filled materials. Reliability testing with thermal cycling has also demonstrated a decrease in thermal resistance after extended times with longer overall lifetime compared to a flat interface.

R. Linderman; T. Brunschwiler; B. Smith; B. Michel

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

338

High Performance Thermal Interface Technology Overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An overview on recent developments in thermal interfaces is given with a focus on a novel thermal interface technology that allows the formation of 2-3 times thinner bondlines with strongly improved thermal properties at lower assembly pressures. This is achieved using nested hierarchical surface channels to control the particle stacking with highly particle-filled materials. Reliability testing with thermal cycling has also demonstrated a decrease in thermal resistance after extended times with longer overall lifetime compared to a flat interface.

Linderman, R; Smith, B; Michel, B

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Ultralow thermal conductivity and the thermal d t f i t fconductance of interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are critical at the nanoscale · Low thermal conductivity in nanostructured materials ­ improved thermoelectric to the thermal conductivity of materials. · Ultralow thermal conductivity: beating the amorphous limitUltralow thermal conductivity and the thermal d t f i t fconductance of interfaces David G. Cahill

Braun, Paul

340

Cornell University Thermal Comfort Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermal Comfort Thermal Comfort Thermal comfort in the CUSD home is a top priority for our team. Accordingly, we designed a redundant HVAC system that would carefully manage the comfort of our decathletes and guests throughout the competition and the life of the house. The CUSD home's HVAC system was optimized for Washington, DC, with the cold Ithaca climate in mind. Our design tools included a schematic energy-modeling interface called TREAT, which was built off of the SuNREL platform. TREAT was used to passively condition the space. Our schematic energy modeling helped us properly size window areas, overhangs, and building mass distribution. We used a computation fluid dynamics (CFD) package called AirPak, to refine our design. The home was modeled in both

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

solar thermal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

thermal thermal Dataset Summary Description This dataset presents summary information related to world solar energy. It is part of a supporting dataset for the book World On the Edge: How to Prevent Environmental and Economic Collapse by Lester R. Source Earth Policy Institute Date Released January 12th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords EU solar solar PV solar thermal world Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon Excel spreadsheet, summary solar energy data on multiple tabs (xls, 145.9 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Attribution License Comment "Reuse of our data is permitted. We merely ask that wherever it is listed, it be appropriately cited"

342

An example of remediation of mercury impacted soil using high vacuum low temperature thermal desorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to describe a high vacuum, low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD) technology which has been used to remediate soil impacted with elemental mercury and to present the results of pre-treatment and post-treatment soil sampling. The general operating principles of this high vacuum LTTD technology, the IRHV-200, are: (a) depression of the boiling points of the target compounds by lowering the ambient pressure within the treatment chamber using a vacuum pump; (b) use of infrared radiation to generate a thermal gradient in the top several inches of non-liquid material contained within the treatment chamber and use of a carrier gas to transport the desorbed contaminants from the treatment chamber to a pollution control system. The overall effect of these parameters is a batch treatment system capable of desorbing target contaminants from soil under anaerobic conditions and low temperature such that the desorbed contaminants do not degrade and generate thermal or oxidative by-products. Essentially, the desorbed contaminants undergo a reversible phase change from liquid to vapor in the treatment chamber and are condensed back to liquid in the pollution control system. Results of bench top testing are compared to full scale remediations of significant volumes of soil to demonstrate remediation of mercury impacted soil. This technology is also applicable for soils impacted with other higher boiling point organics, such as, PCP, PCBs, PAHs, PNAs, pesticides and herbicides.

Dagdigian, J.V. [McLaren/Hart, Irvine, CA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications.

Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graded Nanocomposites with Interfacial Thermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.M. Yin", G. H. Paulino", W.G. Buttlar", and L.Z. Sun'' '^Department of Civil and Environmental the effective thermal conductivity distribution in functionally graded materials (FGMs) considering the Kapitza is developed to derive the averaged heat flux field of the particle phase. Then the temperature gradient can

Paulino, Glaucio H.

345

Nanoscale thermal transport and the thermal conductance of interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-8 2008 #12;Er-fiber laser system, UIUC Nov. 2007 #12;Solid-liquid interfaces: Two approaches · Transient-wide: ­ thermal interface materials ­ so-called "nanofluids" (suspensions in liquids) ­ polymer composites absorption depends on temperature of the nanotube · Assume heat capacity is comparable to graphite · Cooling

Braun, Paul

346

Thermal power plant efficiency enhancement with Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In addition to greenhouse gas emissions, coastal thermal power plants would gain further opposition due to their heat rejection distressing the local ecosystem. Therefore, these plants need to enhance their thermal efficiency while reducing their environmental offense. In this study, a hybrid plant based on the principle of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion was coupled to a 740 MW coal-fired power plant project located at latitude 28°S where the surface to deepwater temperature difference would not suffice for regular OTEC plants. This paper presents the thermodynamical model to assess the overall efficiency gained by adopting an ammonia Rankine cycle plus a desalinating unit, heated by the power plant condenser discharge and refrigerated by cold deep seawater. The simulation allowed us to optimize a system that would finally enhance the plant power output by 25–37 MW, depending on the season, without added emissions while reducing dramatically the water temperature at discharge and also desalinating up to 5.8 million tons per year. The supplemental equipment was sized and the specific emissions reduction was estimated. We believe that this approach would improve the acceptability of thermal and nuclear power plant projects regardless of the plant location.

Rodrigo Soto; Julio Vergara

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

University of Colorado Thermal Comfort Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A A Warmboard sub-floor with tubing and wood Image Courtsey of Warmboard Image Thermal Comfort "That Condition of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment" (ASHRAE Standard 55) Design Criteria Design Criteria Design Criteria Design Criteria 1. Thermally comfortable conditions achieved by integrating technologically and economically innovative, low-energy strategies: a. Temperatures between 72 o F and 76 o F b. Humidity between 40.0% and 55.0% 2. Minimal distractions to the occupant 3. Easy control of thermal comfort system 4. Uniform thermal conditions exist throughout the house Bio Bio Bio Bio- - - -S S S S ( ( ( (h h h h) ) ) ) ip ip ip ip Thermal Comfort Features Thermal Comfort Features Thermal Comfort Features Thermal Comfort Features

348

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COST REDUCTION STUDY FOR SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS, Ottawa,Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants A ThesisStorage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants by Corey

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Scale control in thermal desalination processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal desalination processes involve the heating of seawater to form water vapor which is then condensed to produce salt free water. Multiple Effect Evaporation (ME) and Multiple-Stage Flash distillation (MSF) are the two main processes used for thermal distillation. MSF distillation, currently is the dominant process. MSF distillation is run under pressure at relatively high temperatures (90--125 C). Scale formation is one of the most critical problems affecting both processes. In the case of MSF, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide and calcium sulfate are the main scale forming salts. The first two scale forming salts are usually controlled by keeping neutral the pH of the system by the addition of acid. Scale inhibitors are used to prevent calcium sulfate scale. Because of economical reasons, the trend in the industry is to operate systems at as high a temperature and concentration factor as possible in order to increase purified water production at a lower cost. Safety concerns have also increased the need for acid feed elimination as a mean of controlling pH. These practices increased the scaling tendencies in MSF processes and created the need for more effective treatment programs to control scale formation on heat exchangers. A new multi-component inhibitor program that enable operation of MSF systems without the need of acid feed for pH control has been developed. The program prevent scale formation and allows to operate the system under typical or higher concentration factors and temperatures than normally found in MSF evaporators operating with acid feed.

Perez, L.A.; Polizzotti, D.M. [BetzDearborn, Trevose, PA (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Thermal Decomposition of Radiation-Damaged Polystyrene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiation-damaged polystyrene material (''polycube'') used in this study was synthesized by mixing a high-density polystyrene (''Dylene Fines No. 100'') with plutonium and uranium oxides. The polycubes were used on the Hanford Site in the 1960s for criticality studies to determine the hydrogen-to-fissile atom ratios for neutron moderation during processing of spent nuclear fuel. Upon completion of the studies, two methods were developed to reclaim the transuranic (TRU) oxides from the polymer matrix: (1) burning the polycubes in air at 873 K; and (2) heating the polycubes in the absence of oxygen and scrubbing the released monomer and other volatile organics using carbon tetrachloride. Neither of these methods was satisfactory in separating the TRU oxides from the polystyrene. Consequently, the remaining polycubes were sent to the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for storage. Over time, the high dose of alpha and gamma radiation has resulted in a polystyrene matrix that is highly cross-linked and hydrogen deficient and a stabilization process is being developed in support of Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-1. Baseline processes involve thermal treatment to pyrolyze the polycubes in a furnace to decompose the polystyrene and separate out the TRU oxides. Thermal decomposition products from this degraded polystyrene matrix were characterized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to provide information for determining the environmental impact of the process and for optimizing the process parameters. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system coupled to a horizontal tube furnace was used for the characterization studies. The decomposition studies were performed both in air and helium atmospheres at 773 K, the planned processing temperature. The volatile and semi-volatile organic products identified for the radiation-damaged polystyrene were different from those observed for virgin polystyrene. The differences were in the n umber of organic species generated and their concentrations.

J Abrefah GS Klinger

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

351

Non-thermal radio astronomy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This presentation starts with Karl Jansky’s discovery of cosmic radio emission in 1933 and notes the striking similarities to Hess’s discovery of cosmic-rays in 1912. At first it was assumed that this radio emission was thermal but in 1939 Grote Reber discovered that it was stronger at longer wavelengths, requiring a non-thermal emission process. These discoveries had a revolutionary impact on astronomy and radio astronomy was born. The interpretation of this non-thermal radiation as synchrotron emission from high energy particles in the interstellar medium did not occur until the late 1940s but then it provided the link between radio astronomy and cosmic-ray research. Ginzburg, in particular, saw that cosmic-ray astrophysics was now possible using radio waves to trace sources of cosmic-rays. We discuss the discovery of extragalactic active galactic nuclei leading to the discovery of quasars and the first evidence for black holes in the nuclei of galaxies. We summarise the present status and future of some of the main radio telescopes used to image the non-thermal emission from external galaxies. Finally, we include a short description of the use of radio signals for the direct detection of cosmic-rays and UHE neutrinos.

R.D. Ekers

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

A Plastic for Thermal Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... ft. per in. thickness per 1° F. difference of temperature, so that its insulation properties compare very favourably with slab-cork (0-25 B.TH.U.), glass ... tenth that of slab-cork. This makes it of considerable interest in connexion with thermal insulation during transport. Isoflex is non-porous and non-absorbent, with the result that its ...

1941-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

353

APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING Manuscript Draft  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the heat pump from the grid during the two hours of electrical peak power · Design of a new heat exchangerAPPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING Manuscript Draft TITLE: Experimental assessment of a PCM to air heat This paper presents a heat exchanger prototype containing PCM material designed to provide a 1kW heating

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Practical Solar Thermal Chilled Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the potential to impact America's use of non-renewable energy beyond its own design capacity by applying it to the optimization of an existing building's system. Solar-thermal chilling systems are not new. However, few of them can be described as a practical...

Leavell, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Solar energy thermalization and storage device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Thermal Characterization of Graphitic Carbon Foams for Use in Thermal Storage Applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Highly conductive graphitic foams are currently being studied for use as thermal conductivity enhancers (TCEs) in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. TES systems store… (more)

Drummond, Kevin P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Experimental studies are presented that aim to utilize phase change materials (PCM's) to enhance thermal energy storage systems for concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) systems.… (more)

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Optical and Thermal Characterization of High Reflective Surface with Applications in Thermal-Solar Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective solar absorbing coating consists of a high thermal reflectance layer and high solar absorbance layer deposited over a substrate. In this work optical and thermal properties...

Macias, Juan Daniel; Ramirez Rincon, Jorge Andres; Lizama Tzec, Francisco Ivan; Ares Muzio, Oscar Eduardo; Oskam, Gerko; De Coss Gomez, Romeo; Alvarado Gil, Juan José

359

Optical and Thermal Characterization of High Reflection Surfaces with Applcations in Thermal-Solar Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective solar absorbing coating consists of a high thermal reflectance layer and a high solar absorbance layer deposited over a substrate. In this work optical and thermal properties...

Macias, Juan Daniel; Ramirez Rincon, Jorge Andres; Lizama Tzec, Francisco Ivan; Ares Muzio, Oscar Eduardo; Oskam, Gerko; De Coss Gomez, Romeo; Alvarado Gil, Juan José

360

Approximation of inhomogeneous thermal lines via series connection of homogeneous thermal lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method is given for approximating an arbitrary inhomogeneous thermal line (ITL) as a series connection of homogeneous thermal lines (HTL). The method is compared with...

L. S. Eleinikova

1974-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Polymer Nanofibers with Outstanding Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Stability: Fundamental Linkage between Molecular Characteristics and Macroscopic Thermal Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymer nanofibers with high thermal conductivities and outstanding thermal stabilities are highly desirable in heat transfer-critical applications such as thermal management, heat exchangers and energy storage. In this work, we unlock the fundamental relations between the thermal conductivity and thermal stability of polymer nanofibers and their molecular characteristics by studying the temperature-induced phase transitions and thermal transport of a series of polymer nanofibers. Ten different polymer nanofibers with systematically chosen molecular structures are studied using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. We found that high thermal conductivity and good thermal stability can be achieved in polymers with rigid backbones, exemplified by {\\pi}-conjugated polymers, due to suppressed segmental rotations and large phonon group velocities. The low probability of segmental rotation does not only prevent temperature-induced phase transition but also enables long phonon mean free paths due to reduced di...

Zhang, Teng; Luo, Tengfei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Study of the Thermal Pulsation of AGB Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A systematic investigation on the third dredge up in a 3M$_{\\odot}$, solar metallicity AGB star will be presented. The model evolves from the main sequence up to the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). Intermediate mass stars are important because they contribute significantly via the slow neutron capture nucleosynthesis. The aim of this work is to gain insight on the behaviour of the AGB star during thermal pulsation. This investigation is based on an extended numerical simulation of the evolutionary phases and full, consistent AGB model calculations. In particular, the convective structure during pulsation will be studied, giving particular emphasis to the analysis of the stability of the Schwarzschild boundary that will eventually determine the occurrence of Third Dredge Up (hereafter referred to as TDUP). We provide a brief description of our updated evolutionary code and focus primarily on the obtaining the TDUP after 14 thermal pulses. We elaborate on the non-standard treatment of convection known as "oversh...

Halabi, Ghina M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Radiography used to image thermal explosions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiography used to image thermal explosions Radiography used to image thermal explosions Radiography used to image thermal explosions Researchers have gained an understanding of the mechanism of thermal explosions and have created a model capturing the stages of the explosion. October 9, 2012 Tabletop X-ray radiography of a thermal explosion. Tabletop X-ray radiography of a thermal explosion. Researchers have gained an understanding of the mechanism of thermal explosions and have created a model capturing the stages of the explosion. Proton radiography (pRad) at LANSCE imaged thermal explosions at high speeds to provide a real-time look at how an explosion unfolds and releases its energy. Specifically, it is important to know the range of temperature over which ignition may occur and the subsequent power of the explosion.

364

A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY ON THERMAL CONDUCITIVITY OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aspect ratio, weight fraction, and thermal resistance at the interface between the SWNTsA COMPUTATIONAL STUDY ON THERMAL CONDUCITIVITY OF CARBON NANOTUBE DISPERSED BIOLOGICAL NANOFLUIDS: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2: School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, Oklahoma

Maruyama, Shigeo

365

Reduced Thermal Conductivity of Compacted Silicon Nanowires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal-Barrier-Coating Applications,” Journa of American Ceramicthermal conductivity materials are typically found among ceramicsThermal Conductivity of Porous Materials: Application to Thick Barrier Coatings,” Journal of the European Ceramic

Yuen, Taylor S.

366

Thermal pumping of light-emitting diodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The work presented here is a study of thermally enhanced injection in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This effect, which we refer to as "thermal pumping", results from Peltier energy exchange from the lattice to charge ...

Gray, Dodd (Dodd J.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Thermal neutron flux contours from criticality event  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The generation of thermal neutron flux contours from a criticality event is demonstrated for an idealized building with a criticality event in one of the rooms. The MCNP Monte Carlo computer code is used to calculate the thermal neutron flux.

Carter, L.L., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Status of Solar Thermal Conversion in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

China has an abundant solar energy resource. Solar thermal conversion systems have been studied for more than 25 years and solar thermal industry has been developing since 1990’s....2 solar collectors were sold a...

Yin Zhiqiang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Thermal instability in planar solar coronal structures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prominentes and filaments are thought to arise as a consequence of a magnetized plasma undergoing thermal instability. Therefore the thermal stability of a magnetized plasma is investigated under coronal condi...

R. A. M. Van der Linden; M. Goossens

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Successfully Marketing Thermal Storage in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper first reviews the key hurdles to thermal energy storage. Next, case studies of three electric utility thermal storage marketing programs are reviewed. The results of these case studies. as well as advice and experiences from other...

McDonald, C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Development of an Airless Thermal Enhancer | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of a Thermal Enhancer for Combined Partial Range Burning and Hydrocarbon Dosing Thermal Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction...

372

SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ADVANCED THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE CONCEPT DEFINITION STUDY FORSchilling. F. E. , Thermal Energy Storage Using PrestressedNo ~cumulate thermal energy storage. Estimate ESTrof2(

Baldwin, Thomas F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

density, making direct thermal energy storage methods, e.g.reduced. Conventional thermal energy harvesting and storageharvesting, storage, and utilization of thermal energy has

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Commercial Building Thermal Energy _Storage in ASEANGas Electric Company, "Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling,"LBL--25393 DE91 ,THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR COOLING OF

Akbari, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of thermal expansion between polymers and ceramics. However,of thermal expansion for selected ceramics, metals, andof thermal expansion for selected ceramics, metals, and

Warren, Clinton Gregory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Review of Thermally Activated Technologies, July 2004 | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and waste-heat-fired applications of thermally-driven cooling systems, thermally-driven heat pumps, and thermally-driven bottoming cycles, primarily for use in commercial...

377

Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Thermal Performance and...

378

Thermal Imaging Technique for Measuring Mixing of Fluids - Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Thermal Imaging Technique for...

379

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft ProgrammaticPlan. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE Assistantl OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. DOE.ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminary engineeringCompany. Ocean thermal energy conversion mission analysis

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants byFifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, February1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot plant

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants byfield of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference. June 19-

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoporous Thermal-to-Electrical Energy Conversion System (of Wasted Energy : Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion AArticles: 1. “ Thermal to electrical energy conversion” , Yu

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT Thomas F.CENTRAL RECEIVER SOLAR THERMAL POWER SYSTEM, PHASE progressCorporation, RECEIVER SOLAR THERMAL POWER SYSTEM, PHASE I,

Baldwin, Thomas F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Acciona logo Acciona Solar, under the Thermal Storage FOA, plans to develop a prototype thermal energy storage...

386

Overview of Thermal Management | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Nanofluids for Thermal Conditions Underhood Heat Transfer Nanofluid Development for Engine Cooling Systems Erosion of Radiator...

387

Development of the market of thermal energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Specific features relating to development of the market of thermal energy and its management structure are considered, and...

V. A. Koksharov

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Collector Field Maintenance: Distributed Solar Thermal Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports on recent operation and maintenance experiences with distributed solar thermal systems. Although some information on system-...

E. C. Boes; E. C. Cameron; E. L. Harley

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Power Electronics and Thermal Management Breakout Sessions  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* More devices, larger wafers, reliabilityqualification, availability, packaging Power Electronics and Thermal Management July 24, 2012 Breakout Session 2 - Discussion of...

391

Conceptual study of thermal stimulation in shale gas formations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Shale gas formations have become a major source of energy in recent years. Developments in hydraulic fracturing technology have made these reservoirs more accessible and productive. Apart from other dissimilarities from conventional gas reservoirs, one major difference is that a considerable amount of gas produced from these shale gas formations comes from desorption. Up to 85% of the total gas within shale can be found as an adsorbed phase on clay and kerogen, so how much adsorbed gas can be produced will have significant impact on ultimate gas recovery. The Langmuir isotherm has been widely used in industry to describe the pressure dependence of adsorbed gas. However, temperature dependent adsorption behavior and its major implications for evaluating thermal stimulation as a recovery method for shale reservoirs have not been thoroughly explored. Therefore, in order to design and analyze the thermal treatment of shale gas formations successfully, it is crucial to understand the effects of fracture heating on the shale gas adsorption and desorption phenomenon, and how can we exploit such effects to enhance shale gas recovery from hydraulically fractured reservoirs. Even though numerous research efforts have been focused on thermal recovery of shale oil, its possible application to shale gas has not been investigated. In this research, we propose a method to evaluate desorbed gas as a function of pressure and temperature in shale formations, by regression of a Bi-Langmuir model on Langmuir isotherm data. We have developed a fully coupled unconventional reservoir simulator, which is capable of capturing real gas flow in the shale matrix and in the hydraulic fracture by accounting for the effects of gas desorption and diffusion, as well as the temperature diffusion process within the matrix. This simulator enables us to investigate the effects of fracture heating on the shale gas desorption phenomenon on the global well performance and recovery. The results of this study show, for the first time in a rigorous way, that by increasing the temperature within the fracture, shale gas recovery can be improved. We have rationalized and quantified relations between the adsorption/desorption fundamental phenomena and stimulation temperature, fracture spacing, reservoir permeability and bottom hole pressure. The thermal properties of shale formations only have limited impacts on long term production. The results of this study can provide a guidance to develop a strategy to design thermal treatment in hydraulically fractured shale formations and propose the degree of thermal stimulation temperature required in a fracture to promote an economically viable return on production.

HanYi Wang; Omobola Ajao; Michael J. Economides

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Thermal cameras and applications: a survey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal cameras are passive sensors that capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero. This type of camera was originally developed as a surveillance and night vision tool for the military, but recently ... Keywords: Computer vision, Infrared radiation, Thermal camera, Thermal imaging

Rikke Gade; Thomas B. Moeslund

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Measurements of the Thermal Neutron Scattering Kernel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of the Thermal Neutron Scattering Kernel Li (Emily) Liu, Yaron Danon, Bjorn Becker and discussions Problems and Future study Questions #12;3 M. Mattes and J. Keinert, Thermal Neutron Scattering experimental data used was from 1973-1974! M. Mattes and J. Keinert, Thermal Neutron Scattering Data

Danon, Yaron

394

Integrated Modeling for Intelligent Battery Thermal Management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effective thermal management is crucial to the optimal operation of lithium ion batteries and its health management. However, the thermal behaviors of batteries are governed by complex chemical process whose parameters will degrade over time and different ... Keywords: integrated modeling, distributed parameter system, battery thermal management, intelligent learning

Zhen Liu; Han-Xiong Li

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Smart Thermal Skins for Vehicles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8 8 Smart Thermal Skins for Vehicles With a modest effort, many of the energy-efficient technologies developed for buildings can be transferred to the transportation sector. The goal of vehicle thermal management research at LBL is to save the energy equivalent of one to two billion gallons of gasoline per year, and improve the marketability of next-generation vehicles using advanced solar control glazings and insulating shell components to reduce accessory loads. Spectrally selective and electrochromic window glass and lightweight insulating materials improve the fuel efficiency of conventional and hybrid vehicles and extend the range of electric vehicles by reducing the need for air conditioning and heating, and by allowing the downsizing of equipment.

396

Permanent magnet thermal energy system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved rotary magnet thermal generator system of the type having an array of magnets in alternating disposition coaxially disposed about and parallel with the shaft of a motor driving the rotary array and having a copper heat absorber and a ferro-magnetic plate fixed on a face of the heat absorber, includes as efficiency improver a plurality of heat sink plates extending beyond the ferro-magnet plate into a plenum through a respective plurality of close-fitting apertures. In a further embodimetn the heat sink plates are in thermal contact with sinusoidally convoluted tubing that both increases surface area and provides for optional heating of gases and/or fluids at the same time.

Gerard, F.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

397

Coshcous turbulence and its thermalization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dissipation rate {mu}[cosh(k/k{sub c}) - 1] in Fourier space, which reduces to the Newtonian viscosity dissipation rate {nu}k{sup 2} for small k/k{sub c}, can be scaled to make a hydrodynamic system either actually or potentially converge to its Galerkin truncation. The former case acquires convergence to the truncation at a finite wavenumber k{sub G}; the latter realizes as the wavenumber grows to infinity. Intermittency reduction and vitiation of extended self-similarity (ESS) in the partially thermalized regime of turbulence are confirmed and clarified. Onsager's pictures of intermittent versus nonintermittent flows are visualized from thermalized numerical fields, showing cleanly spotty versus mistily uniform properties, the latter of which destroys self-organization and so the ESS property.

Zhu, Jian-zhou [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Mark [SNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Thermal properties of fluorinated graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Large-scale atomistic simulations using the reactive force field approach are implemented to investigate the thermomechanical properties of fluorinated graphene (FG). A set of parameters for the reactive force field potential optimized to reproduce key quantum mechanical properties of relevant carbon-fluorine cluster systems are presented. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the thermal rippling behavior of FG and its mechanical properties and compare them with graphene, graphane and a sheet of boron nitride. The mean square value of the height fluctuations ?h2? and the height-height correlation function H(q) for different system sizes and temperatures show that FG is an unrippled system in contrast to the thermal rippling behavior of graphene. The effective Young's modulus of a flake of fluorinated graphene is obtained to be 273 N/m and 250 N/m for a flake of FG under uniaxial strain along armchair and zigzag directions, respectively.

Sandeep Kumar Singh; S. Goverapet Srinivasan; M. Neek-Amal; S. Costamagna; Adri C. T. van Duin; F. M. Peeters

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

399

Microwavable thermal energy storage material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

400

Microwavable thermal energy storage material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Insulation products promote thermal efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The judicious use of thermal insulation products in non-residential buildings can provide a number of advantages including increased energy efficiency, lower first costs (by avoiding overside HVAC systems), improved fire safety and better acoustics. Thermal insulation products are those products which retard the flow of heat energy. Materials include glass, plastics, and organic materials such as wood fibers, vermiculite and perlite. Forms range from the familiar batts and blankets of glass fibers to foamed plastic, rigid boards, losse fill and systems combining two or more products, such as polystyrene boards covered with insulating plaster. The R values of selected insulation materials with a cost/sq. ft. of each material at R 10 are given. Costs cover both the material and installation and may vary depending on local conditions.

Chalmers, R.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Solar Thermal Reactor Materials Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current research into hydrogen production through high temperature metal oxide water splitting cycles has created a need for robust high temperature materials. Such cycles are further enhanced by the use of concentrated solar energy as a power source. However, samples subjected to concentrated solar radiation exhibited lifetimes much shorter than expected. Characterization of the power and flux distributions representative of the High Flux Solar Furnace(HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory(NREL) were compared to ray trace modeling of the facility. In addition, samples of candidate reactor materials were thermally cycled at the HFSF and tensile failure testing was performed to quantify material degradation. Thermal cycling tests have been completed on super alloy Haynes 214 samples and results indicate that maximum temperature plays a significant role in reduction of strength. The number of cycles was too small to establish long term failure trends for this material due to the high ductility of the material.

Lichty, P. R.; Scott, A. M.; Perkins, C. M.; Bingham, C.; Weimer, A. W.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Thermal Dosimetry and Temperature Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...N-acetyl-dihydrosphingosine; DAG, diacylglycerol; DETAPAC, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; LED, light-emitting diode; LSM, low-serum medium; LY-R, L5178Y-R; PDT, photodynamic treatment; SAPK, stress-activated protein...

D. A. Christensen

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Thermal Neutron Capture Therapy Using 10B1-Bpa: Inducement of Marked Lethal Effect on Melanoma Cells Irrespective of X-Ray Sensitivity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The G-361 cell line exposed to thermal neutron radiation after treatment with 10B1-BPA (100 ?g/ml medium), however, showed similar sensitivity to the P-39 cell line.

M. Ichihashi; H. Utsumi; H. Tsukamoto; Y. Mishima…

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Electric thermal storage demonstration program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Electric thermal storage demonstration program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and one affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a Department of Energy request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. In this progress report, cost savings at Bolyston light department is discussed. (JL)

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Electric thermal storage demonstration program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and on affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a DOE request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. This report discusses the demonstration of ETS equipment at four member light departments.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Electric thermal storage demonstration program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In early 1989, MMWEC, a joint action agency comprised of 30 municipal light departments in Massachusetts and on affiliate in Rhode Island, responded to a DOE request to proposal for the Least Cost Utility Planning program. The MMWEC submission was for the development of a program, focused on small rural electric utilities, to promote the use of electric thermal storage heating systems in residential applications. This report discusses the demonstration of ETS equipment at four member light departments.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

GCFR thermal-hydraulic experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal-hydraulic experimental studies performed and planned for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) core assemblies are described. The experiments consist of basic studies performed to obtain correlations, and bundle experiments which provide input for code validation and design verification. These studies have been performed and are planned at European laboratories, US national laboratories, Universities in the US, and at General Atomic Company

Schlueter, G.; Baxi, C.B.; Dalle Donne, M.; Gat, U.; Fenech, H.; Hanson, D.; Hudina, M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

W-320 Project thermal modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of thermal analysis performed to provide a technical basis in support of Project W-320 to retrieve by sluicing the sludge in Tank 241-C-106 and to transfer into Tank 241-AY-102. Prior theraml evaluations in support of Project W-320 safety analysis assumed the availability of 2000 to 3000 CFM, as provided by Tank Farm Operations, for tank floor cooling channels from the secondary ventilation system. As this flow availability has no technical basis, a detailed Tank 241-AY-102 secondary ventilation and floor coating channel flow model was developed and analysis was performed. The results of the analysis show that only about 150 cfm flow is in floor cooLing channels. Tank 241-AY-102 thermal evaluation was performed to determine the necessary cooling flow for floor cooling channels using W-030 primary ventilation system for different quantities of Tank 241-C-106 sludge transfer into Tank 241-AY-102. These sludge transfers meet different options for the project along with minimum required modification of the ventilation system. Also the results of analysis for the amount of sludge transfer using the current system is presented. The effect of sludge fluffing factor, heat generation rate and its distribution between supernatant and sludge in Tank 241-AY-102 on the amount of sludge transfer from Tank 241-C-106 were evaluated and the results are discussed. Also transient thermal analysis was performed to estimate the time to reach the steady state. For a 2 feet sludge transfer, about 3 months time will be requirad to reach steady state. Therefore, for the purpose of process control, a detailed transient thermal analysis using GOTH Computer Code will be required to determine transient response of the sludge in Tank 241-AY-102. Process control considerations are also discussed to eliminate the potential for a steam bump during retrieval and storage in Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102 respectively.

Sathyanarayana, K., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

411

Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

412

Thermality of the Hawking flux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Is the Hawking flux "thermal"? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word "thermal". The original 1850's notions of thermality --- based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized "black bodies" or "lamp black surfaces" --- when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900's, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but "without" any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, and quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only "approximately" Planck-shaped over a bounded frequency range. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is "approximately" Planck-shaped from both above and below --- the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

Matt Visser

2014-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

413

Thermal recovery from a fractured medium in local thermal non-equilibrium Rachel Geleta,b,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effective stress is tensile near the injection well, illustrating the thermal contraction of the rock, whileThermal recovery from a fractured medium in local thermal non-equilibrium Rachel Geleta, Australia Abstract Thermal recovery from a hot dry rock reservoir viewed as a deformable fractured medium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

The Need for a Full-Chip and Package Thermal Model for Thermally Optimized IC Designs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ceramic ball-grid array (CBGA) pack- age consisting of the chip (die), thermal interface material, heatThe Need for a Full-Chip and Package Thermal Model for Thermally Optimized IC Designs Wei Huang detailed die temperature with a full-chip thermal model at early design stages is important to discover

Skadron, Kevin

415

Dynamic Thermal Management in Mobile Devices Considering the Thermal Coupling between Battery and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Dynamic Thermal Management in Mobile Devices Considering the Thermal Coupling between Battery work that quantitatively characterizes the thermal coupling between the battery and AP and presents.shin@polito.it Abstract--The thermal management is a crucial design problem for mobile devices because it greatly affects

Pedram, Massoud

416

Thermal Ion Dispersion | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Thermal Ion Dispersion Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Thermal Ion Dispersion Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geochemical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Geochemical Data Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Geochemical Data Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png Thermal Ion Dispersion: Thermal Ion Dispersion (TID) is a method used by the precious-metals industry to determine the movement of hot, mineral-bearing waters through rocks, gravels, and soils. The survey involves collection of soil samples

417

Thermal wake/vessel detection technique  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A computer-automated method for detecting a vessel in water based on an image of a portion of Earth includes generating a thermal anomaly mask. The thermal anomaly mask flags each pixel of the image initially deemed to be a wake pixel based on a comparison of a thermal value of each pixel against other thermal values of other pixels localized about each pixel. Contiguous pixels flagged by the thermal anomaly mask are grouped into pixel clusters. A shape of each of the pixel clusters is analyzed to determine whether each of the pixel clusters represents a possible vessel detection event. The possible vessel detection events are represented visually within the image.

Roskovensky, John K. (Albuquerque, NM); Nandy, Prabal (Albuquerque, NM); Post, Brian N (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

418

Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/cm{sup 2} that is uniform over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MW{sub t}. The solar beam has been used to simulate aerodynamic heating for several customers. Thermal nuclear blasts have also been simulated using a high-speed shutter in combination with heliostat control. The shutter can accommodate samples up to 1 m {times} 1 m and it has been used by several US and Canadian agencies. A glass-windowed wind tunnel is also available in the Solar Tower. It provides simultaneous exposure to the thermal flux and air flow. Each solar furnace at the facility includes a heliostat, an attenuator, and a parabolic concentrator. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/cm{sup 2} over and delivers a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kW{sub t}. A second furnace produces flux levels up to 1000 W/cm{sup 2} over a 4 cm diameter and total power of 60 kW{sub t}. Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11 m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/cm{sup 2} over a 2.5 cm diameter and total power of 75 kW{sub t}. High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses.

Ralph, M.E.; Cameron, C.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ghanbari, C.M. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/cm[sup 2] that is uniform over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MW[sub t]. The solar beam has been used to simulate aerodynamic heating for several customers. Thermal nuclear blasts have also been simulated using a high-speed shutter in combination with heliostat control. The shutter can accommodate samples up to 1 m [times] 1 m and it has been used by several US and Canadian agencies. A glass-windowed wind tunnel is also available in the Solar Tower. It provides simultaneous exposure to the thermal flux and air flow. Each solar furnace at the facility includes a heliostat, an attenuator, and a parabolic concentrator. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/cm[sup 2] over and delivers a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kW[sub t]. A second furnace produces flux levels up to 1000 W/cm[sup 2] over a 4 cm diameter and total power of 60 kW[sub t]. Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11 m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/cm[sup 2] over a 2.5 cm diameter and total power of 75 kW[sub t]. High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses.

Ralph, M.E.; Cameron, C.P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ghanbari, C.M. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power plants, solar thermal energy, geothermal energy, oceanpower plants, distributed solar thermal energy, geo/ocean-power plants [59]. Other LGH sources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermal energy, ocean

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Other LGH sources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermalThe heat source can be solar thermal energy, biologicalsources include the coolants in coal and nuclear power plants, solar thermal energy,

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Thermally-Activated Technologies | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermally-Activated Technologies Thermally-Activated Technologies Thermally-Activated Technologies November 1, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis Thermally-activated technologies include a diverse portfolio of equipment that transforms heat for useful purposes such as heating, cooling, humidity control, thermal storage, and shaft/electrical power. Thermally-activated technologies are essential for combined heat and power (CHP)-integrated systems that maximize energy savings and economic return. Thermally-activated technologies systems also enable customers to reduce seasonal peak electric demand and future electric and gas grids to operate with more level loads. Absorption Chillers Absorption cycles have been used for more than 150 years. Early equipment used a mixture of ammonia and water as an absorption working pair, with

423

Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003–2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces become increasingly important on small length scales. Research during the past decade has extended studies of interfaces between simple metals and inorganic crystals to interfaces with molecular materials and liquids with systematic control of interface chemistry and physics. At separations on the order of ?1?nm, the science of radiative transport through nanoscale gaps overlaps with thermal conduction by the coupling of electronic and vibrational excitations across weakly bonded or rough interfaces between materials. Major advances in the physics of phonons include first principles calculation of the phonon lifetimes of simple crystals and application of the predicted scattering rates in parameter-free calculations of the thermal conductivity. Progress in the control of thermal transport at the nanoscale is critical to continued advances in the density of information that can be stored in phase change memory devices and new generations of magnetic storage that will use highly localized heat sources to reduce the coercivity of magnetic media. Ultralow thermal conductivity—thermal conductivity below the conventionally predicted minimum thermal conductivity—has been observed in nanolaminates and disordered crystals with strong anisotropy. Advances in metrology by time-domain thermoreflectance have made measurements of the thermal conductivity of a thin layer with micron-scale spatial resolution relatively routine. Scanning thermal microscopy and thermal analysis using proximal probes has achieved spatial resolution of 10?nm, temperature precision of 50 mK, sensitivity to heat flows of 10 pW, and the capability for thermal analysis of sub-femtogram samples.

Cahill, David G., E-mail: d-cahill@illinois.edu; Braun, Paul V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Chen, Gang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Clarke, David R. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Fan, Shanhui [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Goodson, Kenneth E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Keblinski, Pawel [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); King, William P. [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Mahan, Gerald D. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Majumdar, Arun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Maris, Humphrey J. [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Phillpot, Simon R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainseville, Florida 32611 (United States); Pop, Eric [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Shi, Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas, Autin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the discharge of thermal energy storage without releasingto low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices

Feustel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Molecular Dynamic Study of Thermal Conductivity of Amorphous Nanoporous Silica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a thermal isolation layer”. Ceramics International, 34(Thermal conductivity of highly porous zirconia”. Journal of the European Ceramic

Coquil, Thomas; Fang, Jin; Pilon, Laurent

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Optimized Structures for Low-Profile Phase Change Thermal Spreaders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of High-Thermal-Conductivity Aluminum Nitride Ceramics”,for a ceramic isolating material and the associated thermal

Sharratt, Stephen A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Developing integrated TE system...

428

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Recycling of Wasted Energy : ThermalOF THE DISSERTATION Recycling of Wasted Energy : Thermal to

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Surface modification of several dental substrates by non-thermal, atmospheric plasma brush  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractObjective The purpose of this study was to reveal the effectiveness of non-thermal atmospheric plasma brush in surface wettability and modification of four dental substrates. Methods Specimens of dental substrates including dentin, enamel, and two composites Filtek Z250, Filtek LS Silorane were prepared (?2 mm thick, ?10 mm diameter). The prepared surfaces were treated for 5–45 s with a non-thermal atmospheric plasma brush working at temperatures from 36 to 38 °C. The plasma-treatment effects on these surfaces were studied with contact-angle measurement, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results The non-thermal atmospheric argon plasma brush was very efficient in improving the surface hydrophilicity of four substrates studied. The results indicated that water contact angle values decreased considerably after only 5 s plasma treatment of all these substrates. After 30 s treatment, the values were further reduced to plasma treatment. SEM surface images indicated that no significant morphology change was induced on these dental substrates after exposure to plasmas. Significance Without affecting the bulk properties, a super-hydrophilic surface could be easily achieved by the plasma brush treatment regardless of original hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of dental substrates tested.

Mingsheng Chen; Ying Zhang; M. Sky Driver; Anthony N. Caruso; Qingsong Yu; Yong Wang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Medical Actinium Therapeutic Treatment  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Learn how INL researchers are increasing world supplies of Bismuth 213 to help with cancer treatments. For more information about INL research projects, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

431

Electrodialysis in Water Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter focuses on the uses of electrodialysis and specially electrodialysis reversal for the treatment of brackish and groundwater to produce drinking water. Over the last 10–15 years,...

Andréa Moura Bernardes; Marco A. S. Rodrigues

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

6230 surface treatment [n  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

constr. (Surfacing of manufactured stone products, metals, wood,...Specific term for surface treatment of stones with hammer and chisel tooling); syn. surfacing [n] (2);s tratamiento [m] de superfici...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Thermal Shock-resistant Cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Thermal well-test method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

1984-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

435

Thermal Stability of Strained Nanowires  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stranski-Krastanow strained islands undergo a shape anisotropy transition as they grow in size, finally evolving toward nanowires. This effect has been explained until now via simple energetic models that neglect thermodynamics. We investigate theoretically the stability of strained nanowires under thermal fluctuations of the long side. We find phase transitions from nanowires back to nanoislands as the temperature is increased and as the height of the nanostructure is raised or lowered, and we predict regions of phase coexistence. Our results are general, but explain recent data on the growth of erbium silicide on a vicinal Si surface.

Cristiano Nisoli; Douglas Abraham; Turab Lookman; Avadh Saxena

2009-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

436

Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs.

Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Ahluwalia, Manmeet S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Barnett, Gene H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stevens, Glen H.J. [Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, Erin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stockham, Abigail L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Shiue, Kevin [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

High thermal expansion, sealing glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

440

Full-field characterization of thermal diffusivity in continuous- fiber ceramic composite materials and components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continuous-fiber ceramic matrix composites (CFCCs) are currently being developed for various high-temperature applications, including use in advanced heat engines. Among the material classes of interest for such applications are silicon carbide (SiC)-fiber-reinforced SiC (SiC{sub (f)}/SiC), SiC-fiber-reinforced silicon nitride (SiC {sub (f)}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})-fiber-reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sub (f)}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and others. In such composites, the condition of the interfaces (between the fibers and matrix) are critical to the mechanical and thermal behavior of the component (as are conventional mechanical defects such as cracks, porosity, etc.). For example, oxidation of this interface (especially on carbon coated fibers) can seriously degrade both mechanical and thermal properties. Furthermore, thermal shock damage can degrade the matrix through extensive crack generation. A nondestructive evaluation method that could be used to assess interface condition, thermal shock damage, and to detect other ``defects`` would thus be very beneficial, especially if applicable to full-scale components. One method under development uses infrared thermal imaging to provide ``single-shot`` full-field assessment of the distribution of thermal properties in large components by measuring thermal diffusivity. By applying digital image filtering, interpolation, and least-squares-estimation techniques for noise reduction, we can achieve acquisition and analysis times of minutes or less with submillimeter spatial resolution. The system developed at Argonne has been used to examine the effects of thermal shock, oxidation treatment, density variations, and variations in oxidation resistant coatings in a full array of test specimens. Subscale CFCC components with nonplanar geometries have also been studied for manufacturing-induced variations in thermal properties.

Steckenrider, J.S.; Ellingson, W.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rothermel, S.A. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous studies have identified two significant precursors of laser damage on fused silica surfaces at fluenes below {approx} 35 J/cm{sup 2}, photoactive impurities in the polishing layer and surface fractures. In the present work, isothermal heating is studied as a means of remediating the highly absorptive, defect structure associated with surface fractures. A series of Vickers indentations were applied to silica surfaces at loads between 0.5N and 10N creating fracture networks between {approx} 10{micro}m and {approx} 50{micro}m in diameter. The indentations were characterized prior to and following thermal annealing under various times and temperature conditions using confocal time-resolved photo-luminescence (CTP) imaging, and R/1 optical damage testing with 3ns, 355nm laser pulses. Significant improvements in the damage thresholds, together with corresponding reductions in CTP intensity, were observed at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). For example, the damage threshold on 05.N indentations which typically initiates at fluences <8 J/cm{sup 2} could be improved >35 J/cm{sup 2} through the use of a {approx} 750 C thermal treatment. Larger fracture networks required longer or higher temperature treatment to achieve similar results. At an annealing temperature > 1100 C, optical microscopy indicates morphological changes in some of the fracture structure of indentations, although remnants of the original fracture and significant deformation was still observed after thermal annealing. This study demonstrates the potential of using isothermal annealing as a means of improving the laser damage resistance of fused silica optical components. Similarly, it provides a means of further understanding the physics associated with optical damage and related mitigation processes.

Shen, N; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Laurence, T A; Suratwala, T I; Steele, W A; Feit, M D; Wang, L L

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

442

Thermal Processing and Characterizations of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Nanostructured TiO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal Processing and Characterizations of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Nanostructured TiO2 ... This work reports an extensive study about the effects of thermal treatments on the performance of TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells. ... The current–voltage characteristics were measured using an Advantest R6243 current/voltage unit after a 10 min wait for achieving thermal equilibrium under AM 1.5G, simulated solar light of 100 mW cm–2 and irradiated from a WACOM super solar simulator. ...

Filippo Fabbri; Francesca Detto; Nicola Armani; Norifusa Satoh; Tullo Besagni; Maura Pavesi; Giancarlo Salviati

2013-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

443

Thermal Waters of Nevada | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Waters of Nevada Thermal Waters of Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Thermal Waters of Nevada Abstract Abstract unavailable. Authors Larry J. Garside and John H. Schilling Organization Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Published Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, 1979 Report Number Bulletin 91 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Thermal Waters of Nevada Citation Larry J. Garside,John H. Schilling (Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology). 1979. Thermal Waters of Nevada. Reno, NV: Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology. Report No.: Bulletin 91. Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Thermal_Waters_of_Nevada&oldid=690515" Categories: References Geothermal References

444

Ultra low thermal expansion, highly thermal shock resistant ceramic  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Three families of ceramic compositions having the given formula: .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4 P.sub.6-2X Si.sub.2X O.sub.24, .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4-2X Y.sub.2X P.sub.6 O.sub.24 and .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4-X Y.sub.X P.sub.6-2X Si.sub.X O.sub.24 wherein .phi. is either Strontium or Barium and X has a value from about 0.2 to about 0.8 have been disclosed. Ceramics formed from these compositions exhibit very low, generally near neutral, thermal expansion over a wide range of elevated temperatures.

Limaye, Santosh Y. (1440 Sandpiper Cir. #38, Salt Lake City, UT 84117)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass and Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/cofiring of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550oC for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300oC and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300oC lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300oC is probably sufficient to improve grindability and retain energy value.

Wang, Ping; Howard, Bret; Hedges, Sheila; Morreale, Bryan; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Berry, David

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

446

Earth melter and method of disposing of feed materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials.

Chapman, Christopher C. (Richland, WA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Project Profile: National Solar Thermal Test Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The first solar receivers ever tested in the world were tested at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). The receivers were each rated up to 5 megawatts thermal (MWt). Receivers with various working fluids have been tested here over the years, including air, water-steam, molten salt, liquid sodium, and solid particles. The NSTTF has also been used for a large variety of other tests, including materials tests, simulation of thermal nuclear pulses and aerodynamic heating, and ablator testing for NASA.

448

NO. REV. NO. LSPE THERMAL BATTERY TEST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NO. REV. NO. ATM 1086 LSPE THERMAL BATTERY TEST PAGE 1 OF DATE 2/25/72 Prepared by @c!_.e,~.~ ~P. Weir Approved by ~~---:J L. Lewis 5 #12;KC::Y, NO. LSPE THERMAL BATTERY TEST ATM 1086 2 PAGE OF DATE 2-52-72 Introduction The purpose of this ATM is to document the results of a Thermal Battery test for the Lunar Seismic

Rathbun, Julie A.

449

Why Granular Media Are, After All, Thermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Granular media are considered "athermal", because the grains are too large to display Brownian type thermal fluctuations. Yet being macroscopic, every grain undergoes thermal expansion, possesses a temperature that may be measured with a thermometer, and consists of many, many internal degrees of freedom that in their sum do affect granular dynamics. Therefore, including them in a comprehensive approach to account for granular behavior entails crucial advantages. The pros and cons of thermal versus athermal descriptions are considered.

Yimin Jiang; Mario Liu

2014-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

450

Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer.

Biagi, C.; Schwinkendorf, B.; Teheranian, B.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended.

Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended.

Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Colorado thermal spring water geothermometry (public dataset...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dataset) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: Colorado thermal spring water geothermometry (public dataset) Abstract The zipped Excel file...

454

PCM energy storage during defective thermal cycling:.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Incomplete thermal cycling affects storage capacities of phase change materials (PCMs). Existing PCM measuring methods are presented with their drawbacks. A new device named “the… (more)

Koekenbier, S.F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Thermal Energy Storage in Adsorbent Beds .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Total produced energy in the world is mostly consumed as thermal energy which is used for space or water heating. Currently, more than 85% of… (more)

Ugur, Burcu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Thermal Energy Storage:Analysis and Application.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The purpose of this paper is to analyze and determine the feasibility of a cold thermal storage system in manufacturing Industries. Cooling loads and actual… (more)

Ogunkoya, Dolanimi Olugbenga

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Performance evaluation of thermal energy storage systems;.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solar thermal technologies are promising, given the fact that solar newlineenergy is the cheapest and most widely available of all renewable energy newlinetechnologies. The recent… (more)

Ramana A S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN THE DEEP HYPOLIMNION OF ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermal characteristics of Lake Tan- ganyika ... distribution in the hypolimnion was as fol- lows: At .... sonal heat loss and gain at the surface, the following ...

459

Phase-change radiative thermal diode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermal diode transports heat mainly in one preferential direction rather than in the opposite direction. This behavior is generally due to the non-linear dependence of certain physical properties with respect to the temperature. Here we introduce a radiative thermal diode which rectifies heat transport thanks to the phase transitions of materials. Rectification coefficients greater than 70% and up to 90% are shown, even for small temperature differences. This result could have important applications in the development of future contactless thermal circuits or in the conception of radiative coatings for thermal management.

Ben-Abdallah, Philippe, E-mail: pba@institutoptique.fr [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Biehs, Svend-Age, E-mail: s.age.biehs@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universität, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)] [Institut für Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universität, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

460

Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "melter thermal treatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

semiconductors and ceramics with desired thermalthermal conductivity of several polycrystalline semiconductors and ceramics,Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

Wang, Zhaojie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Thermal Ordering in Mixed Nanoclay Dispersions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter investigates the temperature induced orientational ordering in 1:1 Laponite-MMT dispersion. This dispersion showed thermally activated irreversible conformational phase transition from mostly isot...

Ravi Kumar Pujala

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Sandia National Laboratories: solar thermal storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sandia Workers Received Entrepreneurial Spirit Awards On April 3, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, News &...

464

Sandia National Laboratories: solar thermal energy storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

thermal energy storage Sandia Solar Energy Test System Cited in National Engineering Competition On May 16, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage, Facilities,...

465

Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2.3.1 Electrical transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.5 Controlling electrical conductivity and opticalthe variation of electrical and thermal con- ductivity and

Ravichandran, Jayakanth

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

NREL: Climate Neutral Research Campuses - Solar Thermal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cooling system in 2006. Back to Top Technology Basics The following resources explain the fundamentals of solar thermal technologies: NREL Solar Energy Basics: Descriptive overview...

468

Greenhouse Thermal Environment and Light Control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse thermal environment results from the interactions among ... heating, ventilation, and cooling systems; supplemental lighting; and properties of the greenhouse crop are among the most important. As greenhouse

L. D. Albright

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

A solar concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis discusses aspects of a novel solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) collector that has been designed to produce both electricity and hot water.… (more)

Coventry, Joseph S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Geothermal Reconnaissance From Quantitative Analysis Of Thermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal Reconnaissance From Quantitative Analysis Of Thermal Infrared Imagery Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: Geothermal...

471

Thermal barriers: their purpose and functioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review covers the following topics: (1) thermal barrier formation, (2) ion pumping, (3) high-field throttle coil, and (4) microstability. (MOW)

Baldwin, D.E.

1983-08-29T23:59:59.000Z