Sample records for melt zones beneath

  1. Melt zones beneath five volcanic complexes in California: an assessment of shallow magma occurrences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Flexser, S.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent geological and geophysical data for five magma-hydrothermal systems were studied for the purpose of developing estimates for the depth, volume and location of magma beneath each area. The areas studied were: (1) Salton Trough, (2) The Geysers-Clear Lake, (3) Long Valley caldera, (4) Coso volcanic field, and (5) Medicine Lake volcano, all located in California and all selected on the basis of recent volcanic activity and published indications of crustal melt zones. 23 figs.

  2. Melt generation, crystallization, and extraction beneath segmented oceanic transform faults

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregg, Patricia M.

    We examine mantle melting, fractional crystallization, and melt extraction beneath fast slipping, segmented oceanic transform fault systems. Three-dimensional mantle flow and thermal structures are calculated using a ...

  3. Buoyant melting instabilities beneath extending lithosphere: 1. Numerical models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tackley, Paul J.

    Buoyant melting instabilities beneath extending lithosphere: 1. Numerical models John W. Hernlund,1,2 Paul J. Tackley,1,3 and David J. Stevenson4 Received 18 November 2006; revised 18 October 2007 diffusely extending lithosphere is studied using numerical convection models covering a wide range

  4. Electrical structure beneath the northern MELT line on the East Pacific Rise at 15450

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    Electrical structure beneath the northern MELT line on the East Pacific Rise at 15°450 S Kiyoshi] The electrical structure of the upper mantle beneath the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 15°450 S is imaged structure beneath the northern MELT line on the East Pacific Rise at 15°450 S, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L

  5. Spatial distribution of melt conduits in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges: Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    accretion beneath the ridges. Dunite veins, composed of the minerals olivine and spinel, mark conduits that mantle melt extraction occurs in a fractal, branching network, and with recent results on formation] There are two essential observational con- straints on melt extraction from the mantle beneath oceanic spreading

  6. Mantle transition zone beneath the Caribbean-South American plate boundary and its tectonic implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Fenglin

    Mantle transition zone beneath the Caribbean-South American plate boundary and its tectonic seismic network of Venezuela to study the mantle transition zone structure beneath the Caribbean Caribbean, the 410-km is featured by a narrow (200 km EW) 25-km uplift extending in the NS direction around

  7. Melt Zones Beneath Five Volcanic Complexes in California: An...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (2) The Geysers-Clear Lake, (3) Long Valley caldera, (4) Coso volcanic field, and (5) Medicine Lake volcano, all located in California and all selected on the basis of recent...

  8. Melt zones beneath five volcanic complexes in California: an...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (2) The Geysers-Clear Lake, (3) Long Valley caldera, (4) Coso volcanic field, and (5) Medicine Lake volcano, all located in California and all selected on the basis of recent...

  9. Sampling and Hydrogeology of the Vadose Zone Beneath the 300 Area Process Ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Four open pits were dug with a backhoe into the vadose zone beneath the former 300 Area Process Ponds in April 2003. Samples were collected about every 2 feet for physical, chemical, and/or microbiological characterization. This reports presents a stratigraphic and geohydrologic summary of the four excavations.

  10. Seismic structure and ultra-low velocity zones at the base of the Earth's mantle beneath Southeast Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Lianxing

    Seismic structure and ultra-low velocity zones at the base of the Earth's mantle beneath Southeast t We constrain seismic structure and ultra-low velocity zones near the Earth's core-mantle boundary that the strong scatterers represent ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs). We suggest that the seismic structure

  11. A comprehensive analysis of contaminant transport in the vadose zone beneath tank SX-109

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, A.L.; Gee, G.W.; White, M.D.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Vadose Zone Characterization Project is currently investigating the subsurface distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides in S and SX Waste Management Area (WMA-S-SX) located in the 200 West Area of the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Spectral-gamma logging of boreholes has detected elevated {sup 137}Cs concentrations as deep as 38 m, a depth considered excessive based on the assumed geochemistry of {sup 137}Cs in Hanford sediments. Routine groundwater sampling under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have also detected elevated levels of site-specific contaminants downgradient of WMA-S-SX. The objective of this report is to explore the processes controlling the migration of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 99}Tc, and NO{sub 3} through the vadose zone of WMA-S-SX, particularly beneath tank SX-109.

  12. Crustal structure beneath the gravity lineations in the Gravity Lineations, Intraplate Melting, Petrologic and Seismic Expedition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Spahr C.

    , Petrologic and Seismic Expedition (GLIMPSE) study area from seismic refraction data R. Chadwick Holmes,1, Intraplate Melting, Petrologic and Seismic Expedition (GLIMPSE) experiment investigated the velocity in the Gravity Lineations, Intraplate Melting, Petrologic and Seismic Expedition (GLIMPSE) study area from

  13. Bioremediation of RDX in the vadose zone beneath the Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shull, T.L.; Speitel, G.E. Jr.; McKinney, D.C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of dissolved high explosives (HE), in particular RDX and HMX, is well documented in the perched aquifer beneath the Pantex Plant, but the distribution of HE in the vadose zone has not yet been well defined. Although current remediation activities focus on the contamination in the perched aquifer, eventually regulatory concern is likely to turn to the residual contamination in the vadose zone. Sources of HE include the infiltration of past wastewater discharges from several HE-processing facilities through the ditch drainage system and leachate from former Landfill 3. With limited existing data on the HE distribution in the vadose zone and without preventive action, it must be assumed that residual HE could be leached into infiltrating water, providing a continuing supply of contamination to the perched aquifer. The purpose of this project was to more closely examine the fate and transport of HE in the vadose zone through mathematical modeling and laboratory experimentation. In particular, this report focuses on biodegradation as one possible fate of HE. Biodegradation of RDX in the vadose zone was studied because it is both present in highest concentration and is likely to be of the greatest regulatory concern. This study had several objectives: determine if indigenous soil organisms are capable of RDX biodegradation; determine the impact of electron acceptor availability and nutrient addition on RDX biodegradation; determine the extent of RDX mineralization (i.e., conversion to inorganic carbon) during biodegradation; and estimate the kinetics of RDX biodegradation to provide information for mathematical modeling of fate and transport.

  14. Melt Zones Beneath Five Volcanic Complexes in California: An Assessment of

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend <StevensMcClellan,II Jump to:IncMelissa, Texas:

  15. Melt zones beneath five volcanic complexes in California: an assessment of

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend <StevensMcClellan,II Jump to:IncMelissa, Texas:shallow magma

  16. Baseline mapping study of the Steed Pond aquifer and vadose zone beneath A/M Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, D.G. Jr.

    2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the second phase of a baseline mapping project conducted for the Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) at Savannah River Site. The purpose of this second phase is to map the structure and distribution of mud (clay and silt-sized sediment) within the vadose zone beneath A/M Area. The results presented in this report will assist future characterization and remediation activities in the vadose zone and upper aquifer zones in A/M Area.

  17. Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, Heather [University of Bristol, UK] [University of Bristol, UK; Brantley, S. L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA] [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Scatena, Fred [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA] [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Blum, Alex [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO] [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO; Schulz, M [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; Jimenez, M [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; White, Art [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA] [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Rother, Gernot [ORNL] [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world s oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g., soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared to the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream.

  18. A meteorological experiment in the melting zone of the Greenland ice sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oerlemans, J. (Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)); Vugts, H.F. (Free Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary results are described from a glaciometeorological experiment carried out in the margin (melting zone) of the Greenland ice sheet in the summers of 1990 and 1991. This work was initiated within the framework of a Dutch research program on land ice and sea level change. Seven meteostations were operated along a transect running from the tundra well onto the ice sheet. At the ice edge, humidity, temperature, and wind profiles were obtained with a tethered balloon. On the ice sheet, 90 km from the edge, a boundary-layer research unit, including a sound detecting and ranging system (SODAR) and a radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), was established. Although focusing on the relation between surface energy balance, glacier mass balance, and ice flow, the experiment has also delivered a unique dataset on the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer around the warm tundra-cold ice sheet transition. Unexpected behavior was found for the surface albedo during the melt season. Lowest values are not found close to the ice edge, which is usual for glaciers, but higher on the ice sheet. Meltwater accumulation due to inefficient surface drainage was found to be the cause for this. The wind regime is dominated by katabatic flow from the ice sheet. The katabatic layer is typically 100-200 m thick. Close to the ice edge, the flow exhibits a very regular daily rhythm, with maximum wind speed in the afternoon. Farther on the ice sheet, the regime changes, and wind speed reaches maximum values in late night/early morning.

  19. Shear-wave splitting, lithospheric anisotropy, and mantle deformation beneath the ArabiaEurasia collision zone in Iran

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatzfeld, Denis

    ­Eurasia collision zone in Iran Ayoub Kaviani a,b,c , Denis Hatzfeld c, , Anne Paul c , Mohammad Tatar b , Keith Priestley d a Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Zanjan, Iran b International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, P.O. Box 19395-3913, Tehran, Iran c

  20. Perched-Water Evaluation for the Deep Vadose Zone Beneath the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms Area of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Carroll, KC; Chronister, Glen B.

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Perched-water conditions have been observed in the vadose zone above a fine-grained zone that is located a few meters above the water table within the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms area. The perched water contains elevated concentrations of uranium and technetium-99. This perched-water zone is important to consider in evaluating the future flux of contaminated water into the groundwater. The study described in this report was conducted to examine the perched-water conditions and quantitatively evaluate 1) factors that control perching behavior, 2) contaminant flux toward groundwater, and 3) associated groundwater impact.

  1. Constraints on a plume in the mid-mantle beneath the Iceland region from seismic array data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    of kilometres long, with P-wave speeds VPy0.5 per cent high, extend into the lower mantle beneath some, though of such a continuous low-wave-speed zone beneath a hotspot does not necessarily indicate a zone of upwelling traversing was investigated by Ji & Nataf (1998), who applied 2-D waveform tomography to scattered long-period P waves

  2. Basal melt rates beneath Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beem, Lucas H.; Jezek, Ken C.; Van Der Veen, C. J.

    2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Basal water lubricates and enables the fast flow of the West Antarctic ice streams which exist under low gravitational driving stress. Identification of sources and rates of basal meltwater production can provide insight into the dynamics of ice...

  3. The evolution and storage of primitive melts in the Eastern Volcanic Zone of Iceland: the 10 ka Grímsvötn tephra series (i.e. the Saksunarvatn ash)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neave, David A.; Maclennan, John; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Hartley, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon coating. Analyses were carried out with the instrument configured for a high mass resolving power in order to ensure separation of 12C and 24Mg2+ peaks. Measurements were made using a primary O? ion beam with an accelerating voltage of 15 kV, a... CO2 diffusion, resulting in reduced sequestration of CO2 into bubbles (Neave et al. 2014a; Wallace et al. 2015). Inclusion-hosted bubbles are present in 49 of the 133 melt inclusions analysed from the Hvítárvatn tephra layer. The majority...

  4. Pressurized melt ejection into scaled reactor cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Pilch, M.; Brockmann, J.E.; Ross, J.W.; Gilbert, D.W.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes four tests performed in the High-Pressure Melt Streaming Program (HIPS) using linear-scaled cavities of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. These experiments were conducted to study the phenomena involved in high-pressure ejection of core debris into the cavity beneath the reactor pressure vessel. One-tenth and one-twentieth linear scale models of reactor cavities were constructed and instrumented. The first test used an apparatus constructed of alumina firebrick to minimize the potential interaction between the ejected melt and cavity material. The remaining three experiments used scaled representations of the Zion nuclear plant geometry, constructed of prototypic concrete composition.

  5. This news release accompanies the press conference, "Greenland Glaciers: What Lies Beneath," to be given Wednesday, December 16, 2009, at 9:00 a.m. PT (12:00 NOON ET) at the American Geophysical Union Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    on acceleration and ice loss -- through fast-moving outlet glaciers that connect the inland ice sheet to the ocean-cost technologies to track the flow of glaciers and get a glimpse of what lies beneath the ice. As ice melts, water-more- This news release accompanies the press conference, "Greenland Glaciers: What Lies Beneath

  6. A Preparation Zone For Volcanic Explosions Beneath Naka-Dake...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a characteristic cycle of activity that consists of the formation of a crater lake, drying-up of the lake water, and finally a Strombolian-type eruption. Recent observations...

  7. Subduction zones Melt formation and crustal growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siebel, Wolfgang

    of eruption columns 3. Explosive disruption of a lava dome 4. Lateral blast after sector collapse) droplets - Scatters sun light ­ temperature drops (1-2°C) (effect lasts 2­5 years) - CO2 from volcanoes

  8. Melt generation in the Earth's mantle at Convergent Plate Margins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Till, Christy B

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The five geologic studies presented in this thesis document how the recycling of tectonic plates at subduction zones has a profound effect on the melting behavior of the Earth's mantle. Two experimental studies (Chapters ...

  9. Coupled Geochemical and Hydrological Processes Governing the Fate and Transport of Radionuclides and Toxic Metals Beneath the Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Fendorf; Phil Jardine

    2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research was to provide an improved understanding and predictive capability of coupled hydrological and geochemical mechanisms that are responsible for the accelerated migration and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals in the badose zone beneath the Hanford Tank Farms.

  10. Melt containment member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

  11. Distribution of stress in the oceanic lithosphere beneath the Lau-Havre Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altman, Larry Wayne

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . If the material injected into the basin floor came from the upper edge of the down-going slab, then it should be andesitic in composition just like the rocks of the volcanic frontal arc which are thought to have the same source. The CI CI CI Cl I I I I... arcs. In this theory, the Benioff zones do not delineate great thrust faults in the classical sense, but rather, they reflect underthrusting or subduction of lithospheric plates into the mantle beneath the arcs. The Origin of Marginal Basins...

  12. Crust and Upper Mantle P Wave Velocity Structure Beneath Valles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crust and Upper Mantle P Wave Velocity Structure Beneath Valles Caldera, New Mexico- Results from the Jemez Teleseismic Tomography Experiment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  13. Evidence For Gas And Magmatic Sources Beneath The Yellowstone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of magma beneath the Yellowstone caldera. Authors Stephan Husen, Robert B. Smith and Gregory P. Waite Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research,...

  14. Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath the Coso volcanic region, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  15. Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long Valley Caldera, East-Central California, USA, From Recent Pumping Tests And Geochemical Sampling Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  16. Structure and Stratigraphy Beneath a Young Phreatic Vent: South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Caldera, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Structure and Stratigraphy Beneath a Young Phreatic Vent: South Inyo Crater,...

  17. DIVISION S-10--WETLAND SOILS Carbon Accumulation and Storage in Mineral Subsoil beneath Peat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Tim

    DIVISION S-10--WETLAND SOILS Carbon Accumulation and Storage in Mineral Subsoil beneath Peat Tim R subsoil (Turunen and Moore, 2003). TheyWe showed that sandy subsoils beneath peat near Ramsey Lake conditions beneath the peat. soils beneath the forest, those beneath the peat contained similar In this paper

  18. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, M.S.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  19. Bacteria beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Brian Lanoil,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priscu, John C.

    Bacteria beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Brian Lanoil,1 * Mark Skidmore,1 John C. Priscu,2, particularly those that lie beneath polar ice sheets, are beginning to be recog- nized as an important part Vostok, Antarctica, no sub-ice sheet environments have been shown to support microbial ecosystems. Here

  20. Increased Runoff from Melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet: A Response to Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybrechts, Philippe

    conditions over the ablation zone of the ice sheet, which caused a record melt extent. The year 2006 mass balance changes of the GrIS. Airborne and satellite laser-altimetry data analyses were used

  1. Trace element partitioning during high-P partial melting and melt-rock interaction; an example from northern Fiordland,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daczko, Nathan

    reaction zones. New data acquired using a Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA to sites of partial melting in the dioritic gneiss. Key words: garnet granulite; Laser Ablation Inductively-clinopyroxene assemblage. In this paper, we present geochemical data obtained by an in-situ Laser Ablation Inductively

  2. Laser thermoelastic generation in metals above the melt threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Every, A. G. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, PO Wits 2050 (South Africa)] [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, PO Wits 2050 (South Africa); Utegulov, Z. N. [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan)] [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Veres, I. A. [RECENDT Research Center for Non-Destructive Testing GmbH, A-4040 Linz (Austria)] [RECENDT Research Center for Non-Destructive Testing GmbH, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach is presented for calculating thermoelastic generation of ultrasound in a metal plate exposed to nanosecond pulsed laser heating, sufficient to cause melting but not ablation. Detailed consideration is given to the spatial and temporal profiles of the laser pulse, penetration of the laser beam into the sample, the appearance and subsequent growth and then contraction of the melt pool, and the time dependent thermal conduction in the melt and surrounding solid throughout. The excitation of the ultrasound takes place during and shortly after the laser pulse and occurs predominantly within the thermal diffusion length of a micron or so beneath the surface. It is shown how, because of this, the output of the thermal simulations can be expressed as axially symmetric transient radial and normal surface force distributions. The epicentral displacement response to these force distributions is obtained by two methods, the one based on the elastodynamic Green's functions for plate geometry determined by the Cagniard generalized ray method and the other using a finite element numerical method. The two approaches are in very close agreement. Numerical simulations are reported on the epicentral displacement response of a 3.12 mm thick tungsten plate irradiated with a 4 ns pulsed laser beam with Gaussian spatial profile, at intensities below and above the melt threshold.

  3. Laboratory simulation of subsurface airflow beneath a building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corsello, Joseph William

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor intrusion is the vapor-phase migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings due to subsurface soil or groundwater contamination. Oxygen replenishment rates beneath a building are significant for ...

  4. Mapping bedrock beneath glacial till using CDP seismic reflection methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiswetter, Dean; Black, Ross A.; Steeples, Don W.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a case history demonstrating the applicability of the common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to image bedrock beneath glacial till in northwestern Iowa. Reflections from the base of the 40-m thick glacial till are clearly...

  5. Seismic evidence for a moderately thick lithosphere beneath the Siberian Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seismic evidence for a moderately thick lithosphere beneath the Siberian Platform Keith Priestley-wavespeed tomographic model for the upper mantle beneath the Siberian platform and surrounding region derived from lithosphere is $200 km thick beneath most of the Siberian platform but may extend to $250 km depth beneath

  6. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  7. Analysis of Feed Melting Procesess

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2003-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient waste-glass melter with a sustained, high-volume glass throughput will allow a smaller vitrification facility, a shorter lifecycle, and glass with a higher concentration of waste. The vitrification process of two feeds that exhibited different rates of conversion was studied using thermal analyses, including evolved gas analysis with volume-expansion monitoring. Quantitative X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were performed on quenched samples. The difference in the melting rates was attributed to different melt viscosities at the temperature at which the melt interfaces the cold cap. It was suggested that low viscosity destabilizes foam under the cold cap, thus enhancing the rate of melting.

  8. High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J (Albuquerque, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Edgewood, NM); O'Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Denison, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Brown, Darwin J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

  9. High pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.; Pilch, M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent probabilistic risk assessments have identified the potential for reactor pressure vessel failure while the reactor coolant system is at elevated pressure. The analyses postulate that the blowdown of steam and hydrogen into the reactor cavity will cause the core material to be swept from the cavity region into the containment building. The High Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program is an experimental study of the high pressure ejection of molten material and subsequent interactions within a concrete cavity. The program focuses on using prototypic system conditions and scaled models of reactor geometries to accurately simulate the ex-vessel processes during high-pressure accident sequences. Scaling analyses of the experiment show that the criteria established for core debris removal from the cavity are met or exceeded. Tests are performed at two scales, representing 1/10th and 1/20th linear reproductions of the Zion reactor plant. Results of the 1/20th scale tests are presented.

  10. Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Environmental Pollution Control Program Penn State Harrisburg, Middletown, PA 17057 Objectives To determine

  11. Low wave speed zones in the crust beneath SE Tibet revealed by ambient noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Fenglin

    , China, 4 State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resource and Prospecting, and Unconventional Natural Gas's Interior, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui Institute, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China Abstract We present a refined 3D crustal model

  12. Anomalously thin transition zone and apparently isotropic upper mantle beneath Bermuda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for upwelling Margaret H. Benoit Department of Physics, College of New Jersey, Ewing, New Jersey, USA (benoit@tcnj.edu) Maureen D. Long Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA Scott D analyze shear wave splitting measurements to estimate mantle flow direction and receiver function stacks

  13. A Low-Velocity Zone in the Basement Beneath the Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergy Information FlashingEvaluation || OpenA Low|

  14. A Preparation Zone For Volcanic Explosions Beneath Naka-Dake Crater, Aso

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergy InformationOf TheLtd APWR JumpArea

  15. Validation of the THIRMAL-1 melt-water interaction code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, C.C.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The THIRMAL-1 computer code has been used to calculate nonexplosive LWR melt-water interactions both in-vessel and ex-vessel. To support the application of the code and enhance its acceptability, THIRMAL-1 has been compared with available data from two of the ongoing FARO experiments at Ispra and two of the Corium Coolant Mixing (CCM) experiments performed at Argonne. THIRMAL-1 calculations for the FARO Scoping Test and Quenching Test 2 as well as the CCM-5 and -6 experiments were found to be in excellent agreement with the experiment results. This lends confidence to the modeling that has been incorporated in the code describing melt stream breakup due to the growth of both Kelvin-Helmholtz and large wave instabilities, the sizes of droplets formed, multiphase flow and heat transfer in the mixing zone surrounding and below the melt stream, as well as hydrogen generation due to oxidation of the melt metallic phase. As part of the analysis of the FARO tests, a mechanistic model was developed to calculate the prefragmentation as it may have occurred when melt relocated from the release vessel to the water surface and the model was compared with the relevant data from FARO.

  16. A preliminary study of the controls on melting during in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, A.D.; Nyquist, J.E.; Alexiades, V.; Jacobs, G.K.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ vitrification (ISV), developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and patented for the US Department of Energy, is one method used to stabilize contaminated soils in place. ISV involves inserting four electrodes in a square array into contaminated soil and applying an electrical potential to the electrodes. The soil is heated to above its melting point, and the molten zone expands with time to encompass the contaminated zone. After cooling, the resulting solid material is usually a mixture of glass and crystalline material that has a significantly higher resistance to leaching than did the original soils. Nonvolatile elements (most radionuclides and metals) are dissolved into the melt or encapsulated in glass if their solubility in the melt is low. Organic compounds tends to be pyrolyzed, with the decomposition products diffusing to the surface and combusting on exiting the molten zone. A hood is placed over the vitrification zone to collect off-gas particulates and volatiles into a processing trailer that scrubs contaminants from the off-gas. The current study identified key parameters and processes in the ISV melt cycle and developed an improved understanding of ISV. Analytical approximations for several properties of molten soil were determined from available data. Using a simplified geometrical approximation for melt geometry, an analytical approximation for the rate of melting (depth) vs time was derived that is consistent with data from field experiments. At small times, the depth of melting increases linearly with time. After approximately 10 h in large-scale tests, however, the depth increases as the square root of time. Existing data is also consistent with a relationship that shows the volumetric growth rate of the melt to be directly proportional to time. These conclusions suggest that heat transfer processes controlling the ISV process may be at the transition between weak convection and conduction.

  17. A preliminary study of the controls on melting during in situ vitrification. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, A.D.; Nyquist, J.E.; Alexiades, V.; Jacobs, G.K.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ vitrification (ISV), developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and patented for the US Department of Energy, is one method used to stabilize contaminated soils in place. ISV involves inserting four electrodes in a square array into contaminated soil and applying an electrical potential to the electrodes. The soil is heated to above its melting point, and the molten zone expands with time to encompass the contaminated zone. After cooling, the resulting solid material is usually a mixture of glass and crystalline material that has a significantly higher resistance to leaching than did the original soils. Nonvolatile elements (most radionuclides and metals) are dissolved into the melt or encapsulated in glass if their solubility in the melt is low. Organic compounds tends to be pyrolyzed, with the decomposition products diffusing to the surface and combusting on exiting the molten zone. A hood is placed over the vitrification zone to collect off-gas particulates and volatiles into a processing trailer that scrubs contaminants from the off-gas. The current study identified key parameters and processes in the ISV melt cycle and developed an improved understanding of ISV. Analytical approximations for several properties of molten soil were determined from available data. Using a simplified geometrical approximation for melt geometry, an analytical approximation for the rate of melting (depth) vs time was derived that is consistent with data from field experiments. At small times, the depth of melting increases linearly with time. After approximately 10 h in large-scale tests, however, the depth increases as the square root of time. Existing data is also consistent with a relationship that shows the volumetric growth rate of the melt to be directly proportional to time. These conclusions suggest that heat transfer processes controlling the ISV process may be at the transition between weak convection and conduction.

  18. Upper mantle flow beneath the Hangay dome, central Mongolia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Déverchère, Jacques

    Upper mantle flow beneath the Hangay dome, central Mongolia Acknowledgements This work, A., Amarjargal, S. and Déverchère, J., 2003. GPS measurements of crustal deformation in the Baikal-Mongolia., 2002. Mantle structure and rifting processes in the Baikal-Mongolia region: geophysical data

  19. Beneath the shadow of the Tower Soldiers' Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beneath the shadow of the Tower Soldiers' Tower Schedule of Events October-November 2013 As of Oct. 21, 2013 Telephone: 416-978-3485 (office) E-mail: soldiers.tower@utoronto.ca Soldiers' Tower Web Site: www.alumni.utoronto.ca/tower Facebook: www.facebook.com/soldierstower U of T Events web site: www

  20. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  1. Plasma arc melting of zirconium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tubesing, P.K.; Korzekwa, D.R.; Dunn, P.S.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Zirconium, like some other refractory metals, has an undesirable sensitivity to interstitials such as oxygen. Traditionally, zirconium is processed by electron beam melting to maintain minimum interstitial contamination. Electron beam melted zirconium, however, does not respond positively to mechanical processing due to its large grain size. The authors undertook a study to determine if plasma arc melting (PAM) technology could be utilized to maintain low interstitial concentrations and improve the response of zirconium to subsequent mechanical processing. The PAM process enabled them to control and maintain low interstitial levels of oxygen and carbon, produce a more favorable grain structure, and with supplementary off-gassing, improve the response to mechanical forming.

  2. Multiple transition zone seismic discontinuities and low velocity layers below western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tauzin, B.

    With P-to-S converted waves recorded at seismic stations of the U.S. Transportable Array, we image the fine structure of upper mantle and transition zone (TZ) beneath the western U.S. We map the topographies of seismic ...

  3. Long-Term Monitoring Using Deep Seafloor Boreholes Penetrating the Seismogenic Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsunogai, Urumu

    Long-Term Monitoring Using Deep Seafloor Boreholes Penetrating the Seismogenic Zone Masanao, because it has, until now, been impossible to penetrate to such depths below the sea floor. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), scheduled to begin in ,**-, plans to drill boreholes beneath the ocean

  4. 2001 TRAFFIC ZONE BOUNDARIES Zone Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    2001 TRAFFIC ZONE BOUNDARIES Zone Numbers & Detailed Definitions #12;2001 TRAFFIC ZONE BOUNDARIES of Toronto Joint Program in Transportation January 2003 #12;PREFACE This report presents the 2001 traffic zone numbers by local municipalities in the 2001 TTS survey area. The second part presents detailed

  5. Melting efficiency in fusion welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic to our knowledge of the science of welding is an understanding of the melting efficiency, which indicates how much of the heat deposited by the welding process is used to produce melting. Recent calorimetric studies of GTAW, PAW, and LBW processes have measured the net heat input to the part thereby quantifying the energy transfer efficiency and in turn permitting an accurate determination of the melting efficiency. It is indicated that the weld process variables can dramatically affect the melting efficiency. This limiting value is shown to depend on the weld heat flow geometry as predicted by analytical solutions to the heat flow equation and as demonstrated by the recent empirical data. A new dimensionless parameter is used to predict the melting efficiency and is shown to correlate extremely well with recent empirical data. This simple prediction methodology is notable because it requires only a knowledge of the weld schedule and the material properties in order to estimate melting efficiency. 22 refs., 16 figs.

  6. MELT-MEDIATED LASER CRYSTALLIZATION OF THIN FILM NITI SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    1 MELT-MEDIATED LASER CRYSTALLIZATION OF THIN FILM NITI SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS Paper (M406) Andrew J zones within an as sputter- deposited amorphous matrix. Since shape memory responses stem from not only spatial control over the shape memory response, but potentially, through proper use of operational

  7. Enterprise Zone Incentives (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Enterprise Zone Incentives encourage business growth within certain geographic areas targeted for economic revitalization. Businesses which create jobs within a designated zone are eligible for...

  8. Dry melting of high albite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anovitz, L.M.: Blencoe, J.G.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of albitic melts are central to thermodynamic models for synthetic and natural granitic liquids. The authors have analyzed published phase-equilibrium and thermodynamic data for the dry fusion of high albite to develop a more accurate equation for the Biggs free energy of this reaction to 30 kbar and 1,400 C. Strict criteria for reaction reversal were sued to evaluate the phase-equilibrium data, and the thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid albite were evaluated using the published uncertainties in the original measurements. Results suggest that neither available phase-equilibrium experiments nor thermodynamic data tightly constrain the location of the reaction. Experimental solidus temperatures at 1 atm range from 1,100 to 1,120 C. High-pressure experiments were not reversed completely and may have been affected by several sources of error, but the apparent inconsistencies among the results of the various experimentalists are eliminated when only half-reversal data are considered. Uncertainties in thermodynamic data yield large variations in permissible reaction slopes. Disparities between experimental and calculated melting curves are, therefore, largely attributable to these difficulties, and there is no fundamental disagreement between the available phase-equilibrium and thermodynamic data for the dry melting of albite. Consequently, complex speciation models for albitic melts, based on the assumption that these discrepancies represent a real characteristic of the system, are unjustified at this time.

  9. Basalt petrogenesis beneath slow- and ultraslow-spreading Arctic mid-ocean ridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elkins, Lynne J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To explore the ability of melting mafic lithologies to produce alkaline ocean-island basalts (OIB), an experimental study was carried out measuring clinopyroxene (Cpx)melt and garnet (Gt)-melt partition coefficients during ...

  10. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broadband seismic stations. From the 1-D shear wave velocity models, we obtain new insights into the composition and structure of the crust and upper mantle across Cameroon. After briefly reviewing the geological framework of Cameroon, we describe the data and the joint inversion method, and then interpret variations in crustal structure found beneath Cameroon in terms of the tectonic history of the region.

  11. Moho topography beneath the Corinth Rift area (Greece) from inversion of gravity data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Moho topography beneath the Corinth Rift area (Greece) from inversion of gravity data C. Tiberi,1 to Miocene lithospheric instabilities. Key words: boudinage, continental rifts, gravity inversion, Greece

  12. A Temperature Model Of The Crust Beneath The Barents Sea- Investigatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Temperature Model Of The Crust Beneath The Barents Sea- Investigations Along Geotraverses...

  13. Not Excavated (still on site) As All data Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .12 11.68 10.29 AL: 50 xrf_allzones_20060810 Page 1 of 174notx summary #12;Mo All data Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone.35 2.36 2.37 U95: 57.95 62.41 60.56 51.63 70.50 U99: 58.98 64.27 62.34 52.75 74.38 AL: 550 xrf99: 12.48 AL: xrf_allzones_20060810 Page 3 of 174x summary #12;Mo All data Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone

  14. Thermo-mechanical structure beneath the young orogenic belt of Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Kuo-Fong

    Thermo-mechanical structure beneath the young orogenic belt of Taiwan Kuo-Fong Ma*, Teh-Ru Alex Abstract We investigate the thermo-mechanical properties beneath the young orogenic belt of Taiwan.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Thermo-mechanical; Rheology; Seismicity; Strength profile; Composition

  15. Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath a perennial river

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Quanlin

    Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath a perennial river Grace W. Su,1,2 James a streambed during groundwater pumping near streams can reduce the pumping capacity, change flow paths) the formation of an unsaturated region beneath the stream, (2) the pumping capacity, (3) stream water fluxes

  16. Horizontal subduction and truncation of the Cocos Plate beneath central Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Robert W.

    Horizontal subduction and truncation of the Cocos Plate beneath central Mexico Xyoli Pe from a trans-Mexico temporary broadband seismic network centered on Mexico City, we report that the subducting Cocos Plate beneath central Mexico is horizontal, and tectonically underplates the base

  17. Alternative Energy Zone (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ohio's Alternative Energy Zones are made possible through Ohio's Senate Bill 232, which reduced taxes on alternative energy projects. The Alternative Energy Zones are designated on a county-by...

  18. Above the Roof, Beneath the Law: Perceived Justice behind Disruptive Tactics of Migrant Wage Claimants in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, X; Wang, L; Su, Y

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bs_bs_banner Above the Roof, Beneath the Law: Perceivedmigrant workers perch on roof tops or towering construction

  19. Non-depleted sub-continental mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield: Nd-Sr isotopic and trace element evidence from Midcontinent Rift basalts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paces, J.B. (Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton (USA)); Bell, K. (Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Midcontinent Rift flood basalts represent a sample of the relatively shallow, sub-continental upper mantle beneath the Canadian Shield at 1.1 Ga. A thick sequence of olivine tholeiite lavas, including minor intermediate to rhyolitic lavas, from the Portage Lake Volcanics (PLV) in northern Michigan have initial Nd and Sr isotopic compositions which cluster near Bulk Earth values. The effects of assimilation of old LREE-enriched continental crust into mantle-derived fractionating liquids are isotopically discernible in evolved lavas as well as in olivine tholeiites from the lowest portion of the volcanic pile. However, the effects of crustal contamination decrease with stratigraphic height and are absent in more primitive lavas in the upper half of the section. The source for PLV tholeiites is substantially less depleted than previously reported mantle values from the Superior Province. An origin for the PLV source is compatible with either of several mantle evolution models. The PLV source may have been associated with upwelling of a LIL element-enriched, asthenospheric plume which emplaced non-depleted material from deeper sources into the shallow sub-continental mantle beneath the Midcontinent Rift during continental break-up. Alternatively, the PLV source may have originated by enrichment of refractory sub-continental lithospheric mantle which was previously depleted in incompatible trace elements during Archean-aged melt extraction and continental crust formation. Concurrent generation of carbonatite magmas in other areas beneath the Superior Province indicates the widespread presence of sub-continental mantle with substantially higher {epsilon}{sub Nd}(T) and lower {epsilon}{sub Sr}(T) than the PLV source.

  20. Safety aspects of EB melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hainz, L.C. [Hainz Engineering Services, Inc., Albany, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Beam melting technology, along with other vacuum metallurgical technologies, requires special attention to safety involving operation and maintenance of the EB furnace and systems. Although the EB industry has been relatively accident free, the importance of safety awareness and compliance becomes increasingly important. It is very important to provide a safe work environment for employees and economically important to protect the equipment from damage and potential downtime. Safety and accident prevention directly affects overhead costs by keeping accident insurance rates at a minimum. Routine safety requirements will be reviewed and safety aspects requiring extra attention will be addressed. Safety improvements and experiences of furnace users will be shared as examples.

  1. Ex-vessel melt-coolant interactions in deep water pool: Studies and accident management for Swedish BWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Chu, C.C.; Spencer, B.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Frid, W. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)); Loewenhielm, G. (Vattenfall AB, Vaellingby (Sweden))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Swedish BWRs having an annular suppression pool, the lower drywell beneath the reactor vessel is flooded with water to mitigate against the effects of melt release into the drywell during a severe accident. The THIRMAL code has been used to analyze the effectiveness of the water pool to protect lower drywell penetrations by fragmenting and quenching the melt as it relocates downward through the water. Experiments have also been performed to investigate the benefits of adding surfactants to the water to reduce the likelihood of fine-scale debris formation from steam explosions. This paper presents an overview of the accident management approach and surfactant investigations together with results from the THIRMAL analyses.

  2. Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Pavement Snow Melting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pavement Snow Melting Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News Related...

  3. Intermittent upwelling of asthenosphere beneath the Gregory Rift, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki (Univ. of Tasmania (Australia) Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Kimura, Nobukazu (Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Itaya, Tetsumaru (Okayama Univ. of Science (Japan)); Koyaguchi, Takehiro (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan)); Suwa, Kanenori (Nagoya Univ. (Japan))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K-Ar dates and chemical compositions of basalts in the Gregory Rift, Kenya, demonstrate marked secular variation of lava chemistry. Two magmatic cycles characterized by incompatible element relative depletion are recognized; both occurring immediately after the peak of basaltic volcanism and coeval with both trachyte/phonolite volcanism and domal uplift of the region. These cycles may be attributed to increasing degree of partial melting of mantle source material in association with thinning of the lithosphere by thermal erosion through contact with hot upwelling asthenospheric mantle. Cyclic variation in asthenosphere upwelling may be considered an important controlling process in the evolution of the Gregory Rift.

  4. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, James H. (Toronto, CA); Fruehan, Richard J. (Murrysville, PA); Elliott, deceased, John F. (late of Winchester, MA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal.

  5. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, J.H.; Fruehan, R.J.; Elliott, J.F.

    1995-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal. 8 figures.

  6. Frequency-magnitude distribution of microearthquakes beneath the 9500

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne

    at shallow depths and relatively high stress levels (or low pore pressures) observed away from the axial zone there also exists significant spatial variability. This indicates that stress conditions and/or structural. As a byproduct of this b value analysis, the detection capabilities of the array are assessed empirically

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Vadose Zone Research Park Geohydrological Monitoring Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristine Baker

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vadose zone lithology, hydrological characterization of interbed sediments, and hydrological data from subsurface monitoring of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center wastewater infiltration are presented. Three-dimensional subsurface lithology of the vadose zone beneath the Vadose Zone Research Park is represented in a 2 dimensional (2 D) diagram showing interpolated lithology between monitoring wells. Laboratory-measured values for saturated hydraulic conductivity and porosity are given for three major interbeds, denoted as the B BC interbed (20 to 35 m bls), the C D interbed (40 to 45 m bls), and the DE 1 2 interbed (55 to 65 m bls), along with an overall physical description of the sediments and geologic depositional environments. Pre-operational pore water pressure conditions are presented to show the presence and location of perched water zones before pond discharge at the New Percolation Ponds. Subsurface infiltration conditions during initial high-volume discharge are presented to show water arrival times and arrival sequences. Steady-state conditions are then presented to show formation and locations of perched water zones and recharge sources after several months of discharge to the New Percolation Ponds.

  8. Method and apparatus for improved melt flow during continuous strip casting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Follstaedt, D.W.; King, E.L.; Schneider, K.C.

    1991-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The continuous casting of metal strip using the melt overflow process is improved by controlling the weir conditions in the nozzle to provide a more uniform flow of molten metal across the width of the nozzle and reducing the tendency for freezing of metal along the interface with refractory surfaces. A weir design having a sloped rear wall and tapered sidewalls and critical gap controls beneath the weir has resulted in the drastic reduction in edge tearing and a significant improvement in strip uniformity. The floor of the container vessel is preferably sloped and the gap between the nozzle and the rotating substrate is critically controlled. The resulting flow patterns observed with the improved casting process have reduced thermal gradients in the bath, contained surface slag and eliminated undesirable solidification near the discharge area by increasing the flow rates at those points. 8 figures.

  9. Reduced Energy Consumption for Melting in Foundries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ 336 ­ 007 TM 06 ­ 07 Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management Technical University at the Technical University of Denmark, DTU. The project has been financed by the Danish transmission system-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known

  10. Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Paul S. (Santa Fe, NM); Korzekwa, Deniece R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting. The level of oxygen and carbon impurities in tantalum was reduced by plasma arc melting the tantalum using a flowing plasma gas generated from a gas mixture of helium and hydrogen. The flowing plasma gases of the present invention were found to be superior to other known flowing plasma gases used for this purpose.

  11. The Melting of Greenland William H. Lipscomb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Born, Andreas

    ). AnAn ice capice cap is a mass of glacier ice smaller than 50,000 kmis a mass of glacier ice smaller is negligibleSurface melting is negligible Antarctic ice thicknessAntarctic ice thickness (British Antarctic of the Greenland iceMuch of the Greenland ice sheet may have meltedsheet may have melted Greenland minimum extent

  12. Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the purposes of renaissance zone designation, “renewable energy facility” means a facility that creates energy, fuels, or chemicals directly from the wind, the sun, trees, grasses, biosolids,...

  13. Renaissance Zones (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Renaissance Zones allow qualifying businesses and individuals to claim one or more tax incentives for purchasing, leasing, or making improvements to real property located in a North Dakota...

  14. Geothermal: Educational Zone

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Educational Zone Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News Related Links...

  15. Ice-induced enhancement of solar radiation beneath overcast skies near Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, Nicholas Charles

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF SOLAR RADIATION BENEATH OVERCAST SKIES NEAR ANTARCTICA A Thesis by NICHOLAS CHARLES HORVATH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIFNCE May 1981 Major Subject: Meteorology ICE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF SOLAR RADIATION BENEATH OVERCAST SKIES NEAR ANTARCTICA A Thesis by NICHOLAS CHARLES HORVATH Approsed as to style and content by: (Ch irman of Committee) (Member...

  16. The contribution of glacier melt to streamflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaner, Neil; Voisin, Nathalie; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing and projected future changes in glacier extent and water storage globally have lead to concerns about the implications for water supplies. However, the current magnitude of glacier contributions to river runoff is not well known, nor is the population at risk to future glacier changes. We estimate an upper bound on glacier melt contribution to seasonal streamflow by computing the energy balance of glaciers globally. Melt water quantities are computed as a fraction of total streamflow simulated using a hydrology model and the melt fraction is tracked down the stream network. In general, our estimates of the glacier melt contribution to streamflow are lower than previously published values. Nonetheless, we find that globally an estimated 225 (36) million people live in river basins where maximum seasonal glacier melt contributes at least 10% (25%) of streamflow, mostly in the High Asia region.

  17. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Mireles, Jose (Universidad Aut%C3%94onoma de Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez, Mexico); Marquez, Noel (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Quinones, Stella (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  18. Mechanism of sulfate segregation during glass melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2005-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate retention in glass during the vitrification process can be as low as 1/3 of the solubility limit, or can exceed the solubility limit if suspended in the glass in the form of droplets. This study is focused on the mechanism of incorporating and segregating sodium sulfate during the melting of an alkali-alumino-borosilicate glass batch. Batches were ramp heated at 4°C/min to temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1050°C and fractured for examination. Observation of the melts showed that as the batch temperature increases and the primary oxo-anionic, predominantly nitrate melt decomposes, the sulfate residue accumulates inside gas bubbles and is transported in them to the melt surface, where it remains segregated. The degree of sulfate incorporation into the final glass depends on the relative rates of sulfate dissolution in the borosilicate melt and sulfate lifting inside bubbles.

  19. A study into effects of CO{sub 2} laser melting of nitrided Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, M.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Hashmi, M.S.J. [Dublin City Univ. (Ireland); Yilbas, B.S. [KFDUPM, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple treatment of engineering surfaces can provide improved surface properties that cannot be obtained by a single surface treatment. Consequently, this study investigates the effects of laser melting on the microstructures of plasma nitrided Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The study consists of two parts. In the first part, governing equations pertinent to the laser melting process are developed, and temperature variation across the melted zone is predicted. In the second, an experiment is conducted to nitride the surface of the alloy through plasma nitriding process and to melt the plasma nitrided and the untreated alloy surfaces with a CO{sub 2} laser beam. The resulting metallurgical changes are examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. It is shown that three distinct nitride layers are formed in the vicinity of the alloy surface prior to the laser melting process, and that after the melting process nitrided species are depleted while cellular and dendritic structures are formed. In addition, the structure consisting of transformed {beta} containing coarse and fine acicular {alpha} is observed in the melted regions.

  20. Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality Molten Aluminum Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality Molten Aluminum itmdelivery.pdf More...

  1. ITP Metal Casting: Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry ITP Metal Casting: Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and...

  2. alkali carbonate melts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Glass Transition and Melting Behavior of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite, Studied by Materials Science Websites Summary: Glass Transition and Melting...

  3. Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet International research team's field work shows that, well, things...

  4. Physics of the Lindemann melting rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Andrew C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the thermodynamics of melting for 74 distinct chemical elements including several actinides and rare earths. We find that the observed melting points are consistent with a linear relationship between the correlation entropy of the liquid and the Grueneisen constant of the solid, and that the Lindemann rule is well obeyed for the elements with simple structures and less well obeyed for the less symmetric more open structures. No special assumptions are required to explain the melting points of the rare earths or light actinides.

  5. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PIà ƒ  ¢Ã ‚  € à ‚  ™ s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  6. Crustal structure beneath RSTN stations inferred from teleseismic P-waveforms: preliminary results at RSCP, RSSD, and RSNY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, T.J.; Taylor, S.R.; Zandt, G.

    1983-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We have modeled teleseismic P-waveforms recorded at three Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) stations (RSCP, Cumberland Plateau Observatory, TN; RSSD, Black Hills, SD; RSNY, Adirondack Mtns, NY) to determine local crustal structures. After source effects are removed by deconvolution, seismograms from events clustered in both distance and back azimuth were stacked to enhance the signal and improve confidence in interpreting converted phases at each station. Preliminary analysis indicates that seismograms from RSCP and RSNY generally exhibit less well-developed converted and reflected phases from the crust-mantle boundary than are observed at RSSD and LLNL broadband station ELK (Elko, NV). These differences are likely due to a gradational crust-mantle boundary in the eastern United States. Comparisons of seismograms recorded at the RSTN stations indicate that the waveforms at RSSD and RSCP are much more complex than waveforms from RSNY. This complexity is largely due to low-velocity sedimentary layers at the RSSD and RSCP sites, whereas RSNY is located directly on crystalline basement. At RSCP, we find a crustal thickness of 41 km, which agrees with early refraction profiles in the area. Our data require a 10 km thick transition zone between the crust and upper mantle beneath RSCP. The crustal thickness determined at RSSD is 47 to 50 km. 14 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  7. PURIFICATION OF IRIDIUM BY ELECTRON BEAM MELTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohriner, Evan Keith [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purification of iridium metal by electron beam melting has been characterized for 48 impurity elements. Chemical analysis was performed by glow discharge mass spectrographic (GDMS) analysis for all elements except carbon, which was analyzed by combustion. The average levels of individual elemental impurities in the starting powder varied from 37 g/g to 0.02 g/g. The impurity elements Li, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Ce, Tl, Pb, and Bi were not detectable following the purification. No significant change in concentration of the elements Ti, V, Zr, Nb, Mo, and Re was found. The elements B, C, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Ru, Rh, and Pt were partially removed by vaporization during electron beam melting. Langmuir's equation for ideal vaporization into a vacuum was used to calculate for each impurity element the expected ratio of impurity content after melting to that before melting. Equilibrium vapor pressures were calculated using Henry's law, with activity coefficients obtained from published data for the elements Fe, Ti, and Pt. Activity coefficients were estimated from enthalpy data for Al, Si, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zr, Nb, Mo, and Hf and an ideal solution model was used for the remaining elements. The melt temperature was determined from measured iridium weight loss. Excellent agreement was found between measured and calculated impurity ratios for all impurity elements. The results are consistent with some localized heating of the melt pool due to rastering of the electron beam, with an average vaporization temperature of 3100 K as compared to a temperature of 2965 K calculated for uniform heating of the melt pool. The results are also consistent with ideal mixing in the melt pool.

  8. Queen Anne's County- Solar Zoning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Queen Anne's County zoning code allows for ground mounted solar arrays in areas zoned as "open space," "agricultural," and "countryside" districts.

  9. Opportunity and Enterprise Zones (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Opportunity and Enterprise Zones provide enhanced financial incentives for businesses located in such zones aimed at stimulating economic expansion in rural and disadvantaged communities...

  10. Effect of electron-beam melting and heat treatment on the structure, composition, and properties of tool steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veinik, A.I.; Pobol', I.L.; Shipko, A.A.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method was developed for the surface-melting and quench-hardening of tool steels through the use of electron-beam heating. The structural transformations, composition, and properties of die steels 5KhNM, 4Kh5MFS, and DI23, and ball-bearing steel ShKh15SG were studied after surface electron beam melting. Methods were also investigated for improving the structure and properties of the steels through heat treatment. The distribution of alloying elements in treatment zones was studied.

  11. Water distribution across the mantle transition zone and its implications for global material circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frontiers Water distribution across the mantle transition zone and its implications for global Available online 13 December 2010 Editor: R.W. Carlson Keywords: water hydrogen seismology electrical conductivity partial melting Various methods for inferring the water distribution in Earth's mantle

  12. Keystone Opportunity Zones (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Keystone Opportunity Zones allows businesses located within designated areas to qualify for a tax exemption, deduction, credit, or abatement of state and local taxes such as sales and use tax,...

  13. Streamside Management Zones (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter sets streamside management zones as encompassing a strip at least 50 feet wide on each side of a stream, lake, or other body of water, measured from the ordinary high-water mark, and...

  14. SILICATE MELT PROPERTIES AND VOLCANIC Youxue Zhang,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Youxue

    SILICATE MELT PROPERTIES AND VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS Youxue Zhang,1,2 Zhengjiu Xu,2 Mengfan Zhu,1 2007. [1] Knowledge about the properties of silicate melts is needed by volcanologists and petrologists and diffusivity of volatile components in silicate melts, silicate melt viscosity, and the fragmentation condition

  15. Consequences of diffusive reequilibration for the interpretation of melt inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langmuir, Charles H.

    are commonly used to interpret melting and melt extraction processes. These interpretations, however, often-diffusing elements with high mineral/melt partition coefficients are modified rapidly, particularly in small inclusions. Because minerals have very different Dmineral/melt for the various elements, the effects

  16. Ultra slow EB melting to reduce reactor cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worcester, S.A.; Woods, C.R.; Galer, G.S.; Propst, R.L.

    1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for making an electron beam melted fuel element liner material from sponge zirconium, the process comprising: electron beam melting sponge zirconium at a melting rate of less than 1 inch per hour to form an electron beam melted zirconium material containing less than 300 ppm iron, less than 400 ppm oxygen, and less than 5 ppm aluminum; and alloying the electron beam melted zirconium in a vacuum arc furnace with 0.1-2.0 weight percent of tin.

  17. Manufacturing capabilities of high power electron beam furnaces for melting ignots to 40 tons in weight

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boiko, Ju.P.; Braim, V.P.; Kormitch, A.T.; Zorin, G.V.; Kostenuk, Ju.V.; Nikitin, V.S.; Pokrovsky, S.V.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A tendency to using special technologies of melting steels and alloys to get large ingots free of macrodefects and shrinking shells used to provide defectless products, ensuring an increase of ingot-to-product yield is well known. The electron beam furnace process improves the economical efficiency of production of large ingots, slabs for rolling mills, where high quality of special purpose steels and alloys is required. Metals, made by means of electron beam melting can be used for power, nuclear and chemical machine-buildings, aircraft and automotive, instrument and bearing productions, injection moulds and moulds for cold rollings, magnetic and titanium alloys, ship shafts, propellers and high speed power turbine parts. Melting technologies, which is one of the most important stages in production of steels and alloys, predetermines a required quality of metals and alloys to get the following characteristics of remelted metals: impact strength; isotropy of properties in central and surface zones of ingots; fatigue strength and resistance under mechanical and heat loads; corrosion resistance to attack by aggressive media; and polishing properties. The furnace is equipped with five electron beam guns, type EH-1200/50 and pumps for pumping out cavities of technological equipments: melting and ingot chambers, charging devices.

  18. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Melting Efficiency in Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed multiple aspects of the aluminum melting and handling in die casting operations, with the objective of increasing the energy efficiency while improving the quality of the molten metal. The efficiency of melting has always played an important role in the profitability of aluminum die casting operations. Consequently, die casters need to make careful choices in selecting and operating melting equipment and procedures. The capital cost of new melting equipment with higher efficiency can sometimes be recovered relatively fast when it replaces old melting equipment with lower efficiency. Upgrades designed to improve energy efficiency of existing equipment may be well justified. Energy efficiency is however not the only factor in optimizing melting operations. Melt losses and metal quality are also very important. Selection of melting equipment has to take into consideration the specific conditions at the die casting shop such as availability of floor space, average quantity of metal used as well as the ability to supply more metal during peaks in demand. In all these cases, it is essential to make informed decisions based on the best available data.

  19. Microstructure analysis of melt-spun Al{sub 3}Ti intermetallics by XRD and EXAFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.; Barrera, E.V. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science; Frazier, W.E. [Naval Air Warfare Center, Patuxent River, MD (United States). Aircraft Div.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to expand the composition range over which Al{sub 3}Ti is stable, various amounts of niobium were substituted for titanium and processed by melt-spinning. Several samples were annealed both at 600 C and 1,000 C for 24 hours. The effects of processing parameters such as wheel speed, the amount of niobium, and annealing temperatures on the structure were investigated by XRD and EXAFS. XRD showed that for all the samples the only structure present was DO{sub 22}. The DO{sub 22} structure was stable even after the high temperature heat treatments. By means of EXAFS, niobium atoms were observed to occupy titanium sites in the DO{sub 22} structure. Furthermore, in the unannealed samples, increasing wheel speed of the melt spinning process or the niobium concentration tended to distort the crystal structure. It was observed that Ti EXAFS had different results from the Nb EXAFS beyond their occupying similar sites, which suggested there may exist some composition zones, i.e., rich Nb zone or rich Ti zones, although the structures present were still DO{sub 22}. The samples were found to experience different distortions as a function of annealing temperatures.

  20. Determination of the fundamental softening and melting characteristics of blast furnace burden materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakker, T.; Heerema, R.H. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental technique to investigate the fundamental mechanisms taking place on a microscale in the softening and melting zone in the blast furnace, is presented. In the present paper, attention is focused on determination of the softening viscosity of porous wustite. The technique may be potentially useful to investigate more complex samples of ironbearing material, as occurring in the blast furnace. In comparison with the results obtained by other researchers the viscosity of porous wustite found in the present work is substantially higher than reported elsewhere for sinter and pellets. This may be an indication that softening is not merely a reflection of the solid state deformation under load of wustite. An important factor may be local melting of some of the phases present within the sinter and pellet structures.

  1. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R&D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility.

  2. A model for melting of confined DNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werner, E; Ambjörnsson, T; Mehlig, B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When DNA molecules are heated they denature. This occurs locally so that loops of molten single DNA strands form, connected by intact double-stranded DNA pieces. The properties of this "melting" transition have been intensively investigated. Recently there has been a surge of interest in this question, caused by experiments determining the properties of partially bound DNA confined to nanochannels. But how does such confinement affect the melting transition? To answer this question we introduce, and solve a model predicting how confinement affects the melting transition for a simple model system by first disregarding the effect of self-avoidance. We find that the transition is smoother for narrower channels. By means of Monte-Carlo simulations we then show that a model incorporating self-avoidance shows qualitatively the same behaviour and that the effect of confinement is stronger than in the ideal case.

  3. Rock melting tool with annealer section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bussod, Gilles Y. (Santa Fe, NM); Dick, Aaron J. (Oakland, CA); Cort, George E. (Montrose, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rock melting penetrator is provided with an afterbody that rapidly cools a molten geological structure formed around the melting tip of the penetrator to the glass transition temperature for the surrounding molten glass-like material. An annealing afterbody then cools the glass slowly from the glass transition temperature through the annealing temperature range to form a solid self-supporting glass casing. This allows thermally induced strains to relax by viscous deformations as the molten glass cools and prevents fracturing of the resulting glass liner. The quality of the glass lining is improved, along with its ability to provide a rigid impermeable casing in unstable rock formations.

  4. Method and apparatus for melting metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Alan F.; Schechter, Donald E.; Morrow, Marvin Stanley

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for melting metals uses microwave energy as the primary source of heat. The metal or mixture of metals are placed in a ceramic crucible which couples, at least partially, with the microwaves to be used. The crucible is encased in a ceramic casket for insulation and placed within a microwave chamber. The chamber may be evacuated and refilled to exclude oxygen. After melting, the crucible may be removed for pouring or poured within the chamber by dripping or running into a heated mold within the chamber. Apparent coupling of the microwaves with softened or molten metal produces high temperatures with great energy savings.

  5. Recalculated probability of M !!!!!! 7 earthquakes beneath the Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recalculated probability of M !!!!!! 7 earthquakes beneath the Sea of Marmara, Turkey Tom Parsons U); KEYWORDS: earthquake probability, Sea of Marmara, seismic hazard, Turkey, stress interaction, North of Marmara, Turkey, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B05304, doi:10.1029/2003JB002667. 1. Introduction [2] The North

  6. Re^Os evidence for replacement of ancient mantle lithosphere beneath the North China craton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudnick, Roberta L.

    Re^Os evidence for replacement of ancient mantle lithosphere beneath the North China craton Shan and was replaced by more fertile lithospheric mantle sometime after the Paleozoic. Moreover, lithospheric mantle crust (2700 Ma), suggesting that the original Archean lithosphere was replaced in the Proterozoic

  7. RoBOT: "Rocks Beneath Our Toes" An experiential learning opportunity in mineralogy and geochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baxter, Ethan F.

    RoBOT: "Rocks Beneath Our Toes" An experiential learning opportunity in mineralogy with Boston University undergraduates to analyze the mineralogy and unravel the unique story that each rock into modern scientific methods of geochemistry and mineralogy and to unlock for them the exciting

  8. Distinct compositional thin layers at mid-mantle depths beneath northeast China revealed by the USArray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Fenglin

    Natural Gas Institute, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China b Department of Earth Science, RiceDistinct compositional thin layers at mid-mantle depths beneath northeast China revealed crust northeast China USArray a b s t r a c t We observe a clear seismic arrival at $35­45 s after

  9. Distinct compositional thin layers at mid-mantle depths beneath northeast China revealed by the USArray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Fenglin

    Natural Gas Institute, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China b Department of Earth Science, RiceDistinct compositional thin layers at mid-mantle depths beneath northeast China revealed February 2013 Keywords: S to P converted wave mid-mantle reflectors subducted oceanic crust northeast China

  10. The structure of a Mesozoic basin beneath the Lake Tana area, Ethiopia, revealed by magnetotelluric imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The structure of a Mesozoic basin beneath the Lake Tana area, Ethiopia, revealed by magnetotelluric of Mines, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia c Geological Survey of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Received 18 April 2006 Abstract The northwestern Plateau of Ethiopia is almost entirely covered with extensive Tertiary

  11. Upper mantle structure beneath the Caribbean-South American plate boundary from surface wave tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Fenglin

    Upper mantle structure beneath the Caribbean-South American plate boundary from surface wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle of the Caribbean-South American boundary region American continental lithosphere, the Venezuelan archipelago, and the Caribbean oceanic lithosphere

  12. Upper mantle flow beneath and around the Hangay dome, Central Mongolia Guilhem Barruol a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Déverchère, Jacques

    Upper mantle flow beneath and around the Hangay dome, Central Mongolia Guilhem Barruol a, , Anne Academy of Sciences (RCAG), P.O. Box 51, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o-wave splitting upper mantle Mongolia Hangay dome Siberian craton Bogd fault Mongolia represents the northernmost

  13. www.VadoseZoneJournal.org Vadose Zone Journal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vrugt, Jasper A.

    , biofuels, sustainability, and nanotechnology. Since its inception, Vadose Zone Journal has grown tre, multicomponent (reactive) transport modeling, radionuclide transport, multiphase flow, recharge in arid transport, remote sensing of vadose zone properties, hillslope hydrology, gas diffusion, environmental

  14. EnginEEring ZonE "The Engineering Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Michael

    EnginEEring ZonE "The Engineering Zone will push the limits in collaborative learning and research, and empower people to change the world. "Winthrop Professor John Dell Dean, Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics #12;2 | nEw CEntury Campaign ­ EnginEEring ZonE #12;nEw CEntury Campaign ­ EnginEEring ZonE | 3

  15. Pulsed-electron-beam melting of Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed (50 nsec) electron beams with deposited energies of 1.1 to 2.3 J/cm/sup 2/ have been used to rapidly melt a surface layer of Fe. Calculations show that this range of energies produces melt depths from 0.4 to 1.2 ..mu..m and melt times of 100 to 500 nsec. Optical microscopy and SEM of pulse treated polycrystalline foils show slip traces, as well as a general smoothing of surface features which shows that melting has occurred. TEM shows that the resolidified material is bcc, and that the material within a grain is epitaxial with the substrate. TEM also shows slip traces along (110) planes, as well as a high density of dislocations, both extended and loop. At the highest energy, subgrain boundaries are observed. Some samples were implanted with 1 x 10/sup 16/ Sn/cm/sup 2/ at 150 keV. After pulse treatment, the Sn depth profile was observed to have broadened, consistent with liquid phase diffusion. The Sn had the unexpected effect of suppressing slip at the sample surface.

  16. Analysis of an EBeam melting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schunk, P.R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron-Beam (EBeam) melting furnaces are routinely used to minimize the occurrence of second-phase particles in the processing of segregation-sensitive alloys. As one part of the process, a circulating electron beam impinges the surface of a crucible melt pool to help control the shape of the solidification front below. By modeling melt pool hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and the shape of solidification boundaries, we plan to optimize the dwell pattern of the beam so that the material solidifies with a composition as spatially homogeneous as possible. Both two-and three-dimensional models are being pursued with FIDAP 5.02, the former serving as a test bed for various degrees of model sophistication. A heat flux distribution is specified on the top of the domain to simulate the EBeam dwell pattern. In two dimensions it is found that an inertially-driven recirculation in the melt pool interacts with a counter-rotating buoyancy-driven recirculation, and that both recirculation influence heavily the shape of the solidification front. In three dimensions the inertial cell decays quickly with distance from the position of the inlet stream. Because the Rayleigh number can exceed 10{sup 7} for materials and operating conditions of interest, stability and the possibility of spontaneous transients are explored. 1 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Energy Savings in Electric Arc Furnace Melting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubbeck, W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arc furnace melting which at one time was almost exclusively used to produce alloy steel and steel castings is now widely accepted in the industry as an efficient process to produce all types of steel and iron. Presently, about 28% of steel...

  18. The Enterprise Zone (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Enterprise Zone offers tax incentives to business expanding their workforce by 5% at facilities in designated enterprise zones. The tax credit is equal to 50% of the annual wages paid to a new...

  19. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  20. Experimental studies of melting and crystallization processes in planetary interiors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krawczynski, Michael James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Melting and crystallization processes on the Earth and Moon are explored in this thesis, and the topics of melt generation, transport, and crystallization are discussed in three distinct geologic environments: the Moon's ...

  1. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  2. Hydrous silicate melt at high pressure Mainak Mookherjee1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stixrude, Lars

    LETTERS Hydrous silicate melt at high pressure Mainak Mookherjee1 , Lars Stixrude2 & Bijaya Karki3 The structure and physical properties of hydrous silicate melts and the solubility of water in melts over most in structure to our finding that the water­silicate system becomes increasingly ideal at high pressure: we find

  3. Chapter 1 x Introduction 63 C1.2 When a person ice-skates, the ice surface actually melts beneath the blades, so

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    100 kg, L 30 cm, W 5 mm, and h 0.1 mm. Do you think our assumption of negligible air resistance! It appears that our assumption of negligible air drag was grossly incorrect. C1.3 Two thin flat plates)] Ans. (b) C1.4 Oil of viscosity P and density U drains steadily down the side of a tall, wide vertical

  4. USING THE UTAH ENERGY BALANCE SNOW MELT MODEL TO QUANTIFY SNOW AND GLACIER MELT IN THE HIMALAYAN REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    USING THE UTAH ENERGY BALANCE SNOW MELT MODEL TO QUANTIFY SNOW AND GLACIER MELT IN THE HIMALAYAN on a distributed version of the Utah Energy Balance (UEB) snowmelt model, referred to as UEBGrid, which was adapted: glacier and snow melt, Energy balance, model, remote sensing) INTRODUCTION Countries in Hindu Kush

  5. Thermally efficient melting for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. K. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an integrated process for the production of glass utilizing combustion heat to melt glassmaking materials in a glassmaking furnace. The fuel combusted to produce heat sufficient to melt the glassmaking materials is combusted with oxygen-enriched oxidant to reduce heat losses from the offgas of the glassmaking furnace. The process further reduces heat losses by quenching hot offgas from the glassmaking furnace with a process stream to retain the heat recovered from quench in the glassmaking process with subsequent additional heat recovery by heat exchange of the fuel to the glassmaking furnace, as well as the glassmaking materials, such as batch and cullet. The process includes recovery of a commercially pure carbon dioxide product by separatory means from the cooled, residual offgas from the glassmaking furnace.

  6. Core-melt source reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A core-melt source reduction system for ending the progression of a molten core during a core-melt accident and resulting in a stable solid cool matrix. The system includes alternating layers of a core debris absorbing material and a barrier material. The core debris absorbing material serves to react with and absorb the molten core such that containment overpressurization and/or failure does not occur. The barrier material slows the progression of the molten core debris through the system such that the molten core has sufficient time to react with the core absorbing material. The system includes a provision for cooling the glass/molten core mass after the reaction such that a stable solid cool matrix results. 4 figs.

  7. Core-melt source reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Beahm, Edward C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Parker, George W. (Concord, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A core-melt source reduction system for ending the progression of a molten core during a core-melt accident and resulting in a stable solid cool matrix. The system includes alternating layers of a core debris absorbing material and a barrier material. The core debris absorbing material serves to react with and absorb the molten core such that containment overpressurization and/or failure does not occur. The barrier material slows the progression of the molten core debris through the system such that the molten core has sufficient time to react with the core absorbing material. The system includes a provision for cooling the glass/molten core mass after the reaction such that a stable solid cool matrix results.

  8. abnormal resistive zones: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE Kainen, Paul C. 11 Seismic Amplitude Versus Offset (AVO) Character of Geopressured Transition Zones Geosciences...

  9. Regelation: why does ice melt under pressure?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q Sun

    2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike other unusual materials whose bonds contract under compression, the O:H nonbond undergoes contraction and the H-O bond elongation towards O:H and H-O length symmetry in water and ice. The energy drop of the H-O bond dictates the melting point Tm depression of ice. Once the pressure is relieved, the O:H-O bond fully recovers its initial state, resulting in Regelation.

  10. Regelation: why does ice melt under pressure?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chang Q

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike other unusual materials whose bonds contract under compression, the O:H nonbond undergoes contraction and the H-O bond elongation towards O:H and H-O length symmetry in water and ice. The energy drop of the H-O bond dictates the melting point Tm depression of ice. Once the pressure is relieved, the O:H-O bond fully recovers its initial state, resulting in Regelation.

  11. Blow molding of melt processible rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abell, W.R.; Stuart, R.E.; Myrick, R.E.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses the advantages of making hollow rubber parts by blow molding thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) versus conventional rubber processing. It describes the various types of blow molding processes and it provides some insight into the rheological properties of melt processible rubber (MPR) and how MPR should be molded by each of these processes. A number of blow molded applications for MPR are also discussed.

  12. Lattice Monte Carlo Simulations of Polymer Melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiao-Ping Hsu

    2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to study polymer melts consisting of fully flexible and moderately stiff chains in the bond fluctuation model at a volume fraction $0.5$. In order to reduce the local density fluctuations, we test a pre-packing process for the preparation of the initial configurations of the polymer melts, before the excluded volume interaction is switched on completely. This process leads to a significantly faster decrease of the number of overlapping monomers on the lattice. This is useful for simulating very large systems, where the statistical properties of the model with a marginally incomplete elimination of excluded volume violations are the same as those of the model with strictly excluded volume. We find that the internal mean square end-to-end distance for moderately stiff chains in a melt can be very well described by a freely rotating chain model with a precise estimate of the bond-bond orientational correlation between two successive bond vectors in equilibrium. The plot of the probability distributions of the reduced end-to-end distance of chains of different stiffness also shows that the data collapse is excellent and described very well by the Gaussian distribution for ideal chains. However, while our results confirm the systematic deviations between Gaussian statistics for the chain structure factor $S_c(q)$ [minimum in the Kratky-plot] found by Wittmer et al.~\\{EPL {\\bf 77} 56003 (2007).\\} for fully flexible chains in a melt, we show that for the available chain length these deviations are no longer visible, when the chain stiffness is included. The mean square bond length and the compressibility estimated from collective structure factors depend slightly on the stiffness of the chains.

  13. Low-melting point heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel (Oakland, CA); Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of five inorganic salts including about 29.1-33.5 mol % LiNO.sub.3, 0-3.9 mol % NaNO.sub.3, 2.4-8.2 mol % KNO.sub.3, 18.6-19.9 mol % NaNO.sub.2, and 40-45.6 mol % KNO.sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures below 80.degree. C. for some compositions.

  14. Topological Constraints in Directed Polymer Melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serna, Pablo; Nahum, Adam

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers in a melt may be subject to topological constraints, as in the example of unlinked polymer rings. How to do statistical mechanics in the presence of such constraints remains a fundamental open problem. We study the effect of topological constraints on a melt of directed polymers using simulations of a simple quasi-2D model. We find that fixing the global topology of the melt to be trivial changes the polymer conformations drastically. Polymers of length $L$ wander in the transverse direction only by a distance of order $(\\ln L)^\\zeta$ with $\\zeta \\simeq 1.5$. This is strongly suppressed in comparison with the Brownian scaling $L^{1/2}$ which holds in the absence of the topological constraint. It is also much less than the prediction $L^{1/4}$ of a mean-field-like `array of obstacles' model: thus we rule out such a model in the present setting. Dynamics are also strongly affected by the constraints, and a tagged monomer in an infinite system performs logarithmically slow subdiffusion. To cast light on...

  15. Low cation coordination in oxide melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Lawrie [State University of New York, Stony Brook] [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Benmore, Chris J [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Du, Jincheng [University of North Texas] [University of North Texas; Weber, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL] [ORNL; Tumber, Sonia [Materials Development, Inc., Evanston, IL] [Materials Development, Inc., Evanston, IL; Parise, John B [Stony Brook University (SUNY)] [Stony Brook University (SUNY)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The complete set of Faber-Ziman partial pair distribution functions for a rare earth oxide liquid were measured for the first time by combining aerodynamic levitation, neutron diffraction, high energy x-ray diffraction and isomorphic substitution using Y2 O3 and Ho2 O3 melts. The average Y- O coordination is measured to be 5.5(2), which is significantly less than the octahedral coordination of crystalline Y2 O3 (or Ho2 O3 ). Investigation of high temperature La2 O3 , ZrO2 , SiO2 , and Al2 O3 melts by x-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations also show lower-than-crystal cation- oxygen coordination. These measurements suggest a general trend towards lower M-O coordination compared to their crystalline counterparts. It is found that this coordination number drop is larger for lower field strength, larger radius cations and is negligible for high field strength (network forming) cations. These findings have broad implications for predicting the local structure and related physical properties of metal-oxide melts and oxide glasses.

  16. Low seismic velocity layers in the Earth's crust beneath Eastern Siberia (Russia) and Central Mongolia: receiver function data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Stephen Shangxing

    Mongolia: receiver function data and their possible geological implication Yu.A. Zorina,*, V.V. Mordvinovaa­Baikal, Paleozoic Mongolian, Early Mesozoic Mongolia­Okhotsk fold areas, and beneath the Siberian platform

  17. Shallow melt apparatus for semicontinuous czochralski crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  18. Liquid zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  19. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly sorbed onto this fraction of colloids also transport without retardation. The transport times for these radionuclides will be the same as those for nonsorbing radionuclides. The fraction of nonretarding colloids developed in this analysis report is used in the abstraction of SZ and UZ transport models in support of the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This analysis report uses input from two Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) analysis reports. This analysis uses the assumption from ''Waste Form and In-Drift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary'' that plutonium and americium are irreversibly sorbed to colloids generated by the waste degradation processes (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025]). In addition, interpretations from RELAP analyses from ''Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170010]) are used to develop the retardation factor distributions in this analysis.

  20. Science Road Map for Phase 2 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Mann, Frederick M.

    2008-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase 1 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program (TFVZP) developed information on the nature and extent of vadose zone contamination in the tank farms through field studies, laboratory analyses and experiments, and historical data searches; assembled data and performed tank-farm risk analysis; and initiated interim corrective actions to lessen the impacts of tank leak contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and external collaborators at universities and U.S. Department of Energy user facilities sampled and analyzed contaminant plumes. These types of activities will continue during Phase 2 of the TFVZP to refine and expand scientific understanding of the subsurface beneath tank farms, especially of water movement, residual waste leaching, and contaminant transport.

  1. Behavior of melts during softening and melting down of iron ore sinter under load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Y.H. [Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to achieve effective operation in the blast furnace, the distribution control and quality improvement of burden materials are very important. In spite of the difficulties in obtaining suitable samples and making direct observation, significant progress including the placement of probes into the stack, tuyere drilling and laboratory simulation studies has been made. Investigation of the behavior of melts during softening and melting down was carried out in the temperature range of 800 C to 1,515 C. In this report, emphasis is given to investigating the mineral formation and properties of melts during softening and melting down of the iron ore sinter. Sized coke layers were placed above and below the sample to maintain uniform upward flow of gas and insure a smooth downward flow of melts. When the temperature of the sample reached the set point during the test the power was shut off and the sample was cooled in the furnace air. The weight, the height, porosity and contraction of each sample were measured. Chemical composition, observation of microstructures, SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis were conducted. Results are presented.

  2. R-modes in Neutron Stars with Crusts: Turbulent Saturation, Spin-down, and Crust Melting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanqin Wu; Christopher D. Matzner; Phil Arras

    2000-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Rossby waves (r-modes) have been suggested as a means to regulate the spin periods of young or accreting neutron stars, and also to produce observable gravitational wave radiation. R-modes involve primarily transverse, incompressive motions of the star's fluid core. However, neutron stars gain crusts early in their lives: therefore, r-modes also imply shear in the fluid beneath the crust. We examine the criterion for this shear layer to become turbulent, and derive the rate of dissipation in the turbulent regime. Unlike dissipation from a viscous boundary layer, turbulent energy loss is nonlinear in mode energy and can therefore cause the mode to saturate at amplitudes typically much less than unity. This energy loss also reappears as heat below the crust. We study the possibility of crust melting as well as its implications for the spin evolution of low-mass X-ray binaries. Lastly, we identify some universal features of the spin evolution that may have observational consequences.

  3. Spreading of molten corium in MK I geometry following vessel melt-through

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Farmer, M.T.; Spencer, B.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For Mk I boiling water reactor severe-accident sequences in which molten corium is postulated to melt through the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head, an important question concerns the relocation of the corium material that drains from the vessel. After filling the sump pits located in the pedestal concrete floor beneath the RPV, the molten corium that collects on the pedestal floor is generally free to flow through the doorway, which provides personnel access to the pedestal, and to spread out over the concrete floor in the annular region between the pedestal wall and the steel liner of the containment shell. A significant issue is whether the corium, after exiting the doorway, can spread under gravity all the way to the liner where thermal attack on the liner steel might be postulated to occur. A computer code (MELTSPREAD) has been developed to investigate the spreading dynamics and thermal interactions of a molten corium layer flowing horizontally over an ablating concrete substrate that may be initially covered with water. The principal objective is to predict, for specific conditions of corium composition, mass, and temperature, the lateral penetration of the corium that drains from a localized hole in the lower head immediately following RPV failure.

  4. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY08 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE’s Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The surface barrier is designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the contaminated soil zone created by the Tank T-106 leak and minimize movement of the contamination. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier.

  5. Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Miracle, Ann L.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminants in vadose zone environments pose a long-term source and threat to groundwater resources, human health, and the environment. Several technical, regulatory, and policy challenges and opportunities are associated with contamination in vadose zone environments, particularly in remediation. In this special issue, ten papers present novel approaches to characterize, monitor, remediate, and predict the transport and fate of contaminants in vadose zone environments.

  6. Western Renewable Energy Zones (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, J.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation summarizes recent developments and trends pertaining to competitive renewable energy zones, transmission planning and the integration of renewable generation resources.

  7. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  8. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  9. Melting a granular glass by cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Plagge; Claus Heussinger

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven granular systems readily form glassy phases at high particle volume fractions and low driving amplitudes. We use computer simulations of a driven granular glass to evidence a re-entrance melting transition into a fluid state, which, contrary to intuition, occurs by \\emph{reducing} the amplitude of the driving. This transition is accompanied by anomalous particle dynamics and super-diffusive behavior on intermediate time-scales. We highlight the special role played by frictional interactions, which help particles to escape their glassy cages. Such an effect is in striking contrast to what friction is expected to do: reduce particle mobility by making them stick.

  10. Reuse of steel and aluminium without melting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Daniel

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    -of-life metal components that could be reused for each product, the catalogue formed the basis of a set of semi-structured interviews with industrial experts. The results suggest that approximately 30% of steel and aluminium used in current products could... Allwood J.M., Cullen J.M., Cooper D.R., Milford R.L., Patel A.C.H., Carruth M.A., McBrien M., 2010. Conserving our metal energy: avoiding melting steel and aluminium scrap to save energy and carbon. University of Cambridge, ISBN 978-0-903428-30-9 Allwood...

  11. Melting Instantons, Domain Walls, and Large N

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. B. Thacker

    2008-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Monte Carlo studies of $CP^{N-1}$ sigma models have shown that the structure of topological charge in these models undergoes a sharp transition at $N=N_c\\approx 4$. For $NN_c$ it is dominated by extended, thin, 1-dimensionally coherent membranes of topological charge, which can be interpreted as domain walls between discrete quasi-stable vacua. These vacua differ by a unit of background electric flux. The transition can be identified as the delocalization of topological charge, or "instanton melting," a phenomenon first suggested by Witten to resolve the conflict between instantons and large $N$ behavior. Implications for $QCD$ are discussed.

  12. ARM - Lesson Plans: When Land Ice Melts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhen Floating Ice Melts in the SeaWhen

  13. Microwave Melting | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1 SECTION A. Revised:7, at 3:00 pmYourMicrowave Melting

  14. Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  15. Retrograde Melting and Internal Liquid Gettering in Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudelson, Steve; Newman, Bonna K.; Bernardis, Sarah; Fenning, David P.; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Lai, Barry; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Retrograde melting (melting upon cooling) is observed in silicon doped with 3d transition metals, via synchrotron-based temperature-dependent X-ray microprobe measurements. Liquid metal-silicon droplets formed via retrograde melting act as efficient sinks for metal impurities dissolved within the silicon matrix. Cooling results in decomposition of the homogeneous liquid phase into solid multiple-metal alloy precipitates. These phenomena represent a novel pathway for engineering impurities in semiconductor-based systems.

  16. Evolution of shear-induced melting in dusty plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan Feng; J. Goree; Bin Liu

    2010-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatiotemporal development of melting is studied experimentally in a 2D dusty plasma suspension. Starting with an ordered lattice, and then suddenly applying localized shear, a pair of counter-propagating flow regions develop. A transition between two melting stages is observed before a steady state is reached. Melting spreads with a front that propagates at the transverse sound speed. Unexpectedly, coherent longitudinal waves are excited in the flow region.

  17. Electron beam skull melting and refining of secondary copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bychkov, Y.; Ladokhin, S. [Donetskvtortsvetmet, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Beam Melting is the most efficient technology for metals and alloys refining. For secondary metals processing the Electron Beam Skull Melting (EBSM) with the electromagnetic stirring (EMS) of melt in the crucible was shown to be the most appropriate. The copper produced by EBSM with EMS possesses higher density and electric conductivity in comparison with other refining methods. The details for high power electrical machines were cast of the copper waste refined by EBSM technology.

  18. Electron beam melting state-of-the-art 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakish, R.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1984 electron beam melting and refining appear poised for an important new growth phase. The driving force for this phase is improved production economics made possible by technological advances. There is also a new and exciting growth application for electron beam melting: its use for surface properties beneficiation. This article is based in part on the content of the Conference on Electron Beam Melting and Refining, The State-of-the-Art 1983, held in November 1983 in Reno, Nevada.

  19. 3, 335364, 2006 Hyporheic zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HESSD 3, 335­364, 2006 Hyporheic zone dynamics E. Hoehn and O. A. Cirpka Title Page Abstract dynamics in two alluvial flood plains of the Southern Alps using water temperature and tracers E. Hoehn: E. Hoehn (hoehn@eawag.ch) 335 #12;HESSD 3, 335­364, 2006 Hyporheic zone dynamics E. Hoehn and O. A

  20. Molecular thermodynamics of polymer melts at interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodorou, D.N.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lattice model is developed for the prediction of structure and thermodynamic properties at free polymer melt surfaces and polymer melt/solid interfaces. Density variations in the interfacial region are taken into account by introducing voids in the lattice, in the spirit of the equation of state theory of Sanchez and Lacombe. Intramolecular energy (chain stiffness) effects are explicitly incorporated. The model is derived through a rigorous statistical mechanical and thermodynamic analysis, which is based on the concept of availability. Two cases are considered: ''full equilibrium,'' whereby the interfacial polymer is taken as free to exchange heat, work and mass with a bulk polymer phase at given temperature and pressure; and ''restricted equilibrium,'' whereby a thin polymer film is allowed to equilibrate locally in response to ambient temperature and pressure, but in which chains do not necessarily have the same chemical potential as in the unconstrained bulk. Techniques are developed for calculating surface tension, adhesion tension, density profiles, chain shape, bond orientation, as well as the distribution of segments of various orders in the interfacial region. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Soil stiffness beneath a rigid mass using non-destructive impact testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, James Christopher

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Jean-Louis Briaud Research on the prediction of the soil stiffness beneath spread footings using non-destructive impact testing was conducted. Three sites having three different soils were investigated.... The soils tested were sand, clay and a landfill covered with a layer of gravel. Impact tests were performed on several footings resting on sand. These footings ranged in size from 0. 093 to 0. 836 m'. One small footing (0. 093 m') was used at several...

  2. Plasma arc melting of titanium-tantalum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, P.; Patterson, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Haun, R. [Retech, Inc., Ukiah, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos has several applications for high temperature, oxidation and liquid-metal corrosion resistant materials. Further, materials property constraints are dictated by a requirement to maintain low density; e.g., less than the density of stainless steel. Liquid metal compatibility and density requirements have driven the research toward the Ti-Ta system with an upper bound of 60 wt% Ta-40 wt% Ti. Initial melting of these materials was performed in a small button arc melter with several hundred grams of material; however, ingot quantities were soon needed. But, refractory metal alloys whose constituents possess very dissimilar densities, melting temperatures and vapor pressures pose significant difficulty and require specialized melting practices. The Ti-Ta alloys fall into this category with the density of tantalum 16.5 g/cc and that of titanium 4.5 g/cc. Melting is further complicated by the high melting point of Ta(3020 C) and the relatively low boiling point of Ti(3287 C). Previous electron beam melting experience with these materials resulted, in extensive vaporization of the titanium and poor chemical homogeneity. Vacuum arc remelting(VAR) was considered as a melting candidate and discarded due to density and vapor pressure issues associated with electron beam. Plasma arc melting offered the ability to supply a cover gas to deal with vapor pressure issues as well as solidification control to help with macrosegregation in the melt and has successfully produced high quality ingots of the Ti-Ta alloys.

  3. Atomistic Study of the Melting Behavior of Single Crystalline...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 110-oriented lateral facets, respectively. Citation: Wang Z, X Zu, F Gao, and WJ Weber.2007."Atomistic Study of the Melting Behavior of Single Crystalline Wurtzite Gallium...

  4. Effective stress profiles and seepage flows beneath glaciers and ice sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rempel, Alan W.

    of the glacier surface. When the basal heat flow promotes net melting or freezing, seepage transport can enable at the bed. Major subglacial conduits that facilitate large-scale water transport are expected geometry with subglacial conduits that are aligned parallel to a uniform slope, the seepage transport

  5. Low-melting point heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph G. (Oakland, CA); Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid comprising a mixture of LiNO.sub.3, NaNO.sub.3, KNO.sub.3, NaNO.sub.2 and KNO.sub.2 salts where the Li, Na and K cations are present in amounts of about 20-33.5 mol % Li, about 18.6-40 mol % Na, and about 40-50.3 mol % K and where the nitrate and nitrite anions are present in amounts of about 36-50 mol % NO.sub.3, and about 50-62.5 mol % NO.sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures between 70.degree. C. and 80.degree. C. for some compositions.

  6. Detection of Nonthermal Melting by Ultrafast X-ray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    of super- heating of the interface but limited by the speed of sound. Typically, a layer a few tens, if a solid is heated to or above the melting temperature, nucleation of the liquid phase occurs around), which exceeds the melting temperature within several picoseconds. After nucleation of the liquid phase

  7. Electron beam melting and casting of zirconium and titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arzhakova, V.M.; Popov, E.I. [A.A. Bochvar All Union Scientific and Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dubrovski, V.A.; Frolov, V.I. [PO ChMZ, Glazov (Russian Federation); Ladohin, S.V.; Levitsky, N.I.; Chernyavsky, V.B. [Scientific and Research Institute of Casting, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of electron beam melting (EBM) and casting Zirconium and Titanium alloys are discussed. The data on different schedules used for EBM of this metals as well as equipment for crucible melting and special equipment for casting are described. The results of production of Zirconium and Titanium alloy mold castings for various purposes are presented.

  8. Electron beam melting and refining state of the art 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakish, R. [ed.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the proceedings of the Electron Beam Melting and Refining - State of the Art 1995 Conference. It contains 23 of the 30 scheduled papers. Papers cover an array of electron beam melting applications, from industrial plating of metal strip, through government work on manufacturing and processing fissile alloys. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this proceedings.

  9. ARTICLE IN PRESS Kinetics of convective crystal dissolution and melting,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Youxue

    Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1063, USA5 Received 25 instability (similar to melting of ice) with or 14 without water (although presence of warm water may increase the dissociation rate). Dissociation of methane hydrate 15 into gas and water is similar to ice melting

  10. An analysis of variations in isentropic melt productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asimow, Paul D.

    An analysis of variations in isentropic melt productivity B y P. D. Asimow1 , M. M. Hirschmann1 productivity, cannot be determined directly from experiments and is commonly assumed to be constant on a ther- modynamic model of peridotite partial melting, we show that productivity for re- versible

  11. Electron-beam scull melting with electromagnetic stirring of melt in crucible

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladokhin, S.V. [Institute for Casting Problems, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The technologies and equipment have been developed for electron-beam scull melting with electromagnetic stirring of melt for some Ni-based superalloys as well as for multi-component Ti-, Zr-, Nb-, and Mo-based alloys. Two types of scull crucible sets with electromagnetic stirring systems have been constructed, with the metal pouring by the crucible tilting or through the hole in the crucible bottom. In the second case slag does not fall into a mold, and the electron beam may be used for metal heating in the costing head, thus improving the quality of castings. The technologies developed allow to utilize scrap, cost part reverts, chips etc. thus saving virgin alloys. The electromagnetic stirring application permits to product multi-component alloys, to increase the mass of the metal poured, and to reduce the specific energy expenditure and metal loss through evaporation.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: critical marginal ice zone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    marginal ice zone NASA Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Process Experiment (MIZOPEX) On February 24, 2015, in Analysis, Climate, Modeling & Analysis, Monitoring, News,...

  13. Electron beam melting of charge based on titanium sponge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikhonovsky, A.L.; Tikhonovsky, K.A. [JS Co FIKO, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An experience of 0.8 MW consumable box melting furnace operation and theoretical simulation have led to the further development of the FIKO plant under construction on the base of melting of two consumable box-like bullets which move opposite each other and form narrow heated space between melted butt ends. It allows to reduce vaporization, spatter and radiation losses by several times and to reach two times increase in melting rate and 99%(97%) yield for c.p. titanium (alloys) without furnace power add. Future furnace design will provide the optimum protection of vacuum pumps against chlorides, the safety when melting titanium sponge and will permit hot ingots to move to the special furnace for EB surface conditioning. The maximum productivity is to be 18,000 t/year. The furnace can be used for the manufacture of aluminum-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, tungsten-based alloys and others of any charge including salvage.

  14. Some features of the melting of borosilicate glasses in continuous furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivko, A.P.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quality of G40-1 glass obtained in continuous gas furnaces was studied. The solubility of the gases in the G40-1 glass was determined for acceptable articles obtained in the two furnaces. The effect of repeat heating of the G40-1 glass in the forming zone was studied to find reasons for the formation of seeds and bubbles. It was shown that they form when scale from hot angle-bar supporting the plate-blocks of the crown fell into the glass of the working end of the furnace if the lining of the curtain wall has not been adequately sealed. When borosilicate glass with a large concentration of the boron oxide phase was melted in continuous furnaces it was not permissible to have a positive pressure of the gas medium in the sub-crown space.

  15. Calorimetric measurements of energy transfer efficiency and melting efficiency in CO sub 2 laser beam welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our previous calorimetric studies of weld melting efficiency and arc efficiency in the GTAW and PAW processes have naturally led us to speculate as to the magnitude of the efficiencies in the LBW process which to data have also not been adequately investigated. Most welding engineers that have had experience with the LBW process are acutely aware that the metals' absorptivity, the surface finish, and the laser wavelength, all play an important role in affecting the energy transfer efficiency, but the extent of their influence and our understanding of the influence of other process variables is not well understood. In addition, it is widely thought that only the LBW or EBW processes can be selected for applications where thermal damage and distortion from the welding process must be kept to a minimum. For these reasons, we have looked forward to performing these calorimetric experiments since they potentially can answer such important questions as: whether or not the melting efficiency of the LBW process is superior to that obtainable with conventional GTAW and PAW welding processes This study was prompted by poor production yields on switching device due to cracking of the ceramic header after final closure welding with the CO{sub 2} LBW process. This calorimetric study was begun in hopes of determining if allowed variations in production process control variables were responsible for increases in heat input and the resulting thermal stresses. By measuring the net heat input to the workpiece with the calorimeter and by measuring the laser output energy and the weld fusion zone size it was possible to determine the magnitudes of both the energy transfer efficiency and the melting efficiency as well as observe their dependence on the process variables. 3 refs.

  16. Assessment of ceramic coatings for metal fuel melting crucible

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Oh, Seok-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to develop a coating method and material for crucibles to prevent material interactions with the U-Zr/U-TRU-Zr fuels during the manufacturing of SFR fuels. Refractory coatings were applied to niobium substrates by vacuum plasma-spray coating method. Melt dipping tests conducted were the coated rods lowered into the fuel melt at 1600 C. degrees, and withdrawn and cooled outside the crucible in the inert atmosphere of the induction furnace. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods indicated that plasma-sprayed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating doesn't form significant reaction layer between fuel melt and coating layer. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods showed that TiC, TaC, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings exhibited the promising performance among other ceramic coatings. These materials could be promising candidate materials for the reusable melt crucible of metal fuel for SFR. In addition, in order to develop the vacuum plasma-spray coating method for re-usable crucible of metal fuel slugs to be overcome the issue of thermal expansion mismatch between coating material and crucible, various combinations of coating conditions were investigated to find the bonding effect on the substrate in pursuit of more effective ways to withstand the thermal stresses. It is observed that most coating methods maintained sound coating state in U-Zr melt. (authors)

  17. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Martin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier f...

  18. Exploration of Melt Spinning as a Route to Large Volume Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exploration of Melt Spinning as a Route to Large Volume Production of Skutterudite Thermoelectric Materials Exploration of Melt Spinning as a Route to Large Volume Production of...

  19. 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. High resolution imaging of the melt distribution in 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. High resolution imaging of the melt;© 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Abstract We determine the 3-D melt geometry

  20. Geek-Up: K East Reactor Demolition, Retrograde Melting and Cloud Pattern Tracking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recovery Act funds help clean up the Hanford site, retrograde melting (melting as something cools) and how open-cell clouds could help predict climate change.

  1. Consequences of melt transport for uranium series disequilibrium in young lavas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiegelman, Marc W.

    Consequences of melt transport for uranium series disequilibrium in young lavas Marc Spiegelman do not actu- ally include melt transport. Here we explore the be- haviour of short

  2. Aragonite crusts and pisolites beneath dolomitic tepees, Lake MacLeod evaporate basin, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handford, C.R.; Kendall, A.C.; Dunham, J.B.; Logan, B.W.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research currently being conducted by the Sedimentology and Marine Geology Group, under Brian W. Logan at the University of Western Australia, has recently concentrated on Lake MacLeod, a 2000 km/sup 2/ (770 mi/sup 2/) coastal salina on the western coast of Australia. This work has shown that this evaporite basin, which is 3 to 4 m (10 to 13 ft) below sea level, is separated from the Indian Ocean by a topographic barrier, but seawater under hydrostatic head, seeps freely through the barrier and discharges from several vents and springs in a carbonate mud flat at the north end of the basin. From there, seawater flows slowly across the basin, evaporating and depositing carbonate, gypsum, and ephemeral halite. About 10 to 12 m (33 to 39 ft) of evaporites have been deposited in the past 5300 years. In July 1982, the authors visited the carbonate mud flats and discovered abundant aragonite pisolites and botryoidal-mammillary crusts of fibrous aragonite cement beneath lily-pad tepee slabs of cemented protodolomite. Thick aragonite crusts cover both the undersides of lily-pad slabs and the lithified floors of tepees. Crusts covering the floors are more botryoidal and consist of both aragonite nubs and mounds (0.2 to 2.5 cm, 0.08 to 1 in., in diameter), and a few scattered, loose pisolites, several millimeters in diameter. The manner in which crusts, pisolites, and tepees occur at Lake MacLeod raises the possibility that they and their ancient counterparts from the Permian basin share a common origin. Perhaps Permian pisolites and aragonite crusts formed beneath cemented slabs of peritidal sediments in tepees bathed by marine water which seeped across exposed portions of the shelf crest.

  3. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration--Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Strickland, Christopher E.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank in 1973. Many of the contaminants from that leak still reside within the vadose zone beneath the T Tank Farm. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. seeks to minimize movement of this residual contaminant plume by placing an interim barrier on the surface. Such a barrier is expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plume and moving it further. A plan has been prepared to monitor and determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barrier. Soil water content and water pressure will be monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. In fiscal year 2006, two instrument nests were installed. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, four heat-dissipation units, and a drain gauge to measure soil water flux. A meteorological station has been installed outside of the fence. In fiscal year 2007, two additional instrument nests are planned to be installed beneath the proposed barrier.

  4. Kirchhoff integrals and Fresnel zones Ludek Klimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Kirchhoff integrals and Fresnel zones LudŸek KlimeŸs Department of Geophysics, Charles University of discrete values necessary for the numerical quadra­ ture. The Fresnel zones are then derived as the minimum of Fresnel zones is purely local, independent of the reference travel times. The definition of Fresnel zones

  5. Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late-than early-successional stage biological soil crusts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts Brian J. Darby a,*, Deborah A. Neher a , Jayne Belnap b a Department of Plant and Soil; accepted 12 April 2006 Abstract Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs

  6. Density distribution of the India plate beneath the Tibetan plateau: Geophysical and petrological constraints on the kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Density distribution of the India plate beneath the Tibetan plateau: Geophysical and petrological combine seismological and Bouguer anomaly data with thermo-kinematic and petrological modelling of its descent is reached. In an integrated geophysical and petrological approach, the temperature field

  7. Rapid generation of high-frequency internal waves beneath a wind and wave forced oceanic surface mixed layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Jerome A.

    mixed-layer energy [D'Asaro et al., 1995]. In this study we show that, even under weak wind and waveRapid generation of high-frequency internal waves beneath a wind and wave forced oceanic surface Received 7 March 2008; revised 9 May 2008; accepted 2 June 2008; published 8 July 2008. [1] High

  8. Diffusion and Interdiffusion in Binary Metallic Melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Kuhn; J. Horbach; F. Kargl; A. Meyer; Th. Voigtmann

    2014-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the dependence of self- and interdiffusion coefficients on temperature and composition for two prototypical binary metallic melts, Al-Ni and Zr-Ni, in molecular-dynamics (MD) computer simulations and the mode-coupling theory of the glass transition (MCT). Dynamical processes that are mainly entropic in origin slow down mass transport (as expressed through self diffusion) in the mixture as compared to the ideal-mixing contribution. Interdiffusion of chemical species is a competition of slow kinetic modes with a strong thermodynamic driving force that is caused by non-entropic interactions. The combination of both dynamic and thermodynamic effects causes qualitative differences in the concentration dependence of self-diffusion and interdiffusion coefficients. At high temperatures, the thermodynamic enhancement of interdiffusion prevails, while at low temperatures, kinetic effects dominate the concentration dependence, rationalized within MCT as the approach to its ideal-glass transition temperature $T_c$. The Darken equation relating self- and interdiffusion qualitatively reproduces the concentration-dependence in both Zr-Ni and Al-Ni, but quantitatively, the kinetic contributions to interdiffusion can be slower than the lower bound suggested by the Darken equation. As temperature is decreased, the agreement with Darken's equation improves, due to a strong coupling of all kinetic modes that is a generic feature predicted by MCT.

  9. String melting in a photon bath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karouby, Johanna, E-mail: karoubyj@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachussetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the decay rate of a metastable cosmic string in contact with a thermal bath by finding the instanton solution. The new feature is that this decay rate is found in the context of non thermal scalar fields in contact with a thermal bath of photons. In general, to make topologically unstable strings stable, one can couple them to such a bath. The resulting plasma effect creates metastable configurations which can decay from the false vacuum to the true vacuum. In our specific set-up, the instanton computation is realized for the case of two out-of-equilibrium complex scalar fields: one is charged and coupled to the photon field, and the other is neutral. New effects coming from the thermal bath of photons make the radius of the nucleated bubble and most of the relevant physical quantities temperature-dependent. However, the temperature appears in a different way than in the purely thermal case, where all scalar fields are in thermal equilibrium. As a result of the tunneling, the core of the initial string melts while bubbles of true vacuum expand at the speed of light.

  10. Method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an aerodynamic levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  11. Method For Synthesizing Extremely High-Temperature Melting Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  12. Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rue

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

  13. Dissolution retardation of solid silica during glass batch-melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During glass-batch melting, solid silica (quartz) usually dissolves last. A retardation function was defined as a measure of the progressive inhibition of silica dissolution that occurs during batch melting. This function is based on the comparison of the measured rate of dissolution of silica particles with the hypothetical diffusion-controlled volume flux from regularly distributed particles with uniform concentration layers around them. The severe inhibition of silica dissolution has been attributed to the irregular spatial distribution of silica particles that is associated with the formation of nearly saturated melt at a portion of their surfaces. Irregular shapes and unequal sizes of particles also contribute to their extended lifetime.

  14. Melt-band instabilities with two-phase damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudge, John F.; Bercovici, David

    2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    . Petrol., 151, 101–111. Holtzman, B.K., Groebner, N.J., Zimmerman, M.E., Ginsberg, S. & Kohlst- edt, D., 2003. Stress-driven melt segregation in partially molten rocks, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 4, 8607, doi:10.1029/2001GC000258. Karato, S., 1989. Grain... olivine-rich rocks deformed in torsion, J. Petrol., 51, 21–42. Kohlstedt, D.L. & Holtzman, B.K., 2009. Shearing melt out of the Earth: an experimentalist’s perspective on the influence of deformation on melt extraction, Ann. Rev. Earth planet. Sci., 37...

  15. Method for Synthesizing Extremeley High Temperature Melting Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise and Glorieux, Benoit

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  16. Meridional Flow in the Solar Convection Zone II: Helioseismic Inversions of GONG Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackiewicz, J; Kholikov, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meridional flow is thought to play a very important role in the dynamics of the solar convection zone; however, because of its relatively small amplitude, precisely measuring it poses a significant challenge. Here we present a complete time-distance helioseismic analysis of about two years of ground-based GONG Doppler data to retrieve the meridional circulation profile for modest latitudes, in an attempt to corroborate results from other studies. We use an empirical correction to the travel times due to an unknown center-to-limb systematic effect. The helioseismic inversion procedure is first tested and reasonably validated on artificial data from a large-scale numerical simulation, followed by a test to broadly recover the solar differential rotation found from global seismology. From GONG data, we measure poleward photospheric flows at all latitudes with properties that are comparable with earlier studies, and a shallow equatorward flow about $65$\\,Mm beneath the surface, in agreement with recent findings f...

  17. Melt extrusion and continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Erin R

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Melt extrusion is an alternative processing technique that operates continuously, reduces the total number of unit operations, allows for incorporation of difficult-to-process drug substances, and has the potential to ...

  18. Variational bounds for the shear viscosity of gelling melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claas H. Köhler; Henning Löwe; Peter Müller; Annette Zippelius

    2007-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study shear stress relaxation for a gelling melt of randomly crosslinked, interacting monomers. We derive a lower bound for the static shear viscosity $\\eta$, which implies that it diverges algebraically with a critical exponent $k\\ge 2\

  19. Modeling pulsed-laser melting of embedded semiconductor nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawyer, C.A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed-laser melting (PLM) is commonly used to achieve athe size evolution during PLM of nanoparticles con?ned in aextended to include the PLM process. The PLM model includes

  20. Characterization of electron beam melted uranium - 6% niobium ingots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to characterize uranium, 6{percent} niobium ingots produced via electron beam melting,hearth refining and continuous casting and to compare this material with conventional VIM/skull melt /VAR material. Samples of both the ingot and feed material were analyzed for niobium, trace metallic elements, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. Ingot samples were also inspected metallographically and via microprobe analysis.

  1. Apparatus for melt growth of crystalline semiconductor sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO); Hurd, Jeffery L. (Golden, CO)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An economical method is presented for forming thin sheets of crystalline silicon suitable for use in a photovoltaic conversion cell by solidification from the liquid phase. Two spatially separated, generally coplanar filaments wettable by liquid silicon and joined together at the end by a bridge member are immersed in a silicon melt and then slowly withdrawn from the melt so that a silicon crystal is grown between the edge of the bridge and the filaments.

  2. Method and apparatus for melt growth of crystalline semiconductor sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, T.F.; Hurd, J.L.

    1981-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An economical method is presented for forming thin sheets of crystalline silicon suitable for use in a photovoltaic conversion cell by solidification from the liquid phase. Two spatially separated, generally coplanar filaments wettable by liquid silicon and joined together at the end by a bridge member are immersed in a silicon melt and then slowly withdrawn from the melt so that a silicon crystal is grown between the edge of the bridge and the filaments.

  3. Velocity of sound in solid methane near melting temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John Martin

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VELOCITY OF SOUND IN SOLID METHANE NEAR MELTING TEMPERATURES A Thesis By JOHN MARTIN WHITEHEAD Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1968 Ma)or Sub)ect: Physics VELOCITY OF SOVND IN SOLID METHANE NEAR MELTING TEMPERATURES A Thesis By JOHN MARTIN WHITEHEAD Approved as to style and content by& (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departsmnt) (Mem er (Member) May 1968...

  4. Using a Vadose Zone Model to Predict the Migration Depth of Zinc and Sodium Chloride in Soils beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Mikula , Penn State Harrisburg, 777 West Harrisburg Pike, TL 105, Middletown, PA, 17057, Tel: 717-948-6358, Fax: 717-948-6580, email: jum170@psu.edu 2 Shirley E. Clark, Penn State Harrisburg, email: sec16@psu.edu 3 Katherine H. Baker, Penn State Harrisburg, email: khb4@psu.edu Abstract Urbanization has been

  5. Melt Rate Improvement for High-Level Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2002-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results of research accomplished during the first year of the 3-year project. The data presented in this report have been gathered to support work on the mathematical modeling of waste-glass melters. At this stage, only a qualitative description and interpretation of the observed phenomena has been attempted. Two Savannah Rive feeds were used for the study. These feeds were subjected to thermal gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, evolved gas analysis with volume-expansion monitoring, modified reboil test, quantitative X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, wet chemical analysis, and M?ssbauer spectroscopy. Glass viscosity was also measured. Finally, it was recommended to use melt-rate furnace test data to measure thermal diffusivity of the feed. Though both feed were reduced to prevent oxygen evolution from the melt, oxygen evolved form one of the melts and COx evolved from both. Hence, foam is likely to form under the cold cap even when the feed is reduced. An important difference between the feeds was in the melt viscosity at the temperature at which the melt interfaces the cold cap. It was suggested that low viscosity destabilizes foam under the cold cap, thus enhancing the rate of melting.

  6. Solidification microstructures in single-crystal stainless steel melt pools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sipf, J.B.; Boatner, L.A.; David, S.A.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of microstructure of stationary melt pools of oriented stainless steel single crystals (70%Fe-15%Ni-15%Cr was analyzed. Stationary melt pools were formed by electron-beam and gas-tungsten-arc heating on (001), (011), and (111) oriented planes of the austenitic, fcc-alloy crystals. Characterization and analysis of resulting microstructure was carried out for each crystallographic plane and welding method. Results showed that crystallography which favors ``easy growth`` along the <100> family of directions is a controlling factor in the microstructural formation along with the melt-pool shape. The microstructure was found to depend on the melting method, since each method forms a unique melt-pool shape. These results are used in making a three-dimensional reconstruction of the microstructure for each plane and melting method employed. This investigation also suggests avenues for future research into the microstructural properties of electron-beam welds as well as providing an experimental basis for mathematical models for the prediction of solidification microstructures.

  7. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  8. Study of the Natural Gas Hydrate 'Trap Zone' and the Methane Hydrate Potential in the Sverdrup Basin, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majorowicz, J. A. [Northern Geothermal Consult. (Canada)], E-mail: majorowi@show.ca; Hannigan, P. K.; Osadetz, K. G. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary (Canada)

    2002-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The methane hydrate stability zone beneath Sverdrup Basin has developed to a depth of 2 km underneath the Canadian Arctic Islands and 1 km below sea level under the deepest part of the inter-island sea channels. It is not, however, a continuous zone. Methane hydrates are detected in this zone, but the gas hydrate/free gas contact occurs rarely. Interpretation of well logs indicate that methane hydrate occurs within the methane stability zone in 57 of 150 analyzed wells. Fourteen wells show the methane hydrate/free gas contact. Analysis of the distribution of methane hydrate and hydrate/gas contact occurrences with respect to the present methane hydrate stability zone indicate that, in most instances, the detected methane hydrate occurs well above the base of methane hydrate stability. This relationship suggests that these methane hydrates were formed in shallower strata than expected with respect to the present hydrate stability zone from methane gases which migrated upward into hydrate trap zones. Presently, only a small proportion of gas hydrate occurrences occur in close proximity to the base of predicted methane hydrate stability. The association of the majority of detected hydrates with deeply buried hydrocarbon discoveries, mostly conventional natural gas accumulations, or mapped seismic closures, some of which are dry, located in structures in western and central Sverdrup Basin, indicate the concurring relationship of hydrate occurrence with areas of high heat flow. Either present-day or paleo-high heat flows are relevant. Twenty-three hydrate occurrences coincide directly with underlying conventional hydrocarbon accumulations. Other gas hydrate occurrences are associated with structures filled with water with evidence of precursor hydrocarbons that were lost because of upward leakage.

  9. Melt segregation under compaction and shear channelling: Application to granitic magma segregation in a continental crust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Melt segregation under compaction and shear channelling: Application to granitic magma segregation in a mush submitted to both compaction and shear. It applies to a granitic melt imbedded within of melt to about 20 % in total to be extracted from the matrix. Abridged title Granitic melt segregation

  10. An unexpected journey: experimental insights into magma and volatile transport beneath Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iacovino, Kayla

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    fugacity of the volatile component and the concentration of that volatile dissolved in the melt. Because of the poor fit of our CO2 data to a power law regression, the pure-CO2 experiments of Lesne et al. (2011b) were used to create these isobars... /mantle boundary. Seismic and gravitational investigations on and around Ross Island suggest that this boundary is ?20 km deep (Cooper et al., 1994; Finotello et al., 2011; Newhall & Dzurisin, 1989). The evolution of the Erebus cone itself is inferred to have taken...

  11. Developing a coupled ice flow, meltwater plume model to study Developing a coupled ice flow, meltwater plume model to study interactions beneath ice shelves off the coast of West Antarctica.interactions beneath ice shelves off the coast of West Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , meltwater plume model to study interactions beneath ice shelves off the coast of West Antarctica.interactions beneath ice shelves off the coast of West Antarctica. Victoria Lee1 (v.lee@bristol.ac.uk), Tony Payne1 on the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Observational studies have shown that ice shelves off the coast of West Antarctica

  12. Renewable Energy Generation Zone Property Tax Abatement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Local areas in Mimssouri can be designated as Renewable Energy Generation Zones and receive property tax abatements as part of the Enhanced Enterprise Zone program. Legislation (H.B. 737) enacted...

  13. Enterprise Zone Sales Tax Exemption (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Enterprise Zone Sales Tax Exemption offers businesses located in such economic development zones a 100 percent sales tax exemption on the purchase of labor and materials to construct or remodel...

  14. Statewide Empire Zone Program (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Business that do not meet the requirements for standard financing, but are in need of capital, may qualify for NYBDC’s Statewide Empire Zone Program. The Statewide Zone Capital Corporation (SZCC),...

  15. Local Option- Rural Renewable Energy Development Zones

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cities, counties, or several contiguous counties in Oregon can set up Rural Renewable Energy Development Zones. The zone can only cover territory outside of the urban growth boundary of any large...

  16. Keystone Innovation Zone Tax Credit Program (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Keystone Innovation Zone Tax Credit Program provides tax credits to companies less than eight years old who operate within designated innovation zones. A total pool of $25 million in tax...

  17. Virginia Enterprise Zone Job Creation Grant (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Virginia Enterprise Zone Job Creation Grant provides cash grants to businesses located in Enterprise zones that create permanent new jobs over a four-job threshold. State incentives are...

  18. 07/06/2009 Melting Ice Could Lead to Massive Waves of Climate Refugees Treehugger 06/30/2009 MELTING GREENLAND ICE SHEETS MAY THREATEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Aixue

    /30/2009 MELTING GREENLAND ICE SHEETS MAY THREATEN NORTHEAST U.S., CANADA Federal News Service 06/30/2009 Sea raises spectre of displaced humanity peopleandplanet.net 06/16/2009 Melting Greenland Ice Sheets May Report - Online 06/02/2009 Melting Greenland Ice Sheets May Threaten Northeast, Canada usagnet 06

  19. Santa Clara County- Zoning Ordinance (California)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Santa Clara County's Zoning Ordinance includes standards for wind and solar structures for residential, agricultural, and commercial uses.

  20. Device and method for skull-melting depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Heestand, Richard L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of skull-melting comprises the steps of: a. providing a vessel adapted for a skull-melting process, the vessel having an interior, an underside, and an orifice in connecting the interior and the underside; b. disposing a waveguide in the orifice so that the waveguide protrudes sufficiently into the interior to interact with the skull-melting process; c. providing a signal energy transducer in signal communication with the waveguide; d. introducing into the vessel a molten working material; e. carrying out the skull-melting process so that a solidified skull of the working material is formed, the skull and the vessel having an interface therebetween, the skull becoming fused to the waveguide so the signal energy can be transmitted through the waveguide and the skull without interference from the interface; f. activating the signal energy transducer so that a signal is propagated through the waveguide; and, g. controlling at least one variable of the skull-melting process utilizing feedback information derived from the propagated signal energy.

  1. Device and method for skull-melting depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Heestand, R.L.

    1993-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of skull-melting comprises the steps of: (a) providing a vessel adapted for a skull-melting process, the vessel having an interior, an underside, and an orifice connecting the interior and the underside; (b) disposing a waveguide in the orifice so that the waveguide protrudes sufficiently into the interior to interact with the skull-melting process; (c) providing a signal energy transducer in signal communication with the waveguide; (d) introducing into the vessel a molten working material; (e) carrying out the skull-melting process so that a solidified skull of the working material is formed, the skull and the vessel having an interface therebetween, the skull becoming fused to the waveguide so the signal energy can be transmitted through the waveguide and the skull without interference from the interface; (f) activating the signal energy transducer so that a signal is propagated through the waveguide; and, (g) controlling at least one variable of the skull-melting process utilizing feedback information derived from the propagated signal energy.

  2. Curvature fluctuations and the Lyapunov exponent at melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehra, V.; Ramaswamy, R. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)] [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the maximal Lyapunov exponent in constant-energy molecular-dynamics simulations at the melting transition for finite clusters of 6{endash}13 particles (model rare-gas and metallic systems) as well as for bulk rare-gas solids. For clusters, the Lyapunov exponent generally varies linearly with the total energy, but the {ital slope} changes sharply at the melting transition. In the bulk system, melting corresponds to a jump in the Lyapunov exponent, and this corresponds to a singularity in the variance of the curvature of the potential-energy surface. In these systems there are two mechanisms of chaos{emdash}local instability and parametric instability. We calculate the contribution of the parametric instability toward the chaoticity of these systems using a recently proposed formalism. The contribution of parametric instability is a continuous function of energy in small clusters but not in the bulk where the melting corresponds to a decrease in this quantity. This implies that the melting in small clusters does not lead to enhanced local instability. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices Webinar. Presentation More Documents & Publications...

  4. Global transition zone tomography Jeroen Ritsema1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritsema, Jeroen

    Global transition zone tomography Jeroen Ritsema1 and Hendrik Jan van Heijst Seismological on accurate models of seismic velocity variation in the upper mantle transition zone (400­1000 km depth. Such data provide new global transition zone constraints. We combined more than a million measurements

  5. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eastern Interconnection States’ Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states and other stakeholders in the Eastern Interconnection identify geographic areas suitable for the development of clean energy resources (natural gas, sequestration or utilitization locations for C02 from coal, nuclear, and renewable) which can potentially provide significant amounts of new electric power generation.

  6. Impact Assessment of Existing Vadose Zone Contamination at the Hanford Site SX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khaleel, Raziuddin; White, Mark D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wood, Marcus I.; Mann, Frederick M.; Kristofzski, John G.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The USDOE has initiated an impact assessment of existing vadose zone contamination at the Hanford Site SX tank farm in southeastern Washington State. The assessment followed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action process to address the impacts of past tank waste releases to the vadose zone at the single-shell tank farm. Numerical models were developed that consider the extent of contamination presently within the vadose zone and predict contaminant movement through the vadose zone to groundwater. The transport of representative mobile (technetium-99) and immobile (cesium-137) constituents was evaluated in modeling. The model considered the accelerated movement of moisture around and beneath single-shell tanks that is attributed to bare, gravel surfaces resulting from the construction of the underground storage tanks. Infiltration, possibly nearing 100 mm yr–1, is further amplified in the tank farm because of the umbrella effect created by percolating moisture being diverted by the impermeable, sloping surface of the large, 24-m-diameter, buried tank domes. For both the base case (no-action alternative) simulation and a simulation that considered placement of an interim surface barrier to minimize infiltration, predicted groundwater concentrations for technetium-99 at the SX tank farm boundary were exceedingly high, on the order of 106 pCi L–1. The predicted concentrations are, however, somewhat conservative because of our use of two-dimensional modeling for a three-dimensional problem. A series of simulations were performed, using recharge rates of 50, 30, and 10 mm yr–1, and compared to the base case (100 mm yr–1) results. As expected, lowering meteoric recharge delayed peak arrival times and reduced peak concentrations at the tank farm boundary.

  7. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION AT THE HANFORD SITE SX TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KHALEEL R

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The USDOE has initiated an impact assessment of existing vadose zone contamination at the Hanford Site SX tank farm in southeastern Washington State. The assessment followed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action process to address the impacts of past tank waste releases to the vadose zone at the single-shell tank farm. Numerical models were developed that consider the extent of contamination presently within the vadose zone and predict contaminant movement through the vadose zone to groundwater. The transport of representative mobile (technetium-99) and immobile (cesium-137) constituents was evaluated in modeling. The model considered the accelerated movement of moisture around and beneath single-shell tanks that is attributed to bare, gravel surfaces resulting from the construction of the underground storage tanks. Infiltration, possibly nearing 100 mm yr{sup -1}, is further amplified in the tank farm because of the umbrella effect created by percolating moisture being diverted by the impermeable, sloping surface of the large, 24-m-diameter, buried tank domes. For both the base case (no-action alternative) simulation and a simulation that considered placement of an interim surface barrier to minimize infiltration, predicted, groundwater concentrations for technetium-99 at the SX tank farm boundary were exceedingly high, on the order of 10{sup 6} pCi L{sup -1}. The predicted concentrations are, however, somewhat conservative because of our use of two-dimensional modeling for a three-dimensional problem. A series of simulations were performed, using recharge rates of 50, 30, and 10 mm yr{sup -1}, and compared to the basecase(100 mm yr{sup -1}) results. As expected, lowering meteoric recharge delayed peak arrival times and reduced peak concentrations at the tank farm boundary.

  8. Melt processing of Bi--2212 superconductors using alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holesinger, Terry G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting articles and a method of forming them, where the superconducting phase of an article is Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 CaCu.sub.2 O.sub.y (Bi-2212). Alumina is combined with Bi-2212 powder or Bi-2212 precursor powder and, in order to form an intimate mixture, the mixture is melted and rapidly cooled to form a glassy solid. The glassy solid is comminuted and the resulting powder is combined with a carrier. An alternative to melting is to form the mixture of nanophase alumina and material having a particle size of less than about 10 microns. The powder, with the carrier, is melt processed to form a superconducting article.

  9. Technical and economical considerations of new DRI melting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Shuzo; Tokuda, Koji; Sammt, F.; Gray, R.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new DRI melting process can effectively and economically produce high quality molten iron. This process utilizes hot charging of DRI directly from a reduction furnace into a dedicated new melting furnace. The molten iron from this DRI premelter can be charged into a steelmaking furnace, such as an electric arc furnace (EAF), where the molten iron, together with other iron sources, can be processed to produce steel. Alternatively the molten iron can be pigged or granulated for off-site merchant sales. Comprehensive research and development of the new process has been conducted including operational process simulation, melting tests using FASTMET DRI, slag technology development, and refractory corrosion testing. This paper describes the process concept, its operational characteristics and further applications of the process.

  10. Plasma arc melting of a 80 wt % tantalum-20 wt % titanium alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, P.S.; Patterson, R.A.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alloy of 80wt% tantalum-20wt% titanium is being considered for use in an oxidizing and highly corrosive liquid metal application. The high melting point of the alloy, 2400 C, and other physical properties narrowed the possible melting techniques. Previous melting experience with these materials by electron beam resulted in extensive vaporization of the titanium during the melt and poor chemical homogeneity. A technique has been developed using plasma arc melting to melt refractory alloys with very dissimilar densities and vapor pressures. The 80Ta--20Ti alloy falls into this category with the density of tantalum 16.5 g/cc and that of titanium 4.5 g/cc. The melting of these materials is further complicated by the high melting point of tantalum( 3020 C) and the relatively low boiling point of titanium( 3287 C). The plasma arc melting technique described results in good chemical homogeneity with ingot size quantities of material.

  11. Lattice cluster theory for polymer melts with specific interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen-Sheng Xu; Karl F. Freed

    2014-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the long-recognized fact that chemical structure and specific interactions greatly influence the thermodynamic properties of polymer systems, a predictive molecular theory that enables systematically addressing the role of chemical structure and specific interactions has been slow to develop even for polymer melts. While the lattice cluster theory (LCT) provides a powerful vehicle for understanding the influence of various molecular factors, such as monomer structure, on the thermodynamic properties of polymer melts and blends, the application of the LCT has heretofore been limited to the use of the simplest polymer model in which all united atom groups within the monomers of a species interact with a common monomer averaged van der Waals energy. Thus, the description of a compressible polymer melt involves a single van der Waals energy. As a first step towards developing more realistic descriptions to aid in the analysis of experimental data and the design of new materials, the LCT is extended here to treat models of polymer melts in which the backbone and side groups have different interaction strengths, so three energy parameters are present, namely, backbone-backbone, side group-side group, and backbone-side group interaction energies. Because of the great algebraic complexity of this extension, we retain maximal simplicity within this class of models by further specializing this initial study to models of polymer melts comprising chains with poly($n$-$\\alpha$-olefin) structures where only the end segments on the side chains may have different, specific van der Waals interaction energies with the other united atom groups. An analytical expression for the LCT Helmholtz free energy is derived for the new model. Illustrative calculations are presented to demonstrate the degree to which the thermodynamic properties of polymer melts can be controlled by specific interactions.

  12. Effect of glass-batch makeup on the melting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Humrickhouse, Carissa J.; Moody, J. Adam; Tate, Rachel M.; Rainsdon, Timothy T.; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Marcial, Jose; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Tincher, Benjamin

    2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5-?m in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures <800°C, contributing to the formation of viscous glass-forming melt that trapped evolving batch gases. Primary foam did not occur in batches with larger quartz grains, ?75 ?m in size, because their major portion dissolved at temperatures >800°C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160°C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B2O3, CaO, Li2O, MgO, and Na2O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  13. EFFECT OF GLASS-BATCH MAKEUP ON THE MELTING PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA P

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5 {micro}m in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures <800 C, contributing to the formation of viscous glass forming melt that trapped evolving batch gases. Primary foam did not occur in batches with larger quartz grains, {+-}75 {micro}m in size, because their major portion dissolved at temperatures >800 C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160 C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, Li{sub 2}O, MgO, and Na{sub 2}O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  14. Hybrid redox polyether melts based on polyether-tailed counterions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, E. V; Williams, M.E.; Hendrickson, S.M.; Masui, Hitoshi; Murray, R.W.

    1999-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Interesting ionic materials can be transformed into room temperature molten salts by combining them with polyether-tailed counterions such as polyether-tailed 2-sulfobenzoate (MePEG-BzSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) and polyethertailed triethylammonium (MePEG-Et{sub 3}N{sup +}). Melts containing ruthenium hexamine, metal trisbipyridines, metal trisphenanthrolines, and ionic forms of aluminum quinolate, anthraquinone, phthalocyanine, and porphyrins are described. These melts exhibit ionic conductivities in the 7 x 10{sup {minus}5} to 7 x 10{sup {minus}10} {Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} range, which permit microelectrode voltammetry in the undiluted materials, examples of which are presented.

  15. Aerosol source term in high pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel has been identified as an important element of a severe reactor accident. Copious aerosol production is observed when thermitically generated melts pressurized with nitrogen or carbon dioxide to 1.3 to 17 MPa are ejected into an air atmosphere. Aerosol particle size distributions measured in the tests have modes of about 0.5, 5, and > 10 ..mu..m. Mechanisms leading to formation of these multimodal size distributions are suggested. This aerosol is a potentially important fission product source term that has not been considered in previous severe accident analyses.

  16. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Innovative Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diran Apelian

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Semi-solid metal (SSM) processing has emerged as an attractive method for near-net-shape manufacturing due to the distinct advantages it holds over conventional near-net-shape forming technologies. These advantages include lower cycle time, increased die life, reduced porosity, reduced solidification shrinkage, improved mechanical properties, etc. SSM processing techniques can not only produce the complex dimensional details (e.g. thin-walled sections) associated with conventional high-pressure die castings, but also can produce high integrity castings currently attainable only with squeeze and low-pressure permanent mold casting processes. There are two primary semi-solid processing routes, (a) thixocasting and (b) rheocasting. In the thixocasting route, one starts from a non-dendritic solid precursor material that is specially prepared by a primary aluminum manufacturer, using continuous casting methods. Upon reheating this material into the mushy (a.k.a. "two-phase") zone, a thixotropic slurry is formed, which becomes the feed for the casting operation. In the rheocasting route (a.k.a. "slurry-on-demand" or "SoD"), one starts from the liquid state, and the thixotropic slurry is formed directly from the melt via careful thermal management of the system; the slurry is subsequently fed into the die cavity. Of these two routes, rheocasting is favored in that there is no premium added to the billet cost, and the scrap recycling issues are alleviated. The CRP (Trade Marked) is a process where the molten metal flows through a reactor prior to casting. The role of the reactor is to ensure that copious nucleation takes place and that the nuclei are well distributed throughout the system prior to entering the casting cavity. The CRP (Trade Marked) has been successfully applied in hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloys (i.e., 390 alloy) where two liquids of equal or different compositions and temperatures are mixed in the reactor and creating a SSM slurry. The process has been mostly used for hypo-eutectic Al-Si alloys (i.e., 356, 357, etc.) where a single melt passes through the reactor. In addition, the CRP (Trade Marked) was designed to be flexible for thixocasting or rheocasting applications as well as batch or continuous casting. Variable heat extraction rates can be obtained by controlling either the superheat of the melt, the temperature of the channel system, or the temperature of the reactor. This program had four main objectives all of which were focused on a mechanistic understanding of the process in order to be able to scale it up, to develop it into a robust process,and for SSM processing to be commercially used.

  17. Review and model-based analysis of factors influencing soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract. A simple, multi-compartment model was developed to predict soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) plantations in the southeastern United States. Soil carbon sequestration is an important component of sustainable switchgrass production for bioenergy because soil organic matter promotes water retention, nutrient supply, and soil properties that minimize erosion. A literature review was included for the purpose of model parameterization and five model-based experiments were conducted to predict how changes in environment (temperature) or crop management (cultivar, fertilization, and harvest efficiency) might affect soil carbon storage and nitrogen losses. Predictions of soil carbon sequestration were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the ratio of belowground to aboveground biomass production, and temperature. Predictions of ecosystem nitrogen loss were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the soil C/N ratio, and nitrogen remobilization efficiency (i.e., nitrogen cycling within the plant). Model-based experiments indicated that 1) soil carbon sequestration can be highly site specific depending on initial soil carbon stocks, temperature, and the amount of annual nitrogen fertilization, 2) response curves describing switchgrass yield as a function of annual nitrogen fertilization were important to model predictions, 3) plant improvements leading to greater belowground partitioning of biomass could increase soil carbon sequestration, 4) improvements in harvest efficiency have no indicated effects on soil carbon and nitrogen, but improve cumulative biomass yield, and 5) plant improvements that reduce organic matter decomposition rates could also increase soil carbon sequestration, even though the latter may not be consistent with desired improvements in plant tissue chemistry to maximize yields of cellulosic ethanol.

  18. Implementation Plan for the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Freshley, Mark D.; Gephart, Roy E.; Triplett, Mark B.; Johnson, Timothy C.

    2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Long-Range Deep Vadose Zone Program Plan was published in October 2010. It summarized the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) state-of-knowledge about the contaminant remediation challenges facing the deep vadose zone (DVZ) beneath the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site and their approach to solving those challenges. Developing an implementation plan is the next step to address the knowledge and capabilities required to solve DVZ challenges when needed. This multi-year plan (FY-11 through FY-20) identifies the short to long-term research, management, and execution plans required to solve those problems facing the DVZ-Applied Field Research Center (DVZ-AFRC). The schedule supporting implementation overlies existing activities and milestones from Hanford’s DOE-Environmental Management (EM) end-user projects. Success relies upon multi-project teams focused on coordinated subsurface projects undertaken across the DOE Complex combined with facilitated, problem-focused, research investments implemented through the DVZ-AFRC.

  19. Accommodation Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind6:00-06:00About OpenEIAccionaAccommodation Zone Jump

  20. Network Modeling of Arctic Melt Ponds Meenakshi Barjatiaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    . In late spring and summer, the albedo of the ice pack is determined primarily by melt ponds that form­albedo feedback [7], and has played a significant role in the decline of the summer Arctic ice pack [8]. Sea ice precipitous losses of summer Arctic sea ice have outpaced the pro- jections of most climate models. Efforts

  1. The effect of pressure upon the melting transition of polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mroz, George Joseph

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE UPON THE MELTING TRANSITION OF POLYETHYLENE o m vS n Z 8 i c6 C 0 A Thesis By George Joseph Nros Approved as to style and content by: C a rman o Comm ttee (Head of Department) August 1961 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...

  2. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  3. Seasonal glacier melt contribution to streamflow Neil Schaner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    1 Seasonal glacier melt contribution to streamflow Neil Schaner Department of Civil of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 dennisl@u.washington.edu #12;2 Ongoing and projected future changes in glacier. However, the current magnitude of glacier contributions to river runoff is not well known, nor

  4. Glacier melt contribution to streamflow1 Neil Schaner1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    1 Glacier melt contribution to streamflow1 Neil Schaner1 , Nathalie Voisin2 , Bart Nijssen1 12 * Corresponding author13 Abstract. Ongoing and projected future changes in glacier extent and water storage14 globally have led to concerns about the implications for water supplies. Glacier15

  5. Melting Alpine Glaciers Enrich High-Elevation Lakes with Reactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, Craig E.

    Melting Alpine Glaciers Enrich High-Elevation Lakes with Reactive Nitrogen J A S M I N E E . S A R received May 26, 2010. Accepted May 28, 2010. Alpine glaciers have receded substantially over the last. Our results demonstrate that the presence of glaciers on alpine watersheds more strongly influences NO

  6. THE CONTRIBUTION OF GREENLAND ICE SHEET MELTING TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE CONTRIBUTION OF GREENLAND ICE SHEET MELTING TO GLOBAL SEA-LEVEL CHANGE Conor Mc three major sources, the Greenland ice sheet, Antarctica, and other eustatic components. Each has its own predictable spatial signal, and particular attention was paid to the Greenland ice sheet, given

  7. Potential for tunneling based on rock and soil melting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowley, J.C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rock-melting drill was invented at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1960. Electrically heated, laboratory-scale drills were subsequently shown to penetrate igneous rocks at usefully high rates, with moderate power consumptions. The development of compact nuclear reactors and of heat pipes now makes possible the extension of this technology to much larger melting penetrators, potentially capable of producing holes up to several meters in diameter and several tens of kilometers long or deep. Development of a rapid, versatile, economical method of boring large, long shafts and tunnels offers solutions to many of man's most urgent ecological, scientific, raw-materials, and energy-supply problems. A melting method appears to be the most promising and flexible means of producing such holes. It is relatively insensitive to the composition, hardness, structure, and temperature of the rock, and offers the possibilities of producing self-supporting, glass-lined holes in almost any formation and (using a technique called lithofracturing) of eliminating the debris-removal problem by forcing molten rock into cracks created in the bore wall. Large rock-melting penetrators, called Electric Subterrenes or Nuclear Subterrenes according to the energy source used, are discussed in this report, together with problems anticipated in their development. It is concluded that this development is within the grasp of present technology.

  8. Geek-Up: K East Reactor Demolition, Retrograde Melting and Cloud...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geek-Up: K East Reactor Demolition, Retrograde Melting and Cloud Pattern Tracking Geek-Up: K East Reactor Demolition, Retrograde Melting and Cloud Pattern Tracking August 13, 2010...

  9. CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION BY ZINC CHLORIDE MELTS AT PRE-PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermeulen, T.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stream. Plug flow of melt/coal slurry is projected, becauseviscosity of the melt/coal slurry would always be less thanscheme, raw coal is blended into a slurry with ZnCl2/CH30H

  10. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 092102 (2011) Melting temperature of tungsten from two ab initio approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 092102 (2011) Melting temperature of tungsten from two ab initio approaches L the melting temperature of tungsten by two ab initio approaches. The first approach can be divided into two

  11. Shear wave attenuation and dispersion in melt-bearing olivine polycrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interpretation and seismological implications Ulrich H. Faul, John D. Fitz Gerald, and Ian Jackson Research: seismic wave attenuation, olivine, partial melting, grain boundary sliding, grain boundary structure and dispersion in melt-bearing olivine polycrystals: 2. Microstructural interpretation and seismological

  12. Effect of grain size on the melting point of confined thin aluminum films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wejrzanowski, Tomasz; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Sikorski, Krzysztof; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Materials Design Division, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The melting of aluminum thin film was studied by a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. The effect of the grain size and type of confinement was investigated for aluminum film with a constant thickness of 4?nm. The results show that coherent intercrystalline interface suppress the transition of solid aluminum into liquid, while free-surface gives melting point depression. The mechanism of melting of polycrystalline aluminum thin film was investigated. It was found that melting starts at grain boundaries and propagates to grain interiors. The melting point was calculated from the Lindemann index criterion, taking into account only atoms near to grain boundaries. This made it possible to extend melting point calculations to bigger grains, which require a long time (in the MD scale) to be fully molten. The results show that 4?nm thick film of aluminum melts at a temperature lower than the melting point of bulk aluminum (933?K) only when the grain size is reduced to 6?nm.

  13. Adiabat_1ph: A new public front-end to the MELTS, pMELTS, and pHMELTS models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asimow, Paul D.

    and Petrology: Geochemical modeling (1009, 8410); 3611 Mineralogy and Petrology: Thermodynamics (0766, 1011, 8411); 3612 Mineralogy and Petrology: Reactions and phase equilibria (1012, 8412); 3618 Mineralogy and Petrology: Magma chamber processes (1036); 3619 Mineralogy and Petrology: Magma genesis and partial melting

  14. Refraction of shear zones in granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamas Unger

    2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study strain localization in slow shear flow focusing on layered granular materials. A heretofore unknown effect is presented here. We show that shear zones are refracted at material interfaces in analogy with refraction of light beams in optics. This phenomenon can be obtained as a consequence of a recent variational model of shear zones. The predictions of the model are tested and confirmed by 3D discrete element simulations. We found that shear zones follow Snell's law of light refraction.

  15. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Slant Borehole SX-108 in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the fourth in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a slant borehole installed beneath tank SX-108 (or simply SX-108 slant borehole).

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Marginal Ice Zone Observations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment mission Sierra Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Begin Flights Over Arctic Sea Ice On July 25, 2013, in Climate, Customers &...

  17. Enterprise Zone Retraining Credit Program (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Enterprise Zone Retraining Credit Program is a discretionary incentive that helps existing industries maintain their competitive edge and retain their existing workforce by allowing them to...

  18. Maricopa County- Renewable Energy Systems Zoning Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maricopa County Zoning Ordinance contains provisions for siting renewable energy systems. The ordinance defines renewable energy as "energy derived primarily from sources other than fossil...

  19. The Ohio Enterprise Zone program (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ohio Enterprise Zone program is an economic development tool administered by municipal and county governments that provides real and personal property tax exemptions to businesses making...

  20. Primary carbonatite melt from deeply subducted oceanic crust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brazil. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 140, 734-753 (2001).xenoliths from alkali basalts. J. Petrol. 39, Kogarko, L. N.zone. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 140,1-15 (2000). Dasgupta,

  1. METHODOLOGICAL RE-EVALUATION OF THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SILICATE MELTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Revised ms METHODOLOGICAL RE-EVALUATION OF THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SILICATE MELTS A in laboratory on silicate melts are used to interpret magnetotelluric anomalies. On the basis of two- and four to small chemical and physical changes, it represents a subtle probe for studying silicate melts properties

  2. Blast from the Past: Melting Glaciers as a Relevant Source for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Blast from the Past: Melting Glaciers as a Relevant Source for Persistent Organic Pollutants C H R, 2009. Accepted August 31, 2009. In this study, the hypothesis that melting Alpine glaciers may organic chemicals from melting Alpine glaciers. Considering ongoing global warming and accelerated massive

  3. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Foaming Theory and Mitigation Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, D.K.

    2001-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to enhance the basic understanding of the role of glass chemistry, including the chemical kinetics of pre-melting, solid state reactions, batch melting, and the reaction pathways in glass and/or acid addition strategy changes on the overall melting process for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Macrobatch 3 (MB3).

  4. A NEW METHOD FOR MELT DETECTION ON ANTARCTIC ICE-SHELVES AND SCATTEROMETER CALIBRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    A NEW METHOD FOR MELT DETECTION ON ANTARCTIC ICE-SHELVES AND SCATTEROMETER CALIBRATION VERIFICATION of Engineering and Technology #12;ABSTRACT A NEW METHOD FOR MELT DETECTION ON ANTARCTIC ICE-SHELVES to determine periods of surface melt and freeze in the Antarctic ice-shelves. The normalized radar backscatter

  5. Ion fractionation and percolation in ice cores with seasonal melting John C. Moore*, Aslak Grinsted **

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, John

    and with the type of data that was expected to come from ice caps with seasonal melt. The objective of this paperIon fractionation and percolation in ice cores with seasonal melting John C. Moore*, Aslak Grinsted that suffer limited seasonal melting. We show that the impact in the case of at least one Svalbard ice core

  6. Basal melting of snow on early Mars: A possible origin of some valley Michael H. Carr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Head III, James William

    that valley networks could have formed as a result of basal melting of thick snow and ice deposits. Depending in part by basal melting of the south polar cap [Clifford, 1987], this cannot be the only mechanismBasal melting of snow on early Mars: A possible origin of some valley networks Michael H. Carr U. S

  7. Melting of small Arctic ice caps observed from ERS scatterometer time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Laurence C.

    Melting of small Arctic ice caps observed from ERS scatterometer time series Laurence C. Smith,1 of melt onset can be observed over small ice caps, as well as the major ice sheets and multi-year sea ice for 14 small Arctic ice caps from 1992­2000. Interannual and regional variability in the timing of melt

  8. Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: U Tank Farm Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (DOE-GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides that are distributed in the vadose zone sediments beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources when possible, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information regarding vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. This information is presently limited to detection of gamma-emitting radionuclides from both natural and man-made sources. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank in a tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the U Tank Farm. Logging operations used high-purity germanium detection systems to acquire laboratory-quality assays of the gamma-emitting radionuclides in the sediments around and below the tanks. These assays were acquired in 59 boreholes that surround the U Tank Farm tanks. Logging of all boreholes was completed in December 1995, and the last Tank Summary Data Report for the U Tank Farm was issued in September 1996.

  9. Unsaturated Groundwater Flow Beneath Upper Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dander, D.C.

    1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mortandad Canyon is a discharge site for treated industrial effluents containing radionuclides and other chemicals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. This study was conducted to develop an understanding of the unsaturated hydrologic behavior below the canyon floor. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the hypothetical performance of the vadose zone above the water table. Numerical simulations of unsaturated groundwater flow at the site were conducted using the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer (FEHM) code. A two-dimensional cross-section along the canyon's axis was used to model flow between an alluvial groundwater system and the regional aquifer approximately 300 m below. Using recharge estimated from a water budget developed in 1967, the simulations showed waters from the perched water table reaching the regional aquifer in 13.8 years, much faster than previously thought. Additionally, simulations indicate that saturation is occurring in the Guaje pumice bed an d that the Tshirege Unit 1B is near saturation. Lithologic boundaries between the eight materials play an important role in flow and solute transport within the system. Horizontal flow is shown to occur in three thin zones above capillary barriers; however, vertical flow dominates the system. Other simulations were conducted to examine the effects of changing system parameters such as varying recharge inputs, varying the distribution of recharge, and bypassing fast-path fractured basalt of uncertain extent and properties. System sensitivity was also explored by changing model parameters with respect to size and types of grids and domains, and the presence of dipping stratigraphy.

  10. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste uranium oxides The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  11. Melt and vapor characteristics in an electron beam evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenfeld, L.; Fleche, J.L.; Gonella, C. [DCC/DPE/SPEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the free surface temperatures T{sub s}, calculated by two methods, in cerium or copper evaporation experiments. The first method considers properties of the melt: by an empirical law we take into account turbulent thermal convection, instabilities and craterization of the free surface. The second method considers the vapor flow expansion and connects T{sub s} to the measured terminal parallel temperature and the terminal mean parallel velocity of the vapor jet, by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo calculations including an atom-atom inelastic collision algorithm. The agreement between the two approaches is better for cerium than for copper in the high craterization case. The analysis, from the point of view of the properties of the melt, of the terminal parameters of the vapor jet for the high beam powers shows that T{sub s} and the Knudsen number at the vapor source reach a threshold when the beam power increases.

  12. Vacancies in Al after pulsed electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Wampler, W.R.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the retention of vacancies in Al after rapid melting and resolidification of a thin (approx. 3 ..mu..m) surface layer using a pulsed (approx.50 ns) electron beam. After pulsing and aging at room temperature, TEM examination showed dislocation loops, which are interpreted to be due to the coalescence of the quenched-in vacancies on )111) planes as is the case for the loops observed in earlier furnace quenching studies. Our results indicate that the rapid melting and resolidification leaves a high vacancy concentration (approx.100 ppm) in the resolidified Al. Heat transport calculations show that cooling rates for the pulse heated samples (approx.10/sup 8/ K/s) are much higher than those achieved by conventional quenching techniques (approx. 10/sup 4/ K/s).

  13. Simulation of multicomponent evaporation in electron beam melting and refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, A.; Szekely, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Van Den Avyle, J.; Damkroger, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results and a mathematical model are presented to describe differential evaporation rates in electron beam melting of titanium alloys containing aluminum and vanadium. Experiments characterized the evaporation rate of commercially pure titanium, and vapor composition over titanium with up to 6% Al and 4.5% V content as a function of beam power, scan frequency and background pressure. The model is made up of a steady-state heat and mass transport model of a melting hearth and a model of transient thermal and flow behavior near the surface. Activity coefficients for aluminum and vanadium in titanium are roughly estimated by fitting model parameters to experimental results. Based on the ability to vary evaporation rate by 10-15% using scan frequency alone, we discuss the possibility of on-line composition control by means of intelligent manipulation of the electron beam.

  14. Hydrodynamic coarsening in phase-separated silicate melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Bouttes; Océane Lambert; Corinne Claireaux; William Woelffel; Davy Dalmas; Emmanuelle Gouillart; Pierre Lhuissier; Luc Salvo; Elodie Boller; Damien Vandembroucq

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Using in-situ synchrotron tomography, we investigate the coarsening dynamics of barium borosilicate melts during phase separation. The 3-D geometry of the two interconnected phases is determined thanks to image processing. We observe a linear growth of the size of domains with time, at odds with the sublinear diffusive growth usually observed in phase-separating glasses or alloys. Such linear coarsening is attributed to viscous flow inside the bicontinuous phases, and quantitative measurements show that the growth rate is well explained by the ratio of surface tension over viscosity. The geometry of the domains is shown to be statistically similar at different times, provided that the microstructure is rescaled by the average domain size. Complementary experiments on melts with a droplet morphology demonstrate that viscous flow prevails over diffusion in the large range of domain sizes measured in our experiments (1 - 80 microns).

  15. Removing a sheet from the surface of a melt using gas jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kellerman, Peter L; Thronson, Gregory D; Sun, Dawei

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In one embodiment, a sheet production apparatus comprises a vessel configured to hold a melt of a material. A cooling plate is disposed proximate the melt and is configured to form a sheet of the material on the melt. A first gas jet is configured to direct a gas toward an edge of the vessel. A sheet of a material is translated horizontally on a surface of the melt and the sheet is removed from the melt. The first gas jet may be directed at the meniscus and may stabilize this meniscus or increase local pressure within the meniscus.

  16. Advanced coal-fired glass melting development program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Phase 1 of the current contract was to verify the technical feasibility and economic benefits of Vortec's advanced combustion/melting technology using coal as the fuel of choice. The objective of the Phase 2 effort was to improve the performance of the primary components and demonstrate the effective operation of a subscale process heater system integrated with a glass separator/reservoir. (VC)

  17. Proceedings of ALGORITMY 2005 BOUNDARY CONTROL OF SEMICONDUCTOR MELTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinze, Michael

    -type functionals of the form J(u, c) = 1 2 T 0 |u - u|2 ddt + 2 T 0 c (2 c + 2 ct ) ddt,(1) whereas goal (ii) may be related to minimal values of vorticity-type functionals of the form J(u, c) = 1 2 T 0 |curlu|2 ddt + 2 T 0 c (2 c + 2 ct ) ddt .(2) Above, u denotes the flow velocity vector field in the melt, and u

  18. Reference Phase of Fresnel Zone Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. W. Webb

    2003-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard zone plate assumes that the shortest ray connecting a radiation source and a detection point has a phase of 0 deg thereby defining a reference phase. Here we examine the experimental consequences of varying this reference phase from 0 deg to 360 deg. It is concluded that reference phase is an intrinsic and useful property of zone plates.

  19. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  20. Novel Phases and Reentrant Melting of Two Dimensional Colloidal Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leo Radzihovsky; Erwin Frey; David R. Nelson

    2000-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate two-dimensional (2d) melting in the presence of a one-dimensional (1d) periodic potential as, for example, realized in recent experiments on 2d colloids subjected to two interfering laser beams. The topology of the phase diagram is found to depend primarily on two factors: the relative orientation of the 2d crystal and the periodic potential troughs, which select a set of Bragg planes running parallel to the troughs, and the commensurability ratio p= a'/d of the spacing a' between these Bragg planes to the period d of the periodic potential. The complexity of the phase diagram increases with the magnitude of the commensurabilty ratio p. Rich phase diagram, with ``modulated liquid'', ``floating'' and ``locked floating'' solid and smectic phases are found. Phase transitions between these phases fall into two broad universality classes, roughening and melting, driven by the proliferation of discommensuration walls and dislocations, respectively. We discuss correlation functions and the static structure factor in these phases and make detailed predictions of the universal features close to the phase boundaries. We predict that for charged systems with highly screened short-range interactions these melting transitions are generically reentrant as a function of the strength of the periodic potential, prediction that is in accord with recent 2d colloid experiments. Implications of our results for future experiments are also discussed.

  1. A computational model for viscous fluid flow, heat transfer, and melting in in situ vitrification melt pools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, P.R.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MAGMA is a FORTRAN computer code designed to viscous flow in in situ vitrification melt pools. It models three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flow and heat transfer. The momentum equation is coupled to the temperature field through the buoyancy force terms arising from the Boussinesq approximation. All fluid properties, except density, are assumed variable. Density is assumed constant except in the buoyancy force terms in the momentum equation. A simple melting model based on the enthalpy method allows the study of the melt front progression and latent heat effects. An indirect addressing scheme used in the numerical solution of the momentum equation voids unnecessary calculations in cells devoid of liquid. Two-dimensional calculations can be performed using either rectangular or cylindrical coordinates, while three-dimensional calculations use rectangular coordinates. All derivatives are approximated by finite differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a new fully implicit iterative technique, while the energy equation is differenced explicitly in time. Spatial derivatives are written in conservative form using a uniform, rectangular, staggered mesh based on the marker and cell placement of variables. Convective terms are differenced using a weighted average of centered and donor cell differencing to ensure numerical stability. Complete descriptions of MAGMA governing equations, numerics, code structure, and code verification are provided. 14 refs.

  2. Author's personal copy Coexisting silicate melt inclusions and H2O-bearing, CO2-rich fluid inclusions in mantle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodnar, Robert J.

    Author's personal copy Coexisting silicate melt inclusions and H2O-bearing, CO2-rich fluid­Pannonian region Hungary C­O­H­S fluid inclusions Peridotite xenoliths Silicate melt inclusions Volatile (fluid)­silicate melt immiscibility Coexisting fluid inclusions and silicate melt inclusions, trapped as primary

  3. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  4. Mixing zones in magnetized differentially rotating stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Urpin

    2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the secular instability of magnetized differentially rotating radiative zones taking account of viscosity and magnetic and thermal diffusivities. The considered instability generalizes the well-known Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke instability for the case of a sufficiently strong magnetic field. In magnetized stars, instability can lead to a formation of non-spherical unstable zones where weak turbulence mixes the material between the surface and interiors. Such unstable zones can manifest themselves by a non-spherical distribution of abundance anormalies on the stellar surface.

  5. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, William H. (Connellsville, PA); Ganoe, Carl W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  6. Emission Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices Through Chemical Modification of Host Materials . Emission Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices...

  7. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region...

  8. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4B Albuquerque, New Mexico Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4B Albuquerque, New...

  9. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 5B Boulder, Colorado Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  10. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4C Seattle, Washington Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  11. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 6B Helena, Montana Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  12. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 8 Fairbanks, Alaska Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  13. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 5A Chicago, Illinois Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  14. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  15. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4A Baltimore, Maryland Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  16. Paesaggio ed economia delle zone rurali Tiziano Tempesta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tempesta, Tiziano

    Paesaggio ed economia delle zone rurali Tiziano Tempesta Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agroforestali Università di Padova Estratto da : Tempesta T. (2012), Paesaggio ed economia delle zone rurali

  17. Development of Characterization Technology for Fault Zone Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karasaki, Kenzi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TECHNOLOGY FOR FAULT ZONE HYDROLOGY Kenzi Karasaki Lawrencefor characterizing the hydrology of fault zones, recognizingstructure of faults to hydrology, that it still may be

  18. Geographic Information System At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geographic Information System Activity...

  19. Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geodetic Survey Activity Date...

  20. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis...

  1. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity...

  2. Field Mapping At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Field Mapping Activity Date Usefulness...

  3. AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation of Well at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation...

  4. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    akfairbankspre1980v1-47-2.zip More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 8 Fairbanks, Alaska Reference Buildings by Climate Zone...

  5. Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers. Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers. Abstract: Super-absorbent polymers (SAPs) have...

  6. Perched-Water Analysis Related to Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perched-Water Analysis Related to Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant Transport and Impact to Groundwater. Perched-Water Analysis Related to Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant Transport and...

  7. DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 The DOE New Madrid...

  8. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental...

  9. The impact of tropical cyclones (TC) on global climate is still debated. They rapidly mix the water column beneath them, bringing cold water to the surface.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    of Climate, 21, 638 Sriver & Huber, 2007, Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropicalThe impact of tropical cyclones (TC) on global climate is still debated. They rapidly mix the water column beneath them, bringing cold water to the surface. One way to parameterise this process

  10. Composition monitoring of electron beam melting processes using diode lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berzins, L.V.

    1991-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron beam melting processes are used to produce high purity alloys for a wide range of applications. Real time monitoring of the alloy constituents, however, has historically been difficult. Absorption spectroscopy using diode lasers provides a means for measuring constituent densities, and hence alloy composition, in real time. Diode lasers are suggested because they are inexpensive and require little maintenance. There is increasing interest in the composition and quality control of titanium alloys used in aircraft parts. For this reason we describe a proposed system for composition monitoring of titanium alloys. Performance and cost of the proposed system is addressed. We discuss the applicability of this approach to other alloys.

  11. Melt coolability modeling and comparison to MACE test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An important question in the assessment of severe accidents in light water nuclear reactors is the ability of water to quench a molten corium-concrete interaction and thereby terminate the accident progression. As part of the Melt Attack and Coolability Experiment (MACE) Program, phenomenological models of the corium quenching process are under development. The modeling approach considers both bulk cooldown and crust-limited heat transfer regimes, as well as criteria for the pool thermal hydraulic conditions which separate the two regimes. The model is then compared with results of the MACE experiments.

  12. Melt coolability modeling and comparison to MACE test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An important question in the assessment of severe accidents in light water nuclear reactors is the ability of water to quench a molten corium-concrete interaction and thereby terminate the accident progression. As part of the Melt Attack and Coolability Experiment (MACE) Program, phenomenological models of the corium quenching process are under development. The modeling approach considers both bulk cooldown and crust-limited heat transfer regimes, as well as criteria for the pool thermal hydraulic conditions which separate the two regimes. The model is then compared with results of the MACE experiments.

  13. Creep measuring device for low melting point metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portal, Marc-Emmanuel Gilbert

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that there is little concern about the mechanical interaction of the coolant in the solid state and the walls. Because of its suitable thermophysicsl properties, lithium has been selected for the coolant in the SP-100 space reactor design. During launch, the lithium... properties of lithium. An experiment was conducted on lead at 90% of melting temperature (541 K). The results of this experiment agreed well with theoretical predictions of the Harper-Dorn creep model. The three predicted stages of creep were observed...

  14. Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Brosseau, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

  15. Sedimentation profiles of systems with reentrant melting behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Dzubiella; H. M. Harreis; C. N. Likos; H. Lowen

    2001-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine sedimentation density profiles of star polymer solutions as an example of colloidal systems in sedimentation equilibrium which exhibit reentrant melting in their bulk phase diagram. Phase transitions between a fluid and a fluid with an intercalated solid are observed below a critical gravitational strength $\\alpha^{*}$. Characteristics of the two fluid-solid interfaces in the density profiles occurring in Monte Carlo simulations for $\\alpha laws put forth in the framework of a phenomenological theory. Furthermore we detect density oscillations at the fluid-gas interface at high altitudes for high gravitational fields, which are verified with density functional theory and should be observable in surface scattering experiments.

  16. ARM - Lesson Plans: When Floating Ice Melts in the Sea

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhen Floating Ice Melts in the Sea

  17. Pine Tree Development Zones Program (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Pine Tree Development Zones program offers eligible businesses the chance to reduce, and sometimes eliminate, state taxes for up to ten years. There is a statutory requirement of hiring a...

  18. Innovation and Success in Planning and Zoning

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Planning and Zoning July 24, 2013 Why we're here: The Big Picture 2 SunShot Initiative SunShot Initiative 6kWh without subsidy 75% cost reduction by the end of the decade Price...

  19. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulloa, Osvaldo

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

  20. Wave Patterns and Southern Hemisphere Convergence Zones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramotowski, Michelle R.

    2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from satellites and reanalysis products are analyzed to study the behavior of wave trains in the three major Southern Hemisphere Convergences zones: the South Pacific, the South Atlantic, and the South Indian. Using ...

  1. Kentucky Economic Opportunity Zone Program (KEOZ) (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Kentucky Economic Opportunity Zone Program (KEOZ) focuses on the development of areas with high unemployment and poverty levels. The program provides an income tax credit of up to 100% of the...

  2. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

  3. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  4. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  5. Zone methods and the fermion sign problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean Lee

    2002-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We review a recently proposed approach to the problem of alternating signs for fermionic many body Monte Carlo simulations in finite temperature simulations. We derive an estimate for fermion wandering lengths and introduce the notion of permutation zones, special regions of the lattice where identical fermions may interchange and outside of which they may not. Using successively larger permutation zones, one can extrapolate to obtain thermodynamic observables in regimes where direct simulation is impossible.

  6. Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammon Williams

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing has been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent species—surrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate—1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurations—lid versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture—50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt—1, 3, and 5 wt%, and (5) the temperature differences between the high and low furnace zones—200 and 300 ?C. During each experiment, the temperatures at selected locations around the crucible were measured and recorded to provide temperature profiles. Following each experiment, samples were collected and elemental analysis was done to determine the composition of iii the salt. Several models—non-mixed, well-mixed, Favier, and hybrid—were explored to describe the zone freezing process. For CsCl-LiCl-KCl system, experimental results indicate that through this process up to 90% of the used salt can be recycled, effectively reducing waste volume by a factor of ten. The optimal configuration was found to be a 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and a ?T of 200°C. The larger 400 g mixtures had recycle percentages similar to the 50 g mixtures; however, the throughput per time was greater for the 400 g case. As a result, the 400 g case is recommended. For the CeCl3-LiCl-KCl system, the result implies that it is possible to use this process to separate the rare-earth and transuranics chlorides. Different models were applied to only CsCl ternary system. The best fit model was the hybrid model as a result of a solute transport transition from non- mixed to well-mixed throughout the growing process.

  7. Assessment of unsaturated zone radionuclide contamination in the 200 areas of the Hanford site, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodeur, J.R.; Wittreich, C.D.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 200 East and 200 West Areas at the Department of Energy`s Hanford site in southeastern Washington, contain chemical and nuclear fuel processing facilities that disposed of large volumes of chemical and radionuclide effluents to the ground via various structures such as ponds, cribs and ditches. A geophysical logging investigation was implemented in 1992 to assess the nature and extent of contamination beneath select liquid disposal sites in the 200 Areas. The borehole geophysical logging was accomplished with a recently developed spectral gamma-ray logging system called the Radionuclide Logging System (RLS). This system has a high-resolution, intrinsic germanium detector mounted in a downhole probe and is calibrated and operated specifically for use in a borehole environment. It provides a means to develop in-situ, gamma-emitting radioelement concentration profiles. Approximately 50 boreholes were logged in this study. The RLS log data provided information about the migration and deposition patterns of specific radionuclides in the unsaturated zone and their impacts on the groundwater. Approximately 10 radionuclide species were detected and quantified. Results of the field investigation are being used to refine site specific conceptual models, support Hanford Site remediation decisions and focus future characterization activities.

  8. Perched-Water Analysis Related to Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant Transport and Impact to Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, KC; Chronister, Glen B.

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Perched-water conditions have been observed in the vadose zone above a fine-grained zone that is located just a few meters above the water table beneath the B-complex at the Hanford Site. The perched water, containing elevated concentrations of uranium and technetium-99, is important to consider in evaluating the future flux of contaminated water into the groundwater. A study was conducted to examine the perched-water conditions and quantitatively evaluate 1) factors that control perching behavior, 2) contaminant flux toward groundwater, and, 3) associated groundwater impact. Based on the current vertical transport pathways and large areal extent of the perched system, the evaluation was conducted using a one-dimensional (1-D) analysis. Steady-state scoping calculations showed that the perching-layer hydraulic conductivity is likely to be up to two orders of magnitude less than the base case value obtained from Hanford site literature. Numerical flow and transport simulations provided both steady-state and transient system estimates of water and contaminant behavior and were used to further refine the range of conditions consistent with current observations of perched water height and to provide estimates of future water and contaminant flux to groundwater. With a recharge rate of 6 cm/yr, representative of current disturbed surface conditions, contaminant flux from the perched water occurs over a time interval of tens of years. However, if the recharge rate is 0.35 cm/yr, representative of returning recharge to pre-Hanford Site levels, the contaminant flux into the groundwater is spread over hundreds of years. It was also demonstrated that removal of perched water by pumping would reduce the flux of water (and associated contaminants) to the groundwater, thereby impacting the long-term rate of contaminant movement to the groundwater.

  9. Quantitative estimates of velocity sensitivity to surface melt variations at a large Greenland outlet glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.L.; Nettles, M.; Larsen, T.B.; Hamilton, Gordon S.; Stearns, Leigh

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    front. Calving events at the glacier front produce tsunami signals in the tide-gauge record, which we use to verify our visual and seismic detections of major calving events. The combined calving dataset for 2008 that we use to correct the velocity... evolution in sensitivity to melt input indicates a nonlinear velocity response to surface melt, and points to the need for a better understanding of the response to melting, particularly as atmospheric temperatures rise. We believe that our results...

  10. Removing a sheet from the surface of a melt using elasticity and buoyancy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kellerman, Peter L.; Sun, Dawei; Helenbrook, Brian; Harvey, David S.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments related to sheet production are disclosed. A melt of a material is cooled to form a sheet of the material on the melt. The sheet is formed in a first region at a first sheet height. The sheet is translated to a second region such that it has a second sheet height higher than the first sheet height. The sheet is then separated from the melt. A seed wafer may be used to form the sheet.

  11. A model for the latent heat of melting in free standing metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Jeong-Heon; Deinert, Mark R., E-mail: mdeinert@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78715 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticles of many metals are known to exhibit scale dependent latent heats of melting. Analytical models for this phenomenon have so far failed to completely capture the observed phenomena. Here we present a thermodynamic analysis for the melting of metal nanoparticles in terms of their internal energy and a scale dependent surface tension proposed by Tolman. The resulting model predicts the scale dependence of the latent heat of melting and is confirmed using published data for tin and aluminum.

  12. Regional groundwater modeling of the saturated zone in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Iterative Performance Assessment, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahola, M.; Sagar, B. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of groundwater modeling of the saturated zone in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain are presented. Both a regional (200 {times} 200 km) and subregional (50 {times} 50 km) model were used in the analyses. Simulations were conducted to determine the impact of various disruptive that might take place over the life span of a proposed Yucca Mountain geologic conditions repository on the groundwater flow field, as well as changes in the water-table elevations. These conditions included increases in precipitation and groundwater recharge within the regional model, changes in permeability of existing hydrogeologic barriers, a:nd the vertical intrusion of volcanic dikes at various orientations through the saturated zone. Based on the regional analysis, the rise in the water-table under Yucca Mountain due to various postulated conditions ranged from only a few meters to 275 meters. Results of the subregional model analysis, which was used to simulate intrusive dikes approximately 4 kilometers in length in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, showed water-table rises ranging from a few meters to as much as 103 meters. Dikes oriented approximately north-south beneath Yucca Mountain produced the highest water-table rises. The conclusions drawn from this analysis are likely to change as more site-specific data become available and as the assumptions in the model are improved.

  13. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John B. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Marra, James C. (Aiken, SC)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  14. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  15. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  16. Interfacial tension between aluminum and chloride-fluoride melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silny, A. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry] [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Utigard, T.A. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrap and recycled aluminum have to be remelted and refined before being made into useful new products. This often involves melting the aluminum under a molten salt cover in order to prevent oxidation and to enhance the coalescence and recovery of the molten metal. A technique was developed for the measurement of the interfacial tension between liquid metals and molten salts at elevated temperatures. The technique is based on the measurement of the capillary depression occurring when a capillary, which is moved vertically down through the molten salt layer, passes through the salt/metal interface. The depression is measured by simultaneous video recording of the immersion height of the alumina capillary and the position of a liquid meniscus in a horizontal tube connected to the alumina capillary. The interfacial tension was measured for (a) aluminum and an equimolar melt of NaCl + KCl with several salt additions at 1,000 K, (b) aluminum and NaCl + NaF at 1,123 K, and (c) aluminum and NaCl + KF at 1,123 K. It was found that the interfacial tension decreases with increasing amount of NaF, increases with the increasing amount of MgCl{sub 2} additions, remains unchanged with AlF{sub 3} additions, and slightly decreases with the addition of MgF{sub 2} and Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6}.

  17. Microwires fabricated by glass-coated melt spinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y. Y.; Li, H.; Hao, H. Y.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Liaw, P. K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The glass-coated melt spinning method offers a route for the manufacture of metal filaments with a few micrometers in diameter in a single operation directly from the melt. Cobalt-based amorphous wires, Cu-15.0 atomic percent (at. %) Sn shape-memory wires, and Ni{sub 2}MnGa (atomic percent) ferromagnetic wires were successfully produced by this method. The cobalt-based amorphous wire is flexible, and Cu-15.0 at. % Sn shape-memory wires have the tensile elongation of 14%. However, because of chemical reaction with glass and oxidation, it is hard to make Cu–Al–Ni shape-memory wires and Ni–Nb–Sn amorphous wires. Conditions for preparing these materials were summarized, and the differences of the solidification processes among glass-coated amorphous cobalt-based wires, Cu-15.0 at. % Sn shape-memory wires, and Ni{sub 2}MnGa wires were analyzed and discussed.

  18. Volatilization of Fission Products from Metallic Melts in the Melt-Dilute Treatment Technology Development for Al-Based DOE Spent Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.

    1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The melt-dilute treatment technology is being developed to facilitate the ultimate disposition of highly enriched Al-Base DOE spent nuclear fuels in a geologic repository such as that proposed for Yucca Mountain. Currently, approximately 28 MTHM is expected to be returned to the Savannah River Site from domestic and foreign research reactors. The melt-dilute treatment technology will melt the fuel assemblies to reduce their volume and alloys them with depleted uranium to isotopically dilute the 235U concentration. The resulting alloy is cast into a form for long term geologic repository storage. Benefits accrued from the melt-dilute process include the potential for significant volume reduction; reduced criticality potential, and proliferation concerns. A critical technology element in the development of the melt-dilute process is the development of offgas system requirements. The volatilization of radioactive species during the melting stage of the process primarily constitutes the offgas in this process. Several of the species present following irradiation of a fuel assembly have been shown to be volatile or semi-volatile under reactor core melt-down conditions. Some of the key species that have previously been studied are krypton, iodine, and cesium. All of these species have been shown to volatilize during melting experiments however, the degree to which they are released is highly dependent upon atmosphere, fuel burnup, temperature, and fuel composition. With this in mind an analytical and experimental program has been undertaken to assess the volatility and capture of species under the melt-dilute operating conditions.

  19. Mobile Melt-Dilute Technology Development Project FY 2005 Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Sell; Donald Fisher

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adaptation of Melt-Dilute technology to a mobile and deployable platform progressed with the installation of the prototype air-cooled induction furnace and power generator in an ISO cargo container. Process equipment tests were conducted in FY’05 on two fronts: the melt container and its associated hardware and the mobile furnace and generator. Container design was validated through tests at elevated temperature and pressure, under vacuum, and subjected to impact. The Mobile Melt-Dilute (MMD) furnace and power source tests were completed per the plan. The tests provided information necessary to successfully melt and dilute HEU research reactor fuel assemblies.

  20. Ex-Vessel Core Melt Modeling Comparison between MELTSPREAD-CORQUENCH and MELCOR 2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robb, Kevin R [ORNL; Farmer, Mitchell [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Francis, Matthew W [ORNL

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System-level code analyses by both United States and international researchers predict major core melting, bottom head failure, and corium-concrete interaction for Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 (1F1). Although system codes such as MELCOR and MAAP are capable of capturing a wide range of accident phenomena, they currently do not contain detailed models for evaluating some ex-vessel core melt behavior. However, specialized codes containing more detailed modeling are available for melt spreading such as MELTSPREAD as well as long-term molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) and debris coolability such as CORQUENCH. In a preceding study, Enhanced Ex-Vessel Analysis for Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1: Melt Spreading and Core-Concrete Interaction Analyses with MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH, the MELTSPREAD-CORQUENCH codes predicted the 1F1 core melt readily cooled in contrast to predictions by MELCOR. The user community has taken notice and is in the process of updating their systems codes; specifically MAAP and MELCOR, to improve and reduce conservatism in their ex-vessel core melt models. This report investigates why the MELCOR v2.1 code, compared to the MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH 3.03 codes, yield differing predictions of ex-vessel melt progression. To accomplish this, the differences in the treatment of the ex-vessel melt with respect to melt spreading and long-term coolability are examined. The differences in modeling approaches are summarized, and a comparison of example code predictions is provided.

  1. FRESNEL-ZONE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF A DUAL-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collings, Iain B.

    FRESNEL-ZONE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF A DUAL- POLARIZED METEOROLOGICAL RADAR ANTENNA D.B. HaymanBi gain Horizontal and vertical polarizations #12;Range Length 4 m9 2 3 4 = D Fresnel Zone Criterion Data Corrected Fresnel Zone Data Aperture Data Far Field Data Raw Fresnel Zone Data Mask D+2 Fourier

  2. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  3. ON HYDRODYNAMIC MOTIONS IN DEAD ZONES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oishi, Jeffrey S. [Department of Astronomy, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark, E-mail: jsoishi@astro.berkeley.ed, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.or [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate fluid motions near the midplane of vertically stratified accretion disks with highly resistive midplanes. In such disks, the magnetorotational instability drives turbulence in thin layers surrounding a resistive, stable dead zone. The turbulent layers in turn drive motions in the dead zone. We examine the properties of these motions using three-dimensional, stratified, local, shearing-box, non-ideal, magnetohydrodynamical simulations. Although the turbulence in the active zones provides a source of vorticity to the midplane, no evidence for coherent vortices is found in our simulations. It appears that this is because of strong vertical oscillations in the dead zone. By analyzing time series of azimuthally averaged flow quantities, we identify an axisymmetric wave mode particular to models with dead zones. This mode is reduced in amplitude, but not suppressed entirely, by changing the equation of state from isothermal to ideal. These waves are too low frequency to affect sedimentation of dust to the midplane, but may have significance for the gravitational stability of the resulting midplane dust layers.

  4. Evolution of shear zones in granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balazs Szabo; Janos Torok; Ellak Somfai; Sandra Wegner; Ralf Stannarius; Axel Bose; Georg Rose; Frank Angenstein; Tamas Borzsonyi

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution of wide shear zones (or shear bands) was investigated experimentally and numerically for quasistatic dry granular flows in split bottom shear cells. We compare the behavior of materials consisting of beads, irregular grains (e.g. sand) and elongated particles. Shearing an initially random sample, the zone width was found to significantly decrease in the first stage of the process. The characteristic shear strain associated with this decrease is about unity and it is systematically increasing with shape anisotropy, i.e. when the grain shape changes from spherical to irregular (e.g. sand) and becomes elongated (pegs). The strongly decreasing tendency of the zone width is followed by a slight increase which is more pronounced for rod like particles than for grains with smaller shape anisotropy (beads or irregular particles). The evolution of the zone width is connected to shear induced density change and for nonspherical particles it also involves grain reorientation effects. The final zone width is significantly smaller for irregular grains than for spherical beads.

  5. The influence of small stresses on the dynamics of glaciers and subduction zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Jacob Ineman

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Mexican subduction zone, Geofisica Internacional 49Mexican subduction zone, Geofisica Internacional 49 Klein,

  6. Trace and rare earth elemental variation in Arabian sea sediments through a transect across the oxygen minimum zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nath, B.N.; Rao, B.R.; Rao, C.M. [National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (India); Bau, M. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have determined the calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), organic carbon (C{sub org}), trace element, and rare earth element (REE) composition of surface sediments collected from a transect on the central western continental shelf and slope of India in the Eastern Arabian Sea. The transect samples across the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) allows us to compare the relative abundances of trace elements and REEs in the sediments beneath and beyond the OMZ. Shale-normalized REE patterns, La{sub n}/Yb{sub n} ratios, and Eu/Eu* anamolies indicate that the sediments in the study area are either derived from the adjoining Archaean land masses or from distal Indus source. Sediment deposited in the OMZ have high U values from 3.6 to 8.1 ppm, with their U{sub excess} (of that can be supplied by continental particles) values ranging between 82-91% of the total U, indicating that the U may be precipitated as U{sup +4} in the reducing conditions of OMZ. Sediments deposited beneath the intense OMZ (<0.2 mL/L) and away from the OMZ (1-2 mL/L) show slight negative Ce anomalies, with no significant differences between these two sets of sediments. The Ce/Ce*{sub shale} values are poorly related to U and C{sub org} which are indicators of suboxic bottom waters. Normative calculations suggest that two sources, namely, terrestrial and seawater (terrestrial > seawater) contribute to the total Ce anomaly of the sediments. The Ce anomaly values of the calculated seawater derived component are similar to the anomalies reported for other coastal waters and the oxygenated surface waters of the Arabian Sea and do not show any correspondence to the lowered redox state of the overlying water, probably due to the redirection of dissolved Ce into the oxic deeper water. 103 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Problem of Vain Energy Consumption in a VAV Air Conditioning System Shared By an Inner Zone and Exterior Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenji, G.; Ling, C.; Dongdong, L.; Mei, S.; Li, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In northern China, there are a large number of space buildings divided in inner zone and exterior zone based on usage requirements. The exterior zone needs to be heated in winter and cooled in summer, while the inner zone needs to be cooled both...

  8. Thermal vibration and melting from a local perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, E.A.; Livns, P.; Zhang, Z. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (US))

    1991-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) measurements of lead from 10 K through and above the melting transition at 600 K have been carried out. A cumulant expansion analysis provides data on the first four moments of the radial distribution of the first shell, which are used to construct a consistent temperature-dependent radial distribution function for the solid. The distribution is one given by a simple one-dimensional anharmonic oscillator. The results also demonstrate that XAFS, a local probe, can clearly distinguish between the liquid and solid state. In the liquid, the apparent coordination number is decreased by the fraction of the time the atom is diffusing. An improved method for determining the background at low {ital k} is discussed that gives a reliable determination of the background much closer to the threshold than allowed by standard methods.

  9. Comparisons of numerical modelling of the Selective Laser Melting Laurent VAN BELLE1, 2, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and arc additive layer manufacturing (WAALM), laser metal deposition (LMD), selective laser melting (SLM laser melting (SLM) first developed for rapid prototyping (RP) is now used for rapid manufacturing is based upon a double meshing with a multi step birth and death technique of manufactured part

  10. Investigation of residual stresses induced during the selective laser melting process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    jean-claude.boyer@insa-lyon.fr Keywords: Selective laser melting, layer additional method, Residual stresses. Abstract. The selective laser melting process (SLM), belonging to the family of additive manufacturing processes, can create complex geometry parts from a CAD file. Previously, only prototypes were

  11. Mechanisms of summertime upper Arctic Ocean warming and the effect on sea ice melt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinlun

    but occurs over a much broader area of the ice pack. Citation: Steele, M., J. Zhang, and W. Ermold (2010Mechanisms of summertime upper Arctic Ocean warming and the effect on sea ice melt Michael Steele,1 summertime upper ocean warming and sea ice melt during the 21st century in the Arctic Ocean. Our first

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Hydrous partial melting in the sheeted dike complex at fast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    and plagioclase have compositions that are characteristic of the same minerals in granoblastic dikes. Published the compositions of oceanic plagiogranites; however, the compositions of the coexisting experimental minerals within the melt lens resulting in hybridized and contaminated MORB melts. It represents the main MORB

  13. IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: 4ME20 Abstract--Artificial welding of melt-textured YBCO blocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    1 IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: 4ME20 Abstract--Artificial welding of melt-textured YBCO blocks opens the superconducting quality of the welds, we have developed a Hall probe mapping system, able to record the local to characterize welded samples prepared with a new Ag induced surface melting joining technique. The magnetization

  14. Proceedings of the conference on electron beam melting and refining - state of the art 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakish, R. [ed.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference proceedings summarizes state-of-the-art work in the field of electron-beam melting and refining, as presented at the 1996 conference. Papers are grouped as follows: invited papers; tutorial papers; electron beam melting related fundamentals; electron beam evaporation papers; and miscellaneous papers. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the energy database for some contributions to this proceedings.

  15. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  16. HOW IS THE GRANITE MELT FLOW NETWORK RECORDED IN MIGMATITES AND BY ASSOCIATED GRANITE PLUTONS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar, Gary S.

    1 HOW IS THE GRANITE MELT FLOW NETWORK RECORDED IN MIGMATITES AND BY ASSOCIATED GRANITE PLUTONS of granite magma during orogeny has important implications because melt transfer affects the thermal; Milord et al., 2001; Barraud et al., 2001a, 2001b). We also understand well how granite magma is emplaced

  17. Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, J.M; Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.J.; Tanaka, T.J; Ulrickson, M.A.; Boyle, T.J.; Troncosa, K.P. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} and LiF-BeF{sub 2} are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeF{sub 2} is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing liquid for the first wall and blanket were investigated. Flinabe (a mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2} and NaF) was selected for a molten salt design because a melting temperature below 350 deg. C appeared possible and this provided an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a stainless steel crucible under vacuum. One had an apparent melting temperature of 305 deg. C. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, melting procedures and temperature curves for the melting and cooling are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible is reported in an accompanying paper.

  18. Analysis of melting and resolidification in a two-component metal powder bed subjected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuwen

    produced. Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Selective laser sintering (SLS the surface of a powder bed is scanned with a laser heat source to melt the pow- der and as the beam movesAnalysis of melting and resolidification in a two-component metal powder bed subjected to temporal

  19. Crystal-melt interfacial free energies of hard-dumbbell systems Yan Mu and Xueyu Song

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Xueyu

    Crystal-melt interfacial free energies of hard-dumbbell systems Yan Mu and Xueyu Song Department September 2006; published 29 September 2006 The crystal-melt interfacial free energies of different crystal that for the plastic crystal phase, the interfacial free energies decrease as the reduced bond length L* increases

  20. Molecular H2O as carrier for oxygen diffusion in hydrous silicate melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Youxue

    Molecular H2O as carrier for oxygen diffusion in hydrous silicate melts H. Behrens a,, Y. Zhang b water is known to dramatically enhance oxygen diffusion in silicate melts, glasses and minerals in the diffusion of water and oxygen in silicates, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 103 (1991) 228­240.]. Here we report

  1. Quantification of glacier melt volume in the Indus River watershed Maria Nicole Asay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seamons, Kent E.

    Quantification of glacier melt volume in the Indus River watershed Maria Nicole Asay A thesis;ABSTRACT Quantification of glacier melt volume in the Indus River watershed Maria N. Asay Department of Geological Sciences, BYU Master of Science Quantifying the contribution of glaciers to water resources

  2. The anisotropic free energy of the Lennard-Jones crystal-melt interface James R. Morris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Xueyu

    The anisotropic free energy of the Lennard-Jones crystal-melt interface James R. Morris Metal; accepted 22 May 2003 We have calculated the free energy of the crystal-melt interface for the Lennard are in good agreement with previous calculations of the free energies, based upon simulations used

  3. ccsd-00001059(version1):26Jan2004 Continuous melting of compact polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ccsd-00001059(version1):26Jan2004 Continuous melting of compact polymers Jesper Lykke Jacobsen and bending rigidity in compact polymers can be ad- dressed within a lattice model introduced by P.J. Flory for polymers on surfaces, such as DNA adsorbed on a lipid bilayer. We predict a continuous melting transition

  4. Generation of CO2-rich melts during basalt magma ascent and degassing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    to solubilities. In contrast, the rate of vesiculation controls the final melt CO2 concentration. HighGeneration of CO2-rich melts during basalt magma ascent and degassing Michel Pichavant . Ida Di magma degassing, continuous decompressions of volatile-bearing (2.7-3.8 wt% H2O, 600-1300 ppm CO2

  5. NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Surface Melting over Ice Shelves and Ice Sheets as Assessed from Modeled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meissner, Katrin Juliane

    NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Surface Melting over Ice Shelves and Ice Sheets as Assessed from Modeled of ice shelves and their progenitor ice sheets. To explore the magnitude of surface melt occurring over modern ice shelves and ice sheets in a climate scenario forced by anthropogenic emissions of carbon

  6. Continuum Model for the Phase Behavior, Microstructure, and Rheology of Unentangled Polymer Nanocomposite Melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgiou, Georgios

    integrated them into our lives.3 Polymer matrix nanocomposites (PNCs), in particular, are hybrid organic Nanocomposite Melts Pavlos S. Stephanou,*, Vlasis G. Mavrantzas,,§ and Georgios C. Georgiou Department) bracket. The model describes the polymer nanocomposite melt at a mesoscopic level by using three fields

  7. Thirty-year history of glacier melting in the Nepal Himalayas Koji Fujita,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Thirty-year history of glacier melting in the Nepal Himalayas Koji Fujita,1 Lonnie G. Thompson,2 of glacier melting in the Nepal Himalayas, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D03109, doi:10.1029/2005JD005894. 1. Introduction [2] Rapid shrinkage of glaciers in the Nepal Himalayas has been observed during recent decades [e

  8. Fluidized bed boiler convective zone tube replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A major problem with the Georgetown University Atomspheric-Pressure, Fluidized-Bed Combustor-Boiler (GU AFBC) experienced during the first six years of operation was tube erosion. Previous corrective measures for in-bed tube erosion appeared to be effective, but excessive wear of the convective zone tubes was still occurring, and the entire heat transfer tube bundle in the boiler required replacement. In the planned project,the eroded tubes would be replaced, and the convective zone modified to eliminate the problem. Progress is discussed.

  9. Phase field simulation of kinetic superheating and melting of aluminum nanolayer irradiated by pico- and femtosecond laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seok Hwang, Yong [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Levitas, Valery I. [Departments of Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Material Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Departments of Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Material Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Two melting mechanisms are reproduced and quantified for superheating and melting of Al nanolayer irradiated by pico- and femtosecond laser using the advanced phase-field approach coupled with mechanics and a two-temperature model. At heating rates Q?79.04 K/ps induced by picosecond laser, two-sided barrierless surface melting forms two solid-melt interfaces, which meet near the center of a sample. The temperature for surface melting is a linear function, and for complete melting it is a cubic function, of logQ. At Q?300 K/ps induced by femtosecond laser, barrierless and homogeneous melting (without nucleation) at the sample center occurs faster than due to interface propagation. Good agreement with experimental melting time was achieved in a range of 0.95?Q?1290 K/ps without fitting of material parameters.

  10. GaGa11--xxMnMnxxAsAs11--yyTeTeyy Synthesized bySynthesized by Ion Implantation & Pulsed Laser MeltingIon Implantation & Pulsed Laser Melting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priour, Don - Department of Physics, University of Missouri

    ] · stabilizing EF by compensation might allow higher MnGa add Te · experiment possible using II-PLM no chamber Implantation & Pulsed Laser Melting (IIPulsed Laser Melting (II--PLM)PLM) Excimer Laser Pulse GaAs Liquid Melt, NATURE MATERIALS 1 185 (2002) [4] Scarpulla, PHYSICA B 340 908 (2003) #12;IIII--PLM GaPLM Ga11--xx

  11. Dynamics and pattern selection at the crystal-melt interface. Progress report No. 4, March 1, 1989--February 28, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummins, H.Z.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses: light scattering at the crystal-melt interface; morphological instability and pattern selection; and sidebranching.

  12. Modelling of Melt Damage of Tungsten Armour under Multiple Transients Expected in ITER and Validations Against JET-ILW Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelling of Melt Damage of Tungsten Armour under Multiple Transients Expected in ITER and Validations Against JET-ILW Experiments

  13. Eddy-resolving simulations of the Fimbul Ice Shelf cavity circulation: Basal melting and exchange with open ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilly, Jonathan

    that govern the heat supply to ice shelves in the Eastern Weddell Sea. The simulations confirm the low melt

  14. Anisotropic Interfacial Free Energies of the Hard-Sphere Crystal-Melt Interfaces Yan Mu, Andrew Houk, and Xueyu Song*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Xueyu

    Anisotropic Interfacial Free Energies of the Hard-Sphere Crystal-Melt Interfaces Yan Mu, Andrew-melt interfacial free energy calculations using capillary wave approach. Using this method, we have calculated the free energies of the fcc crystal-melt interfaces for the hard-sphere system as a function of crystal

  15. An experimental and numerical study of surface tension-driven melt flow R.A. Parsons a,, F. Nimmo a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimmo, Francis

    An experimental and numerical study of surface tension-driven melt flow R.A. Parsons a,, F. Nimmo 2007 Abstract To determine the role of surface tension-driven melt migration in planetary bodies, we, surface tension causes the melt to relax back to a homogeneous distribution. Samples composed of 76 vol

  16. Numerical and experimental investigation of melting with internal heat generation within cylindrical enclosures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amber Shrivastava; Brian Williams; Ali S. Siahpush; Bruce Savage; John Crepeau

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been significant efforts by the heat transfer community to investigate the melting phenomenon of materials. These efforts have included the analytical development of equations to represent melting, numerical development of computer codes to assist in modeling the phenomena, and collection of experimental data. The understanding of the melting phenomenon has application in several areas of interest, for example, the melting of a Phase Change Material (PCM) used as a thermal storage medium as well as the melting of the fuel bundle in a nuclear power plant during an accident scenario. The objective of this research is two-fold. First a numerical investigation, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), of melting with internal heat generation for a vertical cylindrical geometry is presented. Second, to the best of authors knowledge, there are very limited number of engineering experimental results available for the case of melting with Internal Heat Generation (IHG). An experiment was performed to produce such data using resistive, or Joule, heating as the IHG mechanism. The numerical results are compared against the experimental results and showed favorable correlation. Uncertainties in the numerical and experimental analysis are discussed. Based on the numerical and experimental analysis, recommendations are made for future work.

  17. Redox reaction and foaming in nuclear waste glass melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, J.L.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and is an attempt to analyze and estimate the effects of feed composition variables and reducing agent variables on the expected chemistry of reactions occurring in the cold cap and in the glass melt in the nuclear waste glass Slurry-fed, joule-heated melters as they might affect foaming during the glass-making process. Numerous redox reactions of waste glass components and potential feed additives, and the effects of other feed variables on these reactions are reviewed with regard to their potential effect on glass foaming. A major emphasis of this report is to examine the potential positive or negative aspects of adjusting feed with formic acid as opposed to other feed modification techniques including but not limited to use of other reducing agents. Feed modification techniques other than the use of reductants that should influence foaming behavior include control of glass melter feed pH through use of nitric acid. They also include partial replacement of sodium salts by lithium salts. This latter action (b) apparently lowers glass viscosity and raises surface tension. This replacement should decrease foaming by decreasing foam stability.

  18. Free energy barrier for single-chain melting and crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenbing Hu; Daan Frenkel; Vincent B. F. Mathot

    2002-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we report dynamic Monte Carlo simulations of melting and crystallization in a single-chain system. Their free energy barriers are calculated by the umbrella sampling method and can be described well by a simple expression DeltaF = n Deltaf+sigma (N-n)^(2/3), where n is the amount of molten bonds, Deltaf is the free energy change of each molten bond from a crystalline state, N is the chain length, and sigma is the surface free energy of crystallite. We found that, together with the expression Delta F = n Delta f+ sigma (N-n)^(1/2) for molecular nucleation, the molecular-weight dependent properties of the free-energy barriers for polymer primary and secondary nucleation, in particular, the molecular segregation during crystal growth, can be reproduced. Then for the mechanism of polymer crystallization, we suggested a quantitative model of intramolecular nucleation, as a direct development from the previous qualitative description of molecular nucleation model.

  19. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  20. High-Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.; Brockmann, J.; Pilch, M.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Zion Probabilistic Safety Study (ZPSS) envisions accident sequences that could lead to failure of the reactor vessel while the primary system is pressurized. The resulting ejection of molten core material into the reactor cavity followed by the blowdown of steam and hydrogen is shown to cause the debris to enter into the containment region. The High Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program has been developed to provide an experimental and analytical investigation of the scenario described above. One-tenth linear scale models of the Zion cavity region will be used to investigate the debris dispersal phenomena. Smaller-scale experiments (SPIT-tests) are also used to study high-velocity jets, jet-water interactions, and 1/20th scale cavity geometries. Both matrices are developed using a factorial design approach. The document describes certain aspects of the ZPSS ex-vessel phenomena, the experimental matrices, test equipment, and instrumentation, and the program's analytical efforts. Preliminary data from SPIT testing are included.

  1. Preparation of nanodispersed titania using stabilized ammonium nitrate melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raciulete, Monica; Kachina, Anna; Puzenat, Eric [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon UMR5256, CNRS-Universite de Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Afanasiev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.afanasiev@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.f [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon UMR5256, CNRS-Universite de Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An expedite one-step approach using simple precursors has been proposed to obtain metallic oxide compounds and exemplified by preparation of highly dispersed TiO{sub 2}. The technique consists in heating to 400-500 {sup o}C of molten ammonium nitrate stabilized with an organic nitrogen-containing compound (urea, melamine, ammonium oxalate) and containing dissolved metal salt precursor (TiOCl{sub 2}). The crystallites of the resulting TiO{sub 2} demonstrated variable size and shape as a function of stabilizer used. Their activity in photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid also depends on the nature of the stabilizer. The catalysts as-prepared showed high photocatalytic performance, superior to that of the Degussa P25 reference. Nitrogen containing stabilizers play a double role of increasing the process safety and modifying the properties of the solid products. - Graphical abstract: Ammonium nitrate melts stabilized by nitrogen-containing organic molecules can be applied for expedite one-step preparation of highly dispersed oxides, as exemplified by synthesis of titania photocatalysts.

  2. anatolian fault zone: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    across the Mudurnu segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in northwestern Turkey Ben-Zion, Yehuda 2 Velocity contrast across the 1944 rupture zone of the North...

  3. oZONE Faculty and Staff Enrolling Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Enrolling Students Log in to ozone.ou.edu. Click the Advising tab. Please lecture schedule CRN ­ Course Reference Number In oZONE the Registration Add Errors will display one

  4. Agricultural Zoning as a Farmland Protection Tool in Georgia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosemond, Amy Daum

    Agricultural Zoning as a Farmland Protection Tool in Georgia Prepared by: Emily Franzen, Staff Attorney UGA River Basin Center 706-583-0282 emilyf@uga.edu Table of Contents Introduction to Agricultural Exclusive Agricultural Zoning

  5. Incentive zoning and environmental quality in Boston's Fenway neighborhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFlorio, Joshua (Joshua C.)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A density bonus, also called incentive zoning, is a conditional liberalization of zoning regulations, allowing a real estate development to exceed as-of-right density limits in exchange for the in-kind provision or purchase ...

  6. Free-energy barrier to melting of single-chain polymer crystallite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenbing Hu; Daan Frenkel; Vincent B. F. Mathot

    2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We report Monte Carlo simulations of the melting of a single-polymer crystallite. We find that, unlike most atomic and molecular crystals, such crystallites can be heated appreciably above their melting temperature before they transform to the disordered "coil" state. The surface of the superheated crystallite is found to be disordered. The thickness of the disordered layer increases with superheating. However, the order-disorder transition is not gradual but sudden. Free-energy calculations reveal the presence of a large free-energy barrier to melting.

  7. oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades Exporting/Importing Grades in oZONE The new - Log in to ozone.ou.edu using your OU Net ID (4+4) as you would in any other OU system. Click Importing Grades from a Exported oZONE template If you exported a course template from the oZONE grading

  8. Geothermometry At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  9. Geographic Information System At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Central Nevada...

  10. Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of 12 nm Resolution Fresnel Zone Plate Lens based Soft X-raynanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. Theoptical performance of Fresnel zone plate lens based imaging

  11. Radioactive waste disposal in thick unsaturated zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winograd, I.J.

    1981-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Portions of the Great Basin are undergoing crustal extension and have unsaturated zones as much as 600 meters thick. These areas contain multiple natural barriers capable of isolating solidified toxic wastes from the biosphere for tens of thousands to perhaps hundreds of thousands of years. An example of the potential utilization of such arid zone environments for toxic waste isolation is the burial of transuranic radioactive wastes at relatively shallow depths (15 to 100 meters) in Sedan Crater, Yucca Flat, Nevada. The volume of this man-made crater is several times that of the projected volume of such wastes to the year 2000. Disposal in Sedan Crater could be accomplished at a savings on the order of $0.5 billion, in comparison with current schemes for burial of such wastes in mined repositories at depths of 600 to 900 meters, and with an apparently equal likelihood of waste isolation from the biosphere. 4 figures.

  12. Permutation zones and the fermion sign problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean Lee

    2002-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new approach to the problem of alternating signs for fermionic many body Monte Carlo simulations. We demonstrate that the exchange of identical fermions is typically short-ranged even when the underlying physics is dominated by long distance correlations. We show that the exchange process has a maximum characteristic range of sqrt[2*(1-f)*beta*h] lattice sites, where beta is the inverse temperature, h is the hopping parameter, and f is the filling fraction. We introduce the notion of permutation zones, special regions of the lattice where identical fermions may interchange and outside of which they may not. Using successively larger permutation zones, one can extrapolate to obtain thermodynamic observables in regimes where direct simulation is impossible.

  13. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste migration (e.g. BC Cribs and Trenches). The improved models have been also coupled with inverse models and newly-developed parameter scaling techniques to allow estimation of field-scale and effective transport parameters for the vadose zone. The development and utility of pedotransfer functions for describing fine-scale hydrogeochemical heterogeneity and for incorporating this heterogeneity into reactive transport models was explored. An approach based on grain-size statistics appears feasible and has been used to describe heterogeneity in hydraulic properties and sorption properties, such as the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface area of Hanford sediments. This work has also led to the development of inverse modeling capabilities for time-dependent, subsurface, reactive transport with transient flow fields using an automated optimization algorithm. In addition, a number of geophysical techniques investigated for their potential to provide detailed information on the subtle changes in lithology and bedding surfaces; plume delineation, leak detection. High-resolution resistivity is now being used for detecting saline plumes at several waste sites at Hanford, including tank farms. Results from the field studies and associated analysis have appeared in more than 46 publications generated over the past 4 years. These publications include test plans and status reports, in addition to numerous technical notes and peer reviewed papers.

  14. Surf zone eddies coupled with rip current morphology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    Surf zone eddies coupled with rip current morphology Jamie H. MacMahan Oceanography Department. Thornton, and T. P. Stanton (2004), Surf zone eddies coupled with rip current morphology, J. Geophys. Res) surf zone eddies (SZEs) were observed on a beach composed of shore-connected shoals with quasi

  15. oZONE Faculty and Staff Course Overrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Course Overrides and the Registration Add Errors They Resolve Departments of the overrides within the registration component of oZONE. We have, however, retained a few instances where some. There is also a link to this document on the Student Training and Instructions page in the oZONE info site

  16. Form-based zoning : what place is this code?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, Shilpa, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Form-based zoning is a relatively recent innovation in zoning reform. Many cities in the U.S. have adopted form-based codes in lieu of or as a supplement to conventional zoning and many more are in the process of studying ...

  17. Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate Thordis Vierke and Jürgen Jahns A conventional Fresnel zone plate (FZP) consists of concentric rings with an alternating binary transmission of zero and one. In an azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate (aFZP), the light transmission

  18. Comprehensive focusing analysis of various Fresnel zone plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Comprehensive focusing analysis of various Fresnel zone plates Qing Cao and Ju¨rgen Jahns Optische and the linear superposition principle, of the focusing performances of various Fresnel zone plates. Many similarity between Fresnel zone plates and multilevel diffractive lenses, most of the obtained results

  19. Modified Fresnel zone plates that produce sharp Gaussian focal spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Modified Fresnel zone plates that produce sharp Gaussian focal spots Qing Cao and Ju¨rgen Jahns Fresnel zone plate that can produce an approximate Gaussian focal spot is proposed for the focusing of 7.7 nm can be produced by a modified Fresnel zone plate with a minimum structure size of 30 nm

  20. a bStomach Lung cell zone Clara cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasnow, Mark A.

    a bStomach Lung Chief-cell zone Stem-cell zone Mucus- cell zone Clara cell Tracheal airway Basal independent studies show that, if push comes to shove, differentiated cells of the stomach and lung can act and the other by Stange et al.2 published in Cell, find that followingdepletionofstemcellsinthestomach or lung

  1. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  2. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Silva, Arthur (Ames, IA)

    1996-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conducts is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer.

  3. Movement of VOCs through the vadose zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Pinakin K.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chapter provides a summary and suggestions regarding applications and future modifications of this work. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter reviews the literature related to gaseous transport processes in the vadose zone. The first section... with both, analytical solutions and experimental results. While other numerical approaches are available, the method of characteristics appears to be one of the best and most general numerical methods for solving the transport equation. B. Diffusion...

  4. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  5. Depleted uranium dioxide melting in cold crucible melter and production of granules from the melt for use in casks for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly; Seredenko, V.A.; Shatalov, V.V.; Mironov, B.S.; Kaplenkov, V.N.; Seredenko, A.V.; Saranchin, V.K.; Shulgin, A.S.; Kalmakov, Danila [All-Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology (ARRICT), Kashirskoe Shosse 33, Moscow 115230 (Russian Federation); Haire, M.J.; Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory - ORNL, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper describes the results of joint research program of Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop new materials for build spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage, transport, and disposal casks using shielding made with depleted uranium dioxide (DUO{sub 2}) in a DUO{sub 2}-steel cermet or a DUCRETE with DUAGG (DUO{sub 2} aggregate) with selective additives in cement matrix. The preparation of DUO{sub 2} particles and aggregates for shielding could be produced from technologies that are extrapolated from the costly multi-step nuclear fuel pellet technologies. Melting the DUO{sub 2} and allowing it to freeze will produce a product near 100% theoretical density and assure that the product produces no volatile materials upon subsequent heating. Melting is a one step process that provides an opportunity to include additives in the DUO{sub 2} to modify its chemical or nuclear properties. The proposed work is directed to develop cold-wall induction heated melters (ICCM) for this specific application. Experiments on melting DUO{sub 2} were carried out in high frequency ICCM with cold crucible. It was experimentally proved an opportunity to produce molten DUO{sub 2} from mixed oxides (DU{sub 3}O{sub 8}) by reducing melting in ICCM. This will allow using DU{sub 3}O{sub 8} generated in direct conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride as source material for melted and granulated DUO{sub 2} production. Experiments on the addition of alloying components - gadolinium oxide and others into DUO{sub 2} melt while in crucible to improve neutron and gamma radiation-shielding and operation properties of the final solids were carried out. (authors)

  6. Chemistry modification of high oxygen-carbon powder by plasma melting: Follow up to complete the story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, P.S.; Korzekwa, D.R.; Garcia, F.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Michaluk, C.A. [Cabot Performance Materials (United States)

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State of the art melting of tantalum and tantalum alloys has relied on electron beam (EB) or vacuum arc remelting (VAR) for commercial ingot production. Plasma arc melting (PAM) provides an alternative for melting tantalum that contains very high levels of interstitials where other melting techniques can not be applied. Previous work in this area centered on plasma arc melt quality and final interstitial content of tantalum feedstock containing excessive levels of interstitial impurities as a function of melt rate and plasma gas. This report is an expansion of this prior study and provides the findings from the analysis of second phase components observed in the microstructure of the PAM tantalum. In addition, results from subsequent EB melting trials of PAM tantalum are included.

  7. Mathematical modeling of cold cap: Effect of bubbling on melting rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of melting is a primary concern in the vitrification of radioactive wastes because it directly influences the life cycle of nuclear waste cleanup efforts. To increase glass melting performance, experimental and industrial all-electric waste glass melters employ various melt-rate enhancement techniques, the most prominent being the application of bubblers submerged into molten glass. This study investigates various ways in which bubbling affects melting rate in a waste glass melter. Using the recently developed cold cap model, we suggest that forced convection of molten glass, which increases the cold cap bottom temperature, is the main factor. Other effects, such as stirring the feed into molten glass or reducing the insulating effect of foaming, also play a role.

  8. Controlling electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting at low melting current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, R.L.; Zanner, F.J.; Grose, S.M.

    1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for controlling electrode gap in a vacuum arc remelting furnace, particularly at low melting currents. Spectrographic analysis is performed of the metal vapor plasma, from which estimates of electrode gap are derived. 5 figs.

  9. Controlling electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting at low melting current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Rodney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM); Grose, Stephen M. (Glenwood, WV)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for controlling electrode gap in a vacuum arc remelting furnace, particularly at low melting currents. Spectrographic analysis is performed of the metal vapor plasma, from which estimates of electrode gap are derived.

  10. Seismic and gravitational studies of melting in the mantle's thermal boundary layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Ark, Emily M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents three studies which apply geophysical tools to the task of better understanding mantle melting phenomena at the upper and lower boundaries of the mantle. The first study uses seafloor bathymetry and ...

  11. On the formation of continental silicic melts in thermo-chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Thienen, Peter

    Chapter 7 On the formation of continental silicic melts in thermo-chemical mantle convection models-consistently produced by numerical thermo- chemical mantle convection models, presented in this paper, including partial

  12. Partitioning behavior of trace elements between dacitic melt and plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodnar, Robert J.

    , and clinopyroxene based on laser ablation ICPMS analysis of silicate melt inclusions Matthew J. Severs a,d , James S and clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and plagioclase has been determined based on laser ablation-inductively cou- pled

  13. The Use of Induction Melting for the Treatment of Metal Radioactive Waste - 13088

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zherebtsov, Alexander; Pastushkov, Vladimir; Poluektov, Pavel; Smelova, Tatiana; Shadrin, Andrey [JSC 'VNIINM', Rogova st., 5, 123098, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [JSC 'VNIINM', Rogova st., 5, 123098, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the work is to assess the efficacy of induction melting metal for recycling radioactive waste in order to reduce the volume of solid radioactive waste to be disposed of, and utilization of the metal. (authors)

  14. Atomic-Level Study of Melting Behavior of GaN Nanotubes. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Behavior of GaN Nanotubes. Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations with a Stillinger-Weber potential have been used to investigate the melting behavior of wurtzite-type single...

  15. Examination of offsite radiological emergency protective measures for nuclear reactor accidents involving core melt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldrich, David C.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evacuation, sheltering followed by population relocation, and iodine prophylaxis are evaluated as offsite public protective measures in response to nuclear reactor accidents involving core-melt. Evaluations were conducted ...

  16. Geochemical Behaviour of S, Cl and Fe in Silicate Melts/Glasses...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geochemical Behaviour of S, Cl and Fe in Silicate MeltsGlasses Simulating Natural Magmas Monday, March 26, 2012 - 11:00am SSRL Conference Room 137-322 G. Giuli, R. Alonso-Mori, E....

  17. High resolution melt analysis (HRMA) for detection of CRISPR indels Andrew Bassett 19th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High resolution melt analysis (HRMA) for detection of CRISPR indels Andrew Bassett 19th June 2013 approximately 1 ul per 10 ul PCR reaction HRMA analysis 1. Design primers to amplify 100-200 bp product across

  18. Molecular simulation study of homogeneous crystal nucleation in n-alkane melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Peng, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work used molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) method to study the homogeneous crystal nucleation in the melts of n-alkanes, the simplest class of chain molecules. Three n-alkanes with progressive chain length ...

  19. Retrograde melting in transition metal-silicon systems : thermodynamic modeling, experimental verification, and potential application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenning, David P

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical framework is presented in this work for retrograde melting in silicon driven by the retrograde solubility of low-concentration metallic solutes at temperatures above the binary eutectic. High enthalpy of ...

  20. Apollo 16 site geology and impact melts - Implications for the geologic history of the lunar highlands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spudis, P.D.

    1984-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The geology of the Apollo 16 site is reconsidered on the basis of data from photogeology, geochemical remote sensing, and lunar samples. The site possesses an upper surface of anorthositic gabbro and related rocks. Mafic components were deposited as basin ejecta. The events involved in its geological evolution were the Nectaris impact and the Imbrium impact. The role of large, local craters in the history of the region was to serve as topographic depressions to accumulate basin ejecta. The most abundant melt composition at Apollo 16 is an aluminous variety of LKFM basalt supplied by the Nectaris impact as ejected basin impact melt. The mafic LKFM melt may have been supplied by the Imbrium impact. More aluminous melt groups are probably derived from local, small craters. The remainder of the deposits in the region are composed of anorthositic clastic debris derived from the Nectaris basin, the local crustal substrate, and Imbrium and other basins.

  1. The melting pot of automated discovery: principles for a new science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ras, Zbigniew W.

    The melting pot of automated discovery: principles for a new science Jan M. _Zytkow Computer, 1993, Si- mon, Valdes-Perez & Sleeman 1997, and in Proceedings of 1995 AAAI Spring Symposium

  2. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.W. REIMUS

    2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and colloid transport parameters. (4) Comparisons of sorption parameter estimates for a reactive solute tracer (lithium ion) derived from the C-wells field tracer tests and laboratory tests using C-wells core samples. (5) Sorption parameter estimates for lithium ion derived from laboratory tests using alluvium samples from ATC well NC-EWDP-19D. These estimates will allow a comparison of laboratory- and field-derived sorption parameters to be made in saturated alluvium if cross-hole tracer tests are conducted at the ATC.

  3. Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Nygren, Richard Einar; Lutz, Thomas Joseph; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing ternary molten salt for the first wall surface and blanket were investigated. The molten salt (FLiNaBe, a ternary mixture of LiF, BeF2 and NaF) salt was selected because a melting temperature below 350 C that would provide an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor application appeared possible. This information came from a Russian binary phase diagram and a US ternary phase diagram in the 1960's that were not wholly consistent. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and, BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a small stainless steel crucible under vacuum. The proportions of the three salts were selected to yield conglomerate salts with as low a melting temperature as possible. The temperature of the salts and the crucible were recorded during the melting and subsequent re-solidification using a thermocouple directly in the salt pool and two thermocouples embedded in the crucible. One mixture had an apparent melting temperature of 305 C. Particular attention was paid to the cooling curve of the salt temperature to observe evidence of any mixed intermediate phases between the fully liquid and fully solid states. The clarity, texture, and thickness were observed and noted as well. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, and the melting procedure are described. The temperature curves for the melting and cooling of each of the mixtures are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible was also done and is reported in a separate paper.

  4. Energy-efficient modification of reduction-melting for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okada, Takashi, E-mail: t-okada@u-fukui.ac.jp; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • We recovered Pb from cathode ray tube funnel glass using reduction melting process. • We modified the melting process to achieve Pb recovery with low energy consumption. • Pb in the funnel glass is efficiently recovered at 1000 °C by adding Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • Pb remaining in the glass after reduction melting is extracted with 1 M HCl. • 98% of Pb in the funnel glass was recovered by reduction melting and HCl leaching. - Abstract: Lead can be recovered from funnel glass of waste cathode ray tubes via reduction melting. While low-temperature melting is necessary for reduced energy consumption, previously proposed methods required high melting temperatures (1400 °C) for the reduction melting. In this study, the reduction melting of the funnel glass was performed at 900–1000 °C using a lab-scale reactor with varying concentrations of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at different melting temperatures and melting times. The optimum Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} dosage and melting temperature for efficient lead recovery was 0.5 g per 1 g of the funnel glass and 1000 °C respectively. By the reduction melting with the mentioned conditions, 92% of the lead in the funnel glass was recovered in 60 min. However, further lead recovery was difficult because the rate of the lead recovery decreased as with the recovery of increasing quantity of the lead from the glass. Thus, the lead remaining in the glass after the reduction melting was extracted with 1 M HCl, and the lead recovery improved to 98%.

  5. What lies beneath | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and users are interested in understanding all of these large processes and more, by examining them at the size that matters most: the pore scale. Through creation of...

  6. Melt spreading code assessment, modifications, and application to the EPR core catcher design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M. T .; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) is under consideration by various utilities in the United States to provide base load electrical production, and as a result the design is undergoing a certification review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The severe accident design philosophy for this reactor is based upon the fact that the projected power rating results in a narrow margin for in-vessel melt retention by external cooling of the reactor vessel. As a result, the design addresses ex-vessel core melt stabilization using a mitigation strategy that includes: (1) an external core melt retention system to temporarily hold core melt released from the vessel; (2) a layer of 'sacrificial' material that is admixed with the melt while in the core melt retention system; (3) a melt plug in the lower part of the retention system that, when failed, provides a pathway for the mixture to spread to a large core spreading chamber; and finally, (4) cooling and stabilization of the spread melt by controlled top and bottom flooding. The overall concept is illustrated in Figure 1.1. The melt spreading process relies heavily on inertial flow of a low-viscosity admixed melt to a segmented spreading chamber, and assumes that the melt mass will be distributed to a uniform height in the chamber. The spreading phenomenon thus needs to be modeled properly in order to adequately assess the EPR design. The MELTSPREAD code, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, can model segmented, and both uniform and nonuniform spreading. The NRC is thus utilizing MELTSPREAD to evaluate melt spreading in the EPR design. MELTSPREAD was originally developed to support resolution of the Mark I containment shell vulnerability issue. Following closure of this issue, development of MELTSPREAD ceased in the early 1990's, at which time the melt spreading database upon which the code had been validated was rather limited. In particular, the database that was utilized for initial validation consisted of: (1) comparison to an analytical solution for the dam break problem, (2) water spreading tests in a 1/10 linear scale model of the Mark I containment by Theofanous et al., and (3) steel spreading tests by Suzuki et al. that were also conducted in a geometry similar to the Mark I. The objective of this work was to utilize the MELTSPREAD code to check the assumption of uniform melt spreading in the EPR core catcher design. As a starting point for the project, the code was validated against the worldwide melt spreading database that emerged after the code was originally written in the very early 1990's. As part of this exercise, the code was extensively modified and upgraded to incorporate findings from these various analytical and experiment programs. In terms of expanding the ability of the code to analyze various melt simulant experiments, the options to input user-specified melt and/or substrate material properties was added. The ability to perform invisicid and/or adiabatic spreading analysis was also added so that comparisons with analytical solutions and isothermal spreading tests could be carried out. In terms of refining the capability to carry out reactor material melt spreading analyses, the code was upgraded with a new melt viscosity model; the capability was added to treat situations in which solid fraction buildup between the liquidus-solidus is non-linear; and finally, the ability to treat an interfacial heat transfer resistance between the melt and substrate was incorporated. This last set of changes substantially improved the predictive capability of the code in terms of addressing reactor material melt spreading tests. Aside from improvements and upgrades, a method was developed to fit the model to the various melt spreading tests in a manner that allowed uncertainties in the model predictions to be statistically characterized. With these results, a sensitivity study was performed to investigate the assumption of uniform spreading in the EPR core catcher that addressed parametric variations in: (1) melt pour mass, (2) melt composition, (3) me

  7. The evaluation of cleanness by electron beam button melting and other methods - a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quested, P.N.; Hayes, D.M. [National Physical Lab., Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The accurate determination of both the number and size distribution of inclusions in superclean materials is difficult. Some of the methods used for nickel-base alloys and steels are briefly reviewed; all the methods have problems associated with them. Electron Beam Button Melting (EBBM) and the new technique of Cold Crucible Melting (CCM) as methods of concentrating the inclusions offer the advantage of sampling large volumes of material quickly. The number, size and composition of the entrapped particles can be determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy, (SEM). Both techniques may be used for semi-quantitative assessment such as ranking different heats of materials but care is required with quantitative evaluation. The mechanisms controlling inclusion collection efficiency for EBBM are reviewed including investigations with samples doped with particles of known size and number and assessing recovery rates on button rafts. In EBBM low power melting and solidification programmes are recommended to minimise the melting or sintering of the inclusions and melt compositions, particularly sulphur, have a major effect on the efficiency of inclusion collection. Under favourable conditions collection efficiencies of 90-95% can be achieved. As a result of these types of studies a draft code of practice for the evaluation of alloy cleanness by EBBM has been prepared. Cold crucible melting is an attractive alternative to EBBM for cleanness evaluation. Trials have established that collection efficiencies of 80-85% can be achieved with this method but SEM examination of the buttons is more time consuming compared with EBBM.

  8. Investigation of MSWI fly ash melting characteristic by DSC-DTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Rundong [Institute of Clean Energy and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Key Laboratory of Clean Energy, Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang 110136 (China)], E-mail: leerd@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tianhua; Raninger, Bernhard [Institute of Clean Energy and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Key Laboratory of Clean Energy, Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang 110136 (China)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The melting process of MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration) fly ash has been studied by high-temperature DSC-DTA experiments. The experiments were performed at a temperature range of 20-1450 deg. C, and the considerable variables included atmosphere (O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}), heating rates (5 deg. C/min, 10 deg. C/min, 20 deg. C/min) and CaO addition. Three main transitions were observed during the melting process of fly ash: dehydration, polymorphic transition and fusion, occurring in the temperature range of 100-200 deg. C, 480-670 deg. C and 1101-1244 deg. C, respectively. The apparent heat capacity and heat requirement for melting of MSWI fly ash were obtained by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter). A thermodynamic modeling to predict the heat requirements for melting process has been presented, and it agrees well with the experimental data. Finally, a zero-order kinetic model of fly ash melting transition was established. The apparent activation energy of MSWI fly ash melting transition was obtained.

  9. Hydrodynamic force characteristics in the splash zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daliri, M.R.; Haritos, N. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive experimental study concerned with the hydrodynamic force characteristics of both rigid and compliant surface piercing cylinders, with a major focus on the local nature of these characteristics as realized in the splash zone and in the fully submerged zone immediately below this region, has been in progress at the University of Melbourne for the last three years. This paper concentrates on a portion of this study associated with uni-directional regular wave inputs with wave steepness (H/{lambda}) in the range 0.0005--0.1580 and Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) numbers in the range 2--15 which encompasses inertia force dominant (KC<5) to drag force significant conditions (5zone are higher and exhibit a mild frequency dependence in comparison with their corresponding counterparts for the fully submerged segments. For weakly nonlinear waves (H/{lambda}<0.1) only wave fluctuation is found to be important and any mild nonlinearities do not significantly affect the test model force response and consequently the force coefficient values. However, for relatively nonlinear waves (0.1

  10. GridZone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI ReferenceJump to:Information 9297484°,GreylockGridWiseGridZone

  11. Wetlands and Riparian Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri GlobalJump to:Westwood Renewables Jump to: navigation,Riparian Zones

  12. Deep Vadose Zone | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732 DOE F 243.2Dashboards DashboardsDeep Vadose Zone Deep Vadose

  13. ZipZone Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin: EnergyWyandanch,Eaga Solar LtdZhonghuiteZim'sZipZone

  14. Pellet Zone Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:EnergyOssian,Parle Biscuits PvtPawPearland,Peekskill,Pellet Zone Ltd

  15. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY09 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE’s Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier. Each instrument nest is composed of a capacitance probe (CP) with multiple sensors, multiple heat-dissipation units (HDUs), and a neutron probe (NP) access tube. The monitoring results in FY09 are summarized below. The solar panels functioned normally and could provide sufficient power to the instruments. The CP in Nest C after September 20, 2009, was not functional. The CP sensors in Nest B after July 13 and the 0.9-m CP sensor in Nest D before June 10 gave noisy data. Other CPs were functional normally. All the HDUs were functional normally but some pressure-head values measured by HDUs were greater than the upper measurement-limit. The higher-than-upper-limit values might be due to the very wet soil condition and/or measurement error but do not imply the malfunction of the sensors. Similar to FY07 and FY08, in FY09, the soil under natural conditions (Nest A) was generally recharged during the winter period (October-March) and discharged during the summer period (April-September). Soil water conditions above about 1.5-m to 2-m depth from all three types of measurements (i.e., CP, NP and HDU) showed relatively large variation during the seasonal wetting-drying cycle. For the soil below 2-m depth, the seasonal variation of soil water content was relatively small. The construction of the surface barrier was completed in April 2008. In the soil below the surface barrier (Nests C and D), the CP measurements showed that water content at the soil between 0.6-m and 2.3-m depths was very stable, indicating no climatic impacts on soil water condition beneath the barrier. The NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage seemed occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) in FY09. The HDU-measured water pressure decreased consistently in the soil above 5-m depth, indicating soil water drainage at these depths of the soil. In the soil below the edge of the surface barrier (Nest B), the CP-measured water content was relatively stable through the year except at the 0.9-m depth; the NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage was occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) but at a slightly smaller magnitude than those in Nests C and D; the HDU-measurements show that the pressure head changes in FY09 in Nest B were less than those for C and D but more than those for A. The soil-water-pressure head was more sensitive to soil water regime changes under dry conditions. In the soil beneath the barrier, the theoretical steady-state values of pressure head is equal to the negative of the distance to groundwater table. Hence, it is expected that, in the future, while the water content become stable, the pressure head will keep decreasing for a long time (e.g., many years). These results indicate that the T Tank Farm surface barrier was performing as expected by intercepting the meteoric water from infiltrating into the soil and the soil was becoming drier gradually. The barrier also has some effects on the soil below the barrier edge but at a reduced magnitude.

  16. OECD MCCI project Melt Eruption Test (MET) design report, Rev. 2. April 15, 2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (NRC)

    2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program is pursuing separate effect tests to examine the viability of the melt coolability mechanisms identified as part of the MACE program. These mechanisms include bulk cooling, water ingression, volcanic eruptions, and crust breach. At the second PRG meeting held at ANL on 22-23 October 2002, a preliminary design1 for a separate effects test to investigate the melt eruption cooling mechanism was presented for PRG review. At this meeting, NUPEC made several recommendations on the experiment approach aimed at optimizing the chances of achieving a floating crust boundary condition in this test. The principal recommendation was to incorporate a mortar sidewall liner into the test design, since data from the COTELS experiment program indicates that corium does not form a strong mechanical bond with this material. Other recommendations included: (i) reduction of the electrode elevation to well below the melt upper surface elevation (since the crust may bond to these solid surfaces), and (ii) favorably taper the mortar liner to facilitate crust detachment and relocation during the experiment. Finally, as a precursor to implementing these modifications, the PRG recommended the development of a design for a small-scale scoping test intended to verify the ability of the mortar liner to preclude formation of an anchored bridge crust under core-concrete interaction conditions. This revised Melt Eruption Test (MET) plan is intended to satisfy these PRG recommendations. Specifically, the revised plan focuses on providing data on the extent of crust growth and melt eruptions as a function of gas sparging rate under well-controlled experiment conditions, including a floating crust boundary condition. The overall objective of MET is to determine to what extent core debris is rendered coolable by eruptive-type processes that breach the crust that rests upon the melt. The specific objectives of this test are as follows: (1) Evaluate the augmentation in surface heat flux during periods of melt eruption; (2) Evaluate the melt entrainment coefficient from the heat flux and gas flow rate data for input into models that calculate ex-vessel debris coolability; (3) Characterize the morphology and coolability of debris resulting from eruptive processes that transport melt into overlying water; and (4) Discriminate between periods when eruptions take the form of particle ejections into overlying water, leading to a porous particle bed, and single-phase extrusions, which lead to volcano-type structures.

  17. Tomographic location of potential melt-bearing phenocrysts in lunar glass spherules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebel, D.S.; Fogel, R.A.; Rivers, M.L. (AMNH); (UC)

    2005-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Apollo 17 orange glass spherules contain olivine phenocrysts with melt inclusions from depth. Tomography (<2micron/pxl) of >200 spherules located 1 phenocryst. We will try to find melt inclusions and obtain original magma volatiles and compositions. In 1971, Apollo 17 astronauts collected a 10 cm soil sample (74220) comprised almost entirely of orange glass spherules. Below this, a double drive-tube core sampled a 68 cm thick horizon comprised of orange glass and black beads (crystallized equivalents of orange glass). Primitive lunar glass spherules (e.g.-A17 orange glasses) are thought to represent ejecta from lunar mare fire fountains. The fire-fountains were apparently driven by a combination of C-O gas exsolution from orange glass melt and the oxidation of graphite. Upon eruption, magmas lost their volatiles (e.g., S, CO, CO{sub 2}) to space. Evidence for volatile escape remains as volatile-rich coatings on the exteriors of many spherules. Moreover, it showed that Type I and II Fe-Ni-rich metal particles found within orange glass olivine phenocrysts, or free-floating in the glass itself, are powerful evidence for the volatile driving force for lunar fire fountains. More direct evidence for the volatile mechanism has yet to be uncovered. Issues remaining include: the exact composition of magmatic volatiles; the hypothesized existence of graphite in the magma; the oxygen fugacity of the magma and of the lunar interior. In 1996 reported a single {approx}450 micron, equant olivine phenocryst, containing four glassy melt inclusions (or inclusion cores), the largest {approx}30micron in size, in a thin section of the 74001/2 drill core. The melt is assumed to sample the parent magma of the lunar basalts at depth, evidenced by the S content of the inclusion (600 ppm) which is 400 ppm greater than that of the orange glass host. Such melts potentially contain a full complement of the volatile components of the parent magma, which can be analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Although the A17 orange glass magma is thought to derive from {approx} 400 km depth, the calculations imply a 4 km depth of graphite oxidation (and melt saturation in C-O volatiles) during ascent. We have imaged several hundred similar orange glass spherules, from sample 74220,764, using synchrotron x-ray computer-aided microtomography (XRCMT). Our goals: (1) locate similar phenocrysts containing melt inclusions; (2) analyze phenocrysts to understand the evolution of the magma; (3) analyze melt and fluid inclusions using EPMA and FTIR to obtain direct evidence of magmatic volatiles and pristine bulk compositions.

  18. Decontamination of metals by melt refinings/slagging: An annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizia, R.E. [ed.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--500 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development.

  19. Nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate direct containment heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tutu, Narinder K. (Manorville, NY); Ginsberg, Theodore (East Setauket, NY); Klages, John R. (Mattituck, NY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light water nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate the extent of direct containment heating of the reactor containment building. The structure includes a retention chamber for retaining molten core material away from the upper regions of the reactor containment building when a severe accident causes the bottom of the pressure vessel of the reactor to fail and discharge such molten material under high pressure through the reactor cavity into the retention chamber. In combination with the melt-retention chamber there is provided a passageway that includes molten core droplet deflector vanes and has gas vent means in its upper surface, which means are operable to deflect molten core droplets into the retention chamber while allowing high pressure steam and gases to be vented into the upper regions of the containment building. A plurality of platforms are mounted within the passageway and the melt-retention structure to direct the flow of molten core material and help retain it within the melt-retention chamber. In addition, ribs are mounted at spaced positions on the floor of the melt-retention chamber, and grid means are positioned at the entrance side of the retention chamber. The grid means develop gas back pressure that helps separate the molten core droplets from discharged high pressure steam and gases, thereby forcing the steam and gases to vent into the upper regions of the reactor containment building.

  20. Fundamentals of Melt-Water Interfacial Transport Phenomena: Improved Understanding for Innovative Safety Technologies in ALWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Anderson; M. Corradini; K.Y. Bank; R. Bonazza; D. Cho

    2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core-melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of this work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University in via test and analyses. We then address the appropriate scaling and design methodologies for reactor applications.

  1. Lattice model of linear telechelic polymer melts. II. Influence of chain stiffness on basic thermodynamic properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen-Sheng Xu; Karl F. Freed

    2015-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The lattice cluster theory (LCT) for semiflexible linear telechelic melts, developed in paper I, is applied to examine the influence of chain stiffness on the average degree of self-assembly and the basic thermodynamic properties of linear telechelic polymer melts. Our calculations imply that chain stiffness promotes self-assembly of linear telechelic polymer melts that assemble on cooling when either polymer volume fraction $\\phi$ or temperature $T$ is high, but opposes self-assembly when both $\\phi$ and $T$ are sufficiently low. This allows us to identify a boundary line in the $\\phi$-$T$ plane that separates two regions of qualitatively different influence of chain stiffness on self-assembly. The enthalpy and entropy of self-assembly are usually treated as adjustable parameters in classical Flory-Huggins type theories for the equilibrium self-assembly of polymers, but they are demonstrated here to strongly depend on chain stiffness. Moreover, illustrative calculations for the dependence of the entropy density of linear telechelic polymer melts on chain stiffness demonstrate the importance of including semiflexibility within the LCT when exploring the nature of glass formation in models of linear telechelic polymer melts.

  2. Models for mean bonding length, melting point and lattice thermal expansion of nanoparticle materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar, M.S., E-mail: dr_m_s_omar@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin-Erbil, Arbil, Kurdistan (Iraq)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Three models are derived to explain the nanoparticles size dependence of mean bonding length, melting temperature and lattice thermal expansion applied on Sn, Si and Au. The following figures are shown as an example for Sn nanoparticles indicates hilly applicable models for nanoparticles radius larger than 3 nm. Highlights: ? A model for a size dependent mean bonding length is derived. ? The size dependent melting point of nanoparticles is modified. ? The bulk model for lattice thermal expansion is successfully used on nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A model, based on the ratio number of surface atoms to that of its internal, is derived to calculate the size dependence of lattice volume of nanoscaled materials. The model is applied to Si, Sn and Au nanoparticles. For Si, that the lattice volume is increases from 20 ?{sup 3} for bulk to 57 ?{sup 3} for a 2 nm size nanocrystals. A model, for calculating melting point of nanoscaled materials, is modified by considering the effect of lattice volume. A good approach of calculating size-dependent melting point begins from the bulk state down to about 2 nm diameter nanoparticle. Both values of lattice volume and melting point obtained for nanosized materials are used to calculate lattice thermal expansion by using a formula applicable for tetrahedral semiconductors. Results for Si, change from 3.7 × 10{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} for a bulk crystal down to a minimum value of 0.1 × 10{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} for a 6 nm diameter nanoparticle.

  3. Melting temperatures of the ZrO{sub 2}-MOX system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchida, T.; Hirooka, S.; Kato, M.; Morimoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Sugata, H.; Shibata, K.; Sato, D. [Inspection Development Company, 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Severe accidents occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Units 1-3 on March 11, 2011. MOX fuels were loaded in the Unit 3. For the thermal analysis of the severe accident, melting temperature and phase state of MOX corium were investigated. The simulated coriums were prepared from 4%Pu-containing MOX, 8%Pu-containing MOX and ZrO{sub 2}. Then X-ray diffraction, density and melting temperature measurements were carried out as a function of zirconium and plutonium contents. The cubic phase was observed in the 25%Zr-containing corium and the tetragonal phase was observed in the 50% and 75%Zr-containing coria. The lattice parameter and density monotonically changed with Pu content. Melting temperature increased with increasing Pu content; melting temperature were estimated to be 2932 K for 4%Pu MOX corium and 3012 K for 8%Pu MOX corium in the 25%ZrO{sub 2}-MOX system. The lowest melting temperature was observed for 50%Zr-containing corium. (authors)

  4. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY10 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection has constructed interim surface barriers over a portion of the T and TY tank farms as part of the Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The interim surface barriers (hereafter referred to as the surface barriers or barriers) are designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the soil zones containing radioactive contaminants and minimize the movement of the contaminants. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barriers at reducing soil moisture. Solar-powered systems were installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations in the T (i.e., instrument Nests TA, TB, TC, and TD) and the TY (i.e., instrument Nests TYA and TYB) Farms beneath the barriers and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nests TA and TYA are placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serve as controls, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barriers. Nest TB provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests TC, TD, and TYB are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barriers. Except for occasional times for TC and TD and planned dates for TYB, during FY10, the battery voltage at the TMS and instrument Nests in both T and TY tank farms remained above 12.0 V, denoting that the battery voltages were sufficient for the stations to remain functional. All the HDUs were functioning normally, but some pressure-head values were greater than the upper measurement limit. The values that exceeded the upper limit may indicate wet soil conditions and/or measurement error, but they do not imply a malfunction of the sensors. Similar to FY07 through FY09, in FY10, the soil under natural conditions in the T Farm (Nest TA) was generally recharged during the winter period (October–March), and they discharged during the summer period (April–September). Soil water conditions above about 1.5-m to 2-m depth from all three types of measurements (i.e., CP, NP, and HDU) showed relatively large variation during the seasonal wetting-drying cycle. For the soil below 2-m depth, the seasonal variation of soil water content was relatively small. The construction of the TISB was completed in April 2008. In the soil below the TISB (Nests TC and TD), the CP-measured water content showed that ? at the soil between 0.6-m and 2.3-m depths was stable, indicating no climatic impacts on soil water conditions beneath the barrier. The NP-measured water content in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 12.2 m (40 ft) since the completion of the barrier decreased by 0.007 to 0.014 m3 m-3. The HDU-measured soil-water pressure at 1-m, 2-m, and 5-m depths decreased by 0.7 to 2.4 m, indicating soil water drainage at these depths of the soil. In the soil below the edge of the TISB (Nest TB), the CP-measured water content was relatively stable through the year; the NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage was occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 12.2 m (40 ft) but at a slightly smaller magnitude than in Nests TC and TD; the HDU-measurements show that the pressure head changes at Nest TB since the completion of the barrier were generally less than those at TC and TD, but more than those at TA. These results indicate that the TISB is performing as expected by intercepting the meteoric water from infiltrating into the soil, and the soil is becoming drier gradually. The barrier also had some effects on the soil below the barrier edge, but at a reduced magnitude. There was no significant difference in soil-water regime between the two nests in the TY tank farm because the barrier at the TY Farm was just completed one month before the end of the FY.

  5. Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frank J.

    Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics ...

  6. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Modeling-Computer Simulations Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References J. W....

  7. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration...

  8. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration...

  9. Alteration And Geochemical Zoning In Bodie Bluff, Bodie Mining...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alteration And Geochemical Zoning In Bodie Bluff, Bodie Mining District, Eastern California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  10. andean subduction zone: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Because subduction zones generate the largest earthquakes, seismic hazard assessment relies on understanding the degree to which slow earthquakes reduce the energy...

  11. Trace Element Geochemical Zoning in the Roosevelt Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capuano. 1980. Trace Element Geochemical Zoning in the Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah. In: Transactions. GRC Annual Meeting; 09091980; Salt Lake City, UT. Salt...

  12. Innovation and Success in Planning and Zoning | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    summarizes several successful initiatives to implement solar-friendly planes and zoning codes. webinar072413planningzoning.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  13. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  14. Shear zone refraction and deflection in layered granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamas Borzsonyi; Tamas Unger; Balazs Szabo

    2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Refraction and deflection of shear zones in layered granular materials was studied experimentally and numerically. We show, that (i) according to a recent theoretical prediction [T. Unger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 018301 (2007)] shear zones refract in layered systems in analogy with light refraction, (ii) zone refraction obeys Snell's law known from geometric optics and (iii) under natural pressure conditions (i.e. in the presence of gravity) the zone can also be deflected by the interface so that the deformation of the high friction material is avoided.

  15. Field Mapping At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Field Mapping Activity Date Usefulness...

  16. Geothermometry At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness...

  17. Refraction Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Heimgartner...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region (Heimgartner, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Refraction Survey Activity Date...

  18. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    minneapolispre1980v1-47-2.zip More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 6A Minneapolis, Minnesota Reference Buildings by...

  19. affected zone southern: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to mylonites. The sampled peridotites therefore represent Stern, Robert J. 6 Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zone...

  20. Fracture toughness and process zone kinetics in amorphous polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Usually, a process (deformation) zone is formed ahead of a crack as a response to the stress concentration in ductile materials. Then the crack initiation and propagation are inseparable from the evolution of the process zone accompanying the crack. Thus the kinetics of process zone evolution is closely coupled with the time dependency of fracture. In this study, we report the effects of weathering, scale and loading rate on fracture toughness parameters, and the kinetics of process zone evolution. We also propose a kinetic equation for process zone as a basis for modeling of the time dependency of polycarbonate fracture. Since the well-known Griffith's criterion is usually implemented for characterization of brittle fracture, we have reviewed the applicability of the conventional toughness parameter to characterization of brittle polymers. After that we applied the developed experimental and analytical technique to polycarbonate which possesses ductility and thus does not obey the conventional fracture toughness characterization requirements. The fracture toughness analysis leads to recognition of the important role of process zone evolution in fracture phenomena. As result, one of the main topics of the present work is the experimental and theoretical studies of the process zone kinetics. The kinetic equation is derived following the first principle of thermodynamics of irreversible processes. It provides a master curve for the process zone evolution for various initial conditions. The kinetic equation for the evolution of the process zone in polycarbonate is the main achievement of the thesis. The results provide the basis for mathematical modeling of time dependency of fracture.

  1. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool Now Available | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Addthis The Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states...

  2. Stress and fault rock controls on fault zone hydrology, Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rock controls on fault zone hydrology, Coso geothermal field, CA Abstract In crystalline rock of the Coso Geothermal Field, CA, fractures are the primary source of permeability....

  3. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Central...

  4. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At...

  5. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Blewitt, Et Al., 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geodetic Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful...

  6. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Exploration...

  7. Field Mapping At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region (Blewitt, Et Al., 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Field Mapping Activity Date Usefulness...

  8. Geographic Information System At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005 - 2) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  9. Field Mapping At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Field Mapping Activity Date Usefulness could be...

  10. Geographic Information System At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geographic Information System Activity Date Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown...

  11. Refraction Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Heimgartner...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Heimgartner, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Refraction Survey At Central...

  12. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration...

  13. arid vadose zone: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XI, Universit de 13 Uniform and Preferential Flow Mechanisms in the Vadose Zone Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: . Both types of flow occur...

  14. Incorporation and distribution of rhenium in a borosilicate glass melt heat treated in a sealed ampoule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated a mass balance of rhenium (used as a surrogate for technetium-99) in a borosilicate glass that was mixed with excess Re source (KReO4) beyond its solubility and heat treated in a vacuum-sealed fused silica ampoule. Distribution of Re in the bulk of the glass, in a salt phase formed on the melt surface, and in condensate material deposited on the ampoule wall was evaluated to understand the Re migration into different phases during the reaction between the molten glass and KReO4. The information gained from this study will contribute to an effort to understand the mechanism of technetium retention in or escape from glass melt during early stages of glass batch melting, which is a goal of the present series of studies.

  15. Method for melting glass by measurement of non-bridging oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M. (3922 Wood Valley Dr., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for making better quality molten glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a "non-bridging oxygen" term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term.

  16. Analysis of multicomponent evaporation in electron beam melting and refining of titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, A.; Szekely, J.; Pal, U. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Avyle, J. van den; Damkroger, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Processing Dept.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental evidence and a mathematical model are presented to evaluate the effect of beam-scan frequency on composition change in electron-beam melting of titanium alloys. Experiments characterized the evaporation rate of commercially pure (CP) titanium and vapor composition over titanium alloy with up to 6 wt pct aluminum and 4.5 wt pct vanadium, as a function of beam power, scan frequency, and background pressure. These data and thermal mapping of the hearth melt surface are used to estimate activity coefficients of aluminum and vanadium in the hearth. The model describes transient heat transfer in the surface of the melt and provides a means of estimating enhancement of pure titanium evaporation and change in final aluminum composition due to local heating at moderate beam-scan frequencies.

  17. Combined electron beam and vacuum ARC melting for barrier tube shell material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worcester, S.A.; Woods, C.R.

    1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process of the type wherein zirconium tetrachloride is reduced to produce a metallic zirconium sponge. The sponge is distilled to generally remove residual magnesium and magnesium chloride, and the distilled sponge is melted to produce an ingot, the improvement for making a non-crystal bar material for use in lining the interior of zirconium alloy fuel element cladding which comprises: a. forming the distilled sponge into a consumable electrode; b. melting the consumable electrode in a multiple swept beam electron furnace with a feed rate between 1 and 20 inches per hour to form an intermediate ingot; and c. vacuum arc melting the intermediate ingot to produce a homogeneous final ingot, having 50-500 ppm iron.

  18. Optimal beam pattern to maximize inclusion residence time in an electron beam melting hearth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, A.; Pal, U. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Avyle, J. van den [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximate probabilities of inclusion survival through an electron beam melting hearth are computed from nitride dissolution rates, flotation velocities, and residence times. Dissolution rates were determined by measuring shrinkage rates of pure TiN and nitrided sponge in small pools of molten titanium in an electron beam melting hearth. Flotation velocities were calculated using correlations for fluid flow around spheres, and show that particles sink or float unless their densities are extremely close to that of molten titanium. Flow field characteristics which lead to effective inclusion removal are discussed in terms of heat flux pattern required to produce them, based on the electron beam`s unique ability to impart a nearly arbitrary heat flux pattern to the melt surface.

  19. Structure and dynamics of ion clusters in linear octupole traps: Phase diagrams, chirality, and melting mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurtsever, E.; Onal, E. D.; Calvo, F. [Koc University, Rumelifeneriyolu, Sariyer, Istanbul TR-34450 (Turkey); LASIM, Universite de Lyon and CNRS UMR 5579, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, FR-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The stable structures and melting dynamics of clusters of identical ions bound by linear octupole radiofrequency traps are theoretically investigated by global optimization methods and molecular dynamics simulations. By varying the cluster sizes in the range of 10-1000 ions and the extent of trap anisotropy by more than one order of magnitude, we find a broad variety of stable structures based on multiple rings at small sizes evolving into tubular geometries at large sizes. The binding energy of these clusters is well represented by two contributions arising from isotropic linear and octupolar traps. The structures generally exhibit strong size effects, and chiral arrangements spontaneously emerge in many crystals. Sufficiently large clusters form nested, coaxial tubes with different thermal stabilities. As in isotropic octupolar clusters, the inner tubes melt at temperatures that are lower than the overall melting point.

  20. Systematic prediction of high-pressure melting curves of transition metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hieu, Ho Khac, E-mail: hieuhk@duytan.edu.vn [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The pressure effects on melting temperatures of transition metals have been studied based on the combination of the modified Lindemann criterion with statistical moment method in quantum statistical mechanics. Numerical calculations have been performed for five transition metals including Cu, Pd, Pt, Ni, and Mn up to pressure 100?GPa. Our results are in good and reasonable agreements with available experimental data. This approach gives us a relatively simple method for qualitatively calculating high-pressure melting temperature. Moreover, it can be used to verify future experimental and theoretical works. This research proposes the potential of the combination of statistical moment method and the modified Lindemann criterion on predicting high-pressure melting of materials.