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1

Maximally exposed offsite individual location determination for NESHAPS compliance  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer program CAP88 for demonstrating compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS.) One of the inputs required for CAP88 is the location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI) by sector and distance. Distances to the MEI have been determined for 15 different potential release locations at SRS. These locations were compared with previous work and differences were analyzed. Additionally, SREL Conference Center was included as a potential offsite location since in the future it may be used as a dormitory. Worst sectors were then determined based on the distances.

Simpkins, A.A.

2000-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

2

Fan Mei | BNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fan Mei Postdoctoral Research Associate Fan is currently working as a postdoctoral research associate with Jian Wang, investigating aerosol microphysical properties in three recent...

3

Mei-Yu Frontogenesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hypothesis concerning the development of the western sector of a Mei-Yu front is proposed. An observational evidence showing the presence of a positive low-level potential vorticity (PV) anomaly along the western sector of a Mei-Yu front is ...

Han-Ru Cho; George T. J. Chen

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

MEIS: Molecular Environmental & Interface Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

People People BL 11-2 Reports &Publications Model Compound Library SixPACK Glitch Curves MES User Resources & Instrumentation Environmental Remediation Science at SSRL MEIS Home SSRL Stanford EMSI SLAC Beam line resources and instrumentation Fundamental and applied research Why synchrotrons for environmental science? Molecular Environmental Science (MES) research at SSRL focuses on the fundamental interfacial, molecular- and nano-scale processes that control contaminant and nutrient cycling in the biosphere with the goal of elucidating global elemental cycles and anthropogenic influences on the environment. Key areas of investigation include the: (a) Structural chemistry of water and dissolved solutes, (b) Structural chemistry and reactivity of complex natural environmental materials with respect to heavy

5

Maxim I  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maxim I. Boyanov Maxim I. Boyanov Address: Biosciences Division Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Ave Argonne, IL, U.S.A. Phone: +1 (630) 252-8242 Fax: +1 (630) 252-9793 Email: mboyanov@anl.gov WWW: http://www.nd.edu/~mboyanov/ EDUCATION Ph.D.: Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN, U.S.A. 1996-2003 Dissertation: "XAFS spectroscopy studies of metal-ligand interactions at organic surfaces and in solution" Advisor: Prof. Bruce Bunker B.Sc., M.Sc.: Physics, University of Sofia, Bulgaria. 1991-1995 Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, U.S.A. 1990-1991 M.Sc. Thesis: "Two new analytical solutions to the inverse ellipsometric problem" Advisor: Prof. Stoyan Russev Graduated: Magna Cum Laude PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

6

Mesoscale Energy Spectra of Mei-Yu Front System. Part I: Kinetic Energy Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mesoscale kinetic energy (KE) spectra of Mei-Yu front system are investigated through idealized numerical simulations. In the mature stage, the upper tropospheric KE spectrum resembles a -3 power law for wavelengths between 1000 and 400 km and ...

Jun Peng; Lifeng Zhang; Yu Luo; Yun Zhang

7

A Numerical Study of a Low-level Jet and Its Accompanying Secondary Circulation in a Mei-Yu System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A primitive equation numerical model has been used to study the Mei-Yu system that occurred in the middle of May 1987. Although cumulus heating was not included in one of the experiments, all of the major features of a Mei-Yu system other than ...

Wu-Ron Hsu; Wen-Yih Sun

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Vertical Concentric Tube Ground Couoled Heat Exchangers V. C. Mei and S. K. Fischer*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Vertical Concentric Tube Ground Couoled Heat Exchangers V. C. Mei and S. K. Fischer* Abstract exchangers for use in heat-pump applications is described. The experimental apparatus consists. This heat exchanger was placed in a 0.20-m (8-in.) inside-diameter well and backfilled with sand

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

9

Mechanisms for Torrential Rain Associated with the Mei-Yu Development during SCSMEX 1998  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case of torrential precipitation associated with the mei-yu front, an Asian summer monsoon system east of the Tibetan Plateau, is studied using the coupled fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) and the NASA ...

Jian-Hua Qian; Wei-Kuo Tao; K-M. Lau

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

A Modeling Case Study of Heavy Rainstorms along the Mei-Yu Front  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 12–13 June 1991, a series of convective rainstorms (defined as mesoscale precipitation systems with rainfall rates exceeding 10 mm h?1) developed successively along the Mei-Yu front. During this event, new rainstorms formed to the east of ...

Shou-Jun Chen; Ying-Hwa Kuo; Wei Wang; Zu-Yu Tao; Bo Cui

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Mesoscale Energy Spectra of the Mei-Yu Front System. Part I: Kinetic Energy Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mesoscale kinetic energy (KE) spectra of the mei-yu front system are investigated through idealized numerical simulations. In the mature stage, the upper-tropospheric KE spectrum resembles a ?3 power law for wavelengths between 1000 and 400 km ...

Jun Peng; Lifeng Zhang; Yu Luo; Yun Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

MM5 Ensemble Mean Forecasts in the Taiwan Area for the 2003 Mei-Yu Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an evaluation study of a real-time fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) mesoscale ensemble prediction system in the Taiwan area during the 2003 mei-yu season. The ensemble system consists ...

Fang-Ching Chien; Yi-Chin Liu; Ben Jong-Dao Jou

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Microsoft PowerPoint - Clark Atlanta DOE MEI Small Business presentation August 2009 for pdf.ppt [Compatibility Mode]  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CLARK ATLANTA UNIVERSITY CLARK ATLANTA UNIVERSITY CLARK ATLANTA UNIVERSITY Presentation at the Presentation at the CLARK ATLANTA UNIVERSITY CLARK ATLANTA UNIVERSITY Presentation at the Presentation at the 10 10 th th Annual DOE MEI Small Business Conference Annual DOE MEI Small Business Conference CAU's Energy Related Research Capabilities CAU's Energy Related Research Capabilities 10 10 th th Annual DOE MEI Small Business Conference Annual DOE MEI Small Business Conference CAU's Energy Related Research Capabilities CAU's Energy Related Research Capabilities Ishrat M Khan Ph.D. Ishrat M Khan Ph.D. Ishrat M Khan Ph.D. Ishrat M Khan Ph.D. Director, Center for Functional Director, Center for Functional Nanoscale Nanoscale Materials Materials ikhan@cau.edu ikhan@cau.edu www cau edu/research www

14

Final DUF6 PEIS: Volume 2, Appendix G; Long-Term Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLMW low-level mixed waste LLW low-level radioactive waste MEI maximally exposed individual NEPA National Environmental Policy Act...

15

Rainfall Characteristics and Convective Properties of Mei-Yu Precipitation Systems over South China, Taiwan, and the South China Sea. Part I: TRMM Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rainfall characteristics and mesoscale properties of precipitation systems in mei-yu seasons over South China, Taiwan, and the South China Sea (SCS) during 1998–2007 are investigated in this study. Mei-yu rainbands are defined using the Tropical ...

Weixin Xu; Edward J. Zipser; Chuntao Liu

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle, Alexander Romanovsky  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle-The-Shelf) item. The case study used a Simulink model of a steam boiler system together with an OTS PID in practice, employing software models of the PID controller and the steam boiler system rather than

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

17

Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle, Alexander Romanovsky  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle employing an OTS (Off-The-Shelf) item. The case study used a Simulink model of a steam boiler system, employing software models of the PID controller and the steam boiler system rather than conducting

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

18

Maximizing Multi-Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stochastic interdependence of a probablility distribution on a product space is measured by its Kullback-Leibler distance from the exponential family of product distributions (called multi-information). Here we investigate low-dimensional exponential families that contain the maximizers of stochastic interdependence in their closure. Based on a detailed description of the structure of probablility distributions with globally maximal multi-information we obtain our main result: The exponential family of pure pair-interactions contains all global maximizers of the multi-information in its closure.

Nihat Ay; Andreas Knauf

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

The Intensification of the Low-Level Jet during the Development of Mesoscale Convective Systems on a Mei-Yu Front  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the period of 21–25 June 1991, a mei-yu front, observed by the post–Taiwan Area Mesoscale Experiment, produced heavy precipitation along the western side of the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. Several oceanic mesoscale convective systems ...

Chaing Chen; Wei-Kuo Tao; Pay-Liam Lin; George S. Lai; S-F. Tseng; Tai-Chi Chen Wang

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Remote Trigger of Deep Convection by Cold Outflow over the Taiwan Strait in the Mei-Yu Season: A Modeling Study of the 8 June 2007 Case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the heavy-rainfall event over central Taiwan during the mei-yu season on 8 June 2007 is investigated, with an emphasis on the triggering mechanism for the deep convection that produced the rain. Observations indicate that there ...

Chung-Chieh Wang; George Tai-Jen Chen; Shin-Yi Huang

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Characteristics of Low-Level Jets over Northern Taiwan in Mei-Yu Season and Their Relationship to Heavy Rain Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study investigates the characteristics of low-level jets (LLJs) (?12.5 m s?1) below 600 hPa over northern Taiwan in the mei-yu season and their relationship to heavy rainfall events (?50 mm in 24 h) through the use of 12-h sounding ...

George Tai-Jen Chen; Chung-Chieh Wang; David Ta-Wei Lin

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Title Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds...

23

Security Maxims - Vulnerability Assessment Team - Nuclear Engineering...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tobias Maxim 5: Encryption is largely irrelevant. From Marc Weber Tobias. Red Herring Maxim: At some point in any challenging security application, somebody (or nearly...

24

Maximal Reliability for Unit-weighted Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximal Reliability for Unit-weighted Composites Peter M.Maximal Reliability for Unit-weighted Composites Althoughconsistency coefficient for a unit-weighted composite. The

Peter M. Bentler

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Scheduling resources for throughput maximization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the problem of scheduling a set of resources over time. Each resource is specified by a set of time intervals (and the associated amount of resource available), and we can choose to schedule it in one of these intervals. The goal is to maximize ...

Venkatesan T. Chakaravarthy; Amit Kumar; Vinayaka Pandit; Sambuddha Roy; Yogish Sabharwal

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Beeping a maximal independent set  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of ...

Yehuda Afek; Noga Alon; Ziv Bar-Joseph; Alejandro Cornejo; Bernhard Haeupler; Fabian Kuhn

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.

Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

28

On Test Sets for Nonlinear Integer Maximization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On Test Sets for Nonlinear. Integer Maximization. July 2007; revised February 2008. Jon Leea, Shmuel Onnb, Robert Weismantelc a IBM T.J. Watson Research  ...

29

Gridded Hourly Precipitation Analysis from High-Density Rain Gauge Network over the Yangtze–Huai Rivers Basin during the 2007 Mei-Yu Season and Comparison with CMORPH  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heavy rainfall hit the Yangtze–Huai Rivers basin (YHRB) of east China several times during the prolonged 2007 mei-yu season, causing the worst flood since 1954. There has been an urgent need for attaining and processing high-quality, kilometer-...

Yali Luo; Weimiao Qian; Renhe Zhang; Da-Lin Zhang

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Algorithms and analyses for maximal vector computation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximal vector problem is to identify the maximals over a collection of vectors. This arises in many contexts and, as such, has been well studied.The problem recently gained renewed attention with skyline queries for relational databases and with ...

Parke Godfrey; Ryan Shipley; Jarek Gryz

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Identifying Energy Systems that Maximize Cogeneration Savings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the maximizing of Regional Cogeneration Energy Savings utilizing various technologies and fuels within a given service region. A methodology is developed to establish the allocation of power to the individual cogenerators such that overall energy economic benefits are maximized while process steam needs are simultaneously satisfied. Application of the methodology is illustrated and discussed.

Ahner, D. J.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Efficient maximal poisson-disk sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We solve the problem of generating a uniform Poisson-disk sampling that is both maximal and unbiased over bounded non-convex domains. To our knowledge this is the first provably correct algorithm with time and space dependent only on the ... Keywords: Poisson disk, blue noise, linear complexity, maximal, provable convergence, sampling

Mohamed S. Ebeida; Andrew A. Davidson; Anjul Patney; Patrick M. Knupp; Scott A. Mitchell; John D. Owens

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Task-Oriented Maximally Entangled States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the tasks for which a quantum state is used as the resource. This concept may be more fruitful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for {\\em n}-qubit systems.

Pankaj Agrawal; B. Pradhan

2007-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

34

Maximizing absorption and scattering by dipole particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is a review and tutorial paper which discusses the fundamental limitations on the maximal power which can be received, absorbed, and scattered by an electrically small electrically polarizable particle and infinite periodical arrays of such particles.

Tretyakov, Sergei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing Alternative Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines

36

Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of Rural Electrification Programs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Maximizing the Productive Uses...

37

Maximizing Buoyancy Flux across Layered Geostrophic Sections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For layered analogues of the ocean stratification, the problem of maximizing buoyancy flux across a section with zero mass flux is considered. The two layer situation on an f-plane is particularly simple and it is shown that the buoyancy flux is ...

Nelson G. Hogg; Henry M. Stommel

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Modified expectation maximization algorithm for MRI segmentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnetic Resonance Image segmentation is a fundamental task in a wide variety of computed-based medical applications that support therapy, diagnostic and medical applications. In this work, spatial information is included for estimating paramaters of ... Keywords: expectation maximization algorithm, finite mixture models, magnetic resonance imaging segmentation, spatial information

Ramiro Donoso; Alejandro Veloz; Héctor Allende

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

A scalable, parallel algorithm for maximal clique enumeration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of maximal clique enumeration (MCE) is to enumerate all of the maximal cliques in a graph. Once enumerated, maximal cliques are widely used to solve problems in areas such as 3-D protein structure alignment, genome mapping, gene expression ... Keywords: Biological networks, Cray XT, Dynamic load balancing, High-performance computing, Maximal clique enumeration, Parallel graph algorithms

Matthew C. Schmidt; Nagiza F. Samatova; Kevin Thomas; Byung-Hoon Park

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Measurable Maximal Energy and Minimal Time Interval  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possibility of finding the measurable maximal energy and the minimal time interval is discussed in different quantum aspects. It is found that the linear generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) approach gives a non-physical result. Based on large scale Schwarzshild solution, the quadratic GUP approach is utilized. The calculations are performed at the shortest distance, at which the general relativity is assumed to be a good approximation for the quantum gravity and at larger distances, as well. It is found that both maximal energy and minimal time have the order of the Planck time. Then, the uncertainties in both quantities are accordingly bounded. Some physical insights are addressed. Also, the implications on the physics of early Universe and on quantized mass are outlined. The results are related to the existence of finite cosmological constant and minimum mass (mass quanta).

Eiman Abou El Dahab; Abdel Nasser Tawfik

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Maximizing Wastewater Reduction for the Process Industries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study provides an overview of water and wastewater management practices in the U.S. process industries. The focus is on the chemical and petroleum industries and their methods for maximizing wastewater reduction and zero discharge. However, it also covers end-of-pipe treatment, since water reduction and zero discharge practices have evolved from end-of-pipe treatment practices. The resulting report is a comprehensive reference developed to help utilities and energy service providers understand and f...

1999-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

42

Almost Degenerate Neutrinos with Maximal Mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If the upper limit on the effective (Majorana) neutrino mass from neutrinoless double beta decay experiments is confirmed to be much less than an electron-volt, then one way to reconcile it with the degenerate neutrino mass pattern suggested recently to explain the observed deficit of solar and atmospheric neutrinos as well as neutrinos as HDM is to postulate that there be maximal mixing among the three light (or two) neutrinos. This suggestion is advanced in this paper and is analysed.

R. N. Mohapatra; S. Nussinov

1994-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

43

Welfare and Profit Maximization with Production Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combinatorial Auctions are a central problem in Algorithmic Mechanism Design: pricing and allocating goods to buyers with complex preferences in order to maximize some desired objective (e.g., social welfare, revenue, or profit). The problem has been well-studied in the case of limited supply (one copy of each item), and in the case of digital goods (the seller can produce additional copies at no cost). Yet in the case of resources---oil, labor, computing cycles, etc.---neither of these abstractions is just right: additional supplies of these resources can be found, but at increasing difficulty (marginal cost) as resources are depleted. In this work, we initiate the study of the algorithmic mechanism design problem of combinatorial pricing under increasing marginal cost. The goal is to sell these goods to buyers with unknown and arbitrary combinatorial valuation functions to maximize either the social welfare, or the seller's profit; specifically we focus on the setting of \\emph{posted item prices} with buyer...

Blum, Avrim; Mansour, Yishay; Sharma, Ankit

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Maximize Efficiency and Safety of Smelters through Advanced ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Maximize Efficiency and Safety of Smelters through ... Multivariate Statistical Investigation of Carbon Consumption for HSS Reduction Cell.

45

Maximal covering location problem (MCLP) with fuzzy travel times  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a fuzzy maximal covering location problem (FMCLP) in which travel time between any pair of nodes is considered to be a fuzzy variable. A fuzzy expected value maximization model is designed for such a problem. Moreover, a hybrid algorithm ... Keywords: Credibility theory, Facility location, Fuzzy travel times, Maximal covering location problem (MCLP), Simulation

Soheil Davari; Mohammad Hossein Fazel Zarandi; Ahmad Hemmati

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Theoretical underpinnings for maximal clique enumeration on perturbed graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of enumerating the maximal cliques of a graph is a computationally expensive problem with applications in a number of different domains. Sometimes the benefit of knowing the maximal clique enumeration (MCE) of a single graph is worth investing ... Keywords: Graph algorithms, Graph perturbation theory, Maximal clique enumeration, Uncertain and noisy data

William Hendrix; Matthew C. Schmidt; Paul Breimyer; Nagiza F. Samatova

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Generation and Transmission Maximization Model | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Generation and Transmission Maximization Model Generation and Transmission Maximization Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Generation and Transmission Maximization Model Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Pathways analysis Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.dis.anl.gov/projects/Gtmax.html Cost: Paid Generation and Transmission Maximization Model Screenshot References: Generation and Transmission Maximization Model [1] Logo: Generation and Transmission Maximization Model The GTMax model helps researchers study complex marketing and system operational issues. With the aid of this comprehensive model, utility operators and managers can maximize the value of the electric system, taking into account not only its limited energy and transmission resources,

48

On maximizing lifetime of a sensor cluster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the energy consumed in radio transmission of a set of sensors forming a data gathering wireless network. Our objective is to enhance the lifetime of such networks by exploiting three system-level opportunities. Firstly, the number of bits to be transmitted can be reduced by taking advantage of the redundancy induced by spatio-temporal correlation in sensor data. Secondly, channel coding allows us to reduce transmission energy at the cost of increased transmission time. Thirdly, sensor nodes can be expected to operate collaboratively, allowing optimal management of distributed energy resources. Our main contribution lies in providing a framework to merge these ideas for energy conscious networking. We pose the problem of maximizing network lifetime as an optimal scheduling problem. We first consider a special case where data rate is linearly proportional to received signal power. In this scenario, we investigate both static and dynamic scheduling strategies. The optimal static schedule turns out to have a very simple form. For the dynamic case, we obtain an integer linear program formulation to find the optimal strategy. We then propose an efficient algorithm that exploits the special nature of the problem setting to quickly find the optimal solution. Finally, we consider the general case where data rates and signal power need not be linearly related and propose an algorithm to find the optimal transmission times subject to the deadline constraint imposed by the system. 1

Samar Agnihotri; Pavan Nuggehalli; H. S. Jamadagni

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

2006 SitE ENvirONmENtAL rEPOrtv Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- ronmental and worker safety risks. Initiatives to reduce, recycle, and reuse 13 million pounds of industrial. Radiological Dose Assessment Program BNL routinely assesses its operations to ensure that any potential to a hypothetical Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) at the BNL site boundary. For dose assessment purposes

Homes, Christopher C.

50

2005 Site environmental reportv Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.4 years. Initiatives to reduce, recycle, and reuse 2.8 million pounds of industrial, sanitary, hazardous monitoring. Radiological Dose Assessment Program BNL routinely assesses its operations to ensure that any to a hypothetical Maximally Exposed In- dividual (MEI) at the BNL site boundary. For dose assessment purposes

Homes, Christopher C.

51

2010 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTiii Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.5 years. Initiatives to reduce, recycle, and reuse 9.1 million pounds of industrial, sanitary, hazardous in 2010. Radiological Dose Assessment Program BNL routinely assesses its operations to ensure that any to a hypothetical Maximally Exposed In- dividual (MEI) at the BNL site boundary. For dose assessment purposes

Ohta, Shigemi

52

iii 2011 Site environmental report Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in 2011. Radiological Dose Assessment Program BNL routinely assesses its operations to ensure that any to a hypothetical Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) at the BNL site boundary. For dose assessment purposes. Radiological dose assessments at the Laboratory have consis- tently shown that the effective dose equivalent

Ohta, Shigemi

53

2009 Site environmental reportiii Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Radiological Dose Assessment Program BNL routinely assesses its operations to ensure that any potential to a hypothetical Maximally Exposed In- dividual (MEI) at the BNL site boundary. For dose assessment purposes. Radiological dose assessments at the Laboratory have consis- tently shown that the effective dose equivalent

Homes, Christopher C.

54

2008 Site environmental reportv Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dose Assessment Program BNL routinely assesses its operations to ensure that any potential radiological to a hypothetical Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) at the BNL site boundary. For dose assessment purposes- diological dose assessments at the Laboratory have consistently shown that the effective dose equivalent from

Homes, Christopher C.

55

Beaird Maxim Model TRP-12 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TRP-12 Jump to: navigation, search Manufacturer Beaird Model Number Maxim Model TRP-12 Distributed Generation Purpose Domestic hot water, Space heat, HVAC reheat Retrieved from...

56

On the complexity of maximizing the minimum Shannon capacity in ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jan 18, 2010 ... On the complexity of maximizing the minimum Shannon capacity in wireless networks by joint channel assignment and power allocation.

57

Rate-maximization scheduling schemes for uplink OFDMA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose and study several sum rate maximization algorithms for uplink orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). For uplink scheduling without fairness consideration, we propose two Lagrangian duality optimization-based ... Keywords: Lagrangian duality, OFDMA uplink, multiuser diversity, proportional fairness, throughput maximization, water-filling power allocation

Yao Ma; Dong In Kim

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Faster Algorithms for Computing Maximal Multirepeats in Multiple Sequences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A repeat in a string is a substring that occurs more than once. A repeat is extendible if every occurrence of the repeat has an identical letter either on the left or on the right; otherwise, it is maximal. A multirepeat is a repeat that occurs at least ... Keywords: biological sequences, gaps, maximal multirepeats, repeats, suffix arrays

Costas S. Iliopoulos; W. F. Smyth; Munina Yusufu

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Constrained flow control in storage networks: Capacity maximization and balancing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper studies the control of distributed storage networks with guarantees of constraints satisfaction and asymptotic stability. We consider two problems: network capacity maximization and network balancing. In the first part of the paper we describe ... Keywords: Capacity maximization, Load balancing, Model predictive control, Reachable sets, Storage networks

Claus Danielson, Francesco Borrelli, Douglas Oliver, Dyche Anderson, Tony Phillips

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

A distributed Newton method for Network Utility Maximization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most existing work uses dual decomposition and subgradient methods to solve Network Utility Maximization (NUM) problems in a distributed manner, which suffer from slow rate of convergence properties. This work develops an ...

Wei, Ermin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Hardy-type nonlocality proof for two maximally entangled particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a variation on a gedanken experiment of Hardy [Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 (1992) 2981] that allows, for the first time, a Hardy-type nonlocality proof for two maximally entangled particles in a four-dimensional Hilbert space.

Demetrios Kalamidas

2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

62

Maximal r-Diameter Sets and Solids of Constant Width  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We recall the definition of an r-maximal set in a metric space as a maximal subset of diameter r. In the special case when the metric space is Euclidean such a set is exactly a solid of constant diameter r. In the process of reviewing the theory of these objects we provide a simple construction which generates a large class of such solids.

Ethan Akin

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

63

Facially exposed cones are not always nice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 23, 2013 ... a valuable insight into the fundamental properties of convex programs, performance of numerical ..... F12(?) are exposed faces of C, that all zero- dimensional faces are exposed and that C does not have any ..... Handbook of.

64

BRRR...5 Ways to Maximize Your Fireplace and Chimney Efficiency |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BRRR...5 Ways to Maximize Your Fireplace and Chimney Efficiency BRRR...5 Ways to Maximize Your Fireplace and Chimney Efficiency BRRR...5 Ways to Maximize Your Fireplace and Chimney Efficiency January 30, 2013 - 5:13pm Addthis A warm fireplace can save you energy and money with proper maintenance. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/Pgiam. A warm fireplace can save you energy and money with proper maintenance. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/Pgiam. Erin Connealy Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy How can I participate? Follow these tips to make sure that your cozy fireplace isn't wasting energy in your home. The Northeast and much of the country has had very frigid temperatures lately! If you're like me, nothing sounds better than cozying up to the fireplace with a cup of cocoa on a cold day. But be aware that while

65

Maximal output purity and capacity for asymmetric unital qudit channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider generalizations of depolarizing channels to maps in which the identity channel is replaced by a convex combinations of unitary conjugations. We show that one can construct unital channels of this type for which the input which achieves maximal output purity is unique. We give conditions under which multiplicativity of the maximal p-norm and additivity of the minimal output entropy. We also show that the Holevo capacity need not equal log d - the minimal entropy as one might expect for a convex combination of unitary conjugations. Conversely, we give examples for which this condition holds, but the channel has no evident covariance properties.

Nilanjana Datta; Mary Beth Ruskai

2005-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

66

Efficiency of Exterior Exposed Ductwork  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Efficiency of Exterior Exposed Ductwork Most of California's commercial buildings have thermal distribution systems, the majority (63%) of which are air-based and distribute air through ductworks. Thermal distribution ductwork systems in small commercial buildings are similar to those in residential construction [Winter 1995, p.8] and have the same leakage and conduction-loss problems. The extent of these duct-related thermal losses depends on the location of the ductwork-the largest thermal losses occur when the ducts are entirely outside the building envelope. Leakage, conduction losses, direct solar radiation effects and solar reflection all affect the magnitude of thermal loss. Differences in the lengths of exterior ducts also affect a distribution system's energy

67

MAXIMAL ANALYTIC EXTENSIONS OF THE EMPARAN-REALL BLACK RING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MAXIMAL ANALYTIC EXTENSIONS OF THE EMPARAN-REALL BLACK RING Piotr T. Chru´sciel & Julien Cortier Abstract We construct a Kruskal-Szekeres-type analytic extension of the Emparan- Reall black ring-Reall [13] metrics form a remarkable class of vacuum black hole solutions of Einstein equations in dimension

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Maximization of Mutual Information for Offline Thai Handwriting Recognition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper aims to improve the performance of an HMM-based offline Thai handwriting recognition system through discriminative training and the use of fine-tuned feature extraction methods. The discriminative training is implemented by maximizing the ... Keywords: Character recognition, Hidden Markov Model, discriminative training, PCA, feature extraction, Thai handwriting recognition.

Roongroj Nopsuwanchai; Alain Biem; William F. Clocksin

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Density-metric unimodular gravity: Vacuum maximal symmetry  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the vacuum maximally symmetric solutions of recently proposed density-metric unimodular gravity theory. The results are widely different from inflationary scenario. The exponential dependence on time in deSitter space is substituted by a power law. Open space-times with non-zero cosmological constant are excluded.

Abbassi, A.H., E-mail: ahabbasi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14155-4838, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbassi, A.M., E-mail: amabasi@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Maximizing Battery Life Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximizing Battery Life Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weifa Liang Department of Computer Abstract--Most wireless ad hoc networks consist of mobile devices which operate on batteries. Power con, for an ad hoc network consisting of the same type of battery mobile nodes, two approximation algorithms

Liang, Weifa

71

A linear combination of classifiers via rank margin maximization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The method we present aims at building a weighted linear combination of already trained dichotomizers, where the weights are determined to maximize the minimum rank margin of the resulting ranking system. This is particularly suited for real applications ... Keywords: combination of classifiers, margin, ranking

Claudio Marrocco; Paolo Simeone; Francesco Tortorella

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers at the Thermal Test Facility (TTF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, are addressing maximizing thermal efficiency and optimizing energy management through analysis of efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) strategies, automated home energy management (AHEM), and energy storage systems.

Not Available

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the Thermal Test Facility (TTF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, are addressing maximizing thermal efficiency and optimizing energy management through analysis of efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) strategies, automated home energy management (AHEM), and energy storage systems.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Throughput maximization in UWB-based ad-hoc networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, we study the problem of radio resource allocation, both transmission rates and transmission powers, so as to maximize the throughput of UWB wireless ad-hoc networks. Our analysis is based on the packet-success function (PSF), which is defined as the probability of a data packet being successfully received as a function of the receiver’s signal-to-interference-and-noise-ratio (SINR). We find an optimal link transmission rate, which maximizes the link’s throughput and is dependent on the all active links transmission powers. If each link transmission rate is adapted to this optimal link transmission rate, then, with single-link operation (i.e., no other interference sources are present), the link’s throughput is directly proportional to the transmitter’s power and increases indefinitely with increasing transmission power. However, with multiplelinks operation and interference each other, as each link transmitting power increases, so does the interference level, and the total network throughput approaches a constant other than infinite. Thus, for sufficiently small transmission power, the total network throughput of the multiple-links case exceeds the throughput of the single-link case, but the reverse happens for high power. In addition, this paper reveals that, as the number of concurrently transmitting links increases, regardless of the power level, the maximal total network throughput approaches a constant, with each link’s throughput approaching zero. To maximize the network throughput, for the case of small maximal transmission power with weak interference levels, the optimal transmission scheduling

Zou Chuanyun; Haas Zygmunt J; Zou Sheng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Typifies Optimizing Resources to Maximize  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plant Typifies Optimizing Resources to Plant Typifies Optimizing Resources to Maximize Results Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Typifies Optimizing Resources to Maximize Results March 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis EM Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) Manager Joe Franco, right, presents a memento to EM Senior Advisor Dave Huizenga EM Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) Manager Joe Franco, right, presents a memento to EM Senior Advisor Dave Huizenga Three HalfPACT transportation packages on a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) truck are parked inside the exhibit hall at the 2013 Waste Management Conference. WIPP featured the exhibit as part of outreach to visitors at the annual gathering in Phoenix. Three HalfPACT transportation packages on a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) truck are parked inside the exhibit hall at the 2013 Waste

76

Maximizing Cloud Providers Revenues via Energy Aware Allocation Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cloud providers, like Amazon, offer their data centers' computational and storage capacities for lease to paying customers. High electricity consumption, associated with running a data center, not only reflects on its carbon footprint, but also increases the costs of running the data center itself. This paper addresses the problem of maximizing the revenues of Cloud providers by trimming down their electricity costs. As a solution allocation policies which are based on the dynamic powering servers on and off are introduced and evaluated. The policies aim at satisfying the conflicting goals of maximizing the users' experience while minimizing the amount of consumed electricity. The results of numerical experiments and simulations are described, showing that the proposed scheme performs well under different traffic conditions.

Mazzucco, Michele; Deters, Ralph

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Maximal Beable Subalgebras of Quantum-Mechanical Observables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given a state on an algebra of bounded quantum-mechanical observables (the self-adjoint part of a C*-algebra), we investigate those subalgebras that are maximal with respect to the property that the given state's restriction to the subalgebra is a mixture of dispersion-free states---what we call maximal "beable" subalgebras (borrowing a terminology due to J. S. Bell). We also extend our investigation to the theory of algebras of unbounded observables (as developed by R. Kadison), and show how our results articulate a solid mathematical foundation for central tenets of the orthodox Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory (such as the joint indeterminacy of canonically conjugate observables, and Bohr's defense of the completeness of quantum theory against the argument of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen).

Hans Halvorson; Rob Clifton

1999-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

78

Superluminal group velocity through near-maximal neutrino oscillations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently it was suggested that the observation of superluminal neutrinos by the OPERA collaboration may be due to group velocity effects resulting from close-to-maximal oscillation between neutrino mass eigenstates, in analogy to known effects in optics. We show that superluminal propagation does occur through this effect for a series of very narrow energy ranges, but this phenomenum cannot explain the OPERA measurement.

Tim R. Morris

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

79

Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments Title Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-6147E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Noris, Federico, William W. Delp, Kimberly Vermeer, Gary Adamkiewicz, Brett C. Singer, and William J. Fisk Journal Energy and Buildings Volume 61 Pagination 378-386 Date Published 06/2013 Keywords apartments, buildings, costs, energy, indoor environmental quality, Protocol, retrofits, Selection Abstract The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

80

Exploring pure quantum states with maximally mixed reductions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate multipartite entanglement for composite quantum systems in a pure state. Using the generalized Bloch representation for n-qubit states, we express the condition that all k-qubit reductions of the whole system are maximally mixed, reflecting maximum bipartite entanglement across all k vs. n-k bipartitions. As a special case, we examine the class of balanced pure states, which are constructed from a subset of the Pauli group P_n that is isomorphic to Z_2^n. This makes a connection with the theory of quantum error-correcting codes and provides bounds on the largest allowed k for fixed n. In particular, the ratio k/n can be lower and upper bounded in the asymptotic regime, implying that there must exist multipartite entangled states with at least k=0.189 n when $n\\to \\infty$. We also analyze symmetric states as another natural class of states with high multipartite entanglement and prove that, surprisingly, they cannot have all maximally mixed k-qubit reductions with k>1. Thus, measured through bipartite entanglement across all bipartitions, symmetric states cannot exhibit large entanglement. However, we show that the permutation symmetry only constrains some components of the generalized Bloch vector, so that very specific patterns in this vector may be allowed even though k>1 is forbidden. This is illustrated numerically for a few symmetric states that maximize geometric entanglement, revealing some interesting structures.

Ludovic Arnaud; Nicolas J. Cerf

2012-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Generating efficient quantum circuits for preparing maximally multipartite entangled states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we provide a method for generating quantum circuits preparing maximally multipartite entangled states using genetic programming. The presented method is faster that known realisations thanks to the applied fitness function and several modifications to the genetic programming schema. Moreover, we enrich the described method by the unique possibility to define an arbitrary structure of a system. We use the developed method to find new quantum circuits, which are simpler from known results. We also analyse the efficiency of generating entanglement in the spin chain system and in the system of complete connections.

Przemys?aw Sadowski

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Maxim> App Notes> Battery Management Power-Supply Circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPLICATION NOTE 680 How to design battery charger applications that require external microcontrollers and related system-level issues Abstract: Notebook computers increasingly require complex battery charging algorithms and systems. This article provides information and background on lithium-ion (Li+), nickel-cadmium (NiCd), and nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) batteries and related system-level switch-mode and linear battery chargers. These voltage regulators and current regulators are controlled by external microprocessors like the 8051 or Microchip PIC, and examples are provided with these controllers. An overview of requirements for charging common battery chemistries with Maxim battery charger ICs is provided, along with a discussion of system-level trade-offs and firmware design tips, and a list of World Wide Web engineering resources. The previous issue of Maxim's Engineering Journal (Vol. 27) discussed new developments in stand-alone battery chargers. This second article of a two-part series explores the system-level issues in applying battery-charger ICs. Over the past five years, market pressures on portable equipment have transformed the simple battery charger into a sophisticated switch-mode device capable of charging an advanced battery in 30 minutes. This development also marks a departure from the selfcontained, stand-alone charger ICs of only a few years ago. Some of those ICs included considerable intelligence: enough to handle the complex task of fast charging advanced batteries.

unknown authors

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Exploiting the Parallelism Exposed by Partial Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the key role played by partial evaluation in the Supercomputing Toolkit, a parallel computing system for scientific applications that effectively exploits the vast amount of parallelism exposed by partial ...

Surati, Rajeev

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

22 mei 2007 SURFnet6 and beyond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, VPNs, shared service center - C: Researchers: computing, data grids, virtual-presence This slide lines - 2002 Start Lambda networks at 10 Gbps - (190% increase per year?) - 2012 ??? #12;SURFnet, grensverleggend netwerk voor hoger onderwijs en onderzoek5 Capacity growth of the SURFnet netwerk - Every

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

87

EMP Attachment 3 DOE-SC PNNL Site Dose Assessment Guidance  

SciTech Connect

This Dose Assessment Guidance (DAG) describes methods to use to determine the Maximally-Exposed Individual (MEI) location and to estimate dose impact to that individual under the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). This guidance applies to public dose from radioactive material releases to the air from PNNL Site operations. This document is an attachment to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) and describes dose assessment guidance for radiological air emissions. The impact of radiological air emissions from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) PNNL Site is indicated by dose estimates to a maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). Reporting requirements associated with dose to members of the public from radiological air emissions are in 40 CFR Part 61.94, WAC 246-247-080, and DOE Order 458.1. The DOE Order and state standards for dose from radioactive air emissions are consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose standards in 40 CFR 61.92 (i.e., 10 mrem/yr to a MEI). Despite the fact that the current Contract Requirements Document (CRD) for the DOE-SC PNNL Site operations does not include the requirement to meet DOE CRD 458.1, paragraph 2.b, public dose limits, the DOE dose limits would be met when EPA limits are met.

Snyder, Sandra F.

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

88

DOE Solar Decathlon: University of Texas at Austin: Maximizing Potential  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mobile Utility Unit's Airstream trailer and entryway at dusk. Mobile Utility Unit's Airstream trailer and entryway at dusk. Enlarge image The Mobile Utility Unit designed by the University of Texas at Austin is one of the core buildings associated with the Center for Maximum Potential Building Systems. (Courtesy of Kit Morris) Who: University of Texas at Austin What: Mobile Utility Unit Where: Center for Maximum Potential Building Systems 8604 FM 969 Austin, Texas 78724 Map This House Public tours: Visitors are welcome the first Friday of every month. For tour information, call 512-928-4786. Solar Decathlon 2002 University of Texas at Austin: Maximizing Potential Students from the University of Texas at Austin designed the Mobile Utility Unit for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2002. Based on an agreement with the University of Texas School of Architecture, the

89

Extremal black attractors in 8D maximal supergravity  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by the new higher D-supergravity solutions on intersecting attractors obtained by Ferrara et al. in [Phys. Rev. D 79, 065031 (2009)], we focus in this paper on 8D maximal supergravity with moduli space (SL(3,R)/SO(3))x(SL(2,R)/SO(2)) and study explicitly the attractor mechanism for various configurations of extremal black p-branes (antibranes) with the typical near horizon geometries AdS{sub p+2}xS{sup m}xT{sup 6-p-m} and p=0, 1, 2, 3, 4; 2{<=}m{<=}6. Interpretations in terms of wrapped M2 and M5 branes of the 11D M-theory on 3-torus are also given.

Drissi, L. B [INANOTECH, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (Morocco); Hassani, F. Z; Jehjouh, H. [Lab/UFR-High Energy Physics, Faculty of Science, Rabat (Morocco) and GNPHE; Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies (Morocco); Saidi, E. H [INANOTECH, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (Morocco) and Lab/UFR-High Energy Physics; Faculty of Science, Rabat (Morocco); GNPHE, Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies (Morocco)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Globally Optimal Distributed Power Control for Nonconcave Utility Maximization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Future wireless networks are expected to operate in dense environments where the system capacity is fundamentally limited by severe co-channel interference among neighboring links. Transmit-power control has been recently explored as an important interference-mitigation technique that aims to maximize a system efficiency metric, which is often measured by a system utility function. Optimal power control is known to be difficult to achieve, mainly because the optimization problem is in general highly non-convex. This problem had eluded researchers and remained open until our recent work [11], where a centralized optimal power control algorithm, referred to as MAPEL, is developed based on a monotonic optimization framework. However, there does not yet exist a distributed power control algorithm that achieves the global optimal solution for generic utility functions, although the distributed implementation is crucial for the wireless infrastructureless networks such as ad hoc and sensor networks. This paper fill...

Qian, Li Ping; Zhang,; Chiang, Mung

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Ecological Impacts of Beach Grooming on Exposed Sandy Beaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

use of an exposed sandy beach in southern California.of grooming on exposed sandy beaches in southern California.of grooming on exposed sandy beaches in southern California.

Dugan, Jenifer

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Matter Collineations of Static Spacetimes with Maximal Symmetric Transverse Spaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to study the symmetries of the energy-momentum tensor for the static spacetimes with maximal symmetric transverse spaces. We solve matter collineation equations for the four main cases by taking one, two, three and four non-zero components of the vector $\\xi^a$. For one component non-zero, we obtain only one matter collineation for the non-degenerate case and for two components non-zero, the non-degenerate case yields maximum three matter collineations. When we take three components non-zero, we obtain three, four and five independent matter collineations for the non-degenerate and for the degenerate cases respectively. This case generalizes the degenerate case of the static spherically symmetric spacetimes. The last case (when all the four components are non-zero) provides the generalization of the non-degenerate case of the static spherically symmetric spacetimes. This gives either four, five, six, seven or ten independent matter collineations in which four are the usual Killing vectors and rest are the proper matter collineations. It is mentioned here that we obtain different constraint equations which, on solving, may provide some new exact solutions of the Einstein field equations.

M. Sharif

2007-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

93

N=1 RG Flows, Product Groups, and a-Maximization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore new IR phenomena and dualities, arising for product groups, in the context of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. The RG running of the multiple couplings can radically affect each other. For example, an otherwise IR interacting coupling can be driven to be instead IR free by an arbitrarily small, but non-zero, initial value of another coupling. Or an otherwise IR free coupling can be driven to be instead IR interacting by an arbitrarily small non-zero initial value of another coupling. We explore these and other phenomena in N=1 examples, where exact results can be obtained using a-maximization. We also explore the various possible dual gauge theories, e.g. by dualizing one gauge group with the other treated as a weakly gauged flavor symmetry, along with previously proposed duals for the theories deformed by A_k-type Landau-Ginzburg superpotentials. We note that this latter duality, and all similar duality examples, always have non-empty superconformal windows, within which both the electric and dual A_k superpotentials are relevant.

Edwin Barnes; Ken Intriligator; Brian Wecht; Jason Wright

2005-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

94

Parametric completely generalized mixed implicit quasi-variational inclusions involving h-maximal monotone mappings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new class of parametric completely generalized mixed implicit quasi-variational inclusions involving h-maximal monotone mappings is introduced. By applying resolvent operator technique of h-maximal monotone mapping and the property of fixed point set ... Keywords: 47H05, 47J20, 47J25, 49J40, 49J53, Parametric completely generalized mixed implicit quasi-variational inclusion, Resolvent operator, Sensitivity analysis, h-maximal monotone mapping

Xie Ping Ding

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Application of geostatistical reservoir description for maximizing waterflood infill drilling recovery from La Cira Field, Colombia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??One of the prospective ways to increase the oil production is to maximize the oil recovery from mature oil fields. In this study we apply… (more)

Cubillos Gutierrez, Helber

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Control Architecture and Utility Maximization for a Smart Grid based Energy Community.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a control architecture and utility maximization mechanisms for a smart grid based energy community. The particular focus is upon a central server… (more)

W. Abegaz, B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Studies on persons exposed to plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The results of four studies of persons exposed, or potentially exposed, to plutonium are summarized. The studies are: a five-year update on clinical examinations and health experience of 26 Manhattan District workers heavily exposed at Los Alamos in 1944 to 1945; a 30-year mortality follow-up of 224 white male workers with plutonium body burdens of 10 nCi or more; a review of cancer mortality rates between 1950 and 1969 among Los Alamos County, New Mexico, male residents, all of whom have worked in or have lived within a few kilometers of a major plutonium plant and other nuclear facilities; and a review of cancer incidence rates between 1969 and 1974 in male residents of Los Alamos County. No excess of mortality due to any cause was observed in the 224 male subjects with the highest plutonium exposures at Los Alamos. Clinical examinations of the Manhattan District workers, whose average age in 1976 was 56 years, show them to be active persons with diseases that are not unusual for their ages. The two deaths in this group over the past 30 years have not been due to cancer. Mortality and incidence data indicate no excess of lung cancer in Los Alamos County males.

Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Haxton, L.K.; York, D.A.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

On perturbation theory and an algorithm for maximal clique enumeration in uncertain and noisy graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximal clique enumeration (MCE) problem can be used to find very tightly-coupled collections of objects inside a network or graph of relationships. However, when such networks are based on noisy or uncertain data, the solutions to the MCE problem ... Keywords: biological applications, graph algorithms, graph perturbation theory, maximal clique enumeration

William Hendrix; Matthew C. Schmidt; Paul Breimyer; Nagiza F. Samatova

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Maximal network reliability with optimal transmission line assignment for stochastic electric power networks via genetic algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study proposes a genetic algorithm based method integrating the minimal paths and the recursive sum of disjoint products to find maximal network reliability with optimal transmission line assignment for a stochastic electric power network. In our ... Keywords: Genetic algorithm, Maximal network reliability, Recursive sum of disjoint products, Stochastic electric power network, Transmission line assignment

Yi-Kuei Lin; Cheng-Ta Yeh

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

RTDS Based Maximal Power Point Tracking Simulation for Doubly-Fed Induction Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the control of the wind generation, the maximal power point tracking (MPPT) control plays important role in the efficiency. This paper presents the simulation results of the MPPT control with RTDS-based DFIG model. At first, it analyzes the vector-control ... Keywords: Wind energy, DFIG((doubly-fed induction generator), Stator flux-oriented, Maximal power point tracking

Jiamin Zhang; Ancheng Xue; Tianshu Bi

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Author's personal copy Maximizing the solar to H2 energy conversion efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author's personal copy Maximizing the solar to H2 energy conversion efficiency of outdoor, Cockrell School of Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin ­ Austin, TX 78712, USA b Mechanical t A numerical study is presented aiming to maximize the solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency

Pilon, Laurent

102

Low complexity subcarrier and power allocation for utility maximization in uplink OFDMA systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the joint subcarrier and power allocation problem with the objective of maximizing the total utility of users in the uplink of an OFDMA system. Our formulation includes the problems of sum rate maximization, proportional fairness and max-min ...

Cho Yiu Ng; Chi Wan Sung

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Chloride-Exposed Steel-Reinforced Concrete Service Life ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chloride-Exposed Steel-Reinforced Concrete Service Life Prediction Program. Description/Summary: (Return to Cement ...

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

104

NREL: Continuum Magazine - Maximizing the Benefits of Plug-in Electric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing the Benefits of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Maximizing the Benefits of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Issue 4 Print Version Share this resource Maximizing the Benefits of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Advancing electric vehicle charging options and grid readiness reduces oil consumption and vehicle emissions. A photo of two electric vehicles in a research facility. Enlarge image Electric vehicle charging stations in NREL's parking garage. Photo by Dennis Schroder, NREL Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)-including all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles-offer the opportunity to reduce oil consumption and vehicle emissions by drawing on power from the utility grid. When the grid uses electricity generated from clean, domestic energy sources, the emerging PEV infrastructure will increasingly maximize

105

Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program The Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D)/Facility Engineering (FE) is charged with reducing the technical risk and uncertainty of D&D activities across the Environmental Management (EM) Complex through the identification, development and demonstration of alternative technologies as well as through the provision of technical assistance activities such as Lessons Learned Workshops and External Technical Review Teams. Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program More Documents & Publications Across the Pond Newsletter Issue 1 D&D Toolbox Project - Technology Demonstration of Fixatives Applied to Hot

106

Penalized Maximal t Test for Detecting Undocumented Mean Change in Climate Data Series  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a penalized maximal t test (PMT) is proposed for detecting undocumented mean shifts in climate data series. PMT takes the relative position of each candidate changepoint into account, to diminish the effect of unequal sample sizes ...

Xiaolan L. Wang; Qiuzi H. Wen; Yuehua Wu

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of Rural Electrification Programs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of Rural Electrification Programs Agency/Company /Organization: Christophe de Gouvello and Laurent Durix Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy Phase: Create a Vision Topics: - Energy Access Resource Type: Publications User Interface: Website Website: www.esmap.org/esmap/sites/esmap.org/files/FR_Maximizing%20the%20Produc Cost: Free Language: English This paper argues that to be successful, rural electrification programs should target direct impact on livelihoods and revenue generation beyond the provision of connections and kilowatt-hours by implementing electricity

108

Fatigue Testing of Hydrogen-Exposed Austenitic Stainless Steel in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Part of the focus is on possible mechanical properties degradation of stainless steel exposed to hydrogen for long periods of time. Samples of austenitic ...

109

Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient Engine Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient Engine September 27, 2011 - 3:52pm Addthis A team of researchers and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, led by Steve Ciatti, pictured above, is looking at the possibility of using gasoline to power diesel engines, thereby increasing overall efficiency and reducing pollution. | Image courtesy of ANL A team of researchers and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, led by Steve Ciatti, pictured above, is looking at the possibility of using gasoline to power diesel engines, thereby increasing overall efficiency and reducing pollution. | Image courtesy of ANL Bryan Wheeler Intern, Office of Science

110

Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient Engine Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient Engine September 27, 2011 - 3:52pm Addthis A team of researchers and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, led by Steve Ciatti, pictured above, is looking at the possibility of using gasoline to power diesel engines, thereby increasing overall efficiency and reducing pollution. | Image courtesy of ANL A team of researchers and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, led by Steve Ciatti, pictured above, is looking at the possibility of using gasoline to power diesel engines, thereby increasing overall efficiency and reducing pollution. | Image courtesy of ANL Bryan Wheeler Intern, Office of Science

111

A Higher Order GUP with Minimal Length Uncertainty and Maximal Momentum II: Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a recent paper, we presented a nonperturbative higher order generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) that is consistent with various proposals of quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity, doubly special relativity, and predicts both a minimal length uncertainty and a maximal observable momentum. In this Letter, we find exact maximally localized states and present a formally self-adjoint and naturally perturbative representation of this modified algebra. Then we extend this GUP to D dimensions that will be shown it is noncommutative and find invariant density of states. We show that the presence of the maximal momentum results in upper bounds on the energy spectrum of the free particle and the particle in box. Moreover, this form of GUP modifies blackbody radiation spectrum at high frequencies and predicts a finite cosmological constant. Although it does not solve the cosmological constant problem, it gives a better estimation with respect to the presence of just the minimal length.

Pouria Pedram

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

112

Foliar lead uptake by lettuce exposed to atmospheric fallouts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Foliar lead uptake by lettuce exposed to atmospheric fallouts Gaëlle Uzu, Sophie Sobanska of foliar uptake of lead by lettuce (lactuca sativa) exposed to the atmospheric fallouts of a lead Pb-rich fallouts are studied. INTRODUCTION Particles emitted in the atmosphere present a large

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Foliar Lead Uptake by Lettuce Exposed to Atmospheric Fallouts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Foliar Lead Uptake by Lettuce Exposed to Atmospheric Fallouts G A ¨E L L E U Z U , S O P H I E S O) exposed to the atmospheric fallouts of a lead-recycling plant were studied. After43daysofexposure area, they can strongly impact the biosphere (7, 8). At the global scale, fallouts of atmospheric PM

Mailhes, Corinne

114

Wind Farm Power Maximization Based On A Cooperative Static Game Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind Farm Power Maximization Based On A Cooperative Static Game Approach Jinkyoo Parka, Soonduck efficiency of wind farms using cooperative control. The key factors in determining the power production and the loading for a wind turbine are the nacelle yaw and blade pitch angles. However, the nacelle and blade

Stanford University

115

An efficient data rate maximization algorithm for OFDM based wireless networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present a computationally efficient, suboptimal integer bit allocation algorithm that maximizes the overall data rate in multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems implemented in wireless networks. Assuming the ... Keywords: Bit allocation algorithm, Multiuser OFDM system, Power allocation algorithm, QoS, Wireless networks

Željko Ili?; Alen Bažant; Borivoj Modlic

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Maximizing bichromatic reverse nearest neighbor for Lp-norm in two- and three-dimensional spaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bichromatic reverse nearest neighbor (BRNN) has been extensively studied in spatial database literature. In this paper, we study a related problem called MaxBRNN: find an optimal region that maximizes the size of BRNNs for L p ... Keywords: Indexing, Reverse nearest neighbor, Spatial databases

Raymond Chi-Wing Wong; M. Tamer Özsu; Ada Wai-Chee Fu; Philip S. Yu; Lian Liu; Yubao Liu

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Combination of dichotomizers for maximizing the partial area under the ROC curve  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, classifier combination has been of great interest for the pattern recognition community as a method to improve classification performance. The most part of combination rules are based on maximizing the accuracy and, only recently, the ... Keywords: ROC curve, classifiers combination, partial AUC

Maria Teresa Ricamato; Francesco Tortorella

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Some Aspects of Supersymmetric Field Theories with Minimal Length and Maximal Momentum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a real scalar field and a Majorana fermion field to construct a supersymmetric quantum theory of free fermion fields based on the deformed Heisenberg algebra $[x,p]=i\\hbar\\big(1-\\beta p+2\\beta^{2}p^{2}\\big)$, where $\\beta $ is a deformation parameter. We present a deformed supersymmetric algebra in the presence of minimal length and maximal momentum.

Nozari, Kourosh; Balef, F Rezaee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

Hamhalter, Jan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Energy-Aware Loop Parallelism Maximization for Multi-core DSP Architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the advance of semiconductor, multi-core architecture is inevitable in today's embedded system design. Nested loops are usually the most critical part in multimedia and high performance DSP (Digital Signal Processing) systems. Hence, maximizing ... Keywords: Energy, multi-core, loop parallelization, retiming, voltage assignment

Meikang Qiu; Jian-Wei Niu; Laurence T. Yang; Xiao Qin; Senlin Zhang; Bin Wang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Determining optimum agronomic practices to maximize productivity of canola-quality oriental mustard (Brassica juncea).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determining optimum agronomic practices to maximize productivity of canola-quality oriental mustard such as winter and spring canola and rapeseed have long been grown in this region, albeit on a relatively small. Wheat yields after canola, rapeseed and yellow mustard have been shown to be favorably high compared

Brown, Jack

122

Determining optimum agronomic practices to maximize productivity of canola-quality Oriental mustard (Brassica juncea).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determining optimum agronomic practices to maximize productivity of canola-quality Oriental mustard with small grain cereals. Brassica crops such as winter and spring canola and rapeseed have long been canola, rapeseed and yellow mustard can be favorably high compared to monoculture cereal production

Brown, Jack

123

Generating English Summaries of Time Series Data Using the Gricean Maxims  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, gas-turbine sensor readings, and hospital intensive care data. Our weather-forecast generator users. Categories and Subject Descriptors I.2.7 [Natural Language Processing]: Language Generation. Keywords Time series data, Summarization, Natural Language Processing, Gricean maxims. 1. INTRODUCTION

Sripada, Yaji

124

Coverage-Based Information Retrieval for Lifetime Maximization in Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coverage-Based Information Retrieval for Lifetime Maximization in Sensor Networks Tong Zhao {ttzhao, qzhao}@ece.ucdavis.edu Abstract--We consider information retrieval in a wireless sensor network-of-service (QoS) specific information retrieval for the reconstruction of a spatially correlated random signal

Islam, M. Saif

125

Maximizing the Statistical Diversity of an Ensemble of Bred Vectors by Using the Geometric Norm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that the choice of the norm has a great impact on the construction of ensembles of bred vectors. The geometric norm maximizes (in comparison with other norms such as the Euclidean one) the statistical diversity of the ensemble while at ...

Diego Pazó; Miguel A. Rodríguez; Juan M. López

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Quasideterministic generation of maximally entangled states of two mesoscopic atomic ensembles by adiabatic quantum feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce an efficient, quasideterministic scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum nondemolition measurements of total atomic populations and on adiabatic quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for ideal photodetection as well as in the presence of losses.

Di Lisi, Antonio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica 'E. R. Caianiello', Universita di Salerno, INFM-Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Vitali, David [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino, MC (Italy)

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

Quasideterministic generation of maximally entangled states of two mesoscopic atomic ensembles by adiabatic quantum feedback  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce an efficient, quasideterministic scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum nondemolition measurements of total atomic populations and on adiabatic quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for ideal photodetection as well as in the presence of losses.

Antonio Di Lisi; Silvio De Siena; Fabrizio Illuminati; David Vitali

2004-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

128

Controlled generation of hard and easy Bayesian networks: Impact on maximal clique size in tree clustering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents and analyzes algorithms that systematically generate random Bayesian networks of varying difficulty levels, with respect to inference using tree clustering. The results are relevant to research on efficient Bayesian network inference, ... Keywords: Bayesian networks, C/V-ratio, Controlled experiments, Maximal clique size, Probabilistic reasoning, Random generation, Tree clustering inference

Ole J. Mengshoel; David C. Wilkins; Dan Roth

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Optimal Real-time Pricing Algorithm Based on Utility Maximization for Smart Grid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Real-time Pricing Algorithm Based on Utility Maximization for Smart Grid Pedram Samadi algorithm for the future smart grid. We focus on the interactions between the smart meters and the energy-mail:{psamadi, hamed, rschober, vincentw, jurij}@ece.ubc.ca Abstract--In this paper, we consider a smart power infras

Wong, Vincent

130

Outdoor polymeric insulators long-term exposed to HVDC  

SciTech Connect

Field experience from outdoor polymeric insulators exposed to HVDC under natural contamination conditions is presented. This paper summarizes the peak leakage current statistics, the hydrophobicity and the surface material conditions studied by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results show a strong interrelation between the surface conditions and the performance with respect to leakage currents. Moreover, the results show that the surface conditions and the performance of the insulators exposed to HVDC are rather similar to those of the insulators exposed to HVAC.

Soerqvist, T.; Vlastos, A.E. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Ecological Impacts of Beach Grooming on Exposed Sandy Beaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beach Grooming on Exposed Sandy Beaches R/CZ-174 J.E. Dugan,of California, Santa Barbara Sandy beaches and associatedstructure and function of sandy beach ecosystems. We used a

Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Page, Henry M.; Schimel, Joshua P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load.

Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO); Taylor, Roger W. (Golden, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Advanced control for power density maximization of the brushless DC generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation proposes a novel control technique for power density maximization of the brushless DC (BLDC) generator which is a nonsinusoidal power supply system. In a generator of given rating, the weight and size of the system affect the fuel consumption directly, therefore power density is one of the most important issues in a stand-alone generator. Conventional rectification methods cannot achieve the maximum power possible because of a distorted or unsuitable current waveform. The optimal current waveform for maximizing power density and minimizing machine size and weight in a nonsinusoidal power supply system has been proposed theoretically and verified by simulation and experimental work. Also, various attributes of practical interest are analyzed and simulated to investigate the impact on real systems.

Lee, Hyung-Woo

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Engineering extremal two-qubit entangled states with maximally entangled Gaussian light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study state engineering induced by bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and light fields prepared in two-mode Gaussian states. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-vs-global-purity plane. We show that two-mode Gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. The target two-qubit entanglement is determined quantitatively only by the purities of the two-mode Gaussian resource. Thus, a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode Gaussian states is sufficient to control completely the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic scenarios of cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics.

Adesso, G; Illuminati, F; Paternostro, M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Control Strategies for Distributed Energy Resources to Maximize the Use of Wind Power in Rural Microgrids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of this paper is to design control strategies for distributed energy resources (DERs) to maximize the use of wind power in a rural microgrid. In such a system, it may be economical to harness wind power to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels for electricity production. In this work, we develop control strategies for DERs, including diesel generators, energy storage and demand response, to achieve high penetration of wind energy in a rural microgrid. Combinations of centralized (direct control) and decentralized (autonomous response) control strategies are investigated. Detailed dynamic models for a rural microgrid are built to conduct simulations. The system response to large disturbances and frequency regulation are tested. It is shown that optimal control coordination of DERs can be achieved to maintain system frequency while maximizing wind power usage and reducing the wear and tear on fossil fueled generators.

Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Samaan, Nader A.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Diao, Ruisheng; Jin, Chunlian; Zhang, Yu

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

136

Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load. 20 figs.

Muljadi, E.; Taylor, R.W.

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

137

Generation and purification of maximally entangled atomic states in optical cavities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a probabilistic scheme for generating and purifying maximally entangled states of two atoms inside an optical cavity via no-photon detection at the cavity output, where ideal detectors are not required. The intermediate mixed states can be continuously purified so as to violate Bell inequalities in a parametrized manner. The scheme relies on an additional strong-driving field that realizes, atypically, simultaneous Jaynes-Cummings and anti-Jaynes-Cummings interactions.

Lougovski, P.; Walther, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Solano, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Seccion Fisica, Departamento de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Apartado 1761, Lima (Peru)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Maximization of No-Load Flux Density in Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors Frdric DUBAS, Christophe ESPANET & Abdellatif MIRAOUI.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximization of No-Load Flux Density in Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors Frédéric DUBAS mounted permanent magnet motors having a direction of parallel or radial magnetization [1]. I expression of the optimal thickness of the magnet which make it possible to maximize the no-load flux density

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

Accounting for Autocorrelation in Detecting Mean Shifts in Climate Data Series Using the Penalized Maximal t or F Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study proposes an empirical approach to account for lag-1 autocorrelation in detecting mean shifts in time series of white or red (first-order autoregressive) Gaussian noise using the penalized maximal t test or the penalized maximal F test. ...

Xiaolan L. Wang

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Second use of transportation batteries: Maximizing the value of batteries for transportation and grid services  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to gain significant market share over the next decade. The economic viability for such vehicles is contingent upon the availability of cost-effective batteries with high power and energy density. For initial commercial success, government subsidies will be highly instrumental in allowing PHEVs to gain a foothold. However, in the long-term, for electric vehicles to be commercially viable, the economics have to be self-sustaining. Towards the end of battery life in the vehicle, the energy capacity left in the battery is not sufficient to provide the designed range for the vehicle. Typically, the automotive manufacturers indicated the need for battery replacement when the remaining energy capacity reaches 70-80%. There is still sufficient power (kW) and energy capacity (kWh) left in the battery to support various grid ancillary services such as balancing, spinning reserve, load following services. As renewable energy penetration increases, the need for such balancing services is expected to increase. This work explores optimality for the replacement of transportation batteries to be subsequently used for grid services. This analysis maximizes the value of an electric vehicle battery to be used as a transportation battery (in its first life) and then as a resource for providing grid services (in its second life). The results are presented across a range of key parameters, such as depth of discharge (DOD), number of batteries used over the life of the vehicle, battery life in vehicle, battery state of health (SOH) at end of life in vehicle and ancillary services rate. The results provide valuable insights for the automotive industry into maximizing the utility and the value of the vehicle batteries in an effort to either reduce the selling price of EVs and PHEVs or maximize the profitability of the emerging electrification of transportation.

Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012  

SciTech Connect

This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

142

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

143

MEI~ORAXKJM POR k'HE OFFICER IN CHARGE:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

as the KC, KS, AOOT" graphite. The initial K stands for the word Kendall Coke. the initial C stands for Chicago Pitch end the initial S stands for Standard Pitch....

144

FlexCore: Utilizing Exposed Datapath Control for Efficient Computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce FlexCore, the first exemplar of an architecture based on the FlexSoC framework. Comprising the same datapath units found in a conventional five-stage pipeline, the FlexCore has an exposed datapath control and a flexible interconnect to allow ... Keywords: Computer architecture, Flexible, Interconnect, Reconfigurable

Martin Thuresson; Magnus Själander; Magnus Björk; Lars Svensson; Per Larsson-Edefors; Per Stenstrom

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Inflammatory response of lung cells exposed to whole, filtered, and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inflammatory response of lung cells exposed to whole, filtered, and Inflammatory response of lung cells exposed to whole, filtered, and hydrocarbon denuded diesel exhaust Title Inflammatory response of lung cells exposed to whole, filtered, and hydrocarbon denuded diesel exhaust Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Holder, Amara L., Donald Lucas, Regine Goth-Goldstein, and Catherine P. Koshland Journal Chemosphere Volume 70 Pagination 13-19 Date Published 09/2007 Keywords air-liquid interface, combustion particle, human bronchial epithelial cells, interleukin-8 Abstract In vitro studies with the organic extracts of diesel particles have suggested that hydrocarbons such as PAH may play a role in an inflammatory response, but these have been limited by the possible artifacts introduced in the particle collection and processing. In this study, we avoid these artifacts and use an activated carbon denuder to remove hydrocarbons from the exhaust stream to investigate their role in the inflammatory response. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE140) were exposed at the air-cell interface to diluted and aged exhaust from a diesel generator operated at partial and no load conditions. When particles were removed with a filter before cell exposure, exhaust gases accounted for almost half of the response compared to the whole exhaust. Removal of gas phase and a portion of the particle phase hydrocarbons with the denuder decreased the interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion to unexposed levels

146

Throughput Maximization for the Gaussian Relay Channel with Energy Harvesting Constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper considers the use of energy harvesters, instead of conventional time-invariant energy sources, in wireless cooperative communication. For the purpose of exposition, we study the classic three-node Gaussian relay channel with decode-and-forward (DF) relaying, in which the source and relay nodes transmit with power drawn from energy-harvesting sources. Assuming a deterministic energy-harvesting model under which the energy arrival time and the harvested amount are known prior to transmission, the throughput maximization problem over a finite horizon of $N$ transmission blocks is investigated. In particular, two types of data traffic with different delay constraints are considered: delay-constrained (DC) traffic (for which only one-block decoding delay is allowed at the destination) and no-delay-constrained (NDC) traffic (for which arbitrary decoding delay up to $N$ blocks is allowed). For the DC case, we show that the joint source and relay power allocation over time is necessary to achieve the maxim...

Huang, Chuan; Cui, Shuguang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

DISTRIBUTION OF MAXIMAL LUMINOSITY OF GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

Extreme value statistics is applied to the distribution of galaxy luminosities in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We analyze the DR8 Main Galaxy Sample (MGS), as well as the luminous red galaxies (LRGs). Maximal luminosities are sampled from batches consisting of elongated pencil beams in the radial direction of sight. For the MGS, results suggest a small and positive tail index {xi}, effectively ruling out the possibility of having a finite maximum cutoff luminosity, and implying that the luminosity distribution function may decay as a power law at the high-luminosity end. Assuming, however, {xi} = 0, a non-parametric comparison of the maximal luminosities with the Fisher-Tippett-Gumbel distribution (limit distribution for variables distributed by the Schechter fit) indicates a good agreement provided that uncertainties arising from both the finite batch size and the batch-size distribution are accounted for. For a volume-limited sample of LRGs, results show that they can be described as being the extremes of a luminosity distribution with an exponentially decaying tail, provided that the uncertainties related to batch-size distribution are taken care of.

Taghizadeh-Popp, M.; Szalay, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ozogany, K.; Racz, Z. [Institute for Theoretical Physics-HAS, Eoetvoes University, Pazmany setany 1/a, 1117 Budapest (Hungary); Regoes, E., E-mail: mtaghiza@pha.jhu.edu [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

148

Periodic optimal control for biomass productivity maximization in a photobioreactor using natural light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We address the question of optimization of the microalgal biomass long term productivity in the framework of production in photobioreactors under the influence of day/night cycles. For that, we propose a simple bioreactor model accounting for light attenuation in the reactor due to biomass density and obtain the control law that optimizes productivity over a single day through the application of Pontryagin's maximum principle, with the dilution rate being the main control. An important constraint on the obtained solution is that the biomass in the reactor should be at the same level at the beginning and at the end of the day so that the same control can be applied everyday and optimizes some form of long term productivity. Several scenarios are possible depending on the microalgae's strain parameters and the maximal admissible value of the dilution rate: bang-bang or bang-singular-bang control or, if the growth rate of the algae is very strong in the presence of light, constant maximal dilution. A bifurcation...

Grognard, Frédéric; Bernard, Olivier

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards Title Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4608E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Garbesi, Karina, Louis-Benoit Desroches, Christopher A. Bolduc, Gabriel Burch, Griffin Hosseinzadeh, and Seth Saltiel Document Number LBNL-4608E Pagination 13 Date Published July 11 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports-simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save ~200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

150

Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation Charles Limoli University of California, Irvine Abstract In the CNS, irradiation of multipotent neural stem and precursor cells has been shown to cause a persistent oxidative stress that impacts radiosensitivity, mitochondrial function, and cell fate. The nature, magnitude and duration of reactive species dictates whether these radiation-induced changes are harmful or beneficial to a variety of in vitro and in vivo endpoints of viability and function. We have shown that acute low dose irradiation (2-10 cGy) can elicit significant increases in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species over several days post-exposure. These changes can be attenuated when the dose is protracted over several weeks using a 57Co flood source having a surface dose rate of

151

Mechanisms of gas precipitation in plasma-exposed tungsten  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation in subsurface bubbles is a key process that governs how hydrogen isotopes migrate through and become trapped within plasma-exposed tungsten. We describe a continuum-scale model of hydrogen diffusion in plasma-exposed materials that includes the effects of precipitation. The model can account for bubble expansion via dislocation loop punching, using an accurate equation of state to determine the internal pressure. This information is used to predict amount of hydrogen trapped by bubbles, as well as the conditions where the bubbles become saturated. In an effort to validate the underlying assumptions, we compare our results with published positron annihilation and thermal desorption spectroscopy data, as well as our own measurements using the tritium plasma experiment (TPE).

R. D. Kolasinski; D. F. Cowgill; D. C. Donovan; M. Shimada

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site -- calendar year 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report documents radionuclide air emission from the Hanford Site in 1997, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the MEI. The report has been prepared in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. This report has also been prepared in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The effective dose equivalent to the MEI from the Hanford Site`s 1997 point source emissions was 1.2 E-03 mrem (1.2 E-05 mSv), which is well below the 40 CFR 61 Subpart H regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr. Radon and thoron emissions, exempted from 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, resulted in an effective dose equivalent to the MEI of 2.5 E-03 mrem (2.5 E-05 mSv). The effective dose equivalent to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive emissions was 2.2 E-02 mrem (2.2 E-04 mSv). The total effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions was 2.6 E-02 mrem (2.6 E-04 mSv). The effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions is well below the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 246-247, regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr.

Gleckler, B.P.; Rhoads, K.

1998-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

153

DAMAGE TO COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS EXPOSED TO NUCLEAR EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

One equipment control building designed to be blast resistant and two each of three standardized types of metal warehouse or utility buildings were exposed to the effects of a nuclear device detonation. One of the utility buildings was frameless, with deeply corrugated wall and roof sections; a second was very largely frameless, utilizing interlocking channel sections; and in the third the aluininum-panel wall and roof covering was supported by girts and purlins, which in turn were supported by steel frames. Because of atmospheric conditions at the time of an earlier detonation in the test series, one of each of the three types of utility buildings was exposed to approximately 0.7 psi overpressure before the planned test. In the planned test one of each of the three types was exposed to approximately 3.0 psi overpressure and one to 1.3 psi, with the intention of bracketing their overpressure survival range and obtaining data for possible economic redesign for improved blast resistance. The equipment control building utilized continuous-welded steel frames and reinforced-gypsum curtain-wall construction. The control building was exposed to approximately 4.1 psi, in the anticipated fringe zone of major structural damage, to determine its protective capabilities. The blast-resistant equipment control building was nat structurally damaged by the blast, thus exceeding the expectations of the design. Each of the three utility buildings received severe damage at the near range, one being completely destroyed, whereas at the far range the damage in every case was repairable. The test results are discussed, and recommendations for improved designs are made. Damage records during the unexpected test and at the far range in the planned test are correlated by means of dynamic analyses with pressuretime data and studies of structural resintance. Pressure-time information is appended. (auth)

Johnston, B.G.

1956-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).

Fujimoto, Kazufumi, E-mail: m_fuji@kvj.biglobe.ne.jp [Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd., Corporate Risk Management Division (Japan)] [Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd., Corporate Risk Management Division (Japan); Nagai, Hideo, E-mail: nagai@sigmath.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Division of Mathematical Science for Social Systems, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan)] [Osaka University, Division of Mathematical Science for Social Systems, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan); Runggaldier, Wolfgang J., E-mail: runggal@math.unipd.it [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata (Italy)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

Maximizing the Value of Photovoltaic Installations on Schools in California: Choosing the Best Electricity Rates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Schools in California often have a choice between multiple electricity rate options. For schools with photovoltaic (PV) installations, choosing the right rate is essential to maximize the value of PV generation. The rate option that minimizes a school?s electricity expenses often does not remain the most economical choice after the school installs a PV system. The complex interaction between PV generation, building load, and rate structure makes determining the best rate a challenging task. This report evaluates 22 rate structures across three of California?s largest electric utilities--Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E)--in order to identify common rate structure attributes that are favorable to PV installations.

Ong, S.; Denholm, P.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Dimming LEDs with Phase-Cut Dimmers: The Specifier's Process for Maximizing Success  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews how phase-cut dimmers work, how LEDs differ from the incandescent lamps that the dimmers were historically designed to control, and how these differences can lead to complications when trying to dim LEDs. Compatibility between a specific LED source and a specific phase-cut dimmer is often unknown and difficult to assess, and ensuring compatibility adds complexity to the design, specification, bidding, and construction observation phases for new buildings and major remodel projects. To maximize project success, this report provides both general guidance and step-by-step procedures for designing phase-controlled LED dimming on both new and existing projects, as well as real-world examples of how to use those procedures.

Miller, Naomi J.; Poplawski, Michael E.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technical Assistance Technical Assistance Office level Program Planning Process development Page 1 of 2 Environmental Management Corporate HQ DOE - Complex Wide Maximizing the Benefit from the D&D Technology Development Program Challenge The Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D)/Facility Engineering (FE) is charged with reducing the technical risk and uncertainty of D&D activities across the Environmental Management (EM) Complex through the identification, development and demonstration of alternative technologies as well as through the provision of technical assistance activities such as Lessons Learned Workshops and External Technical Review Teams. There is a need to ensure an optimum balance between these different types of projects as well as to ensure that the projects funded are focused on the

158

Routing and packet scheduling for throughput maximization in ieee 802.16 mesh networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — This paper considers the problem of maximizing the system throughput in IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks with mesh topology, and the following results are presented. We first consider a simplified linear network with only uplink traffic and provide an optimal scheduling algorithm and establish an analytical result on the length of the schedule. We then consider the problem of routing and packet scheduling in general topology, and show its NPcompleteness. We also provide an ILP formulation for this problem. Based on our optimal algorithm for linear networks, we propose algorithms that find routes and schedules of packet transmissions in general mesh topologies. The performance of our proposed algorithms is analyzed using the NS-2 simulator. The results show that the suggested algorithms perform significantly better than other existing algorithms.

Fanchun Jin; Amrinder Arora; Jinho Hwang; Hyeong-ah Choi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Maximizing phylogenetic diversity in biodiversity conservation: Greedy solutions to the noah’s ark problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract.—The Noah’s Ark Problem (NAP) is a comprehensive cost-effectiveness methodology for biodiversity conservation that was introduced by Weitzman (1998) and utilizes the phylogenetic tree containing the taxa of interest to assess biodiversity. Given a set of taxa, each of which has a particular survival probability that can be increased at some cost, the NAP seeks to allocate limited funds to conserving these taxa so that the future expected biodiversity is maximized. Finding optimal solutions using this framework is a computationally difficult problem to which a simple and efficient “greedy ” algorithm has been proposed in the literature and applied to conservation problems. We show that, although algorithms of this type cannot produce optimal solutions for the general NAP, there are two restricted scenarios of the NAP for which a greedy algorithm is guaranteed to produce optimal solutions. The first scenario requires the taxa to have equal conservation cost; the second scenario requires an ultrametric tree. The NAP assumes a linear relationship between the funding allocated to conservation of a taxon and the increased survival probability of that taxon. This relationship is briefly investigated and one variation is suggested that can also be solved using a greedy algorithm. [Biodiversity conservation; greedy algorithm; Noah’s Ark Problem; phylogenetic diversity.] Biodiversity conservation requires a methodology for prioritizing the taxa to conserve, given limited resources. Many conservation approaches have simply aimed to

Klaas Hartmann; Mike Steel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Reserved or On-Demand Instances? A Revenue Maximization Model for Cloud Providers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the problem of managing a server farm in a way that attempts to maximize the net revenue earned by a cloud provider by renting servers to customers according to a typical Platform-as-a-Service model. The Cloud provider offers its resources to two classes of customers: `premium' and `basic'. Premium customers pay upfront fees to reserve servers for a specified period of time (e.g. a year). Premium customers can submit jobs for their reserved servers at any time and pay a fee for the server-hours they use. The provider is liable to pay a penalty every time a `premium' job can not be executed due to lack of resources. On the other hand, `basic' customers are served on a best-effort basis, and pay a server-hour fee that may be higher than the one paid by premium customers. The provider incurs energy costs when running servers. Hence, it has an incentive to turn off idle servers. The question of how to choose the number of servers to allocate to each pool (basic and premium) is answered by analyzing a s...

Mazzucco, Michele

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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161

Maximizing Web site availability Authors: High-Volume Web Site Team  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: High availability is more important than ever now that your customers, suppliers, and/or employees rely on your Web site. This paper reviews availability concepts and practices that can help you achieve your availability objectives. It includes a summary of practices that pertain specifically to e-business infrastructures. © Copyright IBM Corporation 200 2 Maximizing Web Site availabilityExecutive summary What happens when your Web site is down? At the least, your site’s users become idle, your staff goes into crisis mode, and everyone’s productivity decreases. At the worst, the users are your customers and they go somewhere else to buy the product or service your company offers. Depending on how long the site is down, customer satisfaction and revenue are diminished, and the reputation of your IT organization, if not your company, is damaged. It’s not a good place to be. That’s why availability is such an important aspect of managing a successful e-business Web site. This paper reviews availability concepts, all of which are well known to IT professionals. Given the increasing complexities of managing e-business infrastructures and the increasing intolerance for any outages, the paper stresses that the basic concepts and practices of availability are more important than ever. It also reviews practices specifically related to e-business infrastructures; understanding and

unknown authors

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Power Generation, Inc proposed a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource  

SciTech Connect

NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land -based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems; a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization.

Dennis H. LeMieux

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

The Coming Nuclear Renaissance for Next Generation Safeguards Specialists--Maximizing Potential and Minimizing the Risks  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to provide an overview of the workshop entitled 'The Coming Nuclear Renaissance for the Next Generation Safeguards Experts-Maximizing Benefits While Minimizing Proliferation Risks', conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in partnership with the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This document presents workshop objectives; lists the numerous participant universities and individuals, the nuclear nonproliferation lecture topics covered, and the facilities tours taken as part of the workshop; and discusses the university partnership sessions and proposed areas for collaboration between the universities and ORNL for 2009. Appendix A contains the agenda for the workshop; Appendix B lists the workshop attendees and presenters with contact information; Appendix C contains graphics of the evaluation form results and survey areas; and Appendix D summarizes the responses to the workshop evaluation form. The workshop was an opportunity for ORNL, Y-12, and SRNL staff with more than 30 years combined experience in nuclear nonproliferation to provide a comprehensive overview of their expertise for the university professors and their students. The overall goal of the workshop was to emphasize nonproliferation aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and to identify specific areas where the universities and experts from operations and national laboratories could collaborate.

Eipeldauer, Mary D [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

A Round-based Pricing Scheme for Maximizing Service Provider's Revenue in P2PTV Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we analyze a round-based pricing scheme that encourages favorable behavior from users of real-time P2P applications like P2PTV. In the design of pricing schemes, we consider price to be a function of usage and capacity of download/upload streams, and quality of content served. Users are consumers and servers at the same time in such networks, and often exhibit behavior that is unfavorable towards maximization of social benefits. Traditionally, network designers have overcome this difficulty by building-in traffic latencies. However, using simulations, we show that appropriate pricing schemes and usage terms can enable designers to limit required traffic latencies, and be able to earn nearly 30% extra revenue from providing P2PTV services. The service provider adjusts the prices of individual programs incrementally within rounds, while making relatively large-scale adjustments at the end of each round. Through simulations, we show that it is most beneficial for the service provider to carry out ...

Bhutani, Gitanjali

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Maximal heart rates of 130140beats min-1 have been measured in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) (Brill, 1987;  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximal heart rates of 130­140beats min-1 have been measured in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) (Brill, 1987; Farrell et al., 1992; Keen et al., 1995). These heart rates slightly exceed the suggested, skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) have maximum heart rates of 154­191 beats min-1 (Brill, 1987; Farrell et

Vellend, Mark

172

Simulated annealing assisted optimization of fuzzy rules for maximizing tool life in high-speed milling process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In metal cutting industry it is a common practice to search for optimal combination of cutting parameters in order to maximize the tool life for a fixed minimum value of material removal rate (MRR). After the advent of high-speed milling (HSM) process, ... Keywords: HSM, expert system, fuzzy logic, simulated annealing

Asif Iqbal; Ning He; Liang Li; Naeem Ullah Dar

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

THE HEALTH EFFECTS IN WOMEN EXPOSED TO LOW-LEVELS OF IONIZING RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

explosions or nuclear fallout have been studied in detail.population exposed to fallout, and the Japanese atomic-boiro

Fabrikant, J.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Microstructure, morphology and lifetime of armored bubbles exposed to surfactants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the behavior of particle-stabilized bubbles (armored bubbles) when exposed to various classes and concentrations of surfactants. The bubbles are non-spherical due to the jamming of the particles on the interface and are stable to dissolution prior to the addition of surfactant. We find that the dissolving bubbles exhibit distinct morphological, microstructural, and lifetime changes, which correlate with the concentration of surfactant employed. For low concentrations of surfactant an armored bubble remains non-spherical while dissolving, while for concentrations close to and above the surfactant CMC a bubble reverts to a spherical shape before dissolving. We propose a microstructural interpretation, supported by our experimental observations of particle dynamics on the bubble interface, that recognizes the role of interfacial jamming and stresses in particle stabilization and surfactant-mediated destabilization of armored bubbles.

Anand Bala Subramaniam; Cecile Mejean; Manouk Abkarian; Howard A. Stone

2006-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

175

X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution One Giant Leap for Radiation Biology? What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials Novel Experiments on Cement Yield Concrete Results Watching a Glycine Riboswitch "Switch" Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism MAY 11, 2007 Bookmark and Share By observing changes in coherent x-ray speckle pattern, such as the one shown above, researchers are able for the first time to investigate nanoscale dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls, and observe a cross over from classical to quantum behavior. (Credit: O. Shpyrko)

176

Solderability of environmentally exposed Sn-plated surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solderability of Class II environmentally exposed Ni-Sn plated Cu substrates was evaluated with 60Sn-40Pb solder. Tin thickness were 10, 50, and 150 {mu}in. The 10 {mu}in. plating gave the smallest solder meniscus rise. A general decrease in contact angle, or increase in wettability, was observed with increasing Sn plating. The environmental exposures retarded the wetting rate and increased the time to maximum wetting, particularly with only 10 {mu}in. of Sn. Although the solderability of the 50 and 150 {mu}in. surfaces were not significantly affected by the test conditions, an intermediate plating thickness of 100 {mu}in. is preferred for processing flexibility. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Hosking, F.M.; Sorensen, N.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs L. A. Davis Lorne.Davis@coe.ttu.edu Department of Petroleum Engineering A. L. Graham Alan.Graham@coe.ttu.edu H. W. Parker** Harry.Parker@coe.ttu.edu Department of Chemical Engineering Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas 79409 M. S. Ingber ingber@me.unm.edu A. A. Mammoli mammoli@me.unm.edu Department of Mechanical Engineering University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 L. A. Mondy lamondy@engsci.sandia.gov Energetic and Multiphase Processes Department Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0834 Quanxin Guo quan@advantekinternational.com Ahmed Abou-Sayed a.abou-sayed@att.net

178

Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management (Fact Sheet), Thermal Test Facility (TTF), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management Scientists at this living laboratory develop optimal solutions for managing energy flows within buildings and transportation systems. The built environment is stressing the utility grid to a greater degree than ever before. Growing demand for electric vehicles, space conditioning, and plug loads presents a critical opportunity for more effective energy management and development of efficiency technologies. Researchers at the Thermal Test Facility (TTF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, are addressing this opportunity. Through analysis of efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) strategies, automated home energy management (AHEM), and energy storage systems,

179

WASTE CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERIC COMPONENTS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent independent review led to uncertainty about the technical basis for characterizing the residual amount of tritium in polymer components used in the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities that are sent for waste disposal. A review of a paper published in the open literature firmly establishes the basis of the currently used characterization, 10 Ci/cc. Information provided in that paper about exposure experiments performed at the DOE Mound Laboratory allows the calculation of the currently used characterization. These experiments involved exposure of high density polyethylene (HD-PE) to initially 1 atm tritium gas. In addition, a review of recent research at the Savannah River Site not only further substantiates this characterization, but also establishes its use for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon{reg_sign}), and Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide. 10 Ci/cc tritium is a representative characterization for any type of polymer components exposed at ambient temperature and at approximately 1 atm. tritium gas.

Clark, E

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Evidence for the Strongest Version of the 4d a-Theorem, via a-Maximization Along RG Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In earlier work, we (KI and BW) gave a two line "almost proof" (for supersymmetric RG flows) of the weakest form of the conjectured 4d a-theorem, that a_{IR}maximizes a=3Tr R^3-Tr R. The proof was incomplete because of two identified loopholes: theories with accidental symmetries, and the fact that it's only a local maximum of \\it{a}. Here we discuss and extend a proposal of Kutasov (which helps close the latter loophole) in which a-maximization is generalized away from the endpoints of the RG flow, with Lagrange multipliers that are conjectured to be identified with the running coupling constants. a-maximization then yields a monotonically decreasing "a-function" along the RG flow to the IR. As we discuss, this proposal in fact suggests the strongest version of the a-theorem: that 4d RG flows are gradient flows of an a-function, with positive definite metric. In the perturbative limit, the RG flow metric thus obtained is shown to agree precisely with that found by very different computations by Osborn and collaborators. As examples, we discuss a new class of 4d SCFTs, along with their dual descriptions and IR phases, obtained from SQCD by coupling some of the flavors to added singlets.

Edwin Barnes; Ken Intriligator; Brian Wecht; Jason Wright

2004-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

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181

Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar year 1998  

SciTech Connect

This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in I998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR SI), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection--Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H; require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv), which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.5 E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from the unplanned event was similar in magnitude to that from routine releases during 1998. Were the release from this unplanned event combined with routine releases, the total dose would be less than 1 percent ofthe 10 mrem/yr standard.

DIEDIKER, L.P.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application Supplemental Information [Sec 1 Thru 5] Vol 1 Thru 3 Appendices A Thru C  

SciTech Connect

This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61), Subpart H: ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246247, Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv). which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.S E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE. which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from the unplanned event was similar in magnitude to that from routine releases during 1998. Were the release from this unplanned event combined with routine releases, the total dose would be less than 1 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard.

CURN, B.L.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Small Punch Creep of Service-Exposed SUS 316 HTB Superheater ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Small Punch Creep of Service-Exposed SUS 316 HTB Superheater Tubes of Fossil Boilers. Author(s), Maribel Leticia Saucedo-Muńoz,  ...

184

Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal Combustion Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal, and behavioral abnormalities in amphibians to coal combustion wastes (coal ash). Few studies, however, have determined trace element concentrations in amphibians exposed to coal ash. In the current study we compare

Hopkins, William A.

185

SIMS ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS OF INTERPLANETARY DUST FROM SPACE-EXPOSED AEROGEL. F. J. Stadermann  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SIMS ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS OF INTERPLANETARY DUST FROM SPACE-EXPOSED AEROGEL. F. J. Stadermann 1: Aerogel is the medium of choice for the intact capture of small particles in space, because it is capable materials [1, 2]. After space-exposed aerogel is returned to the laboratory, the first step of analysis

186

Bone lead content assessed by L-line x-ray fluorescence in lead-exposed and non-lead-exposed suburban populations in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of lead (Pb) in bone reflect cumulative Pb exposure, whereas blood Pb levels are indices of absorption during the previous 21-30 days. This study was undertaken to estimate bone Pb concentrations by L-line x-ray fluorescence (LXRF) in a United States suburban population which was exposed to unusually high levels of Pb in emissions from an adjacent factory during 1963-1981, compared with concentrations similarly estimated in a matched suburban community without unusual Pb exposure. The mean bone Pb value in 269 residents of the highly exposed suburb (15 ppm) was 3-fold greater than that of the reference suburb (5 ppm). LXRF estimates of bone Pb identified those individuals at risk for adverse effects of Pb, whereas blood Pb levels were uninformative. Average LXRF-estimated bone Pb concentrations in residents of the unusually exposed suburb approximated estimated values in workers at Pb-processing factories. 44 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Rosen, J.F.; Balbi, K.; Balbi, J.; Bailey, C.; Clemente, I.; Redkey, N.; Grainger, S. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)); Crocetti, A.F. (New York Medical College, Valhalla (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999  

SciTech Connect

This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard.

ROKKAN, D.J.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

Wahl, Linnea

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

Wahl, Linnea

2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

190

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

191

Voltage/Pitch Control for Maximization and Regulation of Active/Reactive Powers in Wind Turbines with Uncertainties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper addresses the problem of controlling a variable-speed wind turbine with a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), modeled as an electromechanically-coupled nonlinear system with rotor voltages and blade pitch angle as its inputs, active and reactive powers as its outputs, and most of the aerodynamic and mechanical parameters as its uncertainties. Using a blend of linear and nonlinear control strategies (including feedback linearization, pole placement, uncertainty estimation, and gradient-based potential function minimization) as well as time-scale separation in the dynamics, we develop a controller that is capable of maximizing the active power in the Maximum Power Tracking (MPT) mode, regulating the active power in the Power Regulation (PR) mode, seamlessly switching between the two modes, and simultaneously adjusting the reactive power to achieve a desired power factor. The controller consists of four cascaded components, uses realistic feedback signals, and operates without knowledge of the C_p-...

Guo, Yi; Jiang, John N; Tang, Choon Yik; Ramakumar, Rama G

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012  

SciTech Connect

This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Gervais, Todd L.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma.

Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.; Adams, W.H.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site calendar year 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1995, and the resulting effective dose equivalent (FDE) to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the `MEI.` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, `National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,` Subpart H, `National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.` This report has also been prepared for and will be submitted in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, `Radiation Protection-Air Emissions.`

Gleckler, B.P., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

195

DOE/EA-1607 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DISPOSITION OF DOE EXCESS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

µCi/cc microcuries per cubic centimeter µCi/cc microcuries per cubic centimeter MAP mitigation action plan MEI maximally exposed individual mg/kg milligrams per kilogram mrem millirem mSv millisievert MT metric ton MTCA Model Toxics Control Act MTU metric tons of uranium N/A not applicable Final Environmental Assessment: Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium vi NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NEF National Enrichment Facility NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NU natural uranium NUF 6 natural uranium hexafluoride pCi/g picocuries per gram PEIS programmatic environmental impact statement PM 2.5 particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 microns or less PM 10 particulate matter with a diameter of 10 microns or less

196

DOE/EA-1607: Final Environmental Assessment for Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium (June 2009)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ÎĽCi/cc microcuries per cubic centimeter ÎĽCi/cc microcuries per cubic centimeter MAP mitigation action plan MEI maximally exposed individual mg/kg milligrams per kilogram mrem millirem mSv millisievert MT metric ton MTCA Model Toxics Control Act MTU metric tons of uranium N/A not applicable Final Environmental Assessment: Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium vi NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NEF National Enrichment Facility NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NU natural uranium NUF 6 natural uranium hexafluoride pCi/g picocuries per gram PEIS programmatic environmental impact statement PM 2.5 particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 microns or less PM 10 particulate matter with a diameter of 10 microns or less

197

Multiple scattering measurements in nuclear emulsions exposed to momentum-analysed particle beams from the CERN proton synchrotron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiple scattering measurements in nuclear emulsions exposed to momentum-analysed particle beams from the CERN proton synchrotron

Hossain, A; Wataghin, A; CERN. Geneva. Emulsion Experiments Committee

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Maximizing Drilling Efficiency Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the United States by increasing supply, reducing cost, and increasing efficiency of exploration and production while minimizing environmental impacts. Growth in supply of...

199

Maximizing ROI for Continuous  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A ttacker Prog ram S u cc es sfu l A ttac ks (Outputs ) ... NIST SP 800-53 and 53A NIST SP 800-39 > Allows for more investment in Security Design (By ...

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

200

Objective method to report planner-independent skin/rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for breast cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: An objective method was proposed and compared with a manual selection method to determine planner-independent skin and rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning. Methods: The maximal dose to skin and rib was objectively extracted from a dose volume histogram (DVH) of skin and rib volumes. A virtual skin volume was produced by expanding the skin surface in three dimensions (3D) external to the breast with a certain thickness in the planning computed tomography (CT) images. Therefore, the maximal dose to this volume occurs on the skin surface the same with a conventional manual selection method. The rib was also delineated in the planning CT images and its maximal dose was extracted from its DVH. The absolute (Abdiff=|D{sub max}{sup Man}-D{sub max}{sup DVH}|) and relative (Rediff[%]=100x(|D{sub max}{sup Man}-D{sub max}{sup DVH}|)/D{sub max}{sup DVH}) maximal skin and rib dose differences between the manual selection method (D{sub max}{sup Man}) and the objective method (D{sub max}{sup DVH}) were measured for 50 balloon-based HDR (25 MammoSite and 25 Contura) patients. Results: The average{+-}standard deviation of maximal dose difference was 1.67%{+-}1.69% of the prescribed dose (PD). No statistical difference was observed between MammoSite and Contura patients for both Abdiff and Rediff[%] values. However, a statistically significant difference (p value dose difference compared with maximal skin dose difference for both Abdiff (2.30%{+-}1.71% vs 1.05%{+-}1.43%) and Rediff[%] (2.32%{+-}1.79% vs 1.21%{+-}1.41%). In general, rib has a more irregular contour and it is more proximally located to the balloon for 50 HDR patients. Due to the inverse square law factor, more dose difference was observed in higher dose range (D{sub max}>90%) compared with lower dose range (D{sub max}low dose ranges. Conclusions: The objective method using volumetric information of skin and rib can determine the planner-independent maximal dose compared with the manual selection method. However, the difference was dose point in 3D planning CT images.

Kim, Yongbok; Trombetta, Mark G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States) and Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Pulmonary function and pathology in cats exposed 28 days to diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

Young adult male cats were exposed 28 days, 20 hrs per day, to a 1:14 dilution of diesel exhaust emissions. Following termination of exposure, the following pulmonary function measurements were carried out: lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow rates (MEF), MEF at 50%, 25% and 10% of vital capacity (VC): forced expiratory volume (FEV) after 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 sec, dynamic compliance, resistance and helium washout at 25, 50, 75, and 100 breaths per min. The only significant functional change was a decrease in MEF at 10% of VC (P x .02). The lungs of the exposed cats appeared charcoal grey with frequent focal black spots visible on the pleural surface. Pathologic changes in the exposed cats included a predominantly peribronchiolar localization of black-pigmented macrophages within the alveoli producing a focal pneumonitis or alveolitis. In general, evidence of serious lung damage was not observed following the 28-day exposure period.

Pepelko, W.E.; Mattox, J.K.; Yang, Y.Y.; Moore, W. Jr.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Flow cytometric analysis of respiratory tract cells exposed to oil shale and silica particulates. [Hamsters  

SciTech Connect

Flow cytometric techniques were used to measure the cytological and biochemical damage to respiratory tract cells in animals exposed to particulates. Hamsters were exposed to raw and spent oil shale particulates and silica by intratracheal instillation. Exfoliated lung cells were obtained by sacrificing the animals and lavaging the respiratory tract posterior to the trachea with saline. Cell samples were fixed in ethanol and stained with mithramycin for fluorescence analysis of DNA content. DNA content distributions from hamsters exposed to spent oil shale and silica particulates showed atypical changes 28 to 35 days later. Cell counts and total numbers of macrophages, leukocytes, and epithelial cells in the lavage fluid also showed marked changes related to time after exposure.

Steinkamp, J.A.; Wilson, J.S.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

An exact method to find a circle passing through two points and minimizing the maximal weighted distance to a set of points  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes an optimal algorithm to solve a circuit design problem. We consider the constrained minimax problem to find a circle which minimizes the maximal weighted distance to a set of points passing through two given points. The problem is ... Keywords: Location of a circle, Minimax problem

Seonjeong Lee; Dongyung Kim; Dongwoo Sheen

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Although models that simulate the fracturing process exist, they can be significantly improved by extending the models to account for nonsymmetric, nonplanar fractures, coupling the models to more realistic reservoir simulators, and implementing advanced multiphase flow models for the transport of proppant. Third, it may be possible to deviate from current hydraulic fracturing technology by using different proppants (possibly waste materials that need to be disposed of, e.g., asbestos) combined with different hydraulic fracturing carrier fluids (possibly supercritical CO2 itself). Because current technology is mainly aimed at enhanced oil recovery, it may not be ideally suited for the injection and storage of CO2. Finally, advanced concepts such as increasing the injectivity of the fractured geologic formations through acidization with carbonated water will be investigated. Saline formations are located through most of the continental United States. Generally, where saline formations are scarce, oil and gas reservoirs and coal beds abound. By developing the technology outlined here, it will be possible to remove CO2 at the source (power plants, industry) and inject it directly into nearby geological formations, without releasing it into the atmosphere. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a technology capable of sequestering CO2 in geologic formations at a cost of US $10 per ton.

L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

2005-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

206

Optimal fracture treatment design for dry gas wells maximizes well performance in the presence of non-Darcy flow effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a methodology based on Proppant Number approach for optimal fracture treatment design of natural gas wells considering non-Darcy flow effects in the design process. Closure stress is taken into account, by default, because it is the first factor decreasing propped pack permeability at in-situ conditions. Gel damage was also considered in order to evaluate the impact of incorporating more damaging factors on ultimate well performance and optimal geometry. Effective fracture permeability and optimal fracture geometry are calculated through an iterative process. This approach was implemented in a spreadsheet. Non-Darcy flow is described by the ? factor. All ? factor correlations available in the literature were evaluated. It is recommended to use the correlation developed specifically for the given type of proppant and mesh size, if available. Otherwise, the Pursell et al. or the Martins et al. equations are recommended as across the board reliable correlations for predicting non-Darcy flow effects in the propped pack. The proposed methodology was implemented in the design of 11 fracture treatments of 3 natural tight gas wells in South Texas. Results show that optimal fracture design might increase expected production in 9.64 MMscf with respect to design that assumes Darcy flow through the propped pack. The basic finding is that for a given amount of proppant shorter and wider fractures compensate the non-Darcy and/or gel damage effect. Dynamic programming technique was implemented in design of multistage fractures for one of the wells under study for maximizing total gas production. Results show it is a powerful and simple technique for this application. It is recommended to expand its use in multistage fracture designs.

Lopez Hernandez, Henry De Jesus

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Wind Farms in Regions Exposed to Tropical Cyclones Niels-Erik Clausen1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind Farms in Regions Exposed to Tropical Cyclones Niels-Erik Clausen1 , niels Energy A/S, A.C. Meyers Vænge 9, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV, Denmark, Phone +45 44 80 65 71 3 Tripod Wind 6001 Summary The present paper analyses the design basis of wind farms to be established in regions

208

Poolside Examination Data on High-Duty BWR Fuel Exposed to 52 GWd/MTU:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poolside examinations conducted on boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel exposed to 52 GWd/MTU under high-duty operating conditions are providing data needed to justify extending allowable burnup limits. The good condition of the examined fuel assemblies allowed four of them to be reinserted for an additional 2-year duty cycle to provide data at even higher burnup levels.

1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

209

(Un)dressing the interface: Exposing the foundational HCI metaphor "computer is woman"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two fundamental (and oftentimes opposing) metaphors have directed much of HCI design: HCI is communication and HCI is direct manipulation. Beneath these HCI metaphors, however, is the unspoken metaphor of computer is woman. In this paper we expose this ... Keywords: Agent abuse, Feminist HCI, Feminization, HCI metaphors, TechnoFeminism, Turing Test

Sheryl Brahnam; Marianthe Karanikas; Margaret Weaver

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Hydrogen Storage in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework with Exposed Mn2+ Coordination Sites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Storage in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework with Exposed Mn2+ Coordination Sites and 90 bar, which at 60 g H2/L provides a storage density 85% of that of liquid hydrogen. The material-358. (2) EERE: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, & Infrastructure Technologies Program Homepage, www.eere.energy

211

Two Dynamical Core Formulation Flaws Exposed by a Baroclinic Instability Test Case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two flaws in the semi-Lagrangian algorithm originally implemented as an optional dynamical core in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.1) are exposed by steady-state and baroclinic instability test cases. Remedies are demonstrated and have ...

David L. Williamson; Jerry G. Olson; Christiane Jablonowski

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Centriacinar alterations in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the morphologic changes in the centriacinar regions of lungs following long-term exposure of cats to diesel exhaust. Nine male cats (13 months of age) from a minimal disease colony were exposed to diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week for 27 months. Eight cats were exposed to filtered air. Following exposure, the animals were killed by exsanguination and the lungs and trachea removed from the chest by thoracotomy, weighed, and fixed via tracheal cannula with glutaraldehyde/paraformaldehyde (550 mOsmoles, pH 7.4) at 30 cm of pressure. Centriacinar regions were selected from fixed tissue, the airways bisected, and complementary tissue halves processed by a large block method for high resolution light microscopy and for scanning electron microscopy. Compared with controls, diesel-exposed cats had lower fresh lung and kidney weights and lower fixed volumes of the right cranial lobe. The volume fractions of pulmonary parenchyma and nonparenchyma were unchanged. Epithelium of terminal and respiratory bronchioles in exposed cats consisted of three types of cells (ciliated, basal, and Clara cells), compared with only one type (Clara cells) in controls. Carbon-laden macrophages were found filling alveolar and interstitial spaces in exposed animals. Type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia was present in proximal interalveolar septa. More distal alveolar ducts and the majority of the rest of the parenchyma were unchanged from controls. We concluded that exposure to diesel exhaust produces changes in both epithelial and interstitial tissue compartments and that the focus of these lesions in peripheral lung is the centriacinar region where alveolar ducts join terminal conducting airways.

Plopper, C.G.; Hyde, D.M.; Weir, A.J.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984  

SciTech Connect

March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Cerenkov light spectrum in an optical fiber exposed to a photon or electron radiation therapy beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Cerenkov signal is generated when energetic charged particles enter the core of an optical fiber. The Cerenkov intensity can be large enough to interfere with signals transmitted through the fiber. We determine the spectrum of the Cerenkov background signal generated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber exposed to photon and electron therapeutic beams from a linear accelerator. This spectral measurement is relevant to discrimination of the signal from the background, as in scintillation dosimetry using optical fiber readouts. We find that the spectrum is approximated by the theoretical curve after correction for the wavelength dependent attenuation of the fiber. The spectrum does not depend significantly on the angle between the radiation beam and the axis of the fiber optic but is dependent on the depth in water at which the fiber is exposed to the beam.

Lambert, Jamil; Yin Yongbai; McKenzie, David R.; Law, Sue; Suchowerska, Natalka

2009-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

215

Thorough Analysis of IEEE 802.11 EDCA in Ring Topology Scenarios with Hidden and Exposed Nodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the authors present a simulation study of five different ring networks with hidden and exposed nodes in which the IEEE 802.11 EDCA function is used as the MAC protocol. The presented analysis is crucial for understanding how the theoretically ... Keywords: Ad-hoc, QoS provisioning, exposed nodes, hidden nodes

Katarzyna Kosek; Marek Natkaniec; Luca Vollero

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

The passivation of pyrrhotite by surface coating Mei-Fang Cai a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and videomonitoring. Thermochim Acta 1997;291:1­13. [21] Ros AFH, Becker K, Canario AVM, Oliveira RF. Androgen levels, victory and defeat experiences, and assessment accuracy during hierarchy formation: a simulation study

Belzile, Nelson

217

An Estimation of the Spectral Radius of a Product of Block Ma-Mei-Qin Chen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, The Citadel, Charleston, SC 29409. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Georgia Southern Uni- versity, Statesboro, GA 30460 Submitted by Frank Uhlig ABSTRACT Let C(r) = [Cij], r = 1, 2, ..., R, be block m Ă? m matrices where Cij(r) are real nonnegative Ni Ă? Nj

Chen, Mei-Qin

218

Kadernota 2013-2016 VASTGESTELD DOOR HET COLLEGE VAN BESTUUR OP 29 MEI 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

............................................................................................................................. 5 Strategische context .................................................................................................................................... 28 Financieringslasten en reservering voor risico

Galis, Frietson

219

Effect of deposits on corrosion of materials exposed in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Candidate heat exchanger materials tested in the Low Mass Flow train at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at Tullahoma, TN. were analyzed to evaluate their corrosion performance. Tube specimens obtained at each foot of the 14-ft-long Unbend tubes were analyzed for corrosion-scale morphologies, scale thicknesses, and internal penetration depths. Results developed on 1500- and 2000- h exposed specimens were correlated with exposure temperature. In addition, deposit materials collected at several locations in the CFFF were analyzed in detail to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the deposits and their influence on corrosion performance of tube materials.

Natesan, K.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Twenty-year review of medical findings in a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of results of medical examinations of inhabitants of the Marshall Islands during the 20-year period following the exposure of Rongelap people to radioactive fallout in 1954. The initial effect observed was $beta$ burns of the skin of some individuals. Few significant findings were observed during the subsequent 9-year period, although an increase in miscarriages and stillbirths among the exposed women was noted. In 1963 some thyroid abnormalities and growth retardation of some children were noted. (177 references). (CH)

Conard, R.A.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

CAST STONE OXIDATION FRONT EVALUATION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FOR SAMPLES EXPOSED TO MOIST AIR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup ?} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup ?}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. • The Cr oxidation front (depth to which soluble Cr was detected) for the Cast Stone sample exposed for 68 days to ambient outdoor temperatures and humid air (total age of sample was 131 days) was determined to be about 35 mm below the top sample surface exposed. The Tc oxidation front, depth at which Tc was insoluble, was not determined. Interpretation of the results indicates that the oxidation front is at least 38 mm below the exposed surface. The sample used for this measurement was exposed to ambient laboratory conditions and humid air for 50 days. The total age of the sample was 98 days. • Technetium appears to be more easily oxidized than Cr in the Cast Stone matrix. The oxidized forms of Tc and Cr are soluble and therefore leachable. Longer exposure times are required for both the Cr and Tc spiked samples to better interpret the rate of oxidation. Tc spiked subsamples need to be taken further from the exposed surface to better define and interpret the leachable Tc profile. • Finally Tc(VII) reduction to Tc(IV) appears to occur relatively fast. Results demonstrated that about 95 percent of the Tc(VII) was reduced to Tc(IV) during the setting and very early stage setting for a Cast Stone sample cured 10 days. Additional testing at longer curing times is required to determine whether additional time is required to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII) in Cast Stone or whether the Tc loading exceeded the ability of the waste form to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII). Additional testing is required for samples cured for longer times. Depth discrete subsampling in a nitrogen glove box is also required to determine whether the 5 percent Tc extracted from the subsamples was the result of the sampling process which took place in air. Reduction capacity measurements (per the Angus-Glasser method) performed on depth discrete samples could not be correlated with the amount of chromium or technetium leached from the depth discrete subsamples or with the oxidation front inferred from soluble chromium and technetium (i.e., effective Cr and Tc oxidation fronts). Residual reduct

Langton, C.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

222

Metallicity of InN and GaN surfaces exposed to NH{sub 3}.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic study of energies and structures of InN and GaN (0001) surfaces exposed to NH{sub 3} and its decomposition products was performed with first-principles methods. A phenomenological model including electron counting contributions is developed based on calculated DFT energies and is used to identify low-energy structures. These predictions are checked with additional DFT calculations. The equilibrium phase diagrams are found to contain structures that violate the electron counting rule. Densities of states for these structures indicate n-type conductivity, consistent with available experimental results.

Walkosz, W.; Zapol, P.; Stephenson, G. B. (Materials Science Division)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Assessment of the risk of fatal electric shocks inside a substation and in nearby exposed areas  

SciTech Connect

A simulation approach is elaborated for the risk assessment of fatal electric shocks due to touch and step voltages that are caused inside and around substations by ground faults. The approach suggested takes into account specific effects of ground faults, depending on their location, and various exposures encountered in practice. The fibrillation thresholds and human body impedance values are modelled as random functions to match well with the available experimental data. Several typical cases are analyzed for a substation, as an illustration. The approach developed is intended to serve for a realistic analysis of risks implied by grounding system design of a substation surrounded by exposed areas.

Nahman, J.M. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

What can be learned from epidemiologic studies of persons exposed to low doses of radiation?  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of radiation risk assessment is to determine the risk of various adverse health effects associated with exposure to low doses and low dose rates. Extrapolation of risks from studies of persons exposed at high doses (generally exceeding 1 Sv) and dose rates has been the primary approach used to achieve this objective. The study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has played an especially important role in risk assessment efforts. A direct assessment of the dose-response function based on studies of persons exposed at low doses and dose rates is obviously desirable. This paper focuses on the potential of both current and future nuclear workers studies for investigating the dose-response functions at low doses, and also discusses analyses making use of the low dose portion of the atomic bomb survivor data. Difficulties in using these data are the statistical imprecision of estimated dose-response parameters, and potential bias resulting from confounding factors and from uncertainties in dose estimates.

Gilbert, E.S.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Cancer mortality among a group of fluorspar miners exposed to radon progeny  

SciTech Connect

A cohort study of the mortality experience (1950-1984) of 1,772 Newfoundland underground fluorspar miners occupationally exposed to high levels of radon daughters (mean dose = 382.8 working levels months) has been conducted. Observed numbers of cancers of the lung, salivary gland, and buccal cavity and pharynx were significantly elevated among these miners. A highly significant relation was noted between radon daughter exposure and risk of dying of lung cancer; the small numbers of salivary gland (n = 2) and buccal cavity and pharynx (n = 6) cancers precluded meaningful analysis of dose response. Attributable and relative risk coefficients for lung cancer were estimated as 6.3 deaths per working level month per million person-years and 0.9% per working level month, respectively. Relative risk coefficients were highest for those first exposed before age 20 years. Cigarette smokers had relative and attributable risk coefficients comparable to those of nonsmokers. Relative risks fell sharply with age, whereas attributable risks were lowest in the youngest and oldest age groups. The results suggest that efforts to raise existing occupational exposure standards may be inappropriate.

Morrison, H.I.; Semenciw, R.M.; Mao, Y.; Wigle, D.T.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Peribronchiolar fibrosis in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions.

Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

{sub p}53-Dependent Adaptive Responses in Human Cells Exposed to Space Radiations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: It has been reported that priming irradiation or conditioning irradiation with a low dose of X-rays in the range of 0.02-0.1 Gy induces a p53-dependent adaptive response in mammalian cells. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of space radiations on the adaptive response. Methods and Materials: Two human lymphoblastoid cell lines were used; one cell line bears a wild-type p53 (wtp53) gene, and another cell line bears a mutated p53 (mp53) gene. The cells were frozen during transportation on the space shuttle and while in orbit in the International Space Station freezer for 133 days between November 15, 2008 and March 29, 2009. After the frozen samples were returned to Earth, the cells were cultured for 6 h and then exposed to a challenging X-ray-irradiation (2 Gy). Cellular sensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored using dye-exclusion assays, Hoechst33342 staining assays, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In cells exposed to space radiations, adaptive responses such as the induction of radioresistance and the depression of radiation-induced apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in wtp53 cells but not in mp53 cells. Conclusion: These results have confirmed the hypothesis that p53-dependent adaptive responses are apparently induced by space radiations within a specific range of low doses. The cells exhibited this effect owing to space radiations exposure, even though the doses in space were very low.

Takahashi, Akihisa [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Su Xiaoming [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Suzuki, Hiromi [Japan Space Forum, Tokyo (Japan); Space Environmental Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Omori, Katsunori [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko [Space Environmental Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Advanced Engineering Services Company, Limited, Ibaraki (Japan); Shimazu, Toru [Japan Space Forum, Tokyo (Japan); Ishioka, Noriaki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Space Environmental Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Iwasaki, Toshiyasu [Radiation Safety Research Center, Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Ohnishi, Takeo, E-mail: tohnishi@naramed-u.ac.j [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Successful Demolition of Historic Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Facilities: Managing the Process to Maximize Recycle Value to Fund Demolition  

SciTech Connect

This paper will present the history of the Atlas 36 and Titan 40 Space Launch Complexes (SLC), the facility assessment process, demolition planning, recycle methodology, and actual facility demolition that resulted in a 40% reduction in baseline cost. These two SLC launched hundreds of payloads into space from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS), Florida. The Atlas-Centaur family of rockets could lift small- to medium-size satellites designed for communications, weather, or military use, placing them with near pinpoint accuracy into their intended orbits. The larger Titan family was relied upon for heavier lifting needs, including launching military satellites as well as interplanetary probes. But despite their efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the Titan rockets, as well as earlier generation Atlas models, were retired in 2005. Concerns about potential environmental health hazards from PCBs and lead-based paint chipping off the facilities also contributed to the Air Force's decision in 2005 to dismantle and demolish the Atlas and Titan missile-launching systems. Lockheed Martin secured the complex following the final launch, removed equipment and turned over the site to the Air Force for decommissioning and demolition (D and D). AMEC was retained by the Air Force to perform demolition planning and facility D and D in 2004. AMEC began with a review of historical information, interviews with past operations personnel, and 100% facility assessment of over 100 structures. There where numerous support buildings that due to their age contained asbestos containing material (ACM), PCB-impacted material, and universal material that had to be identified and removed prior to demolition. Environmental testing had revealed that the 36B mobile support tower (MST) exceeded the TSCA standard for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) paint (<50 ppm), as did the high bay sections of the Titan Vertical Integration Building (VIB). Thus, while most of the steel structures could be completely recycled, about one-third of 36B MST and the affected areas of the VIB were to be consigned to an on-site regulated waste landfill. In all, it is estimated that approximately 10,000,000 kg (11,000 tons) of PCB-coated steel will be land-filled and 23,000,000 kg (25,000 tons) will be recycled. The recycling of the steel and other materials made it possible to do additional demolition by using these funds. Therefore, finding ways to maximize the recycle value of materials became a key factor in the pre-demolition characterization and implementation strategy. This paper will present the following: - Critical elements in demolition planning working at an active launch facility; - Characterization and strategy to maximize steel recycle; - Waste disposition strategy to maximize recycle/reuse and minimize disposal; - Recycle options available at DOD installations that allow for addition funds for demolition; - Innovation in demolition methodologies for large structures - explosive demolition and large-scale dismantlement; - H and S aspects of explosive demolition and large scale dismantlement. In conclusion: The Cape Canaveral AFS Demolition Program has been a great success due to the integration of multiple operations and contractors working together to determine the most cost-effective demolition methods. It is estimated that by extensive pre-planning and working with CCAFS representatives, as well as maximizing the recycle credits of various material, primarily steel, that the government will be able to complete what was base-lined to be a $30 M demolition program for < $20 M. Other factors included a competitive subcontractor environment where they were encouraged with incentives to maximize recycle/reuse of material and creative demolition solutions. Also, by overlapping multiple demolition tasks at multiple facilities allowed for a reduction in field oversight. (authors)

Jones, A.; Hambro, L. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, Inc., Cocoa, FL (United States); Hooper, K. [U.S. Air Force 45th Space Wing, Patrick AFB, Florida (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

DAMAGE TO CONVENTIONAL AND SPECIAL TYPES OF RESIDENCES EXPOSED TO NUCLEAR EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

Ten residential structures of wood, brick, lightweight reinforced concrete block, and lightweight precast concrete slabs were exposed in pairs to the effects of a nuclear device of approximately 30 kt yield, detonated atop a 500-ft tower. The houses represented various structural types, and two houses of each type were tested. One house was located at an anticipated overpressure at which collapse or major damage might be expected and the other was located at an anticipated overpressure at which damage without collapse might be expected. The one-story reinforced lightweight concrete block house and the one-story precast lightweight concrete house suffered only minor structural damage. Photographs are included of the houses both before and after damage. Motion pictures were made during the event and were analyzed for information on thermal and blast effects. Recommendations are included for strengthening the structures within the limits of practical economy and so providing increased protection to dwelling structures. (C.H.)

Randall, P.A.

1961-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Program to monitor Department of Energy workers exposed to hazardous and radioactive substances  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50 CHAPTER 42 SUBCHAPTER VI Part C 5 2733 50 CHAPTER 42 SUBCHAPTER VI Part C 5 2733 Program to monitor Department of Energy workers exposed to hazardous and radioactive substances (a) In general The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and on-going medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of the exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such empIoyment. (b) Implementation of program ( I ) The Secretary shall, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, issue regulations under which the Secretary shall implement the program. Such regulations shall, to the extent practicable, provide for a process to- (A) identify the hazardous substances and radioactive substances to which

231

Program to monitor Department of Energy workers exposed to hazardous and radioactive substances  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

50 CHAPTER 42 SUBCHAPTER VI Part C 5 2733 50 CHAPTER 42 SUBCHAPTER VI Part C 5 2733 Program to monitor Department of Energy workers exposed to hazardous and radioactive substances (a) In general The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and on-going medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of the exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such empIoyment. (b) Implementation of program ( I ) The Secretary shall, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, issue regulations under which the Secretary shall implement the program. Such regulations shall, to the extent practicable, provide for a process to- (A) identify the hazardous substances and radioactive substances to which

232

Mechanical properties of cables exposed to simultaneous thermal and radiation aging  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories is conducting long-term aging research on representative samples of nuclear power plant Class 1E cables. The objectives of this program are to determine the suitability of these cables for extended life (beyond the 40-year design basis) and to assess various cable condition monitoring (CM) techniques for predicting remaining cable life. This paper provides the results of mechanical measurements that were performed on cable specimens cross-linked polyethylene neoprene jackets: chlorinated polyethylene jackets, fiberglass braid jackets, and chlorosulfonated polyethylene jackets aged at relatively mild, simultaneous thermal and radiation exposure conditions for periods of up to nine months. After aging, some of the aged samples, as well as some unaged samples, were exposed to accident gamma radiation at ambient temperature. The mechanical measurements discussed in this paper include tensile strength, ultimate elongation, and compressive modulus. 10 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Jacobus, M.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Fuehrer, G.F. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

CLINICAL GUIDELINES FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS EXPOSED TO THE WORLD TRADE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

• More than 7 years after the WTC attacks on 9/11, some children and adolescents may still be experiencing physical or mental health effects associated with the disaster. • Due to their development, behavior, and physiology, children and adolescents are more susceptible than adults to certain adverse health effects resulting from disasters. • Pediatricians and other child health clinicians should know how to identify, evaluate, treat and, if necessary, refer pediatric patients with potential WTC-related physical or mental health conditions. • Physicians should also consider WTC-related health effects among young adults who were exposed as adolescents. More than 7 years after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks on 9/11, adverse health effects have been documented in adults and children who lived or worked in the vicinity of the World Trade Center. In 2006 and again in 2008, the New York City Department of Health and

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Deuterium Depth Profile in Neutron-Irradiated Tungsten Exposed to Plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of radiation damage has been mainly simulated using high-energy ion bombardment. The ions, however, are limited in range to only a few microns into the surface. Hence, some uncertainty remains about the increase of trapping at radiation damage produced by 14 MeV fusion neutrons, which penetrate much farther into the bulk material. With the Japan-US joint research project: Tritium, Irradiations, and Thermofluids for America and Nippon (TITAN), the tungsten samples (99.99 % pure from A.L.M.T., 6mm in diameter, 0.2mm in thickness) were irradiated to high flux neutrons at 50 C and to 0.025 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Subsequently, the neutron-irradiated tungsten samples were exposed to a high-flux deuterium plasma (ion flux: 1021-1022 m-2s-1, ion fluence: 1025-1026 m-2) in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). First results of deuterium retention in neutron-irradiated tungsten exposed in TPE have been reported previously. This paper presents the latest results in our on-going work of deuterium depth profiling in neutron-irradiated tungsten via nuclear reaction analysis. The experimental data is compared with the result from non neutron-irradiated tungsten, and is analyzed with the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) to elucidate the hydrogen isotope behavior such as retention and depth distribution in neutron-irradiated and non neutron-irradiated tungsten.

Masashi Shimada; G. Cao; Y. Hatano; T. Oda; Y. Oya; M. Hara; P. Calderoni

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero or as young children, October 1950 - May 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cancer mortality for the period from October 1950 through May 1992 was analyzed in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero. Risk estimates for this group were also compared to those for survivors who were less than 6 years old at the time of exposure. The cohorts studied include 807 in utero survivors and 5,545 persons exposed during childhood with all members of both groups having estimated doses of at least 0.01 Sv. The comparison group includes 10,453 persons with little (<0.01 Sv) or no exposure. Analyses were limited mainly to cancer deaths occurring between the ages of 17 and 46. Only 10 cancer deaths were observed among persons exposed in utero. However, there is a significant dose response with an estimate of excess relative risk per sievert (ERR/Sv) of 2.1 (90% confidence interval of 0.2 to 6.0). This estimate does not differ significantly from that for survivors exposed during the first 5 years of life. The cancer deaths among those exposed during the first 5 years of life. 23 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

Delongchamp, R.R.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)] [and others

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Purex Plant comparison with 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for the Product Removal (PR) (296-A-1) stack  

SciTech Connect

Dose calculations for atmospheric radionuclide releases from the Hanford Site for calendar year (CY) 1992 were performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) using the approved US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CAP-88 computer model. Emissions from discharge points in the Hanford Site 100, 200, 300, 400, and 600 areas were calculated based on results of analyses of continuous and periodic sampling conducted at the discharge points. These calculated emissions were provided for inclusion in the CAP-88 model by area and by individual facility for those facilities having the potential to contribute more than 10 percent of the Hanford Site total or to result in an impact of greater than 0.1 mrem per year to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). Also included in the assessment of offsite dose modeling are the measured radioactive emissions from all Hanford Site stacks that have routine monitoring performed. Record sampling systems have been installed on all stacks and vents that use exhaust fans to discharge air that potentially may carry airborne radioactivity. Estimation of activity from ingrowth of long-lived radioactive progeny is not included in the CAP-88 model; therefore, the Hanford Site GENII code (Napier et al. 1988) was used to supplement the CAP-88 dose calculations. When the dose to the MEI located in the Ringold area was calculated, the effective dose equivalent (EDE) from combined Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions was shown to be 3.7E-03 mrem. This value was reported in the annual air emission report prepared for the Hanford Site (RL 1993).

Lohrasbi, J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Throughput Maximization Cruz et al. Throughput Maximization of Queueing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 - Belo Horizonte - MG, Brazil. Corresponding author. E-mail: fcruz^encias Exatas, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, 39401-089 Montes Claros MG, Brazil. 1 INTRODUCTION

Cruz, Frederico

238

SCC Initiation in Alloy 600 Heat Affected Zones Exposed to High Temperature Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies have shown that grain boundary chromium carbides improve the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of nickel based alloys exposed to high temperature, high purity water. However, thermal cycles from welding can significantly alter the microstructure of the base material near the fusion line. In particular, the heat of welding can solutionize grain boundary carbides and produce locally high residual stresses and strains, reducing the SCC resistance of the Alloy 600 type material in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Testing has shown that the SCC growth rate in Alloy 600 heat affected zone samples can be {approx}30x faster than observed in the Alloy 600 base material under identical testing conditions due to fewer intergranular chromium rich carbides and increased plastic strain in the HAZ [1, 2]. Stress corrosion crack initiation tests were conducted on Alloy 600 HAZ samples at 360 C in hydrogenated, deaerated water to determine if these microstructural differences significantly affect the SCC initiation resistance of Alloy 600 heat affected zones compared to the Alloy 600 base material. Alloy 600 to EN82H to Alloy 600 heat-affected-zone (HAZ) specimens where fabricated from an Alloy 600 to Alloy 600 narrow groove weld with EN82H filler metal. The approximate middle third of the specimen gauge region was EN82H such that each specimen had two HAZ regions. Tests were conducted with in-situ monitored smooth tensile specimens under a constant load, and a direct current electric potential drop was used for in-situ detection of SCC. Test results suggest that the SCC initiation resistance of Alloy 600 and its weld metal follows the following order: EN82H > Alloy 600 HAZ > Alloy 600. The high SCC initiation resistance observed to date in Alloy 600 heat affected zones compared to wrought Alloy 600 is unexpected based on the microstructure of HAZ versus wrought material and based on prior SCC growth rate studies. The observed behavior for the HAZ specimens is likely not related to differences in the environment, differences in surface stress/strain between the various specimen regions (weld, HAZ, wrought), differences in surface residual stress, or differences in the microstructure of the various specimen regions (weld, HAZ, wrought). The behavior may be related to differences in the creep behavior of the various weld regions or differences in the surface area of the various materials (weld, HAZ, wrought) exposed to high temperature water.

E Richey; DS Morton; RA Etien; GA Young; RB Bucinell

2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

239

Height reduction among prenatally exposed atomic-bomb survivors: A longitudinal study of growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a random coefficient regression model, sex-specific longitudinal analyses of height were made on 801 (392 male and 409 female) atomic-bomb survivors exposed in utero to detect dose effects on standing height. The data set resulted from repeated measurements of standing height of adolescents (age 10-18 y). The dose effect, if any, was assumed to be linear. Gestational ages at the time of radiation exposure were divided into trimesters. Since an earlier longitudinal data analysis has demonstrated radiation effects on height, the emphasis in this paper is on the interaction between dose and gestational age at exposure and radiation effects on the age of occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt. For males, a cubic polynomial growth-curve model applied to the data was affected significantly by radiation. The dose by trimester interaction effect was not significant. The onset of adolescent growth spurt was estimated at about 13 y at 0 Gy. There was no effect of radiation on the adolescent growth spurt For females, a quadratic polynomial growth-curve model was fitted to the data. The dose effect was significant, while the dose by trimester interaction was again not significant. 27 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Nakashima, Eiji; Funamoto, Sachiyo [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Carter, R.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Quantifying mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed to simulated hydro-turbine passage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A proportion of juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids travel through one or more turbines during seaward migration in the Columbia and Snake River every year. Despite this understanding, limited information exists on how these fish respond to hydraulic pressures found during turbine passage events. In this study we exposed juvenile Chinook salmon to varied acclimation pressures and subsequent exposure pressures (nadir) to mimic the hydraulic pressures of large Kaplan turbines (ratio of pressure change). Additionally, we varied abiotic (total dissolved gas, rate of pressure change) and biotic (condition factor, fish length, fish weight) factors that may contribute to the incidence of mortal injury associated with fish passing through hydro-turbines. We determined that the main factor associated with mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon during simulated turbine passage was the ratio between acclimation and nadir pressures. Condition factor, total dissolved gas, and the rate of pressure change were found to only slightly increase the predictive power of equations relating probability of mortal injury to conditions of exposure or characteristics of test fish during simulated turbine passage. This research will assist engineers and fisheries managers in operating and improving hydroelectric facility efficiency while minimizing mortality and injury of turbine-passed juvenile Chinook salmon. The results are discussed in the context of turbine development and the necessity of understanding how different species of fish will respond to the hydraulic pressures of turbine passage.

Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Gingerich, Andrew J.; Stephenson, John R.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Welch, Abigail E.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Johnson, Robert L.; Skalski, John R.; Seaburg, Adam; Townsend, Richard L.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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241

Generic and maximal Jordan types  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 7, 2007 ... •(G,k) we exhibit a “generic Jordan type” of M. In the very special ... specializes to the non-trivial observation that the Jordan type obtained by.

242

Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. In this presentation, we will share our experience in setting up parallel computing using GA in the MATLAB® environment and present the overall approach for achieving higher computational efficiency in this framework.

Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Method and means of reducing erosion of components of plasma devices exposed to helium and hydrogen isotope radiation  

SciTech Connect

Surfaces of components of plasma devices exposed to radiation by atoms or ions of helium or isotopes of hydrogen can be protected from damage due to blistering by shielding the surfaces with a structure formed by sintering a powder of aluminum or beryllium and its oxide or by coating the surfaces with such a sintered metal powder.

Kaminsky, Manfred S. (Hinsdale, IL); Das, Santosh K. (Naperville, IL); Rossing, Thomas D. (De Kalb, IL)

1977-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

244

Steam Turbine Rotor Life Assessment and Extension: Evaluation of Retired Rotors: Volume 2: Mechanical Properties of Service-Exposed Rotors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Informed run/retire decisions on high and intermediate pressure (HP/IP) rotors require mechanical property data on service-exposed material. This report presents a comprehensive set of mechanical property data, including creep and creep-fatigue crack growth, on a 1950 vintage CrMoV HP/IP rotor retired after more than 160,000 hours of service.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Liver antioxidant and plasmatic immune responses in juvenile1 golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) exposed to dispersed crude oil2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) exposed to dispersed crude oil2 3 Thomas Milinkovitch1* , Awa Ndiaye2 , Wilfried Sanchez2 , Stéphane Le ; CD : Chemically Dispersed oil ; D : Dispersant solution ; MD : Mechanically Dispersed oil; WSF application is an oil spill response technique. To evaluate the environmental31 cost of this operation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

Problems with providing QoS in EDCA ad-hoc networks with hidden and exposed nodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we investigate the problem of providing QoS within IEEE 802.11 EDCA ad-hoc networks. Our study shows that a strong unfairness in medium access between certain nodes may appear. It also shows that the possible unfairness is dependent on ... Keywords: EDCA, QoS, ad-hoc, hidden and exposed nodes

Katarzyna Kosek

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Thermal Performance of Exposed Composed Roofs in Very Hot Dry Desert Region in Egypt (Toshky)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal performance for any building in hot dry region depend on the external climatic factor, the ability of the construction materials used in gained heat through day time and loss this heat through night time through the nocturnal radiation. Roof is considered the major part of the building envelop which exposed to high thermal load due to the high solar intensity and high outdoor air temperature through summer season which reach to 6 months. In Egypt the thermal effect of roof is increased as one go towards from north to south. This study evaluate the thermal performance of different test rooms with different roofs construction; uninsulated concrete, insulated concrete, double, plant, and active concrete roofs, constructed under the effect of external climatic condition of very hot and dry region in Egypt (Toshky region). The external climatic conditions and the temperature distribution inside the roof construction and the indoor air temperature were measured. The results of this study recognized that the thermal transmittance (UValue) has a major role in chosen the constructed materials. Also the thermal insulation considered the suitable manner for damping the thermal stresses through day time and makes the interior environment of the building near the comfort zone during most months of the year. Natural night and forced ventilation are more important in improving the internal conditions. The construction roof systems show that the indoor air temperature thermal damping reach to 96%, 90%, 89%, and 76% for insulated concrete, double, planted and uninsulated concrete roofs. The results also investigate the importance of using the earth as a cooling source through the active concrete system. Evaporative cooling and movable shading which are an integrated part of the guidelines for building design in hot dry region must be using.

Khalil, M. H.; Sheble, S.; Morsey, M. S.; Fakhry, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Exposing the Nuclear Burning Ashes of Radius Expansion Type I X-ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We solve for the evolution of the vertical extent of the convective region of a neutron star atmosphere during a Type I X-ray burst. The convective region is well-mixed with ashes of nuclear burning and its extent determines the rise time of the burst light curve. Using a full nuclear reaction network, we show that the maximum vertical extent of the convective region during photospheric radius expansion (RE) bursts can be sufficiently great that: (1) some ashes of burning are ejected by the radiation driven wind during the RE phase and, (2) some ashes of burning are exposed at the neutron star surface following the RE phase. We find that ashes with mass number A ~ 30 - 60 are mixed in with the ejected material. We calculate the expected column density of ejected and surface ashes in hydrogen-like states and determine the equivalent widths of the resulting photoionization edges from both the wind and neutron star surface. We find that these can exceed 100 eV and are potentially detectable. A detection would probe the nuclear burning processes and might enable a measurement of the neutron star gravitational redshift. In addition, we find that in bursts with pure helium burning layers, protons from (alpha, p) reactions cause a rapid onset of the 12C(p, gamma)13N(alpha, p)16O reaction sequence. The sequence bypasses the relatively slow 12C(alpha, gamma)16O reaction and leads to a sudden surge in energy production that is directly observable as a rapid (~ ms) increase in flux during burst rise.

Nevin N. Weinberg; Lars Bildsten; Hendrik Schatz

2005-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

249

Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department  

SciTech Connect

Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico) and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico) and Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando No.22 C.P. 4080 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

250

Plutonium Transport Through Lysimeters Exposed to Natural Weather Conditions for Two to Twelve Years  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the most important factors influencing the subsurface transport of plutonium (Pu) is its oxidation state. Under similar geochemical conditions (e.g., groundwater pH) the mobility of reduced Pu, Pu(IV), is two to three orders of magnitude lower than that of oxidized Pu, Pu(V) and Pu(VI). However, due to a poor understanding of Pu oxidation state transformations, transport models typically employ conservative assumptions which can lead to overly conservative and costly decisions. The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual geochemical transport model to describe Pu mobility through 52-L lysimeters established in 1980. The lysimeters contained E-Area sediment and various forms of well-characterized Pu sources of known oxidation state and were exposed to natural SRS weather conditions for up to 11 years. For this study, archived core sediments from the lysimeters were retrieved and Pu concentrations in depth-discrete samples were measured and then transport of Pu was modeled using a coupled reactive transport model. The geochemical conceptual model and input values included in the transport code were based on laboratory experiments. The single most important finding from this work was regardless of the Pu oxidation state added to SRS sediments, it quickly converted to the less mobile Pu(IV) form. In conclusion, it is expected that Pu will exist primarily in the SRS subsurface environment in the relatively less mobile Pu(IV) form, irrespective of the oxidation state that it first enters the ground. The lysimeter results provide important long-term data that support the removal of important overly conservative approaches presently used to calculate risk and performance assessment associated with groundwater Pu. These findings do not contradict previous Pu modeling efforts, including the E-Area Low-Level Waste Performance Assessment or the Special Analysis on Pu disposal in SRS trenches. Instead, the results from this work could be used in future calculations to improve accuracy and reduce uncertainty and conservatism.

Kaplan, D.I.

2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

251

Arsenic alters monocyte superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in environmentally exposed children  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with alterations in the immune system, studies in experimental models and adults have shown that these effects involve macrophage function; however, limited information is available on what type of effects could be induced in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of As exposure, through the association of inorganic As (iAs) and its metabolites [monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] with basal levels of nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}-}) and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-}), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocytes, and NO{sup {center_dot}-} and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} produced by activated monocytes. Hence, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 87 children (6-10 years old) who had been environmentally exposed to As through drinking water. Levels of urinary As species (iAs, MMA and DMA) were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, total As (tAs) represents the sum of iAs and its species; tAs urine levels ranged from 12.3 to 1411 {mu}g/g creatinine. Using multiple linear regression models, iAs presented a positive and statistical association with basal NO{sup {center_dot}-} in PBMC ({beta} = 0.0048, p = 0.049) and monocytes ({beta} = 0.0044, p = 0.044), while basal O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} had a significant positive association with DMA ({beta} = 0.0025, p = 0.046). In activated monocytes, O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} showed a statistical and positive association with iAs ({beta} = 0.0108, p = 0.023), MMA ({beta} = 0.0066, p = 0.022), DMA ({beta} = 0.0018, p = 0.015), and tAs ({beta} = 0.0013, p = 0.015). We conclude that As exposure in the studied children was positively associated with basal levels of NO{sup {center_dot}-} and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} in PBMC and monocytes, suggesting that As induces oxidative stress in circulating blood cells. Additionally, this study showed a positive association of O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} production with iAs and its metabolites in stimulated monocytes, supporting previous data that suggests that these cells, and particularly the O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} activation pathway, are relevant targets for As toxicity.

Luna, Ana L.; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C. [Toxicologia, Cinvestav, PO Box: 14-740, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth [Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Conde, Patricia; Vera, Eunice; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea [Toxicologia, Cinvestav, PO Box: 14-740, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico); Bastida, Mariana [Coordinacion de Investigacion de la Secretaria de Salud del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E. [Toxicologia, Cinvestav, PO Box: 14-740, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico); Calderon-Aranda, Emma S., E-mail: scalder@cinvestav.m [Toxicologia, Cinvestav, PO Box: 14-740, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Systematic Approach to Compare the Inflammatory Response of Liver Cell Culture Systems Exposed to Silver, Copper, and Nickel Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although nano-sized metal colloids are used in industrial and medicinal applications, little is known about the potential liver toxicity of these materials after occupational or intentional exposures. To begin to resolve some outstanding hepatotoxicity concerns, the inflammatory response of hepatocytes after exposure to metal colloids was assessed. Four ~30-nm-sized metal colloids, including silver (nano-Ag), copper (nano-Cu) and nickel (nano-Ni) were examined in an effort to understand the induced cytokine expression in a murine liver cell line (AML12). Here we also utilized another system, co-cultures of hepatocytes, Kupffer’s cells, and lymphocytes isolated from C57BL6 mice. Cells were exposed to the materials over dose-response (0.1mg/L to 1000mg/L) and time-dependent (4 h, 48 h, and 1-week) studies. Cytotoxicity was measured via metabolism of resazurin and validated via MTT assay and cell counts. Inflammatory response was determined by cytokine profiles (TNF-a and IL-6), as well as by mRNA and protein expression of heat shock protein (Hsp70). Results from cells exposed to nano-Ag to doses of up to 100mg/L exhibited no significant changes in cytotoxicity, IL-6, or TNF-a production, or Hsp70 expression. Both nano-Cu and nano-Ni exposed cells exhibited decreased metabolism, increased Hsp70 induction, and increased inflammatory responses (IL-6 and TNF-a). Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy were used to characterize particle size and surface charge. All three metal colloidal systems demonstrated different particle size distributions, agglomerated sizes, and surface zeta potentials. Furthermore, each metal colloid system elicited different inflammatory biomarker responses and stress protein expression.

Banerjee, Nivedita

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

Conard, R.A.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

Conard, R.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

Conard, R.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

256

Mesoscale Energy Spectra of the Mei-Yu Front System. Part II: Moist Available Potential Energy Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Part II of this study, a new formulation of the spectral energy budget of moist available potential energy (MAPE) and kinetic energy is derived. Compared to previous formulations, there are three main improvements: i) the Lorenz available ...

Jun Peng; Lifeng Zhang; Yu Luo; Chunhui Xiong

257

Evaluation of materials exposed to scale-control/nozzle-exhaust experiments at the Salton Sea geothermal field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The erosion, corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Ti-, Co-, Ni-, and Fe-base alloys specimens that were used in scale-control tests performed at the Salton Sea geothermal field were evaluated. Specimens were exposed to high-velocity, two-phase, 104{sup 0}C nozzle exhaust that was produced by expanding acidified hypersaline, highly mineralized brine to atmospheric pressure through converging-diverging nozzles. The exposed specimens were evaluated using surface profilometer traces, light microscopy, scanning-electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy ananlysis. The observed degradation was attributed largely to synergistic effects of erosion, corrosion, and stress. A principal mode of degradation appeared to be the formation and growth of corrosion-assisted erosion cavities; it was proposed that surface repassivation kinetics play a key role in the development of these cavities. It was also suggested that scale deposits on the metal surface may either alter the mode of attack or act as protective barriers. It was concluded that, of the potential turbine-blade materials tested, the Ti-base alloys exhibited the best combination of resistance to erosion, corrosion, and SCC.

Goldberg, A.; Kershaw, R.P.

1979-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

258

Microsoft PowerPoint - Mark Phifer.CA as Decision Tool at DOE Sites.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Phifer Phifer May 25, 2011 Performance Assessment Community of Practice Technical Exchange Composite Analysis: A DOE Site Decision Tool 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Year Dose (mrem/yr) AER Maximally Exposed Individual AER Irrigation AER MEI plus Irrigation SRS CA Savannah River Hwy 301 Bridge F o u r M ile B ra n ch F C Z E H S M c Q u e e n B ra n c h Up pe r Th re e Ru ns SRS Easting (ft) SRS Northing (ft) 50000 55000 60000 65000 7000 65000 70000 75000 80000 85000 Print Close 2 Composite Analysis - What Is It? PA CoP Technical Exchange 5/25/11 CA is a cumulative end state public dose projection Required by DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management To provide reasonable expectation of future public radiological protection Cumulative effect of all end state radioactive sources (e.g., CERCLA, RCRA, and D&D) at a DOE site that could interact

259

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, stored, and potentially emitted. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H. Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2011, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.01 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included about 90 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley lab operations. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer codes, CAP88-PC and COMPLY, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI).

Wahl, Linnea

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

260

Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3 h (358.3 {+-} 12.4 mOsm/L) relative to 45 min post hyperosmotic injection (325.1 {+-} 11.4 mOsm/L). Impaired osmoregulation in PBDE-treated animals could not be attributed to decreased levels of plasma vasopressin. Our findings suggest that developmental exposure to PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation in late adulthood. - Highlights: > We examined whether PBDE exposure could impact osmotic and cardiovascular regulation. > Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. > PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation.

Shah, Ashini [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Coburn, Cary G. [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Leon-Olea, Martha [Neuromorfologia Funcional, Direccion de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Mexico City (Mexico); Gaertner, Mark [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S. [Neurotoxicology Branch, NHEERL/ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Curras-Collazo, Margarita C., E-mail: margarita.curras@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

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261

Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate seismic data-acquisition and data-processing technologies that allow geothermal prospects below high-velocity rock outcrops to be evaluated. To do this, we acquired a 3-component seismic test line across an area of exposed high-velocity rocks in Brewster County, Texas, where there is high heat flow and surface conditions mimic those found at numerous geothermal prospects. Seismic contractors have not succeeded in creating good-quality seismic data in this area for companies who have acquired data for oil and gas exploitation purposes. Our test profile traversed an area where high-velocity rocks and low-velocity sediment were exposed on the surface in alternating patterns that repeated along the test line. We verified that these surface conditions cause non-ending reverberations of Love waves, Rayleigh waves, and shallow critical refractions to travel across the earth surface between the boundaries of the fast-velocity and slow-velocity material exposed on the surface. These reverberating surface waves form the high level of noise in this area that does not allow reflections from deep interfaces to be seen and utilized. Our data-acquisition method of deploying a box array of closely spaced geophones allowed us to recognize and evaluate these surface-wave noise modes regardless of the azimuth direction to the surface anomaly that backscattered the waves and caused them to return to the test-line profile. With this knowledge of the surface-wave noise, we were able to process these test-line data to create P-P and SH-SH images that were superior to those produced by a skilled seismic data-processing contractor. Compared to the P-P data acquired along the test line, the SH-SH data provided a better detection of faults and could be used to trace these faults upward to the boundaries of exposed surface rocks. We expanded our comparison of the relative value of S-wave and P-wave seismic data for geothermal applications by inserting into this report a small part of the interpretation we have done with 3C3D data across Wister geothermal field in the Imperial Valley of California. This interpretation shows that P-SV data reveal faults (and by inference, also fractures) that cannot be easily, or confidently, seen with P-P data, and that the combination of P-P and P-SV data allows VP/VS velocity ratios to be estimated across a targeted reservoir interval to show where an interval has more sandstone (the preferred reservoir facies). The conclusion reached from this investigation is that S-wave seismic technology can be invaluable to geothermal operators. Thus we developed a strong interest in understanding the direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources, particularly vertical vibrators, because if it can be demonstrated that direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources can be used as effectively as the direct-S modes produced by horizontal-force sources, geothermal operators can acquire direct-S data across many more prospect areas than can be done with horizontal-force sources, which presently are limited to horizontal vibrators. We include some of our preliminary work in evaluating direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources.

Hardage, Bob A; DeAngelo, Michael V; Ermolaeva, Elena; Hardage, Bob A; Remington, Randy; Sava, Diana; Wagner, Donald; Wei, Shuijion

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

262

Author manuscript, published in "IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation (CEFC), Seoul: Korea, Republic of (2004)" Maximization of No-Load Flux Density in Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—By using the analytical equations of the no-load flux density obtained with a two-dimensional model (2D) in polar coordinates, the authors proposed to interpolate a new analytical expression of the optimal thickness of the magnet which make it possible to maximize the no-load flux density in the air-gap. The interpolation function of the magnet optimal thickness could be utilized for surface mounted permanent magnet motors having a direction of parallel or radial magnetization [1]. I.

Frédéric Dubas; Christophe Espanet; Abdellatif Miraoui

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero  

SciTech Connect

Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and [>=]26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Nakashima, Eiji (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Minami-ku (Japan))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Efficacy of Single-Suture Incision Closures in Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon Exposed to Simulated Turbine Passage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reductions in the size of acoustic transmitters implanted in migrating juvenile salmonids have resulted in the use of a shorter incision-one that may warrant only a single suture for closure. However, it is not known whether a single suture will sufficiently hold the incision closed when fish are decompressed and when outward pressure is placed on the surgical site during turbine passage through hydroelectric dams. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of single-suture incision closures on five response variables in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were subjected to simulated turbine passage. An acoustic transmitter (0.43 g in air) and a passive integrated transponder tag (0.10 g in air) were implanted in each fish; the 6-mm incisions were closed with either one suture or two sutures. After exposure to simulated turbine passage, none of the fish exhibited expulsion of transmitters. In addition, the percentage of fish with suture tearing, incision tearing, or mortal injury did not differ between treatments. Expulsion of viscera through the incision was higher among fish that received one suture (12%) than among fish that received two sutures (1%). The higher incidence of visceral expulsion through single-suture incisions warrants concern. Consequently, for cases in which tagged juvenile salmonidsmay be exposed to turbine passage, we do not recommend the use of one suture to close 6-mm incisions associated with acoustic transmitter implantation.

Boyd, James W.; Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Eppard, M. B.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Discontinuous phase formation and selective attack of SiC materials exposed to low oxygen partial pressure environments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three SiC materials were exposed to gas mixtures containing N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO at 1000-1300C, 1-740 torr for a few to 1000 h. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies indicate that CO is the predominant oxidizing species. A variety of corrosion processes were observed, including surface and internal pit formation, needle growth, grain boundary attack, and attack of impurities and surrounding material. In the case of a siliconized SiC, impurities such as Ca, Al, and Fe diffused rapidly through the Si matrix forming complex calcium aluminosilicates on the surface, leaving behind internal voids. Evaluation of the mechanical properties, including fractography, revealed a variety of degradative phenomena. Efforts to identify causes of pit formation suggested that the overall process was complex. Pits formed during attack of grain boundaries and regions containing transition metal impurities. Studies of single crystals showed preferential attack near impurities and crystalline defects, indicating that damaged crystals or certain crystal orientations in the polycrystalline materials are susceptible to attack. In addition, under some conditions where pit formation was observed, the strength of certain materials increased apparently due to flaw healing. It is suggested that flaws can heal in the absence of mechanical stress due to their high surface energy. However, second phases observed within partially healed surface cracks suggest impurities also contribute to the flaw healing processes.

Butt, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tressler, R.E.; Spear, K.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN A NATURAL POPULATION OF CHIRONOMUS TENTANS EXPOSED TO CHRONIC LOW-LEVEL ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION  

SciTech Connect

The salivary gland chromosomes of Chironomus tentans larvae collected from White Oak Creek, an area contaminated by radioactive waste from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and from six uncontaminated areas were examined for chromosomal aberrations. White Oak Creek populations were exposed to absorbed doses as high as 230 rads per year or about 1000 times background. Chromosomal maps were constructed to make a general comparison of the banding pattern of the salivary chromosomes of the C. tentans in the East Tennessee area with those of Canada and Europe. These maps were used as a reference in scoring aberrations. Fifteen different chromosomal aberrations were found in 365 larvae taken from the irradiated population as compared with five different aberrations observed in 356 larvae from six control populations, but the mean number of aberrations per larva did not differ in any of the populations. The quantitative amount of heterozygosity was essentially the same in the irradiated and the control population, but there were three times the variety of chromosomal aberrations found in the irradiated area. From this evidence it was concluded that chronic low-level irradiation from radioactive waste was increasing the variability of chromosomal aberrations without significantly increasing the frequency. It was also concluded that chromosomal polymorphism can be maintained in a natural population without superiority of the heterozygous individuals. (C.H.)

Blaylock, B G; Auerbach, S I; Nelson, D J

1964-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

267

Experimental results for diffusion and infiltration of moisture in concrete masonry walls exposed to hot and humid climates  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experimental test results for heat and moisture migration in walls exposed to hot and humid climates. The research was conducted to study the problem of mold and mildew caused by moisture transfer into walls of concrete masonry unit (CMU) type construction by diffusion and convective transport by air infiltration. This type of construction is common in commercial buildings in the southern US. The tests were conducted in two phases. Phase 1 evaluated heat and moisture transfer by diffusion. Phase 2 testing involved air infiltration through the test walls. Data were also collected to determine the rate at which the test walls would dry out without infiltration present. Test results indicate that an exterior vapor retarder will reduce the moisture migration into the wall and thereby lower the moisture accumulation due to infiltration when a vapor retarder (such as vinyl wallpaper) is used for the interior surface treatment. Testing also showed that while the exterior wall treatment does have an effect on reducing the total moisture accumulation in the test walls, the interior wall treatment has a much larger impact when infiltration is present. The data support a proposed criterion for the onset of mold and mildew, which requires a monthly average surface relative humidity of 80% with temperatures between 32 F and 105 F.

Hosni, M.H.; Sipes, J.M.; Wallis, M.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Problems with Correct Traffic Differentiation in Line Topology IEEE 802.11 EDCA Networks in the Presence of Hidden and Exposed Nodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of content delivery with a required QoS is currently one of the most important. In ad-hoc networks it is IEEE 802.11 EDCA which tries to face this problem. This paper describes several EDCA line topology configurations with mixed priorities ... Keywords: EDCA, QoS, hidden and exposed nodes, simulations

Katarzyna Kosek; Marek Natkaniec; Luca Vollero

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline  

SciTech Connect

In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more components of the elastomers (by the solvent). This extraction of additives can negatively change the properties of the elastomer, leading to reduced performance and durability. For a seal application, some level of volume swell is acceptable, since the expansion will serve to maintain a seal. However, the acceptable level of swell is dependent on the particular application of the elastomer product. It is known that excessive swell can lead to unacceptable extrusion of the elastomer beyond the sealed interface, where it becomes susceptible to damage. Also, since high swell is indicative of high solubility, there is a heightened potential for fluid to seep through the seal and into the environment. Plastics, on the other hand, are used primarily in structural applications, such as solid components, including piping and fluid containment. Volume change, especially in a rigid system, will create internal stresses that may negatively affect performance. In order to better understand and predict the compatibility for a given polymer type and fuel composition, an analysis based on Hansen solubility theory was performed for each plastic and elastomer material. From this study, the solubility distance was calculated for each polymer material and test fuel combination. Using the calculated solubility distance, the ethanol concentration associated with peak swell and overall extent of swell can be predicted for each polymer. The bulk of the material discussion centers on the plastic materials, and their compatibility with Fuel C, CE25a, CE50a, and CE85a. The next section of this paper focuses on the elastomer compatibility with the higher ethanol concentrations with comparison to results obtained previously for the lower ethanol levels. The elastomers were identical to those used in the earlier study. Hansen solubility theory is also applied to the elastomers to provide added interpretation of the results. The final section summarizes the performance of the metal coupons.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Differential transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression by human airway epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces inflammatory signaling characterized by MAP kinase-mediated activation of NFkB and AP-1 in vitro and in bronchial biopsies obtained from human subjects exposed to DEP. NFkB and AP-1 activation results in the upregulation of genes involved in promoting inflammation in airway epithelial cells, a principal target of inhaled DEP. IL-8 is a proinflammatory chemokine expressed by the airway epithelium in response to environmental pollutants. The mechanism by which DEP exposure induces IL-8 expression is not well understood. In the current study, we sought to determine whether DEP with varying organic content induces IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells, as well as, to develop a method to rapidly evaluate the upstream mechanism(s) by which DEP induces IL-8 expression. Exposure to DEP with varying organic content differentially induced IL-8 expression and IL-8 promoter activity human airway epithelial cells. Mutational analysis of the IL-8 promoter was also performed using recombinant human cell lines expressing reporters linked to the mutated promoters. Treatment with a low organic-containing DEP stimulated IL-8 expression by a mechanism that is predominantly NFkB-dependent. In contrast, exposure to high organic-containing DEP induced IL-8 expression independently of NFkB through a mechanism that requires AP-1 activity. Our study reveals that exposure to DEP of varying organic content induces proinflammatory gene expression through multiple specific mechanisms in human airway epithelial cells. The approaches used in the present study demonstrate the utility of a promoter-reporter assay ensemble for identifying transcriptional pathways activated by pollutant exposure.

Tal, Tamara L. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Simmons, Steven O. [Integrated Systems Toxicology, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Silbajoris, Robert; Dailey, Lisa [Environmental and Public Health, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Cho, Seung-Hyun [Air Pollution Prevention Control Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Research Participation Program, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge (United States); Ramabhadran, Ram [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Integrated Systems Toxicology, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Linak, William [Air Pollution Prevention Control Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Reed, William; Bromberg, Philip A. [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Samet, James M., E-mail: samet.james@epa.go [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Environmental and Public Health, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

A SUBCHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO 0, 0.4, 1.4 OR 4.0 PPM ACROLEIN.  

SciTech Connect

Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.4, 1.4, or 4.0 ppm acrolein for 62 days. The major objective of the study was to relate the results of a series of pulmonary function tests to biochemical and pathological alterations observed in the lung. Cytological and reproductive potential endpoints were also assessed after acrolein exposure. Rats were exposed to acrolein for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 62 days. Mortality was observed only in the 4.0 ppm chamber where 32 of 57 exposed males died; however, none of the 8 exposed females died. Most of the mortality occurred within the first 10 exposure days. Histologic examination indicated that the animals died of acute bronchopneumonia. The surviving males and females exposed to 4.0 ppm acrolein gained weight at a significantly slower rate than control animals. The growth of both sexes in the 0.4 and 1.4 ppm groups was similar to that of their respective controls. Histopathologic examination of animals after 62 days of exposure revealed bronchiolar epithelial necrosis and sloughing, bronchiolar edema with macrophages, and focal pulmonary edema in the 4.0 ppm group. These lesions were, in some cases, associated with edema of the trachea and peribronchial lymph nodes, and acute rhinitis which indicated an upper respiratory tract effect of acrolein. Of particular interest was the variability of response between rats in the 4.0 ppm group, some not affected at all while others were moderately affected. Intragroup variability in toxicity was also apparent in the 1.4 ppm exposure group where only 3 of 31 animals examined had lesions directly related to acrolein exposure. Extra respiratory organs appeared unaffected.

KUTZMAN,R.S.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

SITE SPECIFIC REFERENCE PERSON PARAMETERS AND DERIVED CONCENTRATION STANDARDS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is twofold. The first is to develop a set of behavioral parameters for a reference person specific for the Savannah River Site (SRS) such that the parameters can be used to determine dose to members of the public in compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.” A reference person is a hypothetical, gender and age aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics arrived at by international consensus for the purpose of standardizing radiation dose calculations. DOE O 458.1 states that compliance with the annual dose limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, for dose compliance, SRS has used the MEI concept, which uses adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. Beginning with the 2012 annual site environmental report, SRS will be using the representative person concept for dose compliance. The dose to a representative person will be based on 1) the SRS-specific reference person usage parameters at the 95th percentile of appropriate national or regional data, which are documented in this report, 2) the reference person (gender and age averaged) ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients provided in DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard (DOE-STD-1196-2011), and 3) the external dose coefficients provided in the DC_PAK3 toolbox. The second purpose of this report is to develop SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for all applicable food ingestion pathways, ground shine, and water submersion. The DCS is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in water, in air, or on the ground that results in a member of the public receiving 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose following continuous exposure for one year. In DOE-STD-1196-2011, DCSs were developed for the ingestion of water, inhalation of air and submersion in air pathways, only. These DCSs are required by DOE O 458.1 to be used at all DOE sites in the design and conduct of radiological environmental protection programs. In this report, DCSs for the following additional pathways were considered and documented: ingestion of meat, dairy, grains, produce (fruits and vegetables), seafood, submersion in water and ground shine. These additional DCSs were developed using the same methods as in DOE-STD-1196-2011 and will be used at SRS, where appropriate, as screening and reference values.

Jannik, T.

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

273

Facies architecture of the upper Calvert Bluff Formation exposed in the highwall of Big Brown Mine, Fairfield, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The facies architecture and geometry of stratigraphic surfaces within a lignite bearing interval of the Paleocene upper Calvert Bluff Formation is mapped on a photomosaic of the 150 ft (50 m) high and 12,000 ft (4km) long �C� area highwall of Big Brown Mine, near Fairfield, Texas. Observed bedding and facies architecture are interpreted in terms of temporal changes, depositional environments and sequence stratigraphic setting. A three dimensional grid of 89 subsurface logs is correlated to this photomosaic to characterize log response patterns of facies. Six facies are observed: 1) lignite, 2) interdistributary bay mud, 3) prograding delta, 4) delta top mud, 5) distributary channels, and 6) incised valley fill. The six facies were defined by a combination of mapped photomosaic observations and subsurface log correlations. The lignite deposit formed in a low depositional energy, low sediment input, high-organic productivity interchannel basin. Overlying mud records overbank flooding followed by avulsion and progradation of delta deposits. Tidal-flat deposits overlying prograding delta deposits record fluctuating energy conditions on the emerging delta top. Channel deposits cutting into the delta top record lateral channel migration across delta top floodplains. These regressive delta deposits are capped by a local incised sequence boundary overlain by fluvial channel deposits inferred to have allowed sediment to bypass further basinward during lowstand. A sheet of channel deposits capping this highwall exposure records more recent erosion, followed by development of modern soil horizons. The Big Brown Mine highwall exposes a relatively complete high-frequency Paleocene stratigraphic sequence developed in an area landward of the shoreline position during maximum transgression, that progresses upsection from: 1) highstand alluvial flood basin coals, 2) a thin condensed maximum flooding interdistributary shale, 3) a thick succession of regressive deltaic strata, and 4) a high-relief, sequence-bounding erosion surface overlain by a lowstand to transgressive fill of channel deposits. Correlations with regional Wilcox Group stratigraphic studies spanning coeval shoreline and shelf strata indicate that this high-frequency sequence is within the transgressive systems tract of a 3rd order stratigraphic sequence. It appears that high-frequency sequences of sub-regional extent control the complex distribution of coal seams within central Texas.

Sturdy, Michael Dale

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

In situ XRD Study of Ca2+ Saturated Montmorillonite (STX-1) Exposed to Anhydrous and Wet Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Reactions involving scCO2 and a calcium saturated dioctahedral smectite (Ca-STX-1) were examined by in situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction over a range of temperatures (50° to 100°C) and pressures (90, 125, and 180 bar) relevant to long term geologic storage of CO2. Exposure of Ca-STX-1 containing one water of hydration (1W) to anhydrous scCO2 at 50°C and 90 bar produced an immediate increase of ~0.8 Ĺ in the d001 basal reflection that was sustained for the length of the experiment (~44 hours). Higher ordered basal reflections displayed similar shifts. Following depressurization, positions of basal reflections and FWHM values (d001) returned to initial values, with no measurable modification to the clay structure or water content. Similar results were obtained for tests conducted at 50°C and higher pressures (125 and 180 bar). Exposure of Ca-STX-1 containing two waters of hydration (2W) to scCO2 resulted in a decrease in the d001 reflection from 14.48 Ĺ to 12.52 Ĺ, after pressurization, indicating a partial loss of interlayer water. In addition, the hydration state of the clay became more homogeneous during contact with anhydrous scCO2 and after depressurization. In the presence of scCO2 and water, the clay achieved a 3W hydration state, based on a d001 spacing of 18.8 Ĺ. In contrast to scCO2, comparable testing with N2 gas indicated trivial changes in the d001 series regardless of hydration state (1W or 2W). In the presence of free water and N2, the basal spacing for the Ca-STX-1 expanded slightly, but remained in the 2W hydration state. These experiments indicate that scCO2 can intercalate hydrated clays, where the 1W hydrate state is stable when exposed to anhydrous scCO2 under conditions proposed for geologic storage of CO2. Consequently, clays can act as secondary CO2 traps where potential collapse or expansion of the interlayer spacing depends on the initial hydration state of the clay and scCO2.

Schaef, Herbert T.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Qafoku, Odeta; Martin, Paul F.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

275

Maximizing available spectrum for cognitive radios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

located primary transmitter/receiver, FDD mode If the systemis Frequency Division Duplexed (FDD) (the two transmitter-

Mishra, Shridhar Mubaraq

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

The smallest refrigerators can reach maximal efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show analytically that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, thus demonstrating that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency.

Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu

2010-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

277

Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells Program II.G Hydrogen Production and Delivery Biological Melis - University of California, Berkeley G G G G G Introduction The goal of the research is to generate green...

278

Iterative Estimation Maximization for Stochastic Linear Programs ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spanning from May 23rd 2007 to May 22nd 2008, obtained from http://finance. google.com with adjustment for stock splitting. These stocks span a total of 10 ...

279

Welfare-Maximizing Correlated Equilibria using Kantorovich ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooperative game. Healthy data transfer rates throughout the system is reached when every link is achieving local optimality for its utility. Such a desirable ...

280

Dynamic Network Utility Maximization with Delivery Contracts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sep 30, 2007 ... that the utility functions differ for different flows, and can be time-varying as well. The total traffic on link i at time t is the sum of the flow rates at ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Maximal Quotient Rational Reconstruction - CECM - Simon Fraser ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that can be reconstructed is growing at an equal rate. Example: Running .... used in this range because the timings increase consistently by a factor of 3 as the ...

282

Maximizing the Availability of Distributed Software Services.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In a commercial Internet environment, the quality of service experienced by a user is critical to competitive advantage and business survivability. The availability and response… (more)

Clutterbuck, Peter

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Maximizing degrees of freedom in wireless networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider communication from a single source to a single destination in a wireless network with fading. Both source and destination have multiple antennas. The information reaches the destination through a sequence of ...

Borade, Shashibhushan Prataprao, 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

MAXIMIZING NON-MONOTONE SUBMODULAR FUNCTIONS ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given a weight vector w for the ground set V , and a knapsack of capacity C, the associated ..... The desired map ? is then ?(b) = ? and ?(b?) = ??(b?).

285

Asynergistic regression based on maximized rank correlation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1998) or a constrained B-spline smoother for example. Wethen a constrained B-spline smoother monotone smoothed theby the constrained B-spline smoother. Global synergy was

Donohue, Michael; Abramson, Ian; Gamst, Anthony

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Maximizing the enzymic saccharification of corn stover  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g. agricultural residues, wood, municipal solid waste, tree and yard t gs, sewage sludge, and waste paper) comprises three major components: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It can contain as much as 75% polysaccharide; thus, biomass has considerable potential as a fermentation feedstock. Corn stover represents an especially important resource because it is the single largest source of agricultural residue in the United States. The best method to obtain fermentable sugars from biomass is by enzymic saccharification. Before biomass can be effectively saccharified, some pretreatment is required. Calcium hydroxide (Eme) is an effective pretreatment agent for corn stover and is less expensive and easier to recover than other alternatives. The reconunended process conditions for treating corn stover are 4 h at 120 'C using 0. 075 g Ca(OH)2/g dry biomass and 5 g H20/g dry biomass. The maximum sugar yield bv enzymic hydrolysis (25 FPU ceflulase/g dry biomass, 50 'C, 7 days) of pretreated corn stover is 88.0% of the glucose and 88.1% of the total sugars. The recommended enzyme loading is IO FPU ceUulase/g dry biomass. Tween 20 and Tween 80 are effective at improving the enzymic saccharification of corn stover. The recommended loading of Tween is 0. 15 g Tween/g dry biomass; the loading, rather than the concentration, is the critical parameter. Adding Tween to the hydrolytic medium increases the maximum sugar yield to I 00% and 94.8% of the glucose and 97.4% and 93.3 % of the total sugars for Tween 20 and Tween 80, respectively. Tween also reduces the recommended enzyme loading to 3 FPU ceflulase/g dry biomass. The action of Tween is three-fold: (1) Time profiles show that enzymes remain active at higher temperatures in the presence of Tween. (2) Kinetic analyses show that, although the theoretical maximum hydrolysis rate is unchanged by Tween, the adsorption and coverage parameters, a and c, in the HCH-1 model are reduced which results in higher effective hydrolysis rates. (3) The maximum enzymic digestion, which is independent of enzyme effects, is higher with Tween. Thus, the action of Tween is a combination of surfactant, enzyme effector, and fignoceflulose matrix disrupter.

Kaar, William Edward

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Maximizing fluorescence collection efficiency in multiphoton microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-depth limit in two-photon microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(12), 3139­3149 (2006). 9. D. Kobat, M. E. Durst

Levene, Michael J.

288

Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Routing Protocols to Maximize Battery Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we propose a routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks whose nodes are largely battery powered. The battery capacity of the nodes is viewed as a common resource of the system and its use is to be optimized. Results from a previous study on battery management have shown that: (1) pulsed current discharge outperforms constant current discharge, (2) battery capacity can be improved by using a bursty discharge pattern due to charge recovery effects that take place during idle periods, (3) given a certain value of current drawn off the battery, higher current impulses degrade battery performance, even if the percentage of higher current impulses is relatively small. We develop a network protocol based on these findings. This protocol favors routes whose links have a low energy cost. We also distribute multihop traffic in a manner that allows all nodes a good chance to recover their battery energy reserve.

Carla F. Chiasserini; Ramesh R. Rao

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Defining Conditions for Maximizing Bioreduction of Uranium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Correlations between modifying electron donor and acceptor accessibility, the in-situ microbial community, and bioreduction of Uranium at the FRC and UMTRA research sites indicated that significant modifications in the rate, amount and by inference the potential stability of immobilized Uranium are feasible in these environments. The in-situ microbial community at these sites was assessed with a combination of lipid and real-time molecular techniques providing quantitative insights of effects of electron donor and manipulations. Increased (9mM in 2003 vs 3mM 2002) donor amendment at the Old Rifle site resulted in the stimulation of anaerobic conditions downgradient of the injection gallery. Biomass within the test plot increased relative to the control well at 17 feet. Q-PCR specific for IRB/SRB showed increased copy numbers within the test plot and was the highest at the injection gallery. Q-PCR specific for Geobacter sp. showed increased copy numbers within the test plot but further downgradient from the injection gallery than the SRB/IRB. DNA and Lipid analysis confirm changes in the microbial community structure due to donor addition. See also the PNNL (Long) and UMASS (Anderson) posters for more information about this site.

David C. White; Aaron D. Peacock; Yun-Juan Chang; Roland Geyer; Philip E. Long; Jonathan D. Istok; Amanda N.; R. Todd Anderson; Dora Ogles

2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

291

Planning combat outposts to maximize population security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combat outposts (COPs) are small, well-protected bases from which soldiers reside and conduct operations from. Used extensively during the "Surge" in Iraq, COPs are usually established in populated areas and are prevalent ...

Seidel, Scott B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Inhibition of IGA/SCC on Alloy 600 Surfaces Exposed to PWR Secondary Water: Volume 2: Titanium and Cerium Acetate Model Boiler Testi ng  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has devoted an extensive program to qualifying corrosion inhibitors for use in PWR steam generators. This report addresses one phase of model boiler testing using mill-annealed alloy 600 tubing with drilled-hole carbon steel tube support plate simulators in caustic environments. In two tests, investigators added inorganic inhibitors to the caustic environment. In another test, they exposed alloy 600 tubing to an acidic environment high in sulfates then to a caustic environment. Nondestructive and de...

1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

293

Program on Technology Innovation: Proceedings--2007 AECL/COG/EPRI Workshop on Cold Work in Iron- and Nickel-Base Alloys Exposed to H igh Temperature Water Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A workshop was held June 3-8, 2007 at the Delta Meadowvale Resort and Conference Center in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada to discuss the effects of cold work on the environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of structural materials exposed to high temperature water environments in water cooled nuclear power reactors. This report summarizes the presentations and subsequent discussions and includes the actual presentations as linked appendices.

2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

294

Influence of Pathological Nodal Status and Maximal Standardized Uptake Value of the Primary Tumor and Regional Lymph Nodes on Treatment Plans in Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A better understanding of the prognostic factors in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may optimize the therapeutic approach. In this study, we sought to investigate whether the combination of clinical information, pathologic results, and preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes might improve the prognostic stratification in this patient group. Methods and Materials: A total of 347 consecutive OSCC patients were investigated. All participants underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. The duration of follow-up was at least 24 months in all surviving patients. The optimal cutoff values for SUVmax at the primary tumor (SUVtumor-max) and regional lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) were selected according to the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: In multivariate analysis, a cutoff SUVtumor-max of 8.6, a cutoff SUVnodal-max of 5.7, and the presence of pathologic lymph node metastases were found to be significant prognosticators for the 5-year DFS. A scoring system using these three prognostic factors was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. The 5-year rates for patients with a score between 0 and 3 were as follows: neck control, 94%, 86%, 77%, 59% (p < 0.0001); distant metastases, 1%, 7%, 22%, 47% (p < 0.0001); disease-specific survival, 93%, 85%, 61%, 36%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Based on the study findings, the combined evaluation of pathologic node status and SUVmax at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes may improve prognostic stratification in OSCC patients.

Liao, C.-T. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.-M. [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Lin, C.-Y. [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Ng, S.-H. [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsueh Chuen; Lee, L.-Y. [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.-H. [Department of Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Subsurface characterization of an oxidation-induced phase transformation and twinning in nickel-based superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the integration of oxy-fuel combustion to turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation. In this study, bare metal coupons of Ni-base superalloys were exposed in oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 h and the oxidation-related microstructures were examined. Phase transformation occurred in the subsurface region in Ni-based superalloy and led to twinning. The transformation product phases were analyzed through thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and various electron microscopy techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanism by which the phase transformation and the formation of the microstructure occurred was also discussed. The possible effects of the product phases on the performance of the alloy in service were discussed.

Zhu, Jingxi; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Wise, Adam; Li, Jia; Laughlin, David E.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

296

Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Experimental simulation of crevice corrosion of a functionally graded composite system of F91 and Fe-12Cr-2Si exposed to high-temperature lead-bismuth eutectic coolant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a system in which metal corrosion is of concern to its long-term structural integrity, crevice corrosion can be a significant cause of damage. Small crevices in a metal exposed to a working fluid (such as a reactor's ...

Ferry, Sara Elizabeth

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Partnering Today: Technology Transfer Highlights  

MeiVac, a San Jose, California company, bought the license from US Inc, the initial licensee, in May 2006. MeiVac has 30 years of experience

299

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

Peterson, S

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

No evidence for in vivo induction of genomic instability in bone marrow cells collected from mice exposed to low-dose 137Cs Îł rays:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rithidech et al, 2006 1 Rithidech et al, 2006 1 No evidence for in vivo induction of genomic instability in bone marrow cells collected from mice exposed to low-dose 137 Cs Îł rays: Kanokporn Noy Rithidech 1 , Chatchanok Loetchutinat 1 , Louise Honikel 1 , and Elbert B. Whorton 2 1 Pathology Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8691 2 Molecular Epidemiology Research Program, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, TX 77555-1153 Assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to low-dose radiation (at doses below or equal to 0.1 Gy) is still a challenging public health issue. It is therefore important to improve our understanding of potential induction of genomic instability in vivo by this low-dose range because it has been widely suggested that elevation of genomic instability also elevates cancer

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Tissue- and cell-specific expression of metallothionein genes in cadmium- and copper-exposed mussels analyzed by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR  

SciTech Connect

Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-inducible proteins that can be used as biomarkers of metal exposure. In mussels two families of MT isoforms (MT10 and MT20) have been characterized. In this study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to 200 ppb Cd and 40 ppb Cu for 2 and 9 days to characterize the tissue and isoform specificity of metal-induced MT expression. Non-radioactive in situ hybridization demonstrated that both MT isoforms were mainly transcribed in digestive tubule epithelial cells, especially in basophilic cells. Weaker MT expression was detected in non-ciliated duct cells, stomach and gill epithelial cells, haemocytes, adipogranular cells, spermatic follicles and oocytes. RT-PCR resulted in cloning of a novel M. galloprovincialis isoform homologous to recently cloned Mytilus edulis intron-less MT10B isoform. In gills, Cd only affected MT10 gene expression after 2 days of exposure while increases in MT protein levels occurred at day 9. In the digestive gland, a marked increase of both isoforms, but especially of MT20, was accompanied by increased levels of MT proteins and basophilic cell volume density (Vv{sub BAS}) after 2 and 9 days and of intralysosomal metal accumulation in digestive cells after 9 days. Conversely, although metal was accumulated in digestive cells lysosomes and the Vv{sub BAS} increased in Cu-exposed mussels, Cu exposure did not produce an increase of MT gene expression or MT protein levels. These data suggest that MTs are expressed in a tissue-, cell- and isoform-specific way in response to different metals.

Zorita, I. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Bilbao, E. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Schad, A. [Institute of Pathology, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55101, Mainz (Germany); Cancio, I. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Soto, M. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, M.P. [Lab. Cell Biology and Histology, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

The Influence of Tag Presence on the Mortality of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Exposed to Simulated Hydroturbine Passage: Implications for Survival Estimates and Management of Hydroelectric Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Each year, millions of fish have telemetry tags (acoustic, radio, inductive) surgically implanted to assess their passage and survival through hydropower facilities. One route of passage of particular concern is through hydro turbines, in which fish may be exposed to a range of potential injuries, including barotraumas from rapid decompression. The change in pressure from acclimation to exposure (nadir) has been found to be an important factor in predicting the likelihood of mortality and injury for juvenile Chinook salmon undergoing rapid decompression associated with simulated turbine passage. The presence of telemetry tags has also been shown to influence the likelihood of injury and mortality for juvenile Chinook salmon. This research investigated the likelihood of mortality and injury for juvenile Chinook salmon carrying telemetry tags and exposed to a range of simulated turbine passage. Several factors were examined as predictors of mortal injury for fish undergoing rapid decompression, and the ratio of pressure change and tag burden were determined to be the most predictive factors. As the ratio of pressure change and tag burden increase, the likelihood of mortal injury also increases. The results of this study suggest that previous survival estimates of juvenile Chinook salmon passing through hydro turbines may have been biased due to the presence of telemetry tags, and this has direct implications to the management of hydroelectric facilities. Realistic examples indicate how the bias in turbine passage survival estimates could be 20% or higher, depending on the mass of the implanted tags and the ratio of acclimation to exposure pressures. Bias would increase as the tag burden and pressure ratio increase, and have direct implications on survival estimates. It is recommended that future survival studies use the smallest telemetry tags possible to minimize the potential bias that may be associated with carrying the tag.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Brown, Richard S.; Stephenson, John R.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Gingerich, Andrew J.; Benjamin, Piper L.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Johnson, Robert L.; Skalski, John R.; Seaburg, Adam; Townsend, Richard L.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Functional dissection of homeodomain transcription factors HoxA9 and Meis1 in myeloid leukemia : their epigenetic regulation and their downstream targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. D. (2000). An ATPase/helicase complex is an essentialRuvB-like protein 1. Pontin52 helicase. Binds TBP, Myc, E2F,like protein 2, Reptin52 helicase. Transcription regulation

Wang, Gang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Code Reordering and Speculation Support for Dynamic Optimization Systems Erik M. Nystrom, Ronald D. Barnes, Matthew C. Merten, Wen-mei W. Hwu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARchitecture, or ROAR, to support aggressive dynamic optimization of programs. It utilizes a hardware mechanism-flow instructions. Instructions cannot be safely hoisted above conditional branches if their destination registers

Hwu, Wen-mei W.

305

Initiation and Organizational Modes of an Extreme-Rain-Producing Mesoscale Convective System along a Mei-Yu Front in East China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The initiation and organization of a quasi-linear extreme-rain-producing mesoscale convective system (MCS) along a Meiyu front in East China during the midnight-to-morning hours of 8 July 2007 are studied using high-resolution surface observations ...

Yali Luo; Yu Gong; Da-Lin Zhang

306

Role of the ITCZ over the North Indian Ocean and Pre-Mei-Yu Front in Modulating July Rainfall over India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Southwest monsoon rainfall over India during July 2002 was the lowest since instrumental records of rainfall data have been available. The present study is an attempt to examine some of the probable causes for this unprecedented low rainfall ...

A. K. Srivastava; M. Rajeevan; S. R. Kshirsagar

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Dimension Characteristics and Precipitation Efficiency of Cumulonimbus Clouds in the Region Far South from the Mei-Yu Front over the Eastern Asian Continent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimension characteristics in precipitation properties of cumulonimbus clouds are basic parameters in understanding the vertical transport of water vapor in the atmosphere. In this study, the dimension characteristics and precipitation efficiency ...

Yukari Shusse; Kazuhisa Tsuboki

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Functional dissection of homeodomain transcription factors HoxA9 and Meis1 in myeloid leukemia : their epigenetic regulation and their downstream targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

protein 3. A20. Neg reg Toll/NF-kB signaling Socs3 Cytokine-2, C polypeptide. Adhesion, NF-kB activation Hsd11b1Peli1 Pellino1. Required for NF-kB activation through IL1R

Wang, Gang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy reve  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue, while meeting other legal water requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three approaches. The first approach seeks flow regimes that maximize hydropower generation, while satisfying legal requirements, including environmental (or minimum) flows. Solutions from this approach are often used in practice to operate hydropower projects. In the second approach, flow releases from a dam are timed to meet water quality constraints on dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and nutrients. In the third approach, flow releases are timed to improve the health of fish populations. We conclude by suggesting three steps for bringing multi-objective reservoir operation closer to the goal of ecological sustainability: (1) conduct research to identify which features of flow variation are essential for river health and to quantify these relationships, (2) develop valuation methods to assess the total value of river health and (3) develop optimal control softwares that combine water balance modelling with models that predict ecosystem responses to flow.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Exposing the dressed quark's mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This snapshot of recent progress in hadron physics made in connection with QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations includes: a perspective on confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB); a pre'cis on the physics of in-hadron condensates; results on the hadron spectrum, including dressed-quark-core masses for the nucleon and Delta, their first radial excitations, and the parity-partners of these states; an illustration of the impact of DCSB on the electromagnetic pion form factor, thereby exemplifying how data can be used to chart the momentum-dependence of the dressed-quark mass function; and a prediction that F_1^{p,d}/F_1^{p,u} passes through zero at Q^2\\approx 5m_N^2 owing to the presence of nonpointlike scalar and axial-vector diquark correlations in the nucleon.

Roberts, H L L; Cloet, I C; Roberts, C D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Simulation and Analysis of Human Phantoms Exposed to Heavy Charged Particle Irradiations Using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport System (PHITS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anthropomorphic phantoms are commonly used for testing radiation fields without the need to expose human subjects. One of the most widely known is RANDO phantom. This phantom is used primarily for medical X-ray applications, but a similar design known as "MATROSHKA" is now being used for space research and exposed to heavy ion irradiations from the Galactic environment. Since the radiation field in the phantom should respond in a similar manner to how it would act in human tissues and organs under an irradiation, the tissue substitute chosen for soft tissue and the level of complexity of the entire phantom are crucial issues. The phantoms, and the materials used to create them, were developed mainly for photon irradiations and have not been heavily tested under the conditions of heavy ion exposures found in the space environment or external radiotherapy. The Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS) was used to test the phantoms and their materials for their potential as human surrogates for heavy ion irradiation. Stopping powers and depth-dose distributions of heavy charged particles (HCPs) important to space research and medical applications were first used in the simulations to test the suitability of current soft tissue substitutes. A detailed computational anthropomorphic phantom was then developed where tissue substitutes and ICRU-44 tissue could be interchanged to verify the validation of the soft tissue substitutes and and determine the required level of complexity of the entire phantom needed to achieve a specified precision as a replacement of the human body. The materials tested were common soft tissue substitutes in use and the materials which had a potential for the soft tissue substitute. Ceric sulfate dosimeter solution was closest to ICRU-44 tissue; however, it was not appropriate as the phantom material because it was a solution. A150 plastic, ED4C (fhw), Nylon (Du Pont Elvamide 8062), RM/SR4, Temex, and RW-2 were within 1% of the mean normalized difference of mass stopping powers (or stopping powers for RW-2) when compared to the ICRU-44 tissue, and their depth-dose distributions were close; therefore, they were the most suitable among the remaining solid materials. Overall, the soft tissue substitutes which were within 1% of ICRU-44 tissue in terms of stopping power produced reasonable results with respect to organ dose in the developed phantom. RM/SR4 is the best anthropomorphic phantom soft tissue substitute because it has similar interaction properties and identical density with ICRU-44 tissue and it is a rigid solid polymer giving practical advantages in manufacture of real phantoms.

Lee, Dongyoul

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Low dose radiation hypersensitivity and clustered DNA damages in human fibroblasts exposed to low dose and dose rate protons or 137CS y-rays  

SciTech Connect

Effective radioprotection for human space travelers hinges upon understanding the individual properties of charged particles. A significant fraction of particle radiation astronauts will encounter in space exploratory missions will come from high energy protons in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and/or possible exposures to lower energy proton flux from solar particle events (SPEs). These potential exposures present major concerns for NASA and others, in planning and executing long term space exploratory missions. We recently reported cell survival and transformation (acquisition of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar) frequencies in apparently normal NFF-28 primary human fibroblasts exposed to 0-30 cGy of 50MeV, 100MeV (SPE-like), or 1000 MeV (GCR-like) monoenergetic protons. These were modeled after 1989 SPE energies at an SPE-like low dose-rate (LDR) of 1.65 cGy/min or high dose rate (HDR) of 33.3 cGy/min delivered at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL.

Bennett P. V.; Bennett, P.V.; Keszenman, D.J.; Johnson, A.M.; Sutherland, B.M.; Wilson, P.F.

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

313

Chromosome aberrations and loss of some cell functions following in vitro exposure to retorted oil shale. [Cultured cells were exposed to processes oil shale particles (spent shales)  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of cellular level effects of processed oil shale from a simulation of modified in situ retorting was undertaken as part of an assessment of the toxicity and mutagenicity of oil shale. Complete assessment of the health hazards associated with physical contact, inhalation, or ingestion of oil shale has not been examined in humans and until it becomes practical to assess these hazards in man, we must rely upon well established in vitro detection procedures in addition to whole animal testing. CHO cells and L-2 rat lung epithelial cell lines were exposed in vitro to processed oil shale particles at different intervals following exposure. Cells were analyzed for chromosome alterations, cell colony forming ability, DNA synthesis, and cell transformation. The results of these studies demonstrate that retorted oil shale, under these experimental conditions, does modify cells in vitro. Chromosome aberrations increased with dose, cell colony forming ability decreased exponentially with dose, and the rate of DNA synthesis was affected, however cell transformation was not demonstrated after 3 months.

Stroud, A.N.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.

2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

315

An Experimental Study of the Performance of PCM-Enhanced Cellulose Insulation Used in Residential Building Walls Exposed to Full Weather Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air conditioning energy consumption in summer represents a major concern in many areas with hot and humid climates. When incorporated into the walls of light-weight residential buildings, phase change materials (PCMs) can increase the effective thermal mass of the walls and shift part of the space cooling loads to off-peak hours. The thermal properties of pure phase change materials (PCMs) and those of the mixtures of PCMs with cellulose insulation were studied via differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) tests and mass change tests. To directly prove the concept that PCM-enhanced insulation can reduce the peak heat flux across walls as well as its potential to shift part of the space cooling loads to a later time of the day, the performance of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation was studied using two small-scale testing houses exposed to full weather conditions during the summer seasons. The testing houses were air conditioned and independently metered. Both houses had identical thermal responses prior to any retrofits. Before the tests, the PCM enhanced insulation was blown into the wall cavities in one test house while plain cellulose insulation was installed in the other house for comparison purposes. Hourly heat fluxes and daily heat flow data for four walls are presented. Based on the results, important recommendations are provided for the optimal use of PCMs in insulation systems.

Fang, Y.; Medina, M.; Evers, A.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Chemical alteration of limestone and marble samples exposed to acid rain and weathering in the eastern United States, 1984--1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a long-term program that began in 1984, limestone and marble briquettes have been exposed to both anthropogenic acid deposition and natural weathering of four field sites in the eastern United States. Similar tests began at an Ohio site in 1986. Effects of exposure on the briquettes and other materials at the sites are evaluated periodically by several federal agencies cooperating in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). A primary contribution of Argonne National Laboratory to the NAPAP has been chemical analysis to determine changes in the samples caused by exposure to the environment. Wet chemical analysis was used to detect sulfates, nitrates, fluorides, chlorides, and a series of metal cations in sequential layers of stone removed from the briquettes after field exposure. Results from the first four years of the program indicate that rinsing by rain keeps skyward-facing stone relatively clean of reaction products, especially sulfate, the most abundant product. On groundward-facing samples, sulfate concentrations increased linearly with exposure time, and values were proportional to atmospheric SO{sub 2} concentrations at the site. Sulfate concentrations in groundward samples were much higher in limestone than in marble, because of the greater porosity of the limestone. A steep sulfate gradient was seen in both sample types from the surface to the interior. On skyward surfaces, material losses per rain event due to complete dissolution of accumulated sulfates were approximately equal to concentrations measured in runoff. Preexposed limestone samples had sulfate accumulations deep in their interiors, while fresh, unexposed limestone did not. No substantial changes in cation accumulations wee detected in either limestone or marble.

Reimann, K.J.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Analysis of the frequency response of a TeO{sub 2} slow shear wave acousto-optic cell exposed to radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation testing of photonic components is not new, however component level testing to date has not completely addressed quantities which are important to system behavior. One characteristic that is of particular importance for optical processing systems is the frequency response. In this report, we present the analysis of data from an experiment designed to provide a preliminary understanding of the effects of radiation on the frequency response of acousto-optic devices. The goal of the analysis is to describe possible physical mechanisms responsible for the radiation effects and to discuss the effects on signal processing functionality. The experiment discussed in this report was designed by Sandia National Laboratories and performed by Sandia and Phillips Laboratory personnel at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). In the experiment, a TeO{sub 2} slow shear wave acousto-optic cell was exposed to radiation from the WSMR linear accelerator. The TeO{sub 2} cell was placed in an experimental configuration which allowed swept frequency diffracted power measurements to be taken during radiation exposure and recovery. A series of exposures was performed. Each exposure consisted of between 1 to 800, 1{mu}sec radiation pulses (yielding exposures of 2.25 kRad(Si) to 913 kRad(Si)), followed by recovery time. At low total and cumulative doses, the bandshape of the frequency response (i.e. diffracted power vs. frequency) remained almost identical during and after radiation. At the higher exposures, however, the amplitude and width of the frequency response changed as the radiation continued, but returned to the original shape slowly after the radiation stopped and recovery proceeded. It is interesting to note that the location of the Bragg degeneracy does not change significantly with radiation. In this report, we discuss these effects from the perspective of anisotropic Bragg diffraction and momentum mismatch, and we discuss the effect on the signal processing functionality.

Erteza, I.A.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

On the inverse problem of entropy maximizations (Corresp.)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The inverse isoperimetric problem of the entropy functional is considered in this Correspondence. This problem can be stated as follows: Given a known probability density function (pdf), what prior constraints are needed in order for this pdf to be the ...

J. Noonan; N. Tzannes; T. Costello

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Iterational retiming: Maximize iteration-level parallelism for nested loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nested loops are the most critical sections in many scientific and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications. It is important to study effective and efficient transformation techniques to increase parallelism for nested loops. In this paper, we propose a novel technique, iterational retiming, that can satisfy any given timing constraint by achieving full parallelism for iterations in a partition. Theorems and efficient algorithms are proposed for iterational retiming. The experimental results show that iterational retiming is a promising technique for parallel embedded systems. It can achieve 87% improvement over software pipelining and 88 % improvement over loop unfolding on average.

Chun Xue; Zili Shao; Meilin Liu; Edwin H. -m. Sha

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

MAXIMIZING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE IN THE SOLAR CORONA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy that drives solar eruptive events such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) almost certainly originates in coronal magnetic fields. Such energy may build up gradually on timescales of days or longer before its sudden release in an eruptive event, and the presence of free magnetic energy capable of rapid release requires nonpotential magnetic fields and associated electric currents. For magnetic energy to power a CME, that energy must be sufficient to open the magnetic field to interplanetary space, to lift the ejecta against solar gravity, and to accelerate the material to speeds of typically several hundred km s{sup -1}. Although CMEs are large-scale structures, many originate from relatively compact active regions on the solar surface-suggesting that magnetic energy storage may be enhanced when it takes place in smaller magnetic structures. This paper builds on our earlier work exploring energy storage in large-scale dipolar and related bipolar magnetic fields. Here we consider two additional cases: quadrupolar fields and concentrated magnetic bipoles intended to simulate active regions. Our models yield stored energies whose excess over that of the corresponding open field state can be greater than 100% of the associated potential field energy; this contrasts with maximum excess energies of only about 20% for dipolar and symmetric bipolar configurations. As in our previous work, energy storage is enhanced when we surround a nonpotential field with a strong overlying potential field that acts to 'hold down' the nonpotential flux as its magnetic energy increases.

Wolfson, Richard; Drake, Christina; Kennedy, Max, E-mail: wolfson@middlebury.edu [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Maximize Your Retirement Savings: The University System of Georgia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

through the University System of Georgia Optional Retirement Plan (ORP), as well as information about recent plan changes. Here's what you'll find inside: The University System of Georgia ORP at a Glance Optional Retirement Plan is an alternative to the Teachers Retirement System of Georgia (TRS). Both ORP

Hutcheon, James M.

322

Maximally concentrating optics for photovoltaic solar energy conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Use of a two-stage concentrator with a fresnel lens primary and a nonimaging dielectric totally internally reflecting secondary, has unique advantages for photovoltaic concentration. Some preliminary ray trace studies have shown that with planar lenses, an increase in angular acceptance for a given geometric concentration to about 2/3 of the maximum theoretical limit can be achieved. To demonstrate this, two preprototype concentrators, each having a geometric concentration of 248:1 for a 0.635cm (0.25 inch) diameter cell, have been designed, built, and tested. Measurements of the angular response show an acceptance of 8[degrees] (full angle) which is drastically better than the 1[degrees]--2[degrees] achievable without a secondary, and is in excellent agreement with the ray trace predictions. For these preprototypes, passive cooling was sufficient to prevent any thermal problems for both the cell and secondary. No problems associated with nouuniform cell illumination were found, as evidenced by the fill factor of 71%--73% measured under concentration. Initial measurements of the system electrical efficiency lie in the range 7.5%--9.9% for a variety of individual cells.

O'Gallagher, J.J.

1985-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

323

A Genetic Algorithm Approach to Maximize Austenite Volume ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Enrichment of austenite can be achieved through a two-step heat treatment. During ... Ab Initio Temperature-Dependent Lattice Dynamics for BCC Uranium.

324

Maximizing LBNL's Partnership with the East Bay Green Corridor...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skip messages Jump to page content Jump to page footer LBNL Home Environmental Energy Technologies Division Emergency Contacts Intranet A-Z Index Staff How Do I? License a...

325

A New Duality Approach to Solving Concave Vector Maximization Problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce a special class of monotonic functions with the help of support functions and polar sets, and use it to construct a scalarized problem and its dual for a vector optimization problem. The dual construction allows us to develop a new method ... Keywords: Duality, Multiobjective problem, Polar set, Weak efficient solution

Luc Dinh The; Phong Thai Quynh; Volle Michel

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Battery Allocation for Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Wireless sensor network has been an area of interest among researchers. Designing a wireless sensor network involves multiple issues such as size and processing capacity… (more)

Khambete, Ketki

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Maximally concentrating optics for photovoltaic solar energy conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of a two-stage concentrator with a fresnel lens primary and a non-imaging dielectric totally internally reflecting secondary, has unique advantages for photovoltaic concentration. This new design has a much larger acceptance angle than the conventional lens-cell concentrating system. In the continuation of this research, an optimally designed prototype which employs a 13.6-cm diameter flat fresnel tons as the primary focusing device, a dielectric compound hyperbolic concentrator (DCHC) as secondary and a 1-cm diameter high-concentration cell for electricity conversion has been built, tested and analyzed. Measurements under sunlight show that it has an angular acceptance of [plus minus]3.6 degrees, which is dramatically better than the [plus minus]0.5 degree achievable without a secondary concentrator. This performance agrees well with theoretical ray-tracing predictions. The secondary shows an optical efficiency of (91[plus minus]2)% at normal incidence. Combining with the primary fresnel tens which has an optical efficiency of (82[plus minus]2)%, tho two-stage system yields a total optical efficiency of (7l[plus minus]2)%. The measurement of the system electrical performance yielded a net electrical efficiency of 11.9%. No problems associated with non-uniform cell illumination were found, as evidenced by the excellent fill factor of (79[plus minus]2)% measured under concentration. The secondary geometrical properties and the optimal two-stage design procedures for various primary- cell combinations were systematical studied. A general design principle has been developed.

Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.; Ning, X.

1986-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

328

Charge-order-maximized momentum-dependent superconductivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama, Okayama 700-8530, Japan 4 Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat

Loss, Daniel

329

Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Tax Credit 0.0025kWh - 0.0075kWh for 10 years 112003 12312015 0 0 PA Production Tax Credit 15% project costs 792008 12312016 0 0 SD Property Tax Exemption...

330

Optimizing Ship Routing to Maximize Fleet Revenue at Danaos  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present an innovative toolkit that Danaos Corporation developed and deployed to optimize ship routing. Operations Research In Ship MAnagement ORISMA provides a clear answer to the conventional dilemma of least-cost voyage versus faster ... Keywords: cargo transport optimization, dynamic programming, maritime routing, voyage planning

Takis Varelas; Sofia Archontaki; John Dimotikalis; Osman Turan; Iraklis Lazakis; Orestis Varelas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Game Analytics: Maximizing the Value of Player Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Developing a successful game in todays market is a challenging endeavor. Thousands of titles are published yearly, all competing for players time and attention. Game analytics has emerged in the past few years as one of the main resources for ensuring ...

Magy Seif El-Nasr, Anders Drachen, Alessandro Canossa

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Maximizing efficiency of solar-powered systems by load matching  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar power is an important source of renewable energy for many low-power systems. Matching the power consumption level with the supply level can make a great difference in the efficiency of power utilization. This paper proposes a source-tracking power ... Keywords: load matching, photovoltaics, power management, power model, solar energy, solar-aware

Dexin Li; Pai H. Chou

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Thick $f(R)$-Brane Solutions in Maximally Symmetric Spaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative way of finding thick brane solutions in metric $f(R)$ gravity with a background scalar field. Our main idea is to constrain the bulk curvature as a constant, so that all the dynamical equations reduce to second or even first order ones. To prevent our work from the problem of singularity, we give up the Gaussian normal coordinates. Instead, a more general metric is applied as our set up. The studies we have performed show that as an arbitrary symmetric warp factor $a(y)$ is given, the solution of the background scalar field is determined only by the value of $df(R)/dR$. Different values of $f(R)$ would lead to various types of distribution of the energy density. As another new feature, the kink-like solution of the background scalar field might, but not necessarily connect two extreme points of the scalar potential.

Zhong, Yuan; Yang, Ke

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

On maximal instances for the original syntenic distance - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S = fS1 ;:::; Sng (where Si represents the information the person i wants to know), one says that. it can be disseminated in k calls if there is a sequence of k calls ...

335

Maximizing SIMD resource utilization in GPGPUs with SIMD lane permutation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current GPUs maintain high programmability by abstracting the SIMD nature of the hardware as independent concurrent threads of control with hardware responsible for generating predicate masks to utilize the SIMD hardware for different flows of control. ... Keywords: GPU, SIMD, SIMT, control divergence

Minsoo Rhu, Mattan Erez

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Low-cost conformable storage to maximize vehicle range  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) are currently the leading fuel contenders for converting vehicles from gasoline and diesel to alternative fuels. Two factors that inhibit conversion are additional vehicle costs and reduced range compared to gasoline. In overcoming these barriers, a key element of the alternative fuel system becomes the storage tank for these pressurized fuels. Using cylindrical pressure vessels is the conventional approach, but they do not package well in the available vehicle volume. Thiokol Corporation has developed and is now producing a conformable (non-cylindrical) aluminum storage system for LPG vans. This system increases fuel storage in a given rectangular envelope. The goal of this project was to develop the technology for a lower cost conformable tank made of injection-molded plastic. Much of the cost of the aluminum conformable tank is in the fabrication because several weld seams are required. The injection-molding process has the potential to greatly reduce the fabrication costs. The requirements of a pressurized fuel tank on a vehicle necessitate the proper combination of material properties. Material selection and tank design must be optimized for maximum internal volume and minimum material use to be competitive with other technologies. The material and the design must also facilitate the injection-molding process. Prototype tanks must be fabricated to reveal molding problems, prove solutions, and measure results. In production, efficient fabrication will be key to making these tanks cost competitive. The work accomplished during this project has demonstrated that conformable LPG tanks can be molded with thermoplastics. However, to achieve a competitive tank, improvements are needed in the effective material strength. If these improvements can be made, molded plastics should produce a lower cost tank that can store more LPG on a vehicle than conventional cylinders.

Graham, R.P.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Duty Cycle Analysis & Tools: Maximizing Vehicle Performance (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Shows that the benefits of using hybrid vehicle trucks in fleets depends on the duty cycle, or how the vehicles will be driven (e.g., stop and go) over a particular route (e.g., urban or rural).

Walkowicz, K.

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

338

Using a Socio-Environmental Economy to Maximize Sustainable Developmen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

developed by EETD scientists? Work with EETD scientists on cooperative research? Get a job in EETD? Make my home more energy-efficient? Find a source within EETD for a news story...

339

Substation siting and capacity selection based on diversity maximization  

SciTech Connect

A new substation siting and sizing method is described in which load diversity among different areas of the system is used as a factor in the analysis. An optimization procedure based on this concept is described. Tests show that the method can often provide improved results.

Willis, H.L.; Tram, H.N.; Powell, R.W.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

On solving the profit maximization of small cogeneration systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cogeneration is a high-efficiency technology that has been adapted to small and micro scale applications. In this work, the development and test of a numerical optimization model is carried out in order to implement an analysis that will lead to the ... Keywords: cogeneration model, numerical optimization, thermoeconomics

Ana C. M. Ferreira; Ana Maria A. C. Rocha; Senhorinha F. C. F. Teixeira; Manuel L. Nunes; Luís B. Martins

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

Gonder, J.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Active learning to maximize area under the ROC curve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In active learning, a machine learning algorithm is given an unlabeled set of examples U, and is allowed to request labels for a relatively small subset of U to use for training. The goal of active learning is to judiciously choose which examples in U to have labeled in order to optimize some performance criterion, e.g. generalization accuracy. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis has attracted high attention in machine learning research in the last few years. ROC curves have been advocated and gradually adopted as an al-ternative to classical machine learning metrics such as misclassification rate. We present several heuristics for active learning designed to optimize area under the ROC curve (AUC) and extensively evaluate them, along with other commonly-used active learning algorithms. One of our algorithms (ESTAUC) was the top performer. When good posterior probability estimates were available, ESTAUC and another of our heuristics (RAR) were by far the best.

Matthew G. Culver

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Maximal CP violation via Higgs-boson exchange  

SciTech Connect

The unitarity of the mixing matrix of the charged Higgs bosons, and the orthogonality of the mixing matrix of the neutral Higgs bosons, are used to derive upper bounds on the values of general CP-violating expressions. The bounds are independent of the total number of Higgs fields in any specific model. They allow is to relax the usual assumption of only one Higgs boson being light. It is natural that the CP violation in the exchange of neutral Higgs bosons between bottom quarks be particularly large.

Lavoura, L.

1992-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

344

Minimize substation outage time by maximizing in-service testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most substation maintenance work is based on fixed schedules rather than on known need. Scheduled maintenance is essential and cannot be eliminated entirely, but priority should be given to equipment known to be deteriorated or defective. It makes no sense to perform costly, scheduled outage maintenance work when other equipment is failing because of undetected defects. The following should be included as major elements in an energized testing program: visual inspections; infrared inspection; corona inspection; percent oxygen in gas samples drawn from nitrogen-blanketed transformers; percent total combustible gas in gas samples drawn from nitrogen-blanketed transformers; dissolved gas analysis; oil quality tests; free water in the sample; dissolved water in oil; dissolved metals-in-oil analysis; furfural concentration analysis; SF[sub 6] analysis; battery testing; the substation grounding grid; and protective relays. 4 figs.

Lautenschlager, M. (High Voltage Maintenance Corp., Indianapolis, IN (United States))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Measuring and maximizing resilience of freight transportation networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In assessing a network's potential performance given possible future disruptions, one must recognize the contributions of the network's inherent ability to cope with disruption via its topological and operational attributes and potential actions that ... Keywords: Emergency preparedness, Flexibility, Recourse, Recovery, Reliability, Robustness, Stochastic programming, Vulnerability

Elise Miller-Hooks; Xiaodong Zhang; Reza Faturechi

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Maximizing Throughput for Queries over Streaming Sensor Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Computer Science The George Washington University Washington, DC, USA Email: {joegomes throughput for sliding window based multi-join queries over con- tinuous sensor data streams. We develop joining two unbounded streams. Therefore it is more sensible and useful to impose window predicates

Choi, Hyeong-Ah

347

Unitizing worker expertise and maximizing the brain reward centers  

SciTech Connect

People are experts when it comes to the work they do; unfortunately their expertise is not utilized as frequently as it could be. More opportunities need to be provided that allow people to participate in the design of their work including: accident investigations, job planning, and process improvements. Many employers use some form of job hazard analysis process to identify and document hazards and controls, but the front line worker is rarely involved. This presentation will show the core principles supporting employee involvement, provide examples where workers had brilliant ideas but no one listened, and provide examples where workers were given the opportunity to use their expertise to improve occupational safety. According to Abraham Maslow's Hierarch of Needs model, one essential human need is to be innovative and solve problems. Advances in brain science have proven, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the brain reward pathway is activated when people are recognized for their intellectual contributions. As people contribute their expertise to improve occupational safety more frequently they will feel a sense of gratification. In addition, safety professionals will have more time to spend on strategic planning of emerging occupational safety issues. One effect of the current global recession is that SH&E professionals are asked to do more with less. Therefore, to be successful it is essential that SH&E professionals incorporate worker expertise in job planning. This will be illustrated in the presentation through an example where a worker had the answer to a difficult decision on appropriate personal protective equipment for a job but no one asked the worker for his idea during the job planning phase. Fortunately the worker was eventually consulted and his recommendation for the appropriate personal protective equipment for the job was implemented before work began. The goal of this presentation is to expand the awareness and knowledge of SH&E professionals on the benefits and opportunities for leveraging brain science. This will include an overview of the components of the brain reward pathway and the biological mechanisms that make workers feel a sense of gratification when they contribute their ideas toward improving occupational safety. On-the-job examples where it is hypothesized that the brain reward pathway was activated in workers will be provided. Finally, the presentation will include a model illustrating the importance of empowering workers to participate in occupational safety programs. SH&E professionals can use this model to maintain a robust safety and health program with limited resources. The model will also help SH&E professionals prepare for challenges in the SH&E fields by showing them how to allocate more time for strategic planning of emerging issues. Many recent best selling business books such as Wikinomics, Crowdsourcing, and Sway, illustrate how the benefit of harnessing the collective knowledge of employees is a key to company success. Companies like Google and Pixar have mastered the ability to capture empFoyee knowledge in terms of technology. Why should occupational safety be any different? Workers know how to improve safety in their workplace. SH&E professionals can harness this collective safety knowledge just as top companies do with technology, and workers will feel grateful for contributing.

Martinez, Anthony Bert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Compositional Synthesis of Maximally Permissive Supervisors Using Supervision Equivalence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a general framework for efficient synthesis of supervisors for discrete event systems. The approach is based on compositional minimisation, using concepts of process equivalence. In this context, a large number of ways are suggested ... Keywords: Controllability, Discrete event systems, Finite state automata, Model reduction, Nonblocking, Supervisory control, Synthesis

Hugo Flordal; Robi Malik; Martin Fabian; Knut Ĺkesson

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

On the complexity of maximizing the minimum Shannon capacity in ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

capacity in wireless networks by joint channel assignment and power allocation ... tal Shannon capacity of any mobile user in the system. The corresponding.

350

Maximizing Combustion Efficiency Through Selection of Optimum CO Control Levels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the increased emphasis on improved combustion control and the availability of accurate and reliable multi-parameter combustion instrumentation, an analytical technique is needed to supplant the previous incomplete assumptions and misleading guidelines for maintaining maximum boiler efficiency. This paper will present an analytical technique for establishing an optimum value of CO to minimize thermal losses in the combustion process. The optimum value is established by finding that value of excess air which minimizes the combined thermal losses due to the sensible and latent heat losses associated with excess air, and the unburned fuel thermal losses which result from the formation of CO. This technique allows determination of an optimum value for CO for any given burner and resultant CO vs excess air relationship. Values obtained with this technique are generally much higher than the typical values of 100-300 PPM recommended in the current literature. As a result of this technique, boilers can now be evaluated analytically and operated near or at the point of maximum combustion efficiency. Implementation of such a control strategy dictates incorporation of an accurate and reliable in-situ CO monitor to maintain known safe and efficient conditions.

McGowan, G. F.; Ketchum, R. L.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Maximizing over multiple pattern databases speeds up heuristic search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pattern database (PDB) is a heuristic function stored as a lookup table. This paper considers how best to use a fixed amount (m units) of memory for storing pattern databases. In particular, we examine whether using n pattern databases of size m/n ... Keywords: Admissible heuristics, Heuristic search, IDA*, Pattern databases

Robert C. Holte; Ariel Felner; Jack Newton; Ram Meshulam; David Furcy

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Waterflood control system for maximizing total oil recovery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system and method for determining optimal fluid injection pressure is based upon a model of a growing hydrofracture due to waterflood injection pressure. This model is used to develop a control system optimizing the injection pressure by using a prescribed injection goal coupled with the historical times, pressures, and volume of injected fluid at a single well. In this control method, the historical data is used to derive two major flow components: the transitional component, where cumulative injection volume is scaled as the square root of time, and a steady-state breakthrough component, which scales linearly with respect to time. These components provide diagnostic information and allow for the prevention of rapid fracture growth and associated massive water break through that is an important part of a successful waterflood, thereby extending the life of both injection and associated production wells in waterflood secondary oil recovery operations.

Patzek, Tadeusz Wiktor (Oakland, CA); Silin, Dimitriy Borisovich (Pleasant Hill, CA); De, Asoke Kumar (San Jose, CA)

2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

353

Microsoft Word - Influence of Adv Fuel cycles on Uncertainty...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

R&D Research and Development RMEI Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual SCC Stress Corrosion Cracking SiC Silicon Carbide SKB Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company...

354

Microsoft Word - Appendix D fly sheet.doc  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities (40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H) limit exposure to the maximally exposed...

355

Increased frequency of CD4{sup -}8{sup -}T cells bearing T-cell receptor {alpha}{beta} chains in peripheral blood of atomic bomb survivors exposed to high doses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rare T-cell subpopulation, CD4{sup -z}8{sup -}{alpha}{beta} cells, may be differentiated through a pathway (or pathways) different from the pathway(s) of conventional CD4+ or CD8+ cells. In the present study, the frequencies of CD4{sup -}8{sup -} T cells in peripheral-blood {alpha}{beta} T cells in 409 atomic bomb survivors were determined to investigate late effects of radiation on the composition of human T-cell subpopulations. The frequency of CD4{sup -}8{sup -}{alpha}{beta} T-cell decreased significantly with the subject`s age and was higher in females than males. A significant increase in the frequency was found in the survivors exposed to more than 1.5Gy, suggesting that the previous radiation exposure altered differentiation and development of T cells. 25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Yoichiro Kusunoki; Seishi Kyoizumi; Yuko Hirai; Shoichiro Fujita; Mitoshi Akiyama [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Long-Lasting Reductions of Ethanol Drinking, Enhanced Ethanol-Induced Sedation, and Decreased c-fos Expression in the Edinger-Westphal Nucleus in Wistar Rats Exposed to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intermittent or continuous exposure to a wide variety of chemically unrelated environmental pollutants might result in the development of multiple chemical intolerance and increased sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Interestingly, clinical evidence suggests that exposure to organophosphates might be linked to increased ethanol sensitivity and reduced voluntary consumption of ethanol-containing beverages in humans. The growing body of clinical and experimental evidence emerging in this new scientific field that bridges environmental health sciences, toxicology, and drug research calls for well-controlled studies aimed to analyze the nature of the neurobiological interactions of drugs and pollutants. Present study specifically evaluated neurobiological and behavioral responses to ethanol in Wistar rats that were previously exposed to the pesticide organophosphate chlorpyrifos (CPF). In agreement with clinical data, animals pretreated with a single injection of CPF showed long-lasting ethanol avoidance that

The Organophosphate Chlorpyrifos; Francisca Carvajal; Matilde López-grancha; Montserrat Navarro; Maria Del Carmen Sánchez-amate; Inmaculada Cubero

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

One Packaging Technique of Exposed MEMS Sensors  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High-efficiency Compact SiC-based Power High-efficiency Compact SiC-based Power Converter System Research Institute: The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Technical Supervisor: Stanley Atcitty, Sandia National Laboratories Timothy Lin Aegis Technology Inc. 3300 A Westminster Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92703 DoE Peer Review 2006, November 2-3,Washington, D.C. STTR (DE-FG02-05ER86234), Energy Storage Program, Department of Energy Part 1. Aegis Technology Development and fabrication in: a) thermal management & high-temperature power electronics; b) composites (e.g. nanocomposite) President Company located at a modern industry park in Santa Ana, CA, 10 miles away from University of California, Irvine * A high-technology company with design, development and manufacturing capabilities * Operation since 2002 currently with 4 Ph.D/M.S Scientists/engineers and 10 employee

358

One Packaging Technique of Exposed MEMS Sensors  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High High A High - - efficiency Compact SiC efficiency Compact SiC - - based Power based Power Converter System Converter System Timothy Lin Timothy Lin Aegis Technology Inc. Aegis Technology Inc. 3300 A Westminster Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92703 3300 A Westminster Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92703 DOE STTR Phase II (DE DOE STTR Phase II (DE - - FG02 FG02 - - 05ER86234) 05ER86234) Research Institute: Research Institute: The University of Tennessee, Knoxville The University of Tennessee, Knoxville DoE Peer Review 2008, September 29 DoE Peer Review 2008, September 29 - - 30,Washington, D.C. 30,Washington, D.C. Funded by the Energy Storage Systems Program of the U.S. Department Of Energy (DOE/ESS) through the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program and managed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the

359

Exposing and understanding scrolling transfer functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scrolling is controlled through many forms of input devices, such as mouse wheels, trackpad gestures, arrow keys, and joysticks. Performance with these devices can be adjusted by introducing variable transfer functions to alter the range of expressible ... Keywords: control-display gain, scroll acceleration, scrolling, transfer functions

Philip Quinn; Andy Cockburn; Géry Casiez; Nicolas Roussel; Carl Gutwin

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

One Packaging Technique of Exposed MEMS Sensors  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Acknowledgement...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Exterior Exposed Ductwork: Delivery Effectiveness and Efficiency*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Matson and Mark P. Modera Energy Performance of Buildings Group Energy and Environment Division Lawrence's Sacramento Valley. The majority of the building's air distribution ductwork was located on the roof. Energy insulation and a reflective coating). The building in this study underwent a retrofit project involving

362

Exposing the Sensitivity of Extreme Ultraviolet Photoresists  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... EUVL sources produce light with wavelengths about an order of magnitude smaller, around 13.5 nanometers. Because ...

2013-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

363

One Packaging Technique of Exposed MEMS Sensors  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Compact SiC-based Power Converter System * Develop a high-efficiency compact power inverter based on SiC- based semiconductor technology - High efficiency, small size, and light...

364

A COMMUNITY OF JUSTICE STUDENTS IN ACTIONSummer Fellowships at Work  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Miltenberger, Student der Wirtschaftspädagogik Prof. Dr. theol. Gerhard Mei- er-Reutti, Extraordinarius für

Brinkmann, Peter

365

Directed-Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)  

Alex Zettl and Yan Mei Wang have taken another step toward enabling the commercialization of nanoscale carbon-based electronic ...

366

On Posterior Consistency in Selection Models Jaeyong Lee  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

discovery (Meis­ ner and Demirmen (1981), Nair and Wang (1989), West (1994, 1996)), aerial survey (Cook

West, Mike

367

Constrained expectation-maximization (EM), dynamic analysis, linear quadratic tracking, and nonlinear constrained expectation-maximation (EM) for the analysis of genetic regulatory networks and signal transduction networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite the immense progress made by molecular biology in cataloging andcharacterizing molecular elements of life and the success in genome sequencing, therehave not been comparable advances in the functional study of complex phenotypes.This is because isolated study of one molecule, or one gene, at a time is not enough byitself to characterize the complex interactions in organism and to explain the functionsthat arise out of these interactions. Mathematical modeling of biological systems isone way to meet the challenge.My research formulates the modeling of gene regulation as a control problem andapplies systems and control theory to the identification, analysis, and optimal controlof genetic regulatory networks. The major contribution of my work includes biologicallyconstrained estimation, dynamical analysis, and optimal control of genetic networks.In addition, parameter estimation of nonlinear models of biological networksis also studied, as a parameter estimation problem of a general nonlinear dynamicalsystem. Results demonstrate the superior predictive power of biologically constrainedstate-space models, and that genetic networks can have differential dynamic propertieswhen subjected to different environmental perturbations. Application of optimalcontrol demonstrates feasibility of regulating gene expression levels. In the difficultproblem of parameter estimation, generalized EM algorithm is deployed, and a set of explicit formula based on extended Kalman filter is derived. Application of themethod to synthetic and real world data shows promising results.

Xiong, Hao

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Investigation on Oxidation Resistance of NiCoCrAlY Coating ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Investigation on Oxidation Resistance of NiCoCrAlY Coating Irradiated by High Current Pulsed Electron Beam. Author(s), Xianxiu Mei, Cunxia  ...

369

The Research of Rou Pu Tuan.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Speaking to the erotological fiction, people would often refer to Rou Pu Tuan. Besides Jin Ping Mei, Rou Pu Tuan is also frequently mentioned by… (more)

Lin, Sin-ying

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Molecular Brain BioMed Central Editorial Welcome to Molecular Brain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

© 2008 Mei et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

Lin Mei; Kei Cho; C Justin Lee; Xiao-jiang Li; Min Zhuo; Kiun Kaang; Min Zhuo; Bong-kiun Kaang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

MT@TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apr 20, 2013 ... The authors of this article—and organizers of ICME 2013—are Mei Li, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI; Carelyn Campbell, NIST, ...

372

Modeling of Multi-Scale Phenomena in Materials Processing - III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mei Li, Ford Motor Company. Scope, The purpose of the symposium is to present the development of computational techniques for the modeling of multi-scale ...

373

Recursive operation time maximization model for the maintenance of power generation equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Repairable equipment requires preventive maintenance (PM) to maintain proper function. An appropriate PM strategy can extend the life of equipment and reduce variable costs. A power generation company in Taiwan that has a fixed-period PM strategy is ... Keywords: Maintenance improvement factor, Mathematical programming, Preventive maintenance (PM)

Der-Chiang Li; Chiao-Wen Liu; Tung-Liang Chen

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

A state action frequency approach to throughput maximization over uncertain wireless channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider scheduling over a wireless system, where the channel state information is not available a priori to the scheduler, but can be inferred from the past. Specifically, the wireless system is modeled as a network ...

Jagannathan, Krishna Prasanna

375

Biofuel policy must evaluate environmental, food security and energy goals to maximize net benefits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

development . Because bioenergy creates additional demandand second- generation bioenergy crops. Eighty developingcosts of marginal land; bioenergy crops would not be

Sexton, Steven E; Rajagapol, Deepak; Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David D; Roland-Holst, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Strategies for maximizing supply chain resilience : learning from the past to prepare for the future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The terrorist attacks undertaken by Osama bin Laden's al Qaeda organization on the morning of September 11, 2001 ushered in a new era of indiscriminate global terrorism characterized by an unprecedented focus on security, ...

Pickett, Christopher B. (Christopher Bruce), 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Kansas school district leaders' handbook for maximizing nontraditional donations and grant funding.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study was to research, develop, and validate a handbook of effective strategies that Kansas school district leaders can use to increase… (more)

Pekarek, Brian D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

GreenWare: greening cloud-scale data centers to maximize the use of renewable energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To reduce the negative environmental implications (e.g., CO2 emission and global warming) caused by the rapidly increasing energy consumption, many Internet service operators have started taking various initiatives to operate their ...

Yanwei Zhang; Yefu Wang; Xiaorui Wang

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

GreenWare: greening cloud-scale data centers to maximize the use of renewable energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To reduce the negative environmental implications (e.g., CO 2 emission and global warming) caused by the rapidly increasing energy consumption, many Internet service operators have started taking various initiatives to ...

Yanwei Zhang; Yefu Wang; Xiaorui Wang

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Maximizing the adoption of fixed number portability within the EU: An empirical analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Number portability (NP) is considered by the European Commission as a key measure for promoting competition within the telecom sector especially regarding network access infrastructure. However, NP requires several modifications to the network architecture ... Keywords: Bitstream, Broadband access, Local loop unbundling, NRDBP, Number portability

G. N. Prezerakos; S. E. Polykalas

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Maximizing Energy Capture of Fixed-Pitch Variable-Speed Wind Turbines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Field tests of a variable-speed, stall-regulated wind turbine were conducted at a US Department of Energy Laboratory. A variable-speed generating system, comprising a doubly-fed generator and series-resonant power converter, was installed on a 275-kW, downwind, two-blade wind turbine. Gearbox, generator, and converter efficiency were measured in the laboratory so that rotor aerodynamic efficiency could be determined from field measurement of generator power. The turbine was operated at several discrete rotational speeds to develop power curves for use in formulating variable-speed control strategies. Test results for fixed-speed and variable-speed operation are presented along with discussion and comparison of the variable-speed control methodologies. Where possible, comparisons between fixed-speed and variable-speed operation are shown.

Pierce, K.; Migliore, P.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Scaling test of quenched Wilson twisted mass QCD at maximal twist  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of an extended scaling test of quenched Wilson twisted mass QCD. We fix the twist angle by using two definitions of the critical mass, the first obtained by requiring the vanishing of the pseudoscalar meson mass m_PS for standard Wilson fermions and the second by requiring restoration of parity at non-zero value of the twisted mass mu and subsequently extrapolating to mu=0. Depending on the choice of the critical mass we simulate at values of beta in [5.7,6.45], for a range of pseudoscalar meson masses 250 MeV < m_PS < 1 GeV and we perform the continuum limit for the pseudoscalar meson decay constant f_PS and various hadron masses (vector meson m_V, baryon octet m_oct and baryon decuplet m_dec) at fixed value of r_0 m_PS. For both definitions of the critical mass, lattice artifacts are consistent with O(a) improvement. However, with the second definition, large O(a^2) discretization errors present at small quark mass with the first definition are strongly suppressed. The results in the continuum limit are in very good agreement with those from the Alpha and CP-PACS Collaborations.

K. Jansen; M. Papinutto; A. Shindler; C. Urbach; I. Wetzorke

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pump water heaters. Solar thermal water heaters are gainingsolar water heating system can reduce energy consumption by 50% or more [2]. Like electric water heaters,

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Method of and apparatus for enabling output power of solar panel to be maximized  

SciTech Connect

The D.C. Power supplied by a photovoltaic solar panel to a load is controlled by monitoring the slope of the panel voltage vs. Current characteristic and adjusting the current supplied by the panel to the load so that the slope is approximately unity. The slope is monitored by incrementally changing the panel load and indicating whether the resulting change in current derived from the panel is above or below a reference value, indicative of the panel voltage. In response to the change in the monitored current being above the reference value, the slope of a voltage vs. Current curve is greater than unity and the load is adjusted to decrease the current supplied by the panel to the load. Conversely, in response to the current being less than the reference value, the slope of the voltage vs. Current curve is less than unity and the load is adjusted to increase the current supplied by the panel to the load.

Baker, R.H.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Biofuel policy must evaluate environmental, food security and energy goals to maximize net benefits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

unit of land) and the extensive (more pollution and erosion)and pollution from chemicals, to the extent that biofuels increase the stock of productive land,

Sexton, Steven E; Rajagapol, Deepak; Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David D; Roland-Holst, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Scheduling algorithms for throughput maximization in time-varying networks with reconfiguration delays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the control of possibly time-varying wireless networks under reconfiguration delays. Reconfiguration delay is the time it takes to switch network resources from one subset of nodes to another and it is a ...

Celik, Guner Dincer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Final Technical Report For the period October 2002 to October 2005 Prepared for: U.S Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41232 Prepared by: Dennis H. LeMieux Siemens Power Generation, Inc 4400 Alafaya Trail Orlando, Florida 32826 October 2005 Disclaimer This report as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or legal fullness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would

388

Hanford Tank Waste to WIPP - Maximizing the Value of our National Repository Asset - 14230  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preplanning scope for the Hanford tank transuranic (TRU) waste project was authorized in 2013 by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) after a project standby period of eight years. Significant changes in DOE orders, Hanford contracts, and requirements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have occurred during this time period, in addition to newly implemented regulatory permitting, re-evaluated waste management strategies, and new commercial applications. Preplanning has identified the following key approaches for reactivating the project: qualification of tank inventory designations and completion of all environmental regulatory permitting; identifying program options to accelerate retrieval of key leaking tank T-111; planning fully compliant implementation of DOE Order 413.3B, and DOE Standard 1189 for potential on-site treatment; and re-evaluation of commercial retrieval and treatment technologies for better strategic bundling of permanent waste disposal options.

Tedeschi, Allan R.; Wheeler, Martin

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

389

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Heaters (gas) Street Lights Low-end Servers Res. GasWater Heaters … Street Lights Low-end Servers Cumulative 30-

Garbesi, Karina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heaters Low-end Servers Street Lights Comm. Storage WaterWater Heaters (gas) Street Lights Low-end Servers Res. Gaseffectiveness of LED street lights. LED street lights offer

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for a discussion on variable refrigerant flow systems. SuchMulti-split variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems are

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

The City Coding Project : an investigation into some presumed maxims for residential design in Hong Kong  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formal expressions of architecture in a city are largely dictated by how the city is 'coded' ... re-coding - is capable of making fundamental changes in building forms that would proliferate across the entire city. Therefore, ...

Wong, Chit Kin Dickson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of energy efficient appliance databases on the CEC [5] andAppliance Efficiency http://www.appliances.energy.ca.gov/QuickSearch.aspx Database.

Garbesi, Karina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Maximization of revenues for power sales from a solid waste resources recovery facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report discusses the actual implementation of the best alternative in selling electrical power generated by an existing waste-to-energy facility, the Metro-Dade County Resources Recovery Plant. After the plant processes and extracts various products out of the municipal solid waste, it burns it to produce electrical power. The price for buying power to satisfy the internal needs of our Resources Recovery Facility (RRF) is substantially higher than the power price for selling electricity to any other entity. Therefore, without any further analysis, it was decided to first satisfy those internal needs and then export the excess power. Various alternatives were thoroughly explored as to what to do with the excess power. Selling power to the power utilities or utilizing the power in other facilities were the primary options.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-Use Engine Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The key to overcome Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations in reciprocating engines is based on proper control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The studied alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this report that the secondary fuel can be produced using exhaust heat and Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR). TCR for reciprocating engines is a system that employs high efficiency recovery of sensible heat from engine exhaust gas and uses this energy to transform fuel composition. The recuperated sensible heat is returned to the engine as chemical energy. Chemical conversions are accomplished through catalytic and endothermic reactions in a specially designed reforming reactor. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures. Laboratory results, at a steam/heptane mole ratio less than 2:1, confirm that low temperature reforming reactions, in the range of 550 K to 650 K, can produce 10-30% hydrogen (by volume, wet) in the product stream. Also, the effect of trading low mean effective pressure for displacement to achieve power output and energy efficiency has been explored by WVU. A zerodimensional model of LTC using heptane as fuel and a diesel Compression Ignition (CI) combustion model were employed to estimate pressure, temperature and total heat release as inputs for a mechanical and thermal loss model. The model results show that the total cooling burden on an LTC engine with lower power density and higher displacement was 14.3% lower than the diesel engine for the same amount of energy addition in the case of high load (43.57mg fuel/cycle). These preliminary modeling and experimental results suggest that the LTC-TCR combination may offer a high efficiency solution to engine operation. A single zone model using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism was implemented in CHEMKIN and to study the effects of base fuel and steam-fuel reforming products on the ignition timing and heat release characteristics. The study was performed considering the reformed fuel species composition for total n-heptane conversion (ideal case) and also at the composition corresponding to a specific set of operational reforming temperatures (real case). The computational model confirmed that the reformed products have a strong influence on the low temperature heat release (LTHR) region, affecting the onset of the high temperature heat release (HTHR). The ignition timing was proportionally delayed with respect to the baseline fuel case when higher concentrations of reformed gas were used. For stoichiometric concentration of RG, it was found that by increasing the proportion of reformed fuel to total fuel (RG), from 0% to 30%, the amount of energy released during the LTHR regime, or HR{sub L}, was reduced by 48% and the ignition timing was delayed 10.4 CA degrees with respect to the baseline fuel case. For RG composition corresponding to certain operational reforming temperatures, it was found that the most significant effects on the HCCI combustion, regarding HR{sub L} reduction and CA50 delay, was obtained by RG produced at a reforming temperature range of 675 K-725 K.

Nigel N. Clark; Francisco Posada; Clinton Bedick; John Pratapas; Aleksandr Kozlov; Martin Linck; Dmitri Boulanov

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

396

Maximal spin and energy conversion efficiency in a symbiotic system of black hole, disk and jet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the mass and spin evolution in a symbiotic system consisting of a black hole with magnetosphere and jets, surrounded by a steady-state, thin accretion disk. We analyze how the limiting value of the spin parameter and the conversion efficiency of accreted mass into radiation depend on the interplay of electromagnetic radiation reaction, magnetosphere characteristics and jet cross-section. As a main result, we find that the presence of the jets increases the spin limit (basically obstructing the reverse effect of radiation in the innermost region of the accretion disk) and enhances the energy conversion efficiency.

Kovács, Zoltán; Biermann, Peter L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refrigeration cycle (hot water in the case of adsorption chillers), and thus are most ideal for industrial

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lighting, improved fan blade design with proper balance, andDesign Options .. 21 Ceiling Fans and10W [2]. A design option for ceiling fans in large, open

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Grout and Glass Performance Maximizing the Loading of ORNL Tank Sludges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization and solidification alternatives for radioactive and hazardous mixed wastes stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as a mixed-waste alternative disposal technology.

Burgess, M.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Spence, R.D.; Travis, J.R.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Biofuel policy must evaluate environmental, food security and energy goals to maximize net benefits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

use: Blue impacts of green energy. Science 10:67–81. defood prices. Balancing green energy needs Biofuel policiesbalance the demand for a green energy source today with

Sexton, Steven E; Rajagapol, Deepak; Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David D; Roland-Holst, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Techniques for Maximizing Efficiency of Solar Energy Harvesting Systems (Invited Paper)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power point tracking, energy harvest- ing, solar panel, photovoltaic cell, supercapacitor, ultracapac

Shinozuka, Masanobu

403

Optimization of biodiesel production and purification for maximizing biodiesel yield from camelina oil .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

???Because of the depletion of the world’s petroleum reserves and the increasing environmental concerns, biodiesel, as a low-emission renewable fuel and one of the best… (more)

??

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Maximizing the Availability and Reliability of Videos in VoD System Using Markov Chain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a Video on Demand system, by forwarding the server video stream client by client, a chain based scheme is formed, which reduces the server load. The existing chaining schemes are not reliable because there are frequent breaks in the chain among the ... Keywords: VoD, chaining, streams, segments, peer-to-peer

R. Ashok Kumar; K. Hareesh; K. Ganesan; D. H. Manjaiah

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

INTEGER-EMPTY POLYTOPES IN THE 0/1-CUBE WITH MAXIMAL ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 13, 2010... FRIEDRICH-ALEXANDER-UNIVERSITÄT ERLANGEN-NÜRNBERG, GERMANY. E-mail address: sebastian.pokutta@math.uni-erlangen.de.

406

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industrial process, absorption chillers have the potentialvapor-compression chillers. Absorption chillers currentlycycle. Traditional absorption chillers use water as a

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Annually the US DOE presents US energy use forecasts in its50 products, in terms of US energy savings potential overand Liu X. Impacts of US federal energy efficiency standards

Garbesi, Karina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a traditional vapor-compression cycle, outside air can goefficiency of the vapor-compression system (by reducing theof a traditional vapor- compression air conditioner (i.e. ,

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

initial costs. Absorption heat pump water heaters (which usereliable absorption heat pump water heaters. Solar thermal

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Auction-Based Throughput Maximization in Cognitive Radio Networks Under Interference Constraint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cognitive radio is an emerging technique to improve the utilization of radio frequency spectrum in wireless communication networks. That is, spectrum efficiency can be increased significantly by giving opportunistic access of the frequency bands to a ... Keywords: Auction, Channel assignment, Cognitive radio, Graph theory, Interference constraint, OSI cross layer applications

Hakan Murat Karaca, Tolga Kurt, Salih Zafer Dicle, Emin Anarim

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Law and Norms in Collective Action: Maximizing Social Influence to Minimize Carbon Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For instance, installing rooftop solar panels, buying a newit as less visible than rooftop solar panels or hybrid cars,

Ela, Jed S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems are technically nott yet possible due to the VRF capability to simultaneously

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group Maximizes Revenue Through Improved Demand Management and Price Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under changing market conditions for the hospitality industry, the Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group CRHG collaborated with JDA Software Group to use operations research to drive higher revenue for its hoteliers and to stay ahead of the competition. This highly ... Keywords: competitor prices, demand forecasting, hospitality, hotel, price elasticity, price optimization, revenue management

Pelin Pekgün; Ronald P. Menich; Suresh Acharya; Phillip G. Finch; Frederic Deschamps; Kathleen Mallery; Jim Van Sistine; Kyle Christianson; James Fuller

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Law and Norms in Collective Action: Maximizing Social Influence to Minimize Carbon Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

panels, buying a new hybrid car or giving up.driving androoftop solar panels or hybrid cars, idling is, at least in

Ela, Jed S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Bit Transmission Probability Maximizing the Key Rate of the BB84 Protocol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In all papers on the BB84 protocol, the transmission probability of each bit value is usually set to be equal. In this paper, we show that by assigning different transmission probability to each transmitted qubit within a single polarization basis, we can generally improve the key generation rate of the BB84 protocol and achieve a higher key rate.

Sonny Lumbantoruan; Ryutaroh Matsumoto; Tomohiko Uyematsu

2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

416

Manipulation Of Lignin Biosynthesis To Maximize Ethanol Production From Populus Feedstocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our research focuses on transgenic strategies for modifying lignification to improve biomass quality, without leading to deleterious effects on plant performance. In order to accomplish this objective, we designed molecular strategies and selected appropriate transgenes for manipulating the expression of lignification-associated genes; we generated poplar engineered for altered lignin content and/or monomer composition, and field-tested them for fitness; we analyzed the impact of these transgenic strategies on metabolism in general and lignin biosynthesis in particular; and evaluated the ease with which cell wall deconstruction can be accomplished using both chemical and enzymatic means using wild-type and high syringyl poplar.

Dr. Clint Chapple; Dr. Rick Lindroth; Dr. Burce Dien; Dr. Glen Stanosz; Dr. Alex Wiedenhoeft; Dr. Fu Zhao; Dr. Duane Wegener; Dr. Janice Kelly; Dr. Leigh Raymond; Dr. Wallace Tyner

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Radiological consequences of a hypothetical disruption of a maximally loaded FFTF fuel cask  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiological consequences at the site boundary were estimated for non-mechanistic disruption of an Interim Storage Cask (ISC) loaded with 7 assemblies at the maximum available burnup. The hypothetical disruption consisted of a crushing/shearing of the Core Component Container (CCC) along with all 7 assemblies and the creation of a large escape path out of the cask. The resulting site boundary dose of 1.6 mSv is far below the 250 mSv risk guidelines for highly unlikely events.

Scott, P.A.

1995-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

418

Maximizing the efficiency of a speed rail for the preparation of alcoholic beverages.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??M.S. Typically bartenders will arrange liquor bottles in a bar based on their own preferences. This research project describes an alternative way to arrange the… (more)

Riley, Ashley S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ground source) dryers of CO2 as refrigerant, absorption replace standard cycle use for gas-heat pump

Garbesi, Karina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Report: Commercial Ground-Source Heat Pumps—One-Pipe Loops.6]. Commercial ground-source heat pumps are an establishedcost- effectiveness of ground-source heat pumps is generally

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mei maximally exposed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Use of Posthatching Yolk and External Forage to Maximize Early Growth in Apalone mutica Hatchlings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by providing energy for maintenance, activity, growth, and fat storage until the hatchling can attain in the egg by the ovary are used to form the offspring, whereas 75% remain in the body as fat bodies and yolk reserves, rendering A. mutica with one of the largest PIC values reported for turtles (Nagle et al., 2003

Plummer, Michael V.

422

Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

423

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lighting, motors, and various heat pump applications for which we are able to break down and compare energy usage

Garbesi, Karina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Do humans produce the speedaccuracy trade-off that maximizes reward rate?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that there is a penalty q for making an error,4 and the modified RR is given by: RRm ÂĽ (1 Ă? ER) Ă? qER DT Ăľ Dtotal : Ă°12Ă?

Cohen, Jonathan D.

425

Maximizing network lifetime based on transmission range adjustment in wireless sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a wireless sensor network (WSN), the unbalanced distribution of communication loads often causes the problem of energy hole, which means the energy of the nodes in the hole region will be exhausted sooner than the nodes in other regions. This is a ... Keywords: Energy hole problem, Multi-objective optimization problem, NP hard, Wireless sensor networks

Chao Song; Ming Liu; Jiannong Cao; Yuan Zheng; Haigang Gong; Guihai Chen

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

motors, permanent magnet motors, and, as is already evident,efficient permanent magnet (PM) motors have been cost-approaches: a motor (from permanent magnet consumer rotors,

Garbesi, Karina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Maximize Process Energy Efficiency -- Pinch Screening Analysis: Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC -- Catlettsburg, Kentucky  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI and its subcontractor, Veritech, were commissioned to conduct a strategic analysis of the steam utility system at the Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC (MAPLLC) Catlettsburg refinery. During the strategic analysis, we determined the marginal costs of steam and the marginal costs of steam-derived power. We also developed a preliminary steam model to evaluate energy cost reduction opportunities.

1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

428

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy use information is generally readily available for most best-on-market products, design information

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although bulbs, primarily in LED and CFL efficaciescompact fluorescent bulbs, with LEDs being a likely futurelights. LED street lights offer increased bulb lifetime (and

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Law and Norms in Collective Action: Maximizing Social Influence to Minimize Carbon Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency upgrades: think promoting weather-stripping versus new furnaces, or CFLefficiency behaviors included in the proposal are: reducing "standby power" electrical use; increasing adoption of CFL

Ela, Jed S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Maximizing Gross Margin of a Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Facility Under Uncertainty in Price and Water Inflow.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The operation of a pumped storage hydroelectric facility is subject to uncertainty. This is especially true in today’s energy markets. Published models to achieve optimal… (more)

Ikudo, Akina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Mathematical Analysis of a Novel Approach to Maximize Waste Recovery in a Life Support System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NASA has been evaluating closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Two process models were developed to evaluate novel approaches for waster recovery in a life support system. The first is a model INL co-electrolysis process combined with a methanol production process. The second is the INL co-electrolysis process combined with a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process. For both processes, the overall power increases as the syngas ratio, H2/CO, increases because more water is needed to produce more hydrogen at a set CO2 incoming flow rate. The power for the methanol cases is less than the PSA because heat is available from the methanol reactor to preheat the water and carbon dioxide entering the co-electrolysis process.

Michael G. McKellar; Rick A. Wood; Carl M. Stoots; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Biofuel policy must evaluate environmental, food security and energy goals to maximize net benefits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conse- quences: How the U.S. biofuel tax credit with a man-Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt. Science 319:1235–D. 2007. Challenge of biofuel: Filling the tank without

Sexton, Steven E; Rajagapol, Deepak; Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David D; Roland-Holst, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Engineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is a collaboration with F. R. Tabita of Ohio State. Our major goal is to understand the factors and regulatory mechanisms that influence hydrogen production. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Our part of the project was to develop a modeling technique to investigate the metabolic network in connection to hydrogen production and regulation. Organisms must balance the pathways that generate and consume reducing power in order to maintain redox homeostasis to achieve growth. Maintaining this homeostasis in the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria is a complex feat with many avenues that can lead to balance, as these organisms possess versatile metabolic capabilities including anoxygenic photosynthesis, aerobic or anaerobic respiration, and fermentation. Growth is achieved by using H{sub 2} as an electron donor and CO{sub 2} as a carbon source during photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic growth, where CO{sub 2} is fixed via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Photoheterotrophic growth can also occur when alternative organic carbon compounds are utilized as both the carbon source and electron donor. Regardless of the growth mode, excess reducing equivalents generated as a result of oxidative processes, must be transferred to terminal electron acceptors, thus insuring that redox homeostasis is maintained in the cell. Possible terminal acceptors include O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, organic carbon, or various oxyanions. Cells possess regulatory mechanisms to balance the activity of the pathways which supply energy, such as photosynthesis, and those that consume energy, such as CO{sub 2} assimilation or N{sub 2} fixation. The major route for CO{sub 2} assimilation is the CBB reductive pentose phosphate pathway, whose key enzyme is ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). In addition to providing virtually all cellular carbon during autotrophic metabolism, RubisCO-mediated CO{sub 2} assimilation is also very important for nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria under photoheterotrophic growth conditions since CO{sub 2} becomes the major electron sink under these conditions. In this work, Ensemble Modeling (EM) was developed to examine the behavior of CBB-compromised RubisCO knockout mutant strains of the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Mathematical models of metabolism can be a great aid in studying the effects of large perturbations to the system, such as the inactivation of RubisCO. Due to the complex and highly-interconnected nature of these networks, it is not a trivial process to understand what the effect of perturbations to the metabolic network will be, or vice versa, what enzymatic perturbations are necessary to yield a desired effect. Flux distribution is controlled by multiple enzymes in the network, often indirectly linked to the pathways of interest. Further, depending on the state of the cell and the environmental conditions, the effect of a perturbation may center around how it effects the carbon flow in the network, the balancing of cofactors, or both. Thus, it is desirable to develop mathematical models to describe, understand, and predict network behavior. Through the development of such models, one may gain the ability to generate a set of testable hypotheses for system behavior.

James C. Liao

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

435

Maximizing Efficiency By Trading Storage for Computation Ian F. Adams Darrell D. E. Long  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Residential Commercial Industrial (b) Nominal price of energy for three markets. Figure 2: Predicting costs predictable, others such as energy prices are more volatile. annually [14], while Moore's law states it difficult to predict the future state of a volatile market. As Figure 2 shows, while the price of energy has

Polyzotis, Neoklis (Alkis)

436

Maximizing Ion Current by Space Charge Neutralization using Negative Ions and Dust Particles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ion current extracted from an ion source (ion thruster) can be increased above the Child-Langmuir limit if the ion space charge is neutralized. Similarly, the limiting kinetic energy density of the plasma flow in a Hall thruster might be exceeded if additional mechanisms of space charge neutralization are introduced. Space charge neutralization with high-mass negative ions or negatively charged dust particles seems, in principle, promising for the development of a high current or high energy density source of positive light ions. Several space charge neutralization schemes that employ heavy negatively charged particles are considered. It is shown that the proposed neutralization schemes can lead, at best, only to a moderate but nonetheless possibly important increase of the ion current in the ion thruster and the thrust density in the Hall thruster.

A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

437

Altering the ribosomal subunit ratio in yeast maximizes recombinant protein yield  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with 1 M HCl prior to autoclave sterilisation and storage at 4°C. 1 L vitamin solution was composed of the following: 0.05 g D-biotin, 1 g Ca D (+) panthothenate, 1 g nicotinic acid, 25 g myo-inositol, 1 g thiamine hydro- chloride, 1 g pyridoxol... or pres- ence of 0.5 ?g/mL doxycycline using a Thermal Activity Monitor 2277 (Thermometric AB, Sweden) with a flow vessel working volume of 0.6 cm3. The system was steri- lized by successively pumping through solutions of sterile deionized water, 70...

Bonander, Nicklas; Darby, Richard A J; Grgic, Ljuban; Bora, Nagamani; Wen, Jikai; Brogna, Saverio; Poyner, David R; O'Neill, Michael A A; Bill, Roslyn M

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

438

Audemes at work: Investigating features of non-speech sounds to maximize content recognition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To access interactive systems, blind users can leverage their auditory senses by using non-speech sounds. The structure of existing non-speech sounds, however, is geared toward conveying atomic operations at the user interface (e.g., opening a file) ... Keywords: Acoustic, Audeme, Blind, Non-speech sound, Recognition, Visually impaired

Mexhid Ferati; Mark S. Pfaff; Steve Mannheimer; Davide Bolchini

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Active flow control for maximizing performance of spark ignited stratified charge engines. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reducing the cycle-to-cycle variability present in stratified-charge engines is an important step in the process of increasing their efficiency. As a result of this cycle-to-cycle variability, fuel injection systems are calibrated to inject more fuel than necessary, in an attempt to ensure that the engines fire on every cycle. When the cycle-to-cycle variability is lowered, the variation of work per cycle is reduced and the lean operating limit decreases, resulting in increased fuel economy. In this study an active flow control device is used to excite the intake flow of an engine at various frequencies. The goal of this excitation is to control the way in which vortices shed off of the intake valve, thus lowering the cycle-to-cycle variability in the flow field. This method of controlling flow is investigated through the use of three engines. The results of this study show that the active flow control device did help to lower the cycle-to-cycle variability of the in-cylinder flow field; however, the reduction did not translate directly into improved engine performance.

Fedewa, Andrew; Stuecken, Tom; Timm, Edward; Schock, Harold J.; Shih, Tom-I.P.; Koochesfahani, Manooch; Brereton, Giles

2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The three primary analyses presented in this report are: Nevertheless, it is important to analyze best-on-market products, since data on truly max tech technologies are limited. (1) an analysis of the cross-cutting strategies most promising for reducing appliance and equipment energy use in the U.S.; (2) a macro-analysis of the U.S. energy-saving potential inherent in promising ultra-efficient appliance technologies; and (3) a product-level analysis of the energy-saving potential.

Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

442

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

external/technical_reports/PNNL-13232.pdf [2] DOE.National Laboratory for DOE. Report PNNL- 13232. April.National Laboratory (PNNL). (2010). Evaluation of a

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Biofuel policy must evaluate environmental, food security and energy goals to maximize net benefits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

associated with biofuel production, including environmental3. Water use in biofuel production. Fig. 4. Water embeddedthe water consumed in biofuel production. By some estimates,

Sexton, Steven E; Rajagapol, Deepak; Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David D; Roland-Holst, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

THE MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL APPROACH TO MAXIMIZE WASTE RECOVERY IN A LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NASA has been evaluating closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures that include carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam (H2O) co-electrolysis process is one of the reduction options that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Two process models were developed to evaluate novel approaches for energy storage and resource recovery in a life support system. In the first model, products from the INL co-electrolysis process are combined to produce methanol fuel. In the second co-electrolysis, products are separated with a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process. In both models the fuels are burned with added oxygen to produce H2O and CO2, the original reactants. For both processes, the overall power increases as the syngas ratio, H2/CO, increases because more water is needed to produce more hydrogen at a set CO2 incoming flow rate. The power for the methanol cases is less than pressure swing adsorption, PSA, because heat is available from the methanol reactor to preheat the water and carbon dioxide entering the co-electrolysis process.

Michael G. McKellar; Rick A. Wood; Carl M. Stoots; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Biofuel policy must evaluate environmental, food security and energy goals to maximize net benefits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

10, 2008). Wiebe K. 2008. Biofuels: Implications for naturalcountries. Sustainable Biofuels and Human Securitydistribution implications of biofuels. Sustainable Biofuels

Sexton, Steven E; Rajagapol, Deepak; Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David D; Roland-Holst, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

System on chip design service e-business value maximization through a novel MCDM framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the IC (integrated circuit) industry migrates to the System-on-Chip (SOC) era, the SOC design service industry is emerging. Meanwhile, in the past decade, the emergence of Internet has changed the high technology marketing approaches while e-commerce ... Keywords: Analytic Network Process (ANP), Design service, Innovation, Integrated circuit (IC), Semiconductor, Silicon intellectual property (SIP), e-Business model, e-Commerce

Chi-Yo Huang; Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng; Wen-Rong Jerry Ho

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

An Interior-Point Method for Large Scale Network Utility Maximization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sep 30, 2007 ... We illustrate our method by generating the optimal trade-off curve between utility and delay .... Journal of Machine Learning Research, 8:1519–.

448

Biofuel policy must evaluate environmental, food security and energy goals to maximize net benefits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of 13% relative to fossil fuels. Hill et al. (2006) reportedday be competitive with fossil fuels and other alternatives,biofuels relative to fossil fuels (for example, Farrell et

Sexton, Steven E; Rajagapol, Deepak; Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David D; Roland-Holst, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Biofuel policy must evaluate environmental, food security and energy goals to maximize net benefits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2006) estimated that corn ethanol provides greenhouse-gasthe carbon emissions of corn ethanol and account for land-expan- sion of U.S. corn ethanol production would bring an

Sexton, Steven E; Rajagapol, Deepak; Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David D; Roland-Holst, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fans Desktop Monitors Dishwashers Clothes Washers ClothesCompressors, pumps, blowers, dishwashers, refrigerators, and

Garbesi, Karina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Modelling transcriptional regulation with a mixture of factor analyzers and variational Bayesian expectation maximization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding the mechanisms of gene transcriptional regulation through analysis of high-throughput postgenomic data is one of the central problems of computational systems biology. Various approaches have been proposed, but most of them fail to address ...

Kuang Lin; Dirk Husmeier

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Maximizing learning and guiding behavior in free play user generated content environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Providing users the ability to create their own unique content in educational software and games can be highly effective at motivating the users to use and reuse the system. It is especially popular with students who self identify as creative or wanting ... Keywords: education, evaluation, game development, motivation

Acey Boyce; Antoine Campbell; Shaun Pickford; Dustin Culler; Tiffany Barnes

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electric ignition, heat pipe or induction griddles, reducedCommercial Ground-Source Heat Pumps—One-Pipe Loops. August.possibly benefit from drain-pipe heat recovery (see above).

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Law and Norms in Collective Action: Maximizing Social Influence to Minimize Carbon Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the existing electric meter, and a remote usage readout in-Electric utilities al- ready possess the necessary usageof electric use typically leads people to reduce their usage

Ela, Jed S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production  

SciTech Connect

Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differentia

Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production  

SciTech Connect

Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetatexanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential

Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect

Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production  

SciTech Connect

Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate gels that were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels maintained gel integrity in linear corefloods after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution at 125 F. At 175 F, Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels were not stable either with or without subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-pol

Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetatexanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential

Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production  

SciTech Connect

Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

The Sunk-cost Effect as an Optimal Rate-maximizing Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

indefinitely provides the optimal long-term rate of gain; the entry cost of each new task is so great that the forager avoids ever returning to search. ..... when most encountered patches are costly to enter, exploitation time in each of these ...

463

MODIFIED SIMULTANEOUS PERTURBATION STOCHASTIC APPROXIMATION METHOD FOR POWER CAPTURE MAXIMIZATION OF WIND TURBINES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As traditional resources are becoming scarce, renewable energy is a recent topic receiving greater concern. Among the renewable energies, wind power is a very popular… (more)

Wang, Yang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

buildings/ appliance_standards/pdfs/fy05_priority_setting_standards for residential appliances. Energy 28: 2003, pp.Department of Energy, Appliances and Commercial Equipment

Garbesi, Karina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Optimization of in-situ combustion| Maximizing production and reducing CO2 footprint.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The in-situ combustion (ISC) process is an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method that utilizes fuel in place to upgrade and displace the hydrocarbons in… (more)

Liu, Zhenshuo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product...

467

Maximizing Residential Energy Savings: Net Zero Energy House (ZEH) Technology Pathways  

SciTech Connect

To meet current U.S. Department of Energy zero-energy home performance goals, new technologies and solutions must increase whole-house efficiency savings by an additional 40% relative to those provided by best available components and systems.

Anderson, R.; Roberts, D.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Event-triggered Network Utility Maximization through Consensus Filtering Meng Xia and Michael Lemmon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

large-scale networked system in the real world, such as the electrical power grid, wireless sensor network users receive for transmitting at a given data rate subject to limits on link throughput. Distributed solutions to the NUM problem assume one can directly measure link utilization; something that may

Lemmon, Michael

469

Maximizing Profit in Cloud Computing System via Resource Allocation Hadi Goudarzi and Massoud Pedram  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

--With increasing demand for high performance computing and data storage, distributed computing systems have IT infrastructure comprising of servers, storage, network bandwidth, physical infrastructure, Electrical Grid attracted a lot of attention. Resource allocation is one of the most important challenges in the distributed

Pedram, Massoud

470

Manipulating a Neutrino Spectrum to Maximize the Physics Potential from a Low Energy Beta Beam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposed low energy beta beam facilities would be capable of producing intense beams of neutrinos (anti-neutrinos) with well defined spectra. We present analytic expressions and numerical results which accurately show how the total neutrino flux reaching the detector depends on the geometry of the source and the detector. Several authors have proposed measurements which require using different flux shapes. We show that detectors of different sizes and shapes will receive neutrino fluxes with different spectral shapes, and that the spectral shape will also be different in different regions of the same detector. Our findings also show that for certain measurements systematic uncertainties and run time can be reduced.

Philip S. Amanik; Gail C. McLaughlin

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

471

Control-theoretic utility maximization in multihop wireless networks under mission dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both bandwidth and energy become important resource constraints when multihop wireless networks are used to transport high-data-rate traffic for a moderately long duration. In such networks, it is important to control the traffic rates to not only conform ... Keywords: bandwidth- and energy-constrained networks, network lifetime, utility optimization, wireless sensor network (WSN)

Sharanya Eswaran; Archan Misra; Thomas F. La Porta

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Vision Exposes Aerosol...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

up exciting possibilities in the study of aerosol dynamics using highly focused X-ray lasers, such as SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). "Our study shows that LCLS can...