National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for megawatt fixed-flat plate

  1. megatons to megawatts | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    megatons to megawatts

  2. Mass Megawatts Wind Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Megawatts Wind Power Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mass Megawatts Wind Power Inc Address: 95 Prescott Street Place: Worcester, Massachusetts Zip: 01605 Region: Greater...

  3. Design of megawatt power level heat pipe reactors (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Design of megawatt power level heat pipe reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of megawatt power level heat pipe reactors An important niche ...

  4. MegaWatt Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy company that delivers scalable solar power generation systems to the utility market. References: MegaWatt Solar1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  5. Funding Opportunity: Next Generation Electric Machines: Megawatt...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    that leverage the benefits of state of the art power electronics (i.e., wide band gap devices) with energy efficient, high speed, direct drive, megawatt (MW) class electric ...

  6. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2010-01-08

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  7. Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. William F. Brinkman

    2009-09-30

    The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  8. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems alencon-logo.png -- This project is inactive -- Alencon Systems will develop and commercialize a new type of transformational power electronic technology to utility-scale PV systems based on novel, patent-pending ideas. A 99.1% efficient, centralized inverter with a capacity of up to 100 megawatts lies at the heart of the

  9. Funding Opportunity: Next Generation Electric Machines: Megawatt Class

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motors | Department of Energy Funding Opportunity: Next Generation Electric Machines: Megawatt Class Motors Funding Opportunity: Next Generation Electric Machines: Megawatt Class Motors March 19, 2015 - 4:45pm Addthis This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is focused on developing MV integrated drive systems that leverage the benefits of state of the art power electronics (i.e., wide band gap devices) with energy efficient, high speed, direct drive, megawatt (MW) class electric motors

  10. Next Generation Electric Machines: Megawatt Class Motors FOA Informational Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Next Generation Electric Machines: Megawatt Class Motors FOA Informational Webinar will discuss standard procedures regarding the EERE Office and FOA process.

  11. Final Environmental Impact Report: North Brawley Ten Megawatt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Impact Report: North Brawley Ten Megawatt Geothermal Demonstration Facility Abstract NA Author County of Imperial Planning Department Published WESTEC SERVICES, INC., 1979...

  12. Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    aim to demonstrate a multi-megawatt power cycle using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the working fluid. The use of carbon dioxide instead of steam allows higher...

  13. Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INTEGRATION Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems Alencon Systems, LLC *99.1% Efficient Inverter System *Power Factor Control +- 0.9 *2,500VDC *LowZero ...

  14. Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), aim to demonstrate a multi-megawatt power cycle using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the working fluid. The use of carbon dioxide instead of steam allows higher power-cycle efficiency and cycle components that are more compact.

  15. Horizontal Plate Plate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unknown Title: Horizontal Plate Plate GeospatialDataPresentationForm: vector digital data OnlineLinkage:

  16. GSA Awards Contract to Bring 3 Megawatts of Solar to Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) awarded a contract to WGL for the construction of rooftop photovoltaic arrays that will bring approximately 3 megawatts of solar ...

  17. National Wind Technology Center Dynamic 5-Megawatt Dynamometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felker, Fort

    2013-11-13

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) offers wind industry engineers a unique opportunity to conduct a wide range of tests. Its custom-designed dynamometers can test wind turbine systems from 1 kilowatt (kW) to 5 megawatts (MW). The NWTC's new dynamometer facility simulates operating field conditions to assess the reliability and performance of wind turbine prototypes and commercial machines, thereby reducing deployment time, failures, and maintenance or replacement costs. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds, the 5-MW dynamometer will provide the ability to test wind turbine drivetrains and connect those drivetrains directly to the electricity grid or through a controllable grid interface (CGI). The CGI tests the low-voltage ride-through capability of a drivetrain as well as its response to faults and other abnormal grid conditions.

  18. National Wind Technology Center Dynamic 5-Megawatt Dynamometer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Felker, Fort

    2014-06-10

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) offers wind industry engineers a unique opportunity to conduct a wide range of tests. Its custom-designed dynamometers can test wind turbine systems from 1 kilowatt (kW) to 5 megawatts (MW). The NWTC's new dynamometer facility simulates operating field conditions to assess the reliability and performance of wind turbine prototypes and commercial machines, thereby reducing deployment time, failures, and maintenance or replacement costs. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds, the 5-MW dynamometer will provide the ability to test wind turbine drivetrains and connect those drivetrains directly to the electricity grid or through a controllable grid interface (CGI). The CGI tests the low-voltage ride-through capability of a drivetrain as well as its response to faults and other abnormal grid conditions.

  19. Design of megawatt power level heat pipe reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcclure, Patrick Ray; Poston, David Irvin; Dasari, Venkateswara Rao; Reid, Robert Stowers

    2015-11-12

    An important niche for nuclear energy is the need for power at remote locations removed from a reliable electrical grid. Nuclear energy has potential applications at strategic defense locations, theaters of battle, remote communities, and emergency locations. With proper safeguards, a 1 to 10-MWe (megawatt electric) mobile reactor system could provide robust, self-contained, and long-term power in any environment. Heat pipe-cooled fast-spectrum nuclear reactors have been identified as a candidate for these applications. Heat pipe reactors, using alkali metal heat pipes, are perfectly suited for mobile applications because their nature is inherently simpler, smaller, and more reliable than “traditional” reactors. The goal of this project was to develop a scalable conceptual design for a compact reactor and to identify scaling issues for compact heat pipe cooled reactors in general. Toward this goal two detailed concepts were developed, the first concept with more conventional materials and a power of about 2 MWe and a the second concept with less conventional materials and a power level of about 5 MWe. A series of more qualitative advanced designs were developed (with less detail) that show power levels can be pushed to approximately 30 MWe.

  20. GSA Awards Contract to Bring 3 Megawatts of Solar to Federal Buildings in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington, D.C. | Department of Energy Awards Contract to Bring 3 Megawatts of Solar to Federal Buildings in Washington, D.C. GSA Awards Contract to Bring 3 Megawatts of Solar to Federal Buildings in Washington, D.C. December 17, 2015 - 10:26am Addthis The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) awarded a contract to WGL for the construction of rooftop photovoltaic arrays that will bring approximately 3 megawatts of solar energy across 18 federal buildings in Washington, D.C. The

  1. DOE to Develop Multi-Megawatt Offshore Wind Turbine with General Electric |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy to Develop Multi-Megawatt Offshore Wind Turbine with General Electric DOE to Develop Multi-Megawatt Offshore Wind Turbine with General Electric March 9, 2006 - 11:44am Addthis Contract Valued at $27 million, supports President Bush's Advanced Energy Initiative WASHINGTON, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has signed a $27 million, multi-year contract with the General Electric Company (GE) to

  2. Development of a Multi Megawatt Circulator for X Band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilson, J.; Ives, L.; Tantawi, S.G.; /Calabazas Creek Res., Saratoga /SLAC

    2008-03-24

    Research is in progress on a TeV-scale linear collider that will operate at 5-10 times the energy of present-generation accelerators. This will require development of high power RF sources generating of 50-100 MW per source. Transmission of power at this level requires overmoded waveguide to avoid breakdown. In particular, the TE{sub 01} circular waveguide mode is currently the mode of choice for waveguide transmission at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the Multimode Delay Line Distribution System (MDLDS). A common device for protecting an RF source from reflected power is the waveguide circulator. A circulator is typically a three-port device that allows low loss power transmission from the source to the load, but diverts power coming from the load (reflected power) to a third terminated port. To achieve a low loss, matched, three port junction requires nonreciprocal behavior. This is achieved using ferrites in a static magnetic field which introduces a propagation constant dependent on RF field direction relative to the static magnetic field. Circulators are currently available at X-Band for power levels up to 1 MW in fundamental rectangular waveguide; however, the next generation of RF sources for TeV-level accelerators will require circulators in the 50-100 MW range. Clearly, conventional technology is not capable of reaching the power level required. In this paper, we discuss the development of an X-Band circulator operating at multi-megawatt power levels in overmoded waveguide. The circulator will employ an innovative coaxial geometry using the TE{sub 01} mode. Difficulties in maintaining mode purity in oversized rectangular guide preclude increasing guide area to allow increasing the power level to the desired 50-100 MW range. The TE{sub 01} mode in circular waveguide is very robust mode for transmission of high power in overmoded waveguide. The mode is ideal for transmission of high power microwaves because of its low-losses, zero tangential field on the guide (which minimizes arcing problems) and reduced propensity for mode conversion compared to non-asymmetric circular waveguide modes. Unfortunately, no current designs exist for circulators using the circular TE{sub 01} mode. The basic building block for all low-loss circulators and isolators is a nonreciprocal element with a phase shift dependent on the propagation direction in the guide. Such an element can be constructed by placement of a hollow ferrite rod in a cylindrical waveguide. An inner conductor placed inside the ferrite rod conducts a current pulse that induces an azimuthal magnetic field inside the ferrite. This configuration is depicted in Figure 1a. An alternate configuration using permanent magnets is shown in Figure 1b. Either of these configurations will create a different phase shift for waves propagating in opposite directions along the waveguide axis. This feature can be used to develop a high power circulator. We are currently testing a TE{sub 01} nonreciprocal phase shifter in a 50 MW test stand. This device is in the configuration shown in Figure 1a. The induced differential phase shift and loss will be measured and compared to calculations.

  3. DOE to Debut a Dynamic 5-Megawatt Dynamometer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Debut a Dynamic 5-Megawatt Dynamometer DOE to Debut a Dynamic 5-Megawatt Dynamometer October 1, 2013 - 12:44pm Addthis Test Test A specially configured truck, delivers a GE 2.75-MW wind turbine nacelle weighing more than 96 tons to the new 5-MW dynamometer at the NWTC. Photo by Mark McDade/NREL Read more Test Test The nacelle/drivetrain installed on the 5-MW dynamometer test stand. Photo by Mark McDade/NREL Read more This is an excerpt from the Third Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program

  4. GSA Issues New Request for Proposals to Bring 3 Megawatts of Solar to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Buildings in Washington, D.C. | Department of Energy Issues New Request for Proposals to Bring 3 Megawatts of Solar to Federal Buildings in Washington, D.C. GSA Issues New Request for Proposals to Bring 3 Megawatts of Solar to Federal Buildings in Washington, D.C. June 15, 2015 - 12:41pm Addthis On June 9, 2015, the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) issued a request for proposal (RFP) for the procurement of electricity produced by solar photovoltaic arrays to be constructed

  5. FULLY INTEGRATED HIGH SPEED MEGAWATT CLASS MOTOR AND HIGH FREQUENCY VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE SYSTEM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clemson University – North Charleston, SC New motor power converter technologies will be used to develop a pre-commercial megawatt class variable speed drive. The fully integrated prototype system will be made by TECO Westinghouse Motor Company in its Round Rock, TX facility and be demonstrated at Clemson’s eGRID Center. Fact sheet coming soon.

  6. Electroless copper plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael R.

    1998-12-15

    An optimized electroless copper plating technique suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics.

  7. The design and analysis of multi-megawatt distributed single pole double throw (SPDT) microwave switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tantawi, S.G. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, SLAC, 2575 Sand Hill Rd. Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    We present design methodology and analysis for an SPDT switch that is capable of handling hundreds of megawatts of power at X-band. The switch is designed for application in high power rf systems in particular future Linear Colliders (1). In these systems switching need to be fast in one direction only. We use this to our advantage to reach a design for a super high power switch. In our analysis we treat the problem from an abstract point of view. We introduce a unified analysis for the microwave circuits irrespective of the switching elements. The analysis is, then, suitable for different kinds of switching elements such as photoconductrs. PIN diodes, and plasma discharge in low-pressure gases. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Electroless copper plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHenry, M.R.

    1998-12-15

    An optimized electroless copper plating technique is described suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics. 12 figs.

  9. A Conceptual Multi-Megawatt System Based on a Tungsten CERMET Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan A. Webb; Brian Gross

    2011-02-01

    Abstract. A conceptual reactor system to support Multi-Megawatt Nuclear Electric Propulsion is investigated within this paper. The reactor system consists of a helium cooled Tungsten-UN fission core, surrounded by a beryllium neutron reflector and 13 B4C control drums coupled to a high temperature Brayton power conversion system. Excess heat is rejected via carbon reinforced heat pipe radiators and the gamma and neutron flux is attenuated via segmented shielding consisting of lithium hydride and tungsten layers. Turbine inlet temperatures ranging from 1300 K to 1500 K are investigated for their effects on specific powers and net electrical outputs ranging from 1 MW to 100 MW. The reactor system is estimated to have a mass, which ranges from 15 Mt at 1 MWe and a turbine inlet temperature of 1500 K to 1200 Mt at 100 MWe and a turbine temperature of 1300 K. The reactor systems specific mass ranges from 32 kg/kWe at a turbine inlet temperature of 1300 K and a power of 1 MWe to 9.5 kg/kW at a turbine temperature of 1500 K and a power of 100 MWe.

  10. Comparative Assessment of Direct Drive High Temperature Superconducting Generators in Multi-Megawatt Class Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, B.; Hand, M.; Musial, W.

    2010-10-01

    This paper summarizes the work completed under the CRADA between NREL and American Superconductor (AMSC). The CRADA combined NREL and AMSC resources to benchmark high temperature superconducting direct drive (HTSDD) generator technology by integrating the technologies into a conceptual wind turbine design, and comparing the design to geared drive and permanent magnet direct drive (PMDD) wind turbine configurations. Analysis was accomplished by upgrading the NREL Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model to represent geared and PMDD turbines at machine ratings up to 10 MW and then comparing cost and mass figures of AMSC's HTSDD wind turbine designs to theoretical geared and PMDD turbine designs at 3.1, 6, and 10 MW sizes. Based on the cost and performance data supplied by AMSC, HTSDD technology has good potential to compete successfully as an alternative technology to PMDD and geared technology turbines in the multi megawatt classes. In addition, data suggests the economics of HTSDD turbines improve with increasing size, although several uncertainties remain for all machines in the 6 to 10 MW class.

  11. Airborne megawatt class free-electron laser for defense and security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Whitney; David Douglas; George Neil

    2005-03-01

    An airborne megawatt (MW) average power Free-Electron Laser (FEL) is now a possibility. In the process of shrinking the FEL parameters to fit on ship, a surprisingly lightweight and compact design has been achieved. There are multiple motivations for using a FEL for a high-power airborne system for Defense and Security: Diverse mission requirements can be met by a single system. The MW of light can be made available with any time structure for time periods from microseconds to hours, i.e. there is a nearly unlimited magazine. The wavelength of the light can be chosen to be from the far infrared (IR) to the near ultraviolet (UV) thereby best meeting mission requirements. The FEL light can be modulated for detecting the same pattern in the small fraction of light reflected from the target resulting in greatly enhanced targeting control. The entire MW class FEL including all of its subsystems can be carried by large commercial size airplanes or on an airship. Adequate electrical power can be generated on the plane or airship to run the FEL as long as the plane or airship has fuel to fly. The light from the FEL will work well with relay mirror systems. The required R&D to achieve the MW level is well understood. The coupling of the capabilities of an airborne FEL to diverse mission requirements provides unique opportunities.

  12. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  13. Arc discharge regulation of a megawatt hot cathode bucket ion source for the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Yahong; Hu Chundong; Liu Sheng; Jiang Caichao; Li Jun; Liang Lizhen; Collaboration: NBI Team

    2012-01-15

    Arc discharge of a hot cathode bucket ion source tends to be unstable what attributes to the filament self-heating and energetic electrons backstreaming from the accelerator. A regulation method, which based on the ion density measurement by a Langmuir probe, is employed for stable arc discharge operation and long pulse ion beam generation. Long pulse arc discharge of 100 s is obtained based on this regulation method of arc power. It establishes a foundation for the long pulse arc discharge of a megawatt ion source, which will be utilized a high power neutral beam injection device.

  14. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P; Toops, Todd J; Tortorelli, Peter F; More, Karren Leslie; Meyer III, Harry M; Pihl, Josh A; Wang, Heli; Turner, John; Garzon, Fernando; Rockward, Tommy; Gervasio, Don; Rakowski, Jim; EstevezGenCell, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Effort devoted to scale up and demonstration of thin stamped metallic bipolar plates. Overall goal is to demonstrate potential for metallic bipolar plates to meet 5000 h automotive durability goal at a cost of less than $5/kW.

  15. First plasma of megawatt high current ion source for neutral beam injector of the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak on the test bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Chundong; Xie Yahong; Liu Sheng; Xie Yuanlai; Jiang Caichao; Song Shihua; Li Jun; Liu Zhimin

    2011-02-15

    High current ion source is the key part of the neutral beam injector. In order to develop the project of 4 MW neutral beam injection for the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) on schedule, the megawatt high current ion source is prestudied in the Institute of Plasma Physics in China. In this paper, the megawatt high current ion source test bed and the first plasma are presented. The high current discharge of 900 A at 2 s and long pulse discharge of 5 s at 680 A are achieved. The arc discharge characteristic of high current ion source is analyzed primarily.

  16. Rotatable shear plate interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffus, Richard C.

    1988-01-01

    A rotatable shear plate interferometer comprises a transparent shear plate mounted obliquely in a tubular supporting member at 45.degree. with respect to its horizontal center axis. This tubular supporting member is supported rotatably around its center axis and a collimated laser beam is made incident on the shear plate along this center axis such that defocus in different directions can be easily measured.

  17. Plating Tank Control Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    The Plating Tank Control Software is a graphical user interface that controls and records plating process conditions for plating in high aspect ratio channels that require use of low current and long times. The software is written for a Pentium II PC with an 8 channel data acquisition card, and the necessary shunt resistors for measuring currents in the millampere range.

  18. Angular shear plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruda, Mitchell C. (Tucson, AZ); Greynolds, Alan W. (Tucson, AZ); Stuhlinger, Tilman W. (Tucson, AZ)

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  19. Acoustic Noise Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roadman, Jason; Huskey, Arlinda

    2015-07-01

    A series of tests were conducted to characterize the baseline properties and performance of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1.5-megawatt wind turbine (DOE 1.5) to enable research model development and quantify the effects of future turbine research modifications. The DOE 1.5 is built on the platform of GE's 1.5-MW SLE commercial wind turbine model. It was installed in a nonstandard configuration at the NWTC with the objective of supporting DOE Wind Program research initiatives such as A2e. Therefore, the test results may not represent the performance capabilities of other GE 1.5-MW SLE turbines. The acoustic noise test documented in this report is one of a series of tests carried out to establish a performance baseline for the DOE 1.5 in the NWTC inflow environment.

  20. GOLD PLATING PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seegmiller, R.

    1957-08-01

    An improved bath is reported for plating gold on other metals. The composition of the plating bath is as follows: Gold cyanide from about 15 to about 50 grams, potassium cyanide from about 70 to about 125 grams, and sulfonated castor oil from about 0.1 to about 10 cc. The gold plate produced from this bath is smooth, semi-hard, and nonporous.

  1. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on nitrided metallic bipolar plates, was given by M. P. Brady of ORNL at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  2. PLATES WITH OXIDE INSERTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, J.M.; Schumar, J.F.

    1958-06-10

    Planar-type fuel assemblies for nuclear reactors are described, particularly those comprising fuel in the oxide form such as thoria and urania. The fuel assembly consists of a plurality of parallel spaced fuel plate mennbers having their longitudinal side edges attached to two parallel supporting side plates, thereby providing coolant flow channels between the opposite faces of adjacent fuel plates. The fuel plates are comprised of a plurality of longitudinally extending tubular sections connected by web portions, the tubular sections being filled with a plurality of pellets of the fuel material and the pellets being thermally bonded to the inside of the tubular section by lead.

  3. Turbine vane plate assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiavo Jr., Anthony L.

    2006-01-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes a turbine vane having first and second shrouds with an elongated airfoil extending between. Each end of the airfoil transitions into a shroud at a respective junction. Each of the shrouds has a plurality of cooling passages, and the airfoil has a plurality of cooling passages extending between the first and second shrouds. A substantially flat inner plate and an outer plate are coupled to each of the first and second shrouds so as to form inner and outer plenums. Each inner plenum is defined between at least the junction and the substantially flat inner plate; each outer plenum is defined between at least the substantially flat inner plate and the outer plate. Each inner plenum is in fluid communication with a respective outer plenum through at least one of the cooling passages in the respective shroud.

  4. Power Performance Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Ismael; Hur, Jerry; Thao, Syhoune; Curtis, Amy

    2015-08-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) acquired and installed a 1.5-megawatt (MW) wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This turbine (hereafter referred to as the DOE 1.5) is envisioned to become an integral part of the research initiatives for the DOE Wind Program, such as Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e). A2e is a multiyear DOE research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing wind flow into and through wind farms. For more information, visit http://energy.gov/eere/wind/atmosphere-electrons. To validate new and existing high-fidelity simulations, A2e must deploy several experimental measurement campaigns across different scales. Proposed experiments include wind tunnel tests, scaled field tests, and large field measurement campaigns at operating wind plants. Data of interest includes long-term atmospheric data sets, wind plant inflow, intra-wind plant flows (e.g., wakes), and rotor loads measurements. It is expected that new, high-fidelity instrumentation will be required to successfully collect data at the resolutions required to validate the high-fidelity simulations.

  5. Power Quality Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Ismael; Hur, Jerry; Thao, Syhoune

    2015-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) acquired and installed a 1.5-megawatt (MW) wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This turbine (hereafter referred to as the DOE 1.5) is envisioned to become an integral part of the research initiatives for the DOE Wind Program, such as Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e). A2e is a multiyear DOE research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing wind flow into and through wind farms. For more information, visit http://energy.gov/eere/wind/atmosphere-electrons. To validate new and existing high-fidelity simulations, A2e must deploy several experimental measurement campaigns across different scales. Proposed experiments include wind tunnel tests, scaled field tests, and large field measurement campaigns at operating wind plants. Data of interest includes long-term atmospheric data sets, wind plant inflow, intra-wind plant flows (e.g., wakes), and rotor loads measurements. It is expected that new, high-fidelity instrumentation will be required to successfully collect data at the resolutions required to validate the high-fidelity simulations.

  6. Modal Dynamics and Stability of Large Multi-megawatt Deepwater Offshore Vertical-axis Wind Turbines: Initial Support Structure and Rotor Design Impact Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modal Dynamics and Stability of Large Multi-megawatt Deepwater Offshore Vertical-axis Wind Turbines: Initial Support Structure and Rotor Design Impact Studies Brian C. Owens ∗ and D. Todd Griffith † Sandia National Laboratories ‡ , Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87185, USA John E. Hurtado § Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 77843, USA The availability of offshore wind resources in coastal regions, along with a high concen- tration of load centers in these areas, makes offshore

  7. Megawatt Electrolysis Scale Up

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... in larger scale balance-of-plant * Product designsourcing for world-wide markets * Optimization of grid andor DC interface Page 7 DOE Electrolytic H 2 Production Workshop, ...

  8. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  9. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  10. Table 8.12a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20

  11. Table 8.12b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20

  12. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  13. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Ching L.

    1989-01-01

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

  14. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1989-03-21

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras is disclosed. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1,000 KeV x-rays. 3 figs.

  15. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1984-09-28

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (uv to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 keV x-rays.

  16. Fuel cell end plate structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  17. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the design of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1983-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, has focused on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt-level central-station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat-plate central-station or other large-scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost-effective configurations. The Central Station Research Forum addressed design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central-station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory research activities. Technical issues were examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect-engineer and laboratory researcher. The forum included presentations on optimum source-circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements and array operation and maintenance. The Research Forum focused on current capabilities as well as design difficulties requiring additional technological thrusts and/or continued research emphasis. Session topic summaries highlighting major points during group discussions, identifying promising technical approaches or areas of future research, are presented.

  18. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1998-01-13

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface. 15 figs.

  19. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douthart, Richard J.; Crowell, Shannon L.

    1998-01-01

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface.

  20. Carbon-assisted flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, David B.; Paisley, Dennis L.

    1994-01-01

    A laser driven flyer plate utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited.

  1. Laser-driven flyer plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, Dennis L.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for producing high velocity flyer plates involving placing a layer of dielectric material between a first metal foil and a second metal foil. With laser irradiation through an optical substrate, the first metal foil forms a plasma in the area of the irradiation, between the substrate and the solid portion of the first metal foil. When the pressure between the substrate and the foil reaches the stress limit of the dielectric, the dielectric will break away and launch the flyer plate out of the second metal foil. The mass of the flyer plate is controlled, as no portion of the flyer plate is transformed into a plasma.

  2. Laser-driven flyer plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1991-09-10

    Disclosed is an apparatus for producing high velocity flyer plates involving placing a layer of dielectric material between a first metal foil and a second metal foil. With laser irradiation through an optical substrate, the first metal foil forms a plasma in the area of the irradiation, between the substrate and the solid portion of the first metal foil. When the pressure between the substrate and the foil reaches the stress limit of the dielectric, the dielectric will break away and launch the flyer plate out of the second metal foil. The mass of the flyer plate is controlled, as no portion of the flyer plate is transformed into a plasma. 2 figures.

  3. Metal vapor arc ion plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertram, L.A.; Fisher, R.W.; Mattox, D.M.; Zanner, F.J.

    1986-09-09

    A method and apparatus for ion plating are described. The apparatus uses more negative than a first electrode voltage in a vacuum arc remelt system to attract low energy ions from the anode electrode to the article to be plated. 2 figs.

  4. Micro-channel plate detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  5. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  6. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron; Crotty, I.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Valverde, J. Lamas; Neupane, S.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zichichi, A.

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  7. Carbon-assisted flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, D.B.; Paisley, D.L.

    1994-04-12

    A laser driven flyer plate is described utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited. 2 figures.

  8. Design of polarizers for a mega-watt long-pulse millimeter-wave transmission line on the large helical device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ii, T. Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Okada, K.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Mutoh, T.; Makino, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Goto, Y.

    2015-02-15

    The polarizer is one of the critical components in a high-power millimeter-wave transmission line. It requires full and highly efficient coverage of any polarization states, high-power tolerance, and low-loss feature. Polarizers with rounded shape at the edge of the periodic groove surface are designed and fabricated by the machining process for a mega-watt long-pulse millimeter-wave transmission line of the electron cyclotron resonance heating system in the large helical device. The groove shape of λ/8- and λ/4-type polarizers for an 82.7 GHz transmission line is optimally designed in an integral method developed in the vector theories of diffraction gratings so that the efficiency to realize any polarization state can be maximized. The dependence of the polarization states on the combination of the two polarizer rotation angles (Φ{sub λ/8}, Φ{sub λ/4}) is examined experimentally in a low-power test with the newly developed polarization monitor. The results show that the measured polarization characteristics are in good agreement with the calculated ones.

  9. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holst, Kent; Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H.; Critelli, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  10. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  11. Insert metering plates for gas turbine nozzles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven S.; Itzel, Gary; Chopra, Sanjay; Abuaf, Nesim; Correia, Victor H.

    2004-05-11

    The invention comprises a metering plate which is assembled to an impingement insert for use in the nozzle of a gas turbine. The metering plate can have one or more metering holes and is used to balance the cooling flow within the nozzle. A metering plate with multiple holes reduces static pressure variations which result from the cooling airflow through the metering plate. The metering plate can be assembled to the insert before or after the insert is inserted into the nozzle.

  12. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  13. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J.

    1984-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  14. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J.

    1986-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  15. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  16. PRETREATING URANIUM FOR METAL PLATING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wehrmann, R.F.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for anodically treating the surface of uranium articles, prior to metal plating. The metal is electrolyzed in an aqueous solution of about 10% polycarboxylic acid, preferably oxalic acid, from 1 to 5% by weight of glycerine and from 1 to 5% by weight of hydrochloric acid at from 20 to 75 deg C for from 30 seconds to 15 minutes. A current density of from 60 to 100 amperes per square foot is used.

  17. Ion plated electronic tube device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.

    1983-10-18

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by ion plating techniques. The process is carried out in an automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  18. CNEA Fresh Fuel Plate Characterization Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Keiser; F. Rice

    2012-02-01

    Characterization summary report outlining the findings of the fresh fuel examinations of the plates received from CNEA.

  19. Electrically induced mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Peter J.

    1987-01-01

    A method of electrically inducing mechanical precompression of a ferroelectric plate covered with electrodes utilizes the change in strains of the plate as functions of applied electric field. A first field polarizes and laterally shrinks the entire plate. An outer portion of the electrodes are removed, and an opposite field partially depolarizes and expands the central portion of the plate against the shrunk outer portion.

  20. Electrically induced mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, P.J.

    1987-03-02

    A method of electrically inducing mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plate covered with electrodes utilizes the change in strains of the plate as functions of applied electric field. A first field polarizes and laterally shrinks the entire plate. An outer portion of the electrodes are removed, and an opposite field partially depolarizes and expands the central portion of the plate against the shrunk outer portion. 2 figs.

  1. Apparatus and method for controlling plating uniformity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hachman Jr., John T.; Kelly, James J.; West, Alan C.

    2004-10-12

    The use of an insulating shield for improving the current distribution in an electrochemical plating bath is disclosed. Numerical analysis is used to evaluate the influence of shield shape and position on plating uniformity. Simulation results are compared to experimental data for nickel deposition from a nickel--sulfamate bath. The shield is shown to improve the average current density at a plating surface.

  2. Separator plate for a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1996-04-02

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  3. Separator plate for a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1996-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  4. Wheelspace windage cover plate for turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Norman Douglas (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Windage cover plates are secured between the wheels and spacer of a turbine rotor to prevent hot flow path gas ingestion into the wheelspace cavities. Each cover plate includes a linear, axially extending body curved circumferentially with a radially outwardly directed wall at one axial end. The wall defines a axially opening recess for receiving a dovetail lug. The cover plate includes an axially extending tongue received in a circumferential groove of the spacer. The cover plate is secured with the tongue in the groove and dovetail lug in the recess. Lap joints between circumferentially adjacent cover plates are provided.

  5. The plate is not available in electronic format

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    The plate is not available in electronic format. Please email lm.records@lm.doe.gov to request the plate.

  6. Guide to Orifice Plate Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, C.B.

    2001-01-11

    This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their capabilities and limitations. Finally, recommendations for using orifice plate steam traps are presented, and possible applications are identified.

  7. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitale, Nicholas G.; Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  8. Distribution plate for recirculating fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-ching; Vidt, Edward J.; Keairns, Dale L.

    1977-01-01

    A distribution plate for a recirculating fluidized bed has a centrally disposed opening and a plurality of apertures adjacent the periphery to eliminate dead spots within the bed.

  9. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, N.G.; Jones, D.O.

    2000-05-23

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  10. Zirconium Plate Measuring Instrument (ZPMI) Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Davies; J. H. Jackson

    2013-10-01

    This report describes the design of a device intended to measure radiation-induced strain in zirconium plate specimens as a function of neutron fluence.

  11. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update Mass ...

  12. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  13. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P.; Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  14. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P.; Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  15. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  16. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shin, Yong W.; Wiedermann, Arne H.; Ockert, Carl E.

    1985-01-01

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  17. Fiber optic mounted laser driven flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paisley, Dennis L. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A laser driven flyer plate where the flyer plate is deposited directly onto the squared end of an optical fiber. The plasma generated by a laser pulse drives the flyer plate toward a target. In another embodiment, a first metal layer is deposited onto the squared end of an optical fiber, followed by a layer of a dielectric material and a second metal layer. The laser pulse generates a plasma in the first metal layer, but the plasma is kept away from the second metal layer by the dielectric layer until the pressure reaches the point where shearing occurs.

  18. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  19. Fiber optic mounted laser driven flyer plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a laser driven flyer plate where the flyer plate is deposited directly onto the squared end of an optical fiber. The plasma generated by a laser pulse drives the flyer plate toward a target. In another embodiment, a first metal layer is deposited onto the squared end of an optical fiber, followed by a layer of a dielectric material and a second metal layer. The laser pulse generates a plasma in the first metal layer, but the plasma is kept away from the second metal layer by the dielectric layer until the pressure reaches the point where shearing occurs. 2 figs.

  20. Fiber optic mounted laser driven flyer plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1991-07-09

    A laser driven flyer plate is described where the flyer plate is deposited directly onto the squared end of an optical fiber. The plasma generated by a laser pulse drives the flyer plate toward a target. In another embodiment, a first metal layer is deposited onto the squared end of an optical fiber, followed by a layer of a dielectric material and a second metal layer. The laser pulse generates a plasma in the first metal layer, but the plasma is kept away from the second metal layer by the dielectric layer until the pressure reaches the point where shearing occurs.

  1. Fiber optic mounted laser driven flyer plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a laser driven flyer plate where the flyer plate is deposited directly onto the squared end of an optical fiber. The plasma generated by a laser pulse drives the flyer plate toward a target. In another embodiment, a first metal layer is deposited onto the squared end of an optical fiber, followed by a layer of a dielectric material and a second metal layer. The laser pulse generates a plasma in the first metal layer, but the plasma is kept away from the second metal layer by the dielectric layer until the pressure reaches the point where shearing occurs. 2 figs.

  2. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate...

  3. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused ...

  4. Characterization of Tri-lab Tantalum Plate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Deibler, Lisa Anne; Chen, Shu-Rong; Michael, Joseph R.

    2014-09-01

    This report provides a detailed characterization Tri-lab Tantalum (Ta) plate jointly purchased from HCStark Inc. by Sandia, Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Data in this report was compiled from series of material and properties characterization experiments carried out at Sandia (SNL) and Los Alamos (LANL) Laboratories through a leveraged effort funded by the C2 campaign. Results include microstructure characterization detailing the crystallographic texture of the material and an increase in grain size near the end of the rolled plate. Mechanical properties evaluations include, compression cylinder, sub-scale tension specimen, micohardness and instrumented indentation testing. The plate was found to have vastly superior uniformity when compare with previously characterized wrought Ta material. Small but measurable variations in microstructure and properties were noted at the end, and at the top and bottom edges of the plate.

  5. Composite bipolar plate for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Busick, Deanna N.

    2001-01-01

    A bipolar separator plate for fuel cells consists of a molded mixture of a vinyl ester resin and graphite powder. The plate serves as a current collector and may contain fluid flow fields for the distribution of reactant gases. The material is inexpensive, electrically conductive, lightweight, strong, corrosion resistant, easily mass produced, and relatively impermeable to hydrogen gas. The addition of certain fiber reinforcements and other additives can improve the properties of the composite material without significantly increasing its overall cost.

  6. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  7. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH); Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH)

    1994-08-23

    A method of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate.

  8. Electrochemical cell and separator plate thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Bernard S.; Dharia, Dilip J.

    1979-10-02

    A fuel cell includes a separator plate having first and second flow channels extending there through contiguously with an electrode and respectively in flow communication with the cell electrolyte and in flow isolation with respect to such electrolyte. In fuel cell system arrangement, the diverse type channels are supplied in common with process gas for thermal control purposes. The separator plate is readily formed by corrugation of integral sheet material. 10 figs.

  9. Electrochemical cell and separator plate thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Bernard S.; Dharia, Dilip J.

    1979-01-01

    A fuel cell includes a separator plate having first and second flow channels extending therethrough contiguously with an electrode and respectively in flow communication with the cell electrolyte and in flow isolation with respect to such electrolyte. In fuel cell system arrangement, the diverse type channels are suplied in common with process gas for thermal control purposes. The separator plate is readily formed by corrugation of integral sheet material.

  10. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-08-23

    A method is disclosed of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate. 1 fig.

  11. Plate Tectonics, Geographical Information System, paleogeography

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-05-24

    The PaleoX.framwork is a dynamically linked/loaded framework for Cocoa applications. The primary goal of this library is to standardize several elements used for working with paleogeographic data. This includes objects designed to organize information for tectonic plates, including maps, rotation objects, plate names, and designations. In addition, PaleoX provides object-oriented solutions for handling standard paleogeographic file formats from the PALEOMAP Project.

  12. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  13. Rotary sequencing valve with flexible port plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Glenn Paul

    2005-05-10

    Rotary sequencing valve comprising a rotor having a rotor face rotatable about an axis perpendicular to the rotor face, wherein the rotor face has a plurality of openings, one or more of which are disposed at a selected radial distance from the axis, and wherein the rotor includes at least one passage connecting at least one pair of the plurality of openings. The valve includes a flexible port plate having a first side and a second side, wherein the first side faces the rotor and engages the rotor such that the flexible port plate can be rotated coaxially by the rotor and can move axially with respect to the rotor, wherein the flexible port plate has a plurality of ports between the first and second sides, which ports are aligned with the openings in the rotor face. The valve also includes a stator having a stator face disposed coaxially with the rotor and the flexible port plate, wherein the second side of the flexible port plate is in sealable, slidable rotary contact with the stator face, wherein the stator face has a plurality of openings, some of which are disposed at the selected radial distance from the axis, and wherein the plurality of openings extend as passages through the stator. The valve may be used in pressure or temperature swing adsorption systems.

  14. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.W.; Neff, W.A.

    1992-05-12

    A process is described for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO[sub 3]. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths. 18 figs.

  15. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  16. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  17. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beetz, Jr., Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert W.; Steinbeck, John; Winn, David R.

    2000-01-01

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  18. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Bryan W. (Livermore, CA)

    2012-07-10

    A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

  19. Cascade impactor and jet plate for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Farthing, William E.; Landham Jr., Edward C.

    2004-02-03

    A sampling system and method for sampling particulate matter from a high-temperature, high-pressure gas stream. A cyclone sampler for use at high temperatures and pressures, and having threadless sacrificial connectors is disclosed. Also disclosed is an improved cascade impactor including jet plates with integral spacers, and alignment features provided for aligning the jet plates with their associated collection substrates. An activated bauxite alkali collector is disclosed, and includes an alumina liner. The sampling system can be operated remotely or locally, and can be permanently installed or configured as a portable system.

  20. Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Phase II: The Application of Medium-Voltage Electrical Apparatus to the Class of Variable Speed Multi-Megawatt Low Wind Speed Turbines; 15 June 2004--30 April 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdman, W.; Behnke, M.

    2005-11-01

    Kilowatt ratings of modern wind turbines have progressed rapidly from 50 kW to 1,800 kW over the past 25 years, with 3.0- to 7.5-MW turbines expected in the next 5 years. The premise of this study is simple: The rapid growth of wind turbine power ratings and the corresponding growth in turbine electrical generation systems and associated controls are quickly making low-voltage (LV) electrical design approaches cost-ineffective. This report provides design detail and compares the cost of energy (COE) between commercial LV-class wind power machines and emerging medium-voltage (MV)-class multi-megawatt wind technology. The key finding is that a 2.5% reduction in the COE can be achieved by moving from LV to MV systems. This is a conservative estimate, with a 3% to 3.5% reduction believed to be attainable once purchase orders to support a 250-turbine/year production level are placed. This evaluation considers capital costs as well as installation, maintenance, and training requirements for wind turbine maintenance personnel. Subsystems investigated include the generator, pendant cables, variable-speed converter, and padmount transformer with switchgear. Both current-source and voltage-source converter/inverter MV topologies are compared against their low-voltage, voltage-source counterparts at the 3.0-, 5.0-, and 7.5-MW levels.

  1. Titanium carbide bipolar plate for electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaConti, Anthony B.; Griffith, Arthur E.; Cropley, Cecelia C.; Kosek, John A.

    2000-07-04

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate is made from titanium carbide for use in an eletrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

  2. Magnetically excited flexural plate wave apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Stephen J.; Butler, Michael A.; Frye, Gregory C.; Smith, James H.

    1998-01-01

    A non-piezoelectric flexural plate wave apparatus having meander-line transducers mounted on a non-piezoelectric membrane. A static magnetic field is directed perpendicularly to the conductive legs of the transducers in the plane of the membrane. Single-port, two-port, resonant, non-resonant, eigenmode, and delay-line modes may be employed.

  3. Magnetically excited flexural plate wave apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, S.J.; Butler, M.A.; Frye, G.C.; Smith, J.H.

    1998-11-17

    A non-piezoelectric flexural plate wave apparatus having meander-line transducers mounted on a non-piezoelectric membrane is disclosed. A static magnetic field is directed perpendicularly to the conductive legs of the transducers in the plane of the membrane. Single-port, two-port, resonant, non-resonant, eigenmode, and delay-line modes may be employed. 15 figs.

  4. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neutzler, Jay Kevin

    1998-01-01

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprising corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant.

  5. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neutzler, J.K.

    1998-07-07

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprises corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant. 6 figs.

  6. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  7. Fuel cell plates with improved arrangement of process channels for enhanced pressure drop across the plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R.; Pierce, Bill L.; Wright, Maynard K.

    1986-01-01

    A plate for a fuel cell has an arrangement of ribs defining an improved configuration of process gas channels and slots on a surface of the plate which provide a modified serpentine gas flow pattern across the plate surface. The channels are generally linear and arranged parallel to one another while the spaced slots allow cross channel flow of process gas in a staggered fashion which creates a plurality of generally mini-serpentine flow paths extending transverse to the longitudinal gas flow along the channels. Adjacent pairs of the channels are interconnected to one another in flow communication. Also, a bipolar plate has the aforementioned process gas channel configuration on one surface and another configuration on the opposite surface. In the other configuration, there are not slots and the gas flow channels have a generally serpentine configuration.

  8. Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE ...

  9. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:29pm Addthis Complete photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are ...

  10. Fuel cell separator plate with bellows-type sealing flanges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Louis, George A. (West Hartford, CT)

    1986-08-05

    A fuel cell separator includes a rectangular flat plate having two unitary upper sealing flanges respectively comprising opposite marginal edges of the plate folded upwardly and back on themselves and two lower sealing flanges respectively comprising the other two marginal edges of the plate folded downwardly and back on themselves. Each of the sealing flanges includes a flat wall spaced from the plate and substantially parallel thereto and two accordion-pleated side walls, one of which interconnects the flat wall with the plate and the other of which stops just short of the plate, these side walls affording resilient compressibility to the sealing flange in a directiongenerally normal to the plane of the plate. Four corner members close the ends of the sealing flanges. An additional resiliently compressible reinforcing member may be inserted in the passages formed by each of the sealing flanges with the plate.

  11. Fast microchannel plate detector for particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurz, P.; Gubler, L.

    1996-05-01

    In this article we report on the timing capabilities of a new microchannel plate detector we designed and built. The detector assembly has an impedance-matched transition line (50 {Omega} line resistance) from anode to cable connector which is considerably smaller than other, commercially available solutions and at the same time has about four times the active area. The detector was tested with an alpha particle source and excellent time response was achieved. Using 10 {mu}m pore size channel plates, a rise time of 300 ps and a pulse width of 520 ps are obtained. The details of the signal analysis are also given in the article. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight

  13. ELAF failed fuel plate examination. [Extended Life Aluminide Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.; Brown, K.R.; McGinty, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    A fuel plate examination was conducted in the hot cell and canal to determine the possible failure modes for three plates leaking fission products. The plates were irradiated in the Extended Life Aluminide Fuel (ELAF) program in support of university research reactor goals to increase the limits presently allowed. The examination indicated pitting corrosion to be the failure mode. Other failure modes such as: (a) nonbonded swelling, (b) excessive fuel swelling, and (c) overheating of the plates were not observed.

  14. Variable thickness double-refracting plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hadeishi, Tetsuo

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides an A.C., cyclic, current-controlled, phase retardation plate that uses a magnetic clamp to produce stress birefringence. It was developed for an Isotope-Zeeman Atomic Absorption Spectrometer that uses polarization modulation to effect automatic background correction in atomic absorption trace-element measurements. To this end, the phase retardation plate of the invention is a variable thickness, photoelastic, double-refracting plate that is alternately stressed and released by the magnetic clamp selectively to modulate specific components selected from the group consisting of circularly and plane polarized Zeeman components that are produced in a dc magnetic field so that they correspond respectively to Zeeman reference and transmission-probe absorption components. The polarization modulation changes the phase of these polarized Zeeman components, designated as .sigma. reference and .pi. absorption components, so that every half cycle the components change from a transmission mode to a mode in which the .pi. component is blocked and the .sigma. components are transmitted. Thus, the Zeeman absorption component, which corresponds in amplitude to the amount of the trace element to be measured in a sample, is alternately transmitted and blocked by a linear polarizer, while the circularly polarized reference components are continuously transmitted thereby. The result is a sinusoidally varying output light amplitude whose average corresponds to the amount of the trace element present in the sample.

  15. Megawatt Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Systems Place: Zionsville, Indiana Sector: Renewable Energy, Services, Solar, Wind energy Phone Number: 317.797.3381 Website: www.mwenergysystems.com Coordinates:...

  16. Adaptive control system for pulsed megawatt klystrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolie, Victor W.

    1992-01-01

    The invention provides an arrangement for reducing waveform errors such as errors in phase or amplitude in output pulses produced by pulsed power output devices such as klystrons by generating an error voltage representing the extent of error still present in the trailing edge of the previous output pulse, using the error voltage to provide a stored control voltage, and applying the stored control voltage to the pulsed power output device to limit the extent of error in the leading edge of the next output pulse.

  17. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-28

    A method is provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The method includes: monitoring a variable associated with at least one of the coolant-cooled cold plate or one or more electronic components being cooled by the cold plate; and dynamically varying, based on the monitored variable, a physical configuration of the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the one or more electronic components, and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the coolant-cooled cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  18. C6 plate puncture testing report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangoethem, Douglas J.; Cordova, Theresa Elena; Reu, Phillip L.

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous scenarios where critical systems could be subject to penetration by projectiles or fixed objects (e.g., collision, natural disaster, act of terrorism, etc.). It is desired to use computational models to examine these scenarios and make risk-informed decisions; however, modeling of material failure is an active area of research, and new models must be validated with experimental data. The purpose of this report is to document the experimental work performed from FY07 through FY08 on the Campaign Six Plate Puncture project. The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data on the puncture and penetration of metal plates for use in model validation. Of particular interest is the PLH failure model also known as the multilinear line segment model. A significant amount of data that will be useful for the verification and validation of computational models of ductile failure were collected during this project were collected and documented herein; however, much more work remains to be performed, collecting additional experimental data that will further the task of model verification.

  19. A unidirectional subwavelength focusing near-field plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2014-01-28

    Near-field plates consist of non-periodically patterned surfaces that can overcome the diffraction limit and confine electromagnetic fields to subwavelength dimensions. Previous near-field plates experimentally demonstrated extreme field tailoring capabilities. However, their performance suffered from radiation/reflection in undesired directions, those other than the subwavelength focus. This issue can limit the practical use of near-field plates. In this paper, we address this issue by designing a unidirectional near-field plate that can form a subwavelength focal pattern, while suppressing the field radiated/reflected in other directions. The design and operation of the proposed unidirectional near-field plate are verified through full-wave simulation. The unidirectional near-field plate may find application in high resolution imaging and probing, high density data storage, and wireless power transfer systems. As an example, its utility as a high resolution probe is demonstrated through full-wave electromagnetic simulation.

  20. Adapter plate assembly for adjustable mounting of objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blackburn, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    An adapter plate and two locking discs are together affixed to an optic table with machine screws or bolts threaded into a fixed array of internally threaded holes provided in the table surface. The adapter plate preferably has two, and preferably parallel, elongated locating slots each freely receiving a portion of one of the locking discs for secure affixation of the adapter plate to the optic table. A plurality of threaded apertures provided in the adapter plate are available to attach optical mounts or other devices onto the adapter plate in an orientation not limited by the disposition of the array of threaded holes in the table surface. An axially aligned but radially offset hole through each locking disc receives a screw that tightens onto the table, such that prior to tightening of the screw the locking disc may rotate and translate within each locating slot of the adapter plate for maximum flexibility of the orientation thereof.

  1. Adapter plate assembly for adjustable mounting of objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blackburn, R.S.

    1986-05-02

    An adapter plate and two locking discs are together affixed to an optic table with machine screws or bolts threaded into a fixed array of internally threaded holes provided in the table surface. The adapter plate preferably has two, and preferably parallel, elongated locating slots each freely receiving a portion of one of the locking discs for secure affixation of the adapter plate to the optic table. A plurality of threaded apertures provided in the adapter plate are available to attach optical mounts or other devices onto the adapter plate in an orientation not limited by the disposition of the array of threaded holes in the table surface. An axially aligned but radially offset hole through each locking disc receives a screw that tightens onto the table, such that prior to tightening of the screw the locking disc may rotate and translate within each locating slot of the adapter plate for maximum flexibility of the orientation thereof.

  2. Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, Paul A.

    1996-01-01

    A bipolar interconnection plate for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni.sub.3 Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000-30,000 psi, and heated to about 600.degree.-1000.degree. C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques.

  3. Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, P.A.

    1996-03-05

    A bipolar interconnection plate is described for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni{sub 3}Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000--30,000 psi, and heated to about 600--1000 C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques. 6 figs.

  4. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOEPatents Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes Title: Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase

  5. Growth plate closure: Apex view on bone scan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, P.H.; Trochei, M.; Yeates, K.

    1984-01-01

    Angular deformities of the extremities in children following premature closure of the growth plate are well known. The deformities depend on the position of an osseus bridge which forms between the epiphysis and metaphysis. Several surgical procedures including resection of the osseus bridge have been described, however, delineation of the site of fusion is difficult to define. The commonest site of growth plate arrest is the distal femoral or proximal tibial growth plate. A new technique using the bone scan has been developed which accurately defines the area and position of these osseus bridges. Two hours after injection of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate apex views of the affected distal femoral growth plate were performed. The knee was flexed into its smallest angle. Using a pinhole collimator the gamma camera was angled to face the affected growth plate end on. The image was collected onto computer and analysed by: (I) regions of interest over segments of the growth plate to calculate the relative area of total growth plate affected: (II) generating histograms: (III) thresholding or performing isocontours to accentuate abnormal areas. The growth plate is normally uniformly increased when compared to the normal shaft of the bone. Fusion across the plate appears as an area of diminished uptake. The apex view gives a unique functional map of the growth plate such that abnormal areas are displayed, and the site, size and position of osseus fusion obtained. The technique has the potential for determining the metabolic activity of the growth plate before and after surgery. Serial studies will allow assessment of regneration of the plate and reformation of new osseus bridges.

  6. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Reactors (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Turbulent flow coupled with heat transfer is investigated for a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel plate. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Models are used for fluid dynamics and the transfer of

  7. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:03pm Addthis The most common photovoltaic (PV) array design uses flat-plate PV modules or panels. These panels can be fixed in place or allowed to track the movement of the Illustration of a cutaway of a typical flat-plate module. The layers, in order from top to bottom, are: cover film, solar cell, encapsulant, substrate, cover film, seal, gasket, and frame. One typical flat-plate module design uses a substrate of metal,

  8. Corrosion Test Cell for Biopolar Plate Materials - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Corrosion Test Cell for Biopolar Plate Materials Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA corrosion test ...

  9. Pump tank divider plate for sump suction sodium pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, John A.; Nixon, Donald R.

    1977-01-01

    A circular plate extends across the diameter of "sump suction" pump, with a close clearance between the edge of the plate and the wall of the pump tank. The plate is located above the pump impeller, inlet and outlet flow nozzles but below the sodium free surface and effectively divides the pump tank into two separate chambers. On change of pump speed, the close fitting flow restriction plate limits the rate of flow into or out of the upper chamber, thereby minimizing the rate of level change in the tank and permitting time for the pump cover gas pressure to be varied to maintain an essentially constant level.

  10. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Hydraulic ...

  11. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Turbulent flow coupled with heat transfer is investigated for a High Flux Isotope ...

  12. Vacuum fusion bonded glass plates having microstructures thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P.; Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  13. Process for protecting bonded components from plating shorts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarte, Lisa A.; Bonde, Wayne L.; Carey, Paul G.; Contolini, Robert J.; McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2000-01-01

    A method which protects the region between a component and the substrate onto which the components is bonded using an electrically insulating fillet of photoresist. The fillet protects the regions from subsequent plating with metal and therefore shorting the plated conductors which run down the sides of the component and onto the substrate.

  14. Partial growth plate closure: apex view on bone scan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howman-Giles, R.; Trochei, M.; Yeates, K.; Middleton, R.; Barrett, I.; Scougall, J.; Whiteway, D.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique of using /sup 99m/Tc bone scan to assess partial closure of the growth plate is described. The site and degree of osseous fusion can be obtained by using the apex view. The technique has the potential of assessing serially the growth of a plate before and after surgery.

  15. Status of high-density fuel plates fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1989-09-01

    Progress has continued on the fabrication of fuel plates with fuel zone loadings approaching 9gU/cm{sup 3}. Using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPping) successful diffusion bonds have been made with 110 Al and 6061 Al alloys. These bonds demonstrated the most critical processing step for proof-of-concept hardware. Two types of prototype highly-loaded fuel plates have been fabricated. First, a fuel plate in which 0.030 in. (0.76 mm) uranium compound wires are bonded within an aluminum cladding and second, a dispersion fuel plate with uniform cladding and fuel zone thickness. The successful fabrication of these fuel plates derives from the unique ability of the HIPping process to produce diffusion bonds with minimal deformation. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Perforated plates for cryogenic regenerators and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, John B. (Huntsville, AL)

    1994-01-01

    Perforated plates (10) having very small holes (14) with a uniform diameter throughout the plate thickness are prepared by a "wire drawing" process in which a billet of sacrificial metal is disposed in an extrusion can of the plate metal, and the can is extruded and restacked repeatedly, converting the billet to a wire of the desired hole diameter. At final size, the rod is then sliced into wafers, and the wires are removed by selective etching. This process is useful for plate metals of interest for high performance regenerator applications, in particular, copper, niobium, molybdenum, erbium, and other rare earth metals. Er.sub.3 Ni, which has uniquely favorable thermophysical properties for such applications, may be incorporated in regions of the plates by providing extrusion cans (20) containing erbium and nickel metals in a stacked array (53) with extrusion cans of the plate metal, which may be copper. The array is heated to convert the erbium and nickel metals to Er.sub.3 Ni. Perforated plates having two sizes of perforations (38, 42), one of which is small enough for storage of helium, are also disclosed.

  17. Perforated plates for cryogenic regenerators and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, J.B.

    1994-03-29

    Perforated plates having very small holes with a uniform diameter throughout the plate thickness are prepared by a [open quotes]wire drawing[close quotes] process in which a billet of sacrificial metal is disposed in an extrusion can of the plate metal, and the can is extruded and restacked repeatedly, converting the billet to a wire of the desired hole diameter. At final size, the rod is then sliced into wafers, and the wires are removed by selective etching. This process is useful for plate metals of interest for high performance regenerator applications, in particular, copper, niobium, molybdenum, erbium, and other rare earth metals. Er[sub 3]Ni, which has uniquely favorable thermophysical properties for such applications, may be incorporated in regions of the plates by providing extrusion cans containing erbium and nickel metals in a stacked array with extrusion cans of the plate metal, which may be copper. The array is heated to convert the erbium and nickel metals to Er[sub 3]Ni. Perforated plates having two sizes of perforations, one of which is small enough for storage of helium, are also disclosed. 10 figures.

  18. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Module Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:25pm Addthis Flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules are made of several components, including the front surface materials, encapsulant, rear surface, and frame. Front Surface Materials The front surface of a flat-plate PV module must have a high transmission in the wavelengths that can be used by the solar cells in the module. For example, for silicon solar cells, the top surface must have high transmission of light with

  19. Conductivity fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, James C.

    2002-01-01

    An improved method of manufacturing a PEM fuel cell collector plate is disclosed. During molding a highly conductive polymer composite is formed having a relatively high polymer concentration along its external surfaces. After molding the polymer rich layer is removed from the land areas by machining, grinding or similar process. This layer removal results in increased overall conductivity of the molded collector plate. The polymer rich surface remains in the collector plate channels, providing increased mechanical strength and other benefits to the channels. The improved method also permits greater mold cavity thickness providing a number of advantages during the molding process.

  20. Double patterning HSQ processes of zone plates for 10 nm diffraction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Using the new process, we successfully realized zone plates of 10 nm and 12 nm outermost zones. Fig. 3 shows the SEM micrographs of the zone plates outer regions. The zone plates ...

  1. A Neutral Beam Pole Shield with Copper Plates and Serviceable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Neutral Beam Pole Shield with Copper Plates and Serviceable Molybdenum Inserts The copper pole shields for the neutral beam lines that have been in service at DIII-D have...

  2. Building America New Homes Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Homes Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House ... The Building America research team Home Innovation Research Labs featured this system in a ...

  3. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  4. ILC TARGET WHEEL RIM FRAGMENT/GUARD PLATE IMPACT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagler, L

    2008-07-17

    A positron source component is needed for the International Linear Collider Project. The leading design concept for this source is a rotating titanium alloy wheel whose spokes rotate through an intense localized magnetic field. The system is composed of an electric motor, flexible motor/drive-shaft coupling, stainless steel drive-shaft, two Plumber's Block tapered roller bearings, a titanium alloy target wheel, and electromagnet. Surrounding the target wheel and magnet is a steel frame with steel guarding plates intended to contain shrapnel in case of catastrophic wheel failure. Figure 1 is a layout of this system (guard plates not shown for clarity). This report documents the FEA analyses that were performed at LLNL to help determine, on a preliminary basis, the required guard plate thickness for three potential plate steels.

  5. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    1997-01-01

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  6. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Reactors (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit

  7. Highly conductive, multi-layer composite precursor composition to fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jang, Bor Z.; Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng

    2011-02-15

    This invention provides a moldable, multiple-layer composite composition, which is a precursor to an electrically conductive composite flow field plate or bipolar plate. In one preferred embodiment, the composition comprises a plurality of conductive sheets and a plurality of mixture layers of a curable resin and conductive fillers, wherein (A) each conductive sheet is attached to at least one resin-filler mixture layer; (B) at least one of the conductive sheets comprises flexible graphite; and (C) at least one resin-filler mixture layer comprises a thermosetting resin and conductive fillers with the fillers being present in a sufficient quantity to render the resulting flow field plate or bipolar plate electrically conductive with a conductivity no less than 100 S/cm and thickness-direction areal conductivity no less than 200 S/cm.sup.2.

  8. Master plate production for the tile calorimeter extended barrel modules.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guarino, V.J.; Hill, N.; Petereit, E.; Price, L.E.; Proudfoot, J.; Wood, K.

    1999-03-10

    Approximately 41,000 master plates (Fig. 1) are required for the Extended Barrel Hadronic Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Early in the R&D program associated with the detector, it was recognized that the fabrication of these steel laminations was a significant issue, both in terms of the cost to produce these high precision formed plates, as well as the length of time required to produce all plates for the calorimeter. Two approaches were given serious consideration: laser cutting and die stamping. The Argonne group was a strong supporter of the latter approach and in late 1995 initiated an R&D program to demonstrate the feasibility and cost effectiveness of die stamping these plates by constructing a die and stamping approximately 2000 plates for use in construction of three full size prototype modules. This was extremely successful and die stamping was selected by the group for production of these plates. When the prototype die was constructed it was matched to the calorimeter envelope at that time. This subsequently changed. However with some minor adjustments in the design envelope and a small compromise in terms of instrumented volume, it became possible to use this same die for the production of all master plates for the Tile Calorimeter. Following an extensive series of discussions and an evaluation of the performance of the stamping presses available to our collaborators in Europe, it was decided to ship the US die to CERN for use in stamping master plates for the barrel section of the calorimeter. This was done under the supervision of CERN and JINR, Dubna, and carried out at the TATRA truck plant at Koprivinice, Czech Republic. It was a great success. Approximately 41,000 plates were stamped and fully met specification. Moreover, the production time was significantly reduced by avoiding the need of constructing and then qualifying a second die for use in Europe. This also precluded small geometrical differences between the barrel and extended barrel plates (and therefore submodules) being an issue, with the result that standard submodules are fully exchangeable between the two types of module.

  9. Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, K.C.

    1993-08-24

    Apparatus is described for gripping a plate-type tensile specimen having generally T-shaped end regions in a dynamic tension fatigue testing apparatus comprising an annular housing having an open-ended elongated cavity therein, a plurality of hydraulic piston means supported by the housing in a spaced array about the cavity, and a specimen-supporting plate means overlying the piston means at one end of the elongated cavity and displaceable by said piston means in a longitudinal direction with respect to the longitudinal axis of the cavity, said apparatus for gripping a flat plate-type tensile specimen comprising: a pair of elongated pull rods each having oppositely disposed first and second end regions; a pair of mounting means carried by said plate means with each mounting means for pivotally attaching the first end region of each of said pull rods in a central region of said plate means for supporting said pair of elongated pull rods in a side-by-side relationship along a common longitudinal centerline within said cavity; recess means in the second end region of each of said pull rods in adjacently disposed surface regions thereof with said recess means facing one another and each adapted to receive one side of one of the generally T-shaped end regions of the plate-type tensile specimen; and load-bearing means positionable in each of said recess means and adapted to bear against a shoulder on each side of the generally T-shaped end region of the plate-type tensile specimen when a tensile loading is applied thereon.

  10. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Conghua

    2013-05-30

    Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

  11. Fuel cell repeater unit including frame and separator plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamanis, Jean; Hawkes, Justin R; Chiapetta, Jr., Louis; Bird, Connie E; Sun, Ellen Y; Croteau, Paul F

    2013-11-05

    An example fuel cell repeater includes a separator plate and a frame establishing at least a portion of a flow path that is operative to communicate fuel to or from at least one fuel cell held by the frame relative to the separator plate. The flow path has a perimeter and any fuel within the perimeter flow across the at least one fuel cell in a first direction. The separator plate, the frame, or both establish at least one conduit positioned outside the flow path perimeter. The conduit is outside of the flow path perimeter and is configured to direct flow in a second, different direction. The conduit is fluidly coupled with the flow path.

  12. Laser shockwave technique for characterization of nuclear fuel plate interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perton, M.; Levesque, D.; Monchalin, J.-P.; Lord, M.; Smith, J. A.; Rabin, B. H.

    2013-01-25

    The US National Nuclear Security Agency is tasked with minimizing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium. One aspect of that effort is the conversion of research reactors to monolithic fuel plates of low-enriched uranium. The manufacturing process includes hot isostatic press bonding of an aluminum cladding to the fuel foil. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is here evaluated for characterizing the interface strength of fuel plates using depleted Uranium/Mo foils. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves and is therefore well adapted to the quality assurance of this process. Preliminary results show a clear signature of well-bonded and debonded interfaces and the method is able to classify/rank the bond strength of fuel plates prepared under different HIP conditions.

  13. Laser Shockwave Technique For Characterization Of Nuclear Fuel Plate Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Smith; Barry H. Rabin; Mathieu Perton; Daniel Lévesque; Jean-Pierre Monchalin; Martin Lord

    2012-07-01

    The US National Nuclear Security Agency is tasked with minimizing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium. One aspect of that effort is the conversion of research reactors to monolithic fuel plates of low-enriched uranium. The manufacturing process includes hot isostatic press bonding of an aluminum cladding to the fuel foil. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is here evaluated for characterizing the interface strength of fuel plates using depleted Uranium/Mo foils. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves and is therefore well adapted to the quality assurance of this process. Preliminary results show a clear signature of well-bonded and debonded interfaces and the method is able to classify/rank the bond strength of fuel plates prepared under different HIP conditions.

  14. Laser-Based Characterization of Nuclear Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Smith; David L. Cottle; Barry H. Rabin

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring the integrity of fuel-clad and clad-clad bonding in nuclear fuels is important for safe reactor operation and assessment of fuel performance, yet the measurement of bond strengths in actual fuels has proved challenging. The laser shockwave technique (LST) originally developed to characterize structural adhesion in composites is being employed to characterize interface strength in a new type of plate fuel being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large-amplitude acoustic waves and is well suited for application to both fresh and irradiated nuclear-fuel plates. This paper will report on initial characterization results obtained from fresh fuel plates manufactured by different processes, including hot isostatic pressing, friction stir welding, and hot rolling.

  15. Low temperature type new TMCP steel plate for LPG carriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Bessyo, Kiyoshi; Arimochi, Kazushige; Yajima, Hiroshi; Tada, Masuo; Sakai, Daisuke

    1994-12-31

    New Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) steel plate for LPG carriers of completely liquefied type was developed with non-nickel chemistry. The new steel plate has a capability to arrest a long running brittle crack at {minus}46 C (which is the design temperature of the liquefied LPG tanks). A high heat-input one-pass welding can be applied to this steel despite its nickel-less chemistry. These capabilities were enabled by microalloying technology with low aluminum-medium nitrogen-boron, as well as by the advanced Thermo-Mechanical Control Process. This paper describes the new concept of utilizing the trace elements and the evaluation test results as the steel plate for the LPG tank and hull, especially from the standpoints of the fracture safe reliability at high heat input welding and from that of the shop workability.

  16. Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Haack

    2009-04-08

    This project was focused upon developing a unique material technology for use in PEM fuel cell bipolar plates. The carbon/carbon composite material developed in this program is uniquely suited for use in fuel cell systems, as it is lightweight, highly conductive and corrosion resistant. The project further focused upon developing the manufacturing methodology to cost-effectively produce this material for use in commercial fuel cell systems. United Technology Fuel Cells Corp., a leading fuel cell developer was a subcontractor to the project was interested in the performance and low-cost potential of the material. The accomplishments of the program included the development and testing of a low-cost, fully molded, net-shape carbon-carbon bipolar plate. The process to cost-effectively manufacture these carbon-carbon bipolar plates was focused on extensively in this program. Key areas for cost-reduction that received attention in this program was net-shape molding of the detailed flow structures according to end-user design. Correlations between feature detail and process parameters were formed so that mold tooling could be accurately designed to meet a variety of flow field dimensions. A cost model was developed that predicted the cost of manufacture for the product in near-term volumes and long-term volumes (10+ million units per year). Because the roduct uses lowcost raw materials in quantities that are less than competitive tech, it was found that the cost of the product in high volume can be less than with other plate echnologies, and can meet the DOE goal of $4/kW for transportation applications. The excellent performance of the all-carbon plate in net shape was verified in fuel cell testing. Performance equivalent to much higher cost, fully machined graphite plates was found.

  17. Fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, James C.; Zabriskie, Jr., John E.; Neutzler, Jay K.; Fuchs, Michel; Gustafson, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    An improved molding composition is provided for compression molding or injection molding a current collector plate for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The molding composition is comprised of a polymer resin combined with a low surface area, highly-conductive carbon and/or graphite powder filler. The low viscosity of the thermoplastic resin combined with the reduced filler particle surface area provide a moldable composition which can be fabricated into a current collector plate having improved current collecting capacity vis-a-vis comparable fluoropolymer molding compositions.

  18. Plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using porous nickel plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oohara, W.; Maeda, T.; Higuchi, T.

    2011-09-15

    Hydrogen atomic pair ions, i.e., H{sup +} and H{sup -} ions, are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a porous nickel plate. Positive ions in a hydrogen plasma generated by dc arc discharge are irradiated to the porous plate, and pair ions are produced from the back of the irradiation plane. It becomes clear that the production quantity of pair ions mainly depends on the irradiation current of positive ions and the irradiation energy affects the production efficiency of H{sup -} ions.

  19. Multi-well sample plate cover penetration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for penetrating a cover over a multi-well sample plate containing at least one individual sample well includes a cutting head, a cutter extending from the cutting head, and a robot. The cutting head is connected to the robot wherein the robot moves the cutting head and cutter so that the cutter penetrates the cover over the multi-well sample plate providing access to the individual sample well. When the cutting head is moved downward the foil is pierced by the cutter that splits, opens, and folds the foil inward toward the well. The well is then open for sample aspiration but has been protected from cross contamination.

  20. Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orest Adrianowycz; Julian Norley; David J. Stuart; David Flaherty; Ryan Wayne; Warren Williams; Roger Tietze; Yen-Loan H. Nguyen; Tom Zawodzinski; Patrick Pietrasz

    2010-04-15

    The results of a successful U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) funded two-year $2.9 MM program lead by GrafTech International Inc. (GrafTech) are reported and summarized. The program goal was to develop the next generation of high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell bipolar plates for use in transportation fuel cell applications operating at temperatures up to 120 °C. The bipolar plate composite developed during the program is based on GrafTech’s GRAFCELL resin impregnated flexible graphite technology and makes use of a high temperature Huntsman Advanced Materials resin system which extends the upper use temperature of the composite to the DoE target. High temperature performance of the new composite is achieved with the added benefit of improvements in strength, modulus, and dimensional stability over the incumbent resin systems. Other physical properties, including thermal and electrical conductivity of the new composite are identical to or not adversely affected by the new resin system. Using the new bipolar plate composite system, machined plates were fabricated and tested in high temperature single-cell fuel cells operating at 120 °C for over 1100 hours by Case Western Reserve University. Final verification of performance was done on embossed full-size plates which were fabricated and glued into bipolar plates by GrafTech. Stack testing was done on a 10-cell full-sized stack under a simulated drive cycle protocol by Ballard Power Systems. Freeze-thaw performance was conducted by Ballard on a separate 5-cell stack and shown to be within specification. A third stack was assembled and shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for independent performance verification. Manufacturing cost estimate for the production of the new bipolar plate composite at current and high volume production scenarios was performed by Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI). The production cost estimates were consistent with previous DoE cost estimates performed by DTI for the DoE on metal plates. The final result of DTI’s analysis for the high volume manufacturing scenario ($6.85 /kW) came in slightly above the DoE target of $3 to $5/kW. This estimate was derived using a “Best Case Scenario” for many of the production process steps and raw material costs with projections to high volumes. Some of the process improvements assumed in this “Best Case Scenario” including high speed high impact forming and solvent-less resins, have not yet been implemented, but have a high probability of potential success.

  1. Recessed impingement insert metering plate for gas turbine nozzles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Itzel, Gary Michael; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    An impingement insert sleeve is provided that is adapted to be disposed in a coolant cavity defined through a stator vane. The insert has a generally open inlet end and first and second diametrically opposed, perforated side walls. A metering plate having at least one opening defined therethrough for coolant flow is mounted to the side walls to generally transverse a longitudinal axis of the insert, and is disposed downstream from said inlet end. The metering plate improves flow distribution while reducing ballooning stresses within the insert and allowing for a more flexible insert attachment.

  2. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high intensity burn-in process.

  3. Cold plate with combined inclined impingement and ribbed channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-12-22

    Heat transfer devices and methods for making the same that include a first enclosure having at least one inlet port; a second enclosure having a bottom plate and one or more dividing walls to establish channels, at least one internal surface of each channel having rib structures to create turbulence in a fluid flow; and a jet plate connecting the first enclosure and the second enclosure having impinging jets that convey fluid from the first enclosure to the channels, said impinging jets being set at an angular deviation from normal to cause local acceleration of fluid and to increase a local heat transfer rate.

  4. Characterization and Testing of Monolithic RERTR Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. D. Keiser; J. F. Jue; D. E. Burkes

    2007-03-01

    Monolithic fuel plates are being developed for application in research reactors throughout the world. These fuel plates are comprised of a U-Mo alloy foil encased in aluminum alloy cladding. Three different fabrication techniques have been looked at for producing monolithic fuel plates: hot isostatic pressing (HIP), transient liquid phase bonding (TLPB), and friction stir welding (FSW). Of these three techniques, HIP and FSW are currently being emphasized. As part of the development of these fabrication techniques, fuel plates are characterized and tested to determine properties like hardness and the bond strength at the interface between the fuel and cladding. Testing of HIPed samples indicates that the foil/cladding interaction behavior depends on the Mo content in the U-Mo foil, the measured hardness values are quite different for the fuel, cladding, and interaction zone phase and Ti, Zr and Nb are the most effective diffusion barriers. For FSW samples, there is a dependence of the bond strength at the foil/cladding interface on the type of tool that is employed for performing the actual FSW process.

  5. Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Tucson, AZ)

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and method for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  6. Computed radiography imaging plates and associated methods of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henry, Nathaniel F.; Moses, Alex K.

    2015-08-18

    Computed radiography imaging plates incorporating an intensifying material that is coupled to or intermixed with the phosphor layer, allowing electrons and/or low energy x-rays to impart their energy on the phosphor layer, while decreasing internal scattering and increasing resolution. The radiation needed to perform radiography can also be reduced as a result.

  7. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1996-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy.

  8. Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.D.; Blake, R.D.

    1995-07-11

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled. 2 figs.

  9. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    On-board reforming of liquid fuels into hydrogen is an enabling technology that could accelerate consumer usage of fuel cell powered vehicles. The technology would leverage the convenience of the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure while taking advantage of the fuel cell efficiency and low emissions. Commercial acceptance of on-board reforming faces several obstacles that include: (1) startup time, (2) transient response, and (3) system complexity (size, weight and cost). These obstacles are being addressed in a variety of projects through development, integration and optimization of existing fuel processing system designs. In this project, CESI investigated steam reforming (SR), water-gas-shift (WGS) and preferential oxidation (PrOx) catalysts while developing plate reactor designs and hardware where the catalytic function is integrated into a primary surface heat exchanger. The plate reactor approach has several advantages. The separation of the reforming and combustion streams permits the reforming reaction to be conducted at a higher pressure than the combustion reaction, thereby avoiding costly gas compression for combustion. The separation of the two streams also prevents the dilution of the reformate stream by the combustion air. The advantages of the plate reactor are not limited to steam reforming applications. In a WGS or PrOx reaction, the non-catalytic side of the plate would act as a heat exchanger to remove the heat generated by the exothermic WGS or PrOx reactions. This would maintain the catalyst under nearly isothermal conditions whereby the catalyst would operate at its optimal temperature. Furthermore, the plate design approach results in a low pressure drop, rapid transient capable and attrition-resistant reactor. These qualities are valued in any application, be it on-board or stationary fuel processing, since they reduce parasitic losses, increase over-all system efficiency and help perpetuate catalyst durability. In this program, CESI took the initial steam reforming plate-reactor concept and advanced it towards an integrated fuel processing system. A substantial amount of modeling was performed to guide the catalyst development and prototype hardware design and fabrication efforts. The plate-reactor mechanical design was studied in detail to establish design guidelines which would help the plate reactor survive the stresses of repeated thermal cycles (from start-ups and shut-downs). Integrated system performance modeling was performed to predict system efficiencies and determine the parameters with the most significant impact on efficiency. In conjunction with the modeling effort, a significant effort was directed towards catalyst development. CESI developed a highly active, sulfur tolerant, coke resistant, precious metal based reforming catalyst. CESI also developed its own non-precious metal based water-gas shift catalyst and demonstrated the catalysts durability over several thousands of hours of testing. CESI also developed a unique preferential oxidation catalyst capable of reducing 1% CO to < 10 ppm CO over a 35 C operating window through a single pass plate-based reactor. Finally, CESI combined the modeling results and steam reforming catalyst development efforts into prototype hardware. The first generation 3kW(e) prototype was fabricated from existing heat-exchanger plates to expedite the fabrication process. This prototype demonstrated steady state operation ranging from 5 to 100% load conditions. The prototype also demonstrated a 20:1 turndown ratio, 10:1 load transient operation and rapid start-up capability.

  10. Laminated exfoliated graphite composite-metal compositions for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-05-20

    An electrically conductive laminate composition for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications. The laminate composition comprises at least a thin metal sheet having two opposed exterior surfaces and a first exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the first of the two exterior surfaces of the metal sheet wherein the exfoliated graphite composite sheet comprises: (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite and (b) a binder or matrix material to bond the expanded graphite for forming a cohered sheet, wherein the binder or matrix material is between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet. Preferably, the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet further comprises particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the non-expandable particles and the expanded graphite. Further preferably, the laminate comprises a second exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the second surface of the metal sheet to form a three-layer laminate. Surface flow channels and other desired geometric features can be built onto the exterior surfaces of the laminate to form a flow field plate or bipolar plate. The resulting laminate has an exceptionally high thickness-direction conductivity and excellent resistance to gas permeation.

  11. Fluid flow plate for decreased density of fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitale, Nicholas G.

    1999-01-01

    A fluid flow plate includes first and second outward faces. Each of the outward faces has a flow channel thereon for carrying respective fluid. At least one of the fluids serves as reactant fluid for a fuel cell of a fuel cell assembly. One or more pockets are formed between the first and second outward faces for decreasing density of the fluid flow plate. A given flow channel can include one or more end sections and an intermediate section. An interposed member can be positioned between the outward faces at an interface between an intermediate section, of one of the outward faces, and an end section, of that outward face. The interposed member can serve to isolate the reactant fluid from the opposing outward face. The intermediate section(s) of flow channel(s) on an outward face are preferably formed as a folded expanse.

  12. Fluid flow plate for decreased density of fuel cell assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, N.G.

    1999-11-09

    A fluid flow plate includes first and second outward faces. Each of the outward faces has a flow channel thereon for carrying respective fluid. At least one of the fluids serves as reactant fluid for a fuel cell of a fuel cell assembly. One or more pockets are formed between the first and second outward faces for decreasing density of the fluid flow plate. A given flow channel can include one or more end sections and an intermediate section. An interposed member can be positioned between the outward faces at an interface between an intermediate section, of one of the outward faces, and an end section, of that outward face. The interposed member can serve to isolate the reactant fluid from the opposing outward face. The intermediate section(s) of flow channel(s) on an outward face are preferably formed as a folded expanse.

  13. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maag, W.L.; Wenzler, C.J.; Rom, F.E.; VanArsdale, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a low cost, bare-plate collector, determine its performance for a variety of climatic conditions, analyze the economics of this type of solar collector and evaluate specific applications. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60% or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20/sup 0/F for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that an installed cost of between $5 and $10 per square foot would make this type of solar system economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, these costs for the bare-plate solar collector are believed to be attainable. Specific applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  14. Diamond Plates Create Nanostructures through Pressure, Not Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plates Create Nanostructures through Pressure, Not Chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle

  15. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1996-11-19

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer is disclosed comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. 5 figs.

  16. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin-film technology. A thin-film sola absorber suited for high-speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polymeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested. (MHR)

  17. Brazed aluminum, Plate-fin heat exchangers for OTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foust, H.D.

    1980-12-01

    Brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchangers have been available for special applications for over thirty years. The performance, compactness, versatility, and low cost of these heat exchangers has been unequaled by other heat exchanger configuration. The application of brazed aluminum has been highly limited because of necessary restrictions for clean non-corrosive atmospheres. Air and gas separation have provided ideal conditions for accepting brazed aluminum and in turn have benefited by the salient features of these plate-fin heat exchangers. In fact, brazed aluminum and cryogenic gas and air separation have become nearly synonymous. Brazed aluminum in its historic form could not be considered for a seawater atmosphere. However, technology presents a new look of significant importance to OTEC in terms of compactness and cost. The significant technological variation made was to include one-piece hollow extensions for the seawater passages. Crevice corrosion sites are thereby entirely eliminated and pitting corrosion attack will be controlled by an integral and sacrificial layer of a zinc-aluminum alloy. This paper on brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchangers for OTEC will aquaint the reader with the state-of-art and variations suggested to qualify this form of aluminum for seawater use. In order to verify the desirable cost potential for OTEC, Trane teamed with Westinghouse to perform an OTEC system analysis with this heat exchanger. These results are very promising and reported in detail elsewhere.

  18. FULL SIZE U-10MO MONOLITHIC FUEL FOIL AND FUEL PLATE FABRICATION-TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. A. Moore; J-F Jue; B. H. Rabin; M. J. Nilles

    2010-03-01

    Full-size U10Mo foils are being developed for use in high density LEU monolithic fuel plates. The application of a zirconium barrier layer too the foil is applied using a hot co-rolling process. Aluminum clad fuel plates are fabricated using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or a Friction Bonding (FB) process. An overview is provided of ongoing technology development activities, including: the co-rolling process, foil shearing/slitting and polishing, cladding bonding processes, plate forming, plate-assembly swaging, and fuel plate characterization. Characterization techniques being employed include, Ultrasonic Testing (UT), radiography, and microscopy.

  19. Wave-plate structures, power selective optical filter devices, and optical systems using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2012-07-03

    In an embodiment, an optical filter device includes an input polarizer for selectively transmitting an input signal. The device includes a wave-plate structure positioned to receive the input signal, which includes first and second substantially zero-order, zero-wave plates arranged in series with and oriented at an angle relative to each other. The first and second zero-wave plates are configured to alter a polarization state of the input signal passing in a manner that depends on the power of the input signal. Each zero-wave plate includes an entry and exit wave plate each having a fast axis, with the fast axes oriented substantially perpendicular to each other. Each entry wave plate is oriented relative to a transmission axis of the input polarizer at a respective angle. An output polarizer is positioned to receive a signal output from the wave-plate structure and selectively transmits the signal based on the polarization state.

  20. Impact on thin steel plates by tumbling projectiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, K.; Goldsmith, W.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental, analytical, and numerical investigation into the effects of tumbling projectiles on the impact response of thin 4130 steel target plates was performed. Deformation patterns and failure phenomena as well as the final velocities and trajectories of the projectiles are correlated with initial conditions such as the initial velocity and impact angle (or yaw angle with a zero oblique angle) of the projectile and plate thickness. In the experiments, tumbling motion of the projectiles was induced by impact of a portion of the front face of the projectile with the edge of a massive block placed along the trajectory. Cylinders with a diameter of 12.7 mm, a length of 38.1 mm, and a hardness of R{sub c} 54 were fired at velocities from 400 m/s - 800 m/s. The forward speed of the projectile after tumbling production ranged from 300 m/s-700 m/s. Rotational speeds ranged from 0 rad/s - 3000 rad/s and concomitant impact angles varied from 0{degrees} to 60{degrees}. These parameters were determined from high speed photographic records. The targets were 1.6 mm and 3.2 mm thick. An analytical model developed for thin aluminum target plates was employed in the present study. The model divides the penetration process into three stages: (1) plugging; (2) hole enlargement; and (3) frontal petaling. The processes are quantified using energy dissipation descriptions of the various deformation mechanisms. Numerical simulations of the penetration processes were performed by employment of the program DYNA3D, a nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element code. The material of the target was modeled as elasto-plastic with failure, while the projectile was assumed to be undeformable. The failure criterion of the target is based on the ultimate tensile strain.

  1. Color Anodizing of Titanium Coated Rolled Carbon Steel Plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarajan, Zohair; Mobarakeh, Hooman Nikbakht; Namiranian, Sohrab

    2011-12-26

    As an important kind of structural materials, the titanium cladded steel plates have the advantages of both metals and have been applied in aviation, spaceflight, chemical and nuclear industries. In this study, the specimens which were prepared under soldering mechanism during rolling were anodized by electrochemical process under a given conditions. The color anodizing takes place by physical phenomenon of color interference. Part of incident light on the titanium oxide is reflected and the other part reflects inside coated titanium layer. Major part of the light which reflects from titanium-oxide interface, reflects again inside of the oxide layer.

  2. U-Mo Plate Blister Anneal Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francine J. Rice; Daniel M. Wachs; Adam B. Robinson; Dennis D. Keiser Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Danielle M. Perez; Ross Finlay

    2010-10-01

    Blister thresholds in fuel elements have been a longstanding performance parameter for fuel elements of all types. This behavior has yet to be fully defined for the RERTR U-Mo fuel types. Blister anneal studies that began in 2007 have been expanded to include plates from more recent RERTR experiments. Preliminary data presented in this report encompasses the early generations of the U-Mo fuel systems and the most recent but still developing fuel system. Included is an overview of relevant dispersion fuel systems for the purposes of comparison.

  3. Fuel cell collector plates with improved mass transfer channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurau, Vladimir; Barbir, Frano; Neutzler, Jay K.

    2003-04-22

    A fuel cell collector plate can be provided with one or more various channel constructions for the transport of reactants to the gas diffusion layer and the removal of water therefrom. The outlet channel can be arranged to have a reduced volume compared to the inlet channel, in both interdigitated and discontinuous spiral applications. The land width between an inlet channel and outlet channel can be reduced to improved mass flow rate in regions of deleted reactant concentrations. Additionally or alternatively, the depth of the inlet channel can be reduced in the direction of flow to reduce the diffusion path as the concentration of reactant is reduced.

  4. UPDATE ON MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF MONOLITHIC FUEL PLATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Burkes; F. J. Rice; J.-F. Jue; N. P. Hallinan

    2008-03-01

    Results on the relative bond strength of the fuel-clad interface in monolithic fuel plates have been presented at previous RRFM conferences. An understanding of mechanical properties of the fuel, cladding, and fuel / cladding interface has been identified as an important area of investigation and quantification for qualification of monolithic fuel forms. Significant progress has been made in the area of mechanical analysis of the monolithic fuel plates, including mechanical property determination of fuel foils, cladding processed by both hot isostatic pressing and friction bonding, and the fuel-clad composite. In addition, mechanical analysis of fabrication induced residual stress has been initiated, along with a study to address how such stress can be relieved prior to irradiation. Results of destructive examinations and mechanical tests are presented along with analysis and supporting conclusions. A brief discussion of alternative non-destructive evaluation techniques to quantify not only bond quality, but also bond integrity and strength, will also be provided. These are all necessary steps to link out-of-pile observations as a function of fabrication with in-pile behaviours.

  5. SCDAP/RELAP5 Lower Core Plate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coryell, Eric Wesley; Griffin, F. P.

    1999-10-01

    The SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code is a best-estimate analysis tool for performing nuclear reactor severe accident simulations. This report describes the justification, theory, implementation, and testing of a new modeling capability which will refine the analysis of the movement of molten material from the core region to the vessel lower head. As molten material moves from the core region through the core support structures it may encounter conditions which will cause it to freeze in the region of the lower core plate, delaying its arrival to the vessel head. The timing of this arrival is significant to reactor safety, because during the time span for material relocation to the lower head, the core may be experiencing steam-limited oxidation. The time at which hot material arrives in a coolant-filled lower vessel head, thereby significantly increasing the steam flow rate through the core region, becomes significant to the progression and timing of a severe accident. This report is a revision of a report INEEL/EXT-00707, entitled "Preliminary Design Report for SCDAP/RELAP5 Lower Core Plate Model".

  6. SCDAP/RELAP5 lower core plate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coryell, E.W.; Griffin, F.P.

    1999-09-01

    The SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code is a best-estimate analysis tool for performing nuclear reactor severe accident simulations. This report describes the justification, theory, implementation, and testing of a new modeling capability which will refine the analysis of the movement of molten material from the core region to the vessel lower head. As molten material moves from the core region through the core support structures it may encounter conditions which will cause it to freeze in the region of the lower core plate, delaying its arrival to the vessel head. The timing of this arrival is significant to reactor safety, because during the time span for material relocation to the lower head, the core may be experiencing steam-limited oxidation. The time at which hot material arrives in a coolant-filled lower vessel head, thereby significantly increasing the steam flow rate through the core region, becomes significant to the progression and timing of a severe accident. This report is a revision of a report INEEL/EXT-00707, entitled ``Preliminary Design Report for SCDAP/RELAP5 Lower Core Plate Model''.

  7. Fuel cell plates with skewed process channels for uniform distribution of stack compression load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J.; Woodle, Boyd M.

    1989-01-01

    An electrochemical fuel cell includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, an electrolyte matrix sandwiched between electrodes, and a pair of plates above and below the electrodes. The plate above the electrodes has a lower surface with a first group of process gas flow channels formed thereon and the plate below the electrodes has an upper surface with a second group of process gas flow channels formed thereon. The channels of each group extend generally parallel to one another. The improvement comprises the process gas flow channels on the lower surface of the plate above the anode electrode and the process gas flow channels on the upper surface of the plate below the cathode electrode being skewed in opposite directions such that contact areas of the surfaces of the plates through the electrodes are formed in crisscross arrangements. Also, the plates have at least one groove in areas of the surfaces thereof where the channels are absent for holding process gas and increasing electrochemical activity of the fuel cell. The groove in each plate surface intersects with the process channels therein. Also, the opposite surfaces of a bipolar plate for a fuel cell contain first and second arrangements of process gas flow channels in the respective surfaces which are skewed the same amount in opposite directions relative to the longitudinal centerline of the plate.

  8. Plans for Future Megawatt Facilities (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High beam power has applications in the production of high intensity secondary beams of ... Each of these applications has additional requirements on beam energy and duty cycle. This ...

  9. Five-megawatt geothermal-power pilot-plant project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-29

    This is a report on the Raft River Geothermal-Power Pilot-Plant Project (Geothermal Plant), located near Malta, Idaho; the review took place between July 20 and July 27, 1979. The Geothermal Plant is part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) overall effort to help commercialize the operation of electric power plants using geothermal energy sources. Numerous reasons were found to commend management for its achievements on the project. Some of these are highlighted, including: (a) a well-qualified and professional management team; (b) effective cost control, performance, and project scheduling; and (c) an effective and efficient quality-assurance program. Problem areas delineated, along with recommendations for solution, include: (1) project planning; (2) facility design; (3) facility construction costs; (4) geothermal resource; (5) drilling program; (6) two facility construction safety hazards; and (7) health and safety program. Appendices include comments from the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications, the Controller, and the Acting Deputy Director, Procurement and Contracts Management.

  10. Coming: 12,600 megawatts at Itaipu Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Moraes, J.

    1983-08-01

    This paper describes the hydroelectric plant being constructed jointly by Brazil and Paraguay on Itaipu Island in the Parana River. The planned generating capacity of 12,600 MW will make the Itaipu plant the world's largest. It will employ the most powerful hydrogenerators and turbines yet built, the world's largest concentration of 500-kilovolt gas-insulated switchgear, the highest dc transmission voltages and power--600 kV and 6300 MW--ever used, about 1000 kilometers of 765-kV ac transmission, and an extensive computer-based digital supervisory system in which continuous diagnostic evaluation of equipment is emphasized. To maintain national standards, nine generators will operate at 60 hertz for Brazil and nine at 50 hertz for Paraguay. Initially, any excess electricity available from the Paraguay generators will be routed to Brazil, but Paraguay is ultimately expected to share in half the Itaipu generation. The paper discusses the plant from its original feasibility studies to the newly created technologies which its size necessitated. The environmental impact on forests, farmlands and wildlife resulting from the construction of the Itaipu dam and the loss of the 1400 square kilometers which it flooded--including the popular Seven Waterfalls--is addressed. References to other papers as well as a symposium on the Itaipu project are cited.

  11. Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The research team intends to showcase the turbomachinery for a new cycle-the s-CO2 Brayton ... it to explore the behavior of s-CO2 turbomachinery and operationalcontrol ...

  12. 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine- FY13 Q2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this National Renewable Energy Laboratory project, funded by SunShot, for the second quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  13. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwabe, Ulrich; Fishman, Oleg

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this project was to fully develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a new type of utility scale PV system. Based on patented technology, this includes the development of a truly centralized inverter system with capacities up to 100MW, and a high voltage, distributed harvesting approach. This system promises to greatly impact both the energy yield from large scale PV systems by reducing losses and increasing yield from mismatched arrays, as well as reduce overall system costs through very cost effective conversion and BOS cost reductions enabled by higher voltage operation.

  14. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - 10-Megawatt Supercritical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advancing concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ... CSP plants are typically located in hot, dry climates where water is scarce. ... CSP goal of 50% net thermal-to-electric ...

  15. Role of plate kinematics and plate-slip-vector partitioning in continental magmatic arcs: Evidence from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNulty, B.A.; Farber, D.L.; Wallace, G.S.; Lopez, R.; Palacios, O.

    1998-09-01

    New structural and geochronological data from the Cordillera Blanca batholith in the Peruvian Andes, coupled with Nazca-South American plate-slip-vector data, indicate that oblique convergence and associated strike-slip partitioning strongly influenced continental magmatic arc evolution. Both the strain field and mode of magmatism (plutonism vs. volcanism) in the late Miocene Peruvian Andes were controlled by the degree to which the arc-parallel component of the plate slip vector was partitioned into the arc. Strong strike-slip partitioning at ca. 8 Ma produced arc-parallel sinistral shear, strike-slip intercordilleran basins and east-west-oriented tension fractures that facilitated emplacement of the Cordillera Blanca batholith (ca. 8.2 {+-} 0.2 Ma). Periods during which the strike-slip component was not partitioned into the arc (ca. 10 and ca. 7 Ma) were associated with roughly arc-normal contraction and ignimbrite volcanism. The data thus support the contention that contraction within continental magmatic arcs favors volcanism, whereas transcurrent shear favors plutonism. The tie between oblique convergence and batholith emplacement in late Miocene Peruvian Andes provides a modern analogue for batholiths emplaced as the result of transcurrent shear in ancient arcs.

  16. Heat Pipe Embedded AlSiC Plates for High Conductivity - Low CTE Heat Spreaders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Matthew ); Weyant, J.; Garner, S. ); Occhionero, M. )

    2010-01-07

    Heat pipe embedded aluminum silicon carbide (AlSiC) plates are innovative heat spreaders that provide high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Since heat pipes are two phase devices, they demonstrate effective thermal conductivities ranging between 50,000 and 200,000 W/m-K, depending on the heat pipe length. Installing heat pipes into an AlSiC plate dramatically increases the plates effective thermal conductivity. AlSiC plates alone have a thermal conductivity of roughly 200 W/m-K and a CTE ranging from 7-12 ppm/ deg C, similar to that of silicon. An equivalent sized heat pipe embedded AlSiC plate has effective thermal conductivity ranging from 400 to 500 W/m-K and retains the CTE of AlSiC.

  17. Motion-induced radiation in a cavity with conducting and permeable plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarabadani, Jalal; Miri, MirFaez

    2007-05-15

    We consider a conducting and a permeable plate immersed in the vacuum of a scalar field. We calculate the photon production rate when two plates at a distance H oscillate with a frequency {omega}{sub p}. For H{omega}{sub p}/({pi}c)<2, the angular spectrum and photon production rates are significantly different from those of a conventional cavity with two conducting or two permeable plates.

  18. Corrosion-resistant, electrically-conductive plate for use in a fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Mawdsley, Jennifer R.; Niyogi, Suhas; Wang, Xiaoping; Cruse, Terry; Santos, Lilia

    2010-04-20

    A corrosion resistant, electrically-conductive, durable plate at least partially coated with an anchor coating and a corrosion resistant coating. The corrosion resistant coating made of at least a polymer and a plurality of corrosion resistant particles each having a surface area between about 1-20 m.sup.2/g and a diameter less than about 10 microns. Preferably, the plate is used as a bipolar plate in a proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cell stack.

  19. Condensation analysis for plate-frame heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arman, B.; Rabas, T.J.

    1995-07-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented to predict single component and binary-mixture condensation in plate-frame heat exchangers. A thermodynamic property model based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state was developed for the binary-mixture equilibrium and formulated into a performance prediction program. A set of equations was formulated and a calculation algorithm was developed to predict the local rate of heat and mass transfer for binary mixtures. Friction-factor and heat-transfer-coefficient correlations were developed using experimental data obtained with ammonia condensation. The role of the mass-transfer resistance associated with the condensation process were analyzed for a propane/butane mixture using two limiting cases: (1) no liquid-phase mass-transfer resistance, and (2) infinite liquid-phase mass-transfer resistance. The results show that the vapor-phase mass-transfer resistance is the controlling mechanism for binary-mixture condensation.

  20. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  1. Sensor network based vehicle classification and license plate identification system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frigo, Janette Rose; Brennan, Sean M; Rosten, Edward J; Raby, Eric Y; Kulathumani, Vinod K

    2009-01-01

    Typically, for energy efficiency and scalability purposes, sensor networks have been used in the context of environmental and traffic monitoring applications in which operations at the sensor level are not computationally intensive. But increasingly, sensor network applications require data and compute intensive sensors such video cameras and microphones. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of two such systems: a vehicle classifier based on acoustic signals and a license plate identification system using a camera. The systems are implemented in an energy-efficient manner to the extent possible using commercially available hardware, the Mica motes and the Stargate platform. Our experience in designing these systems leads us to consider an alternate more flexible, modular, low-power mote architecture that uses a combination of FPGAs, specialized embedded processing units and sensor data acquisition systems.

  2. Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Kenneth C.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens having dogbone- or T-shaped end sections without introducing bending stresses in the specimens during the application of a dynamic tensile loading on the specimens is described. A pair of elongated pull rods disposed in a side-by-side relationship are used to grip the shoulders on each T-shaped end section. The pull rods are pivotally attached to a piston-displaceable, disk-shaped member so as to be longitudinally movable with respect to one another effecting the self-alignment thereof with the shoulders on the T-shaped end sections of the specimen to compensate for shoulders being located in different longitudinal positions.

  3. Current conducting end plate of fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly has a current conducting end plate with a conductive body formed integrally with isolating material. The conductive body has a first surface, a second surface opposite the first surface, and an electrical connector. The first surface has an exposed portion for conducting current between a working section of the fuel cell assembly and the electrical connector. The isolating material is positioned on at least a portion of the second surface. The conductive body can have support passage(s) extending therethrough for receiving structural member(s) of the fuel cell assembly. Isolating material can electrically isolate the conductive body from the structural member(s). The conductive body can have service passage(s) extending therethrough for servicing one or more fluids for the fuel cell assembly. Isolating material can chemically isolate the one or more fluids from the conductive body. The isolating material can also electrically isolate the conductive body from the one or more fluids.

  4. Phase plate technology for laser marking of magnetic discs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuman, B.; Honig, J.; Hackel, L.; Dane, C.B.; Dixit, S.

    1998-10-27

    An advanced design for a phase plate enables the distribution of spots in arbitrarily shaped patterns with very high uniformity and with a continuously or near-continuously varying phase pattern. A continuous phase pattern eliminates large phase jumps typically expected in a grating that provides arbitrary shapes. Large phase jumps increase scattered light outside of the desired pattern, reduce efficiency and can make the grating difficult to manufacture. When manufacturing capabilities preclude producing a fully continuous grating, the present design can be easily adapted to minimize manufacturing errors and maintain high efficiencies. This continuous grating is significantly more efficient than previously described Dammann gratings, offers much more flexibility in generating spot patterns and is easier to manufacture and replicate than a multi-level phase grating. 3 figs.

  5. Phase plate technology for laser marking of magnetic discs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuman, Bill; Honig, John; Hackel, Lloyd; Dane, C. Brent; Dixit, Shamasundar

    1998-01-01

    An advanced design for a phase plate enables the distribution of spots in arbitrarily shaped patterns with very high uniformity and with a continuously or near-continuously varying phase pattern. A continuous phase pattern eliminates large phase jumps typically expected in a grating that provides arbitrary shapes. Large phase jumps increase scattered light outside of the desired pattern, reduce efficiency and can make the grating difficult to manufacture. When manufacturing capabilities preclude producing a fully continuous grating, the present design can be easily adapted to minimize manufacturing errors and maintain high efficiencies. This continuous grating is significantly more efficient than previously described Dammann gratings, offers much more flexibility in generating spot patterns and is easier to manufacture and replicate than a multi-level phase grating.

  6. Collimator application for microchannel plate image intensifier resolution improvement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Stanley W.

    1996-02-27

    A collimator is included in a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI). Collimators can be useful in improving resolution of MCPIs by eliminating the scattered electron problem and by limiting the transverse energy of electrons reaching the screen. Due to its optical absorption, a collimator will also increase the extinction ratio of an intensifier by approximately an order of magnitude. Additionally, the smooth surface of the collimator will permit a higher focusing field to be employed in the MCP-to-collimator region than is currently permitted in the MCP-to-screen region by the relatively rough and fragile aluminum layer covering the screen. Coating the MCP and collimator surfaces with aluminum oxide appears to permit additional significant increases in the field strength, resulting in better resolution.

  7. Fission rate measurements in fuel plate type assembly reactor cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The methods, materials and equipment have been developed to allow extensive and precise measurement of fission rate distributions in water moderated, U-Al fuel plate assembly type reactor cores. Fission rate monitors are accurately positioned in the reactor core, the reactor is operated at a low power for a short time, the fission rate monitors are counted with detectors incorporating automated sample changers and the measurements are converted to fission rate distributions. These measured fission rate distributions have been successfully used as baseline information related to the operation of test and experimental reactors with respect to fission power and distribution, fuel loading and fission experiments for approximately twenty years at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). 7 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Collimator application for microchannel plate image intensifier resolution improvement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, S.W.

    1996-02-27

    A collimator is included in a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI). Collimators can be useful in improving resolution of MCPIs by eliminating the scattered electron problem and by limiting the transverse energy of electrons reaching the screen. Due to its optical absorption, a collimator will also increase the extinction ratio of an intensifier by approximately an order of magnitude. Additionally, the smooth surface of the collimator will permit a higher focusing field to be employed in the MCP-to-collimator region than is currently permitted in the MCP-to-screen region by the relatively rough and fragile aluminum layer covering the screen. Coating the MCP and collimator surfaces with aluminum oxide appears to permit additional significant increases in the field strength, resulting in better resolution. 2 figs.

  9. System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Kaffine, L.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

  10. Double patterning HSQ processes of zone plates for 10 nm diffraction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    For diffraction-limited zone plates, accuracy better than one-third of the smallest zone ... Sponsoring Org: Materials Sciences Division Country of Publication: United States Language...

  11. Integrated titer plate-injector head for microdrop array preparation, storage and transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated titer plate-injector head for preparing and storing two-dimensional (2-D) arrays of microdrops and for ejecting part or all of the microdrops and inserting same precisely into 2-D arrays of deposition sites with micrometer precision. The titer plate-injector head includes integrated precision formed nozzles with appropriate hydrophobic surface features and evaporative constraints. A reusable pressure head with a pressure equalizing feature is added to the titer plate to perform simultaneous precision sample ejection. The titer plate-injector head may be utilized in various applications including capillary electrophoresis, chemical flow injection analysis, microsample array preparation, etc.

  12. SUMMARY OF ‘AFIP’ FULL SIZED PLATE IRRADIATIONS IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Adam B; Wachs, Daniel M

    2010-03-01

    Recent testing at the Idaho National Laboratory has included four AFIP (ATR Full Size plate In center flux trap Position) experiments. These experiments included both dispersion plates and monolithic plates fabricated by both hot isostatic pressing and friction bonding utilizing both thermally sprayed inter-layers and zirconium barriers. These plates were tested between 100 and 350 w/cm2 at low temperatures and high burn-ups. The post irradiation exams performed have indicated good performance under the conditions tested and a summary of the findings and irradiation history are included herein.

  13. Sheet, strip, and plate, corrosion resistant alloy 67Ni 30Cu, annealed (reaffirmed, 1992). (SAE standard)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-01-01

    This specification covers a corrosion-resistant nickel-copper alloy in the form of sheet, strip, and plate. Alloy: Monel 400 UNS Number: N0440.

  14. Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

  15. EVALUATION OF U10MO FUEL PLATE IRRADIATION BEHAVIOR VIA NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel J. Miller; Hakan Ozaltun

    2012-11-01

    This article analyzes dimensional changes due to irradiation of monolithic plate-type nuclear fuel and compares results with finite element analysis of the plates during fabrication and irradiation. Monolithic fuel plates tested in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Lab (INL) are being used to benchmark proposed fuel performance for several high power research reactors. Post-irradiation metallographic images of plates sectioned at the midpoint were analyzed to determine dimensional changes of the fuel and the cladding response. A constitutive model of the fabrication process and irradiation behavior of the tested plates was developed using the general purpose commercial finite element analysis package, Abaqus. Using calculated burn-up profiles of irradiated plates to model the power distribution and including irradiation behaviors such as swelling and irradiation enhanced creep, model simulations allow analysis of plate parameters that are either impossible or infeasible in an experimental setting. The development and progression of fabrication induced stress concentrations at the plate edges was of primary interest, as these locations have a unique stress profile during irradiation. Additionally, comparison between 2D and 3D models was performed to optimize analysis methodology. In particular, the ability of 2D and 3D models account for out of plane stresses which result in 3-dimensional creep behavior that is a product of these components. Results show that assumptions made in 2D models for the out-of-plane stresses and strains cannot capture the 3-dimensional physics accurately and thus 2D approximations are not computationally accurate. Stress-strain fields are dependent on plate geometry and irradiation conditions, thus, if stress based criteria is used to predict plate behavior (as opposed to material impurities, fine micro-structural defects, or sharp power gradients), unique 3D finite element formulation for each plate is required.

  16. SPERT Destructive Test - I on Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-05

    SPERT - Special Power Excursion Reactor Tests Destructive Test number 1 On Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core. A test studying the behavior of the reactor under destructive conditions on a light water moderated pool-type reactor with a plate-type core.

  17. SPERT Destructive Test - I on Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-05-07

    SPERT - Special Power Excursion Reactor Tests Destructive Test number 1 On Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core. A test studying the behavior of the reactor under destructive conditions on a light water moderated pool-type reactor with a plate-type core.

  18. Image plates as x-ray detectors in plasma physics experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gales, S.G.; Bentley, C.D.

    2004-10-01

    The performance of image plates based on the photostimulable phosphor BaF(Br,l):Eu{sup 2+} has been investigated and compared with x-ray film. Evaluation of detective quantum efficiency (DQE), sensitivity, dynamic range, and linearity was carried out for several types of commercially available image plate, using the Excalibur soft x-ray calibration facility at AWE. Image plate response was found to be linear over a dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude. One type of image plate was found to have a number of advantages for soft x-ray detection, with a measured sensitivity 1 order of magnitude greater than that of Kodak Industrex CX and DEF-5 x-ray film. The DQE of this plate was found to be superior to that of film at low [less than 10{sup 3} photons/(50 {mu}m){sup 2}] and high fluxes [greater than 10{sup 4} photons/(50 {mu}m){sup 2}]. The spatial resolution of image plates, scanned with several models of commercial image plate readers, has been evaluated using a USAF resolution test target. The highest spatial resolution measured is 35 {mu}m. Though this is significantly lower than the resolution possible with film, it is sufficient for many applications. Image plates were fielded in a refractive x-ray lens imaging diagnostic on the 1 TW Helen laser and these results are discussed.

  19. Plasma-accelerated flyer-plates for equation of state studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratanduono, D. E.; Smith, R. F.; Eggert, J. H.; Braun, D. G.; Collins, G. W.; Boehly, T. R.

    2012-07-15

    We report on a new technique to accelerate flyer-plates to high velocities ({approx}5 km/s). In this work, a strong shock is created through direct laser ablation of a thin polyimide foil. Subsequent shock breakout of that foil results in the generation of a plasma characterized by a smoothly increasing density gradient and a strong forward momentum. Stagnation of this plasma onto an aluminum foil and the resultant momentum transfer accelerates a thin aluminum flyer-plate. The aluminum flyer-plate is then accelerated to a peak velocity of {approx}5 km/s before impact with a transparent lithium fluoride (LiF) window. Simulations of the stagnating plasma ramp compression and wave reverberations within the flyer-plate suggest that the temperature at the flyer-plate impact surface is elevated by less than 50 Degree-Sign C. Optical velocimetry is used to measure the flyer-plate velocity and impact conditions enabling the shocked refractive index of LiF to be determined. The results presented here are in agreement with conventional flyer-plate measurements validating the use of plasma-accelerated flyer-plates for equation of state and impact studies.

  20. Simultaneous velocity interferometry and electronic streak photography of laser-launched plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Stahl, D.B.; Garcia, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    Laser-launched, miniature, pseudo-one-dimensional flyer plates are evaluated by three distinct optical techniques that may be incorporated into an optical diagnostic system to give a complete understanding of the plate performance. These techniques are: velocity interferometry, streak photography, and pulsed laser stereo photography. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Low-cost, high-performance solar flat-plate collectors for applications in northern latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Solar flat plate collector designs have been developed which incorporate high performance polymer film and laminate technology that have a projected manufacturing cost approaching $15/m/sup 2/ and potential thermal performance consistent with the best commercial solar flat plate collectors available today.

  2. Structural Behavior of Monolithic Fuel Plates During Hot Isostatic Pressing and Annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel G. Medvedev; Hakan Ozaltun

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents results of the stress analysis in the monolithic fuel plates during thermal transients performed using COMSOL finite element analysis software. Large difference in the thermal expansion between the U-Mo foil and Al cladding is the main load origin during heating and cooling of the fuel plates. In addition, the mechanical behavior of the plate is affected by the difference in yield points between the foil and the cladding. This is manifested by the plastic deformation and permanent strains in the cladding, and elastic deformation of the foil. The results show existence of the critical temperature points at which the stresses change from compressive to tensile. The paper highlights principal differences in mechanical behavior between monolithic and dispersion fuel plates, underlines the need for mechanical property data, especially for the U-Mo alloys, and discusses the methodology for mechanical analysis of the monolithic plates.

  3. Simultaneous laser cutting and welding of metal foil to edge of a plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, J.C.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1996-03-19

    A method is described for welding an ultra-thin foil to the edge of a thicker sheet to form a vacuum insulation panel comprising the steps of providing an ultra-thin foil having a thickness less than 0.002, providing a top plate having an edge and a bottom plate having an edge, clamping the foil to the edge of the plate wherein the clamps act as heat sinks to distribute heat through the foil, providing a laser, moving the laser relative to the foil and the plate edges to form overlapping weld beads to weld the foil to the plate edges while simultaneously cutting the foil along the weld line formed by the overlapping beads. 7 figs.

  4. Simultaneous laser cutting and welding of metal foil to edge of a plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, John C.; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1996-01-01

    A method of welding an ultra-thin foil to the edge of a thicker sheet to form a vacuum insulation panel comprising the steps of providing an ultra-thin foil having a thickness less than 0.002, providing a top plate having an edge and a bottom plate having an edge, clamping the foil to the edge of the plate wherein the clamps act as heat sinks to distribute heat through the foil, providing a laser, moving the laser relative to the foil and the plate edges to form overlapping weld beads to weld the foil to the plate edges while simultaneously cutting the foil along the weld line formed by the overlapping beads.

  5. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2015-05-14

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency.

  6. Successful development and application of high performance plate steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    New high performance plate steels (HPPS) are developed in reaction to customer requirements and the availability of essential steelmaking facilities. In this decade significant improvements to steelmaking equipment has made possible the development and production of a variety of new HPPS. Four case studies are presented reviewing the key metallurgical needs and the innovative steel processing that was required. These applications include: (1) Hydrogen Induced Cracking Resistant A516 C-Mn pressure vessel steel with ultra low sulfur and controlled carbon equivalent levels, (2) Temper Embrittlement Resistant A387 Cr-Mo alloy steels for high temperature pressure vessels with low phosphorus, J Factor and sulfur levels with high toughness, (3) formable, weldable, 400HB abrasion resistant alloy steels, which are produced with extra low sulfur levels, reduced carbon and carbon equivalent levels and rigorous heat treatment controls, and (4) weldable, high strength structural steels with low carbon levels, based on Cu-Ni precipitation hardening and A710. Future opportunities for HPPS will result with the installation of additional new steelmaking facilities.

  7. Experimental method for laser-driven flyer plates for 1-D shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D. L.; Luo, S. N.; Swift, D. C.; Loomis, E.; Johnson, R.; Greenfield, S.; Peralta, P.; Koskelo, A.; Tonks, D.

    2007-12-12

    One-dimensional shocks can be generated by impacting flyer plates accelerated to terminal velocities by a confined laser-ablated plasma. Over the past few years, we have developed this capability with our facility-size laser, TRIDENT, capable of {>=}500 Joules at multi-microsecond pulse lengths to accelerate 1-D flyer plates, 8-mm diameter by 0.1-2 mm thick. Plates have been accelerated to terminal velocities of 100 to {>=}500 m/s, with full recovery of the flyer and target for post mortem metallography. By properly tailoring the laser temporal and spatial profile, the expanding confined plasma accelerates the plate away from the transparent sapphire substrate, and decouples the laser parameters from shock pressure profile resulting from the plate impact on a target. Since the flyer plate is in free flight on impact with the target, minimal collateral damage occurs to either. The experimental method to launch these plates to terminal velocity, ancillary diagnostics, and representative experimental data is presented.

  8. Method and apparatus for enhancing microchannel plate data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoe, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining centroid channel locations is disclosed for use in a system activated by one or more multichannel plates (16,18) and including a linear diode array (24) providing channels of information 1, 2, . . . , n, . . . , N containing signal amplitudes A.sub.n. A source of analog A.sub.n signals (40), and a source of digital clock signals n (48), are provided. Non-zero A.sub.n values are detected in a discriminator (42). A digital signal representing p, the value of n immediately preceding that whereat A.sub.n takes its first non-zero value, is generated in a scaler (50). The analog A.sub.n signals are converted to digital in an analog to digital converter (44). The digital A.sub.n signals are added to produce a digital .SIGMA.A.sub.n signal in a full adder (46). Digital 1, 2, . . . , m signals representing the number of non-zero A.sub.n are produced by a discriminator pulse counter (52). Digital signals representing 1 A.sub.p+ 1, 2 A.sub.p+2, . . . , m A.sub.p+m are produced by pairwise multiplication in multiplier (54). These signals are added in multiplier summer (56) to produce a digital .SIGMA.nA.sub.n -p.SIGMA.A.sub.n signal. This signal is divided by the digital .SIGMA.A.sub.n signal in divider (58) to provide a digital (.SIGMA.nA.sub.n /.SIGMA.A.sub.n) -p signal. Finally, this last signal is added to the digital p signal in an offset summer (60) to provide .SIGMA.nA.sub.n /.SIGMA.A.sub.n, the centroid channel locations.

  9. 21-PWR WASTE PACKAGE WITH ABSORBER PLATES LOADING CURVE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Scaglione

    2004-12-17

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial pressurized water reactor (PWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 21 PWR waste package with absorber plates design as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an example of the application of the methodology presented in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 45 GWd/MTU. Higher burnups were not necessary because 45 GWd/MTU was high enough for the loading curve determination. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing PWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials. This calculation is subject to the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2004) because it concerns engineered barriers that are included in the ''Q-List'' (BSC 2004k, Appendix A) as items important to safety and waste isolation.

  10. Method and apparatus for enhancing microchannel plate data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoe, R.S.

    1983-10-24

    A method and apparatus for determining centroid channel locations are disclosed for use in a system activated by one or more multichannel plates and including a linear diode array providing channels of information 1, 2, ...,n, ..., N containing signal amplitudes A/sub n/. A source of analog A/sub n/ signals, and a source of digital clock signals n, are provided. Non-zero A/sub n/ values are detected in a discriminator. A digital signal representing p, the value of n immediately preceding that whereat A/sub n/ takes its first non-zero value, is generated in a scaler. The analog A/sub n/ signals are converted to digital in an analog to digital converter. The digital A/sub n/ signals are added to produce a digital ..sigma..A/sub n/ signal in a full adder. Digital 1, 2, ..., m signals representing the number of non-zero A/sub n/ are produced by a discriminator pulse counter. Digital signals representing 1 A/sub p+1/, 2 A/sub p+2/, ..., m A/sub p+m/ are produced by pairwise multiplication in multiplier. These signal are added in multiplier summer to produce a digital ..sigma..nA/sub n/ - p..sigma..A/sub n/ signal. This signal is divided by the digital ..sigma..A/sub n/ signal in divider to provide a digital (..sigma..nA/sub n//..sigma..A/sub n/) -p signal. Finally, this last signal is added to the digital p signal in an offset summer to provide ..sigma..nA/sub n//..sigma..A/sub n/, the centroid channel locations.

  11. Thickness effects on the plastic collapse of perforated plates with triangular penetration patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, J.L.; Jones, D.P.; Holliday, J.E.

    2000-03-01

    This paper investigates the effects of plate thickness on the accuracy of limit load solutions obtained using an elastic-perfectly plastic [EPP] equivalent solid [EQS] procedure for flat perforated plates with a triangular array of penetrations. The EQS approach for limit loads is based on an EQS collapse surface that is valid for generalized plane strain. This assumption is applicable for very thick plates but is known to be less reasonable for very thin plates where plane stress may be a better assumption. The limits of applicability of the generalized plane strain assumption are investigated by obtaining limit load solutions for perforated plates of various thicknesses that are subjected to in-plane and bending loads. Plastic limit load solutions obtained using three-dimensional EPP finite element analysis [FEA] of models which include each penetration explicitly are compared with solutions obtained using the EQS approximation. The penetration pattern chosen for this study has a ligament efficiency (ligament width-to-pitch ratio, h/P) of 0.32. For plates thicker than the pitch, the limit load calculated using the EQS method for both in-plane and bending loads is shown to be very accurate (within 4%) of the limit load calculated for the explicit model. On the other hand, for thin plates (t/P< 2), the EQS limit load is 5% greater than the explicit limit load for bending and 8% greater than the explicit limit load for in-plane loads. For thinner plates, the collapse surface is tied to the local geometry deformation and, hence, an equivalent solid plate representation of plastic collapse is a function of deformation mode and thickness.

  12. Laser/matter interactions by laser-launched plates and direct laser shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, Dennis L.; Swift, D. C.; Kopp, R. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Munson, C. P.; Letzring, S. A.; Niemczura, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    Explosives, gas guns, laser-launched flyer plates, and direct laser-irradiation can be used to generate shocks and high-stress in materials. Each method has a unique diameter and thickness of shock that can be generated. In past years, small laboratory lasers have been used to launch flyer plates 2 - 200-pm thick to terminal velocities 0.1 to 5 k d s . Over the past few years we have been using our TRIDENT laser facility (1kJ in 0.2 to 2ps) to accelerate larger diameter (8 mm) and thicker (0.1 - 1.5 mm) flyer plates. These larger diameters and thicker one-dimensional plates more closely compliment traditional experimental methods such as gas guns. The 8-mm diameter and 1-mm thick flyer plates can impart shocks in metals for constitutive dynamic property measurements. The versatility of laser-driven plates permits spatial and temporal profiles of the flyer plate impact on sample targets. LASNEX models and parameters of the laser drive can be used to optimize optical coupling efficiency. The flyer plate launch, acceleration, terminal velocity, and, depending on the experiment, flyer plate impact on to target materials are recorded using point-interferometry (VISAR), and line-imaging interferometry. These high speed optical and laser experimental methods will be described along with ancillary methods, and material data. Constitutive properties of bulk materials, rate effects, and grain size and/or orientation have been studied for several metals including copper, beryllium, gold, and some alloys.

  13. Method and apparatus for actively controlling a micro-scale flexural plate wave device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dohner, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    An actively controlled flexural plate wave device provides a micro-scale pump. A method of actively controlling a flexural plate wave device produces traveling waves in the device by coordinating the interaction of a magnetic field with actively controlled currents. An actively-controlled flexural plate wave device can be placed in a fluid channel and adapted for use as a micro-scale fluid pump to cool or drive micro-scale systems, for example, micro-chips, micro-electrical-mechanical devices, micro-fluid circuits, or micro-scale chemical analysis devices.

  14. Study of imaging plate detector sensitivity to 5-18 MeV electrons (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Study of imaging plate detector sensitivity to 5-18 MeV electrons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Study of imaging plate detector sensitivity to 5-18 MeV electrons Imaging plates (IPs) are commonly used as passive detectors in laser-plasma experiments. We calibrated at the ELSA electron beam facility (CEA DIF) the five different available types of IPs (namely, MS-SR-TR-MP-ND) to electrons from 5 to 18 MeV. In the context of diagnostic development for the

  15. Building America New Homes Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wall System in a Cold-Climate House | Department of Energy New Homes Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House Building America New Homes Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House A zero energy ready home was recently completed that features an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system, called the extended plate and beam, is for use above grade in residential buildings. The

  16. Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, W.; Kim, J.; Rekawa, S.; Fischer, P.; Anderson, E. H.

    2009-06-05

    To extend soft x-ray microscopy to a resolution of order 10 nm or better, we developed a new nanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. The new process, based on the double patterning technique, has enabled us to fabricate high quality gold zone plates with 12 nm outer zones. Testing of the zone plate with the full-field transmission x-ray microscope, XM-1, in Berkeley, showed that the lens clearly resolved 12 nm lines and spaces. This result represents a significant step towards 10 nm resolution and beyond.

  17. Disruption Analysis and Response Implicattions of Passive Plates for the NSTX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuhu Zhai, Peter Titus, Art Brooks, and Ron Hatcher

    2012-08-27

    The NSTX upgrade project requires analysis qualifications of existing vacuum vessel and passive stabilizing plates for increased plasma performance. Vertical stability is critically dependent on the passive conducting structure that surrounds the plasma. In this paper, the passive conducting structure is analyzed for the upgrade condition during plasma disruption to ensure the level of stress in the stabilizing plates and the fastener is within its design limits. The counter-bore of the passive plates for bolting is evaluated in details and counter-bore bushing is redesigned to prevent shear failure during disruptions as a result of high pulling and pushing forces, particularly for support at the corner bolts

  18. Highly conductive thermoplastic composites for rapid production of fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianhua [Blacksburg, VA; Baird, Donald G [Blacksburg, VA; McGrath, James E [Blacksburg, VA

    2008-04-29

    A low cost method of fabricating bipolar plates for use in fuel cells utilizes a wet lay process for combining graphite particles, thermoplastic fibers, and reinforcing fibers to produce a plurality of formable sheets. The formable sheets are then molded into a bipolar plates with features impressed therein via the molding process. The bipolar plates formed by the process have conductivity in excess of 150 S/cm and have sufficient mechanical strength to be used in fuel cells. The bipolar plates can be formed as a skin/core laminate where a second polymer material is used on the skin surface which provides for enhanced conductivity, chemical resistance, and resistance to gas permeation.

  19. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  20. An early history of pure shear in the upper plate of the raft...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    early history of pure shear in the upper plate of the raft river metamorphic core complex- black pine mountains, southern Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  1. Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ape039narumanchi2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate Advanced Liquid Cooling R&D

  2. UPDATE ON FRICTION BONDING OF MONOLITHIC U-MO FUEL PLATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Burkes; N. P. Hallinan; J. M. Wight; M. D. Chapple

    2007-09-01

    Friction Bonding (FB), formerly referred to as Friction Stir Welding, is an alternative plate fabrication technique to encapsulate monolithic U-Mo fuel foils inside 6061-T6 aluminum alloy cladding. Over the past year, significant progress has been made in the area of FB, including improvements in tool material, tool design, process parameters, cooling capability and capacity and modeling, all of which improve and enhance the quality of fabricated fuel plates, reproducibility of the fabrication process and bond quality of the fuel plates. Details of this progress and how it relates to the observed improvements and enhancements are discussed. In addition, details on how these improvements have been implemented into the last two RERTR mini-plate irradiation campaigns are also discussed.

  3. TESTING AND ACCEPTANCE OF FUEL PLATES FOR RERTR FUEL DEVELOPMENT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Wight; G.A. Moore; S.C. Taylor

    2008-10-01

    This paper discusses how candidate fuel plates for RERTR Fuel Development experiments are examined and tested for acceptance prior to reactor insertion. These tests include destructive and nondestructive examinations (DE and NDE). The DE includes blister annealing for dispersion fuel plates, bend testing of adjacent cladding, and microscopic examination of archive fuel plates. The NDE includes Ultrasonic (UT) scanning and radiography. UT tests include an ultrasonic scan for areas of “debonds” and a high frequency ultrasonic scan to determine the "minimum cladding" over the fuel. Radiography inspections include identifying fuel outside of the maximum fuel zone and measurements and calculations for fuel density. Details of each test are provided and acceptance criteria are defined. These tests help to provide a high level of confidence the fuel plate will perform in the reactor without a breach in the cladding.

  4. ORNL characterization of Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program plates 01, 02, and 03

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stelzman, W.J.; Berggren, R.G.; Jones, T.N. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    Charpy V-notch impact, tensile, and drop-weight data are presented for three 305-mm-thick (12-in.) A 533 grade B class 1 steel plates. The effects of specimen size and orientation were examined as well as the variation of properties between different plate locations and depths. Some observations based on data obtained from an instrumented Charpy testing machine are also presented.

  5. Edge seal for a porous gas distribution plate of a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feigenbaum, Haim; Pudick, Sheldon; Singh, Rajindar

    1984-01-01

    In an improved seal for a gas distribution plate of a fuel cell, a groove is provided extending along an edge of the plate. A member of resinous material is arranged within the groove and a paste comprising an immobilized acid is arranged surrounding the member and substantially filling the groove. The seal, which is impervious to the gas being distributed, is resistant to deterioration by the electrolyte of the cell.

  6. A Constructible and Durable High-Performance Walls System: Extended Plate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Beam | Department of Energy A Constructible and Durable High-Performance Walls System: Extended Plate and Beam A Constructible and Durable High-Performance Walls System: Extended Plate and Beam Photo courtesy of Home Innovation Research Labs. Photo courtesy of Home Innovation Research Labs. Lead Performer: Home Innovation Research Labs-Upper Marlboro, MD Partners: American Chemistry Council, Dow Building Solutions, Forest Products Laboratory, Builders DOE Total Funding: $256,818 Cost

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Travelli, A.

    1985-10-25

    A flat or curved plate structure, to be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, comprises elongated fissionable wires or strips embedded in a metallic continuous non-fissionable matrix plate. The wires or strips are made predominantly of a malleable uranium alloy, such as uranium silicide, uranium gallide or uranium germanide. The matrix plate is made predominantly of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The wires or strips are located in a single row at the midsurface of the plate, parallel with one another and with the length dimension of the plate. The wires or strips are separated from each other, and from the surface of the plate, by sufficient thicknesses of matrix material, to provide structural integrity and effective fission product retention, under neutron irradiation. This construction makes it safely feasible to provide a high uranium density, so that the uranium enrichment with uranium 235 may be reduced below about 20%, to deter the reprocessing of the uranium for use in nuclear weapons.

  8. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Travelli, Armando

    1988-01-01

    A flat or curved plate structure, to be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, comprises elongated fissionable wires or strips embedded in a metallic continuous non-fissionable matrix plate. The wires or strips are made predominantly of a malleable uranium alloy, such as uranium silicide, uranium gallide or uranium germanide. The matrix plate is made predominantly of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The wires or strips are located in a single row at the midsurface of the plate, parallel with one another and with the length dimension of the plate. The wires or strips are separated from each other, and from the surface of the plate, by sufficient thicknesses of matrix material, to provide structural integrity and effective fission product retention, under neutron irradiation. This construction makes it safely feasible to provide a high uranium density, so that the uranium enrichment with uranium 235 may be reduced below about 20%, to deter the reprocessing of the uranium for use in nuclear weapons.

  9. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipper, Lauren E.; Aristide, Xavier; Bishop, Dylan P.; Joshi, Ishita; Kharzeev, Julia; Patel, Krishna B.; Santiago, Brianna M.; Joshi, Karan; Dorsinvil, Kahille; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2014-11-28

    This article describes the use of evaporation control lids that are fitted to crystallization plates to improve the reproducibility of trials using as little as 5 nl. The plate lids contain apertures which are large enough for the transfer of protein containing droplets, but small enough to greatly reduce the rate of evaporation during the time needed to prepare the plate. A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally prepared against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 6382%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations.

  10. Characterization of second-phase plates in a Gd5Ge3 intermetallic compound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Qing; Chumbley, Leonard S.

    2013-05-16

    Rare-earth compounds based on the stoichiometry R5(SixGe1?x)4 (R = rare-earth elements) exhibit many unusual features, including possessing R5(SixGe1?x)3 thin plates which always precipitate from the matrix despite efforts to suppress their formation. In an effort to better understand the unique relationship between these two intermetallic alloy systems, the bulk microstructure of the compound Gd5Ge3 was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy. Surprisingly, SEM examination revealed a series of thin plates present in the Gd5Ge3 matrix similar to what is seen in Gd5Ge4. TEM observation revealed that a role reversal had occurred, with the thin plates possessing the orthorhombic structure and composition of Gd5Ge4. The orientation relationship between Gd5Ge4 thin plates and the Gd5Ge3 matrix was determined to be Graphic the same relationship reported for Gd5Ge3 plates precipitating from a Gd5Ge4 matrix. However, by exchanging the respective roles of the phases as regards matrix vs. precipitate, the total number of precipitation variants seen can be increased from two to six. The persistence with which these two intermetallic systems co-exist is truly unique. However, understanding exactly the kinetic and thermodynamic conditions that lead to their unique relationship is hampered by the high formation temperatures at which the observed reaction occurs.

  11. Cavitation erosion of silver plated coating at different temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hattori, Shuji; Motoi, Yoshihiro; Kikuta, Kengo; Tomaru, Hiroshi

    2014-04-11

    Cavitation often occurs in inducer pumps used for space rockets. Silver plated coating on the inducer liner faces the damage of cavitation. Therefore, it is important to study about the cavitation erosion resistance for silver plated coating at several operating conditions in the inducer pumps. In this study, the cavitation erosion tests were carried for silver plated coating in deionized water and ethanol at several liquid temperatures (273K400K) and pressures (0.10MPa0.48MPa). The mass loss rate is evaluated in terms of thermodynamic parameter ? proposed by Brennen [9], suppression pressure pp{sub v} (p{sub v}: saturated vapor pressure) and acoustic impedance ?c (?: density and c: sound speed). Cavitation bubble behaviors depending on the thermodynamic effect and the liquid type were observed by high speed video camera. The mass loss rate is formulated by thermodynamic parameter ?, suppression pressure pp{sub v} and acoustic impedance ?c.

  12. A simplified model for heat transfer in heat exchangers and stack plates for thermoacoustic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Herman, C.

    1999-07-01

    A simplified model of heat transfer in heat exchangers and stack plates of thermoacoustic devices was developed. The model took advantage of previous results regarding the thermal behavior of the thermoacoustic core for investigations of the performance of heat exchangers attached to the core. Geometrical and operational parameters as well as thermophysical properties of the heat exchangers, the plate, and the working medium were organized into dimensionless groups that allowed to account for their impact on the performance of the heat exchangers. Numerical simulations with the model were carried out. Nonlinear temperature distributions and heat fluxes near the edge of the stack plate were observed. Effects of different parameters on the thermal performance of the heat exchangers were investigated.

  13. Laser-driven miniature flyer plates for shock initiation of secondary explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Miniature flyer plates (<1-mm diameter X <5-micron thick) of aluminum and other materials are accelerated by a 10-ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser to velocities >5 km/s. Velocity profiles are recorded by velocity interferometry (VISAR) techniques and impact planarity by electronic streak photography. Techniques for improving energy coupling from laser to flyer plate will be discussed. Flyer plate performance parameters will be compared with material properties. The P/sup n/t criteria for shock initiation of explosives will be compared for various flyer materials, pressure, and pulse duration. Performance of secondary explosives (PETN, HNS, HMX, various PBX, others) will be reported. These data will detail the experimental effect of t (in P/sup n/t) approaching values of a few nanoseconds. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  14. SEM and TEM Characterization of As-Fabricated U-7Mo Disperson Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. D. Keiser, Jr.; B. Yao; E. Perez; Y. H. Sohn

    2009-11-01

    The starting microstructure of a dispersion fuel plate can have a dramatic impact on the overall performance of the plate during irradiation. To improve the understanding of the as-fabricated microstructures of dispersion fuel plates, SEM and TEM analysis have been performed on RERTR-9A archive fuel plates, which went through an additional hot isostatic procsssing (HIP) step during fabrication. The fuel plates had depleted U-7Mo fuel particles dispersed in either Al-2Si or 4043 Al alloy matrix. For the characterized samples, it was observed that a large fraction of the ?-phase U-7Mo alloy particles had decomposed during fabrication, and in areas near the fuel/matrix interface where the transformation products were present significant fuel/matrix interaction had occurred. Relatively thin Si-rich interaction layers were also observed around the U-7Mo particles. In the thick interaction layers, (U)(Al,Si)3 and U6Mo4Al43 were identified, and in the thin interaction layers U(Al,Si)3, U3Si3Al2, U3Si5, and USi1.88-type phases were observed. The U3Si3Al2 phase contained some Mo. Based on the results of this work, exposure of dispersion fuel plates to relatively high temperatures during fabrication impacts the overall microstructure, particularly the nature of the interaction layers around the fuel particles. The time and temperature of fabrication should be carefully controlled in order to produce the most uniform Si-rich layers around the U-7Mo particles.

  15. Heat transfer and flow of an impinged plate with an elliptic jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Shoichi; Yaga, Minoru; Oyakawa, Kenyu

    1999-07-01

    The time and spatial temperature profiles on a jet impingement plate were measured using an infrared radiometer with a two-dimensional array of Indium-Antimony (In Sb) sensors for various nozzle exit-to-plate spaces for when the jet being issued from an elliptic nozzle impinges on the target plate. The isotherms of infrared images as well as heat transfer coefficients were obtained by measurement data. The heat transfer coefficients were also measured by using thermocouples. In order to compare the isotherms and heat transfer contours with flow patterns, the flows on the plate were visualized by the oil-film method, and the velocity and the turbulence intensity were measured by a hot wire anemometer. The phenomena of axes switching which are caused by the differences in self-induced velocity in non-circular vortices and have been the typical behaviors of free jets were observed on the impingement plate. The distribution of the isotherm and iso-heat transfer coefficients for the center portion were shorted in the major direction with an increase of the space between nozzle exit and impingement plate and elongated in the minor direction. The isotherms from the infrared image corresponded closely to the distribution of iso-heat transfer coefficients by using thermocouples. The shapes of flow patterns also corresponded to both the shape of the isotherms and the iso-heat transfer contours. In the twice length of nozzle diameter downstream from nozzle exit, the oil film pattern was elongated in the major axis direction for the center portion, which corresponded to both the lower temperature and higher heat transfer coefficient.

  16. Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers as a Time-of-Flight System for the PHENIX Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velkovska, Julia

    2013-12-08

    In this project a Time-of-Flight detector based on multi-gap resistive plate chambers was built and installed for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC.

  17. Heat transfer and flow resistance of a shell and plate-type evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uehara, H.; Stuhltraeger, E.; Miyara, A.; Murakami, H.; Miyazaki, K.

    1997-05-01

    The performance test of a shell-and-plate-type evaporator designed for OTEC plants, geothermal power plants, and heat pump systems is reported. This evaporator contains 30 plates with a unit area of 0.813 m{sup 2}, coated with aluminum powder on the working fluid side. Freon 22 is used as working fluid. Results show an overall heat transfer coefficient of about 5,000 W/(m{sup 2}K) when the heating water velocity is 1M/s. The mean boiling heat transfer coefficient is compared with a precious correlation proposed by Nakaoka and Uehara (1988). The water-side pressure loss is also reported.

  18. Image plate characterization and absolute calibration to low kilo-electron-volt electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busold, S.; Philipp, K.; Otten, A.; Roth, M.

    2014-11-15

    We report on the characterization of an image plate and its absolute calibration to electrons in the low keV energy range (130 keV). In our case, an Agfa MD4.0 without protection layer was used in combination with a Fuji FLA7000 scanner. The calibration data are compared to other published data and a consistent picture of the sensitivity of image plates to electrons is obtained, which suggests a validity of the obtained calibration up to 100 keV.

  19. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Wednesday, 31 August 2005 00:00 Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their

  20. Pre-treatment for molybdenum or molybdenum-rich alloy articles to be plated

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Ralph R.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a method for etching a molybdenum or molybdenum-rich alloy surface to promote the formation of an adherent bond with a subsequently deposited metallic plating. In a typical application, the method is used as a pre-treatment for surfaces to be electrolessly plated with nickel. The pre-treatment comprises exposing the crystal boundaries of the surface by (a) anodizing the surface in acidic solution to form a continuous film of gray molybdenum oxide thereon and (b) removing the film.

  1. Method for preparing surfaces of metal composites having a brittle phase for plating. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, C.W.; Wilson, T.J.

    1982-05-19

    The present invention is directed to a method for preparing surfaces of two-phase metal composites having relatively brittle and malleable components for plating with corrosion-resistant material. In practice of the present invention, the surfaces of the composite are etched to remove a major portion or fraction of the brittle component. The etched surface is then peened with particulates for breaking the brittle component from the surfaces and for spreading or smearing the malleable component over the surfaces. The peened surface is then chemically cleaned of residual traces of the brittle component to which the corrosion-resistant material may be plated thereon in an adherent manner.

  2. Comment on ''The velocity field due to an oscillating plate in an Oldroyd-B

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fluid'' by C.C. Hopkins and J.R. de Bruyn [Can. J. Phys. 92, 533 (2014)] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Comment on ''The velocity field due to an oscillating plate in an Oldroyd-B fluid'' by C.C. Hopkins and J.R. de Bruyn [Can. J. Phys. 92, 533 (2014)] Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on September 11, 2016 Title: Comment on ''The velocity field due to an oscillating plate in an Oldroyd-B fluid'' by C.C. Hopkins and J.R. de Bruyn [Can. J.

  3. Experimental techniques for subnanosecond resolution of laser-launched plates and impact studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Warnes, R.H.; Stahl, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    Miniature laser-launched plates have applications in shock wave physics, studying dynamic properties of materials and can be used to generate experimental data in a manner similar to a laboratory gas gun for one-dimensional impact experiments. Laser-launched plates have the advantage of small size, low kinetic energy, and can be launched with ubiquitous laboratory lasers. Because of the small size and high accelerations (10{sup 7}--10{sup 10} g`s), improved temporal resolution and optical non-contact methods to collect data are required. Traditional mechanical in-situ gauges would significantly impair the data quality and do not have the required time response.

  4. Interferometry and high speed photography of laser-driven flyer plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Montoya, N.I.; Stahl, D.B.; Garcia, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    Laser-driven thin (2-10-/mu/ thick) plates of aluminum and copper are accelerated to velocities /ge/5 km/s by a 1.06-/mu/ wavelength Nd:YAG 8-10 ns FWHM laser pulse at power densities 0.7-4.0 GW/cm/sup 2/. Accelerations /ge/10/sup 9/ km/s/sup 2/ have been achieved. The acceleration and velocity of these 0.4-1.0-mm-diameter plates are experimentally recorded by velocity interferometry (VISAR) and the planarity of impact by streak photography. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Parallel-plate heat pipe apparatus having a shaped wick structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rightley, Michael J.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Mulhall, James J.; Robino, Charles V.; Reece, Mark; Smith, Paul M.; Tigges, Chris P.

    2004-12-07

    A parallel-plate heat pipe is disclosed that utilizes a plurality of evaporator regions at locations where heat sources (e.g. semiconductor chips) are to be provided. A plurality of curvilinear capillary grooves are formed on one or both major inner surfaces of the heat pipe to provide an independent flow of a liquid working fluid to the evaporator regions to optimize heat removal from different-size heat sources and to mitigate the possibility of heat-source shadowing. The parallel-plate heat pipe has applications for heat removal from high-density microelectronics and laptop computers.

  6. Ductile Tearing of Thin Aluminum Plates Under Blast Loading. Predictions with Fully Coupled Models and Biaxial Material Response Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corona, Edmundo; Gullerud, Arne S.; Haulenbeek, Kimberly K.; Reu, Phillip L.

    2015-06-01

    The work presented in this report concerns the response and failure of thin 2024- T3 aluminum alloy circular plates to a blast load produced by the detonation of a nearby spherical charge. The plates were fully clamped around the circumference and the explosive charge was located centrally with respect to the plate. The principal objective was to conduct a numerical model validation study by comparing the results of predictions to experimental measurements of plate deformation and failure for charges with masses in the vicinity of the threshold between no tearing and tearing of the plates. Stereo digital image correlation data was acquired for all tests to measure the deflection and strains in the plates. The size of the virtual strain gage in the measurements, however, was relatively large, so the strain measurements have to be interpreted accordingly as lower bounds of the actual strains in the plate and of the severity of the strain gradients. A fully coupled interaction model between the blast and the deflection of the structure was considered. The results of the validation exercise indicated that the model predicted the deflection of the plates reasonably accurately as well as the distribution of strain on the plate. The estimation of the threshold charge based on a critical value of equivalent plastic strain measured in a bulge test, however, was not accurate. This in spite of efforts to determine the failure strain of the aluminum sheet under biaxial stress conditions. Further work is needed to be able to predict plate tearing with some degree of confidence. Given the current technology, at least one test under the actual blast conditions where the plate tears is needed to calibrate the value of equivalent plastic strain when failure occurs in the numerical model. Once that has been determined, the question of the explosive mass value at the threshold could be addressed with more confidence.

  7. Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stroud, John R.; Ornellas, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  8. Damage imaging in a laminated composite plate using an air-coupled time reversal mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Bas, P. -Y.; Remillieux, M. C.; Pieczonka, L.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Ulrich, T. J.

    2015-11-03

    We demonstrate the possibility of selectively imaging the features of a barely visible impact damage in a laminated composite plate by using an air-coupled time reversal mirror. The mirror consists of a number of piezoelectric transducers affixed to wedges of power law profiles, which act as unconventional matching layers. The transducers are enclosed in a hollow reverberant cavity with an opening to allow progressive emission of the ultrasonic wave field towards the composite plate. The principle of time reversal is used to focus elastic waves at each point of a scanning grid spanning the surface of the plate, thus allowing localized inspection at each of these points. The proposed device and signal processing removes the need to be in direct contact with the plate and reveals the same features as vibrothermography and more features than a C-scan. More importantly, this device can decouple the features of the defect according to their orientation, by selectively focusing vector components of motion into the object, through air. For instance, a delamination can be imaged in one experiment using out-of-plane focusing, whereas a crack can be imaged in a separate experiment using in-plane focusing. As a result, this capability, inherited from the principle of time reversal, cannot be found in conventional air-coupled transducers.

  9. Damage imaging in a laminated composite plate using an air-coupled time reversal mirror

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Bas, P. -Y.; Remillieux, M. C.; Pieczonka, L.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Ulrich, T. J.

    2015-11-03

    We demonstrate the possibility of selectively imaging the features of a barely visible impact damage in a laminated composite plate by using an air-coupled time reversal mirror. The mirror consists of a number of piezoelectric transducers affixed to wedges of power law profiles, which act as unconventional matching layers. The transducers are enclosed in a hollow reverberant cavity with an opening to allow progressive emission of the ultrasonic wave field towards the composite plate. The principle of time reversal is used to focus elastic waves at each point of a scanning grid spanning the surface of the plate, thus allowingmore » localized inspection at each of these points. The proposed device and signal processing removes the need to be in direct contact with the plate and reveals the same features as vibrothermography and more features than a C-scan. More importantly, this device can decouple the features of the defect according to their orientation, by selectively focusing vector components of motion into the object, through air. For instance, a delamination can be imaged in one experiment using out-of-plane focusing, whereas a crack can be imaged in a separate experiment using in-plane focusing. As a result, this capability, inherited from the principle of time reversal, cannot be found in conventional air-coupled transducers.« less

  10. Finite element analysis of an extended end-plate connection using the T-stub approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muresan, Ioana Cristina; Balc, Roxana

    2015-03-10

    Beam-to-column end-plate bolted connections are usually used as moment-resistant connections in steel framed structures. For this joint type, the deformability is governed by the deformation capacity of the column flange and end-plate under tension and elongation of the bolts. All these elements around the beam tension flange form the tension region of the joint, which can be modeled by means of equivalent T-stubs. In this paper a beam-to-column end-plate bolted connection is substituted with a T-stub of appropriate effective length and it is analyzed using the commercially available finite element software ABAQUS. The performance of the model is validated by comparing the behavior of the T-stub from the numerical simulation with the behavior of the connection as a whole. The moment-rotation curve of the T-stub obtained from the numerical simulation is compared with the behavior of the whole extended end-plate connection, obtained by numerical simulation, experimental tests and analytical approach.

  11. Internal (Annular) and Compressible External (Flat Plate) Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Correlations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dechant, Lawrence; Smith, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide a discussion regarding the applicability of a family of traditional heat transfer correlation based models for several (unit level) heat transfer problems associated with flight heat transfer estimates and internal flow heat transfer associated with an experimental simulation design (Dobranich 2014). Variability between semi-empirical free-flight models suggests relative differences for heat transfer coefficients on the order of 10%, while the internal annular flow behavior is larger with differences on the order of 20%. We emphasize that these expressions are strictly valid only for the geometries they have been derived for e.g. the fully developed annular flow or simple external flow problems. Though, the application of flat plate skin friction estimate to cylindrical bodies is a traditional procedure to estimate skin friction and heat transfer, an over-prediction bias is often observed using these approximations for missile type bodies. As a correction for this over-estimate trend, we discuss a simple scaling reduction factor for flat plate turbulent skin friction and heat transfer solutions (correlations) applied to blunt bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The method estimates the ratio between axisymmetric and 2-d stagnation point heat transfer skin friction and Stanton number solution expressions for sub-turbulent Reynolds numbers %3C1x10 4 . This factor is assumed to also directly influence the flat plate results applied to the cylindrical portion of the flow and the flat plate correlations are modified by

  12. Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ape039_narumanchi_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Liquid Cooling R&D Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate

  13. Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy ape039_narumanchi_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate Advanced Liquid Cooling R&D Air Cooling Technology for Power Electronic Thermal Control

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Beam to Diamond Box Column Connection with Through Plate in Moment Frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keshavarzi, Farhad; Torabian, Shahabeddin; Imanpour, Ali; Mirghaderi, Rasoul

    2008-07-08

    Moment resisting frames with built up section have very enhanced features due to high bending stiffness and strength characteristics in two principal axes and access to column faces for beam to column easy connections. But due to proper transfer of beam stresses to column faces there were always some specific controvertibly issues that how to make the load transfer through and in plane manner in order to mobilize the forces in column faces. Using diamond column instead of box column provide possibility to mobilize the load transfer mechanism in column faces. This section as a column has considerable benefit such as high plastic to elastic section modulus ratio which is an effective factor for force controlled components. Typical connection has no chance to be applied with diamond column.This paper elucidates the seismic behavior of through-plates moment connections to diamond box columns for use in steel moment resisting frames. This connection has a lot of economical benefits such as no need to horizontal continuity plates and satisfying the weak beam--strong column criteria in the connection region. They might serve as panel zone plates as well. According to high shear demand in panel zone of beam to column joint one should use the doublers plates in order to decrease the shear strength demand in this sensitive part of structure but these plates have no possibility to mobilize the load transfer mechanism in column web and transfer them to column flanges. In this type of connection, column faces have effective role in order to decrease the demands on through plate and they are impressive factors for improving the performance of the connection.Experimental analysis was conducted to elucidate the seismic behavior of this connection. The results of Experimental analysis established the effectiveness of the through plate in mitigating local stress concentrations and forming the plastic hinge zone in the beam away from the beam to column interface. The moment-rotation graphs form sub-assemblage show a desirable seismic performance of this connection.

  15. Observations Derived From the Characterization of Monolithic Fuel Plates Irradiated as Part of the RERTR-6 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. D. Keiser, Jr.; A. B. Robinson; M. R. Finlay

    2007-09-01

    Evaluation of the PIE results of the monolithic plates that were irradiated as part of the RERTR-6 experiment has continued. Specifically, comparisons have been made between the microstructures of the fuel plates before and after irradiation. Using the results from the rigorous characterization that was performed on the as-fabricated plates using scanning electron microscopy, it is possible to improve understanding of how monolithic fuel plates perform when they are irradiated. This paper will discuss the changes that occur, if any, in the microstructure of a monolithic fuel plate that is fabricated using techniques like what were employed for fabricating RERTR-6 fuel plates. In addition, the performance of fuel/cladding interaction layers that were present in the fuel plates due to the fabrication process will be discussed, particularly in the context of swelling of these layers and how these layers exhibit different behaviors depending on whether the fuel alloy in the fuel plate is U-7Mo or U-10Mo.

  16. Microstructural Characterization of Burnable Absorber Materials Being Evaluated for Application in LEU U-Mo Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. F. Jue; B. Miller; B. Yao; E. Perez; Y. H. Sohn

    2011-03-01

    The starting microstructure of a fuel plate will impact how it performs during irradiation. As a result, microstructural characterization has been performed on as-fabricated monolithic fuel plates to determine the changes in fuel plate microstructure that may result from changes in fabrication parameters. Particular focus has been given to the fuel plate U-10Mo/Zr and Zr/AA6061 cladding interfaces, since the integrity of these interfaces will play a big role in determining the overall performance of the fuel plate during irradiation. In addition, burnable absorber materials for potential incorporation into monolithic fuel plates have been characterized to identify their as-fabricated microstructures. This information will be important when trying to understand the PIE data from fuel plates with burnable absorbers that are irradiated in future irradiation experiments. This paper will focus on the microstructures observed using optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy for monolithic fuel plates exposed to different fabrication parameters and for as-fabricated burnable absorber materials.

  17. Boattail Plates With Non-Rectangular Geometries For Reducing Aerodynamic Base Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortega, Jason M.; Sabari, Kambiz

    2006-03-07

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic base drag of a bluff body having a leading end, a trailing end, a top surface, opposing left and right side surfaces, and a base surface at the trailing end substantially normal to a longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, with the base surface joined (1) to the left side surface at a left trailing edge, (2) to the right side surface at a right trailing edge, and (3) to the top surface at a top trailing edge. The apparatus includes left and right vertical boattail plates which are orthogonally attached to the base surface of the bluff body and inwardly offset from the left and right trailing edges, respectively. This produces left and right vertical channels which generate, in a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline, respective left and right vertically-aligned vortical structures, with the left and right vertical boattail plates each having a plate width defined by a rear edge of the plate spaced from the base surface. Each plate also has a peak plate width at a location between top and bottom ends of the plate corresponding to a peak vortex of the respective vertically-aligned vortical structures.

  18. Control design and robustness analysis of a ball and plate system by using polynomial chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coln, Diego; Balthazar, Jos M.; Reis, Clia A. dos; Bueno, tila M.; Diniz, Ivando S.; Rosa, Suelia de S. R. F.

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, we present a mathematical model of a ball and plate system, a control law and analyze its robustness properties by using the polynomial chaos method. The ball rolls without slipping. There is an auxiliary robot vision system that determines the bodies' positions and velocities, and is used for control purposes. The actuators are to orthogonal DC motors, that changes the plate's angles with the ground. The model is a extension of the ball and beam system and is highly nonlinear. The system is decoupled in two independent equations for coordinates x and y. Finally, the resulting nonlinear closed loop systems are analyzed by the polynomial chaos methodology, which considers that some system parameters are random variables, and generates statistical data that can be used in the robustness analysis.

  19. Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1988-04-29

    Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes therebetween. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them. 6 figs.

  20. Method and apparatus for acoustic plate mode liquid-solid phase transition detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blair, Dianna S.; Freye, Gregory C.; Hughes, Robert C.; Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing a liquid-solid phase transition event is provided which comprises an acoustic plate mode detecting element placed in contact with a liquid or solid material which generates a high-frequency acoustic wave that is attenuated to an extent based on the physical state of the material is contact with the detecting element. The attenuation caused by the material in contact with the acoustic plate mode detecting element is used to determine the physical state of the material being detected. The method and device are particularly suited for detecting conditions such as the icing and deicing of wings of an aircraft. In another aspect of the present invention, a method is provided wherein the adhesion of a solid material to the detecting element can be measured using the apparatus of the invention.

  1. Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.

    1992-01-01

    Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes therebetween. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them.

  2. Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1992-05-26

    Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes there between. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them. 6 figs.

  3. Homogenization of a thin plate reinforced with periodic families of rigid rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarov, Sergei A; Sweers, Guido H; Slutskij, Andrey S

    2011-08-31

    The asymptotics of the solution to the elastic bending problem for a thin plate reinforced with several periodic families of closely spaced but disjoint rods are constructed and justified, the result of homogenization being substantially different from the case when the rods are welded together into a single periodic mesh. The material in the rods is assumed to be appreciably more rigid than that in the plate. An averaged fourth-order differential operator is obtained from summing the nonelliptic operators generated by each of the families of the rods. This operator is shown to be elliptic if and only if the rods from at least two families are nonparallel. As a simplified example, the paper examines a similar stationary heat conduction problem. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  4. Broadband asymmetric acoustic transmission by a plate with quasi-periodic surface ridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chunhui; Ke, Manzhu Ye, Yangtao; Xu, Shengjun; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, an acoustic system with broadband asymmetric transmission is designed and fabricated, which consists of a water-immersed aluminum plate engraved with quasi-periodically-patterned ridges on single surface. It demonstrates that when the acoustic waves are launched into the system from the structured side, they can couple into the Lamb modes in the plate efficiently and attain a high transmission; on the contrary, when the waves are incident from the opposite flat side, the coupling is weak, and the transmission is low. Superior to systems with periodic patterning, this quasi-periodically-patterned system has a broad working frequency range due to the collective contributions from the multiple diffractions specific to the structure.

  5. Method for preparing surfaces of metal composites having a brittle phase for plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Cameron W.; Wilson, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for preparing surfaces of two-phase metal composites having relatively brittle and malleable components for plating with corrosion-resistant material. In practice of the present invention, the surfaces of the composites are etched to remove a major portion or fraction of the brittle component. The etched surface is then peened with particulates for breaking the brittle component from the surfaces and for spreading or smearing the malleable component over the surfaces. The peened surface is then chemically cleaned of residual traces of the brittle component so as to provide a surface of essentially the malleable component to which the corrosion-resistant material may be plated thereon in an adherent manner.

  6. Continious production of exfoliated graphite composite compositions and flow field plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Jinjun (Columbus, OH); Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

    2010-07-20

    A process of continuously producing a more isotropic, electrically conductive composite composition is provided. The process comprises: (a) continuously supplying a compressible mixture comprising exfoliated graphite worms and a binder or matrix material, wherein the binder or matrix material is in an amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the mixture; (b) continuously compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi or 0.035 MPa to about 50,000 psi or 350 MPa in at least a first direction into a cohered graphite composite compact; and (c) continuously compressing the composite compact in a second direction, different from the first direction, to form the composite composition in a sheet or plate form. The process leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

  7. Electroless nickel and ion-plated protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, M.A.; Chaudiere, D.A.; Dake, L.S.; Stewart, T.L.

    1982-04-01

    A preliminary examination of two methods of protecting second surface silvered glass mirrors from environmental degradation is presented. One method employed silver mirrors overcoated with Al, Ni, 304 stainless steel, Cr, or an Al/Cu alloy prepared by ion-plating. The other method used conventional wet process silver mirrors protected with a thin electroless nickel coating. No attempt was made to optimize the coatings for either method. These experimental mirrors were compared with conventional paint backed silver/copper mirrors after exposure to elevated temperatures and water vapor in order to estimate their relative environmental stability. The electroless nickel mirrors showed consistently more resistance to these stresses than either the conventional or ion-plated mirrors, suggesting that they may provide more durable field service.

  8. Flexture plate motion-transfer mechanism, beam-splitter assembly, and interferometer incorporating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carangelo, R.M.; Dettori, M.D.; Grigely, L.J.; Murray, T.C.; Solomon, P.R.; Dine, C.P. Van; Wright, D.D.

    1996-01-23

    A multiplicity of one-piece flexure plates are assembled in pairs to provide a support system on which a retroreflector may be mounted for reciprocal motion. Combined with balance bodies, the flexure plates provide a support system having portions that are dynamically and statically balanced with one another, irrespective of orientation, so as to thereby immunize the unit against extraneous forces. The motion transfer assembly is especially adapted for use to support a moving retroreflector in a two-arm interferometer that may further include a beamsplitter assembly constructed from a one-piece, integrally formed body, the body having convergent, optically flat planar surfaces of specular reflectance, and means for adjustably mounting a beamsplitter therein. The spectrometer is of modular construction, and employs an integrated clocking sub-assembly as well as a light-weight voice-coil motor. 15 figs.

  9. Flexture plate motion-transfer mechanism, beam-splitter assembly, and interferometer incorporating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carangelo, Robert M.; Dettori, Mark D.; Grigely, Lawrence J.; Murray, Terence C.; Solomon, Peter R.; Van Dine, C. Peter; Wright, David D.

    1996-01-01

    A multiplicity of one-piece flexure plates are assembled in pairs to provide a support system on which a retroreflector may be mounted for reciprocal motion. Combined with balance bodies, the flexure plates provide a support system having portions that are dynamically and statically balanced with one another, irrespective of orientation, so as to thereby immunize the unit against extraneous forces. The motion transfer assembly is especially adapted for use to support a moving retroreflector in a two-arm interferometer that may further include a beamsplitter assembly constructed from a one-piece, integrally formed body, the body having convergent, optically flat planar surfaces of specular reflectance, and means for adjustably mounting a beamsplitter therein. The spectrometer is of modular construction, and employs an integrated clocking sub-assembly as well as a light-weight voice-coil motor.

  10. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project research forum on photovoltaic metallization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1983-11-15

    A Photovoltaic Metallization Research Forum, under the sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and the US Department of Energy, was held March 16-18, 1983 at Pine Mountain, Georgia. The Forum consisted of five sessions, covering (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques and (5) future metallization challenges. Twenty-three papers were presented.

  11. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure magnetic and other properties as well. Now a new method for creating optical

  12. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure magnetic and other properties as well. Now a new method for creating optical

  13. Bipolar plate/diffuser for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    2000-01-01

    A combination bipolar plate/diffuser fuel cell component includes an electrically conducting solid material having: a porous region having a porous surface; and a hermetic region, the hermetic region defining at least a portion of at least one coolant channel, the porous region defining at least a portion of at least one reactant channel, the porous region defining a flow field medium for diffusing the reactant to the porous surface.

  14. Bipolar plate/diffuser for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    2001-01-01

    A combination bipolar plate/diffuser fuel cell component includes an electrically conducting solid material having: a porous region having a porous surface; and a hermetic region, the hermetic region defining at least a portion of at least one coolant channel, the porous region defining at least a portion of at least one reactant channel, the porous region defining a flow field medium for diffusing the reactant to the porous surface.

  15. NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF FUEL PLATES FOR THE RERTR FUEL DEVELOPMENT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; S.C. Taylor; G.A. Moore; D.M. Sterbentz

    2012-09-01

    Nuclear fuel is the core component of reactors that is used to produce the neutron flux required for irradiation research purposes as well as commercial power generation. The development of nuclear fuels with low enrichments of uranium is a major endeavor of the RERTR program. In the development of these fuels, the RERTR program uses nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques for the purpose of determining the properties of nuclear fuel plate experiments without imparting damage or altering the fuel specimens before they are irradiated in a reactor. The vast range of properties and information about the fuel plates that can be characterized using NDE makes them highly useful for quality assurance and for analyses used in modeling the behavior of the fuel while undergoing irradiation. NDE is also particularly useful for creating a control group for post-irradiation examination comparison. The two major categories of NDE discussed in this paper are X-ray radiography and ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection/evaluation. The radiographic scans are used for the characterization of fuel meat density and homogeneity as well as the determination of fuel location within the cladding. The UT scans are able to characterize indications such as voids, delaminations, inclusions, and other abnormalities in the fuel plates which are generally referred to as debonds as well as to determine the thickness of the cladding using ultrasonic acoustic microscopy methods. Additionally, the UT techniques are now also being applied to in-canal interim examination of fuel experiments undergoing irradiation and the mapping of the fuel plate surface profile to determine fuel swelling. The methods used to carry out these NDE techniques, as well as how they operate and function, are described along with a description of which properties are characterized.

  16. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure magnetic and other properties as well. Now a new method for creating optical

  17. Direct tests of micro channel plates as the active element of a new shower maximum detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronzhin, A.; Los, S.; Ramberg, E.; Apresyan, A.; Xie, S.; Spiropulu, M.; Kim, H.

    2015-05-22

    We continue the study of micro channel plates (MCP) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present below test beam results obtained with MCPs detecting directly secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. The MCP efficiency to shower particles is close to 100%. Furthermore, the time resolution obtained for this new type of the SM detector is at the level of 40 ps.

  18. Direct tests of micro channel plates as the active element of a new shower maximum detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronzhin, A.; Los, S.; Ramberg, E.; Apresyan, A.; Xie, S.; Spiropulu, M.; Kim, H.

    2015-05-22

    We continue the study of micro channel plates (MCP) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present below test beam results obtained with MCPs detecting directly secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. The MCP efficiency to shower particles is close to 100%. In conclusion, the time resolution obtained for this new type of the SM detector is at the level of 40 ps.

  19. Drag reducing effects of polymer additives in a plate heat exchanger for the OTEC system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, N.; Yoon, S.; Kim, C.; Seo, T.

    1999-07-01

    Experiments were undertaken for a 15kW Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger utilizing polyethylene oxide as a polymer additive. Concentrations of polymer additives were 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 200 and 400 wppm at 25 C and mass flow rates were 0.6kg/s, 0.7kg/s, 0.8kg/s and 0.9kg/s in normal operating ranges of the plate heat exchanger. The maximum effects of drag reductions were found at 20 wppm polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and mass flow rate for the plate heat exchanger for maximum drag reduction effects. In most cases, drag reduction of approximately 20% has been obtained. It means considerable savings in pumping power for a large size OTEC plant.

  20. Efficient gas sensitivity in mixed bismuth ferrite micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waghmare, Shivaji D.; Jadhav, Vijaykumar V.; Gore, Shaym K.; Yoon, Seog-Joon; Ambade, Swapnil B.; Lokhande, B.J.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Micro (cubes) structure embedded in nano (plates) of bismuth ferrite was prepared by a chemical method. ? These structures were characterized by XRD and SEM. ? LPG, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 4} gases were exposed. ? Properties related to gas sensors were measured and reported. -- Abstract: Mixed micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures of bismuth ferrite (BFO) have been synthesized by a simple and cost-effective wet-chemical method. Structural, morphological and phase confirmation characteristics are measured using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. The digital FE-SEM photo-images of BFO sample confirmed an incubation of discrete micro-cubes into thin and regularly placed large number of nano-plates. The bismuth ferrite, with mixed structures, films show considerable performance when used in liquefied petroleum (LPG), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and ammonium (NH{sub 3}) gas sensors application. Different chemical entities in LPG have made it more efficient with higher sensitivity, recovery and response times compared to CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} gases. Furthermore, effect of palladium surface treatment on the gas sensitivity and the charge transfer resistances of BFO mixed structures is investigated and reported.

  1. Pulsed laser generation of ultrasound in a metal plate between the melting and ablation thresholds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Every, A. G.; Utegulov, Z. N.; Veres, I. A.

    2015-03-31

    The generation of ultrasound in a metal plate exposed to nanosecond pulsed laser heating, sufficient to cause melting but not ablation, is treated. Consideration is given to the spatial and temporal profiles of the laser pulse, penetration of the laser beam into the sample, the evolution of the melt pool, and thermal conduction in the melt and surrounding solid. The excitation of the ultrasound takes place over a few nanoseconds, and occurs predominantly within the thermal diffusion length of a micron or so beneath the surface. Because of this, the output of the thermal simulations can be represented as axially symmetric transient radial and normal surface force distributions. The epicentral displacement response at the opposite surface to these forces is obtained by two methods, the one based on the elastodynamic Green’s functions for plate geometry determined by the Cagniard generalized ray method, and the other using a finite element numerical method. The two approaches are in very close agreement. Numerical simulations are reported of the epicentral displacement response of a 3.12mm thick tungsten plate irradiated with a 4 ns pulsed laser beam with Gaussian spatial profile, at intensities below and above the melt threshold. Comparison is made between results obtained using available temperature dependent thermophysical data, and room temperature materials constants except near the melting point.

  2. Rolling contact fatigue in high vacuum using ion plated nickel-copper-silver solid lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2011-01-15

    Ion plated, nickel-copper-silver coated steel ball bearings that were tested in rolling contact fatigue (RCF) experiments in high vacuum are presented in this article. ANSI T5 ball bearings were coated with approximately 10 nm of nickel-copper followed by 100 nm of silver using a dc ion plating process. The balls were then tested for RCF in vacuum in the 10{sup -7} Torr range at 130 Hz rotational speed and at 4.1 GPa Hertzian contact stress. The significance of this work is in the extension of RCF testing to an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application using silver as a lubricant instead of oil. The effects of pressure and voltage on the ion plating process were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy and RCF life testing in UHV. Test results with a ball size of 5/16 in. in UHV show that deposition at voltages greater than 2.5 kV shortens the RCF life and introduces a unique failure mode. Voltage and pressure fluctuations during the deposition process result in significant thickness monitor measurement errors as well. A regulator control scheme that minimizes the process pressure overshoot is also simulated.

  3. Annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attalage, R.A.; Reddy, T.A. )

    1992-01-01

    A correlation for annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate solar collector has been developed using simulated results based on typical meteorological year (TMY) data for 26 US locations. A preliminary validation of this correlation has been carried out with data from four Australian locations. With the advent of increasing interest in photovoltaic systems, there are a number of advantages of using a two-axis flat-plate collector. Since the tracking system is generally much cheaper than the collector panel, such a mode permits the incident solar radiation to be collected more efficiently. Incidence angle effects are minimized and, moreover, contrary to concentrating collectors, such a mode enables both the diffuse and beam components of solar radiation to be collected. In tropical locations where the diffuse fraction is generally high, this may be a great advantage. The objective of this study was to develop a correlation for the annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate collector.

  4. Fracture initiation by local brittle zones in weldments of quenched and tempered structural alloy steel plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenney, K.L.; Reuter, W.G.; Reemsnyder, H.S.; Matlock, D.K.

    1997-12-31

    The heat-affected zone (HAZ) embrittlement of an API 2Y Grade 50T quenched and tempered offshore structural steel plate, welded by the submerged-arc process at a heat input of 4.5 kJ/mm, was investigated from the viewpoint of identifying the local brittle zone (LBZ) microstructure and the metallurgical factors associated with its formation. Microstructural and fractographic analysis showed the LBZ microstructure to be dual phase martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent. The formation of M-A constituent was found to be related to microstructural banding of the hot-rolled base plate. When the banded base plate was welded, M-A constituent formed only within the band microstructure which penetrated the intercritically-reheated coarse-grain HAZ (IRCGHAZ). The chemistry of the band microstructure in conjunction with the thermal cycle of the IRCGHAZ provided the critical conditions for the formation of M-A constituent in the API 2Y Grade 50T steel investigated. The influence of local brittle zones (i.e., M-A constituent) on the HAZ fracture toughness was evaluated by means of Crack-Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) tests. These tests showed the steel to suffer embrittlement when the fatigue precrack sampled an intercritically-reheated coarse-grain HAZ which contained M-A constituent, confirming that M-A constituent is the major microstructural factor controlling the HAZ toughness of this particular steel.

  5. Size and concentration measurements of particles produced in commercial chromium plating processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonin, M.P.; Flower, W.L.; Renzi, R.F.; Peng, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    Optical measurements of particle size and concentration were made at the chromium plating tank and exhaust system at a commercial hexavalent chromium plating facility. Particles were examined at three locations in the exhaust system: (1) directly at the hexavalent chromium plating bath surface, (2) at the exit of a cyclone separator located in the exhaust system approximately three to four meters downstream of the bath, and (3) in the exhaust stack, downstream of the induced draft fan and all abatement devices. Particle diameters at the bath surface ranged from 0.3 to 25 {mu}m. Downstream of the cyclone exit and mesh pad filters, particle top sizes were approximately 5 and 0.7 mm, respectively. On a mass basis, the collection efficiency of all abatement devices was 99.997%. Assuming that droplets in the flow consist primarily of water and chromium, correcting the total particle mass flow against water content gives a chromium emission rate of 64,000 {mu}g/hr, which compares favorably with a value of 77,000 {mu}g/hr measured with EPA methods. This initial agreement, which should be validated through additional measurements over a broad range of flow conditions, raises the possibility of continuous monitoring for chromium metal emissions using particle size/mass as a surrogate. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Laser-launched flyer plate and confined laser ablation for shock wave loading: Validation and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, Dennis L.; Luo Shengnian; Greenfield, Scott R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.

    2008-02-15

    We present validation and some applications of two laser-driven shock wave loading techniques: laser-launched flyer plate and confined laser ablation. We characterize the flyer plate during flight and the dynamically loaded target with temporally and spatially resolved diagnostics. With transient imaging displacement interferometry, we demonstrate that the planarity (bow and tilt) of the loading induced by a spatially shaped laser pulse is within 2-7 mrad (with an average of 4{+-}1 mrad), similar to that in conventional techniques including gas gun loading. Plasma heating of target is negligible, in particular, when a plasma shield is adopted. For flyer plate loading, supported shock waves can be achieved. Temporal shaping of the drive pulse in confined laser ablation allows for flexible loading, e.g., quasi-isentropic, Taylor-wave, and off-Hugoniot loading. These techniques can be utilized to investigate such dynamic responses of materials as Hugoniot elastic limit, plasticity, spall, shock roughness, equation of state, phase transition, and metallurgical characteristics of shock-recovered samples.

  7. Preliminary Measurements From A New Flat Plate Facility For Aerodynamic Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. McEligot; D. W. Nigg; E. J. Walsh; D. Hernon; M.R.D. Davies

    2005-03-01

    This paper details the design and preliminary measurements used in the characterisation of a new flat plate research facility. The facility is designed specifically to aid in the understanding of entropy generation throughout the boundary layer with special attention given to non-equilibrium flows. Hot-wire measurements were obtained downstream of two turbulence generating grids. The turbulence intensity, integral and dissipation length scale ranges measured are 1.6%-7%, 5mm-17mm and 0.7mm-7mm, respectively. These values compared well to existing correlations. The flow downstream of both grids was found to be homogenous and isotropic. Flow visualisation is employed to determine aerodynamic parameters such as flow 2-dimensionality and the effect of the flap angle on preventing separation at the leading edge. The flow was found to be 2-dimensional over all measurement planes. The non-dimensional pressure distribution of a modern turbine blade suction surface is simulated on the flat plate through the use of a variable upper wall. The Reynolds number range based on wetted plate length and inlet velocity is 70,000-4,000,000.

  8. Effects of the foil flatness on irradiation performance of U10Mo monolithic mini-plates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ozaltun, Hakan; Medvedev, Pavel G.; Rabin, Barry H.

    2015-09-03

    Monolithic plate-type fuels comprise of a high density, low enrichment, U10Mo fuel foil encapsulated in a cladding material. This concept generates several fabrication challenges such as flatness, centering or thickness variation. There are concerns, if these parameters have implications on overall performance. To investigate these inquiries, the effects of the foil flatness were studied. For this, a representative plate was simulated for an ideal case. The simulations were repeated for additional cases with various foil curvatures to evaluate the effects on the irradiation performance. The results revealed that the stresses and strains induced by fabrication process are not affected bymore » the flatness of the foil. Furthermore, fabrication stresses in the foil are relieved relatively fast in the reactor. The effects of the foil flatness on peak irradiation stressstrains are minimal. There is a slight increase in temperature for the case with maximum curvature. The major impact is on the displacement characteristics. Furthermore, while the case with a flat foil produces a symmetrical swelling, if the foil is curved, more swelling occurs on the thin-cladding side and the plate bows during irradiation.« less

  9. Thin graphite bipolar plate with associated gaskets and carbon cloth flow-field for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchetti, George A.

    2003-01-03

    The present invention comprises a thin graphite plate with associated gaskets and pieces of carbon cloth that comprise a flow-field. The plate, gaskets and flow-field comprise a "plate and gasket assembly" for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell, fuel cell stack or battery.

  10. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Stanley R.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  11. An exact solution for the history-dependent material and delamination behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Todd O

    2009-01-01

    The exact solution for the history-dependent behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending is presented. The solution represents the extension of Pagano's solution to consider arbitrary types of constitutive behaviors for the individual lamina as well as arbitrary types of cohesive zones models for delamination behavior. Examples of the possible types of material behavior are plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and damaging. Examples of possible CZMs that can be considered are linear, nonlinear hardening, as well as nonlinear with softening. The resulting solution is intended as a benchmark solution for considering the predictive capabilities of different plate theories. Initial results are presented for several types of history-dependent material behaviors. It is shown that the plate response in the presence of history-dependent behaviors can differ dramatically from the elastic response. These results have strong implications for what constitutes an appropriate plate theory for modeling such behaviors.

  12. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in butt-welded thick steel plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamas, Tuncay E-mail: victorg@sc.edu Giurgiutiu, Victor E-mail: victorg@sc.edu Lin, Bin E-mail: victorg@sc.edu

    2015-03-31

    This paper discusses theoretical and experimental analyses of weld guided surface acoustic waves (SAW) through the guided wave propagation (GWP) analyses. The GWP analyses have been carried out by utilizing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for in situ structural inspection of a thick steel plate with butt weld as the weld bead is ground flush. Ultrasonic techniques are commonly used for validation of welded structures in many in-situ monitoring applications, e.g. in off-shore structures, in nuclear and pressure vessel industries and in a range of naval applications. PWAS is recently employed in such ultrasonic applications as a resonator as well as a transducer. Quasi-Rayleigh waves a.k.a. SAW can be generated in relatively thick isotropic elastic plate having the same phase velocity as Rayleigh waves whereas Rayleigh waves are a high frequency approximation of the first symmetric (S0) and anti-symmetric (A0) Lamb wave modes. As the frequency becomes very high the S0 and the A0 wave speeds coalesce, and both have the same value. This value is exactly the Rayleigh wave speed and becomes constant along the frequency i.e. Rayleigh waves are non-dispersive guided surface acoustic waves. The study is followed with weld-GWP tests through the pitch-catch method along the butt weld line. The tuning curves of quasi-Rayleigh wave are determined to show the tuning and trapping effect of the weld bead that has higher thickness than the adjacent plates on producing a dominant quasi-Rayleigh wave mode. The significant usage of the weld tuned and guided quasi-Rayleigh wave mode is essentially discussed for the applications in the in-situ inspection of relatively thick structures with butt weld such as naval offshore structures. The paper ends with summary, conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  13. Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short bunches shielded by conducting parallel plates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stupakov, Gennady; Zhou, Demin

    2016-04-21

    We develop a general model of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) impedance with shielding provided by two parallel conducting plates. This model allows us to easily reproduce all previously known analytical CSR wakes and to expand the analysis to situations not explored before. It reduces calculations of the impedance to taking integrals along the trajectory of the beam. New analytical results are derived for the radiation impedance with shielding for the following orbits: a kink, a bending magnet, a wiggler of finite length, and an infinitely long wiggler. Furthermore, all our formulas are benchmarked against numerical simulations with the CSRZ computermore » code.« less

  14. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, Dave; Wiehagen, Joseph; Kochkin, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders.

  15. Hot Isostatic Press Manufacturing Process Development for Fabrication of RERTR Monolithic Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crapps, Justin M.; Clarke, Kester D.; Katz, Joel D.; Alexander, David J.; Aikin, Beverly; Vargas, Victor D.; Montalvo, Joel D.; Dombrowski, David E.; Mihaila, Bogdan

    2012-06-06

    We use experimentation and finite element modeling to study a Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) manufacturing process for U-10Mo Monolithic Fuel Plates. Finite element simulations are used to identify the material properties affecting the process and improve the process geometry. Accounting for the high temperature material properties and plasticity is important to obtain qualitative agreement between model and experimental results. The model allows us to improve the process geometry and provide guidance on selection of material and finish conditions for the process strongbacks. We conclude that the HIP can must be fully filled to provide uniform normal stress across the bonding interface.

  16. Fatigue fracture of thin plates under tensile and transverse shear stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viz, M.J.; Zehnder, A.T.; Bamford, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    Crack growth in thin sheets loaded under tension and transverse shear is studied experimentally and the mechanics of such problems are reviewed. A small scale yielding approach is adopted that describes the crack tip fields using a combination if Kirchhoff plate theory and plane stress elasticity. Techniques for calculating the relevant stress intensity factors are presented and validated with results from six test cases. Fatigue crack growth rates are measured using a double-edge notch test specimen configuration loaded in tension and torsion. A geometrically nonlinear finite element computation is used to determine the stress intensity factors as functions of axial load, torque, and crack length.

  17. Thin-film flat-plate solar collectors for low-cost manufacture and installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-03-01

    A flat-plate solar energy collector design using thin-film plastics in both the absorber and glazing is described. The design approach proceeded in two steps. First, cost constraints on solar collectors were determined using reasonable economic projections. Second, engineering was applied only to those ideas which had hope of falling within those cost boundaries. The use of thin-film plastics appeared most attractive according to these criteria. The nature of the marketing and distribution network can be expected to have a strong impact on the final installed cost of the collector; the proposed design has characteristics which could make possible a reduced price markup.

  18. Evidence for long-lived subduction of an ancient tectonic plate beneath the southern Indian Ocean

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.; Grand, S. P.

    2015-11-14

    In this study, ancient subducted tectonic plates have been observed in past seismic images of the mantle beneath North America and Eurasia, and it is likely that other ancient slab structures have remained largely hidden, particularly in the seismic-data-limited regions beneath the vast oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present a new global tomographic image, which shows a slab-like structure beneath the southern Indian Ocean with coherency from the upper mantle to the core-mantle boundary region—a feature that has never been identified. We postulate that the structure is an ancient tectonic plate that sank into the mantle along anmore » extensive intraoceanic subduction zone that migrated southwestward across the ancient Tethys Ocean in the Mesozoic Era. Slab material still trapped in the transition zone is positioned near the edge of East Gondwana at 140 Ma suggesting that subduction terminated near the margin of the ancient continent prior to breakup and subsequent dispersal of its subcontinents.« less

  19. Astrometry of Pluto from 1930-1951 observations: The Lampland plate collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buie, Marc W.; Folkner, William M. E-mail: william.m.folkner@jpl.nasa.gov

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analysis of 843 photographic plates of Pluto taken by Carl Lampland at Lowell Observatory from 19301951. This large collection of plates contains useful astrometric information that improves our knowledge of Pluto's orbit. This improvement provides critical support to the impending flyby of Pluto by New Horizons. New Horizons can do inbound navigation of the system to improve its targeting. This navigation is capable of nearly eliminating the sky-plane errors but can do little to constrain the time of closest approach. Thus the focus on this work was to better determine Pluto's heliocentric distance and to determine the uncertainty on that distance with a particular eye to eliminating systematic errors that might have been previously unrecognized. This work adds 596 new astrometric measurements based on the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog 4. With the addition of these data the uncertainty of the estimated heliocentric position of Pluto in Developmental Ephemerides 432 (DE432) is at the level of 1000 km. This new analysis gives us more confidence that these estimations are accurate and are sufficient to support a successful flyby of Pluto by New Horizons.

  20. Sub-Seafloor Carbon Dioxide Storage Potential on the Juan de Fuca Plate, Western North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Fairley; Robert Podgorney

    2012-11-01

    The Juan de Fuca plate, off the western coast of North America, has been suggested as a site for geological sequestration of waste carbon dioxide because of its many attractive characteristics (high permeability, large storage capacity, reactive rock types). Here we model CO2 injection into fractured basalts comprising the upper several hundred meters of the sub-seafloor basalt reservoir, overlain with low-permeability sediments and a large saline water column, to examine the feasibility of this reservoir for CO2 storage. Our simulations indicate that the sub-seafloor basalts of the Juan de Fuca plate may be an excellent CO2 storage candidate, as multiple trapping mechanisms (hydrodynamic, density inversions, and mineralization) act to keep the CO2 isolated from terrestrial environments. Questions remain about the lateral extent and connectivity of the high permeability basalts; however, the lack of wells or boreholes and thick sediment cover maximize storage potential while minimizing potential leakage pathways. Although promising, more study is needed to determine the economic viability of this option.

  1. Convective heat transfer with buoyancy effects from thermal sources on a flat plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, S.S.; Jaluria, Y. )

    1991-06-01

    An experimental study is carried out on the thermal interaction between two finite-size heat sources, located on a flat plate that is well insulated on the back. Both the horizontal and the vertical orientations of the surface are studied by measuring the flow velocities, the temperature field, and the local heat flux. The investigation is directed at the pure natural convection circumstance (no forced flow velocity) and the buoyancy-dominated mixed-convection circumstance (presence of a relatively small forced flow velocity). Large temperature gradients occur in the vicinity of the heat sources, resulting in a substantial diffusion of heat along the plate length. However, the effect of conduction is found to be highly localized. The orientation of the surface has a very strong effect on the interaction of the wakes from the heat sources for the circumstances considered. An upstream source is found to have a very strong influence on the temperature of a downstream source in the vertical surface orientation but has a much weaker influence in the horizontal orientation. In the latter circumstance the presence of a small forced flow velocity may actually increase the temperature of a downstream source by tilting the wake from the upstream source toward the downstream source. 25 refs.

  2. Method of producing exfoliated graphite composite compositions for fuel cell flow field plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-04-08

    A method of producing an electrically conductive composite composition, which is particularly useful for fuel cell bipolar plate applications. The method comprises: (a) providing a supply of expandable graphite powder; (b) providing a supply of a non-expandable powder component comprising a binder or matrix material; (c) blending the expandable graphite with the non-expandable powder component to form a powder mixture wherein the non-expandable powder component is in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the powder mixture; (d) exposing the powder mixture to a temperature sufficient for exfoliating the expandable graphite to obtain a compressible mixture comprising expanded graphite worms and the non-expandable component; (e) compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi to about 50,000 psi in predetermined directions into predetermined forms of cohered graphite composite compact; and (f) treating the so-formed cohered graphite composite to activate the binder or matrix material thereby promoting adhesion within the compact to produce the desired composite composition. Preferably, the non-expandable powder component further comprises an isotropy-promoting agent such as non-expandable graphite particles. Further preferably, step (e) comprises compressing the mixture in at least two directions. The method leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

  3. Evidence for long-lived subduction of an ancient tectonic plate beneath the southern Indian Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.; Grand, S. P.

    2015-11-14

    In this study, ancient subducted tectonic plates have been observed in past seismic images of the mantle beneath North America and Eurasia, and it is likely that other ancient slab structures have remained largely hidden, particularly in the seismic-data-limited regions beneath the vast oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present a new global tomographic image, which shows a slab-like structure beneath the southern Indian Ocean with coherency from the upper mantle to the core-mantle boundary region—a feature that has never been identified. We postulate that the structure is an ancient tectonic plate that sank into the mantle along an extensive intraoceanic subduction zone that migrated southwestward across the ancient Tethys Ocean in the Mesozoic Era. Slab material still trapped in the transition zone is positioned near the edge of East Gondwana at 140 Ma suggesting that subduction terminated near the margin of the ancient continent prior to breakup and subsequent dispersal of its subcontinents.

  4. Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling of High-Aspect Ratio Nuclear Fuel Plates Using COMSOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Franklin G [ORNL] [ORNL; Ekici, Kivanc [ORNL] [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Lab is in the research stage of converting its fuel from high-enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium. Due to different physical properties of the new fuel and changes to the internal fuel plate design, the current safety basis must be re-evaluated through rigorous computational analyses. One of the areas being explored is the fluid-structure interaction phenomenon due to the interaction of thin fuel plates (50 mils thickness) and the cooling fluid (water). Detailed computational fluid dynamics and fluid-structure interaction simulations have only recently become feasible due to improved numerical algorithms and advancements in computing technology. For many reasons including the already built-in fluid-structure interaction module, COMSOL has been chosen for this complex problem. COMSOL's ability to solve multiphysics problems using a fully-coupled and implicit solution algorithm is crucial in obtaining a stable and accurate solution. Our initial findings show that COMSOL can accurately model such problems due to its ability to closely couple the fluid dynamics and the structural dynamics problems.

  5. Microstructural Characterization of U-7Mo/Al-Si Alloy Matrix Dispersion Fuel Plates Fabricated at 500°C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Bo Yao; Emmanuel Perez; Yongho Sohn; Curtis R. Clark

    2011-05-01

    The starting microstructure of a dispersion fuel plate will impact the overall performance of the plate during irradiation. To improve the understanding of the as-fabricated microstructures of U–Mo dispersion fuel plates, particularly the interaction layers that can form between the fuel particles and the matrix, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses have been performed on samples from depleted U–7Mo (U–7Mo) dispersion fuel plates with either Al–2 wt.% Si(Al–2Si) or AA4043 alloy matrix. It was observed that in the thick interaction layers, U(Al, Si)3 and U6Mo4Al43 were present, and in the thin interaction layers, (U, Mo) (Al, Si)3, U(Al, Si)4, U3Si3Al2, U3Si5, and possibly USi-type phases were observed. The U3Si3Al2 phase contained some Mo. Based on the results of this investigation, the time that a dispersion fuel plate is exposed to a relatively high temperature during fabrication will impact the nature of the interaction layers around the fuel particles. Uniformly thin, Si-rich layers will develop around the U–7Mo particles for shorter exposure times, and thicker, Si-depleted layers will develop for the longer exposure times.

  6. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 Grade B Plate materials, data analysis. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study on one heat of A302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in tests made on recent production materials of A533 grade B and A508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A302 grade B steels or unique to that particular plate. Seven heats of modified A302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A533 grade B steel were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550F. Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, 1T, 2T, and 4T). The fracture mechanics-based evaluation method covered three test orientations and three test temperatures (80, 400, and 550F). However, the coverage of these variables was contingent upon the amount of material provided. Drop-weight NDT temperature was determined for the T-L orientation only. None of the heats of modified A302 grade B showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550F produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and curve fits were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume deals with the evaluation of data and the discussion of technical findings. 8 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Transient Eddy Current Response Due to a Subsurface Crack in a Conductive Plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fangwei Fu

    2006-08-09

    Eddy current nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is usually carried out by exciting a time harmonic field using an inductive probe. However, a viable alternative is to use transient eddy current NDE in which a current pulse in a driver coil produces a transient .eld in a conductor that decays at a rate dependent on the conductivity and the permeability of the material and the coil configuration. By using transient eddy current, it is possible to estimate the properties of the conductive medium and to locate and size potential .aws from the measured probe response. The fundamental study described in this dissertation seeks to establish a theoretical understanding of the transient eddy current NDE. Compared with the Fourier transform method, the derived analytical formulations are more convenient when the transient eddy current response within a narrow time range is evaluated. The theoretical analysis provides a valuable tool to study the effect of layer thickness, location of defect, crack opening as well as the optimization of probe design. Analytical expressions have been developed to evaluate the transient response due to eddy currents in a conductive plate based on two asymptotic series. One series converges rapidly for a short time regime and the other for a long time regime and both of them agree with the results calculated by fast Fourier transform over all the times considered. The idea of asymptotic expansion is further applied to determine the induced electromotive force (EMF) in a pick-up coil due to eddy currents in a cylindrical rod. Starting from frequency domain representation, a quasi-static time domain dyadic Green's function for an electric source in a conductive plate has been derived. The resulting expression has three parts; a free space term, multiple image terms and partial reflection terms. The dyadic Green's function serves as the kernel of an electric field integral equation which defines the interaction of an ideal crack with the transient eddy currents in a conductive plate. The crack response is found using the reciprocity theorem. Good agreement is observed between the predictions of the magnetic field due to the crack and experimental measurements.

  8. Validation of ATR Fission Power Deposition Fraction in HEU and LEU Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power (250 MW), high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux rating of 1.0 x 1015 n/cm2s. Because of its high power and large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR full core model has been developed and validated for the low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel conversion feasibility study. Using this model, an analysis has been performed to determine the LEU density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield equivalent K-eff versus effective full power days (EFPDs) between the HEU and LEU cores. This model has also been used to optimize U-235 content of the LEU core, minimizing the differences in K-eff and heat flux profile between the HEU and LEU cores at 115 MW total core power for 125 EFPDs. The LEU core conversion feasibility study evaluated foil type (U-10Mo) fuel with the LEU reference design of 19.7 wt% U-235 enrichment. The LEU reference design has a fixed fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm and can sustain the same operating cycle length as the HEU fuel. Heat flux and fission power density are parameters that are proportional to the fraction of fission power deposited in fuel. Thus, the accurate determination of the fraction of fission power deposited in the fuel is important to ATR nuclear safety. In this work, a new approach was developed and validated, the Tally Fuel Cells Only (TFCO) method. This method calculates and compares the fission power deposition fraction between HEU and LEU fuel plates. Due to the high density of the U-10Mo LEU fuel, the fission ?-energy deposition fraction is 37.12%, which is larger than the HEUs ?-energy deposition fraction of 19.7%. As a result, the fuel decay heat cooling will need to be improved. During the power operation, the total fission energy (200 MeV per fission) deposition fraction of LEU and HEU are 90.9% and 89.1%, respectively.

  9. 3D COMSOL Simulations for Thermal Deflection of HFIR Fuel Plate in the "Cheverton-Kelley" Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Prashant K; Freels, James D; Cook, David Howard

    2012-08-01

    Three dimensional simulation capabilities are currently being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element modeling software, to investigate thermal expansion of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) s low enriched uranium fuel plates. To validate simulations, 3D models have also been developed for the experimental setup used by Cheverton and Kelley in 1968 to investigate the buckling and thermal deflections of HFIR s highly enriched uranium fuel plates. Results for several simulations are presented in this report, and comparisons with the experimental data are provided when data are available. A close agreement between the simulation results and experimental findings demonstrates that the COMSOL simulations are able to capture the thermal expansion physics accurately and that COMSOL could be deployed as a predictive tool for more advanced computations at realistic HFIR conditions to study temperature-induced fuel plate deflection behavior.

  10. Surface temperature distribution of GTA weld pools on thin-plate 304 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Kraus, H.G.

    1995-11-01

    A transient multidimensional computational model was utilized to study gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of thin-plate 304 stainless steel (SS). The model eliminates several of the earlier restrictive assumptions including temperature-independent thermal-physical properties. Consequently, all important thermal-physical properties were considered as temperature dependent throughout the range of temperatures experienced by the weld metal. The computational model was used to predict surface temperature distribution of the GTA weld pools in 1.5-mm-thick AISI 304 SS. The welding parameters were chosen so as to correspond with an earlier experimental study that produced high-resolution surface temperature maps. One of the motivations of the present study was to verify the predictive capability of the computational model. Comparison of the numerical predictions and experimental observations indicate excellent agreement, thereby verifying the model.

  11. Response functions of imaging plates to photons, electrons and {sup 4}He particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnet, T.; Denis-Petit, D.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Aléonard, M. M.

    2013-10-15

    Imaging plates from Fuji (BAS-SR, MS, and TR types) are phosphor films routinely used in ultra high intensity laser experiments. However, few data are available on the absolute IP response functions to ionizing particles. We have previously measured and modeled the IP response functions to protons. We focus here on the determination of the responses to photons, electrons, and {sup 4}He particles. The response functions are obtained on an energy range going from a few tens of keV to a few tens of MeV and are compared to available data. The IP sensitivities to the different ionizing particles demonstrate a quenching effect depending on the particle stopping power.

  12. Investigation on the Interface Morphologies of Explosive Welding of Inconel 625 to Steel A516 Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Zareie, H. R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-17

    The purpose of this study is to produce composite plates by explosive cladding process. This is a process in which the controlled energy of explosives is used to create a metallic bond between two similar or dissimilar materials. The welding conditions were tailored through parallel geometry route with different operational parameters. In this investigation, a two-pronged study was adopted to establish the conditions required for producing successful solid state welding: (a) Analytical calculations to determine the weldability domain or welding window; (b) Metallurgical investigations of explosive welding experiments carried out under different explosive ratios to produce both wavy and straight interfaces. The analytical calculations confirm the experimental results. Optical microscopy studies show that a transition from a smooth to wavy interface occurs with an increase in explosive ratio. SEM studies show that the interface was outlined by characteristic sharp transition between two materials.

  13. The coupling of mechanical dynamics and induced currents in plates and surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissenburger, D.W.; Bialek, J.M.

    1986-10-01

    Significant mechanical reactions and deflections may be produced when electrical eddy currents induced in a conducting structure by transformer-like electromotive forces interact with background magnetic fields. Additional eddy currents induced by structural motion through the background fields modify both the mechanical and electrical dynamic behavior of the system. The observed effects of these motional eddy currents are sometimes referred to as magnetic damping and magnetic stiffness. This paper addresses the coupled structural deformation and eddy currents in flat plates and simple two-dimensional surfaces in three-space. A coupled system of equations has been formulated using finite element techniques for the mechanical aspects and a mesh network method for the electrical aspects of the problem.

  14. Numerical simulation of tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peryshkin, A. Yu.; Makarov, P. V. Eremin, M. O.

    2014-11-14

    An evolutionary approach proposed in [1, 2] combining the achievements of traditional macroscopic theory of solid mechanics and basic ideas of nonlinear dynamics is applied in a numerical simulation of present-day tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia. Relative values of strength parameters of rigid blocks with respect to the soft zones were characterized by the ? parameter that was varied in the numerical experiments within ? = 1.11.8 for different groups of the zonal-block divisibility. In general, the numerical simulations of tectonic block motion and accompanying seismic process in the model geomedium indicate that the numerical solutions of the solid mechanics equations characterize its deformation as a typical behavior of a nonlinear dynamic system under conditions of self-organized criticality.

  15. Fuel cell assembly fluid flow plate having conductive fibers and rigidizing material therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, Michael M.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow plate is preferably formed with three initial sections, for instance, two layers of conductive (e.g., metal) fibers and a barrier material (e.g., metal foil) which is interposed between the two layers. For example, sintering of these three sections can provide electrical path(s) between outer faces of the two layers. Then, the sintered sections can be, for instance, placed in a mold for forming of flow channel(s) into one or more of the outer faces. Next, rigidizing material (e.g., resin) can be injected into the mold, for example, to fill and/or seal space(s) about a conductive matrix of the electrical path(s). Preferably, abrading of surface(s) of the outer face(s) serves to expose electrical contact(s) to the electrical path(s).

  16. Iron-based alloy and nitridation treatment for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P. [Oak Ridge, TN; Yang, Bing [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J. [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-09

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive component that can be used as a bipolar plate in a PEM fuel cell application is composed of an alloy substrate which has 10-30 wt. % Cr, 0.5 to 7 wt. % V, and base metal being Fe, and a continuous surface layer of chromium nitride and vanadium nitride essentially free of base metal. A oxide layer of chromium vanadium oxide can be disposed between the alloy substrate and the continuous surface nitride layer. A method to prepare the corrosion resistant electrically conductive component involves a two-step nitridization sequence by exposing the alloy to a oxygen containing gas at an elevated temperature, and subsequently exposing the alloy to an oxygen free nitrogen containing gas at an elevated temperature to yield a component where a continuous chromium nitride layer free of iron has formed at the surface.

  17. Corrosion of packaged cadmium plated electrical control units from paint vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brough, L.A.

    1987-08-01

    One of the most widely used methods of controlling the degradation of steel is the application of paint. It is relatively easy to accomplish and very economical. Painted steel is used successfully for many applications, including industrial equipment with electrical enclosures. Unless the proper paint and application procedures are selected, corrosion problems may develop directly from the paint, as the following incident will illustrate. A few years ago, a large electrical control enclosure (30 x 72 x 18 in. (76 x 183 x 46 cm)) was supplied to a customer with the control wiring and hardware mounted inside, which included a number of cadmium plated components. The enclosure had been painted inside with a fast drying, vinyl alkyd white enamel shortly before assembly. Since it was known that the completed unit would probably be stored at the customer's plant site for some time before installation, elaborate procedures were followed to retard or prevent degradation of any part of the system.

  18. Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of paint pigmentparticles by scanning a phase plate modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu Y. S.; Chen B.; Zhang F.; Berenguer F.; Bean R.; Kewish C.; Vila-Comamala J.; Rodenburg J.; Robinson I.

    2011-10-19

    We have implemented a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging technique that scans a phase plate to modulate wave-fronts of the x-ray beam transmitted by samples. The method was applied to measure a decorative alkyd paint containing iron oxide red pigment particles. By employing an iterative algorithm for wave-front modulation phase retrieval, we obtained an image of the paint sample that shows the distribution of the pigment particles and is consistent with the result obtained from a transmission x-ray microscope. The technique has been experimentally proven to be a feasible coherent x-ray imaging method with about 120 nm spatial resolution and was shown to work well with industrially relevant specimens.

  19. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumpelt, M. Gorelov, A. M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian metallurgical industry) and supplied to the partner for tests in a stack of fuel cells. A feasibility study on the cost of the Russian material for a BSP is to be done on Tasks 1, 2 in case the annual order makes up 400,000 sheets. The goal of Task 3 of the project is to research on possible implementation of cermet compositions on the basis of LiAlO{sub 2}, TiN, B{sub 4}C, ceramics with Ni and Ni-Mo binders. BaCeO{sub 3} conductive ceramics with metal binders of Ni, Ni-Cr etc. were also planned to be studied. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of samples is to be made and passed to FCE for tests. The goal of Task 4 of the Project is development of a new alloy or alloys with a ceramic coating that will have upgraded corrosion stability in operation within a SOFC. A new alloy was to be worked out by the way of modification of compositions of industrial alloys. Ceramic coatings are to be applied onto ferrite steel produced serially by iron and steel industry of Russia as sheet iron.

  20. An evaluation of the Johnson-Cook model to simulate puncture of 7075 aluminum plates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corona, Edmundo; Orient, George Edgar

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the use of the Johnson-Cook strength and failure models in an adiabatic finite element model to simulate the puncture of 7075- T651 aluminum plates that were studied as part of an ASC L2 milestone by Corona et al (2012). The Johnson-Cook model parameters were determined from material test data. The results show a marked improvement, in particular in the calculated threshold velocity between no puncture and puncture, over those obtained in 2012. The threshold velocity calculated using a baseline model is just 4% higher than the mean value determined from experiment, in contrast to 60% in the 2012 predictions. Sensitivity studies showed that the threshold velocity predictions were improved by calibrating the relations between the equivalent plastic strain at failure and stress triaxiality, strain rate and temperature, as well as by the inclusion of adiabatic heating.

  1. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-07-15

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  2. Flat-plate solar collectors utilizing polymeric film for high performance and very low cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Polymeric films are used in the construction of the absorber and window portions of a flat plate solar collector. The absorber heat exchanger consists of a channeled liquid envelope constructed using a polymeric film and metal foil laminate. In addition, the composite films and light frame monocoque construction contribute to very light weight and low cost. The use of high-performance polymers permits low-loss designs with high thermal performance. The construction concepts are consistent with high speed mass production and installation with manufacturing cost projections of $15/m/sup 2/. Tests performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and elsewhere indicate performance potential consistent with applications incorporating solar absorption air conditioning.

  3. Low cost, bare plate solar air collector. Semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A low cost, bare plate solar collector that is specifically designed to preheat ambient air with solar energy is discussed. Two prototype solar collector test systems have been designed, fabricated and assembled. Each system has been instrumented to provide instantaneous and average thermal performance data by means of a computerized data logger system. This data logger system is currently being made operational. Data collection is scheduled to begin March 1, 1980 and continue until the project completion date of June 17, 1980. Some preliminary test data have been obtained for both prototype systems. The results showed that ambient air was preheated between 5/sup 0/F and 10/sup 0/F with the systems achieving a thermal performance of between 15% and 30% efficiency.

  4. Drilling and cutting of thin metal plates in water with radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glova, A F; Lysikov, A Yu

    2011-10-31

    The conditions of drilling and cutting of 0.15-mm-thick titanium and stainless steel plates in water with the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser having the mean power up to 30 W are studied experimentally in the absence of water and gas jets. Dependences of the maximal cutting speed in water on the radiation power are obtained, the cutting efficiency is determined, and the comparison with the conditions of drilling and cutting of plates in air is carried out.

  5. Climatically Diverse Data Set for Flat-Plate PV Module Model Validations (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climatically Diverse Data Set for Flat-Plate PV Module Model Validations Bill Marion 2013 Sandia PV Performance Modeling Workshop Santa Clara, CA, May 1-2, 2013 NREL/PR-5200-58600 2 Background * Work began in FY2011 to fulfill a FY2014 milestone for DOE's System Integration Technology Validation Project o "Comprehensive data set, with low measurement uncertainty, of I-V curves and associated meteorological data for PV modules representing all flat-plate technologies and for weather

  6. End plate assembly having a two-phase fluid-filled bladder and method for compressing a fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlstrom, Jr., Charles M.

    2001-01-01

    An end plate assembly is disclosed for use in a fuel cell assembly in which the end plate assembly includes a housing having a cavity, and a bladder receivable in the cavity and engageable with the fuel cell stack. The bladder includes a two-phase fluid having a liquid portion and a vapor portion. Desirably, the two-phase fluid has a vapor pressure between about 100 psi and about 600 psi at a temperature between about 70 degrees C. to about 110 degrees C.

  7. Dynamic response of CSM composite plates - simulation using material No. 58 in LS-DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilkhu, S.S.; Founas, M.; Fong, W.; Agaram, V.

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with finite element simulations of transverse impact response of plates made from continuous strand mat(CSM) glass/acrylic composite which is a potential candidate for making light weight automotive body panels. Two impact tests on the plates which result in two very different kinds of response, a drop tower test and a dart test, have been simulated using anisotropic material damage model No. 58 in LS-DYNA3D. In view of the results obtained in this study, the authors discuss the suitability of material model No. 58 for simulations of impact response in a bending environment.

  8. Fire characterization and object thermal response for a large flat plate adjacent to a large JP-4 fuel fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.; Murray, D.

    1997-01-01

    A series of three 18.9 m diameter JP-4 pool fire experiments with a large (2.1 m X 4.6 m), flat plate calorimeter adjacent to the fuel pool were recently performed. The objectives of these experiments were to: (1) gain a better understanding of fire phenomenology, (2) provide empirical input parameter estimates for simplified, deterministic Risk Assessment Compatible Fire Models (RACFMs), (3) assist in continuing fire field model code validation and development, and (4) enhance the data base of fire temperature and heat flux to object distributions. Due to different wind conditions during each experiment, data were obtained for conditions where the plate was not engulfed, fully-engulfed and partially engulfed by the continuous flame zone. Results include the heat flux distribution to the plate and flame thermocouple temperatures in the vicinity of the plate and at two cross sections within the lower region of the continuous flame zone. The results emphasize the importance of radiative coupling (i.e. the cooling of the flames by a thermally massive object) and convective coupling (including object-induced turbulence and object/wind/flame interactions) in determining the heat flux from a fire to an object. The formation of a secondary flame zone on an object adjacent to a fire via convective coupling (which increases the heat flux by a factor of two) is shown to be possible when the object is located within a distance equal to the object width from the fire.

  9. Characterization of Bond Strength of U-Mo Fuel Plates Using the Laser Shockwave Technique: Capabilities and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Smith; D. L. Cottle; B. H. Rabin

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes work conducted to-date on the implementation of new laser-based capabilities for characterization of bond strength in nuclear fuel plates, and presents preliminary results obtained from fresh fuel studies on as-fabricated monolithic fuel consisting of uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloys clad in 6061 aluminum by hot isostatic pressing. Characterization involves application of two complementary experimental methods, laser-shock testing and laser-ultrasonic imaging, collectively referred to as the Laser Shockwave Technique (LST), that allows the integrity, physical properties and interfacial bond strength in fuel plates to be evaluated. Example characterization results are provided, including measurement of layer thicknesses, elastic properties of the constituents, and the location and nature of generated debonds (including kissing bonds). LST provides spatially localized, non-contacting measurements with minimum specimen preparation, and is ideally suited for applications involving radioactive materials, including irradiated materials. The theoretical principles and experimental approaches employed in characterizing nuclear fuel plates are described, and preliminary bond strength measurement results are discussed, with emphasis on demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of these methods. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability to distinguish bond strength variations between different fuel plates. Although additional development work is necessary to validate and qualify the test methods, these results suggest LST is viable as a method to meet fuel qualification requirements to demonstrate acceptable bonding integrity.

  10. Scaling considerations for a multi-megawatt class supercritical CO2 brayton cycle and commercialization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Conboy, Thomas M.; Pasch, James Jay; Wright, Steven Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Fuller, Robert Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Small-scale supercritical CO2 demonstration loops are successful at identifying the important technical issues that one must face in order to scale up to larger power levels. The Sandia National Laboratories supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle test loops are identifying technical needs to scale the technology to commercial power levels such as 10 MWe. The small size of the Sandia 1 MWth loop has demonstration of the split flow loop efficiency and effectiveness of the Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHXs) leading to the design of a fully recuperated, split flow, supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle demonstration system. However, there were many problems that were encountered, such as high rotational speeds in the units. Additionally, the turbomachinery in the test loops need to identify issues concerning the bearings, seals, thermal boundaries, and motor controller problems in order to be proved a reliable power source in the 300 kWe range. Although these issues were anticipated in smaller demonstration units, commercially scaled hardware would eliminate these problems caused by high rotational speeds at small scale. The economic viability and development of the future scalable 10 MWe solely depends on the interest of DOE and private industry. The Intellectual Property collected by Sandia proves that the ~10 MWe supercritical CO2 power conversion loop to be very beneficial when coupled to a 20 MWth heat source (either solar, geothermal, fossil, or nuclear). This paper will identify a commercialization plan, as well as, a roadmap from the simple 1 MWth supercritical CO2 development loop to a power producing 10 MWe supercritical CO2 Brayton loop.

  11. The creation of high-temperature superconducting cables of megawatt range in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sytnikov, V. E. Bemert, S. E.; Krivetsky, I. V.; Romashov, M. A.; Popov, D. A.; Fedotov, E. V.; Komandenko, O. V.

    2015-12-15

    Urgent problems of the power industry in the 21st century require the creation of smart energy systems, providing a high effectiveness of generation, transmission, and consumption of electric power. Simultaneously, the requirements for controllability of power systems and ecological and resource-saving characteristics at all stages of production and distribution of electric power are increased. One of the decision methods of many problems of the power industry is the development of new high-efficiency electrical equipment for smart power systems based on superconducting technologies to ensure a qualitatively new level of functioning of the electric power industry. The intensive research and development of new types of electrical devices based on superconductors are being carried out in many industrialized advanced countries. Interest in such developments has especially increased in recent years owing to the discovery of so-called high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that do not require complicated and expensive cooling devices. Such devices can operate at cooling by inexpensive and easily accessible liquid nitrogen. Taking into account the obvious advantages of superconducting cable lines for the transmission of large power flows through an electrical network, as compared with conventional cables, the Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System (JSC FGC UES) initiated a research and development program including the creation of superconducting HTS AC and DC cable lines. Two cable lines for the transmitted power of 50 MVA/MW at 20 kV were manufactured and tested within the framework of the program.

  12. Economic Impacts from Indiana's First 1,000 Megawatts of Wind Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.; Flores-Espino, F.; Hauser, R.

    2014-08-01

    The magnitude of Indiana's available wind resource indicates that the development of wind power infrastructure has the potential to support millions of dollars of economic activity in the state. The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, are tools used to estimate some of the economic impacts of energy projects at the state level. JEDI calculates results in the form of jobs, earnings, and economic output in three categories: project development and onsite labor, local revenue and supply chain, and induced impacts. According to this analysis, the first 1,000 MW of wind power development in Indiana (projects built between 2008 and 2011): supported employment totaling more than 4,400 full-time-equivalent jobs in Indiana during the construction periods; supports approximately 260 ongoing Indiana jobs; supported nearly $570 million in economic activity for Indiana during the construction periods; supported and continues to support nearly $40 million in annual Indiana economic activity during the operating periods; generates more than $8 million in annual property taxes; generates nearly $4 million annually in income for Indiana landowners who lease their land for wind energy projects.

  13. GSA Issues New Request for Proposals to Bring 3 Megawatts of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    a request for proposal (RFP) for the procurement of electricity produced by solar photovoltaic arrays to be constructed by the selected bidder that will bring approximately 3...

  14. Utility Test Results of a 2-Megawatt, 10-Second Reserve-Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BALL,GREG J.; NORRIS,BENJAMIN L.

    1999-10-01

    This report documents the 1996 evaluation by Pacific Gas and Electric Company of an advanced reserve-power system capable of supporting 2 MW of load for 10 seconds. The system, developed under a DOE Cooperative Agreement with AC Battery Corporation of East Troy, Wisconsin, contains battery storage that enables industrial facilities to ''ride through'' momentary outages. The evaluation consisted of tests of system performance using a wide variety of load types and operating conditions. The tests, which included simulated utility outages and voltage sags, demonstrated that the system could provide continuous power during utility outages and other disturbances and that it was compatible with a variety of load types found at industrial customer sites.

  15. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  16. Extended Plate and Beam Wall System: Concept Investigation and Initial Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2015-08-01

    A new and innovative High-R wall design, referred to as the Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B), is under development. The EP&B system uniquely integrates foam sheathing insulation with wall framing such that wood structural panels are installed exterior of the foam sheathing, enabling the use of standard practices for installation of drainage plane, windows and doors, claddings, cavity insulation, and the standard exterior foam sheathing installation approach prone to damage of the foam during transportation of prefabricated wall panels. As part of the ongoing work, the EP&B wall system concept has undergone structural verification testing and has been positively vetted by a group of industry stakeholders. Having passed these initial milestone markers, the advanced wall system design has been analyzed to assess cost implications relative to other advanced wall systems, undergone design assessment to develop construction details, and has been evaluated to develop representative prescriptive requirements for the building code. This report summarizes the assessment steps conducted to-date and provides details of the concept development.

  17. In Vitro Dissolution Tests of Plutonium and Americium Containing Contamination Originating From ZPPR Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William F. Bauer; Brian K. Schuetz; Gary M. Huestis; Thomas B. Lints; Brian K. Harris; R. Duane Ball; Gracy Elias

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the extent of internal dose is of concern whenever workers are exposed to airborne radionuclides or other contaminants. Internal dose determinations depend upon a reasonable estimate of the expected biological half-life of the contaminants in the respiratory tract. One issue with refractory elements is determining the dissolution rate of the element. Actinides such as plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) tend to be very refractory and can have biological half-lives of tens of years. In the event of an exposure, the dissolution rates of the radionuclides of interest needs to be assessed in order to assign the proper internal dose estimates. During the November 2011 incident at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involving a ZPPR fuel plate, air filters in a constant air monitor (CAM) and a giraffe filter apparatus captured airborne particulate matter. These filters were used in dissolution rate experiments to determine the apparent dissolution half-life of Pu and Am in simulated biological fluids. This report describes these experiments and the results. The dissolution rates were found to follow a three term exponential decay equation. Differences were noted depending upon the nature of the biological fluid simulant. Overall, greater than 95% of the Pu and 93% of the Am were in a very slow dissolving component with dissolution half-lives of over 10 years.

  18. Electrode Plate For An Eletrlchemical Cell And Having A Metal Foam Type Support, And A Method Of Obtaining Such An Electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoog, Roelof; Precigout, Claude; Stewart, Donald

    1996-05-21

    The electrode plate includes an active portion that is pasted with active material, and a plate head that is made up of three layers of compressed metal foam comprising: a non-pasted portion of height G of the support of the electrode plate; and two strips of non-pasted metal foam of height R on either side of the non-pasted portion of height G of the support and also extending for an overlap height h.sub.2 over the pasted portion of the support. The plate head includes a zone of reduced thickness including a portion that is maximally compressed, and a transitional portion between said maximally compressed portion and the remainder of the electrode which is of thickness e.sub.2. A portion of said plate head forms a connection tab. The method of obtaining the electrode consists in simultaneously rolling all three layers of metal foam in the plate head, and then in cutting matter away from the plates so as to obtain respective connection tabs.

  19. Resonant excitation of coupled Rayleigh waves in a short and narrow fluid channel clad between two identical metal plates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    García-Chocano, Victor M.; López-Rios, Tomás; Krokhin, Arkadii; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose

    2011-12-23

    Transmission of ultrasonic waves through a slit between two water immersed brass plates is studied for sub-wavelength plate thicknesses and slit apertures. Extraordinary high absorption is observed at discrete frequencies corresponding to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves on the both sides of the channel. The coupling of the Rayleigh waves occurs through the fluid and the corresponding contribution to the dispersion has been theoretically derived and also experimentally confirmed. Symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are predicted but only the symmetric mode resonances have been observed. It follows from the dispersion equation that the coupled Rayleigh waves cannot be excited in amore » channel with apertures less than the critical one. The calculated critical aperture is in a good agreement with the measured acoustic spectra. These findings could be applied to design a broadband absorptive metamaterial.« less

  20. Fresnel zone plate stacking in the intermediate field for high efficiency focusing in the hard X-ray regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Wojcik, Michael; Liu, Jie; Roehrig, Chris; Cummings, Marvin; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Li, Kenan; Lai, Barry; Shu, Deming; Vogt, Stefan

    2014-11-05

    Focusing efficiency of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) for X-rays depends on zone height, while the achievable spatial resolution depends on the width of the finest zones. FZPs with optimal efficiency and sub-100-nm spatial resolution require high aspect ratio structures which are difficult to fabricate with current technology especially for the hard X-ray regime. A possible solution is to stack several zone plates. To increase the number of FZPs within one stack, we first demonstrate intermediate-field stacking and apply this method by stacks of up to five FZPs with adjusted diameters. Approaching the respective optimum zone height, we maximized efficiencies formorehigh resolution focusing at three different energies, 10, 11.8, and 25 keV.less

  1. The use of computed radiography plates to determine light and radiation field coincidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerns, James R.; Anand, Aman

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Photo-stimulable phosphor computed radiography (CR) has characteristics that allow the output to be manipulated by both radiation and optical light. The authors have developed a method that uses these characteristics to carry out radiation field and light field coincidence quality assurance on linear accelerators.Methods: CR detectors from Kodak were used outside their cassettes to measure both radiation and light field edges from a Varian linear accelerator. The CR detector was first exposed to a radiation field and then to a slightly smaller light field. The light impinged on the detector's latent image, removing to an extent the portion exposed to the light field. The detector was then digitally scanned. A MATLAB-based algorithm was developed to automatically analyze the images and determine the edges of the light and radiation fields, the vector between the field centers, and the crosshair center. Radiographic film was also used as a control to confirm the radiation field size.Results: Analysis showed a high degree of repeatability with the proposed method. Results between the proposed method and radiographic film showed excellent agreement of the radiation field. The effect of varying monitor units and light exposure time was tested and found to be very small. Radiation and light field sizes were determined with an uncertainty of less than 1 mm, and light and crosshair centers were determined within 0.1 mm.Conclusions: A new method was developed to digitally determine the radiation and light field size using CR photo-stimulable phosphor plates. The method is quick and reproducible, allowing for the streamlined and robust assessment of light and radiation field coincidence, with no observer interpretation needed.

  2. Application of a radiophotoluminescent glass plate dosimeter for small field dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaki, Fujio; Ishidoya, Tatsuya; Ikegami, Tohru; Moribe, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2005-06-15

    We have recently developed a prototypical radiophotoluminescent glass plate dosimeter (GPD) system as a device for small field dosimetry. The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of the GPD system for small field dosimetry. The profiles measured with the GPD were evaluated by comparing them to those from Kodak X-Omat V and GAFCROMIC XR type R film dosimeters for 2, 5, 9, and 15 mm circular collimators created by a linear accelerator-based radiosurgery system. The GPD output factors were compared with those of various detectors including an ion chamber, a p-type silicon diode detector, a glass rod dosimeter (GRD), and a diamond detector. The results measured with the GPD were also confirmed by comparing them to those from Monte Carlo simulations. The accuracy of a simulated beam is validated by the excellent agreement between Monte Carlo calculated and measured central axis depth-dose curves for 9- and 15 mm circular collimators using 4- and 10 MV photon beams. The GPD profiles show almost the same full width at half maximum as those of film dosimeters and Monte Carlo simulations at 4- and 10 MV photon beams, but a little narrower penumbrae than the film dosimeters and Monte Carlo simulations. The output factors measured with the GPD are in good agreement with those from a diode detector, a diamond detector, and the GRD with a small active volume and Monte Carlo simulations, except for a very small 2 mm circular collimator. It was found that the GPD is a very useful detector for small field dosimetry.

  3. Efficiency of plasma actuator ionization in shock wave modification in a rarefied supersonic flow over a flat plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joussot, Romain; Lago, Viviana; Parisse, Jean-Denis

    2014-12-09

    This paper describes experimental and numerical investigations focused on the shock wave modification, induced by a dc glow discharge, of a Mach 2 flow under rarefied regime. The model under investigation is a flat plate equipped with a plasma actuator composed of two electrodes. The glow discharge is generated by applying a negative potential to the upstream electrode, enabling the creation of a weakly ionized plasma. The natural flow (i.e. without the plasma) exhibits a thick laminar boundary layer and a shock wave with a hyperbolic shape. Images of the flow obtained with an ICCD camera revealed that the plasma discharge induces an increase in the shock wave angle. Thermal effects (volumetric, and at the surface) and plasma effects (ionization, and thermal non-equilibrium) are the most relevant processes explaining the observed modifications. The effect induced by the heating of the flat plate surface is studied experimentally by replacing the upstream electrode by a heating element, and numerically by modifying the thermal boundary condition of the model surface. The results show that for a similar temperature distribution over the plate surface, modifications induced by the heating element are lower than those produced by the plasma. This difference shows that other effects than purely thermal effects are involved with the plasma actuator. Measurements of the electron density with a Langmuir probe highlight the fact that the ionization degree plays an important role into the modification of the flow. The gas properties, especially the isentropic exponent, are indeed modified by the plasma above the actuator and upstream the flat plate. This leads to a local modification of the flow conditions, inducing an increase in the shock wave angle.

  4. SU-E-T-235: Monte Carlo Analysis of the Dose Enhancement in the Scalp of Patients Due to Titanium Plate Backscatter During Post-Operative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardin, M; Elson, H; Lamba, M; Wolf, E; Warnick, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the clinically observed dose enhancement adjacent to cranial titanium fixation plates during post-operative radiotherapy. Methods: Irradiation of a titanium burr hole cover was simulated using Monte Carlo code MCNPX for a 6 MV photon spectrum to investigate backscatter dose enhancement due to increased production of secondary electrons within the titanium plate. The simulated plate was placed 3 mm deep in a water phantom, and dose deposition was tallied for 0.2 mm thick cells adjacent to the entrance and exit sides of the plate. These results were compared to a simulation excluding the presence of the titanium to calculate relative dose enhancement on the entrance and exit sides of the plate. To verify simulated results, two titanium burr hole covers (Synthes, Inc. and Biomet, Inc.) were irradiated with 6 MV photons in a solid water phantom containing GafChromic MD-55 film. The phantom was irradiated on a Varian 21EX linear accelerator at multiple gantry angles (0–180 degrees) to analyze the angular dependence of the backscattered radiation. Relative dose enhancement was quantified using computer software. Results: Monte Carlo simulations indicate a relative difference of 26.4% and 7.1% on the entrance and exit sides of the plate respectively. Film dosimetry results using a similar geometry indicate a relative difference of 13% and -10% on the entrance and exit sides of the plate respectively. Relative dose enhancement on the entrance side of the plate decreased with increasing gantry angle from 0 to 180 degrees. Conclusion: Film and simulation results demonstrate an increase in dose to structures immediately adjacent to cranial titanium fixation plates. Increased beam obliquity has shown to alleviate dose enhancement to some extent. These results are consistent with clinically observed effects.

  5. Irradiation Performance of U-Mo Alloy Based ‘Monolithic’ Plate-Type Fuel – Design Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. B. Robinson; G. S. Chang; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; D. M. Wachs; D. L. Porter

    2009-08-01

    A down-selection process has been applied to the U-Mo fuel alloy based monolithic plate fuel design, supported by irradiation testing of small fuel plates containing various design parameters. The irradiation testing provided data on fuel performance issues such as swelling, fuel-cladding interaction (interdiffusion), blister formation at elevated temperatures, and fuel/cladding bond quality and effectiveness. U-10Mo (wt%) was selected as the fuel alloy of choice, accepting a somewhat lower uranium density for the benefits of phase stability. U-7Mo could be used, with a barrier, where the trade-off for uranium density is critical to nuclear performance. A zirconium foil barrier between fuel and cladding was chosen to provide a predictable, well-bonded, fuel-cladding interface, allowing little or no fuel-cladding interaction. The fuel plate testing conducted to inform this selection was based on the use of U-10Mo foils fabricated by hot co-rolling with a Zr foil. The foils were subsequently bonded to Al-6061 cladding by hot isostatic pressing or friction stir bonding.

  6. Effects of Protective Plates and Stoplogs on Water Flow Through the Gleed Fish Screen Facility, April 2007 - September 2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamness, Mickie

    2007-12-03

    In 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was asked by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to provide additional velocity measurements at Gleed fish screens site to support decisions on mitigating extreme flow fluctuations near the screens. The site consistently has had extreme water velocities in places and a strong back eddy at the downstream end in spring and summer. With the help of Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife staff, we measured the effects of different stoplog configurations behind the screens in May and July 2007. Protective metal plates in front of the trash racks were confirmed to be the cause of uneven and extreme water flow past the vertical traveling screens. Stoplogs were not sufficient to significantly reduce the effect of those metal plates on water velocities past and through the site. We provide a few suggestions including making it easier to raise and lower the metal plates and then adjusting them more often, constructing a new trash rack across the diversion entrance, and raising the control gate at the end of the site as long as possible in spring and during flood events.

  7. MagicPlate-512: A 2D silicon detector array for quality assurance of stereotactic motion adaptive radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petasecca, M. Newall, M. K.; Aldosari, A. H.; Fuduli, I.; Espinoza, A. A.; Porumb, C. S.; Guatelli, S.; Metcalfe, P.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Booth, J. T.; Colvill, E.; Duncan, M.; Cammarano, D.; Carolan, M.; Oborn, B.; Perevertaylo, V.; Keall, P. J.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Spatial and temporal resolutions are two of the most important features for quality assurance instrumentation of motion adaptive radiotherapy modalities. The goal of this work is to characterize the performance of the 2D high spatial resolution monolithic silicon diode array named MagicPlate-512 for quality assurance of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with a dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking technique for motion compensation. Methods: MagicPlate-512 is used in combination with the movable platform HexaMotion and a research version of radiofrequency tracking system Calypso driving MLC tracking software. The authors reconstruct 2D dose distributions of small field square beams in three modalities: in static conditions, mimicking the temporal movement pattern of a lung tumor and tracking the moving target while the MLC compensates almost instantaneously for the tumor displacement. Use of Calypso in combination with MagicPlate-512 requires a proper radiofrequency interference shielding. Impact of the shielding on dosimetry has been simulated by GEANT4 and verified experimentally. Temporal and spatial resolutions of the dosimetry system allow also for accurate verification of segments of complex stereotactic radiotherapy plans with identification of the instant and location where a certain dose is delivered. This feature allows for retrospective temporal reconstruction of the delivery process and easy identification of error in the tracking or the multileaf collimator driving systems. A sliding MLC wedge combined with the lung motion pattern has been measured. The ability of the MagicPlate-512 (MP512) in 2D dose mapping in all three modes of operation was benchmarked by EBT3 film. Results: Full width at half maximum and penumbra of the moving and stationary dose profiles measured by EBT3 film and MagicPlate-512 confirm that motion has a significant impact on the dose distribution. Motion, no motion, and motion with MLC tracking profiles agreed within 1 and 0.4 mm, respectively, for all field sizes tested. Use of electromagnetic tracking system generates a fluctuation of the detector baseline up to 10% of the full scale signal requiring a proper shielding strategy. MagicPlate-512 is also able to reconstruct the dose variation pulse-by-pulse in each pixel of the detector. An analysis of the dose transients with motion and motion with tracking shows that the tracking feedback algorithm used for this experiment can compensate effectively only the effect of the slower transient components. The fast changing components of the organ motion can contribute only to discrepancy of the order of 15% in penumbral region while the slower components can change the dose profile up to 75% of the expected dose. Conclusions: MagicPlate-512 is shown to be, potentially, a valid alternative to film or 2D ionizing chambers for quality assurance dosimetry in SRS or SBRT. Its high spatial and temporal resolutions allow for accurate reconstruction of the profile in any conditions with motion and with tracking of the motion. It shows excellent performance to reconstruct the dose deposition in real time or retrospectively as a function of time for detailed analysis of the effect of motion in a specific pixel or area of interest.

  8. A nitrogen doped low-dislocation density free-standing single crystal diamond plate fabricated by a lift-off process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokuno, Yoshiaki Kato, Yukako; Tsubouchi, Nobuteru; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Hideaki; Shikata, Shinichi

    2014-06-23

    A nitrogen-doped single crystal diamond plate with a low dislocation density is fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a high pressure high temperature synthetic type IIa seed substrate by ion implantation and lift-off processes. To avoid sub-surface damage, the seed surface was subjected to deep ion beam etching. In addition, we introduced a nitrogen flow during the CVD step to grow low-strain diamond at a relatively high growth rate. This resulted in a plate with low birefringence and a dislocation density as low as 400?cm{sup ?2}, which is the lowest reported value for a lift-off plate. Reproducing this lift-off process may allow mass-production of single crystal CVD diamond plates with low dislocation density and consistent quality.

  9. Laser-driven flat plate impacts to 100 GPA with sub-nanosecond pulse duration and resolution for material property studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Warnes, R.H.; Kopp, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Miniature laser-driven flat plates (<1-mm diam {times} 0.5--10{mu}m thick, typical) of aluminum, cooper, tungsten, and other materials are accelerated to {le}5 km/s. These miniature plates are used to generate one-dimensional shock waves in solids, liquids, and crystals. Dynamic measurements of spall strength at strain rates {le}10{sup 7} s{sup {minus}1}, elastic-plastic shock wave profiles in 10-{mu}m-thick targets, shocked free-surface acceleration of 10{sup 12} m/s{sup 2}, and laser-driven plate launch accelerations of 10{sup 10} m/s{sup 2} are routinely obtained. The small size of the sample of and projectile mass permits recovery of targets without additional unintended damage or energy deposited into the test specimen. These miniature plates can be launched with conventional 1-J laboratory lasers. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Hohlraum Energetics and Implosion Symmetry with Elliptical Phase Plates Using a Multi-Cone Beam Geometry on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Seka, W.; Epstein, R.; Loucks, S.J.; McCrory, R.L.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Jones, O.S.; Callahan, D.A.; Amendt, P.A.; Meezan, N.B.; Suter, L.J.; Rosen, M.D.; Landen, O.L.; DeWald, E.L.; Glenzer, S.H.; Sorce, C.; Dixit, S.; Turner, R.E.; MacGowan, B.J.

    2008-07-21

    Hohlraum energetics and implosion-symmetry experiments were conducted on the OMEGA Laser System using laser beams arranged in three cones and smoothed with elliptical phase plates. The peak radiation temperature (Tr) increased by 17 eV, with phase plates for gas-filled halfraums irradiated with 20 beams using a ~7-kJ shaped laser pulse (PS26), corresponding to a 44% increase in the peak x-ray flux. The improved coupling correlates with reduced, cone-dependent losses from stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Phase plates reduce SRS and SBS by controlling the on-target laser-intensity envelope and the speckle modal power spectrum. An implosion symmetry scan was performed by varying the length and beam pointing of vacuum and gas-filled, thin-walled (3 um) Au hohlraums irradiated with 40 beams using a ~14-kJ PS26. Gated-x-ray (hv > 3 keV) images taken along radial and axial views of the self-emission from Ar-doped, D2-filled, plastic-shell implosions quantified the indirect-drive-implosion symmetry. A shift in symmetry was observed between vacuum and gas-filled hohlraums having identical beam pointing. The ratio of x-ray drive at the poles of the capsule relative to the waist increased for the gas-filled hohlraum. Levels of hard-x-ray production (hv > 20 keV) and SRS were reduced with trace amounts of high-Z dopants (i.e., Ne, Kr) in the hohlraum plasma, while the peak Tr increased ~5 eV.

  11. Performance evaluation of steam traps and orifice plates. Final report, 1 October 1979-1 October 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, P.B.

    1980-10-01

    Steam traps and orifice plates have been examined to assess their utility as condensate control devices in typical Army steam systems. Specific types of devices have been recommended for the various major users in Army facilities. Selection of the size of each device should be made in accordance with manufacturers recommendations. Inspection and maintenance of steam devices is critical to their proper operation and to energy conservation. Industrial maintenance firms may perform this function in cases where there are insufficient facilities engineering personnel to provide periodic inspections.

  12. Building America Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House, Mount Joy, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of a innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  13. Phase transformations during the Ag-In plating and bonding of vertical diode elements of multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klochko, N. P. Khrypunov, G. S.; Volkova, N. D.; Kopach, V. R.; Lyubov, V. N.; Kirichenko, M. V.; Momotenko, A. V.; Kharchenko, N. M.; Nikitin, V. A.

    2013-06-15

    The conditions of the bonding of silicon multijunction solar cells with vertical p-n junctions using Ag-In solder are studied. The compositions of electrodeposited indium films on silicon wafers silver plated by screen printing and silver and indium films fabricated by layer-by-layer electrochemical deposition onto the surface of silicon vertical diode cells silver plated in vacuum are studied. Studying the electrochemical-deposition conditions, structure, and surface morphology of the grown layers showed that guaranteed bonding is provided by 8-min heat treatment at 400 Degree-Sign C under the pressure of a stack of metallized silicon wafers; however, the ratio of the indium and silver layer thicknesses should not exceed 1: 3. As this condition is satisfied, the solder after wafer bonding has the InAg{sub 3} structure (or InAg{sub 3} with an Ag phase admixture), due to which the junction melting point exceeds 700 Degree-Sign C, which guarantees the functioning of such solar cells under concentrated illumination.

  14. Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D.

    2010-08-15

    New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

  15. A plan for implementation of innovative hazardous waste minimization techniques at an eastern US Naval Plating Shop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Villiers-Fisher, J.F.; Brown, C.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was contracted by the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) to analyze the wastewater problems at a Naval Ordnance Station (NOS) plating shop in the eastern United States to recommend innovative wastewater treatment technologies for handling those problems and to implement the recommended treatment technology. Hexavalent chromium was identified as the major problem area at NOS. Water conservation measures were recommended which would reduce the volume of chromium-contaminated wastewater from approximately 300 L/min to approximately 20 L/min. A treatment scheme consisting of RO followed by evaporation of the RO concentrate steam was recommended. Paint-stripping operations at NOS potentially contaminate the wastewater with phenol, trichloroethane, and possibly other organics. However, the need for a treatment unit for removal of organics could not be established due to a lack of organic analytical data. A characterization study was therefore recommended for the NOS plating shop. If treatment for organics is necessary, the treatment unit might include two-stage filtration for removal of paint flakes or other solids, air stripping for removal of volatile organics, and carbon adsorption for removal of residual organics. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Manufacturing and Performance Assessment of Stamped, Laser Welded, and Nitrided FeCrV Stainless Steel Bipolar Plates for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Dadheech, G; Bradley, J; Toops, Todd J; Meyer III, Harry M; Tortorelli, Peter F

    2013-01-01

    A manufacturing and single-cell fuel cell performance study of stamped, laser welded, and gas nitrided ferritic stainless steel foils in an advanced automotive bipolar plate assembly design was performed. Two developmental foil compositions were studied: Fee20Cre4V and Fee23Cre4V wt.%. Foils 0.1 mm thick were stamped and then laser welded together to create single bipolar plate assemblies with cooling channels. The plates were then surface treated by pre-oxidation and nitridation in N2e4H2 based gas mixtures using either a conventional furnace or a short-cycle quartz lamp infrared heating system. Single-cell fuel cell testing was performed at 80 C for 500 h at 0.3 A/cm2 using 100% humidification and a 100%/40% humidification cycle that stresses the membrane and enhances release of the fluoride ion and promotes a more corrosive environment for the bipolar plates. Periodic high frequency resistance potential-current scans during the 500 h fuel cell test and posttest analysis of the membrane indicated no resistance increase of the plates and only trace levels of metal ion contamination.

  17. Fabrication of Pd/Pd-Alloy Films by Surfactant Induced Electroless Plating for Hydrogen Separation from Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilias, Shamsuddin; Kumar, Dhananjay

    2012-07-31

    Dense Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag composite membranes on microporous stainless steel substrate (MPSS) were fabricated by a novel electroless plating (EP) process. In the conventional Pd-EP process, the oxidation-reduction reactions between Pd-complex and hydrazine result in an evolution of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} gas bubbles. When adhered to the substrate surface and in the pores, these gas bubbles hinder uniform Pd-film deposition which results in dendrite growth leading to poor film formation. This problem was addressed by introducing cationic surfactant in the electroless plating process known as surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP). The unique features of this innovation provide control of Pd-deposition rate, and Pd-grain size distribution. The surfactant molecules play an important role in the EP process by tailoring grain size and the process of agglomeration by removing tiny gas bubbles through adsorption at the gas-liquid interface. As a result surfactant can tailor a nanocrystalline Pd, Cu and Ag deposition in the film resulting in reduced membrane film thickness. Also, it produces a uniform, agglomerated film structure. The Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes on MPSS support were fabricated by sequential deposition using SIEP method. The pre- and post-annealing characterizations of these membranes (Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag on MPSS substrate) were carried out by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM studies. The SEM images show significant improvement of the membrane surface morphology, in terms of metal grain structures and grain agglomeration compared to the membranes fabricated by conventional EP process. The SEM images and helium gas-tightness studies indicate that dense and thinner films of Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes can be produced with shorter deposition time using surfactant. H{sub 2} Flux through the membranes fabricated by SIEP shows large improvement compared to those by CEP with comparable permselectivity. Pd-MPSS composite membrane was subjected to test for long term performance and thermal cycling (573 - 723 - 573 K) at 15 psi pressure drop for 1200 hours. Pd membranes showed excellent hydrogen permeability and thermal stability during the operational period. Under thermal cycling (573 K - 873 K - 573 K), Pd-Cu-MPSS membrane was stable and retained hydrogen permeation characteristics for over three months of operation. From this limited study, we conclude that SIEP is viable method for fabrication of defect-free, robust Pd-alloy membranes for high-temperature H{sub 2}-separation applications.

  18. Effects of the foil flatness on the stress-strain characteristics of U10Mo alloy based monolithic mini-plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakan Ozaltun; Pavel Medvedev

    2014-11-01

    The effects of the foil flatness on stress-strain behavior of monolithic fuel mini-plates during fabrication and irradiation were studied. Monolithic plate-type fuels are a new fuel form being developed for research and test reactors to achieve higher uranium densities. This concept facilitates the use of low-enriched uranium fuel in the reactor. These fuel elements are comprised of a high density, low enrichment, U–Mo alloy based fuel foil encapsulated in a cladding material made of Aluminum. To evaluate the effects of the foil flatness on the stress-strain behavior of the plates during fabrication, irradiation and shutdown stages, a representative plate from RERTR-12 experiments (Plate L1P756) was considered. Both fabrication and irradiation processes of the plate were simulated by using actual irradiation parameters. The simulations were repeated for various foil curvatures to observe the effects of the foil flatness on the peak stress and strain magnitudes of the fuel elements. Results of fabrication simulations revealed that the flatness of the foil does not have a considerable impact on the post fabrication stress-strain fields. Furthermore, the irradiation simulations indicated that any post-fabrication stresses in the foil would be relieved relatively fast in the reactor. While, the perfectly flat foil provided the slightly better mechanical performance, overall difference between the flat-foil case and curved-foil case was not significant. Even though the peak stresses are less affected, the foil curvature has several implications on the strain magnitudes in the cladding. It was observed that with an increasing foil curvature, there is a slight increase in the cladding strains.

  19. Damage Detection of CFRP Plates by Full-Spectral Analysis of a Fibre Bragg Grating Sensor Signal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Groves, Roger M.

    2010-05-28

    This paper describes the measurement of average strain, strain distribution and vibration of cantilever beam made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP), using a single Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor mounted on the beam surface. Average strain is determined from the displacement of the peak wavelength of reflected light from the FBG sensor. Unstrained reference FBG sensors were used to compensate for temperature drift and the photoelastic coefficient (P{sub e}), which was used to calculate the gauge factor. Measured strains agree with those measured by a resistance foil strain gauge attached to the sample. Stress distributions are measured by monitoring the variation in the full width half maximum (FWHM) values of the reflected spectrum, using a proposed optical analytical model, described in the paper. FWHM values were measured for both the cantilever test beam and a for a reference beam, loaded using a four-point bending rig. The trend of the stress distribution for the test beam matches with our analytical model, however with a relatively large noise present in the experimentally determined data. The vibration of cantilever beam was measured by temporal analysis of the peak reflection wavelength. This technique is very stable as measurements are not affected by variations in the signal amplitude. Finally an application of FBG sensors for damage detection of CFRP plates is demonstrated, by measuring the average strain and natural frequency. With small defects of different sizes applied to the CFRP plate, average strains were seen to increase with damage size and the natural frequency decreased with damage size.

  20. Microstructural evolution of U(Mo)Al(Si) dispersion fuel under irradiation Destructive analyses of the LEONIDAS E-FUTURE plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Leenaers; S. Van den Berghe; J. Van Eyken; E. Koonen; F. Charollais; P. Lemoine; Y. Calzavara; H. Guyon; C. Jarousse; D. Geslin; D. Wachs; D. Keiser; A. Robinson; G. Hofman; Y. S. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Several irradiation experiments have confirmed the positive effect of adding Si to the matrix of an U(Mo) dispersion fuel plate on its in-pile irradiation behavior. E-FUTURE, the first experiment of the LEONIDAS program, was performed to select an optimum Si concentration and fuel plate heat treatment parameters for further qualification. It consisted of the irradiation of 4 distinct (regarding Si content and heat treatments), full size flat fuel plates in the BR2 reactor under bounding conditions (470 W/cm2 peak BOL power, approximately 70% peak burn-up). After the irradiation, the E-FUTURE plates were examined non-destructively and found to have pillowed in the highest burn-up positions. The destructive post-irradiation examination confirmed that the fuel evolves in a stable way up to a burn-up of 60%235U. Even in the deformed area (pillow) the U(Mo) fuel itself shows stable behavior and remaining matrix material was present. From the calculation of the volume fractions, the positive effect of a higher Si amount added to the matrix and the higher annealing temperature can be derived.

  1. Neutron Diffraction Measurement of Residual Stresses, Dislocation Density and Texture in Zr-bonded U-10Mo ''Mini'' Fuel Foils and Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Donald W.; Okuniewski, M. A.; Sisneros, Thomas A.; Clausen, Bjorn; Moore, G. A.; Balogh, L

    2014-08-07

    Aluminum clad monolithic uranium 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) fuel plates are being considered for conversion of several research and test nuclear reactors from high-enriched to low-enriched uranium fuel due to the inherently high density of fissile material. Comprehensive neutron diffraction measurements of the evolution of the textures, residual phase stresses, and dislocation densities in the individual phases of the mini-foils throughout several processing steps and following hot-isostatic pressing to the Al cladding, have been completed. Recovery and recrystallization of the bare U-10Mo fuel foil, as indicated by the dislocation density and texture, are observed depending on the state of the material prior to annealing and the duration and temperature of the annealing process. In general, the HIP procedure significantly reduces the dislocation density, but the final state of the clad plate, both texture and dislocation density, depends strongly on the final processing step of the fuel foil. In contrast, the residual stresses in the clad fuel plate do not depend strongly on the final processing step of the bare foil prior to HIP bonding. Rather, the residual stresses are dominated by the thermal expansion mismatch of the constituent materials of the fuel plate.

  2. Effects of the shape of the foil corners on the irradiation performance of U10Mo alloy based monolithic mini-plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozaltun, Hakan; Medvedev, Pavel G

    2015-06-01

    Monolithic plate-type fuel is a fuel form being developed for high performance research and test reactors to minimize the use of enriched material. These fuel elements are comprised of a high density, low enrichment, U-Mo alloy based fuel foil, sandwiched between Zirconium liners and encapsulated in Aluminum cladding. The use of a high density fuel in a foil form presents a number of fabrication and operational concerns, such as: foil centering, flatness of the foil, fuel thickness variation, geometrical tilting, foil corner shape etc. To benchmark this new design, effects of various geometrical and operational variables on irradiation performance have been evaluated. As a part of these series of sensitivity studies, the shape of the foil corners were studied. To understand the effects of the corner shapes of the foil on thermo-mechanical performance of the plates, a behavioral model was developed for a selected plate from RERTR-12 experiments (Plate L1P785). Both fabrication and irradiation processes were simulated. Once the thermo-mechanical behavior the plate is understood for the nominal case, the simulations were repeated for two additional corner shapes to observe the changes in temperature, displacement and stress-strain fields. The results from the fabrication simulations indicated that the foil corners do not alter the post-fabrication stress-strain magnitudes. Furthermore, the irradiation simulations revealed that post-fabrication stresses of the foil would be relieved very quickly in operation. While, foils with chamfered and filleted corners yielded stresses with comparable magnitudes, they are slightly lower in magnitudes, and provided a more favorable mechanical response compared with the foil with sharp corners.

  3. Effect of shell drilling stiffness on response calculations of rectangular plates and tubes of rectangular cross-section under compression.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, Jhana; Hales, Jason Dean; Corona, Edmundo

    2010-05-01

    This report considers the calculation of the quasi-static nonlinear response of rectangular flat plates and tubes of rectangular cross-section subjected to compressive loads using quadrilateralshell finite element models. The principal objective is to assess the effect that the shell drilling stiffness parameter has on the calculated results. The calculated collapse load of elastic-plastic tubes of rectangular cross-section is of particular interest here. The drilling stiffness factor specifies the amount of artificial stiffness that is given to the shell element drilling Degree of freedom (rotation normal to the plane of the element). The element formulation has no stiffness for this degree of freedom, and this can lead to numerical difficulties. The results indicate that in the problems considered it is necessary to add a small amount of drilling tiffness to obtain converged results when using both implicit quasi-statics or explicit dynamics methods. The report concludes with a parametric study of the imperfection sensitivity of the calculated responses of the elastic-plastic tubes with rectangular cross-section.

  4. Effect of stainless steel weld overlay cladding on the structural integrity of flawed steel plates in bending. Series 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corwin, W.R.; Robinson, G.C.; Nanstad, R.K.; Merkle, J.G.; Berggren, R.G.; Goodwin, G.M.; Swain, R.L.; Owings, T.D.

    1985-04-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Stainless Steel Cladding Evaluations were undertaken to study the interaction of stainless steel cladding on the inside surface of a reactor pressure vessel with flaws initiating and propagating in base metal. With the more recent focus of safety studies on overcooling type transients, for which the behavior of small flaws is important, stainless steel cladding may have a key role in controlling the propagation and/or arrest of propagating flaws. A complicating factor in understanding the role of stainless steel cladding in this setting is the scarcity of data on its fracture toughness as a function of radiation dose and the fabrication process. The initial phase of the HSST evaluations addresses this question by testing the response of 51-mm-thick flawed plates clad with single-wire, submerged-arc weld overlays of different toughness levels. The tests completed indicate that cladding of moderate toughness had a limited ability to enhance the structural arrest toughness of a beam in bending. The specimen design and fabrication techniques employed for this first completed series of tests resulted in flaw and specimen configurations that prevented adequate control of the stress state at pop-in of the hydrogen-charged electron-beam welds. As a result, analyses of the tests by two approximate techniques and by the ORMGEN-ADINA-ORVIRT finite-element programs were not completely consistent.

  5. Determination of hydrogen diffusion coefficients in F82H by hydrogen depth profiling with a tritium imaging plate technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higaki, M.; Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.; Tokunaga, K.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M.

    2015-03-15

    Hydrogen diffusion coefficients in a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (F82H) and an oxide dispersion strengthened F82H (ODS-F82H) have been determined from depth profiles of plasma-loaded hydrogen with a tritium imaging plate technique (TIPT) in the temperature range from 298 K to 523 K. Data on hydrogen diffusion coefficients, D, in F82H, are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =1.1*10{sup -7}exp(-16[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT). The present data indicate almost no trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion due to an excess entry of energetic hydrogen by the plasma loading, which results in saturation of the trapping sites at the surface and even in the bulk. In the case of ODS-F82H, data of hydrogen diffusion coefficients are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =2.2*10{sup -7}exp(-30[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT) indicating a remarkable trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion caused by tiny oxide particles (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the bulk of F82H. Such oxide particles introduced in the bulk may play an effective role not only on enhancement of mechanical strength but also on suppression of hydrogen penetration by plasma loading.

  6. Mechanical Loads Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, Rick; van Dam, Jeroen

    2015-07-16

    The objective of the test was to obtain a baseline characterization of the mechanical loads of the DOE 1.5 wind turbine located at NREL. The test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification, IEC 61400-13 Wind Turbine Generator Systems – Part 13: Measurement of mechanical loads; First Edition 2001-06 [1]. The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at NREL conducted this test in accordance with its quality system procedures so that the final test report meets the full requirements of its accreditation by the American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA). NREL’s quality system requires that all applicable requirements specified by A2LA and International Standards Organization/IEC 17025 be met or to note any exceptions in the test report.

  7. Monte Carlo study of the depth-dependent fluence perturbation in parallel-plate ionization chambers in electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink, K.; Czarnecki, D.; Voigts-Rhetz, P. von; Looe, H. K.; Harder, D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The electron fluence inside a parallel-plate ionization chamber positioned in a water phantom and exposed to a clinical electron beam deviates from the unperturbed fluence in water in absence of the chamber. One reason for the fluence perturbation is the well-known inscattering effect, whose physical cause is the lack of electron scattering in the gas-filled cavity. Correction factors determined to correct for this effect have long been recommended. However, more recent Monte Carlo calculations have led to some doubt about the range of validity of these corrections. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to reanalyze the development of the fluence perturbation with depth and to review the function of the guard rings. Methods: Spatially resolved Monte Carlo simulations of the dose profiles within gas-filled cavities with various radii in clinical electron beams have been performed in order to determine the radial variation of the fluence perturbation in a coin-shaped cavity, to study the influences of the radius of the collecting electrode and of the width of the guard ring upon the indicated value of the ionization chamber formed by the cavity, and to investigate the development of the perturbation as a function of the depth in an electron-irradiated phantom. The simulations were performed for a primary electron energy of 6 MeV. Results: The Monte Carlo simulations clearly demonstrated a surprisingly large in- and outward electron transport across the lateral cavity boundary. This results in a strong influence of the depth-dependent development of the electron field in the surrounding medium upon the chamber reading. In the buildup region of the depth-dose curve, the inout balance of the electron fluence is positive and shows the well-known dose oscillation near the cavity/water boundary. At the depth of the dose maximum the inout balance is equilibrated, and in the falling part of the depth-dose curve it is negative, as shown here the first time. The influences of both the collecting electrode radius and the width of the guard ring are reflecting the deep radial penetration of the electron transport processes into the gas-filled cavities and the need for appropriate corrections of the chamber reading. New values for these corrections have been established in two forms, one converting the indicated value into the absorbed dose to water in the front plane of the chamber, the other converting it into the absorbed dose to water at the depth of the effective point of measurement of the chamber. In the Appendix, the inout imbalance of electron transport across the lateral cavity boundary is demonstrated in the approximation of classical small-angle multiple scattering theory. Conclusions: The inout electron transport imbalance at the lateral boundaries of parallel-plate chambers in electron beams has been studied with Monte Carlo simulation over a range of depth in water, and new correction factors, covering all depths and implementing the effective point of measurement concept, have been developed.

  8. Hot Plate Station

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology April 18, 2013 - 1:15pm Addthis Learn how a cooperative R&D agreement with the Energy Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory helped contributed to the success of GE's GeoSpring Hybrid Water Heater -- one of the most efficient electric heat pump water heaters on the market today. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Got Energy Efficiency

  9. METAL PLATING PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1958-08-12

    A process ts described for obtaining a closely bonded coating of steel or iron on uranium. The process consists of providing, between the steel and uramium. a layer of silver. amd then pressure rolling tbe assembly at about 600 deg C until a reduction of from l0 to 50% has been obtained.

  10. plate1.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  11. plate10.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  12. plate2.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  13. plate3.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  14. plate4.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  15. plate5.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  16. plate6.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  17. plate7.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  18. plate8.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  19. plate9.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  20. Influence of process parameters on rolling-contact-fatigue life of ion plated nickel-copper-silver lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present a connection between argon ion flux, element-mixing, and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of a thin film nickel-copper-silver lubricant on ball bearings. The film is deposited on the balls using an ion plating process and tested for RCF in high vacuum. The ion flux is measured using a Langmuir probe and the plane stress within the film during deposition is calculated using a thin film model. Experiments reveal that there is an inverse relationship between ion flux and RCF life for most deposition voltage and pressure combinations tested, specifically, 15.5-18.5 mTorr and 1.5-3.5 kV. For voltages up to 2.5 kV, RCF life decreases as ion flux increases due to increased compressive stress within the film, reaching as high as 2.6 GPa. For voltages between 2.5 and 3.5 kV, interlayer mixing of nickel and copper with the silver layer reduces RCF life due to contamination, even as ion flux and corresponding film compressive stress are reduced. A Monte Carlo-based simulation tool, SRIM is used to track collision cascades of the argon ions and metal atoms within the coating layers. At process voltages above 2.5 kV we observe elemental mixing of copper and nickel with the silver layer using Auger electron spectroscopy of coated steel and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls. The authors conclude that an ion flux greater than 5.0 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} leads to reduced RCF life due to high film stress. In addition, process voltages greater than 2.5 kV also reduce RCF life due to contamination and interlayer mixing of nickel and copper within the silver layer.

  1. Details of the response of Kodak high resolution plate to x-irradiation for the characterization of ICF targets and components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, A.J.; Simms, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Radiographic images are used in the characterization of Internal Confinement Fusion targets and target components. The use of this technique involves consideration of: (1) the continuum and line emission source spectra produced by a tungsten anode, (2) the attenuation of the source spectrum by material in the x-ray path, and (3) the response of the x-ray detector, a Kodak HRP (High Resolution Plate), to the incident x-ray flux. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Pre-Oxidized and Nitrided Stainless Steel Foil for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates: Part 1 Corrosion, Interfacial Contact Resistance, and Surface Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P; Wang, Heli; Turner, John; Meyer III, Harry M; More, Karren Leslie; Tortorelli, Peter F; McCarthy, Brian D

    2010-01-01

    Thermal (gas) nitridation of stainless steels can yield low interfacial contact resistance (ICR), electrically-conductive and corrosion-resistant nitride containing surfaces (Cr2N, CrN, TiN, V2N, VN, etc) of interest for fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. This paper presents the results of scale up studies to determine the feasibility of extending the nitridation approach to thin 0.1 mm stainless steel alloy foils for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) bipolar plates. A major emphasis was placed on selection of alloy foil composition and nitidation conditions potentially capable of meeting the stringent cost goals for automotive PEMFC applications. Developmental Fe-20Cr-4V alloy and type 2205 stainless steel foils were treated by pre-oxidation and nitridation to form low-ICR, corrosion-resistant surfaces. Promising behavior was observed under simulated aggressive anode- and cathode- side bipolar plate conditions for both materials. Variation in ICR values were observed for treated 2205 foil, with lower (better) values generally observed for the treated Fe-20Cr-4V. This behavior was linked to the nature of the pre-oxidized and nitrided surface structure, which contained through surface layer thickness V-nitride particles in the case of Fe-20Cr-4V but near continuous chromia in the case of 2205 stainless steel. The implications of these findings for stamped bipolar plate foils are discussed.

  3. Radiation Stability of Mo2Zr Phase as an Interaction Product in U-10M0/Zr/Al 6061 Monolithic Fuel Plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Gan; Brandon D. Miller; Dennis D. Keiser; Daniel M. Wachs; W. Sprowes; Y. H. Sohn; M. Kirk

    2015-04-01

    Abstract Monolithic U-10Mo alloy fuel plates with Al-6061 cladding are being developed for use in research and test reactors as low enrichment fuel (< 20% U-235 enrichment). These fuel plates contain a Zr diffusion barrier between the U-10Mo fuel and Al-6061 cladding that suppresses the interaction between the two that is known to be problematic under irradiation. However, the Zr also interacts with the U-10Mo and Al-6061 cladding during fuel fabrication to produce a variety of interaction phases. The results from recent post-irradiation-examination (PIE) of the irradiated monolithic fuel plates suggested that the microstructural development of the U-10Mo/Zr interaction phases under irradiation may have an impact on fuel performance. The Mo2Zr phase has been identified as a major interaction product at the interface of U-10Mo and Zr. TEM in-situ irradiation with 500 keV Kr ions at 200 ?C temperature to 2?1016 ions/cm2 was carried out to investigate its radiation stability. The Mo2Zr undergoes a radiation-induced structural change, from a large cubic (cF24, a0 = 0.7588 nm) to a small bcc cubic (cI2, a0 = 0.3185 nm), along with an estimated 11.3% volume contraction without changing its composition. The Mo2Zr phase demonstrated exceptional radiation tolerance with the development of dislocation showing no evidence of bubble formation. The irradiation to the same ion dose with the reduced ion energy at 250 keV reveals a high concentration of small bubbles (< 2 nm) as a result of increased Kr ion retention in the sample. .

  4. Microstructural characterization of a thin film ZrN diffusion barrier in an As-fabricated U7Mo/Al matrix dispersion fuel plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Perez, Emmanuel; Wiencek, Tom; Leenaers, Ann; Van den Berghe, Sven

    2015-03-01

    The United States High Performance Research Reactor Fuel Development program is developing low enriched uranium fuels for application in research and test reactors. One concept utilizes U7 wt.% Mo (U7Mo) fuel particles dispersed in Al matrix, where the fuel particles are coated with a 1 ?m-thick ZrN coating. The ZrN serves as a diffusion barrier to eliminate a deleterious reaction that can occur between U7Mo and Al when a dispersion fuel is irradiated under aggressive reactor conditions. To investigate the final microstructure of a physically-vapor-deposited ZrN coating in a dispersion fuel plate after it was fabricated using a rolling process, characterization samples were taken from a fuel plate that was fabricated at 500 C using ZrN-coated U7Mo particles, Al matrix and AA6061 cladding. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy analysis were performed. Data from these analyses will be used to support future microstructural examinations of irradiated fuel plates, in terms of understanding the effects of irradiation on the ZrN microstructure, and to determine the role of diffusion barrier microstructure in eliminating fuel/matrix interactions during irradiation. The as-fabricated coating was determined to be cubic-ZrN (cF8) phase. It exhibited a columnar microstructure comprised of nanometer-sized grains and a region of relatively high porosity, mainly near the Al matrix. Small impurity-containing phases were observed at the U7Mo/ZrN interface, and no interaction zone was observed at the ZrN/Al interface. The bonding between the U7Mo and ZrN appeared to be mechanical in nature. A relatively high level of oxygen was observed in the ZrN coating, extending from the Al matrix in the ZrN coating in decreasing concentration. The above microstructural characteristics are discussed in terms of what may be most optimal for a diffusion barrier in a dispersion fuel plate application.

  5. Annealing induced interfacial layers in niobium-clad stainless steel developed as a bipolar plate material for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Sung Tae; Weil, K. Scott; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Bae, In-Tae; Pan, Jwo

    2010-05-01

    Niobium (Nb)-clad 304L stainless steel (SS) manufactured by cold rolling is currently under consideration for use as a bipolar plate material in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks. To make the fabrication of bipolar plates using the Nb-clad SS feasible, annealing may be necessary for the Nb-clad SS to reduce the springback induced by cold rolling. However, the annealing can develop an interfacial layer between the Nb cladding and the SS core and the interfacial layer plays a key role in the failure of the Nb-clad SS as reported earlier [JPS our work]. In this investigation, the Nb-clad SS specimens in as-rolled condition were annealed at different combinations of temperature and time. Based on the results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, an annealing process map for the Nb-clad SS was obtained. The results of SEM analysis and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis also suggest that different interfacial layers occurred based on the given annealing conditions.

  6. Stochastic bifurcation and fractal and chaos control of a giant magnetostrictive film-shape memory alloy composite cantilever plate subjected to in-plane harmonic and stochastic excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Qingxin Xu, Jia

    2014-05-07

    Stochastic bifurcation and fractal and chaos control of a giant magnetostrictive filmshape memory alloy (GMFSMA) composite cantilever plate subjected to in-plane harmonic and stochastic excitation were studied. Van der Pol items were improved to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of both GMF and SMA, and the nonlinear dynamic model of a GMFSMA composite cantilever plate subjected to in-plane harmonic and stochastic excitation was developed. The probability density function of the dynamic response of the system was obtained, and the conditions of stochastic Hopf bifurcation were analyzed. The conditions of noise-induced chaotic response were obtained in the stochastic Melnikov integral method, and the fractal boundary of the safe basin of the system was provided. Finally, the chaos control strategy was proposed in the stochastic dynamic programming method. Numerical simulation shows that stochastic Hopf bifurcation and chaos appear in the parameter variation process. The boundary of the safe basin of the system has fractal characteristics, and its area decreases when the noise intensifies. The system reliability was improved through stochastic optimal control, and the safe basin area of the system increased.

  7. Quantum dot immunoassays in renewable surface column and 96-well plate formats for the fluorescence detection of Botulinum neurotoxin using high-affinity antibodies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Marvin G.; Grate, Jay W.; Tyler, Abby J.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Miller, Keith D.; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2009-09-01

    A fluorescence sandwich immunoassay using high affinity antibodies and quantum dot (QD) reporters has been developed for detection of botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A). For the development of the assay, a nontoxic recombinant fragment of the holotoxin (BoNT/A-HC-fragment) has been used as a structurally valid simulant for the full toxin molecule. The antibodies used, AR4 and RAZ1, bind to nonoverlapping epitopes present on both the full toxin and on the recombinant fragment. In one format, the immunoassay is carried out in a 96-well plate with detection in a standard plate reader. Detection down to 31 pM of the BoNT/Hc-fragment was demonstrated with a total incubation time of 3 hours, using AR4 as the capture antibody and QD-coupled RAZ1 as the reporter. In a second format, the AR4 capture antibody was coupled to Sepharose beads, and the immunochemical reactions were carried out in microcentrifuge tubes with an incubation time of 1 hour. These beads were subsequently captured and concentrated in a rotating rod renewable surface flow cell as part of a sequential injection fluidic system. This flow cell was equipped with a fiber optic system for fluorescence measurements. In PBS buffer solution matrix, the BoNT/A-HC-fragment was detected to concentrations as low as 5 pM using the fluidic measurement approach.

  8. Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis of Fuel/Matrix Interaction Layers in Highly-Irradiated UMo Dispersion Fuel Plates with Al and AlSi Alloy Matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Brandon D. Miller; Jian Gan; Adam B. Robinson; Pavel Medvedev; James Madden; Dan Wachs; Mitch Meyer

    2014-04-01

    In order to investigate how the microstructure of fuel/matrix-interaction (FMI) layers change during irradiation, different U7Mo dispersion fuel plates have been irradiated to high fission density and then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specifially, samples from irradiated U7Mo dispersion fuel elements with pure Al, Al2Si and AA4043 (~4.5 wt.%Si) matrices were SEM characterized using polished samples and samples that were prepared with a focused ion beam (FIB). Features not observable for the polished samples could be captured in SEM images taken of the FIB samples. For the Al matrix sample, a relatively large FMI layer develops, with enrichment of Xe at the FMI layer/Al matrix interface and evidence of debonding. Overall, a significant penetration of Si from the FMI layer into the U7Mo fuel was observed for samples with Si in the Al matrix, which resulted in a change of the size (larger) and shape (round) of the fission-gas bubbles. Additionally, solid-fission-product phases were observed to nucleate and grow within these bubbles. These changes in the localized regions of the microstructure of the U7Mo may contribute to changes observed in the macroscopic swelling of fuel plates with AlSi matrices.

  9. Simulations of Microchannel Plate Sensitivity to <20 keV X-rays as a Function of Energy and Incident Angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruschwitz, Craig; Wu, M.; Rochau, G. A.

    2013-06-13

    We present results of Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate (MCP) response to x-rays in the 250 eV to 20 keV energy range as a function of both x-ray energy and impact angle. The model is based on the model presented in Rochau et al. (2006). However, while the Rochau et al. (2006) model was two-dimensional, and their results only went to 5 keV, our results have been expanded to 20 keV, and our model has been incorporated into a three-dimensional Monte Carlo MCP model that we have developed over the past several years (Kruschwitz et al. 2011). X-ray penetration through multiple MCP pore walls is increasingly important above 5 keV. The effect of x-ray penetration through multiple pores on MCP performance was studied and is presented.

  10. Failure of zinc-plated self-tapping screws and Belleville washers used to install spoiler bars in cast iron dryers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruscato, R.M.; Herro, H.M.

    1999-07-01

    During a routine internal inspection of 39 dryers containing spoiler bars, hundreds of broken self-tapping screws used to install those bars were found. Many other screws, as well as many Belleville washers, which spring load the bar assembly against the shell, were found to be severely cracked. The spoiler bar system had been in service for 27 months. Fortunately, none of the bars had broken loose inside the dryers. Failures were the result of hydrogen embrittlement which produced the cracking. Hydrogen was produced by a galvanic corrosion cell established between the zinc plating and the hardened washers and hardened self-tapping screws. Minor chemical/pH upset conditions typical in paper mill steam systems may have accelerated the activity of the galvanic cell. This, in turn, enhanced the evolution of hydrogen. Once the zinc was consumed, hydrogen evolution ceased, and the driving force for cracking was eliminated.

  11. Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S. Ahmed, H.; Doria, D.; Green, A.; Jung, D.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Nersisyan, G.; Krygier, A. G.; Freeman, R. R.; Clarke, R.; Green, J. S.; Notley, M.; Fernandez, J.; Fuchs, J.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M.; Morrison, J. T.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; and others

    2014-09-15

    A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C{sup 6+}, O{sup 8+}, etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented, which was produced from a thin deuterated plastic foil target irradiated by a high power laser.

  12. Growth kinetics and microstructural evolution during hot isostatic pressing of U-10 wt.% Mo monolithic fuel plate in AA6061 cladding with Zr diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Park; J. Yoo; K. Huang; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; J. F. Jue; B. Rabin; G. Moore; Y. H. Sohn

    2014-04-01

    Phase constituents and microstructure changes in RERTR fuel plate assemblies as functions of temperature and duration of hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) during fabrication were examined. The HIP process was carried out as functions of temperature (520, 540, 560 and 580 °C for 90 min) and time (45–345 min at 560 °C) to bond 6061 Al-alloy to the Zr diffusion barrier that had been co-rolled with U-10 wt.% Mo (U10Mo) fuel monolith prior to the HIP process. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies were employed to examine the phase constituents, microstructure and layer thickness of interaction products from interdiffusion. At the interface between the U10Mo and Zr, following the co-rolling, the UZr2 phase was observed to develop adjacent to Zr, and the a-U phase was found between the UZr2 and U10Mo, while the Mo2Zr was found as precipitates mostly within the a-U phase. The phase constituents and thickness of the interaction layer at the U10Mo-Zr interface remained unchanged regardless of HIP processing variation. Observable growth due to HIP was only observed for the (Al,Si)3Zr phase found at the Zr/AA6061 interface, however, with a large activation energy of 457 ± 28 kJ/mole. Thus, HIP can be carried to improve the adhesion quality of fuel plate without concern for the excessive growth of the interaction layer, particularly at the U10Mo-Zr interface with the a-U, Mo2Zr, and UZr2 phases.

  13. High adherence copper plating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nignardot, H.

    1993-09-21

    A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing the surface of an aluminum or steel substrate for the electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to either substrate.

  14. High adherence copper plating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nignardot, Henry

    1993-01-01

    A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

  15. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steel. Part 2, Water flow rate effects in high sulfur plate steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, L.A; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R.; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high- sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/sec. or 4.7 m/sec. was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi- stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/sec. and 5.0 m/sec. parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity.

  16. Using Direct Metal Deposition to Fabricate Mold Plates for an Injection Mold Machine Allowing for the Evaluation of Cost Effective Near-Sourcing Opportunities in Larger, High Volume Consumer Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, Chad E; Groh, Bill

    2014-10-31

    ORNL collaborated with Radio Systems Corporation to investigate additive manufacturing (AM) of mold plates for plastic injection molding by direct metal deposition. The team s modelling effort identified a 100% improvement in heat transfer through use of conformal cooling lines that could be built into the mold using a revolutionary design enabled by additive manufacturing. Using the newly installed laser deposition system at the ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) a stainless steel mold core was printed.

  17. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Maine to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.8 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,387 million gallons.

  18. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    Analysis of the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine, including economic benefits, CO2 emissions reductions, and water conservation.

  19. LINE","COMPNAME","COMPID","YEAR","PURCNAME","SALETYPE","MEGAWATT","ANNMXDEM","DE

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Spencer City of",554,1999,"Iowa State University","NF",3543,0,0,87758,87758 2,"Spencer City of",554,1999,"Alliant","NF",28,0,0,1443,1443 3,"Spencer City of",554,1999,"Mid-America Energy Co.","NF",13,0,0,593,593 999999,"Spencer City of",554,1999,,,3584,0,0,89794,89794 1,"Anaheim City of",590,1999,"CALIFORNIA POWER EXCHAN",,60260,0,0,1165682,1165682 2,"Anaheim City

  20. LINE","COMPNAME","COMPID","YEAR","PURCNAME","SALETYPE","MEGAWATT","ANNMXDEM","DE

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ABERDEEN_C",55,1999,"TVA",,230854554,37045,0,0,8998127 2,"ABERDEEN_C",55,1999,0,,0,0,0,0,0 999999,"ABERDEEN_C",55,1999,,,0,0,0,0,0 1,"Alameda City of",207,1999,"Northern California Pow","FP",379087,70,18896200,3635238,22531438 2,"Alameda City of",207,1999,"Western Area Power Admi","FP",6300,1,58800,1381522,1440322 3,"Alameda City of",207,1999,"Balancing Accounts &

  1. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reduction, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Georgia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Georgia. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Georgia to be $2.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,628 million gallons.

  2. System using a megawatt class millimeter wave source and a high-power rectenna to beam power to a suspended platform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caplan, Malcolm; Friedman, Herbert W.

    2005-07-19

    A system for beaming power to a high altitude platform is based upon a high power millimeter gyrotron source, optical transmission components, and a high-power receiving antenna (i.e., a rectenna) capable of rectifying received millimeter energy and converting such energy into useable electrical power.

  3. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in North Carolina. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in North Carolina to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,558 million gallons.

  4. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arizona (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arizona. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arizona to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 818 million gallons.

  5. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    Analysis of the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arizona, including economic benefits, CO2 emissions reductions, and water conservation.

  6. Evaluation of Annealing Treatments for Producing Si-Rich Fuel/Matrix Interaction Layers in Low-Enriched U-Mo Dispersion Fuel Plates Rolled at a Low Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Nicolas E. Woolstenhulme

    2010-06-01

    During fabrication of U-7Mo dispersion fuels, exposure to relatively high temperatures affects the final microstructure of a fuel plate before it is inserted into a reactor. One impact of this high temperature exposure is a chemical interaction that can occur between dissimilar materials. For U-7Mo dispersion fuels, the U-7Mo particles will interact to some extent with the Al or Al alloy matrix to produce interaction products. It has been observed that the final irradiation behavior of a fuel plate can depend on the amount of interaction that occurs at the U-7Mo/matrix interface during fabrication, along with the type of phases that develop at this interface. For the case where a U-7Mo dispersion fuel has a Si-containing Al alloy matrix and is rolled at around 500°C, a Si-rich interaction product has been observed to form that can potentially have a positive impact on fuel performance during irradiation. This interaction product can exhibit stable irradiation behavior and it can act as a diffusion barrier to additional U-Mo/matrix interaction during irradiation. However, for U-7Mo dispersion fuels with softer claddings that are rolled at lower temperatures (e.g., near 425°C), a significant interaction layer has not been observed to form. As a result, the bulk of any interaction layer that develops in these fuels happens during irradiation, and the layer that forms may not exhibit as stable a behavior as one that is formed during fabrication. Therefore, it may be beneficial to add a heat treatment step during the fabrication of dispersion fuel plates with softer cladding alloys that will result in the formation of a uniform, Si-rich interaction layer that is a few microns thick around the U-Mo fuel particles. This type of layer would have characteristics like the one that has been observed in dispersion fuel plates with AA6061 cladding that are fabricated at 500°C, which may exhibit increased stability during irradiation. This report discusses the result of annealing experiments that were performed using samples from fuel plates that were fabricated at 425°C that had Alloy 5052 cladding. As part of these experiments, samples with Al-Si matrices that had different Si contents were tested. The samples had Al-2Si, Al-4Si, Al-5Si, or Al-6Si as the matrix alloy. The heat treatment temperatures and times that were investigated were 450°C (4 hours), 475°C (4 hours), and 500°C (2 hours) for all the matrix alloy compositions and 525°C (1 hour) for just the Al-4Si and Al-6Si matrix alloy compositions. The results of these experiments showed that the initial interaction layers that form around the U-7Mo particles during fabrication at 425°C continue to grow in thickness and uniformity during each of the heat treatments, though the composition of the layers remains similar to that observed in the as-fabricated samples. The Al-6Si matrix sample annealed at 450°C for 4 hours and the Al-5Si and Al-6Si matrix samples annealed at 475°C for 4 hours formed fuel/matrix interaction layers most similar to those observed in fuel plates with AA6061 cladding that are fabricated at 500°C.

  7. Building America Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House, Mount Joy, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet), Efficient Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House Mount Joy, Pennsylvania PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: New home Type: Single-family Partner: Home Innovation Research Labs, homeinnovation.com Builder: LCCTC, Mount Joy, PA Size: 2,660 ft 2 above grade, 3,990 ft 2 conditioned area Price Range: $300,000 Date Completed: June 2015 Climate Zone: Cold (IECC 5A) PERFORMANCE DATA HERS index score: 45 (DOE ZERH target index: 48) Projected annual energy cost savings: $1,163

  8. Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration Project SUCCESS STORIES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with capacity of 2,781 megawatts INVESTMENT 6.5 million HIGHLIGHTS Distribution microgrid Five-megawatt lithium-ion battery Intelligent distribution management ...

  9. Renewable Resource Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Eligible Technologies Eligible renewable resources include wind; solar; geothermal; existing hydroelectric projects (10 megawatts or less); certain new hydroelectric projects (up to 15 megawatts...

  10. EM News Flashes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    project. July 31, 2013 Members of the Paducah Citizens Advisory Board helped create the book, The Story of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Megawatts to Megatons to Megawatts....

  11. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... or the steam system will not function prop- erly. A backup of condensate, known as waterlogging or flooding, can adversely affect heat transfer, promote corrosion of carbon ...

  12. Measuring surfactant concentration in plating solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonivert, William D. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Livermore, CA); Hachman, John T. (Stockton, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An arrangement for measuring the concentration of surfactants in a electrolyte containing metal ions includes applying a DC bias voltage and a modulated voltage to a counter electrode. The phase angle between the modulated voltage and the current response to the modulated voltage at a working electrode is correlated to the surfactant concentration.

  13. Metallic Bipolar Plates with Composite Coatings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 – October 1, 2009

  14. Plated lamination structures for integrated magnetic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Bucknell C.

    2014-06-17

    Semiconductor integrated magnetic devices such as inductors, transformers, etc., having laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are provided, wherein the laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are formed using electroplating techniques. For example, an integrated laminated magnetic device includes a multilayer stack structure having alternating magnetic and insulating layers formed on a substrate, wherein each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by an insulating layer, and a local shorting structure to electrically connect each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to an underlying magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to facilitate electroplating of the magnetic layers using an underlying conductive layer (magnetic or seed layer) in the stack as an electrical cathode/anode for each electroplated magnetic layer in the stack structure.

  15. Electroless plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Anton

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles by electroless techniques. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with each other for a time sufficient for such to occur.

  16. Electrolytic plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Anton

    1976-11-30

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for electrolytically producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with a powered cathode for a time sufficient for such to occur.

  17. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  18. High magnetic-refrigeration performance of plate-shaped La{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 11.4}Si{sub 1.6} hydrides sintered in high-pressure H{sub 2} atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, N. K. Guo, J.; Zhao, X. G. Zhang, Z. D.; Si, P. Z.; Huang, J. H.

    2015-03-02

    La(Fe, Si){sub 13} hydride is regarded as one of the most promising room-temperature refrigerants. However, to use the alloys in an active magnetic regenerator machine, it is vital to prepare thin refrigerants. In this work, a high H{sub 2} gas pressure of 50 MPa was employed to suppress the desorption of hydrogen atoms during the sintering process of plate-shaped La{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 11.4}Si{sub 1.6} hydrides. At 330 K, a high-density sintered thin plate shows a large magnetic-entropy change ΔS{sub m} of 15.5 J/kg K (106 mJ/cm{sup 3 }K) for a field change of 2 T. The volumetric ΔS{sub m} is almost twice as large as that of bonded La(Fe,Si){sub 13} hydrides. Favorably, hysteresis is almost absent due to the existence of micropores with a porosity of 0.69% which has been analyzed with high-resolution X-ray microtomography.

  19. Excellent performances of energy harvester using cantilever driving double-clamped 0.7Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.3PbTiO{sub 3} plates and symmetric middle-stops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Zhou; Xu, Qing; Ren, Bo; Lin, Di; Di, Wenning; Luo, Haosu Wang, Dong

    2015-10-26

    We present a high performance nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester constituted by a cantilever with symmetrically middle-stops and double-clamped piezoelectric plates based on piezoelectric single crystal 0.7Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.3PbTiO{sub 3}. Electrical properties of the device under different excitation frequencies, accelerations, and load resistances are studied systematically. Under a low acceleration of 3 m/s{sup 2} (0.3 g), a peak voltage of 26.2 V and a maximum normalized power of 25.6 mW/g{sup 2} were obtained across a matching impedance of 600 kΩ with favorable bandwidths. The low excitation acceleration and excellent performances indicate that the device can be a promising candidate for energy harvesting in low-power electronics and wireless sensors.

  20. Solar Field Powers Historic Garden Holiday Display

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Popular holiday attraction Longwood Gardens in Pennsylvania has commissioned an American-made 1.2 megawatt, 10.7-acre solar field as part of a goal to generate three megawatts of renewable energy by 2018.

  1. BP-16-A-02-AP02, Appendix B - Power Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page iii COMMONLY USED ACRONYMS AND SHORT FORMS ACNR Accumulated Calibrated Net Revenue ACS Ancillary and Control Area Services AF Advance Funding aMW average megawatt(s)...

  2. Project Reports for Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    megawatts of renewable, biomass electric power using hog fuel from its own ... substation is at such a distance that one megawatt is lost in transmission due to thermal line losses. ...

  3. Hydropower Generators Will Deliver New Energy from an Old Dam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City of Tacoma expands hydroelectric dam to produce more than 23,000 megawatt hours of electricity annually.

  4. Department of Energy Offers Conditional Loan Guarantee Commitments to Support Nearly $4.5 Billion in Loans for Three California Photovoltaic Solar Power Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Projects Expected to Create 1,400 Jobs and Generate Approximately 1330 Megawatts of Installed Solar Power

  5. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Demonstrate a 1 megawatt Variable Phase Turbine and Variable Phase Cycle with low temperature brine.

  6. A Solar Win for Arizona | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Solar Win for Arizona A Solar Win for Arizona January 9, 2013 - 5:11pm Addthis The 150 megawatt Mesquite Solar 1 installation in Maricopa County, Arizona. | Photo courtesy of Sempra Energy. The 150 megawatt Mesquite Solar 1 installation in Maricopa County, Arizona. | Photo courtesy of Sempra Energy. The 150 megawatt Mesquite Solar 1 installation in Maricopa County, Arizona. | Photo courtesy of Sempra Energy. The 150 megawatt Mesquite Solar 1 installation in Maricopa County, Arizona. | Photo

  7. Florida's SunSmart Program Helps Provide Power to Schools When Storms Strike

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Florida program installed more than a megawatt of solar power at schools designated as emergency shelters throughout the Sunshine State.

  8. METHOD FOR ELECTRO-NICKEL PLATING WOLFRAM CARBIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slatin, H.L.

    1959-05-01

    A WC body can be electroplated with Ni after anodic etching in Na/sub 4/ P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ solution (200 g/l) with a Pb cathode. A current density of 2 amp/in./sup 2/ for 10 min is sufficient. This allows Ni to be electrodeposited in an adherent coating which is weldable. (T.R.H.)

  9. CHICO2 - A pixelated parallel-plate avalanche counter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shape transition and shape coexisting phenomenon in nuclei. CHICO consists of two mirror-image hemispheres with solid-angle coverage of 69% of 4 and each hemisphere holds 10...

  10. Solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ... The data in the manual were modeled using hourly values of direct beam and diffuse ...

  11. Modeling surface backgrounds from radon progeny plate-out

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perumpilly, G.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Snyder, N. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)] [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    The next generation low-background detectors operating deep underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. The surface deposition and subsequent implantation of radon progeny in detector materials will be a source of energetic background events. We investigate Monte Carlo and model-based simulations to understand the surface implantation profile of radon progeny. Depending on the material and region of interest of a rare event search, these partial energy depositions can be problematic. Motivated by the use of Ge crystals for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay, we wish to understand the detector response of surface backgrounds from radon progeny. We look at the simulation of surface decays using a validated implantation distribution based on nuclear recoils and a realistic surface texture. Results of the simulations and measured ? spectra are presented.

  12. Pre-plated reactive diffusion-bonded battery electrode plaques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1984-01-01

    A high strength, metallic fiber battery plaque is made using reactive diffusion bonding techniques, where a substantial amount of the fibers are bonded together by an iron-nickel alloy.

  13. Automated brush plating process for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Long, Jeffrey William

    2003-01-01

    A method of depositing a metal coating (28) on the interconnect (26) of a tubular, hollow fuel cell (10) contains the steps of providing the fuel cell (10) having an exposed interconnect surface (26); contacting the inside of the fuel cell (10) with a cathode (45) without use of any liquid materials; passing electrical current through a contacting applicator (46) which contains a metal electrolyte solution; passing the current from the applicator (46) to the cathode (45) and contacting the interconnect (26) with the applicator (46) and coating all of the exposed interconnect surface.

  14. Brushless machine having ferromagnetic side plates and side magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S

    2012-10-23

    An apparatus is provided having a cylindrical stator and a rotor that is spaced from a stator to define an annular primary air gap that receives AC flux from the stator. The rotor has a plurality of longitudinal pole portions disposed parallel to the axis of rotation and alternating in polarity around a circumference of the rotor. Each longitudinal pole portion includes portions of permanent magnet (PM) material and at least one of the longitudinal pole portions has a first end and an opposing second end and a side magnet is disposed adjacent the first end and a side pole is disposed adjacent the second end.

  15. Utility-scale flat-plate thin film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The thin-film photovoltaics section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  16. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 – October 1, 2009

  17. Programmable phase plate for tool modification in laser machining applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson Jr., Charles A.; Kartz, Michael W.; Brase, James M.; Pennington, Deanna; Perry, Michael D.

    2004-04-06

    A system for laser machining includes a laser source for propagating a laser beam toward a target location, and a spatial light modulator having individual controllable elements capable of modifying a phase profile of the laser beam to produce a corresponding irradiance pattern on the target location. The system also includes a controller operably connected to the spatial light modulator for controlling the individual controllable elements. By controlling the individual controllable elements, the phase profile of the laser beam may be modified into a desired phase profile so as to produce a corresponding desired irradiance pattern on the target location capable of performing a machining operation on the target location.

  18. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hays, Lance G

    2014-07-07

    A variable phase turbine assembly will be designed and manufactured having a turbine, operable with transcritical, two-phase or vapor flow, and a generator – on the same shaft supported by process lubricated bearings. The assembly will be hermetically sealed and the generator cooled by the refrigerant. A compact plate-fin heat exchanger or tube and shell heat exchanger will be used to transfer heat from the geothermal fluid to the refrigerant. The demonstration turbine will be operated separately with two-phase flow and with vapor flow to demonstrate performance and applicability to the entire range of low temperature geothermal resources. The vapor leaving the turbine is condensed in a plate-fin refrigerant condenser. The heat exchanger, variable phase turbine assembly and condenser are all mounted on single skids to enable factory assembly and checkout and minimize installation costs. The system will be demonstrated using low temperature (237F) well flow from an existing large geothermal field. The net power generated, 1 megawatt, will be fed into the existing power system at the demonstration site. The system will demonstrate reliable generation of inexpensive power from low temperature resources. The system will be designed for mass manufacturing and factory assembly and should cost less than $1,200/kWe installed, when manufactured in large quantities. The estimated cost of power for 300F resources is predicted to be less than 5 cents/kWh. This should enable a substantial increase in power generated from low temperature geothermal resources.

  19. WINDExchange: U.S. Installed Wind Capacity

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Education Printable Version Bookmark and Share Workforce Development Collegiate Wind Competition Wind for Schools Project School Project Locations Education & Training Programs Curricula & Teaching Materials Resources Installed Wind Capacity This page has maps of the United States that show installed wind capacity by state and its progression. This map shows the installed wind capacity in megawatts. As of June 30, 2015, 67,870 megawatts have been installed. Alaska, 62 megawatts; Hawaii,

  20. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  1. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nevada" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  2. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  3. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  4. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  5. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  6. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  7. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  8. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  9. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  10. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Idaho" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  11. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  12. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  13. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  14. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  15. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  16. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  17. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  18. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  19. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  20. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indiana" "megawatts" "Item", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...