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Sample records for mega-watt scale direct

  1. MegaWatt Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy company that delivers scalable solar power generation systems to the utility market. References: MegaWatt Solar1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  2. Investigating Aeroelastic Performance of Multi-Mega Watt Wind Turbine Rotors Using CFD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating Aeroelastic Performance of Multi-MegaWatt Wind Turbine Rotors Using CFD David A. Corson 1 Altair Engineering, Inc., Clifton Park, NY, 12065 D. Todd Griffith 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185 Tom Ashwill 3 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185 Farzin Shakib 4 Altair Engineering, Inc., Mountain View, CA, 94043 Recent trends in wind power technology are focusing on increasing power output through an increase in rotor diameter. As the rotor diameter

  3. CX-004104: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    State Energy Program Conductor Optimized Rotary Energy Mega-Watt Scale Direct Wind GeneratorCX(s) Applied: A9, B5.1Date: 09/29/2010Location(s): Ronan, MontanaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  4. Length Scale of Leidenfrost Ratchet Switches Droplet Directionality

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Length Scale of Leidenfrost Ratchet Switches Droplet Directionality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Length Scale of Leidenfrost Ratchet Switches Droplet Directionality Arrays of tilted pillars with characteristic heights spanning from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers were created using wafer level processing and used as Leidenfrost ratchets to control droplet directionality. Dynamic Leidenfrost droplets on the ratchets with

  5. Length scale selects directionality of droplets on vibrating pillar ratchet

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agapov, Rebecca L.; Boreyko, Jonathan B.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Retterer, Scott T.; Collier, C. Patrick; Lavrik, Nickolay V.

    2014-09-22

    Directional control of droplet motion at room temperature is of interest for applications such as microfluidic devices, self-cleaning coatings, and directional adhesives. Here, arrays of tilted pillars ranging in height from the nanoscale to the microscale are used as structural ratchets to directionally transport water at room temperature. Water droplets deposited on vibrating chips with a nanostructured ratchet move preferentially in the direction of the feature tilt while the opposite directionality is observed in the case of microstructured ratchets. This remarkable switch in directionality is consistent with changes in the contact angle hysteresis. To glean further insights into the lengthmore » scale dependent asymmetric contact angle hysteresis, the contact lines formed by a nonvolatile room temperature ionic liquid placed onto the tilted pillar arrays were visualized and analyzed in situ in a scanning electron microscope. As a result, the ability to tune droplet directionality by merely changing the length scale of surface features all etched at the same tilt angle would be a versatile tool for manipulating multiphase flows and for selecting droplet directionality in other lap-on-chip applications.« less

  6. Length Scale Selects Directionality of Droplets on Vibrating Pillar Ratchet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agapov, Rebecca L.; Boreyko, Jonathan B.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Retterer, Scott T.; Collier, Pat; Lavrik, Nickolay V.

    2014-09-22

    Directional control of droplet motion at room temperature is of interest for applications such as microfluidic devices, self-cleaning coatings, and directional adhesives. Here, arrays of tilted pillars ranging in height from the nanoscale to the microscale are used as structural ratchets to directionally transport water at room temperature. Water droplets deposited on vibrating chips with a nanostructured ratchet move preferentially in the direction of the feature tilt while the opposite directionality is observed in the case of microstructured ratchets. This remarkable switch in directionality is consistent with changes in the contact angle hysteresis. To glean further insights into the length scale dependent asymmetric contact angle hysteresis, the contact lines formed by a nonvolatile room temperature ionic liquid placed onto the tilted pillar arrays were visualized and analyzed in situ in a scanning electron microscope. The ability to tune droplet directionality by merely changing the length scale of surface features all etched at the same tilt angle would be a versatile tool for manipulating multiphase flows and for selecting droplet directionality in other lap-on-chip applications.

  7. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy 33rd scale experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha; Prudell, Joseph H.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J.; Zhang, Zhe

    2013-07-29

    Columbia Power Technologies (ColPwr) and Oregon State University (OSU) jointly conducted a series of tests in the Tsunami Wave Basin (TWB) at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (HWRL). These tests were run between November 2010 and February 2011. Models at 33rd scale representing Columbia Powers Manta series Wave Energy Converter (WEC) were moored in configurations of one, three and five WEC arrays, with both regular waves and irregular seas generated. The primary research interest of ColPwr is the characterization of WEC response. The WEC response will be investigated with respect to power performance, range of motion and generator torque/speed statistics. The experimental results will be used to validate a numerical model. The primary research interests of OSU include an investigation into the effects of the WEC arrays on the near- and far-field wave propagation. This report focuses on the characterization of the response of a single WEC in isolation. To facilitate understanding of the commercial scale WEC, results will be presented as full scale equivalents.

  8. Holographic Noise in Michelson Interferometers: A Direct Experimental Probe of Unification at the Planck Scale

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hogan, Craig

    2010-01-08

    Classical spacetime and quantum mass-energy form the basis of all of physics. They become inconsistent at the Planck scale, 5.4 times 10^{-44} seconds, which may signify a need for reconciliation in a unified theory. Although proposals for unified theories exist, a direct experimental probe of this scale, 16 orders of magnitude above Tevatron energy, has seemed hopelessly out of reach. However in a particular interpretation of holographic unified theories, derived from black hole evaporation physics, a world assembled out of Planck-scale waves displays effects of unification with a new kind of uncertainty in position at the Planck diffraction scale, the geometric mean of the Planck length and the apparatus size. In this case a new phenomenon may measurable, an indeterminacy of spacetime position that appears as noise in interferometers. The colloquium will discuss the theory of the effect, and our plans to build a holographic interferometer at Fermilab to measure it.

  9. How well will ton-scale dark matter direct detection experiments constrain minimal supersymmetry?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akrami, Yashar; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Conrad, Jan; Edsj, Joakim E-mail: savage@fysik.su.se E-mail: conrad@fysik.su.se

    2011-04-01

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are amongst the most interesting dark matter (DM) candidates. Many DM candidates naturally arise in theories beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics, like weak-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Experiments aim to detect WIMPs by scattering, annihilation or direct production, and thereby determine the underlying theory to which they belong, along with its parameters. Here we examine the prospects for further constraining the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) with future ton-scale direct detection experiments. We consider ton-scale extrapolations of three current experiments: CDMS, XENON and COUPP, with 1000 kg-years of raw exposure each. We assume energy resolutions, energy ranges and efficiencies similar to the current versions of the experiments, and include backgrounds at target levels. Our analysis is based on full likelihood constructions for the experiments. We also take into account present uncertainties on hadronic matrix elements for neutralino-quark couplings, and on halo model parameters. We generate synthetic data based on four benchmark points and scan over the CMSSM parameter space using nested sampling. We construct both Bayesian posterior PDFs and frequentist profile likelihoods for the model parameters, as well as the mass and various cross-sections of the lightest neutralino. Future ton-scale experiments will help substantially in constraining supersymmetry, especially when results of experiments primarily targeting spin-dependent nuclear scattering are combined with those directed more toward spin-independent interactions.

  10. Scaling Analysis for the Direct Reactor Auxillary Cooling System For AHTRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Q. NMN; Wang, X. NMN; Sun, X NMN; Christensen, R. N.; Blue, T. E.; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Wilson, Dane F; Subharwall, Piyush; Adams, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) is a passive heat removal system proposed for the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) that combines the coated particle fuel and graphite moderator with a liquid fluoride salt as the coolant. The DRACS features three coupled natural circulation/convection loops relying completely on buoyancy as the driving force. In the DRACS, two heat exchangers, namely, the DRACS Heat Exchanger (DHX) and the Natural Draft Heat Exchanger (NDHX) are used to couple these loops. In addition, a fluidic diode is employed to minimize the parasitic flow during normal operation of the reactor and to activate the DRACS in accidents. While the DRACS concept has been proposed, there are no actual prototypic DRACS systems for AHTRs built and tested in the literature. In this paper, a detailed scaling analysis for the DRACS is performed, which will provide guidance for the design of the scaled-down DRACS test facilities. Based on the Boussinesq assumption and one-dimensional flow formulation, the governing equations are non-dimensionalized by introducing appropriate dimensionless parameters. The key dimensionless numbers that characterize the DRACS system are obtained straightforwardly from the non-dimensional governing equations. Based on the dimensionless numbers and non-dimensional governing equations, similarity laws are proposed. In addition, a scaling methodology has also been developed, which consists of the core scaling and loop scaling. The consistence between the core and loop scaling is examined through the reference volume ratio, which can be obtained from the core and loop scaling processes. The scaling methodology and similarity laws have been applied to obtain a design of the scaled-down high-temperature DRACS test facility (HTDF).

  11. Scaling analysis for the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system for FHRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Q.; Kim, I. H.; Sun, X.; Christensen, R. N.; Blue, T. E.; Yoder, G.; Wilson, D.; Sabharwall, P.

    2015-04-01

    The Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) is a passive residual heat removal system proposed for the Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that combines the coated particle fuel and graphite moderator with a liquid fluoride salt as the coolant. The DRACS features three natural circulation/convection loops that rely on buoyancy as the driving force and are coupled via two heat exchangers, namely, the DRACS heat exchanger and the natural draft heat exchanger. A fluidic diode is employed to minimize the parasitic flow into the DRACS primary loop and correspondingly the heat loss to the DRACS during reactor normal operation, and to activate the DRACS in accidents when the reactor is shut down. While the DRACS concept has been proposed, there are no actual prototypic DRACS systems for FHRs built or tested in the literature. In this paper, a detailed scaling analysis for the DRACS is performed, which will provide guidance for the design of scaled-down DRACS test facilities. Based on the Boussinesq assumption and one-dimensional flow formulation, the governing equations are non-dimensionalized by introducing appropriate dimensionless parameters. The key dimensionless numbers that characterize the DRACS system are obtained from the non-dimensional governing equations. Based on the dimensionless numbers and non-dimensional governing equations, similarity laws are proposed. In addition, a scaling methodology has been developed, which consists of a core scaling and a loop scaling. The consistency between the core and loop scaling is examined via the reference volume ratio, which can be obtained from both the core and loop scaling processes. The scaling methodology and similarity laws have been applied to obtain a scientific design of a scaled-down high-temperature DRACS test facility.

  12. Linear-scaling implementation of the direct random-phase approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kllay, Mihly

    2015-05-28

    We report the linear-scaling implementation of the direct random-phase approximation (dRPA) for closed-shell molecular systems. As a bonus, linear-scaling algorithms are also presented for the second-order screened exchange extension of dRPA as well as for the second-order MllerPlesset (MP2) method and its spin-scaled variants. Our approach is based on an incremental scheme which is an extension of our previous local correlation method [Rolik et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 094105 (2013)]. The approach extensively uses local natural orbitals to reduce the size of the molecular orbital basis of local correlation domains. In addition, we also demonstrate that using natural auxiliary functions [M. Kllay, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 244113 (2014)], the size of the auxiliary basis of the domains and thus that of the three-center Coulomb integral lists can be reduced by an order of magnitude, which results in significant savings in computation time. The new approach is validated by extensive test calculations for energies and energy differences. Our benchmark calculations also demonstrate that the new method enables dRPA calculations for molecules with more than 1000 atoms and 10?000 basis functions on a single processor.

  13. Directions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions Directions to HAZMAT Challenge LANL's HAZMAT Reesponse Ready Room and Training Facility are ready to welcome this year's Challengers Technical Area 64 - HAZMAT Response...

  14. Utility-Scale Power Router: Dynamic Control of Grid Assets Using Direct AC Converter Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: Georgia Tech is developing a cost-effective, utility-scale power router that uses an enhanced transformer to more efficiently direct power on the grid. Existing power routing technologies are too expensive for widespread use, but the ability to route grid power to match real-time demand and power outages would significantly reduce energy costs for utilities, municipalities, and consumers. Georgia Tech is adding a power converter to an existing grid transformer to better control power flows at about 1/10th the cost of existing power routing solutions. Transformers convert the high-voltage electricity that is transmitted through the grid into the low-voltage electricity that is used by homes and businesses. The added converter uses fewer steps to convert some types of power and eliminates unnecessary power storage, among other improvements. The enhanced transformer is more efficient, and it would still work even if the converter fails, ensuring grid reliability.

  15. Scaling law for direct current field emission-driven microscale gas breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkattraman, A.; Alexeenko, A. A.

    2012-12-15

    The effects of field emission on direct current breakdown in microscale gaps filled with an ambient neutral gas are studied numerically and analytically. Fundamental numerical experiments using the particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions method are used to systematically quantify microscale ionization and space-charge enhancement of field emission. The numerical experiments are then used to validate a scaling law for the modified Paschen curve that bridges field emission-driven breakdown with the macroscale Paschen law. Analytical expressions are derived for the increase in cathode electric field, total steady state current density, and the ion-enhancement coefficient including a new breakdown criterion. It also includes the effect of all key parameters such as pressure, operating gas, and field-enhancement factor providing a better predictive capability than existing microscale breakdown models. The field-enhancement factor is shown to be the most sensitive parameter with its increase leading to a significant drop in the threshold breakdown electric field and also to a gradual merging with the Paschen law. The proposed scaling law is also shown to agree well with two independent sets of experimental data for microscale breakdown in air. The ability to accurately describe not just the breakdown voltage but the entire pre-breakdown process for given operating conditions makes the proposed model a suitable candidate for the design and analysis of electrostatic microscale devices.

  16. Length Scale Correlations of Cellular Microstructures in Directionally Solidified Binary System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunxue Shen

    2002-08-01

    In a cellular array, a range of primary spacing is found to be stable under given growth conditions. Since a strong coupling of solute field exists between the neighboring cells, primary spacing variation should also influence other microstructure features such as cell shape and cell length. The existence of multiple solutions is examined in this study both theoretically as well as experimentally. A theoretical model is developed that identifies and relates four important microstructural lengths, which are found to be primary spacing, tip radius, cell width and cell length. This general microstructural relationship is shown to be valid for different cells in an array as well as for other cellular patterns obtained under different growth conditions. The unique feature of the model is that the microstructure correlation does not depend on composition or growth conditions since these variables scale microstructural lengths to satisfy the relationship obtained in this study. Detailed directional solidification experimental studies have been carried out in the succinonitrile-salol system to characterize and measure these four length scales. Besides the validation of the model, experimental results showed additional scaling laws to be present. In the regime where only a cellular structure is formed, the shape of the cell, the cell tip radius and the length of the cell are all found to scale individually with the local primary spacing. The presence of multiple solutions of primary spacing is also shown to influence the cell-dendrite transition that is controlled not only by the processing variables (growth velocity, thermal gradient and composition) but also by the local cell spacing. The cell-dendrite transition was found not to be sharp, but occurred over a range of processing conditions. Two critical conditions have been identified such that only cells are present below lower critics condition, and only dendrites are formed above the upper critics condition. Between these two limits, both cells and dendrites have been found to coexist. In this mixed regime, a critical local spacing is found above which a cell is unstable and forms a dendrite. An analytical expression is developed that relates the critical spacing for the cell-dendrite transition with processing conditions.

  17. Length Scale Correlations of Cellular Microstructures in Directionally Solidified Binary System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunxue Shen

    2002-06-27

    In a cellular array, a range of primary spacing is found to be stable under given growth conditions. Since a strong coupling of solute field exists between the neighboring cells, primary spacing variation should also influence other microstructure features such as cell shape and cell length. The existence of multiple solutions is examined in this study both theoretically as well as experimentally. A theoretical model is developed that identifies and relates four important microstructural lengths, which are found to be primary spacing, tip radius, cell width and cell length. This general microstructural relationship is shown to be valid for different cells in an array as well as for other cellular patterns obtained under different growth conditions. The unique feature of the model is that the microstructure correlation does not depend on composition or growth conditions since these variables scale microstructural lengths to satisfy the relationship obtained in this study. Detailed directional solidification experimental studies have been carried out in the succinonitrile-salol system to characterize and measure these four length scales. Besides the validation of the model, experimental results showed additional scaling laws to be present. In the regime where only a cellular structure is formed, the shape of the cell, the cell tip radius and the length of the cell are all found to scale individually with the local primary spacing. The presence of multiple solutions of primary spacing is also shown to influence the cell-dendrite transition that is controlled not only by the processing variables (growth velocity, thermal gradient and composition) but also by the local cell spacing. The cell-dendrite transition was found not to be sharp, but occurred over a range of processing conditions. Two critical conditions have been identified such that only cells are present below lower critics condition, and only dendrites are formed above the upper critics condition. Between these two limits, both cells and dendrites have been found to coexist. In this mixed regime, a critical local spacing is found above which a cell is unstable and forms a dendrite. An analytical expression is developed that relates the critical spacing for the cell-dendrite transition with processing conditions.

  18. Directions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions Directions Call Hilton Santa Fe Buffalo Thunder at (505) 455-5555 for shuttle information from the airport and downtown Santa Fe. Driving Directions to Hilton Santa Fe Buffalo Thunder Hilton Santa Fe Buffalo Thunder is located 15 minutes north of Santa Fe. Directions from Albuquerque (bypassing downtown Santa Fe) Take Interstate 25 north towards Santa Fe for approximately 50 miles. From Interstate 25, exit right onto the 599 Northbound Bypass for approximately 14 miles and continue to

  19. Open-air direct current plasma jet: Scaling up, uniformity, and cellular control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S.; Wang, Z.; Huang, Q.; Lu, X.; Ostrikov, K.

    2012-10-15

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets are commonly used in many fields from medicine to nanotechnology, yet the issue of scaling the discharges up to larger areas without compromising the plasma uniformity remains a major challenge. In this paper, we demonstrate a homogenous cold air plasma glow with a large cross-section generated by a direct current power supply. There is no risk of glow-to-arc transitions, and the plasma glow appears uniform regardless of the gap between the nozzle and the surface being processed. Detailed studies show that both the position of the quartz tube and the gas flow rate can be used to control the plasma properties. Further investigation indicates that the residual charges trapped on the inner surface of the quartz tube may be responsible for the generation of the air plasma plume with a large cross-section. The spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy reveals that the air plasma plume is uniform as it propagates out of the nozzle. The remarkable improvement of the plasma uniformity is used to improve the bio-compatibility of a glass coverslip over a reasonably large area. This improvement is demonstrated by a much more uniform and effective attachment and proliferation of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells on the plasma-treated surface.

  20. Evidence for Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling in rotating stratified turbulence using high-resolution direct numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, Duane L; Pouquet, Dr. Annick; Mininni, Dr. Pablo D.; Marino, Dr. Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    We report results on rotating stratified turbulence in the absence of forcing, with large-scale isotropic initial conditions, using direct numerical simulations computed on grids of up to $4096^3$ points. The Reynolds and Froude numbers are respectively equal to $Re=5.4\\times 10^4$ and $Fr=0.0242$. The ratio of the Brunt-V\\"ais\\"al\\"a to the inertial wave frequency, $N/f$, is taken to be equal to 5, a choice appropriate to model the dynamics of the southern abyssal ocean at mid latitudes. This gives a global buoyancy Reynolds number $R_B=ReFr^2=32$, a value sufficient for some isotropy to be recovered in the small scales beyond the Ozmidov scale, but still moderate enough that the intermediate scales where waves are prevalent are well resolved. We concentrate on the large-scale dynamics and confirm that the Froude number based on a typical vertical length scale is of order unity, with strong gradients in the vertical. Two characteristic scales emerge from this computation, and are identified from sharp variations in the spectral distribution of either total energy or helicity. A spectral break is also observed at a scale at which the partition of energy between the kinetic and potential modes changes abruptly, and beyond which a Kolmogorov-like spectrum recovers. Large slanted layers are ubiquitous in the flow in the velocity and temperature fields, and a large-scale enhancement of energy is also observed, directly attributable to the effect of rotation.

  1. Direct

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct removal of edge-localized pollutant emission in a near-infrared bremsstrahlung measurement J. K. Anderson, a) P. L. Andrew, b) B. E. Chapman, D. Craig, and D. J. Den Hartog Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Presented on 10 July 2002͒ Visible and near-infrared electron-ion bremsstrahlung measurements in fusion research devices, used to determine the effective ionic charge (Z eff ), are often plagued by pollutant emission

  2. Direct Numerical Simulation of Pore-Scale Flow in a Bead Pack: Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.; Vogt, Sarah J.; Codd, Sarah L.; Seymour, Joseph D.; Mckinley, Matthew I.

    2013-04-01

    A significant body of current research is aimed at developing methods for numerical simulation of flow and transport in porous media that explicitly resolve complex pore and solid geometries, and at utilizing such models to study the relationships between fundamental pore-scale processes and macroscopic manifestations at larger (i.e., Darcy) scales. A number of different numerical methods for pore-scale simulation have been developed, and have been extensively tested and validated for simplified geometries. However, validation of pore-scale simulations of fluid velocity for complex, three-dimensional (3D) pore geometries that are representative of natural porous media is challenging due to our limited ability to measure pore-scale velocity in such systems. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offer the opportunity to measure not only the pore geometry, but also local fluid velocities under steady-state flow conditions in 3D and with high spatial resolution. In this paper, we present a 3D velocity field measured at sub-pore resolution (tens of micrometers) over a centimeter-scale 3D domain using MRI methods. We have utilized the measured pore geometry to perform 3D simulations of Navier-Stokes flow over the same domain using direct numerical simulation techniques. We present a comparison of the numerical simulation results with the measured velocity field. It is shown that the numerical results match the observed velocity patterns well overall except for a variance and small systematic scaling which can be attributed to the known experimental error in the MRI measurements. The comparisons presented here provide strong validation of the pore-scale simulation methods and new insights for interpretation of uncertainty in MRI measurements of pore-scale velocity. This study also provides a potential benchmark for future comparison of other pore-scale simulation methods.

  3. Evaluation Pilot-Scale Melter Systems for the Direct Vitrification Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mc Cray, Casey William; Thomson, Troy David

    2001-09-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation conducted to identify a joule-heated melter system that could be installed in the Idaho Falls area in support of the Direct Vitrification Development Program. The relocation was to be completed by January 1, 2002, within a total budget of one million dollars. Coordination with the Department of Energy Tanks Focus Area identified five melters or melter systems that could potentially support the Direct Vitrification Development Program. Each unit was inspected and evaluated based on qualitative criteria such as availability, completeness of the system, contamination, scalability, materials of construction, facility requirements, and any unique features.

  4. Laser irradiance scaling in polar direct drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, T. J.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Baumgaertel, J. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Hakel, P.; Hsu, S. C.; Kline, J. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Obrey, K. A. D.; Shah, R. C.; Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Kanzleiter, R. J.; Batha, S. H.; Wallace, R. J.; Bhandarkar, S. D.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Hoppe, M. L.; Nikroo, A.; Hohenberger, M.; McKenty, P. W.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-09-17

    Polar-direct-drive experiments conducted at the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, Fusion Sci. Technol. 54, 361 (2008)] performed at laser irradiance between 1 and 2×1015 W/cm2 exhibit increased hard x-ray emission, decreased neutron yield, and reduced areal density as the irradiance is increased. Experimental x-ray images at the higher irradiances show x-ray emission at the equator, as well as degraded symmetry, that is not predicted in hydrodynamic simulations using flux-limited energy transport, but that appear when non-local electron transport together with a model to account for cross beam energy transfer (CBET) is utilized. The reduction in laser power for equatorial beams required in the simulations to reproduce the effects of CBET on the observed symmetry also reproduces the yield degradation consistent with experimental data.

  5. Laser irradiance scaling in polar direct drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Murphy, T. J.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Baumgaertel, J. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Hakel, P.; Hsu, S. C.; Kline, J. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; et al

    2015-09-17

    Polar-direct-drive experiments conducted at the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, Fusion Sci. Technol. 54, 361 (2008)] performed at laser irradiance between 1 and 2×1015 W/cm2 exhibit increased hard x-ray emission, decreased neutron yield, and reduced areal density as the irradiance is increased. Experimental x-ray images at the higher irradiances show x-ray emission at the equator, as well as degraded symmetry, that is not predicted in hydrodynamic simulations using flux-limited energy transport, but that appear when non-local electron transport together with a model to account for cross beam energy transfer (CBET) is utilized. The reduction in laser power for equatorialmore » beams required in the simulations to reproduce the effects of CBET on the observed symmetry also reproduces the yield degradation consistent with experimental data.« less

  6. Scales

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  7. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.

    1997-02-01

    The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. LARGE-SCALE DISTRIBUTION OF ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS OF COSMIC RAYS DETECTED ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Arganda, E.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. This search is performed as a function of both declination and right ascension in several energy ranges above 10{sup 18} eV, and reported in terms of dipolar and quadrupolar coefficients. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Assuming that any cosmic-ray anisotropy is dominated by dipole and quadrupole moments in this energy range, upper limits on their amplitudes are derived. These upper limits allow us to test the origin of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV from stationary Galactic sources densely distributed in the Galactic disk and predominantly emitting light particles in all directions.

  9. Utility-Scale Solar Power Converter: Agile Direct Grid Connect Medium Voltage 4.7-13.8 kV Power Converter for PV Applications Utilizing Wide Band Gap Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-25

    Solar ADEPT Project: Satcon is developing a compact, lightweight power conversion device that is capable of taking utility-scale solar power and outputting it directly into the electric utility grid at distribution voltage levelseliminating the need for large transformers. Transformers step up the voltage of the power that is generated by a solar power system so it can be efficiently transported through transmission lines and eventually stepped down to usable voltages before it enters homes and businesses. Power companies step up the voltage because less electricity is lost along transmission lines when the voltage is high and current is low. Satcons new power conversion devices will eliminate these heavy transformers and connect a utility-scale solar power system directly to the grid. Satcons modular devices are designed to ensure reliabilityif one device fails it can be bypassed and the system can continue to run.

  10. Directives Tools

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    Useful links and resources for Directives Writers, Directives Point of Contact (DPCs), Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and Draft Directive Reviewers.

  11. W4E HYDROPOWER DIRECT DRIVE IN-LINE HYDROTURBINE GENERATOR FULL SCALE PROTOTYPE VALIDATION TESTING REPORT MAY 2013 ALDEN LABORATORIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Chad W

    2013-09-24

    The W4E is a patent-pending, direct-drive, variable force turbine/generator. The equipment generates electricity through the water dependent engagement of a ring of rotating magnets with coils mounted on a stator ring. Validation testing of the W4e was performed at Alden Laboratories in the Spring of 2013. The testing was independently observed and validated by GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. The observations made during testing and the results of the testing are included in the Test Summary Report

  12. Hopper Scaling Incentive Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hopper Scaling Incentive Program Hopper Scaling Incentive Program August 30, 2011 by Francesca Verdier For projects that haven't yet scaled their codes to 683 or more nodes (which is the level at which a job is considered "big" on hopper) NERSC is offering scaling incentives, mostly focused on the use of OpenMP. For some codes, adding OpenMP directives will allow you to scale up and run bigger science problems. For users accepted in the Scaling Incentive Program: First, you'll need to

  13. Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations September...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Edward Cazalet, TeMix Inc. and MegaWatt Storage Farms, Inc. Susan Kennedy, Advanded Microgrid Solutions John Shelk, Electric Power Supply Association Mark Irwin, Southern...

  14. NREL's Clean Energy Forum Attracts National Investment Community...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Devices, MegaWatt Storage Farms, Inc., Tellurian Biodiesel, Inc., Optony, Inc., LiquidPiston, Inc., Solar Red, Photon Synergy, QM Power, Inc., Ahura Energy, Inc., Deeya Energy, ...

  15. Searches for large-scale anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above energy of 10{sup 19} eV at the Pierre Auger observatory and the telescope array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Asorey, H.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Arqueros, F.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; Telescope Array Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above 10{sup 19} eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above 10{sup 19} eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  16. Searches for Large-Scale Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Cosmic Rays Detected above Energy of $10^{19}$ eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander; et al,

    2014-10-07

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above 1019 eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above 1019 eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  17. Directives System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Directives System is the means by which DOE policies, requirements, and responsibilities are developed and communicated throughout the Department. Directives are used to inform, direct, and guide employees in the performance of their jobs, and to enable employees to work effectively within the Department and with agencies, contractors, and the public. Cancels: DOE O 251.1, DOE M 251.1-1

  18. Strategic Direction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume One Film Collection Volume Two 75th Anniversary Hydropower in the Northwest Woody Guthrie Videos Strategic Direction Branding & Logos Power of the River History Book...

  19. Directives Help

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a number of ways in which you may get to the information you need.

  20. DRIVING DIRECTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DRIVING DIRECTIONS HILTON PALACIO DEL RIO 200 South Alamo Street San Antonio, Texas 78205 (210) 222-1400 San Antonio International Airport DIRECTIONS Take Interstate 281 south to Commerce Street. Continue west on Commerce Street to Losoya Street, turn left. Losoya becomes Alamo. The Hilton Palacio del Rio is located at 200 South Alamo Street. Distance from Hotel: 8 mi. Drive Time: 20 min. From the South: -I 37 North and take Commerce Street exit -Turn left at Commerce Street -Follow Commerce

  1. Scaling Up

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaling Up Scaling Up Many scientists appreciate Python's power for prototyping and developing scientific computing and data-intensive applications. However, creating parallel Python applications that scale well in modern high-performance computing environments can be challenging for a variety of reasons. Approaches to parallel processing in Python at NERSC are described on this page. Here we outline various approaches to scaling parallel Python applications at NERSC so that users may select the

  2. Directives Tools - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guides (Text version available here) Cancelling a Directive New Canceling a Directive The process for canceling directives (Text version available here) Directives Templates...

  3. Utility Scale Solar Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    HB 4037 of 2016 created the Solar Incentive Program for utility-scale solar development. The bill directs Oregon's Business Development Department (the Department) to establish and administer a...

  4. SMART Scale

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SMART Scale Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Colin Clark, CClark@ecoact.org ECOLOGY ACTION Project Summary Timeline:  Start date: October 1, 2013  Planned end date: September 30, 2016 Key Milestones :  June 2014: Research and develop list of measures needed to enhance Ecology !ction's DI 2.0 model to achieve an average of at least 20% energy savings  October 2014: Identification and Selection of Demonstration

  5. Directives Templates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and format Directives Templates Justification Memoranda Per Secretarial Memo, Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Framework for Directives, dated July 9, 2012, by September 1, 2012,...

  6. Departmental Directives Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-08-16

    The Order is the primary directive for administering the Department's directives Program. Cancels: DOE O 251.1A

  7. CX-004022: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    MegaWatt VenturesCX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1Date: 09/09/2010Location(s): Orlando, FloridaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  8. Length Scale of Leidenfrost Ratchet Switches Droplet Directionality...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    By contrast, asymmetric wetting does not provide a strong enough driving force compared to the forces induced by asymmetric vapour flow on arrays of much taller tilted microscale ...

  9. Laboratory Directed Research and Development - DOE Directives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2C, Laboratory Directed Research and Development by Russell Ames Functional areas: Energy Research & Technology To establish Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for laboratory...

  10. Directives Quarterly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directives at https:www.directives.doe.govdirectives APRIL 2015 DOE O 325.2, Position Management and Classification The order establishes departmental requirements and...

  11. Directives Quarterly Updates

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    Listings of new Justification Memoranda and new or revised Directives that have been posted to the DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Portal. Updated quarterly.

  12. direct_deposit_111609

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: DO NOT complete this form until you are ready to submit it to the Payroll Department. DIRECT DEPOSIT REQUEST Directions: 1. Provide required information neatly, legibly; 2. If Checking Account Direct Deposit, include a voided check. a. DO NOT submit a deposit slip! 3. If Savings Account Direct Deposit, include a copy of savings card. 4. Sign this form; 5. Inter-office mail it to Craft Payroll at "P238." DIRECT DEPOSITION AUTHORIZATION I hereby

  13. Buckman Direct Diversion Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buckman Direct Diversion Project Buckman Direct Diversion Project This project takes surface water from the Rio Grande, and then treats and distributes these waters to the city and county of Santa Fe through their drinking water distribution systems. August 1, 2013 Water flumes at Buckman Direct Diversion Project Water flumes at Buckman Direct Diversion Project The City of Santa Fe and Santa Fe County completed the construction of the Buckman Direct Diversion (BDD) Project in December 2010. The

  14. Departmental Directives Program Manual - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M 251.1-1B, Departmental Directives Program Manual by Website Administrator Functional areas: Information Technology, The Manual supplements DOE O 251.1B. Cancels DOE M 251.1-1A....

  15. Running Large Scale Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Running Large Scale Jobs Running Large Scale Jobs Users face various challenges with running and scaling large scale jobs on peta-scale production systems. For example, certain applications may not have enough memory per core, the default environment variables may need to be adjusted, or I/O dominates run time. This page lists some available programming and run time tuning options and tips users can try on their large scale applications on Hopper for better performance. Try different compilers

  16. Directional recoil rates for WIMP direct detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alenazi, Moqbil S.; Gondolo, Paolo [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E Rm 201, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0830 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    New techniques for the laboratory direct detection of dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are sensitive to the recoil direction of the struck nuclei. We compute and compare the directional recoil rates dR/dcos{theta} (where {theta} is the angle measured from a reference direction in the sky) for several WIMP velocity distributions including the standard dark halo and anisotropic models such as Sikivie's late-infall halo model and logarithmic-ellipsoidal models. Since some detectors may be unable to distinguish the beginning of the recoil track from its end (lack of head-tail discrimination), we introduce a folded directional recoil rate dR/d|cos{theta}|, where |cos{theta}| does not distinguish the head from the tail of the track. We compute the CS{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} exposures required to distinguish a signal from an isotropic background noise, and find that dR/d|cos{theta}| is effective for the standard dark halo and some but not all anisotropic models.

  17. Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States Print Wednesday, 28 September 2011 00:00 Magnetic materials are characterized by the ordering of electron spins, with nearest-neighbor spins parallel to each other in ferromagnetic (FM) materials and antiparallel to each other in antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials. As the size of a magnetic system is reduced to micron scale, it has been shown that the spins in an FM microstructure can curl around

  18. Direct Technical Assistance | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Technical Assistance Direct Technical Assistance Technical assistance is available to state, local, and tribal officials regarding the proposed EPA carbon pollution standards. The State and Local Solution Center helps states, local governments, and K-12 schools take clean energy to scale in their communities using a searchable database based on four key action areas or by topic and/or resource type. Action areas include in depth information on how to develop a clean energy strategy,

  19. Directives Quarterly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    home page for Directives at: https:www.directives.doe.govdirectives- browsec8-operatoror&c10&c12&bstart0 October 2014 DOE O 475.2B, Identifying Classified Information -...

  20. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  1. Directives System Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-30

    This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1A, Directives System, dated 1-30-98.

  2. Direct process for explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akst, I.B.; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1982-10-12

    A direct process of making ethylenediamine dinitrate through the reaction of ethylenediamine and ammonium nitrate is described.

  3. Departmental Directives Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-10-16

    To establish directives as the primary means to set, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors.

  4. Directives System Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-10-16

    This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1, which establishes requirements for the development, coordination, and sunset review of DOE directives.

  5. Cancellation of Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-01-26

    Effective immediately the following Department of Energy directive is canceled. DOE M 452.2-2, Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes, dated 04-14-2009.

  6. Direct-fired biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The direct-fired biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  7. Directives Quarterly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.directives.doe.govdirectivesdirectives October 2013 DOE O 472.2 Admin Chg 1, Personnel Security - The order establishes requirements that will enable DOE to operate...

  8. Departmental Directives System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1983-04-07

    The order establishes the directives system to be used for publishing permanent and temporary directives issued by DOE Headquarters and addressed to Headquarters and/or field elements. Chg 1 dated 3-14-85. Cancels DOE 1321.1A.

  9. Multi-scale Shock Technique

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-01

    The code to be released is a new addition to the LAMMPS molecular dynamics code. LAMMPS is developed and maintained by Sandia, is publicly available, and is used widely by both natioanl laboratories and academics. The new addition to be released enables LAMMPS to perform molecular dynamics simulations of shock waves using the Multi-scale Shock Simulation Technique (MSST) which we have developed and has been previously published. This technique enables molecular dynamics simulations of shockmore »waves in materials for orders of magnitude longer timescales than the direct, commonly employed approach.« less

  10. AISI direct steelmaking program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E.

    1991-01-09

    AISI with co-funding from DOE has initiated a research and development program aimed at the development of a new process for direct steelmaking, and the program is discussed in this document. The project is expected to cost about $30 million over a three-year period, with the government providing approximately 77 percent of the funds and AISI the balance. In contrast to current steelmaking processes which are largely open and batch, the direct steelmaking process would be closed and continuous. Further, it would use coal directly, thereby avoiding the need for coke ovens. The second year of the Direct Steelmaking Program (November 29, 1989, through November 28, 1990) was a year of significant accomplishment. The various research programs proceeded essentially on schedule and the pilot plant, the centerpiece of the program, was completed about three months behind schedule but began operation in almost a picture-perfect manner. This report presents the last years accomplishments.

  11. Direct nuclear pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miley, George H. (Champagne, IL); Wells, William E. (Urbana, IL); DeYoung, Russell J. (Hampton, VA)

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

  12. Departmental Directives Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-08-13

    The order establishes directives as the primary means to set, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors. The second draft is being submitted for review owing to extensive revisions to the first draft.

  13. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Seiber, Larry E.; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  14. Directions - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions The Laboratory is on the hillside directly above the campus of the University of California at Berkeley. Our address is 1 Cyclotron Rd. Bldg. 88, Berkeley, CA 94720. To make the Lab easily accessible, the Lab has its own shuttle service that takes people around the site, to downtown Berkeley, and to the BART station. Parking spaces can sometimes be difficult to find at the 88-Inch Cyclotron, so make sure to prearrange for a parking permit with our Administrative Office. Further

  15. Silica Scaling Removal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaling Removal Process Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel technology to remove both dissolved and colloidal silica using small gel particles....

  16. Running Large Scale Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    peta-scale production systems. For example, certain applications may not have enough memory per core, the default environment variables may need to be adjusted, or IO dominates...

  17. Scale Models & Wind Turbines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbines * Readings about Cape Wind and other offshore and onshore siting debates for wind farms * Student Worksheet * A number of scale model items: Ken, Barbie or other dolls...

  18. Running Large Scale Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    try on their large scale applications on Hopper for better performance. Try different compilers and compiler options The available compilers on Hopper are PGI, Cray, Intel, GNU,...

  19. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  20. Direct conversion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  1. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter spacemore » that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.« less

  2. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter space that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.

  3. Directed Quantum Chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Efetov, K.B. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russia)

    1997-07-01

    Quantum disordered problems with a direction (imaginary vector potential) are discussed and mapped onto a supermatrix {sigma} model. It is argued that the 0D version of the {sigma} model may describe a broad class of phenomena that can be called directed quantum chaos. It is demonstrated by explicit calculations that these problems are equivalent to those of random asymmetric or non-Hermitian matrices. A joint probability of complex eigenvalues is obtained. The fraction of states with real eigenvalues proves to be always finite for time reversal invariant systems. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Direct Conversion Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

  5. Directions & Maps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions & Maps Directions & Maps The Bradbury Science Museum is located in downtown Los Alamos at the corner of Central Avenue and 15th Street. Contact Us thumbnail of Bradbury Science Museum 505 667-4444 Email Where we're located Los Alamos (elevation 7,355 feet) is perched high atop the Pajarito Plateau in the Jemez Mountains, 35 miles northwest of Santa Fe. The Bradbury Science Museum is located in downtown Los Alamos at the corner of Central Avenue and 15th Street. If you're

  6. Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States Print Magnetic materials are characterized by the ordering of electron spins, with nearest-neighbor spins parallel to each other in ferromagnetic (FM) materials and antiparallel to each other in antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials. As the size of a magnetic system is reduced to micron scale, it has been shown that the spins in an FM microstructure can curl around to form a magnetic vortex state. While there has been intensive activity in the study

  7. Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States Print Magnetic materials are characterized by the ordering of electron spins, with nearest-neighbor spins parallel to each other in ferromagnetic (FM) materials and antiparallel to each other in antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials. As the size of a magnetic system is reduced to micron scale, it has been shown that the spins in an FM microstructure can curl around to form a magnetic vortex state. While there has been intensive activity in the study

  8. Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States Print Magnetic materials are characterized by the ordering of electron spins, with nearest-neighbor spins parallel to each other in ferromagnetic (FM) materials and antiparallel to each other in antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials. As the size of a magnetic system is reduced to micron scale, it has been shown that the spins in an FM microstructure can curl around to form a magnetic vortex state. While there has been intensive activity in the study

  9. Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States Print Magnetic materials are characterized by the ordering of electron spins, with nearest-neighbor spins parallel to each other in ferromagnetic (FM) materials and antiparallel to each other in antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials. As the size of a magnetic system is reduced to micron scale, it has been shown that the spins in an FM microstructure can curl around to form a magnetic vortex state. While there has been intensive activity in the study

  10. Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States Print Magnetic materials are characterized by the ordering of electron spins, with nearest-neighbor spins parallel to each other in ferromagnetic (FM) materials and antiparallel to each other in antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials. As the size of a magnetic system is reduced to micron scale, it has been shown that the spins in an FM microstructure can curl around to form a magnetic vortex state. While there has been intensive activity in the study

  11. Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States Print Magnetic materials are characterized by the ordering of electron spins, with nearest-neighbor spins parallel to each other in ferromagnetic (FM) materials and antiparallel to each other in antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials. As the size of a magnetic system is reduced to micron scale, it has been shown that the spins in an FM microstructure can curl around to form a magnetic vortex state. While there has been intensive activity in the study

  12. Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States Print Magnetic materials are characterized by the ordering of electron spins, with nearest-neighbor spins parallel to each other in ferromagnetic (FM) materials and antiparallel to each other in antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials. As the size of a magnetic system is reduced to micron scale, it has been shown that the spins in an FM microstructure can curl around to form a magnetic vortex state. While there has been intensive activity in the study

  13. Directional gamma detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeVert, Francis E.; Cox, Samson A.

    1981-01-01

    An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

  14. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  15. Extension of DOE Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-02-12

    The following directives are extended until 8-12-04. DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems, dated 11/1/99. DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11/23/99.

  16. Extension of DOE Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-02-24

    This Notice extends the following directives until 2/16/04: DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems, and DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11/23/99-7/1/00.

  17. Extension of DOE Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-08-12

    The following directives are extended until 8-12-05: DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Security Systems, dated 11-1-99 and DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11-23-99. No cancellations.

  18. INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.R. Clark; G.C. Knighton; R.S. Fielding; N.P. Hallinan

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various improvements being made ‘on the fly’ in a trial and error process.

  19. Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene wrinkles and grain

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    boundaries (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene wrinkles and grain boundaries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene wrinkles and grain boundaries We directly measure the nanometer-scale temperature rise at wrinkles and grain boundaries (GBs) in functioning graphene devices by scanning Joule expansion microscopy with 50 nm spatial and 0.2K temperature resolution. We observe a small

  20. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha; Prudell, Joseph H.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J.; Zhang, Zhe

    2013-07-29

    The most prudent path to a full-scale design, build and deployment of a wave energy conversion (WEC) system involves establishment of validated numerical models using physical experiments in a methodical scaling program. This Project provides essential additional rounds of wave tank testing at 1:33 scale and ocean/bay testing at a 1:7 scale, necessary to validate numerical modeling that is essential to a utility-scale WEC design and associated certification.

  1. SECA Coal-Based Systems - LGFCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goettler, Richard

    2014-01-31

    LGFCS is developing an integrated planar (IP) SOFC technology for mega-watt scale power generation including the potential for use in highly efficient, economically competitive central generation power plant facilities fuel by coal synthesis gas. This Department of Energy Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program has been aimed at achieving further cell and stack technical advancements and assessing the readiness of the LGFCS SOFC stack technology to be scaled to larger-scale demonstrations as a path to commercialization. Significant progress was achieved in reducing to practice a higher performance and lower cost cell technology, identifying and overcoming degradation mechanisms, confirming the structural capability of the porous substrate for reliability, maturing the strip design for improved flow to allow high fuel utilization operation while minimizing degradation mechanisms and obtaining full scale block testing at 19 kW under representative conditions for eventual product and meeting SECA degradation metrics. The SECA program has played a key role within the overall LGFCS development program in setting the foundation of the technology to justify the progression of the technology to the next level of technology readiness testing.

  2. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  3. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  4. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  5. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  6. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  7. Extension of DOE Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-03-18

    The following directives are extended until 3-18-06: DOE N 205.8, Cyber Security Requirements for Wireless Devices and Information Systems, dated 2-11-04; DOE N 205.9, Certification and Accreditation Process for Information Systems Including National Security Systems, dated 02-19-04; DOE N 205.10, Cyber Security Requirements for Risk Management, dated 02-19-04; DOE N 205.11, Security Requirements for Remote Access to DOE and Applicable Contractor Information Technology Systems, dated 2-19-04. DOE N 205.12, Clearing, Sanitizing, and Destroying Information System Storage Media, Memory Devices, and Other Related Hardware, dated 2-19-04.

  8. Omni-directional railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen (9521 Avenida Del Oso NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1995-01-01

    A device for electromagnetically accelerating projectiles. The invention features two parallel conducting circular plates, a plurality of electrode connections to both upper and lower plates, a support base, and a projectile magazine. A projectile is spring-loaded into a firing position concentrically located between the parallel plates. A voltage source is applied to the plates to cause current to flow in directions defined by selectable, discrete electrode connections on both upper and lower plates. Repulsive Lorentz forces are generated to eject the projectile in a 360 degree range of fire.

  9. Omni-directional railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-07-25

    A device is disclosed for electromagnetically accelerating projectiles. The invention features two parallel conducting circular plates, a plurality of electrode connections to both upper and lower plates, a support base, and a projectile magazine. A projectile is spring-loaded into a firing position concentrically located between the parallel plates. A voltage source is applied to the plates to cause current to flow in directions defined by selectable, discrete electrode connections on both upper and lower plates. Repulsive Lorentz forces are generated to eject the projectile in a 360 degree range of fire. 4 figs.

  10. Directions | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Area Map Jefferson Lab is located in Newport News, VA, in the Hampton Roads area. A D D I T I O N A L L I N K S: Visiting JLab Transportation Driving in Virginia Accomodations Schedule A Tour International Visitors top-right bottom-left-corner bottom-right-corner DIRECTIONS Important Note: Effective Feb. 15, 2016, Jefferson Lab's main entrance is closed to all traffic. Excavation work is underway at the main entrance - at the intersection of Jefferson Ave. and Lawrence Drive. Please follow the

  11. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    2008-01-15

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  12. Remote direct memory access

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  13. Directed light fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, G.K.; Nemec, R.; Milewski, J.; Thoma, D.J.; Cremers, D.; Barbe, M.

    1994-09-01

    Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) is a rapid prototyping process being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to fabricate metal components. This is done by fusing gas delivered metal powder particles in the focal zone of a laser beam that is, programmed to move along or across the part cross section. Fully dense metal is built up a layer at a time to form the desired part represented by a 3 dimensional solid model from CAD software. Machine ``tool paths`` are created from the solid model that command the movement and processing parameters specific to the DLF process so that the part can be built one layer at a time. The result is a fully dense, near net shape metal part that solidifies under rapid solidification conditions.

  14. Site directed recombination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jurka, Jerzy W. (Los Altos, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  15. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  16. Large-scale anisotropy in stably stratified rotating flows

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marino, R.; Mininni, P. D.; Rosenberg, D. L.; Pouquet, A.

    2014-08-28

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations in the presence of rotation and/or stratification, both in the vertical direction. The runs are forced isotropically and randomly at small scales and have spatial resolutions of up tomore » $1024^3$ grid points and Reynolds numbers of $$\\approx 1000$$. We first show that solutions with negative energy flux and inverse cascades develop in rotating turbulence, whether or not stratification is present. However, the purely stratified case is characterized instead by an early-time, highly anisotropic transfer to large scales with almost zero net isotropic energy flux. This is consistent with previous studies that observed the development of vertically sheared horizontal winds, although only at substantially later times. However, and unlike previous works, when sufficient scale separation is allowed between the forcing scale and the domain size, the total energy displays a perpendicular (horizontal) spectrum with power law behavior compatible with $$\\sim k_\\perp^{-5/3}$$, including in the absence of rotation. In this latter purely stratified case, such a spectrum is the result of a direct cascade of the energy contained in the large-scale horizontal wind, as is evidenced by a strong positive flux of energy in the parallel direction at all scales including the largest resolved scales.« less

  17. Scaled Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Product: Scaled Solar manufacturers and markets utility-grade, concentrated photovoltaic solar energy systems to commercial customers References: Scaled Solar1 This...

  18. Sensor system scaling issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-07-01

    A model for IR sensor performance is used to compare estimates of sensor cost effectiveness. Although data from aircraft sensors indicate a weaker scaling, their agreement is adequate to support the assessment of the benefits of operating up to the maximum altitude of most current UAVs.

  19. Multiple direction vibration fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cericola, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Doggett, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Ernest, Terry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Priddy, Tommy G. (Rockville, MD)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for simulating a rocket launch environment on a test item undergoing centrifuge testing by subjecting the item simultaneously or separately to vibration along an axis of centripetal force and along an axis perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The apparatus includes a shaker motor supported by centrifuge arms and a right angle fixture pivotally connected to one of the shaker motor mounts. When the shaker motor vibrates along the centripetal force axis, the vibrations are imparted to a first side of the right angle fixture. The vibrations are transmitted 90 degrees around the pivot and are directed to a second side of the right angle fixture which imparts vibrations perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The test item is in contact with a third side of the right angle fixture and receives both centripetal-force-axis vibrations and perpendicular axis vibrations simultaneously. A test item can be attached to the third side near the flexible coupling or near the air bag to obtain vibrations along the centripetal force axis or transverse to the centripetal force axis.

  20. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rapier, Pascal M. (Richmond, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  1. Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Funding for the EMSSAB | Department of Energy Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSAB Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSAB From: Designated Federal Officer, Sandra L. Waisley (EM-11) To: SSAB Members (G. Stegner, J. Reising, G. Bowman, T. Taylor, C. Gertz, B. Murphie, S. McCracken, M. Marvin, J. Rampe, A. Doswell, C. Anderson, B. Wethington, S. Brennan, K. Kozeliski,

  2. Columbia Power Technologies, Inc. Deploys its Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Columbia Power Technologies, Inc. Deploys its Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy Columbia Power Technologies, Inc. Deploys its Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In preparation for a full-scale bay/ocean demonstration and with EERE support, Columbia Power Technologies, Inc. (CPT) deployed an intermediate-scale wave energy converter to demonstrate and validate its direct drive wave energy Buoy technology, which extracts energy from passing waves.

  3. EERE Success Story-Columbia Power Technologies, Inc. Deploys its Direct

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Drive Wave Energy Buoy | Department of Energy Columbia Power Technologies, Inc. Deploys its Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy EERE Success Story-Columbia Power Technologies, Inc. Deploys its Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In preparation for a full-scale bay/ocean demonstration and with EERE support, Columbia Power Technologies, Inc. (CPT) deployed an intermediate-scale wave energy converter to demonstrate and validate its direct drive wave energy Buoy technology,

  4. DOE Directives | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Directives DOE Directives Directives are the Department of Energy's primary means to communicate and institutionalize directives and policies and to establish requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors. DOE O 413.3A - Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets DOE G 413.3-1 - Managing Design and Construction Using Systems Engineering for Use with DOE O 413.3A DOE G 413.3-2 - Quality Assurance Guide for Project Management DOE

  5. Bioenergy Technologies Office New Directions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Directions and New Business Opportunities for BETO Valerie Reed, Acting Director, BETO, U.S. Department of Energy

  6. Scaled Wind Farm Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaled Wind Farm Technology - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  7. large-scale conveyance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large-scale conveyance - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  8. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  9. Megawatt Electrolysis Scale Up

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MW Electrolysis Scale Up E Anderson DOE Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop 27-28 February 2014 27 28 February 2014 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO (tm) ® Proton, Proton OnSite, Proton Energy Systems, the Proton design, StableFlow, StableFlow Hydrogen Control System and design, HOGEN, and FuelGen are trademarks or registered trademarks of Proton Energy Systems, Inc. Any other brands and/or names used herein are the property of their respective owners. Motivation - MW

  10. DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The eighth bench scale test of POC program, Run PB-08, was successfully completed from August 8 to August 26, 1997. A total of five operating conditions were tested aiming at evaluating the reactivity of different pyrolysis oils in liquefaction of a Wyoming sub-bituminous coal (Black Thunder coal). For the first time, water soluble promoters were incorporated into the iron-based GelCat to improve the dispersion of the promoter metals in the feed blend. The concentration of the active metals, Mo and Fe, was 100 and 1000 ppm of moisture-free coal, respectively. Black Thunder coal used in this run was the same batch as tested in HTI?s Run POC-02. Similar to Runs PB-01 through 7, this run employed two back mixed slurry reactors, an interstage gas/slurry separator and a direct-coupled hydrotreater. In addition to the hot vapor from the second stage separator, the first stage separator overhead liquid was also fed to the hydrotreater, which was packed with Criterion C-411 hydrotreating catalyst. Pyrolysis oil was produced off-line from a pyrolysis unit acquired from University of Wyoming. Solids rejection was achieved by purging out pressure filter solid. The recycle solvents consisted of O-6 separator bottoms and pressure filter liquid (PFL). The Run PB-08 proceeded very smoothly without any interruptions. Coal conversion consistently above 90W% was achieved. High resid conversion and distillate yield have been obtained from co-processing of coal and 343C+ (650F+) pyrolysis oil. Light gas (C1-C3 ) yield was minimized and hydrogen consumption was reduced due to the introduction of pyrolysis oil, compared with conventional coal-derived solvent. Catalytic activity was improved by incorporating a promoter metal into the iron-based GelCat. It seemed that lowering the first stage temperature to 435C might increase the hydrogenation function of the promoter metal. In comparison with previous coal-waste coprocessing run (PB-06), significant improvements in the process performance were achieved due to catalyst modification and integration of pyrolysis technique into liquefaction.

  11. Small-scale strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    In the world of power project development there is a market for smaller scale cogeneration projects in the range of 1MW to 10MW. In the European Union alone, this range will account for about $25 Billion in value over the next 10 years. By adding the potential that exists in Eastern Europe, the numbers are even more impressive. In Europe, only about 7 percent of needed electrical power is currently produced through cogeneration installations; this is expected to change to around 15 percent by the year 2000. Less than one year ago, two equipment manufacturers formed Dutch Power Partners (DPP) to focus on the market for industrial cogeneration throughout Europe.

  12. Static Scale Conversion (SSC)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-01-19

    The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle inmore » motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.« less

  13. Payroll Check Direct Deposit Authorization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Payroll Check Direct Deposit Authorization (for LANS non-craft salary & wage payments only) Note: Direct Deposit authorizations are available through Oracle LANL Worker Self Service with A-Level access. Limit 5 Direct Deposit authorization accounts per employee Financial Institution Name: Routing/Transit Number: (requires nine digits) Account Number: Type of Account (check one): Checking Savings A separate form is required for each account transaction. Type of Transacton Deposit Type (check

  14. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    7, 2003 Homeland Security Presidential Directive/Hspd-7 For Immediate Release Office of the Press Secretary December 17, 2003 December 17, 2003 Homeland Security Presidential Directive/Hspd-7 Subject: Critical Infrastructure Identification, Prioritization, and Protection Purpose (1) This directive establishes a national policy for Federal departments and agencies to identify and prioritize United States critical infrastructure and key resources and to protect them from terrorist attacks.

  15. DOE Directives | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Directives DOE Directives DOE Directives Initiated by the IG DOE O 221.3A, Establishment of Management Decisions on Office of Inspector General Reports - April 19, 2008 DOE O 221.1A, Reporting Fraud, Waste and Abuse to the Office of Inspector General - April 19, 2008 DOE O 221.2A, Cooperation with the Office of Inspector General - February 25, 2008 DOE O 224.2A, Auditing of Programs and Operations - November 9, 2007

  16. Sunlight Direct | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Developed a system that tracks and concentrates solar energy for distributed power generation Website: www.sunlight-direct.com Coordinates: 33.0013938,...

  17. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phone Book Jobs Laboratory Directorate - Strategic Planning Office Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) LBNL LDRD Program Guidelines LDRD FY 2017 Call for...

  18. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  19. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) while providing the laboratory director broad flexibility for program implementation.

  20. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-04-30

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) while providing the laboratory director broad flexibility for program implementation

  1. DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Item Packaging and Transportation for Offsite Shipment of Materials of National Security Interest https:www.directives.doe.govinformational-purposes-only...

  2. Program Direction and Analysis Jobs

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    sc-4organizationprogram-direction-and-analysis Below is a list of currently open federal employment opportunities in the Office of Science. Prospective applicants should follow...

  3. Large-scale quasi-geostrophic magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balk, Alexander M.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of a shallow fluid layer on a rapidly rotating planet or star. The presence of a background toroidal magnetic field is assumed, and the 'shallow water' beta-plane approximation is used. We derive a single equation for the slow large length scale dynamics. The range of validity of this equation fits the MHD of the lighter fluid at the top of Earth's outer core. The form of this equation is similar to the quasi-geostrophic (Q-G) equation (for usual ocean or atmosphere), but the parameters are essentially different. Our equation also implies the inverse cascade; but contrary to the usual Q-G situation, the energy cascades to smaller length scales, while the enstrophy cascades to the larger scales. We find the Kolmogorov-type spectrum for the inverse cascade. The spectrum indicates the energy accumulation in larger scales. In addition to the energy and enstrophy, the obtained equation possesses an extra (adiabatic-type) invariant. Its presence implies energy accumulation in the 30° sector around zonal direction. With some special energy input, the extra invariant can lead to the accumulation of energy in zonal magnetic field; this happens if the input of the extra invariant is small, while the energy input is considerable.

  4. New Directions in Fuels Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All fuels have their pros and cons that become evident at large scale, and while biofuels are a critical part of the energy future, they are not the only solution

  5. Mixing lengths scaling in a gravity flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Micheal [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Jun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the mixing processes in a gravity current. The turbulent transport of momentum and buoyancy can be described in a very direct and compact form by a Prandtl mixing length model [1]: the turbulent vertical fluxes of momentum and buoyancy are found to scale quadraticatly with the vertical mean gradients of velocity and density. The scaling coefficient is the square of the mixing length, approximately constant over the mixing zone of the stratified shear layer. We show in this paper how, in different flow configurations, this length can be related to the shear length of the flow {radical}({var_epsilon}/{partial_derivative}{sub z}u{sup 3}).

  6. Directed Self-Assembly of Nanodispersions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furst, Eric M

    2013-11-15

    Directed self-assembly promises to be the technologically and economically optimal approach to industrial-scale nanotechnology, and will enable the realization of inexpensive, reproducible and active nanostructured materials with tailored photonic, transport and mechanical properties. These new nanomaterials will play a critical role in meeting the 21st century grand challenges of the US, including energy diversity and sustainability, national security and economic competitiveness. The goal of this work was to develop and fundamentally validate methods of directed selfassembly of nanomaterials and nanodispersion processing. The specific aims were: 1. Nanocolloid self-assembly and interactions in AC electric fields. In an effort to reduce the particle sizes used in AC electric field self-assembly to lengthscales, we propose detailed characterizations of field-driven structures and studies of the fundamental underlying particle interactions. We will utilize microscopy and light scattering to assess order-disorder transitions and self-assembled structures under a variety of field and physicochemical conditions. Optical trapping will be used to measure particle interactions. These experiments will be synergetic with calculations of the particle polarizability, enabling us to both validate interactions and predict the order-disorder transition for nanocolloids. 2. Assembly of anisotropic nanocolloids. Particle shape has profound effects on structure and flow behavior of dispersions, and greatly complicates their processing and self-assembly. The methods developed to study the self-assembled structures and underlying particle interactions for dispersions of isotropic nanocolloids will be extended to systems composed of anisotropic particles. This report reviews several key advances that have been made during this project, including, (1) advances in the measurement of particle polarization mechanisms underlying field-directed self-assembly, and (2) progress in the directed self-assembly of anisotropic nanoparticles and their unique physical properties.

  7. Efficient Placement of Directional Antennas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Feng; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva

    2010-09-20

    Directional antenna is an technology for the proliferation of wireless networks. In centralized wireless network, wireless devices communicate through base stations. Directed antennas are placed on base stations and form a backbone of communication. The communication between base stations and wireless devices can be interfered due to a large number of wireless device. Methodically positioning and orienting directed antennas can help to reduce the interference while saving energy. An integer linear programming is developed for siting and directing antennas on multiple base stations, and this formulation can be extended to model non-overlapping channels. Through the integer programming formulation, optimal antenna positions can be used to analyze the performance of directed antennas with different parameters like the number base stations and the number of non-overlapping channels.

  8. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  9. Directional fast-neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrd, Roger C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A plurality of omnidirectional radiation detectors are arranged in a close packed symmetrical pattern to form a segmented detector. The output radiation counts from these detectors are arithmetically combined to provide the direction of a source of incident radiation. Directionality is achieved without the use of shielding to provide collimation and background reduction effects. Indeed, output counts from paired detectors are simply subtracted to yield a vector direction toward the radiation source. The counts from all of the detectors can be combined to yield an output signal functionally related to the radiation source strength.

  10. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-01-08

    To establish the Department's, including the NNSA's, requirements for laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) while providing the laboratory director broad flexibility for program implementation. Cancels DOE O 413.2. Canceled by DOE O 413.2B.

  11. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-04-19

    The Order establishes DOE requirements and responsibilities for laboratory directed research and development while providing laboratory directors with broad flexibility for program implementation. Cancels DOE O 413.2A. Admin Chg 1, 1-31-11.

  12. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-10-22

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) while providing the laboratory director broad flexibility for program implementation. Supersedes DOE O 413.2B.

  13. Nonimaging radiant energy direction device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland

    1980-01-01

    A raidant energy nonimaging light direction device is provided. The device includes an energy transducer and a reflective wall whose contour is particularly determined with respect to the geometrical vector flux of a field associated with the transducer.

  14. DOE Directives | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Directives DOE Directives DOE O 414.1D, Quality Assurance DOE G 414.1-2B Admin Change 1, Quality Assurance Program Guide DOE O 221.1A, Reporting Fraud, Waste and Abuse to the Office of the Inspector General DOE O 232.2, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information DOE O 440.1B, Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including the NNSA) Federal Employees

  15. Solazyme Pilot-Scale Biorefinery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    11 Printed with a renewable-source ink on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper, including 10% post consumer waste Solazyme Integrated Biorefinery: Diesel Fuels from Heterotrophic Algae Solazyme, Inc. will build, operate and optimize a pilot-scale "Solazyme Integrated Biorefinery" (SzIBR). SzIBR will demonstrate integrated scale-up of Solazyme's novel heterotrophic algal oil biomanufacturing process, validate the projected commercial-scale economics of producing multiple advanced

  16. Pore-Scale and Multiscale Numerical Simulation of Flow and Transport in a Laboratory-Scale Column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; McKinley, Matthey I.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Serkowski, John A.; Zachara, John M.

    2015-02-01

    Pore-scale models are useful for studying relationships between fundamental processes and phenomena at larger (i.e., Darcy) scales. However, the size of domains that can be simulated with explicit pore-scale resolution is limited by computational and observational constraints. Direct numerical simulation of pore-scale flow and transport is typically performed on millimeter-scale volumes at which X-ray computed tomography (XCT), often used to characterize pore geometry, can achieve micrometer resolution. In contrast, the scale at which a continuum approximation of a porous medium is valid is usually larger, on the order of centimeters to decimeters. Furthermore, laboratory experiments that measure continuum properties are typically performed on decimeter-scale columns. At this scale, XCT resolution is coarse (tens to hundreds of micrometers) and prohibits characterization of small pores and grains. We performed simulations of pore-scale processes over a decimeter-scale volume of natural porous media with a wide range of grain sizes, and compared to results of column experiments using the same sample. Simulations were conducted using high-performance codes executed on a supercomputer. Two approaches to XCT image segmentation were evaluated, a binary (pores and solids) segmentation and a ternary segmentation that resolved a third category (porous solids with pores smaller than the imaged resolution). We used a mixed Stokes-Darcy simulation method to simulate the combination of Stokes flow in large open pores and Darcy-like flow in porous solid regions. Simulations based on the ternary segmentation provided results that were consistent with experimental observations, demonstrating our ability to successfully model pore-scale flow over a column-scale domain.

  17. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhinefrank, Ken

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress and results for this project which will be used to inform the utility-scale design process, improve cost estimates, accurately forecast energy production and to observe system operation and survivability.

  18. Drift Scale THM Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Rutqvist

    2004-10-07

    This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a drift to transport any exposed radionuclides out of the drift to the groundwater below, and eventually to people within the accessible environment. Absent sufficient water, radionuclides cannot be transported and there would be no significant health effect on people, even if radioactive waste containers were damaged or corroded to such an extent that radionuclides were exposed to water.

  19. Property:Wave Direction | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wave Basin + Uni-Directional + Lakefront Tow Tank + Uni-Directional + Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors Model + Uni-Directional + M MHL 2D WindWave + Uni-Directional + MHL...

  20. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Caizhi

    2010-12-15

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  1. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) ...

  2. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Specific ...

  3. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine ...

  4. SCALING PROPERTIES OF SMALL-SCALE FLUCTUATIONS IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, Jean Carlos; Mason, Joanne; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Cattaneo, Fausto E-mail: j.mason@exeter.ac.uk E-mail: cattaneo@flash.uchicago.edu

    2014-09-20

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the majority of natural systems, including the interstellar medium, the solar corona, and the solar wind, has Reynolds numbers far exceeding the Reynolds numbers achievable in numerical experiments. Much attention is therefore drawn to the universal scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations, which can be reliably measured in the simulations and then extrapolated to astrophysical scales. However, in contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, where the universal structure of the inertial and dissipation intervals is described by the Kolmogorov self-similarity, the scaling for MHD turbulence cannot be established based solely on dimensional arguments due to the presence of an intrinsic velocity scalethe Alfvn velocity. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the Kolmogorov first self-similarity hypothesis cannot be formulated for MHD turbulence in the same way it is formulated for the hydrodynamic case. Besides profound consequences for the analytical consideration, this also imposes stringent conditions on numerical studies of MHD turbulence. In contrast with the hydrodynamic case, the discretization scale in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence should decrease faster than the dissipation scale, in order for the simulations to remain resolved as the Reynolds number increases.

  5. The AISI direct steelmaking program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E. ); Downing, K.B. )

    1991-01-01

    After six months of operation of the pilot plant, the viability of in-bath smelting combined with a high level of post combustion has been demonstrated, and the opportunity exists for an early commercialization of the direct ironmaking part of the process while we continue to research direct steelmaking. The program should be of equal interest to integrated and electric furnace producers. Smelting of ore provides virgin iron units. Additionally, the process has the flexibility of melting scrap and varying the ore-to-scrap ratio over wide ranges. This process does not require coke, thus eliminating the cokemaking operation, a major source of environmental concern.

  6. Direct Observation of Energy-Gap Scaling Law in CdSe Quantum Dots with Positrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denison, Arthur Blanchard; Weber, M. H.; Lynn, K. G.; Barbiellini, B.; Sterne, P. A.

    2002-07-01

    CdSe quantum dot samples with sizes in the range of 1.8~6 nm in diameter were examined by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The results were compared to data obtained for single-crystal bulk CdSe. Evidence is provided that the positrons annihilate within the nanospheres. The annihilation line shape shows a smearing at the boundary of the Jones zone proportional to the widening of the band gap due to a reduction in the size of the quantum dots. The data confirm that the change in the band gap is inversely proportional to the square of the quantum dot diameter.

  7. Direct wafer bonding technology for large-scale InGaAs-on-insulator transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, SangHyeon E-mail: sh-kim@kist.re.kr; Ikku, Yuki; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Nakane, Ryosho; Li, Jian; Kao, Yung-Chung

    2014-07-28

    Heterogeneous integration of III-V devices on Si wafers have been explored for realizing high device performance as well as merging electrical and photonic applications on the Si platform. Existing methodologies have unavoidable drawbacks such as inferior device quality or high cost in comparison with the current Si-based technology. In this paper, we present InGaAs-on-insulator (-OI) fabrication from an InGaAs layer grown on a Si donor wafer with a III-V buffer layer instead of growth on a InP donor wafer. This technology allows us to yield large wafer size scalability of III-V-OI layers up to the Si wafer size of 300?mm with a high film quality and low cost. The high film quality has been confirmed by Raman and photoluminescence spectra. In addition, the fabricated InGaAs-OI transistors exhibit the high electron mobility of 1700?cm{sup 2}/V s and uniform distribution of the leakage current, indicating high layer quality with low defect density.

  8. Directed assembly of three-dimensional structures with micron-scale features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gratson, Gregory; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2006-11-28

    The invention provides polyelectrolyte inks comprising a solvent, a cationic polyelectrolyte, dissolved in the solvent, and an anionic polyelectrolyte, dissolved in the solvent. The concentration of at least one of the polyelectrolytes in the solvent is in a semidilute regime.

  9. Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving Transformational Energy Productivity Gains Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving Transformational...

  10. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-04-19

    The order establishes DOE requirements for laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) while providing the laboratory director broad flexibility for program implementation. Cancels DOE O 413.3A. Admin Chg 1, dated 1-31-11, cancels DOE O 413.2B. Certified 7-14-2011.

  11. Direct flow crystal growth system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Kenneth E. (Tracy, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A crystal is grown in a constantly filtered solution which is flowed directly into the growing face of a crystal. In a continuous flow system, solution at its saturation temperature is removed from a crystal growth tank, heated above its saturation temperature, filtered, cooled back to its saturation temperature, and returned to the tank.

  12. DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily, W D

    2011-04-05

    Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the oilfield include calcium carbonates (CaCO3, mainly calcite) and alkaline-earth metal sulfates (barite BaSO4, celestite SrSO4, anhydrite CaSO4, hemihydrate CaSO4 1/2H2O, and gypsum CaSO4 2H2O or calcium sulfate). The cause of scaling can be difficult to identify in real oil and gas wells. However, pressure and temperature changes during the flow of fluids are primary reasons for the formation of carbonate scales, because the escape of CO2 and/or H2S gases out of the brine solution, as pressure is lowered, tends to elevate the pH of the brine and result in super-saturation with respect to carbonates. Concerning sulfate scales, the common cause is commingling of different sources of brines either due to breakthrough of injected incompatible waters or mixing of two different brines from different zones of the reservoir formation. A decrease in temperature tends to cause barite to precipitate, opposite of calcite. In addition, pressure drops tend to cause all scale minerals to precipitate due to the pressure dependence of the solubility product. And we can expect that there will be a pressure drop across the heat exchanger. Weather or not this will be offset by the rise in pressure remains to be seen. It's typically left to field testing to prove out. Progress has been made toward the control and treatment of the scale deposits, although most of the reaction mechanisms are still not well understood. Often the most efficient and economic treatment for scale formation is to apply threshold chemical inhibitors. Threshold scale inhibitors are like catalysts and have inhibition efficiency at very low concentrations (commonly less than a few mg/L), far below the stoichiometric concentrations of the crystal lattice ions in solution. There are many chemical classes of inhibitors and even more brands on the market. Based on the water chemistry it is anticipated that there is a high likelihood for sulfate compound precipitation and scaling. This may be dependent on the temperature and pressure, which vary throughout the system. Therefore, various types and amounts of scaling may occur at different

  13. Photo-z optimization for measurements of the BAO radial scale (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Photo-z optimization for measurements of the BAO radial scale Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photo-z optimization for measurements of the BAO radial scale Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) in the radial direction offer a method to directly measure the Universe expansion history, and to set limits to space curvature when combined to the angular BAO signal. In addition to spectroscopic surveys, radial BAO might be measured from accurate enough

  14. FINAL REPORT: Mechanistically-Base Field Scale Models of Uranium Biogeochemistry from Upscaling Pore-Scale Experiments and Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Brian D.

    2013-11-04

    Biogeochemical reactive transport processes in the subsurface environment are important to many contemporary environmental issues of significance to DOE. Quantification of risks and impacts associated with environmental management options, and design of remediation systems where needed, require that we have at our disposal reliable predictive tools (usually in the form of numerical simulation models). However, it is well known that even the most sophisticated reactive transport models available today have poor predictive power, particularly when applied at the field scale. Although the lack of predictive ability is associated in part with our inability to characterize the subsurface and limitations in computational power, significant advances have been made in both of these areas in recent decades and can be expected to continue. In this research, we examined the upscaling (pore to Darcy and Darcy to field) the problem of bioremediation via biofilms in porous media. The principle idea was to start with a conceptual description of the bioremediation process at the pore scale, and apply upscaling methods to formally develop the appropriate upscaled model at the so-called Darcy scale. The purpose was to determine (1) what forms the upscaled models would take, and (2) how one might parameterize such upscaled models for applications to bioremediation in the field. We were able to effectively upscale the bioremediation process to explain how the pore-scale phenomena were linked to the field scale. The end product of this research was to produce a set of upscaled models that could be used to help predict field-scale bioremediation. These models were mechanistic, in the sense that they directly incorporated pore-scale information, but upscaled so that only the essential features of the process were needed to predict the effective parameters that appear in the model. In this way, a direct link between the microscale and the field scale was made, but the upscaling process helped inform potential users of the model what kinds of information would be needed to accurately characterize the system.

  15. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmer, Rick L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, Don T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Archiblad, Kip E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdoms National Nuclear Laboratorys testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  16. OM300 Direction Drilling Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacGugan, Doug

    2013-08-22

    OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

  17. Directions to Wilson Hall, Fermilab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions Both the Fermilab box office and Ramsey Auditorium are located in Wilson Hall, the central laboratory building of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, as shown on the map below. Ramsey Auditorium is located at the south end of Wilson Hall. Enter through the Auditorium lobby doors on the ground level at the south end of Wilson Hall. Wilson Hall is clearly visible from the Pine Street entrance. From I-88, exit north at Farnsworth, which becomes Kirk north of Butterfield road. We also

  18. Direct search for dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Dark matter is hypothetical matter which does not interact with electromagnetic radiation. The existence of dark matter is only inferred from gravitational effects of astrophysical observations to explain the missing mass component of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles are currently the most popular candidate to explain the missing mass component. I review the current status of experimental searches of dark matter through direct detection using terrestrial detectors.

  19. WINDExchange: Utility-Scale Wind

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Utility-Scale Wind Photo of two people standing on top of the nacelle of a utility-scale wind turbine. Wind is an important source of affordable, renewable energy, currently supplying nearly 5% of our nation's electricity demand. By generating electricity from wind turbines, the United States can reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, diversify its energy supply, provide cost-competitive electricity to key coastal regions, and help revitalize key sectors of its economy, including manufacturing.

  20. SCALED EXPERIMENTS EVALUATING PULSE JET MIXING OF SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Minette, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Baer, Ellen BK; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Snyder, Sandra F.

    2009-11-13

    Pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid were conducted at three geometric scales to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The test data will be used to develop mixing models. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate, the concentration of solids near the vessel floor and the minimum velocity predicted to lift solids can be calculated. The test objective was to observe the influence of vertically downward-directed jets on noncohesive solids in a series of scaled tanks with several bottom shapes. The test tanks and bottom shapes included small-and large-scale tanks with elliptical bottoms, a mid-scale tank with a spherical bottom, and a large-scale tank with an F&D bottom. During testing, the downward-directed jets were operated in either a steady flow condition or a pulsed (periodic) flow condition. The mobilization of the solids resulting from the jets was evaluated based on: the motion/agitation of the particulate on the tank floor and the elevation the solids reach within the tank; the height the solids material reaches in the tank is referred to as the cloud height (HC).

  1. BNL Direct Wind Superconducting Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, B.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; Ghosh, A.; Jain, A.; Marone, A.; Muratore, A.; Wanderer, P.

    2011-09-12

    BNL developed Direct Wind magnet technology is used to create a variety of complex multi-functional multi-layer superconducting coil structures without the need for creating custom production tooling and fixturing for each new project. Our Direct Wind process naturally integrates prestress into the coil structure so external coil collars and yokes are not needed; the final coil package transverse size can then be very compact. Direct Wind magnets are produced with very good field quality via corrections applied during the course of coil winding. The HERA-II and BEPC-II Interaction Region (IR) magnet, J-PARC corrector and Alpha antihydrogen magnetic trap magnets and our BTeV corrector magnet design are discussed here along with a full length ILC IR prototype magnet presently in production and the coils that were wound for an ATF2 upgrade at KEK. A new IR septum magnet design concept for a 6.2 T combined-function IR magnet for eRHIC, a future RHIC upgrade, is introduced here.

  2. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andreas, R.D.; Heck, G.M.; Kohler, S.M.; Watts, A.C.

    1982-09-08

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single offshore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on an electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block about the gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to te gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and angular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors. 25 figures.

  3. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andreas, Ronald D.; Heck, G. Michael; Kohler, Stewart M.; Watts, Alfred C.

    1991-01-01

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single off-shore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on the electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block aboutthe gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to the gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and anular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors.

  4. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfred G. Comolli; Peizheng Zhou; HTI Staff

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the U.S. DOE, Office of Fossil Energy, is to ensure the US a secure energy supply at an affordable price. An integral part of this program was the demonstration of fully developed coal liquefaction processes that could be implemented if market and supply considerations so required, Demonstration of the technology, even if not commercialized, provides a security factor for the country if it is known that the coal to liquid processes are proven and readily available. Direct liquefaction breaks down and rearranges complex hydrocarbon molecules from coal, adds hydrogen, and cracks the large molecules to those in the fuel range, removes hetero-atoms and gives the liquids characteristics comparable to petroleum derived fuels. The current processes being scaled and demonstrated are based on two reactor stages that increase conversion efficiency and improve quality by providing the flexibility to adjust process conditions to accommodate favorable reactions. The first stage conditions promote hydrogenation and some oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen removal. The second stage hydrocracks and speeds the conversion to liquids while removing the remaining sulfur and nitrogen. A third hydrotreatment stage can be used to upgrade the liquids to clean specification fuels.

  5. Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Framework for Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-09-30

    Explains the new ERM framework for developing, revising, and reviewing directives. This memo directs the Office of Management to institutionalize ERM into the directives process no later than September 30, 2012.

  6. LED Directional Lamps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Directional Lamps LED Directional Lamps BTP EERE Solid-State Lighting Program PDF icon led_directional_lamps.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Savings Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes Recessed LED Downlights General Service LED Lamps

  7. Direct Deposit Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Deposit Form Direct Deposit Form PDF icon Direct Deposit Form More Documents & Publications Employee In-Processing Forms Agreement for Minority Financial Institutions Participation in the Bank Deposit Financial Assistance Program Financial Management Handbook

  8. 1366 Direct Wafer: Demolishing the Cost Barrier for Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, Adam

    2013-08-30

    The goal of 1366 Direct Wafer™ is to drastically reduce the cost of silicon-based PV by eliminating the cost barrier imposed by sawn wafers. The key characteristics of Direct Wafer are 1) kerf-free, 156-mm standard silicon wafers 2) high throughput for very low CAPEX and rapid scale up. Together, these characteristics will allow Direct Wafer™ to become the new standard for silicon PV wafers and will enable terawatt-scale PV – a prospect that may not be possible with sawn wafers. Our single, high-throughput step will replace the expensive and rate-limiting process steps of ingot casting and sawing, thereby enabling drastically lower wafer cost. This High-Impact PV Supply Chain project addressed the challenges of scaling Direct Wafer technology for cost-effective, high-throughput production of commercially viable 156 mm wafers. The Direct Wafer process is inherently simple and offers the potential for very low production cost, but to realize this, it is necessary to demonstrate production of wafers at high-throughput that meet customer specifications. At the start of the program, 1366 had demonstrated (with ARPA-E funding) increases in solar cell efficiency from 10% to 15.9% on small area (20cm2), scaling wafer size up to the industry standard 156mm, and demonstrated initial cell efficiency on larger wafers of 13.5%. During this program, the throughput of the Direct Wafer furnace was increased by more than 10X, simultaneous with quality improvements to meet early customer specifications. Dedicated equipment for laser trimming of wafers and measurement methods were developed to feedback key quality metrics to improve the process and equipment. Subsequent operations served both to determine key operating metrics affecting cost, as well as generating sample product that was used for developing downstream processing including texture and interaction with standard cell processing. Dramatic price drops for silicon wafers raised the bar significantly, but the developments made under this program have increased 1366 confidence that Direct Wafers can be produced for ~$0.10/W, still nearly 50% lower than current industry best practice. Wafer quality also steadily improved throughout the program, both in electrical performance and geometry. The improvements to electrical performance were achieved through a combination of optimized heat transfer during growth, reduction of metallic impurities to below 10 ppbw total metals, and lowering oxygen content to below 2e17 atoms/cc. Wafer average thickness has been reduced below 200µm with standard deviation less than 20µm. Measurement of spatially varying thickness shortly after wafer growth is being used to continually improve uniformity by adjusting thermal conditions. At the conclusion of the program, 1366 has developed strong relationships with four leading Tier1 cell manufactures and several have demonstrated 17% cell efficiency on Direct Wafer. Sample volumes were limited, with the largest trial consisting of 300 Direct Wafers, and there remains strong pull for larger quantities necessary for qualification before sales contracts can be signed. This will be the focus of our pilot manufacturing scale up in 2014.

  9. Direct measure of quantum correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Chang-shui [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Zhao, Haiqing [School of Science, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China)

    2011-12-15

    The quantumness of the correlation known as quantum correlation is usually measured by quantum discord. So far various quantum discords can be roughly understood as indirect measure by some special discrepancy of two quantities. We present a direct measure of quantum correlation by revealing the difference between the structures of classically and quantum correlated states. Our measure explicitly includes the contributions of the inseparability and local nonorthogonality of the eigenvectors of a density matrix. Besides its relatively easy computability, our measure can provide a unified understanding of quantum correlation of all the present versions.

  10. Direct application of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  11. First Direct Observation of Spinons and Holons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    theoretically possible for the hole (carrying a positive charge) to propagate in one direction while the spin propagates in the opposite direction, or at a different speed. If...

  12. Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surveying Specialists Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists Author Directional Surveying...

  13. Solaire Direct SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solaire Direct SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solaire Direct SA Place: Paris, France Zip: 75008 Product: Plans to build, operate and finance large PV installations, and...

  14. Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Title: Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Authors: Bahns, J. T. ; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. ...

  15. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass ...

  16. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print Wednesday, 28 September 2005 00:00 The phenomenon of exchange bias has...

  17. Direct Energy Services (Illinois) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Illinois Phone Number: 1-855-461-1926 Website: www.directenergy.comillinois Twitter: @DirectEnergy Facebook: https:www.facebook.comDirectEnergy Outage Hotline:...

  18. Geothermal Direct Use Presentations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentations Geothermal Direct Use Presentations File Geothermal Direct Use Technology & Marketplace Intro File Introduction and Background File Geothermal Resources (in the ...

  19. Directional Drilling Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Directional Drilling Systems Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal ARRA Funded Projects for Directional Drilling Systems Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","t...

  20. DemandDirect | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DemandDirect Place: Woodbury, Connecticut Zip: 6798 Sector: Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Services Product: DemandDirect provides demand response, energy efficiency, load...

  1. Biogas Direct LCC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LCC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biogas Direct LCC Place: Spring Green, Wisconsin Zip: WI 53588 Product: Biogas Direct is specialized in constructing Biogas plants for the...

  2. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  3. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  4. SIMULATING PROTOSTELLAR JETS SIMULTANEOUSLY AT LAUNCHING AND OBSERVATIONAL SCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, Jon P.; Clarke, David A. [Institute for Computational Astrophysics, Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada)

    2011-02-10

    We present the first 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of protostellar jets that include both the region in which the jet is launched magnetocentrifugally at scale lengths <0.1 AU and where the propagating jet is observed at scale lengths >10{sup 3} AU. These simulations, performed with the new adaptive mesh refinement MHD code AZEuS, reveal interesting relationships between conditions at the disk surface, such as the magnetic field strength, and direct observables such as proper motion, jet rotation, jet radius, and mass flux. By comparing these quantities with observed values, we present direct numerical evidence that the magnetocentrifugal launching mechanism is capable, by itself, of launching realistic protostellar jets.

  5. Improving OpenMP Scaling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving OpenMP Scaling Improving OpenMP Scaling Introduction Cori's Knights Landing (KNL) processors will each have more than 60 cores, with each core having the ability to support 4 hardware threads, leading to the possibility of up to 240 threads per single-socket node. Your application is likely to run on KNL without significant modification, but achieving good performance while using all the cores and threads may be more difficult. Applications may not fit into the memory of a Cori node if

  6. MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH/THC/THM)MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y.S. Wu

    2005-08-24

    This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Drift-Scale Abstraction) Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842]). Model results are used to support exclusion of certain FEPs from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model on the basis of low consequence, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.342 [DIRS 173273]. Outputs from this report are not direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. All the FEPs related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ and SZ flow are discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of this report. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. The mountain-scale THC model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrologic properties, flow and transport. The mountain-scale THM model addresses changes in permeability due to mechanical and thermal disturbances in stratigraphic units above and below the repository host rock. The THM model focuses on evaluating the changes in UZ flow fields arising out of thermal stress and rock deformation during and after the thermal period (the period during which temperatures in the mountain are significantly higher than ambient temperatures).

  7. Direct synthesis of magnesium borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ronnebro, Ewa Carin Ellinor (Kennewick, WA); Severa, Godwin (Honolulu, HI); Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI)

    2012-04-03

    A method is disclosed for directly preparing an alkaline earth metal borohydride, i.e. Mg(BH.sub.4).sub.2, from the alkaline earth metal boride MgB.sub.2 by hydrogenating the MgB.sub.2 at an elevated temperature and pressure. The boride may also be doped with small amounts of a metal chloride catalyst such as TiCl.sub.3 and/or NiCl.sub.2. The process provides for charging MgB.sub.2 with high pressure hydrogen above at least 70 MPa while simultaneously heating the material to about 350.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive and provides a reversible hydride compound having a hydrogen capacity of at least 11 wt %.

  8. Method for directional hydraulic fracturing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swanson, David E. (West St. Paul, MN); Daly, Daniel W. (Crystal, MN)

    1994-01-01

    A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

  9. Direct synthesis of calcium borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ronnebro, Ewa Carin Ellinor; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2009-10-27

    A method is disclosed for directly preparing an alkaline earth metal borohydride, i.e. Ca(BH.sub.4).sub.2, from the alkaline earth metal hydride and the alkaline earth metal boride. The borohydride thus prepared is doped with a small portion of a metal chloride catalyst compound, such as RuCl.sub.3, TiCl.sub.3, or a mixture of TiCl.sub.3 and palladium metal. The process provides for mechanically mixing the dry reagents under an inert atmosphere followed by charging the mixed materials with high pressure hydrogen at about 70 MPa while heating the mixture to about 400.degree. C. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive and provides reversible hydride compounds which are free of the usual contamination introduced by prior art wet chemical methods.

  10. Microsoft Word - DirectPayPermit.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THIS DIRECT PAY PERMIT APPLIES ONLY TO PURCHASES MADE BY GE GLOBAL RESEARCH

  11. Statistical measures of Planck scale signal correlations in interferometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Craig J.; Kwon, Ohkyung

    2015-06-22

    A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parametrized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. As a result, simple projections of sensitivity for specific experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will directly yield constraints on a universal time derivative of the correlation function, and thereby confirm or rule out a class of Planck scale departures from classical geometry.

  12. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Science, Computing, Applied Math Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Computational co-design may facilitate revolutionary designs ...

  13. Accuracy of cosmological parameters using the baryon acoustic scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thepsuriya, Kiattisak; Lewis, Antony E-mail: antony@cosmologist.info

    2015-01-01

    Percent-level measurements of the comoving baryon acoustic scale standard ruler can be used to break degeneracies in parameter constraints from the CMB alone. The sound horizon at the epoch of baryon drag is often used as a proxy for the scale of the peak in the matter density correlation function, and can conveniently be calculated quickly for different cosmological models. However, the measurements are not directly constraining this scale, but rather a measurement of the full correlation function, which depends on the detailed evolution through decoupling. We assess the level of reliability of parameter constraints based on a simple approximation of the acoustic scale compared to a more direct determination from the full numerical two-point correlation function. Using a five-parameter fitting technique similar to recent BAO data analyses, we find that for standard ?CDM models and extensions with massive neutrinos and additional relativistic degrees of freedom, the approximation is at better than 0.15% for most parameter combinations varying over reasonable ranges.

  14. Microsoft Word - wind direction vane1.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding Wind Direction And Making A Wind Vane Grade Levels: Kindergarten, 1, 2, and 3 Objectives: The students will learn how to construct a wind vane and understand the parts of a wind vane. Students will learn the four directions. Students will understand that wind vanes are used to measure wind direction and be able to tell the wind direction from their own wind vane. Students will understand that wind direction and weather are correlated. Materials: (for each weathervane) * Triangle

  15. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Thomas

    2012-01-26

    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  16. The Fastmet[sup SM] direct reduction process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepinski, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Fastmet Process offers a simple and economical approach to producing direct reduced iron (DRI). It combines conventional equipment into a reliable ironmaking system. The process is ideally suited for processing U.S. iron oxide concentrates and coals. High iron yields are achievable due to the inherent ability to recycle in-plant fines and dust. Very low residence time of material in the rotary hearth furnace allows rapid adjustment of process parameters and minimal production loss from process upsets. Environmental impact is minimal. The paper gives a description of the process, then describes the economics, test facilities, test results, and scale-up.

  17. Barnes_NP_Program_Office_Research_Directions_V2.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Timothy J. Hallman Associate Director for Nuclear Physics DOE Office of Science NP-NERSC Meeting on: Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics (NP): Target 2017 April 29-30, 2014 Bethesda, MD Ted Barnes DOE/NP Program Manager, Nuclear Data & Nuclear Theory Computing NP Program Office Research Directions n.b. Many slides c/o T. Hallman, "NP Overview" presentation to NSAC, 4/24/2014. NSAC Meeting December 119 2013 DOE Nuclear Physics Mission Statement 2

  18. Modeling direct interband tunneling. II. Lower-dimensional structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Andrew; Chui, Chi On

    2014-08-07

    We investigate the applicability of the two-band Hamiltonian and the widely used Kane analytical formula to interband tunneling along unconfined directions in nanostructures. Through comparisons with kp and tight-binding calculations and quantum transport simulations, we find that the primary correction is the change in effective band gap. For both constant fields and realistic tunnel field-effect transistors, dimensionally consistent band gap scaling of the Kane formula allows analytical and numerical device simulations to approximate non-equilibrium Green's function current characteristics without arbitrary fitting. This allows efficient first-order calibration of semiclassical models for interband tunneling in nanodevices.

  19. Direct detector for terahertz radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Shaner, Eric A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA)

    2008-09-02

    A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

  20. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1994-10-25

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw. 10 figs.

  1. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakland, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw.

  2. Impedance scaling and synchrotron radiation intercept (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Impedance scaling and synchrotron radiation intercept Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impedance scaling and synchrotron radiation intercept This paper presents several scalings in 2-D and 3-D impedance calculations. Most of the scalings are empirical and found by using the boundary perturbation method and numerical simulations. As an application of these scalings, the impedance of one type of synchrotron radiation intercept is calculated. The results are then

  3. Multi-scale Modeling of Plasticity in Tantalum.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett Chandler.; Carroll, Jay; Buchheit, Thomas E.; Boyce, Brad; Weinberger, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we present a multi-scale computational model to simulate plastic deformation of tantalum and validating experiments. In atomistic/ dislocation level, dislocation kink- pair theory is used to formulate temperature and strain rate dependent constitutive equations. The kink-pair theory is calibrated to available data from single crystal experiments to produce accurate and convenient constitutive laws. The model is then implemented into a BCC crystal plasticity finite element method (CP-FEM) model to predict temperature and strain rate dependent yield stresses of single and polycrystalline tantalum and compared with existing experimental data from the literature. Furthermore, classical continuum constitutive models describing temperature and strain rate dependent flow behaviors are fit to the yield stresses obtained from the CP-FEM polycrystal predictions. The model is then used to conduct hydro- dynamic simulations of Taylor cylinder impact test and compared with experiments. In order to validate the proposed tantalum CP-FEM model with experiments, we introduce a method for quantitative comparison of CP-FEM models with various experimental techniques. To mitigate the effects of unknown subsurface microstructure, tantalum tensile specimens with a pseudo-two-dimensional grain structure and grain sizes on the order of millimeters are used. A technique combining an electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and high resolution digital image correlation (HR-DIC) is used to measure the texture and sub-grain strain fields upon uniaxial tensile loading at various applied strains. Deformed specimens are also analyzed with optical profilometry measurements to obtain out-of- plane strain fields. These high resolution measurements are directly compared with large-scale CP-FEM predictions. This computational method directly links fundamental dislocation physics to plastic deformations in the grain-scale and to the engineering-scale applications. Furthermore, direct and quantitative comparisons between experimental measurements and simulation show that the proposed model accurately captures plasticity in deformation of polycrystalline tantalum.

  4. Living Direct: Order (2011-CE-1904)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE ordered Living Direct, Inc. to pay a $6,000 civil penalty after finding Living Direct had failed to certify that certain models of dishwashers, refrigerator-freezers and freezers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  5. Direct Energy Services (Massachusetts) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Services Place: Massachusetts Phone Number: 1-855-461-1930 Twitter: @DirectEnergy Facebook: http:www.facebook.comDirectEnergy Outage Hotline: 1-800-233-5325 (Greater Boston...

  6. Direct Energy, LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct Energy, LP Place: Texas Website: www.directenergy.com Twitter: @directenergy Facebook: https:www.facebook.comDirectEnergy Outage Hotline: 1-855-461-1926 References: EIA...

  7. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  8. Direct Methanol Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Direct methanol fuel cells provide an alternative power source for mobile devices. Direct methanol fuel cells provide an alternative power source for mobile devices. Technology Marketing SummaryLANL has developed an intellectual property portfolio in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells that may permit companies to participate in the emerging DMFC market while minimizing R&D risks and expenditures. Our

  9. Extension of DOE Directives on Security

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-12-31

    This Notice extends 15 Office of Security and Emergency Operation directives that have expired or will expire until December 31, 2001. This Notice will remain in effect until its expiration date or until new/revised directives are published. The following statement will be added to the summary of the extended directives-DOE N 251.40, dated 5/3/01, extends this directive until 12/31/01.

  10. Basic ReseaRch DiRections

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Basic ReseaRch DiRections for User Science at the National Ignition Facility Report on the National Nuclear Security Administration - Office of Science Workshop on Basic Research Directions on User Science at the National Ignition Facility BASIC RESEARCH DIRECTIONS FOR USER SCIENCE AT THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY Report on the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) - Office of Science (SC) Workshop on Basic Research Directions on User Science at the National Ignition Facility Chairs:

  11. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

  12. Directives & Documents | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Directives & Documents Directives & Documents Directives & Documents Policy & Guidance Policy & Guidance contains Project Management related orders, guides, handbooks, templates, standard operating procedures, and industry standards that allow Federal Project Directors and project teams to comply with applicable laws and regulations while putting in place most effective project managemetn practices that increase probability of project success. Proceed to Policy & Guidance

  13. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  14. The linearly scaling 3D fragment method for large scale electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Zhengji; Meza, Juan; Lee, Byounghak; Shan, Hongzhang; Strohmaier, Erich; Bailey, David; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-07-28

    The Linearly Scaling three-dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method is an O(N) ab initio electronic structure method for large-scale nano material simulations. It is a divide-and-conquer approach with a novel patching scheme that effectively cancels out the artificial boundary effects, which exist in all divide-and-conquer schemes. This method has made ab initio simulations of thousand-atom nanosystems feasible in a couple of hours, while retaining essentially the same accuracy as the direct calculation methods. The LS3DF method won the 2008 ACM Gordon Bell Prize for algorithm innovation. Our code has reached 442 Tflop/s running on 147,456 processors on the Cray XT5 (Jaguar) at OLCF, and has been run on 163,840 processors on the Blue Gene/P (Intrepid) at ALCF, and has been applied to a system containing 36,000 atoms. In this paper, we will present the recent parallel performance results of this code, and will apply the method to asymmetric CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods, which have potential applications in electronic devices and solar cells.

  15. The Linearly Scaling 3D Fragment Method for Large Scale Electronic Structure Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Zhengji; Meza, Juan; Lee, Byounghak; Shan, Hongzhang; Strohmaier, Erich; Bailey, David; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-06-26

    The Linearly Scaling three-dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method is an O(N) ab initio electronic structure method for large-scale nano material simulations. It is a divide-and-conquer approach with a novel patching scheme that effectively cancels out the artificial boundary effects, which exist in all divide-and-conquer schemes. This method has made ab initio simulations of thousand-atom nanosystems feasible in a couple of hours, while retaining essentially the same accuracy as the direct calculation methods. The LS3DF method won the 2008 ACM Gordon Bell Prize for algorithm innovation. Our code has reached 442 Tflop/s running on 147,456 processors on the Cray XT5 (Jaguar) at OLCF, and has been run on 163,840 processors on the Blue Gene/P (Intrepid) at ALCF, and has been applied to a system containing 36,000 atoms. In this paper, we will present the recent parallel performance results of this code, and will apply the method to asymmetric CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods, which have potential applications in electronic devices and solar cells.

  16. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply to the system, was demonstrated. System analyses of 40 MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, were carried out using CHEMCAD simulation software. The analyses included systems for near-term and long-term deployment. A new concept was developed that was based on clusters of one-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant, including the key equipment layout and the site plan, was completed. The process information and operational data from the proof-of-concept tests were used in the design of 40 MW high efficiency DFC/T power plants. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant was also prepared. Pilot-scale tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were conducted. The tests demonstrated that the concept has the potential to offer higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output and fuel utilization capabilities were also evaluated. Detailed design of the packaged sub-MW DFC/T Alpha Unit was completed, including equipment and piping layouts, instrumentation, electrical, and structural drawings. The lessons learned from the proof-of-concept tests were incorporated in the design of the Alpha Unit. The sub-MW packaged unit was fabricated, including integration of the Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) stack module with the mechanical balance-of-plant and electrical balance-of-plant. Factory acceptance tests of the Alpha DFC/T power plant were conducted at Danbury, CT. The Alpha Unit achieved an unsurpassed electrical efficiency of 58% (LHV natural gas) during the factory tests. The resulting high efficiency in conversion of chemical energy to electricity far exceeded any sub-MW class power generation equipment presently in the market. After successful completion of the factory tests, the unit was shipped to the Billings Clinic in Billings, MT, for field demonstration tests. The DFC/T unit accomplished a major achievement by successfully completing 8000 hours of operation at the Billings site. The Alpha sub-MW DF

  17. Small-scale biogas applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Guidance is given through the exercise of determining whether a biogas system is worthwhile for a farm owner. After a brief description of anaerobic digestion and characteristics and economics of biogas, basic features of anaerobic digesters are discussed. The use of biogas is discussed, starting with gas collection at the digester and ending with waste heat recovery in cogeneration systems. Direct heating with biogas is also covered briefly. The parts of a working biogas system are discussed. Three different case studies are reviewed. Directions are offered for collecting site data and a method for performing a preliminary economic analysis of a given operation. Firms and consultants with experience in the design and construction of biogas systems are listed. (LEW)

  18. Small-scale irradiated fuel electrorefining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedict, R.W.; Krsul, J.R.; Mariani, R.D.; Park, K.; Teske, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    In support of the metallic fuel cycle development for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), a small scale electrorefiner was built and operated in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West. The initial purpose of this apparatus was to test the single segment dissolution of irradiated metallic fuel via either direct dissolution in cadmium or anodic dissolution. These tests showed that 99.95% of the uranium and 99.99% of the plutonium was dissolved and separated from the fuel cladding material. The fate of various fission products was also measured. After the dissolution experiments, the apparatus was upgraded to stady fission product behavior during uranium electrotransport. Preliminary decontamination factors were estimated for different fission products under different processing conditions. Later modifications have added the following capabilities: Dissolution of multiple fuel segments simultaneously, electrotransport to a solid cathode or liquid cathode and actinide recovery with a chemical reduction crucible. These capabilities have been tested with unirradiated uranium-zirconium fuel and will support the Fuel Cycle Demonstration program.

  19. Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for FracturedRock: Results From Literature Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui Hai; Molz, Fred J.; Zhang, Yingqi; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-03-28

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solutetransport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey onthe effective matrix diffusion coefficient, Dem, a key parameter fordescribing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty fieldtracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selectedfor study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale Dem valueswere calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature orby reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed dataindicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor FD(defined as the ratio of Dem to the lab-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient [Dem]of the same tracer) is generally larger than one,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the fieldis comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at therock-core scale. This larger value could be attributed to the manymass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous,fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend towardsystematic increase in the emDFmDDF value with observation scale,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely tobe statistically scale dependent. The FD value ranges from 1 to 10,000for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the FD valuevaries by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differingdegrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition,the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivitygenerally increases with observation scale, which is consistent withprevious studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications forassessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transportevents in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminantremediation.

  20. Sensitivity technologies for large scale simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collis, Samuel Scott; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Smith, Thomas Michael; Heinkenschloss, Matthias; Wilcox, Lucas C.; Hill, Judith C.; Ghattas, Omar; Berggren, Martin Olof; Akcelik, Volkan; Ober, Curtis Curry; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Keiter, Eric Richard

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is critically important to numerous analysis algorithms, including large scale optimization, uncertainty quantification,reduced order modeling, and error estimation. Our research focused on developing tools, algorithms and standard interfaces to facilitate the implementation of sensitivity type analysis into existing code and equally important, the work was focused on ways to increase the visibility of sensitivity analysis. We attempt to accomplish the first objective through the development of hybrid automatic differentiation tools, standard linear algebra interfaces for numerical algorithms, time domain decomposition algorithms and two level Newton methods. We attempt to accomplish the second goal by presenting the results of several case studies in which direct sensitivities and adjoint methods have been effectively applied, in addition to an investigation of h-p adaptivity using adjoint based a posteriori error estimation. A mathematical overview is provided of direct sensitivities and adjoint methods for both steady state and transient simulations. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the utility of these methods. A direct sensitivity method is implemented to solve a source inversion problem for steady state internal flows subject to convection diffusion. Real time performance is achieved using novel decomposition into offline and online calculations. Adjoint methods are used to reconstruct initial conditions of a contamination event in an external flow. We demonstrate an adjoint based transient solution. In addition, we investigated time domain decomposition algorithms in an attempt to improve the efficiency of transient simulations. Because derivative calculations are at the root of sensitivity calculations, we have developed hybrid automatic differentiation methods and implemented this approach for shape optimization for gas dynamics using the Euler equations. The hybrid automatic differentiation method was applied to a first order approximation of the Euler equations and used as a preconditioner. In comparison to other methods, the AD preconditioner showed better convergence behavior. Our ultimate target is to perform shape optimization and hp adaptivity using adjoint formulations in the Premo compressible fluid flow simulator. A mathematical formulation for mixed-level simulation algorithms has been developed where different physics interact at potentially different spatial resolutions in a single domain. To minimize the implementation effort, explicit solution methods can be considered, however, implicit methods are preferred if computational efficiency is of high priority. We present the use of a partial elimination nonlinear solver technique to solve these mixed level problems and show how these formulation are closely coupled to intrusive optimization approaches and sensitivity analyses. Production codes are typically not designed for sensitivity analysis or large scale optimization. The implementation of our optimization libraries into multiple production simulation codes in which each code has their own linear algebra interface becomes an intractable problem. In an attempt to streamline this task, we have developed a standard interface between the numerical algorithm (such as optimization) and the underlying linear algebra. These interfaces (TSFCore and TSFCoreNonlin) have been adopted by the Trilinos framework and the goal is to promote the use of these interfaces especially with new developments. Finally, an adjoint based a posteriori error estimator has been developed for discontinuous Galerkin discretization of Poisson's equation. The goal is to investigate other ways to leverage the adjoint calculations and we show how the convergence of the forward problem can be improved by adapting the grid using adjoint-based error estimates. Error estimation is usually conducted with continuous adjoints but if discrete adjoints are available it may be possible to reuse the discrete version for error estimation. We investigate the advantages and disadvantages of continuous and discre

  1. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the ferrous ion, Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 2+} is oxidized to Fe{sup 3+} - in the presence of goethite seed particles. Rhenium does not mimic that process; it is not a strong enough reducing agent to duplicate the TcO{sub 4}{sup -}/Fe{sup 2+} redox reactions. Laboratory tests conducted in parallel with these scaled tests identified modifications to the liquid chemistry necessary to reduce ReO{sub 4}{sup -} and capture rhenium in the solids at levels similar to those achieved by Um (2010) for inclusion of Tc into goethite. By implementing these changes, Re was incorporated into Fe-rich solids for testing at VSL. The changes also changed the phase of iron that was in the slurry product: rather than forming goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), the process produced magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Magnetite was considered by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL to probably be a better product to improve Re retention in the melter because it decomposes at a higher temperature than goethite (1538 C vs. 136 C). The feasibility tests at VSL were conducted using Re-rich magnetite. The tests did not indicate an improved retention of Re in the glass during vitrification, but they did indicate an improved melting rate (+60%), which could have significant impact on HLW processing. It is still to be shown whether the Re is a solid solution in the magnetite as {sup 99}Tc was determined to be in goethite.

  2. Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehman, S K

    2011-07-06

    How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and seismic migration in which wide band time series are shifted but not to form images per se. Section 3 presents a mostly graphically-based motivation and summary of delay, scale, and sum beamforming. The model for incident field propagation in free space is derived in Section 4 under specific assumptions. General object scattering is derived in Section 5 and simplified under the Born approximation in Section 6. The model of this section serves as the basis in the derivation of time-domain migration. The Foldy-Lax, full point scatterer scattering, method is derived in Section 7. With the previous forward models in hand, delay, scale, and sum beamforming is derived in Section 8. Finally, proof-of-principle experiments are present in Section 9.

  3. Utility Scale Solar Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scale Solar Inc Place: Palo Alto, California Zip: 94301 Product: California-based PV tracker maker. References: Utility Scale Solar Inc1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  4. PathScale Compliers at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-800-66-NERSC, option 3 or 510-486-8611 Home For Users Software Compilers PathScale PathScale Compilers (Fortran, C, C++) Availability The Pathscale...

  5. The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, William R.

    2015-09-01

    The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure (AMSI) is a set of libraries and tools developed to support the development, implementation, and execution of general multimodel simulations. Using a minimal set of simulation meta-data AMSI allows for minimally intrusive work to adapt existent single-scale simulations for use in multi-scale simulations. Support for dynamic runtime operations such as single- and multi-scale adaptive properties is a key focus of AMSI. Particular focus has been spent on the development on scale-sensitive load balancing operations to allow single-scale simulations incorporated into a multi-scale simulation using AMSI to use standard load-balancing operations without affecting the integrity of the overall multi-scale simulation.

  6. PV Controls Utility-Scale Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neill, Barbara; Gevorgian, Vahan

    2015-10-14

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the utility-scale PV controls demonstration project.

  7. Bench-Scale Fermentation Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Bench-Scale Fermentation Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center.

  8. Range Fuels Commercial-Scale Biorefinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Range Fuels commercial-scale biorefinery will use a variety of feedstocks to create cellulosic ethanol, methanol, and power.

  9. Data triage enables extreme-scale computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data triage enables extreme-scale computing Data triage enables extreme-scale computing Data selection and triage are important techniques for large-scale data, which can drastically reduce the amount of data written to disk or transmitted over a network. August 1, 2014 Spatial partitioning for the ocean simulation data set. Spatial partitioning for the ocean simulation data set. The main focus for ADR is to prioritize data primarily generated by large-scale scientific simulations run on

  10. Monetary Awards Scale | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Monetary Awards Scale Monetary Awards Scale Chart of the monetary awards scale allowed for intangible and tangible benefits from suggestions, inventions, special acts or services. PDF icon Monetary Awards Scale Responsible Contacts Lorrenda Buckner HUMAN RESOURCES SPECIALIST (PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT) E-mail lorrenda.buckner@hq.doe.gov Phone 202-586-8451 More Documents & Publications Manager's Desk Reference on Human Capital Management Flexibilities Supervisory - Non-Supervisory Employee

  11. Phenomenological aspects of no-scale inflation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2015-10-01

    We discuss phenomenological aspects of inflationary models wiith a no-scale supergravity Kähler potential motivated by compactified string models, in which the inflaton may be identified either as a Kähler modulus or an untwisted matter field, focusing on models that make predictions for the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r that are similar to the Starobinsky model. We discuss possible patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, exhibiting examples of the pure no-scale type m{sub 0}=B{sub 0}=A{sub 0}=0, of the CMSSM type with universal A{sub 0} and m{sub 0}≠0 at a high scale, and of the mSUGRA type with A{sub 0}=B{sub 0}+m{sub 0} boundary conditions at the high input scale. These may be combined with a non-trivial gauge kinetic function that generates gaugino masses m{sub 1/2}≠0, or one may have a pure gravity mediation scenario where trilinear terms and gaugino masses are generated through anomalies. We also discuss inflaton decays and reheating, showing possible decay channels for the inflaton when it is either an untwisted matter field or a Kähler modulus. Reheating is very efficient if a matter field inflaton is directly coupled to MSSM fields, and both candidates lead to sufficient reheating in the presence of a non-trivial gauge kinetic function.

  12. Complex Capacitance Scaling in Ionic Liquids-Filled Nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumpter, Bobby G

    2011-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that the capacitance of subnanometer pores increases anomalously as the pore width decreases, thereby opening a new avenue for developing supercapacitors with enhanced energy density. However, this behavior is still subject to some controversy since its physical origins are not well understood. Using atomistic simulations, we show that the capacitance of slit-shaped nanopores in contact with room-temperature ionic liquids exhibits a U-shaped scaling behavior in pores with widths from 0.75 to 1.26 nm. The left branch of the capacitance scaling curve directly corresponds to the anomalous capacitance increase and thus reproduces the experimental observations. The right branch of the curve indirectly agrees with experimental findings that so far have received little attention. The overall U-shaped scaling behavior provides insights on the origins of the difficulty in experimentally observing the pore-width-dependent capacitance. We establish a theoretical framework for understanding the capacitance of electrical double layers in nanopores and provide mechanistic details into the origins of the observed scaling behavior. The framework highlights the critical role of 'ion solvation' in controlling pore capacitance and the importance of choosing anion/cation couples carefully for optimal energy storage in a given pore system.

  13. Complex Capacitance Scaling in Ionic Liquids-filled Nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui; Huang, Jingsong; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G; Peng, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that the capacitance of sub-nanometer pores increases anomalously as the pore width decreases, thereby opening a new avenue for developing supercapacitors with enhanced energy density. However, this behavior is still subject to some controversy since its physical origins are not well understood. Using atomistic simulations, we show that the capacitance of slit-shaped nanopores in contact with room-temperature ionic liquids exhibits a U-shaped scaling behavior in pores with width from 0.75 to 1.26 nm. The left branch of the capacitance scaling curve directly corresponds to the anomalous capacitance increase and thus reproduces the experimental observations. The right branch of the curve indirectly agrees with experimental findings that so far have received little attention. The overall U-shaped scaling behavior provides insights on the origins of the difficulty in experimentally observing the pore-width dependent capacitance. We establish a theoretical framework for understanding the capacitance of electrical double layers in nanopores and provide mechanistic details into the origins of the observed scaling behavior. The framework highlights the critical role of ion solvation in controlling pore capacitance and the importance of choosing anion/cation couples carefully for optimal energy storage in a given pore system.

  14. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar introduces the Large Scale Renewable Energy Guide." The webinar will provide an overview of this important FEMP guide, which describes FEMP's approach to large-scale renewable energy projects and provides guidance to Federal agencies and the private sector on how to develop a common process for large-scale renewable projects.

  15. Quantitative nanometer-scale mapping of dielectric tunability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tselev, Alexander; Klein, Andreas; Gassmann, Juergen; Jesse, Stephen; Li, Qian; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Wisinger, Nina Balke

    2015-08-21

    Two scanning probe microscopy techniquesnear-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM)are used to characterize and image tunability in a thin (Ba,Sr)TiO3 film with nanometer scale spatial resolution. While sMIM allows direct probing of tunability by measurement of the change in the dielectric constant, in PFM, tunability can be extracted via electrostrictive response. The near-field microwave imaging and PFM provide similar information about dielectric tunability with PFM capable to deliver quantitative information on tunability with a higher spatial resolution close to 15 nm. This is the first time that information about the dielectric tunability is available on suchmorelength scales.less

  16. Assessment of Scaled Rotors for Wind Tunnel Experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maniaci, David Charles; Kelley, Christopher Lee; Chiu, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    Rotor design and analysis work has been performed to support the conceptualization of a wind tunnel test focused on studying wake dynamics. This wind tunnel test would serve as part of a larger model validation campaign that is part of the Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Programs Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) initiative. The first phase of this effort was directed towards designing a functionally scaled rotor based on the same design process and target full-scale turbine used for new rotors for the DOE/SNL SWiFT site. The second phase focused on assessing the capabilities of an already available rotor, the G1, designed and built by researchers at the Technical University of Mnchen.

  17. Enabling department-scale supercomputing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, D.S.; Hart, W.E.; Phillips, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories have one of the longest and most consistent histories of supercomputer use. The authors summarize the architecture of DOE`s new supercomputers that are being built for the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The authors then argue that in the near future scaled-down versions of these supercomputers with petaflop-per-weekend capabilities could become widely available to hundreds of research and engineering departments. The availability of such computational resources will allow simulation of physical phenomena to become a full-fledged third branch of scientific exploration, along with theory and experimentation. They describe the ASCI and other supercomputer applications at Sandia National Laboratories, and discuss which lessons learned from Sandia`s long history of supercomputing can be applied in this new setting.

  18. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Water loss from the cell is minimized by making the conductive cathode assembly hydrophobic and the conductive anode assembly hydrophilic.

  19. First Direct Observation of Spinons and Holons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Direct Observation of Spinons and Holons First Direct Observation of Spinons and Holons Print Wednesday, 30 August 2006 00:00 Spin and charge are inseparable traits of an electron, but in one-dimensional solids, a 40-year-old theory predicts their separation into "collective" modes-as independent excitation quanta called spinons and holons. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) should provide the most direct evidence of this spin-charge separation, as the single

  20. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance The direct unscattered radiant energy from the Sun, in a narrow band of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for

  1. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    direct normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance The narrow spectral range of measurements coming directly from the sun whose wavelength falls within the solar range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream

  2. ARM - PI Product - Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement

  3. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  4. EMSL Pore Scale Modeling Challenge/Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hess, Nancy J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Celia, Michael A.; Hilpert, Markus; Kang, Qinjun; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Werth, Charles J.; Wildenschild, Dorthe; Zhang, Changyong; Bialkowski, Stephen E.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Tang, Guoping; Doster, Florian; Kumar, Jitendra; Parashar, Rishi; Gerlach, Robin; Yoon, Hongkyu; Redden, George D.; Zhang, Tianyu; Huang, Hai; Nogues, Juan; Deng, Wen; Resat, Haluk; Rod, Kenton A.; Baer, Donald R.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Richmond, Marshall C.; Rector, David R.; Stewart, Mark L.; Jung, Hun Bok; Plata, Charity

    2011-08-09

    Report covers the background for the workshop, objectives, important research directions, necessary capabilities and overall recommendations.

  5. Low Temperature Direct Use Aquaculture Geothermal Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Temperature Direct Use Aquaculture Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYB...

  6. Low Temperature Direct Use Greenhouse Geothermal Facilities ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Temperature Direct Use Greenhouse Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBR...

  7. Recently Rescinded Delegations - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Delegations Delegations, Redelegations, and Designations rescinded in the past 90 days. All Recently IssuedUpdated Recently Canceled Directives Recently Rescinded...

  8. Low Temperature Direct Use Industrial Geothermal Facilities ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Temperature Direct Use Industrial Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBR...

  9. SRNL Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects LDRD Technologies LDRD Contacts LDRD Home SRNL Home SRNL Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) Resources LDRD Annual Reports * 2013 * 2012 * 2011 * 2010...

  10. Direct Energy Services (Maryland) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Services (Maryland) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Direct Energy Services Place: Maryland Phone Number: 1-855-461-1926 Website: www.directenergy.commaryland Twitter: https:...

  11. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    characterize, and experimentally demonstrate a novel high-temperature receiver technology using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) directly as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). ...

  12. Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Bahns, J. T.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.; Gray, S. K.; Chen, L. Not Available American Physical Society None USDOE...

  13. Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    activity in the study of vortex states in FM disks, there has been no direct observation of such states in an AFM microstructure, although theory predicts many interesting...

  14. Directions to Argonne | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Road, immediately south of I-55. Follow Northgate Road to the Argonne Information Center. Google Maps directions from Midway external link By public transportation: Take the...

  15. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their...

  16. Direct Energy Services (Pennsylvania) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Pennsylvania Phone Number: 1-855-461-1926 Website: www.directenergy.compa Twitter: @directenergy Facebook: https:www.facebook.comDirectEnergy Outage Hotline:...

  17. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    direct normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in broad bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric

  18. Directing Biomolecules to Intracellular Microcompartments and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Cheryl Kerfeld and James Kinney at Berkeley Lab have identified peptide targeting signals that can direct...

  19. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules,...

  20. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    quantities. Because Criegee intermediates have long been thought to play a key role in atmospheric chemistry, the announcement of a method to directly measure their reactivity...

  1. Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    there has been no direct observation of such states in an AFM microstructure, although theory predicts many interesting and unique properties for the AFM vortex state. Recently, a...

  2. Ionization based multi-directional flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Casleton, Kent H.

    2009-04-28

    A method, system, and apparatus for conducting real-time monitoring of flow (airflow for example) in a system (a hybrid power generation system for example) is disclosed. The method, system and apparatus measure at least flow direction and velocity with minimal pressure drop and fast response. The apparatus comprises an ion source and a multi-directional collection device proximate the ion source. The ion source is configured to generate charged species (electrons and ions for example). The multi-directional collection source is configured to determine the direction and velocity of the flow in real-time.

  3. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jia; Zhang, Ziang; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin Wang, Dapeng

    2014-05-28

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  4. GPS+ on the Nanometer Scale | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GPS+ on the Nanometer Scale A new technique makes it possible to track not only the location of moving particles to within 10 nanometers, but also their rotation and orientation. This is like watching a football game from the ionosphere and knowing where the football is at anytime within 1.5 inches, how the ball is spinning, and what direction it is moving. This is made possible by inserting an additional arm into the optical path of the specialized instrument known as a differential

  5. Scaling tests with dynamical overlap and rooted staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duerr, Stephan; Hoelbling, Christian

    2005-03-01

    We present a scaling analysis in the 1-flavor Schwinger model with the full overlap and the rooted staggered determinant. In the latter case the chiral and continuum limit of the scalar condensate do not commute, while for overlap fermions they do. For the topological susceptibility a universal continuum limit is suggested, as is for the partition function and the Leutwyler-Smilga sum rule. In the heavy-quark force no difference is visible even at finite coupling. Finally, a direct comparison between the complete overlap and the rooted staggered determinant yields evidence that their ratio is constant up to O(a{sup 2}) effects.

  6. Lightweight and Statistical Techniques for Petascale PetaScale Debugging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Barton

    2014-06-30

    This project investigated novel techniques for debugging scientific applications on petascale architectures. In particular, we developed lightweight tools that narrow the problem space when bugs are encountered. We also developed techniques that either limit the number of tasks and the code regions to which a developer must apply a traditional debugger or that apply statistical techniques to provide direct suggestions of the location and type of error. We extend previous work on the Stack Trace Analysis Tool (STAT), that has already demonstrated scalability to over one hundred thousand MPI tasks. We also extended statistical techniques developed to isolate programming errors in widely used sequential or threaded applications in the Cooperative Bug Isolation (CBI) project to large scale parallel applications. Overall, our research substantially improved productivity on petascale platforms through a tool set for debugging that complements existing commercial tools. Previously, Office Of Science application developers relied either on primitive manual debugging techniques based on printf or they use tools, such as TotalView, that do not scale beyond a few thousand processors. However, bugs often arise at scale and substantial effort and computation cycles are wasted in either reproducing the problem in a smaller run that can be analyzed with the traditional tools or in repeated runs at scale that use the primitive techniques. New techniques that work at scale and automate the process of identifying the root cause of errors were needed. These techniques significantly reduced the time spent debugging petascale applications, thus leading to a greater overall amount of time for application scientists to pursue the scientific objectives for which the systems are purchased. We developed a new paradigm for debugging at scale: techniques that reduced the debugging scenario to a scale suitable for traditional debuggers, e.g., by narrowing the search for the root-cause analysis to a small set of nodes or by identifying equivalence classes of nodes and sampling our debug targets from them. We implemented these techniques as lightweight tools that efficiently work on the full scale of the target machine. We explored four lightweight debugging refinements: generic classification parameters, such as stack traces, application-specific classification parameters, such as global variables, statistical data acquisition techniques and machine learning based approaches to perform root cause analysis. Work done under this project can be divided into two categories, new algorithms and techniques for scalable debugging, and foundation infrastructure work on our MRNet multicast-reduction framework for scalability, and Dyninst binary analysis and instrumentation toolkits.

  7. Collision-dependent power law scalings in two dimensional gyrokinetic turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerri, S. S. Ban Navarro, A.; Told, D.; Jenko, F.

    2014-08-15

    Nonlinear gyrokinetics provides a suitable framework to describe short-wavelength turbulence in magnetized laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In the electrostatic limit, this system is known to exhibit a free energy cascade towards small scales in (perpendicular) real and/or velocity space. The dissipation of free energy is always due to collisions (no matter how weak the collisionality), but may be spread out across a wide range of scales. Here, we focus on freely decaying two dimensional electrostatic turbulence on sub-ion-gyroradius scales. An existing scaling theory for the turbulent cascade in the weakly collisional limit is generalized to the moderately collisional regime. In this context, non-universal power law scalings due to multiscale dissipation are predicted, and this prediction is confirmed by means of direct numerical simulations.

  8. Invariant relationships deriving from classical scaling transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bludman, Sidney; Kennedy, Dallas C.

    2011-04-15

    Because scaling symmetries of the Euler-Lagrange equations are generally not variational symmetries of the action, they do not lead to conservation laws. Instead, an extension of Noether's theorem reduces the equations of motion to evolutionary laws that prove useful, even if the transformations are not symmetries of the equations of motion. In the case of scaling, symmetry leads to a scaling evolutionary law, a first-order equation in terms of scale invariants, linearly relating kinematic and dynamic degrees of freedom. This scaling evolutionary law appears in dynamical and in static systems. Applied to dynamical central-force systems, the scaling evolutionary equation leads to generalized virial laws, which linearly connect the kinetic and potential energies. Applied to barotropic hydrostatic spheres, the scaling evolutionary equation linearly connects the gravitational and internal energy densities. This implies well-known properties of polytropes, describing degenerate stars and chemically homogeneous nondegenerate stellar cores.

  9. Closure for milliliter scale bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klein, David L.; Laidlaw, Robert D.; Andronaco, Gregory; Boyer, Stephen G.

    2010-12-14

    A closure for a microreactor includes a cap that is configured to be inserted into a well of the microreactor. The cap, or at least a portion of the cap, is compliant so as to form a seal with the well when the cap is inserted. The cap includes an aperture that provides an airway between the inside of the well to the external environment when the cap is inserted into the well. A porous plug is inserted in the aperture, e.g., either directly or in tube that extends through the aperture. The porous plug permits gas within the well to pass through the aperture while preventing liquids from passing through to reduce evaporation and preventing microbes from passing through to provide a sterile environment. A one-way valve may also be used to help control the environment in the well.

  10. Direct fired absorption machine flue gas recuperator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A recuperator which recovers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine. The recuperator includes a housing with liquid flowing therethrough, the liquid being in direct contact with the combustion gas for increasing the effectiveness of the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid.

  11. Directed assembly of hybrid nanostructures using optically resonant nanotweezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, David

    2015-09-09

    This represents the final report for this project. Over the course of the project we have made significant progress in photonically driven nano-assembly including: (1) demonstrating the first direct optical tweezer based manipulation of proteins, (2) the ability to apply optical angular torques to microtubuals and other rod-shaped microparticles, (3) direct assembly of hybrid nanostructures comprising of polymeric nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes and, (4) the ability to drive biological reactions (specifically protein aggregation) that are thermodynamically unfavorable by applying localized optical work. These advancements are described in the list of papers provided in section 2.0 of the below. Summary details are provided in prior year annual reports. We have two additional papers which will be submitted shortly based on the work done under this award. An updated publication list will be provided to the program manager when those are accepted. In this report, we report on a new advancement made in the final project year, which uses the nanotweezer technology to perform direct measurements of particle-surface interactions. Briefly, these measurements are important for characterizing the stability and behavior of colloidal and nanoparticle suspensions and current techniques are limited in their ability to measure piconewton scale interaction forces on sub-micrometer particles due to signal detection limits and thermal noise. In this project year we developed a new technique called “Nanophotonic Force Microscopy” which uses the localized region of exponentially decaying, near-field, light to confine small particles close to a surface. From the statistical distribution of the light intensity scattered by the particle the technique maps out the potential well of the trap and directly quantify the repulsive force between the nanoparticle and the surface. The major advantage of the technique is that it can measure forces and energy wells below the thermal noise limit, resolving interaction forces smaller than 1 pN on dielectric particles as small as 100 nm in diameter.

  12. The Direct Path To WIPP - 12471

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spoerner, M.T.; Burger, M.J.; Garcia, J. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Humphrey, B.J. [Weston Solutions, Inc. (United States); Rast, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration, Sandia Site Office (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM), designated as a small quantity site (SQS) by the National TRU Program (NTP), generated contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste primarily from the decontamination and clean-out of glove boxes at the Hot Cell Facility (HCF) at Technical Area (TA) V. All of the waste required repackaging, with the CH TRU waste being repackaged from late 2007 through 2011. Three shipments of CH were completed in October 2011, which de-inventoried SNL/NM's legacy TRU waste. In FY11, RH TRU waste was repackaged at the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) located in TAV with the support of the Central Characterization Project (CCP). The waste was originally packaged in SNL/NM fabricated casks, cement or lead-lined 55-gallon drums, or 30-gallon drums. The AHCF is a small hot cell, with access only through a roof port which presented challenges for inserting and removing waste from the hot cell. The CCP provided visual examination operators (VEOs) to observe and document each waste item repackaged, removal of prohibited items, and radiological sampling. Dose-to-Curie measurements were calculated by CCP after a radiological report was prepared using scaling factors determined by the analysis of swipe samples. Finally, headspace gas samples were taken and sent to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for analysis. Despite the challenges, the RH waste is on track to be shipped to WIPP in early FY12. The processes used and procedures developed to conduct the repackaging operations, the issues identified and mitigated were challenging but the cooperation between SNL/NM and the Central Characterization Program (CCP) enabled SNL/NM to complete the repackaging and support the characterization and shipment. An inventory list, identification of the campaigns, discussion of the challenges and mitigations, and the final loading of the RH 72-B casks at TA-V for direct shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will be discussed. Lessons learned from the RH campaigns are: - Some containers that were originally identified as HC-3 have been re-evaluated and became < HC-3 due to the conservative estimates made by the original generators - Operators at the AHCF were not accustomed to the detail required by the VE operators. However, they worked well together and the repackaging was completed ahead of schedule. - The AK was not always accurate as was demonstrated by the solid waste found in the drum during the first visit by EPA. That waste has since been determined to be low-level. - Two drums originally thought to be RH turned out to be CH and arrangement for RTR had to be made quickly. - Six of the original RH repacked drums became low level. - Lessons learned from the CH campaigns were helpful in avoiding many issues. The RH repackaging effort has been a success due to the expertise of the AHCF operators, supervisor, and manager, the conscientious attention to detail of the CCP VE operators, the experience of the CCP DTC and headspace gas sampling staff, and the guidance and support from CCP and CBFO. Sometimes schedules had to be adjusted, processes updated, and issues discussed, but the communication between CCP and SNL/NM was good. SNL/NM hopes to have the legacy RH TRU waste shipped off-site by early 2012. (authors)

  13. Large-Scale Information Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Nicol; H. R. Ammerlahn; M. E. Goldsby; M. M. Johnson; D. E. Rhodes; A. S. Yoshimura

    2000-12-01

    Large enterprises are ever more dependent on their Large-Scale Information Systems (LSLS), computer systems that are distinguished architecturally by distributed components--data sources, networks, computing engines, simulations, human-in-the-loop control and remote access stations. These systems provide such capabilities as workflow, data fusion and distributed database access. The Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) contains many examples of LSIS components, a fact that motivates this research. However, most LSIS in use grew up from collections of separate subsystems that were not designed to be components of an integrated system. For this reason, they are often difficult to analyze and control. The problem is made more difficult by the size of a typical system, its diversity of information sources, and the institutional complexities associated with its geographic distribution across the enterprise. Moreover, there is no integrated approach for analyzing or managing such systems. Indeed, integrated development of LSIS is an active area of academic research. This work developed such an approach by simulating the various components of the LSIS and allowing the simulated components to interact with real LSIS subsystems. This research demonstrated two benefits. First, applying it to a particular LSIS provided a thorough understanding of the interfaces between the system's components. Second, it demonstrated how more rapid and detailed answers could be obtained to questions significant to the enterprise by interacting with the relevant LSIS subsystems through simulated components designed with those questions in mind. In a final, added phase of the project, investigations were made on extending this research to wireless communication networks in support of telemetry applications.

  14. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  15. Large-Angular-Scale Anisotropy in the Cosmic Background Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Gorenstein, M. V.; Smoot, G. F.

    1980-05-01

    We report the results of an extended series of airborne measurements of large-angular-scale anisotropy in the 3 K cosmic background radiation. Observations were carried out with a dual-antenna microwave radiometer operating at 33 GHz (.089 cm wavelength) flown on board a U-2 aircraft to 20 km altitude. In eleven flights, between December 1976 and May 1978, the radiometer measured differential intensity between pairs of directions distributed over most of the northern hemisphere with an rms sensitivity of 47 mK Hz{sup 1�}. The measurements how clear evidence of anisotropy that is readily interpreted as due to the solar motion relative to the sources of the radiation. The anisotropy is well fit by a first order spherical harmonic of amplitude 360{+ or -}50km sec{sup -1} toward the direction 11.2{+ or -}0.5 hours of right ascension and 19 {+ or -}8 degrees declination. A simultaneous fit to a combined hypotheses of dipole and quadrupole angular distributions places a 1 mK limit on the amplitude of most components of quadrupole anisotropy with 90% confidence. Additional analysis places a 0.5 mK limit on uncorrelated fluctuations (sky-roughness) in the 3 K background on an angular scale of the antenna beam width, about 7 degrees.

  16. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Science, Computing, Applied Math » Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design » Publications Publications Ramon Ravelo, Qi An, Timothy C. Germann, and Brad Lee Holian, "Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of shock induced plasticity in tantalum single crystals," AIP Conference Proceedings 1426, 1263-1266 (2012). Frank J. Cherne, Guy Dimonte, and Timothy C. Germann, "Richtymer-Meshkov instability examined with large-scale molecular dynamics simulations," AIP

  17. Scaling Rules for Pre-Injector Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Schwarz; Dan Amidei

    2003-07-13

    Proposed designs of the prebunching system of the NLC and TESLA are based on the assumption that scaling the SLC design to NLC/TESLA requirements should provide the desired performance. A simple equation is developed to suggest a scaling rule in terms of bunch charge and duration. Detailed simulations of prebunching systems scaled from a single design have been run to investigate these issues.

  18. AVLIS modified direct denitration: UO{sub 3} powder evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagle, O.D.; Davis, N.C.; Parchen, L.J.

    1994-02-01

    The evaluation study demonstrated that AVLIS-enriched uranium converted to UO{sub 3} can be used to prepare UO{sub 3} pellets having densities in the range required for commercial power reactor fuel. Specifically, the program has demonstrated that MDD (Modified Direct Denitration)-derived UO{sub 2} powders can be reduced to sinterable UO{sub 2} powder using reduction techniques that allow control of the final powder characteristics; the resulting UO{sub 2} powders can be processed/sintered using standard powder preparation and pellet fabrication techniques to yield pellets with densities greater than 96% TD; pellet microstructures appear similar to those of power reactor fuel, and because of the high final pellet densities, it is expected that they would remain stable during in-reactor operation; the results of the present study confirm the results of a similar study carried out in 1982 (Davis and Griffin 1992). The laboratory processes were selected on the basis that they could be scaled up to standard commercial fuel processing. However, larger scale testing may be required to establish techniques compatible with commercial fuel fabrication techniques.

  19. Connecting the Molecular and the Continuum Scales

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    range of phenomena, from climate change to contaminant remediation. Accomplishments: Used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine molecular-scale diffusion coefficients of...

  20. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Science, Computing, Applied Math Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Publications Publications Ramon Ravelo, Qi An, Timothy C. Germann, and Brad Lee Holian, ...

  1. Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vermont's Small Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program (SSREIP), initiated in June 2003, provides funding for new solar water heating, solar electric (photovoltaic), modern wood pellet heating,...

  2. Commercial-Scale Renewable-Energy Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Rhode Island Commerce Corporation (Commerce RI) seeks to fund commercial scale renewable energy projects to generate electricity for onsite consumption. Commerce RI provides incentives for...

  3. Small- To Medium-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small- To Medium-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects Small- To Medium-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects Small- To Medium-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects Most ...

  4. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating and cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of the resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental consideration. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very large potential in the United States.

  5. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    material like iron is itself a tiny magnet represented by a magnetic moment. If the atomic moments are pointing in random directions, they cancel each other out. So, to bring...

  6. Extension of DOE Directives on Security

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-05-06

    The Notice extends the following directives until 12/31/02. DOE N 205.1, DOE N 205.2, DOE 205.3, DOE N 471.3, and DOE 473.6.

  7. Geothermal Direct Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utah, is one of the many greenhouses nationwide that benefit from the direct use of geothermal energy. Geothermal reservoirs of hot water, which are found a few miles or more...

  8. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Cynthia (Newington, CT); Ren, Xiaoming (Menands, NY); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Niskayuna, NY)

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  9. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren; Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  10. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  11. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and H. Ohldag, "Direct imaging of asymmetric magnetization reversal in exchange-biased FeMnPd bilayers by x-ray photoemission electron microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 107203...

  12. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. Ohldag, "Direct imaging of asymmetric magnetization reversal in exchange-biased FeMnPd bilayers by x-ray photoemission electron microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 107203 (2005...

  13. Preparing for Hurricane Irene: Follow Local Direction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hurricane Irene is heading towards the East Coast, and while the extent of its impact is not yet known, those who may be effected (even inland areas), should get prepared and follow the direction...

  14. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Culver, G.; Ellis, P.F.; Higbee, C.; Kindle, C.; Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.; Rafferty, K.; Stiger, S.; Wright, P.M.

    1989-03-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of these resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse, aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental considerations. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very potential in the United States.

  15. DRB Liaison - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DRB Liaison by Website Administrator Emily Jackson Directives Review Board Liaison 202-287-5641 Portals III Building, Suite 500 Emily.Jackson@hq.doe.gov Chris Tirado 202-586-4967...

  16. First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles Print Microgels are soft-material particles consisting of cross-linked polymer networks, 100 nm to 1 m in diameter, dispersed...

  17. Direct Imaging of Antiferromagnetic Vortex States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arenholz, A. Doran, A.T. Young, A. Scholl, C. Hwang, H.W. Zhao, J. Bokor, and Z.Q. Qiu, "Direct observation of imprinted antiferromagnetic vortex states in CoOFeAg(001) discs,"...

  18. First Direct Observation of Spinons and Holons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    check on the interpretation of the data-were not available. The current observations are direct and the results are unambiguous because they were obtained from a simple material...

  19. First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles Print Microgels are soft-material particles consisting of cross-linked polymer networks, 100 nm to 1 m in diameter, dispersed in a...

  20. Wind Direct Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Wind Direct Ltd Place: Solihull, United Kingdom Zip: B91 2PQ Sector: Wind energy Product: Develops small wind farms (1-5MW) particularly for industrial...

  1. SCALING OF THE SUPERFLUID DENSITY IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOMES, C.C.

    2005-10-24

    A scaling relation N{sub c} {approx} 4.4{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} has been observed parallel and perpendicular to the copper-oxygen planes in the high-temperature superconductors; N{sub c} is the spectral weight and {sigma}{sub dc} is the dc conductivity just above the critical temperature T{sub c}. In addition, Nb and Pb also fall close to the this scaling line. The application of the Ferrell-Glover-Tinkham sum rule to the BCS optical properties of Nb above and below T{sub c} yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} when the normal-state scattering rate is much greater than the superconducting energy gap (1/{tau} > 2{Delta}, the ''dirty'' limit). This result implies that the high-temperature superconductors may be in the dirty limit. The superconductivity perpendicular to the planes is explained by the Josephson effect, which again yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} in the BCS formalism. The similar forms for the scaling relation in these two directions suggests that in some regime the dirty limit and the Josephson effect may be viewed as equivalent.

  2. Chapter 22 - Direct Loans and Loan Guarantees

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    8-31-11 22-1 CHAPTER 22 DIRECT LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES 1. PURPOSE. This chapter establishes the Department of Energy (DOE) accounting policy and procedures for direct loans and loan guarantees for non-Federal borrowers. 2. APPLICABILITY. a. Departmental Applicability. The applicability of this chapter is specified in Chapter 1, "Accounting Overview." b. DOE Contractors. This chapter does not apply to contractors. 3. REQUIREMENTS. a. Federal Credit Reform Act. The policies and

  3. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  4. First Direct Observation of Spinons and Holons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Direct Observation of Spinons and Holons Print Spin and charge are inseparable traits of an electron, but in one-dimensional solids, a 40-year-old theory predicts their separation into "collective" modes-as independent excitation quanta called spinons and holons. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) should provide the most direct evidence of this spin-charge separation, as the single quasiparticle peak splits into a spinon-holon two-peak structure. However, despite

  5. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  6. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  7. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  8. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  9. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print Wednesday, 28 September 2005 00:00 The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron

  10. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print Wednesday, 25 January 2012 00:00 In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical

  11. Directional Antineutrino Detection (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directional Antineutrino Detection Title: Directional Antineutrino Detection Authors: Safdi, Benjamin R. ; Suerfu, Burkhant Publication Date: 2015-02-20 OSTI Identifier: 1181344 Grant/Contract Number: ER-41850; SC00012567 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review Letters Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007 Publisher: American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States

  12. First Direct Observation of Spinons and Holons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Direct Observation of Spinons and Holons Print Spin and charge are inseparable traits of an electron, but in one-dimensional solids, a 40-year-old theory predicts their separation into "collective" modes-as independent excitation quanta called spinons and holons. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) should provide the most direct evidence of this spin-charge separation, as the single quasiparticle peak splits into a spinon-holon two-peak structure. However, despite

  13. First Direct Observation of Spinons and Holons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Direct Observation of Spinons and Holons Print Spin and charge are inseparable traits of an electron, but in one-dimensional solids, a 40-year-old theory predicts their separation into "collective" modes-as independent excitation quanta called spinons and holons. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) should provide the most direct evidence of this spin-charge separation, as the single quasiparticle peak splits into a spinon-holon two-peak structure. However, despite

  14. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct downwelling irradiance Radiant energy, across the wavelength range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, that is transferred directly from the sun to the receiver. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf)

  15. Jefferson Lab - Laboratory Directed Research & Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an LDRD Proposal or LOI View Submitted FY16 LDRD Proposals Proposals from Previous Years Create an LDRD Project Report Mid-year Report Template Mid-year Report Instructions Annual Report Template Annual Report Instructions LDRD Reports LDRD Publications The JLab LDRD program documentation has been modeled on the material developed by SLAC for its LDRD program Laboratory Directed Research & Development LDRD Home Lab Directed Research and Development An important element of Jefferson Lab's

  16. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  17. Statutes, Regulations, and Directives for Classification Program |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Statutes, Regulations, and Directives for Classification Program Statutes, Regulations, and Directives for Classification Program Classification Atomic Energy Act of 1954 - Establishes Government-wide policies for classifying, safeguarding, and declassifying Restricted Data information. 10 CFR Part 1045, Nuclear Classification and Declassification - Establishes the Government-wide policies and procedures for implementing sections 141 and 142 of the Atomic Energy Act of

  18. Direct observation of charge mediated lattice distortions in complex oxide solid solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sang, Xiahan; Grimley, Everett D.; Niu, Changning; Irving, Douglas L.; LeBeau, James M.

    2015-02-09

    Using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with advanced imaging methods, we directly observe atom column specific, picometer-scale displacements induced by local chemistry in a complex oxide solid solution. Displacements predicted from density functional theory were found to correlate with the observed experimental trends. Further analysis of bonding and charge distribution was used to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the detected structural behavior. By extending the experimental electron microscopy measurements to previously inaccessible length scales, we identified correlated atomic displacements linked to bond differences within the complex oxide structure.

  19. Relating Pore-Scale Uranium Aquatic Speciation to Intermediate-Scale Aquifer Heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranville, James

    2013-04-01

    The speciation and transport of uranium (VI) through porous media is highly dependent on solution conditions, the presence of complexing ligands, and the nature of the porous media. The dependency on many variables makes prediction of U transport in bench-scale experiments and in the field difficult. In particular, the identification of colloidal U phases poses a technical challenge. Transport of U in the presence and absence of natural organic matter (Suwannee River humic acid, SRHA) through silica sand and hematite coated silica sand was tested at pH 4 and 5 using static columns, where flow is controlled by gravity and residence time between advective pore volume exchanges can be strictly controlled. The column effluents were characterized by traditional techniques including ICPMS quantification of total [U] and [Fe], TOC analysis of [DOC], and pH analysis, and also by non-traditional techniques: flow field flow fractionation with online ICPMS detection (FlFFF-ICPMS) and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) characterization of effluent fractions. Key results include that the transport of U through the columns was enhanced by pre-equilibration with SRHA, and previously deposited U was remobilized by the addition of SRHA. The advanced techniques yielded important insights on the mechanisms of transport: FlFFF-ICPMS identified a U?SRHA complex as the mobile U species and directly quantified relative amounts of the complex, while specific UV absorbance (SUVA) measurements indicated a composition-based fractionation onto the porous media.

  20. Focus Series: Maine - Residential Direct Install Program | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maine - Residential Direct Install Program Focus Series: Maine - Residential Direct Install Program Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Focus Series: Maine - Residential Direct...

  1. Program Direction FY 2016 Budget At-A-Glance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROGRAM DIRECTION FY 2016 BUDGET AT-A-GLANCE Program Direction enables the Office of ... The fiscal year (FY) 2016 Program Direction Budget Request provides necessary resources ...

  2. Program Peer Review New Directions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Review New Directions Program Peer Review New Directions BETO Program Peer Review - New Directions, 2013 PDF icon programmanagementreview2013directionsreed.pdf More...

  3. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha�middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright� Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  4. Molecular pathways for defect annihilation in directed self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, Su-Mi; Thapar, Vikram; Ramirez-Hernandez, Abelardo; Khaira, Gurdaman S.; Segal-Peretz, Tamar; Rincon-Delgadillo, Paulina A.; Li, Weihua; Muller, Marcus; Nealey, Paul F.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-11-17

    Over the last few years, the directed self-assembly of block copolymers by surface patterns has transitioned from academic curiosity to viable contender for commercial fabrication of next-generation nanocircuits by lithography. Recently, it has become apparent that kinetics, and not only thermodynamics, plays a key role for the ability of a polymeric material to self-assemble into a perfect, defect-free ordered state. Perfection, in this context, implies not more than one defect, with characteristic dimensions on the order of 5 nm, over a sample area as large as 100 cm2. In this work, we identify the key pathways and the corresponding free-energy barriers for eliminating defects, and we demonstrate that an extraordinarily large thermodynamic driving force is not necessarily sufficient for their removal. By adopting a concerted computational and experimental approach, we explain the molecular origins of these barriers, how they depend on material characteristics, and we propose strategies designed to over-come them. The validity of our conclusions for industrially-relevant patterning processes is established by relying on instruments and assembly lines that are only available at state-of-the-art fabrication facilities and, through this confluence of fundamental and applied research, we are able to discern the evolution of morphology at the smallest relevant length scales - a handful of nanometers -, and present a view of defect annihilation in directed self-assembly at an unprecedented level of detail.

  5. Broken Scale Invariance and Anomalous Dimensions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Wilson, K. G.

    1970-05-01

    Mack and Kastrup have proposed that broken scale invariance is a symmetry of strong interactions. There is evidence from the Thirring model and perturbation theory that the dimensions of fields defined by scale transformations will be changed by the interaction from their canonical values. We review these ideas and their consequences for strong interactions.

  6. Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions In Coal Power Plant Plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Levin

    2005-12-31

    Recent field and pilot-scale results indicate that divalent mercury emitted from power plants may rapidly transform to elemental mercury within the power plant plumes. Simulations of mercury chemistry in plumes based on measured rates to date have improved regional model fits to Mercury Deposition Network wet deposition data for particular years, while not degrading model verification fits for remaining years of the ensemble. The years with improved fit are those with simulated deposition in grid cells in the State of Pennsylvania that have matching MDN station data significantly less than the model values. This project seeks to establish a full-scale data basis for whether or not significant reduction or oxidation reactions occur to mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants, and what numerical redox rate should apply for extension to other sources and for modeling of power plant mercury plumes locally, regionally, and nationally. Although in-stack mercury (Hg) speciation measurements are essential to the development of control technologies and to provide data for input into atmospheric fate and transport models, the determination of speciation in a cooling coal combustion plume is more relevant for use in estimating Hg fate and effects through the atmosphere. It is mercury transformations that may occur in the plume that determine the eventual rate and patterns of mercury deposited to the earth's surface. A necessary first step in developing a supportable approach to modeling any such transformations is to directly measure the forms and concentrations of mercury from the stack exit downwind to full dispersion in the atmosphere. As a result, a study was sponsored by EPRI and jointly funded by EPRI, the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), and the Wisconsin Department of Administration. The study was designed to further our understanding of plume chemistry. The study was carried out at the We Energies Pleasant Prairie Power Plant, Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin, just west of Kenosha. Aircraft and ground measurements support the occurrence of a reduction in the fraction of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) (with a corresponding increase in elemental mercury) as part of the Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) emitted from the Pleasant Prairie stack. This occurrence is based on comparison of the RGM concentrations in the plume (at standard conditions) compared to the RGM in the stack. There was found to be a 44% drop in the fraction of RGM between the stack exit and the first sampling arc and a 66% reduction from the stack to the 5-mile sampling arc, with no additional drop between the 5- and 10-mile arcs. Smaller-scale experiments in both test chambers and pilot-scale coal combustor exhaust streams have indicated the presence of rapid and relatively complete reduction reactions converting divalent into elemental mercury within power plant plumes prior to full dispersion in the atmosphere. These measurements, however, have been unable to identify whether the reactions occur during plume rise from physical to virtual stack height (during positive thermal buoyancy). The presence, rate, completeness, ubiquity, and dependence on source characteristics of these reactions, however, must be demonstrated in plume environments associated with fully operational power plants. That requirement, to capture either the reactions or the reaction products of chemistry that may be occurring very close to stack exits in highly turbulent environments, constrains the precision and reproducibility with which such full-scale experiments can be carried out. The work described here is one of several initial steps required to test whether, and in what direction, such rapid mercury redox reactions might be occurring in such plumes.

  7. Progress in Long Scale Length Laser-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenzer, S H; Arnold, P; Bardsley, G; Berger, R L; Bonanno, G; Borger, T; Bower, D E; Bowers, M; Bryant, R; Buckman, S; Burkhart, S C; Campbell, K; Chrisp, M P; Cohen, B I; Constantin, G; Cooper, F; Cox, J; Dewald, E; Divol, L; Dixit, S; Duncan, J; Eder, D; Edwards, J; Erbert, G; Felker, B; Fornes, J; Frieders, G; Froula, D H; Gardner, S D; Gates, C; Gonzalez, M; Grace, S; Gregori, G; Greenwood, A; Griffith, R; Hall, T; Hammel, B A; Haynam, C; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Hermes, G; Hinkel, D; Holder, J; Holdner, F; Holtmeier, G; Hsing, W; Huber, S; James, T; Johnson, S; Jones, O S; Kalantar, D; Kamperschroer, J H; Kauffman, R; Kelleher, T; Knight, J; Kirkwood, R K; Kruer, W L; Labiak, W; Landen, O L; Langdon, A B; Langer, S; Latray, D; Lee, A; Lee, F D; Lund, D; MacGowan, B; Marshall, S; McBride, J; McCarville, T; McGrew, L; Mackinnon, A J; Mahavandi, S; Manes, K; Marshall, C; Mertens, E; Meezan, N; Miller, G; Montelongo, S; Moody, J D; Moses, E; Munro, D; Murray, J; Neumann, J; Newton, M; Ng, E; Niemann, C; Nikitin, A; Opsahl, P; Padilla, E; Parham, T; Parrish, G; Petty, C; Polk, M; Powell, C; Reinbachs, I; Rekow, V; Rinnert, R; Riordan, B; Rhodes, M

    2003-11-11

    The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have employed the first four beams to measure propagation and laser backscattering losses in large ignition-size plasmas. Gas-filled targets between 2 mm and 7 mm length have been heated from one side by overlapping the focal spots of the four beams from one quad operated at 351 nm (3{omega}) with a total intensity of 2 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. The targets were filled with 1 atm of CO{sub 2} producing of up to 7 mm long homogeneously heated plasmas with densities of n{sub e} = 6 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and temperatures of T{sub e} = 2 keV. The high energy in a NIF quad of beams of 16kJ, illuminating the target from one direction, creates unique conditions for the study of laser plasma interactions at scale lengths not previously accessible. The propagation through the large-scale plasma was measured with a gated x-ray imager that was filtered for 3.5 keV x rays. These data indicate that the beams interact with the full length of this ignition-scale plasma during the last {approx}1 ns of the experiment. During that time, the full aperture measurements of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering show scattering into the four focusing lenses of 6% for the smallest length ({approx}2 mm). increasing to 12% for {approx}7 mm. These results demonstrate the NIF experimental capabilities and further provide a benchmark for three-dimensional modeling of the laser-plasma interactions at ignition-size scale lengths.

  8. EA-280 Direct Energy Marketing Inc | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Direct Energy Marketing Inc EA-280 Direct Energy Marketing Inc Order authorizing Direct Energy Marketing Inc to export electric energy to Canada. PDF icon EA-280 Direct Energy Marketing Inc More Documents & Publications EA-280-B

  9. EA-280-B Direct Energy Marketing Inc | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    -B Direct Energy Marketing Inc EA-280-B Direct Energy Marketing Inc Order authorizing Direct Energy Marketing Inc to export electric energy to Canada. PDF icon EA-280-B Direct Energy Marketing Inc More Documents & Publications EA-280

  10. Draft STD-1027 Supplemental Directive (Alternate Hazard Categorization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    STD-1027 Supplemental Directive (Alternate Hazard Categorization) Methodology Draft STD-1027 Supplemental Directive (Alternate Hazard Categorization) Methodology Presentation from...

  11. Resource assessment for geothermal direct use applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, C.; Hederman, W.F. Jr.; Dolenc, M.R.; Allman, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    This report discusses the topic geothermal resource assessment and its importance to laymen and investors for finding geothermal resources for direct-use applications. These are applications where the heat from lower-temperature geothermal fluids, 120 to 200/sup 0/F, are used directly rather than for generating electricity. The temperatures required for various applications are listed and the various types of geothermal resources are described. Sources of existing resource data are indicated, and the types and suitability of tests to develop more data are described. Potential development problems are indicated and guidance is given on how to decrease technical and financial risk and how to use technical consultants effectively. The objectives of this report are to provide: (1) an introduction low-temperature geothermal resource assessment; (2) experience from a series of recent direct-use projects; and (3) references to additional information.

  12. Field free, directly heated lanthanum boride cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Moussa, David (San Francisco, CA); Wilde, Stephen B. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A directly heated cylindrical lanthanum boride cathode assembly is disclosed which minimizes generation of magnetic fields which would interfere with electron emission from the cathode. The cathode assembly comprises a lanthanum boride cylinder in electrical contact at one end with a central support shaft which functions as one electrode to carry current to the lanthanum boride cylinder and in electrical contact, at its opposite end with a second electrode which is coaxially position around the central support shaft so that magnetic fields generated by heater current flowing in one direction through the central support shaft are cancelled by an opposite magnetic field generated by current flowing through the lanthanum boride cylinder and the coaxial electrode in a direction opposite to the current flow in the central shaft.

  13. Field free, directly heated lanthanum boride cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Moussa, D.; Wilde, S.B.

    1987-02-02

    A directly heated cylindrical lanthanum boride cathode assembly is disclosed which minimizes generation of magnetic field which would interfere with electron emission from the cathode. The cathode assembly comprises a lanthanum boride cylinder in electrical contact at one end with a central support shaft which functions as one electrode to carry current to the lanthanum boride cylinder and in electrical contact, at its opposite end with a second electrode which is coaxially position around the central support shaft so that magnetic fields generated by heater current flowing in one direction through the central support shaft are cancelled by an opposite magnetic field generated by current flowing through the lanthanum boride cylinder and the coaxial electrode in a direction opposite to the current flow in the central shaft.

  14. On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up induced by large-scale geologic storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2011-05-01

    The scale and magnitude of pressure perturbation and brine migration induced by geologic carbon sequestration is discussed assuming a full-scale deployment scenario in which enough CO{sub 2} is captured and stored to make relevant contributions to global climate change mitigation. In this scenario, the volumetric rates and cumulative volumes of CO{sub 2} injection would be comparable to or higher than those related to existing deep-subsurface injection and extraction activities, such as oil production. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic storage capacity of suitable formations, because over-pressurization may fracture the caprock, may drive CO{sub 2}/brine leakage through localized pathways, and may cause induced seismicity. On the other hand, laterally extensive sedimentary basins may be less affected by such limitations because (i) local pressure effects are moderated by pressure propagation and brine displacement into regions far away from the CO{sub 2} storage domain; and (ii) diffuse and/or localized brine migration into overlying and underlying formations allows for pressure bleed-off in the vertical direction. A quick analytical estimate of the extent of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO{sub 2} storage projects is presented. Also discussed are pressure perturbation and attenuation effects simulated for two representative sedimentary basins in the USA: the laterally extensive Illinois Basin and the partially compartmentalized southern San Joaquin Basin in California. These studies show that the limiting effect of pressure build-up on dynamic storage capacity is not as significant as suggested by Ehlig-Economides and Economides, who considered closed systems without any attenuation effects.

  15. Carbon nanotube formation by laser direct writing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Su, H.-C.; Tsai, C.-M.; Liu, K.-L.; Chen, G.-D.; Huang, R.-H.; Yew, T.-R.

    2008-07-14

    This letter presents carbon nanotube (CNT) formation by laser direct writing using 248 nm KrF excimer pulsed laser in air at room temperature, which was applied to irradiate amorphous carbon (a-C) assisted by Ni catalysts underneath for the transformation of carbon species into CNTs. The CNTs were synthesized under appropriate combination of laser energy density and a-C thickness. The growth mechanism and key parameters to determine the success of CNT formation were also discussed. The demonstration of the CNT growth by laser direct writing in air at room temperature opens an opportunity of in-position CNT formation at low temperatures.

  16. First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles Print Wednesday, 22 February 2006 00:00 Microgels are soft-material particles consisting of cross-linked polymer networks, 100 nm to 1 μm in diameter, dispersed in a continuous medium such as water. A useful feature of certain types of microgel particles is that they can swell or shrink with changes in external triggers such as pH and temperature. Thus microgel particles can act like

  17. Columbia Gas preserves wetlands with directional drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luginbuhl, K.K.; Gartman, D.K.

    1995-10-01

    This paper reviews the use of directional drilling to install a 12 inch natural gas pipeline near Avon, Ohio. As a result of increased demand, the utility decided that it would need additional lines for pressure control with the only feasible route being through a forested and scrub/shrub wetland. This paper reviews the permitting requirements along with the directional drilling design and operation. Unfortunately during drilling, bentonite drilling fluids came to the surface requiring remedial action procedures. The paper then provides a detailed clean up strategy and makes recommendations on how to prevent such a break through in the future.

  18. Multi-scale thermalhydraulic analyses performed in Nuresim and Nurisp projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bestion, D.; Lucas, D.; Anglart, H.; Niceno, B.; Vyskocil, L.

    2012-07-01

    The NURESIM and NURISP successive projects of the 6. and 7. European Framework Programs joined the efforts of 21 partners for developing and validating a reference multi-physics and multi-scale platform for reactor simulation. The platform includes system codes, component codes, and also CFD or CMFD simulation tools. Fine scale CFD simulations are useful for a better understanding of physical processes, for the prediction of small scale geometrical effects and for solving problems that require a fine space and/or time resolution. Many important safety issues usually treated at the system scale may now benefit from investigations at a CFD scale. The Pressurized Thermal Shock is investigated using several simulation scales including Direct Numerical Simulation, Large Eddy Simulation, Very Large Eddy Simulation and RANS approaches. At the end a coupling of system code and CFD is applied. Condensation Induced Water-Hammer was also investigated at both CFD and 1-D scale. Boiling flow in a reactor core up to Departure from Nucleate Boiling or Dry-Out is investigated at scales much smaller than the classical subchannel analysis codes. DNS was used to investigate very local processes whereas CFD in both RANS and LES was used to simulate bubbly flow and Euler-Lagrange simulations were used for annular mist flow investigations. Loss of Coolant Accidents are usually treated by system codes. Some related issues are now revisited at the CFD scale. In each case the progress of the analysis is summarized and the benefit of the multi-scale approach is shown. (authors)

  19. Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 Authors: Zhang, Yi ; Chang, Tay-Rong ; Zhou, Bo ; Cui, Yong-Tao ; Yan, Hao ; Liu, Zhongkai ; Schmitt, Felix ; Lee, James ; Moore, Rob ; Chen, Yulin ; Lin, Hsin ; Jeng, Horng-Tay

  20. Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and

  1. Method and system for small scale pumping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Insepov, Zeke (Darien, IL); Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  2. Community-Scale Development | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Source: New Jersey Department of Community Affairs-Local Finance. Demand-Side Management Guidebook Covers renewable power generation, direct use of renewable, nonrenewable ...

  3. Power electronics substrate for direct substrate cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le, Khiet (Mission Viejo, CA); Ward, Terence G. (Redondo Beach, CA); Mann, Brooks S. (Redondo Beach, CA); Yankoski, Edward P. (Corona, CA); Smith, Gregory S. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    2012-05-01

    Systems and apparatus are provided for power electronics substrates adapted for direct substrate cooling. A power electronics substrate comprises a first surface configured to have electrical circuitry disposed thereon, a second surface, and a plurality of physical features on the second surface. The physical features are configured to promote a turbulent boundary layer in a coolant impinged upon the second surface.

  4. Geothermal Direct Use Technology and Marketplace Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal energy applications are emerging across a much wider spectrum of cascaded uses, from lower temperature geothermal energy production to direct heating and cooling, to agricultural uses. The Energy Department is at the forefront of this discussion, the workshop report addresses applications for the Eastern United States.

  5. Extension of DOE Directives on Security

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-05-14

    The following directives are extended until 5/14/04. DOE O 470.1, DOE O 471.2A. DOE N 142.1 was originally approved without an expiration date and will, therefore, remain in effect until canceled.

  6. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.D. Savee, D.L. Osborn, S.S. Vasu, C.J. Percival, D.E. Shallcross, and C.A. Taatjes, "Direct Kinetic Measurements of Criegee Intermediate (CH2OO) Formed by Reaction of CH2I...

  7. External Surveillance of Geothermal Scale Deposits Employing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can detect scale buildup in pipes to 1-2 m accuracy. Radiography has also detected corrosion in piping. Development of this technique is shown to be useful of monitoring...

  8. Data triage enables extreme-scale computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ranking large-scale data. The researchers presented a whitepaper on the subject for the Big Data Exascale Computing workshop in Japan. Significance of the research The main focus...

  9. SCE&G- Customer Scale Solar Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South Carolina Electric & Gas (SCE&G) Customer Scale Solar Rebate Program, a part of SCE&G's voluntary Distributed Energy Resource Program, was approved by an order issued on July 15,...

  10. Duke Energy Carolinas Customer Scale Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Duke Energy Carolinas' Customer Scale Solar Rebate Program, a part of Duke Energy's voluntary Distributed Energy Resource Program,  was approved by an order issued on July 15, 2015.

  11. bench scale dev | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0004360 The...

  12. FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK:RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Q. Zhou; Hui-Hai Liu; F.J. Molz; Y. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2005-04-08

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D{sub m}{sup e}, a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D{sub m}{sup e} values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F{sub D} (defined as the ratio of D{sub m}{sup e} to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D{sub m}] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F{sub D} value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F{sub D} value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F{sub D} value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminant remediation.

  13. Autonomie Large Scale Deployment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Scale Deployment Autonomie Large Scale Deployment 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon vss009_rousseau_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Autonomie Plug&Play Software Architecture Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Accelerate the Development and Introduction of Advanced Technologies Through Model Based System Engineering Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014:

  14. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Science, Computing, Applied Math » Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Computational co-design may facilitate revolutionary designs in the next generation of supercomputers. Get Expertise Tim Germann Physics and Chemistry of Materials Email Allen McPherson Energy and Infrastructure Analysis Email Turab Lookman Physics and Condensed Matter and Complex Systems Email Computational co-design involves developing the interacting components of a

  15. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Informing system design, ensuring productive and efficient code Project Description To address the increasingly complex problems of the modern world, scientists at Los Alamos are pushing the scale of computing to the extreme, forming partnerships with other national laboratories and industry to develop supercomputers that can achieve "exaflop" speeds-that is, a quintillion (a million trillion) calculations per second. To put such speed in perspective,

  16. Hawaiian direct-heat grants encourage geothermal creativity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, A.G. )

    1988-12-01

    The Hawaiian Community Geothermal Technology Program is unique. Under its auspices, heat and other by-products of Hawaii's high-temperature HGP-A geothermal well and power plant are not wasted. Instead, they form the backbone of a direct-heat grant program that reaches into the local community and encourages community members to develop creative uses for geothermal energy. A by-product of this approach is a broadened local base of support for geothermal energy development. With the experimental and precommercial work completed, most of the original grantees are looking for ways to continue their projects on a commercial scale by studying the economics of using geothermal heat in a full-scale business and researching potential markets. A geothermal mini-park may be built near the research center. In 1988, a second round of projects was funded under the program. The five new projects are: Geothermal Aquaculture Project - an experiment with low-cost propagation of catfish species in geothermally heated tanks with a biofilter; Media Steam Sterilization and Drying - an application of raw geothermal steam to shredded, locally-available materials such as coconut husks, which would be used as certified nursery growing media; Bottom-Heating System Using Geothermal Power for Propagation - a continuation of Leilani Foliage's project from the first round of grants, focusing on new species of ornamental palms; Silica Bronze - the use of geothermal silica as a refractory material in casting bronze artwork; and Electro-deposition of Minerals in Geothermal Brine - the nature and possible utility of minerals deposited from the hot fluid.

  17. Variable mode bi-directional and uni-directional computer communication system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornett, Frank N.; Jenkins, Philip N.; Bowman, Terrance L.; Placek, Joseph M.; Thorson, Gregory M.

    2004-12-14

    A variable communication systems comprising a plurality of transceivers and a control circuit connected to the transceivers to configure the transceivers to operate in a bi-directional mode and a uni-directional mode at different times using different transfer methods to transfer data.

  18. Classifying forest productivity at different scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Spatial scale is an important consideration when evaluating, using, or constructing forest productivity classifications. First, the factors which dominate spatial variability in forest productivity are scale dependent. For example, within a stand, spatial variability in productivity is dominated by microsite differences; within a national forest such as the Cherokee National Forest, spatial variability is dominated by topography and land-use history (e.g., years since harvest); within a large region such as the southeast, spatial variability is dominated by climatic patterns. Second, classifications developed at different spatial scales are often used for different purposes. For example, stand-level classifications are often keys or rules used in the field to judge the quality or potential of a site. National-forest classifications are often presented as maps or tables and may be used in forest land planning. Regional classifications may be maps or tables and may be used to quantify or predict resource availability. These scale-related differences in controlling factors and purposes will affect both the methods and the data used to develop classifications. In this paper, I will illustrate these points by describing and comparing three forest productivity classifications, each developed for a specific purpose at a specific scale. My objective is not to argue for or against any of these particular classifications but rather to heighten awareness of the critical role that spatial scale plays in the use and development of forest productivity classifications. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Robust large-scale parallel nonlinear solvers for simulations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, Brett William; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2005-11-01

    This report documents research to develop robust and efficient solution techniques for solving large-scale systems of nonlinear equations. The most widely used method for solving systems of nonlinear equations is Newton's method. While much research has been devoted to augmenting Newton-based solvers (usually with globalization techniques), little has been devoted to exploring the application of different models. Our research has been directed at evaluating techniques using different models than Newton's method: a lower order model, Broyden's method, and a higher order model, the tensor method. We have developed large-scale versions of each of these models and have demonstrated their use in important applications at Sandia. Broyden's method replaces the Jacobian with an approximation, allowing codes that cannot evaluate a Jacobian or have an inaccurate Jacobian to converge to a solution. Limited-memory methods, which have been successful in optimization, allow us to extend this approach to large-scale problems. We compare the robustness and efficiency of Newton's method, modified Newton's method, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and our limited-memory Broyden method. Comparisons are carried out for large-scale applications of fluid flow simulations and electronic circuit simulations. Results show that, in cases where the Jacobian was inaccurate or could not be computed, Broyden's method converged in some cases where Newton's method failed to converge. We identify conditions where Broyden's method can be more efficient than Newton's method. We also present modifications to a large-scale tensor method, originally proposed by Bouaricha, for greater efficiency, better robustness, and wider applicability. Tensor methods are an alternative to Newton-based methods and are based on computing a step based on a local quadratic model rather than a linear model. The advantage of Bouaricha's method is that it can use any existing linear solver, which makes it simple to write and easily portable. However, the method usually takes twice as long to solve as Newton-GMRES on general problems because it solves two linear systems at each iteration. In this paper, we discuss modifications to Bouaricha's method for a practical implementation, including a special globalization technique and other modifications for greater efficiency. We present numerical results showing computational advantages over Newton-GMRES on some realistic problems. We further discuss a new approach for dealing with singular (or ill-conditioned) matrices. In particular, we modify an algorithm for identifying a turning point so that an increasingly ill-conditioned Jacobian does not prevent convergence.

  20. Small-scale self-excited-rotor electrostatic generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalganov, A.F.

    1985-04-15

    Electrostatic generators, as sources of high direct-current voltage, are being used more and more extensively in science and technology. Rotor electrostatic generators with conductor-carriers occupy a significant place among these generators; rotor electrostatic generators develop a voltage in the hundreds of kV and have the advantage that they can be made self-exciting. This considerably simplifies servicing and operation of the generators and is especially important in a small-scale design. Theoretical and experimental works on electrostatic generators with conductor-carriers in the last 20 years have led to the development of various types of such generators. Soviet scientists have made a great contribution to these works. However, the procedure for engineering calculation of certain types of generators still has not been adequately developed. In particular, the Zan calculation does not take into account the effect of parasitic capacitances in generators of disc and cylinder types.

  1. Nuclear-pumped lasers for large-scale applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.E.; Leonard, E.M.; Shea, R.F.; Berggren, R.R.

    1989-05-01

    Efficient initiation of large-volume chemical lasers may be achieved by neutron induced reactions which produce charged particles in the final state. When a burst mode nuclear reactor is used as the neutron source, both a sufficiently intense neutron flux and a sufficiently short initiation pulse may be possible. Proof-of-principle experiments are planned to demonstrate lasing in a direct nuclear-pumped large-volume system; to study the effects of various neutron absorbing materials on laser performance; to study the effects of long initiation pulse lengths; to demonstrate the performance of large-scale optics and the beam quality that may be obtained; and to assess the performance of alternative designs of burst systems that increase the neutron output and burst repetition rate. 21 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Nuclear-pumped lasers for large-scale applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.E.; Leonard, E.M.; Shea, R.E.; Berggren, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Efficient initiation of large-volume chemical lasers may be achieved by neutron induced reactions which produce charged particles in the final state. When a burst mode nuclear reactor is used as the neutron source, both a sufficiently intense neutron flux and a sufficient short initiation pulse may be possible. Proof-of-principle experiments are planned to demonstrate lasing in a direct nuclear-pumped large-volume system: to study the effects of various neutron absorbing materials on laser performance; to study the effects of long initiation pulse lengths; to determine the performance of large-scale optics and the beam quality that may bo obtained; and to assess the performance of alternative designs of burst systems that increase the neutron output and burst repetition rate. 21 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall shearing was shown to reduce the rheological properties of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Samples taken at the static feed tank showed that gelling impacted the rheological properties of the grout before it was fed into the pump and transfer line. A comparison of the rheological properties of samples taken at the feed tank and transfer line discharge indicated shearing of the grout was occurring in the transfer line. Bench scale testing of different mixing methods with three different salt solutions showed that method of mixing influences the rheological properties of the grouts. The paddle blade mixing method of the salt solution used for the BMSR testing provided comparable rheological properties of the grout prepared in the BMSR after 14 minutes of processing, B3. The paddle blade mixing method can be used to represent BMSR results and mixing time can be adjusted to represent larger scale mixing.

  4. Fabrication of small-scale structures with non-planar features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burckel, David B.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2015-11-19

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  5. Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K.

    1997-08-01

    Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.

  6. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  7. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Phelps, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  8. Remote direct memory access over datagrams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grant, Ryan Eric; Rashti, Mohammad Javad; Balaji, Pavan; Afsahi, Ahmad

    2014-12-02

    A communication stack for providing remote direct memory access (RDMA) over a datagram network is disclosed. The communication stack has a user level interface configured to accept datagram related input and communicate with an RDMA enabled network interface card (NIC) via an NIC driver. The communication stack also has an RDMA protocol layer configured to supply one or more data transfer primitives for the datagram related input of the user level. The communication stack further has a direct data placement (DDP) layer configured to transfer the datagram related input from a user storage to a transport layer based on the one or more data transfer primitives by way of a lower layer protocol (LLP) over the datagram network.

  9. Codoped direct-gap semiconductor scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen Edward; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Weber, Marvin J.; Klintenberg, Mattias K.

    2008-07-29

    Fast, bright inorganic scintillators at room temperature are based on radiative electron-hole recombination in direct-gap semiconductors, e.g. CdS and ZnO. The direct-gap semiconductor is codoped with two different impurity atoms to convert the semiconductor to a fast, high luminosity scintillator. The codopant scheme is based on dopant band to dopant trap recombination. One dopant provides a significant concentration of carriers of one type (electrons or holes) and the other dopant traps carriers of the other type. Examples include CdS:In,Te; CdS:In,Ag; CdS:In,Na; ZnO:Ga,P; ZnO:Ga,N; ZnO:Ga,S; and GaN:Ge,Mg.

  10. Codoped direct-gap semiconductor scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Weber, Marvin J.; Klintenberg, Mattias K.

    2006-05-23

    Fast, bright inorganic scintillators at room temperature are based on radiative electron-hole recombination in direct-gap semiconductors, e.g. CdS and ZnO. The direct-gap semiconductor is codoped with two different impurity atoms to convert the semiconductor to a fast, high luminosity scintillator. The codopant scheme is based on dopant band to dopant trap recombination. One dopant provides a significant concentration of carriers of one type (electrons or holes) and the other dopant traps carriers of the other type. Examples include CdS:In,Te; CdS:In,Ag; CdS:In,Na; ZnO:Ga,P; ZnO:Ga,N; ZnO:Ga,S; and GaN:Ge,Mg.

  11. Development of Direct-Use Projects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lund, J.

    2011-01-01

    A geothermal direct-use project utilizes a natural resource, a flow of geothermal fluid at elevated temperatures, which is capable of providing heat and/or cooling to buildings, greenhouses, aquaculture ponds, and industrial processes. Geothermal utilization requires matching the varied needs of the user and characteristics of the resource in order to development a successful project. Each application is unique; guidelines are provided for the logical steps required to implement a project. Recommended temperature and flows are suggested for spas and pools, space and district heating, greenhouse and aquaculture pond heating, and industrial applications. Guidelines are provided for selecting the necessary equipment for successfully implementing a direct-use project, including downhole pumps, piping, heat exchangers, and heat convectors. Additionally, the relationship between temperature, flow rate, and the use of heat exchangers to provide heat to a space with hot water or hot air is provided for a number of applications, with suggested 'rules of thumb'.

  12. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  13. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  14. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  15. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  16. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  17. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  18. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  19. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  20. Framework Topic Briefing: Direct Feed LAW

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 13, 2014 Framework Topic Briefing: Direct Feed LAW Next steps: Put Dick's handouts on SharePoint * Continue Framework topic briefing series Page 1 System Plan 7 Next steps: * Track & check in when draft ready... sometime mid 2014 Page 2 Path Forward Tank Waste Advice * Liz & Dirk ensure background flows appropriately * EI send to Board early next week. Conceptual consensus was reached today - sent via email only to give final opportunity for major objection Page 3 March * Glass

  1. Jefferson Lab - Laboratory Directed Research & Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Call for FY17 LDRD Proposals An important element of Jefferson Lab's Strategic Plan is the implementation of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program. The lab began such a program in FY14 and it has already provided a substantial return on the investments made. We are now soliciting proposals for new LDRD projects that would begin in October 2016 (and continuation proposals from projects underway that will not be completed this year). A draft calendar for the FY2017 program,

  2. Jefferson Lab - Laboratory Directed Research & Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an LDRD Proposal or LOI View Submitted FY16 LDRD Proposals Proposals from Previous Years Create an LDRD Project Report Mid-year Report Template Mid-year Report Instructions Annual Report Template Annual Report Instructions LDRD Reports LDRD Publications The JLab LDRD program documentation has been modeled on the material developed by SLAC for its LDRD program Laboratory Directed Research & Development Formal LDRD Plans FT16 Plan FY15 Plan FY14 Plan

  3. Laboratory- Directed Research and Development (LDRD)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directed Research and Development (LDRD) - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  4. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  5. Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Programs » LDRD /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg Laboratory Directed Research & Development National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Gang Wu, left, and Piotr Zelenay examine a new non-precious-metal catalyst that can significantly reduce the cost of hydrogen fuel cells while maintaining performance.

  6. Laboratory-directed research and development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    directed research and development - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  7. Polymeric assay film for direct colorimetric detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Nagy, Jon (Rodeo, CA); Spevak, Wayne (Albany, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A lipid bilayer with affinity to an analyte, which directly signals binding by a changes in the light absorption spectra. This novel assay means and method has special applications in the drug development and medical testing fields. Using a spectrometer, the system is easily automated, and a multiple well embodiment allows inexpensive screening and sequential testing. This invention also has applications in industry for feedstock and effluent monitoring.

  8. Polymeric assay film for direct colorimetric detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Nagy, Jon (Bozeman, MT); Spevak, Wayne (Albany, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A lipid bilayer with affinity to an analyte, which directly signals binding by a changes in the light absorption spectra. This novel assay means and method has special applications in the drug development and medical testing fields. Using a spectrometer, the system is easily automated, and a multiple well embodiment allows inexpensive screening and sequential testing. This invention also has applications in industry for feedstock and effluent monitoring.

  9. Supplemental Directives | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Supplemental Directives | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at

  10. supplemental directives | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    supplemental directives | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at

  11. The Era of Kilometer-Scale Neutrino Detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Halzen, Francis; Katz, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. KM3NeT, an instrument that aims to exploit several cubic kilometers of the deep Mediterranean sea as its detector medium, is in its final design stages. The scientific missions of these instruments include searching for sources of cosmic rays and for dark matter, observing Galactic supernova explosions, and studying the neutrinos themselves. Identifying the accelerators that produce Galacticmore » and extragalactic cosmic rays has been a priority mission of several generations of high-energy gamma-ray and neutrino telescopes; success has been elusive so far. Detecting the gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes associated with cosmic rays reaches a new watershed with the completion of IceCube, the first neutrino detector with sensitivity to the anticipated fluxes. In this paper, we will first revisit the rationale for constructing kilometer-scale neutrino detectors. We will subsequently recall the methods for determining the arrival direction, energy and flavor of neutrinos, and will subsequently describe the architecture of the IceCube and KM3NeT detectors.« less

  12. Design Optimization of Radionuclide Nano-Scale Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenfeld, D.W.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Smith, B.

    2004-10-06

    Radioisotopes have been used for power sources in heart pacemakers and space applications dating back to the 50's. Two key properties of radioisotope power sources are high energy density and long half-life compared to chemical batteries. The tritium battery used in heart pacemakers exceeds 500 mW-hr, and is being evaluated by the University of Florida for feasibility as a MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) power source. Conversion of radioisotope sources into electrical power within the constraints of nano-scale dimensions requires cutting-edge technologies and novel approaches. Some advances evolving in the III-V and II-IV semiconductor families have led to a broader consideration of radioisotopes rather free of radiation damage limitations. Their properties can lead to novel battery configurations designed to convert externally located emissions from a highly radioactive environment. This paper presents results for the analytical computational assisted design and modeling of semiconductor prototype nano-scale radioisotope nuclear batteries from MCNP and EGS programs. The analysis evaluated proposed designs and was used to guide the selection of appropriate geometries, material properties, and specific activities to attain power requirements for the MEMS batteries. Plans utilizing high specific activity radioisotopes were assessed in the investigation of designs employing multiple conversion cells and graded junctions with varying band gap properties. Voltage increases sought by serial combination of VOC s are proposed to overcome some of the limitations of a low power density. The power density is directly dependent on the total active areas.

  13. Origin of Scale-Dependent Dispersivity and Its Implications For Miscible Gas Flooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Bryant; Russ Johns; Larry Lake; Thomas Harmon

    2008-09-30

    Dispersive mixing has an important impact on the effectiveness of miscible floods. Simulations routinely assume Fickian dispersion, yet it is well established that dispersivity depends on the scale of measurement. This is one of the main reasons that a satisfactory method for design of field-scale miscible displacement processes is still not available. The main objective of this project was to improve the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of dispersion and mixing, particularly at the pore scale. To this end, microsensors were developed and used in the laboratory to measure directly the solute concentrations at the scale of individual pores; the origin of hydrodynamic dispersion was evaluated from first principles of laminar flow and diffusion at the grain scale in simple but geometrically completely defined porous media; techniques to use flow reversal to distinguish the contribution to dispersion of convective spreading from that of true mixing; and the field scale impact of permeability heterogeneity on hydrodynamic dispersion was evaluated numerically. This project solved a long-standing problem in solute transport in porous media by quantifying the physical basis for the scaling of dispersion coefficient with the 1.2 power of flow velocity. The researchers also demonstrated that flow reversal uniquely enables a crucial separation of irreversible and reversible contributions to mixing. The interpretation of laboratory and field experiments that include flow reversal provides important insight. Other advances include the miniaturization of long-lasting microprobes for in-situ, pore-scale measurement of tracers, and a scheme to account properly in a reservoir simulator (grid-block scale) for the contributions of convective spreading due to reservoir heterogeneity and of mixing.

  14. Aerosol cluster impact and break-up : II. Atomic and Cluster Scale Models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lechman, Jeremy B.; Takato, Yoichi

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the interaction of aerosol particle clusters/flocs with surfaces is an area of interest for a number of processes in chemical, pharmaceutical, and powder manufacturing as well as in steam-tube rupture in nuclear power plants. Developing predictive capabilities for these applications involves coupled phenomena on multiple length and timescales from the process macroscopic scale ({approx}1m) to the multi-cluster interaction scale (1mm-0.1m) to the single cluster scale ({approx}1000 - 10000 particles) to the particle scale (10nm-10{micro}m) interactions, and on down to the sub-particle, atomic scale interactions. The focus of this report is on the single cluster scale; although work directed toward developing better models of particle-particle interactions by considering sub-particle scale interactions and phenomena is also described. In particular, results of mesoscale (i.e., particle to single cluster scale) discrete element method (DEM) simulations for aerosol cluster impact with rigid walls are presented. The particle-particle interaction model is based on JKR adhesion theory and is implemented as an enhancement to the granular package in the LAMMPS code. The theory behind the model is outlined and preliminary results are shown. Additionally, as mentioned, results from atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations are also described as a means of developing higher fidelity models of particle-particle interactions. Ultimately, the results from these and other studies at various scales must be collated to provide systems level models with accurate 'sub-grid' information for design, analysis and control of the underlying systems processes.

  15. CFPL installs products pipeline with directional drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    Central Florida Pipeline Company (CFPL), a subsidiary of GATX Terminals Corp., Tampa, FL, has used directional drilling under seven water bodies in Hillsborough, Polk and Osceola Counties in constructing its new pipeline from Tampa to Orlando. Primary reason for using directional drilling is to protect the environment by minimizing water turbidity while the 16-inch diameter, 109-mile refined petroleum products pipeline is being installed. Total cost of the project is pegged at $68.5 million. Directional drilling enabled the pipe to be placed about 20 feet below the bottom of: The Alafia River in Riverview with 999 feet drilled; Port Sutton Channel near the Port of Tampa with 2,756 feet drilled; Reedy Creek Swamp at the intersection of Interstate 4 and Highway 192 which had 1,111 feet drilled; Wetland {number_sign}70 southwest of Lake Wales with 1,575 feet drilled; Peace River south of Bartow had 2,470 feet drilled; Bonnet Creek west of Kissimmee had 693 feet drilled. Shingle Creek near the borders of Osceola and Orange Counties with 1,700 feet drilled. This paper reviews the design plans for construction and the emergency response plans should a rupture occur in the line.

  16. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  17. Electrometallurgical treatment of oxide spent fuel - engineering-scale development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karell, E. J.

    1998-04-22

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed the electrometallurgical treatment process for conditioning various Department of Energy (DOE) spent fuel types for long-term storage or disposal. This process uses electrorefining to separate the constituents of spent fuel into three product streams: metallic uranium, a metal waste form containing the cladding and noble metal fission products, and a ceramic waste form containing the transuranics, and rare earth, alkali, and alkaline earth fission products. While metallic fuels can be directly introduced into the electrorefiner, the actinide components of oxide fuels must first be reduced to the metallic form. The Chemical Technology Division of AFT has developed a process to reduce the actinide oxides that uses lithium at 650 C in the presence of molten LiCl, yielding the actinide metals and Li{sub 2}O. A significant amount of work has already been accomplished to investigate the basic chemistry of the lithium reduction process and to demonstrate its applicability to the treatment of light-water reactor- (LWR-) type spent fuel. The success of this work has led to conceptual plans to construct a pilot-scale oxide reduction facility at ANL's Idaho site. In support of the design effort, a series of laboratory- and engineering-scale experiments is being conducted using simulated fuel. These experiments have focused on the engineering issues associated with scaling-up the process and proving compatibility between the reduction and electrorefining steps. Specific areas of investigation included reduction reaction kinetics, evaluation of various fuel basket designs, and issues related to electrorefining the reduced product. This paper summarizes the results of these experiments and outlines plans for future work.

  18. Upscaling of Long-Term U9VI) Desorption from Pore Scale Kinetics to Field-Scale Reactive Transport Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andy Miller

    2009-01-25

    Environmental systems exhibit a range of complexities which exist at a range of length and mass scales. Within the realm of radionuclide fate and transport, much work has been focused on understanding pore scale processes where complexity can be reduced to a simplified system. In describing larger scale behavior, the results from these simplified systems must be combined to create a theory of the whole. This process can be quite complex, and lead to models which lack transparency. The underlying assumption of this approach is that complex systems will exhibit complex behavior, requiring a complex system of equations to describe behavior. This assumption has never been tested. The goal of the experiments presented is to ask the question: Do increasingly complex systems show increasingly complex behavior? Three experimental tanks at the intermediate scale (Tank 1: 2.4m x 1.2m x 7.6cm, Tank 2: 2.4m x 0.61m x 7.6cm, Tank 3: 2.4m x 0.61m x 0.61m (LxHxW)) have been completed. These tanks were packed with various physical orientations of different particle sizes of a uranium contaminated sediment from a former uranium mill near Naturita, Colorado. Steady state water flow was induced across the tanks using constant head boundaries. Pore water was removed from within the flow domain through sampling ports/wells; effluent samples were also taken. Each sample was analyzed for a variety of analytes relating to the solubility and transport of uranium. Flow fields were characterized using inert tracers and direct measurements of pressure head. The results show that although there is a wide range of chemical variability within the flow domain of the tank, the effluent uranium behavior is simple enough to be described using a variety of conceptual models. Thus, although there is a wide range in variability caused by pore scale behaviors, these behaviors appear to be smoothed out as uranium is transported through the tank. This smoothing of uranium transport behavior transcends many of the physical and chemical heterogeneities added to the tank experiments.

  19. EA-278 Direct Commodities Trading Inc | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Direct Commodities Trading Inc EA-278 Direct Commodities Trading Inc Order authorizing Direct Commodities Trading Inc to export electric energy to Canada. PDF icon OE-278 Direct Commodities Trading Inc More Documents & Publications EA-278-B Direct Commodities Trading Inc - Recission

  20. EA-280-A Direct Energy Marketing Inc | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    -A Direct Energy Marketing Inc EA-280-A Direct Energy Marketing Inc Order authorizing Direct Energy Marketing Inc to export electric energy to Canada. PDF icon EA-280-A Direct Energy Marketing Inc More Documents & Publications EA-280-B Direct Energy Marketing Inc EA-280

  1. Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

    2014-03-01

    This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used with data center energy use modeling software to estimate overall site energy use. These estimates show that an overall data center energy savings of approximately 20 percent can be expected if a center is retrofitted as specified in the models used. Increasing the portion of heat captured by this technology is an area suggested for further development.

  2. Higgs portal vector dark matter for GeV scale ?-ray excess from galactic center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, P.; Park, Wan-Il; Tang, Yong E-mail: wipark@kias.re.kr

    2014-09-01

    We show that the GeV scale ?-ray excess from the direction of the Galactic Center can be naturally explained by the pair annihilation of Abelian vector dark matter (VDM) into a pair of dark Higgs bosons (VV???), followed by the subsequent decay of ? into b b-bar or ??-bar . All the processes are described by a renormalizable VDM model with the Higgs portal, which is naturally flavor-dependent. Some parameter space of this scenario can be tested at the near future direct dark matter search experiments such as LUX and XENON1T.

  3. Direct torsional actuation of microcantilevers using magnetic excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Nalam, Prathima C.; Tam, Qizhan; Carpick, Robert W.; Exarhos, Annemarie L.; Kikkawa, James M.

    2014-09-01

    Torsional mode dynamic force microscopy can be used for a wide range of studies including mapping lateral contact stiffness, torsional frequency or amplitude modulation imaging, and dynamic friction measurements of various materials. Piezo-actuation of the cantilever is commonly used, but it introduces spurious resonances, limiting the frequency range that can be sampled, and rendering the technique particularly difficult to apply in liquid medium where the cantilever oscillations are significantly damped. Here, we demonstrate a method that enables direct torsional actuation of cantilevers with high uniformity over wide frequency ranges by attaching a micrometer-scale magnetic bead on the back side of the cantilever. We show that when beads are magnetized along the width of the cantilever, efficient torsional actuation of the cantilevers can be achieved using a magnetic field produced from a solenoid placed underneath the sample. We demonstrate the capability of this technique by imaging atomic steps on graphite surfaces in tapping mode near the first torsional resonance of the cantilever in dodecane. The technique is also applied to map the variations in the lateral contact stiffness on the surface of graphite and polydiacetylene monolayers.

  4. WP-07 IP Direct Testimony (wp07/initial)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    total of twenty (20) direct testimony documents that have been packaged into three (3) books (see below). This page provides direct links to the Direct Testimony books on the Rate...

  5. Direct_Final_Rule_Bill.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DirectFinalRuleBill.pdf DirectFinalRuleBill.pdf PDF icon DirectFinalRuleBill.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE Retrospective Review Plan Report May 2012 Appliance...

  6. Flow topologies and turbulence scales in a jet-in-cross-flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oefelein, Joseph C.; Ruiz, Anthony M.; Lacaze, Guilhem

    2015-04-03

    This study presents a detailed analysis of the flow topologies and turbulence scales in the jet-in-cross-flow experiment of [Su and Mungal JFM 2004]. The analysis is performed using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique with a highly resolved grid and time-step and well controlled boundary conditions. This enables quantitative agreement with the first and second moments of turbulence statistics measured in the experiment. LES is used to perform the analysis since experimental measurements of time-resolved 3D fields are still in their infancy and because sampling periods are generally limited with direct numerical simulation. A major focal point is the comprehensive characterization of the turbulence scales and their evolution. Time-resolved probes are used with long sampling periods to obtain maps of the integral scales, Taylor microscales, and turbulent kinetic energy spectra. Scalar-fluctuation scales are also quantified. In the near-field, coherent structures are clearly identified, both in physical and spectral space. Along the jet centerline, turbulence scales grow according to a classical one-third power law. However, the derived maps of turbulence scales reveal strong inhomogeneities in the flow. From the modeling perspective, these insights are useful to design optimized grids and improve numerical predictions in similar configurations.

  7. Flow topologies and turbulence scales in a jet-in-cross-flow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oefelein, Joseph C.; Ruiz, Anthony M.; Lacaze, Guilhem

    2015-04-03

    This study presents a detailed analysis of the flow topologies and turbulence scales in the jet-in-cross-flow experiment of [Su and Mungal JFM 2004]. The analysis is performed using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique with a highly resolved grid and time-step and well controlled boundary conditions. This enables quantitative agreement with the first and second moments of turbulence statistics measured in the experiment. LES is used to perform the analysis since experimental measurements of time-resolved 3D fields are still in their infancy and because sampling periods are generally limited with direct numerical simulation. A major focal point is the comprehensivemore » characterization of the turbulence scales and their evolution. Time-resolved probes are used with long sampling periods to obtain maps of the integral scales, Taylor microscales, and turbulent kinetic energy spectra. Scalar-fluctuation scales are also quantified. In the near-field, coherent structures are clearly identified, both in physical and spectral space. Along the jet centerline, turbulence scales grow according to a classical one-third power law. However, the derived maps of turbulence scales reveal strong inhomogeneities in the flow. From the modeling perspective, these insights are useful to design optimized grids and improve numerical predictions in similar configurations.« less

  8. Comparison of two up-scaling methods in poroelasticity and its generalizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J G

    2004-03-16

    Two methods of up-scaling coupled equations at the microscale to equations valid at the mesoscale and/or macroscale for fluid-saturated and partially saturated porous media are discussed, compared, and contrasted. The two methods are: (1) two-scale and multiscale homogenization, and (2) volume averaging. Both these methods have advantages for some applications and disadvantages for others. For example, homogenization methods can give formulas for coefficients in the up-scaled equations, whereas volume averaging methods give the form of the up-scaled equations but generally must be supplemented with physical arguments and/or data in order to determine the coefficients. Homogenization theory requires a great deal of mathematical insight from the user in order to choose appropriate scalings for use in the resulting power-law expansions, while volume averaging requires more physical insight to motivate the steps needed to find coefficients. Homogenization often is performed on periodic models, while volume averaging does not require any assumption of periodicity and can therefore be related very directly to laboratory and/or field measurements. Validity of the homogenization process is often limited to specific ranges of frequency - in order to justify the scaling hypotheses that must be made - and therefore cannot be used easily over wide ranges of frequency. However, volume averaging methods can quite easily be used for wide band data analysis.

  9. EIS-0123: Direct Service Industry Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BPA proposes to implement one or more options to reduce load fluctuations and revenue uncertainty resulting from its electrical service to 10 aluminum smelters and its other direct service industrial customers. BPA believes these options will give BPA greater ability to plan for power needs and help to maintain its relatively strong financial position during the current period of power surplus. They also are expected to enhance BPA's ability to repay the U.S. Treasury. In turn, BPA rates to other customers would stabilize.

  10. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Gourishankar, Karthick

    2003-01-01

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  11. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-07-27

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A[prime], B and B[prime] to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation. 13 figs.

  12. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1998-08-11

    A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

  13. Direct access inter-process shared memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brightwell, Ronald B; Pedretti, Kevin; Hudson, Trammell B

    2013-10-22

    A technique for directly sharing physical memory between processes executing on processor cores is described. The technique includes loading a plurality of processes into the physical memory for execution on a corresponding plurality of processor cores sharing the physical memory. An address space is mapped to each of the processes by populating a first entry in a top level virtual address table for each of the processes. The address space of each of the processes is cross-mapped into each of the processes by populating one or more subsequent entries of the top level virtual address table with the first entry in the top level virtual address table from other processes.

  14. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  15. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  16. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1997-02-11

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes is described, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome. 1 fig.

  17. Direct metal brazing to cermet feedthroughs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-07-29

    An improved method for brazing metallic components to a cermet surface in an alumina substrate eliminates the prior art metallized layer over the cermet via and adjoining alumina surfaces. Instead, a nickel layer is applied over the cermet surface only and metallic components are brazed directly to this nickel coated cermet surface. As a result, heretofore unachievable tensile strength joints are produced. In addition, cermet vias with their brazed metal components can be spaced more closely in the alumina substrate because of the elimination of the prior art metallized alumina surfaces.

  18. Direct metal brazing to cermet feedthroughs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopper, Jr., Albert C.

    1984-12-18

    An improved method for brazing metallic components to a cermet surface in an alumina substrate eliminates the prior art metallized layer over the cermet via and adjoining alumina surfaces. Instead, a nickel layer is applied over the cermet surface only and metallic components are brazed directly to this nickel coated cermet surface. As a result, heretofore unachievable tensile strength joints are produced. In addition, cermet vias with their brazed metal components can be spaced more closely in the alumina substrate because of the elimination of the prior art metallized alumina surfaces.

  19. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockot, Joseph H. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Mikesell, Harvey E. (McMurray, PA); Jha, Kamal N. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

  20. First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles Print Microgels are soft-material particles consisting of cross-linked polymer networks, 100 nm to 1 μm in diameter, dispersed in a continuous medium such as water. A useful feature of certain types of microgel particles is that they can swell or shrink with changes in external triggers such as pH and temperature. Thus microgel particles can act like "nanosponges" and offer many potential applications in medicine, environmental

  1. First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles Print Microgels are soft-material particles consisting of cross-linked polymer networks, 100 nm to 1 μm in diameter, dispersed in a continuous medium such as water. A useful feature of certain types of microgel particles is that they can swell or shrink with changes in external triggers such as pH and temperature. Thus microgel particles can act like "nanosponges" and offer many potential applications in medicine, environmental science, and

  2. First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles Print Microgels are soft-material particles consisting of cross-linked polymer networks, 100 nm to 1 μm in diameter, dispersed in a continuous medium such as water. A useful feature of certain types of microgel particles is that they can swell or shrink with changes in external triggers such as pH and temperature. Thus microgel particles can act like "nanosponges" and offer many potential applications in medicine, environmental

  3. First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles Print Microgels are soft-material particles consisting of cross-linked polymer networks, 100 nm to 1 μm in diameter, dispersed in a continuous medium such as water. A useful feature of certain types of microgel particles is that they can swell or shrink with changes in external triggers such as pH and temperature. Thus microgel particles can act like "nanosponges" and offer many potential applications in medicine, environmental science, and

  4. First Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Swollen Microgel Particles Print Microgels are soft-material particles consisting of cross-linked polymer networks, 100 nm to 1 μm in diameter, dispersed in a continuous medium such as water. A useful feature of certain types of microgel particles is that they can swell or shrink with changes in external triggers such as pH and temperature. Thus microgel particles can act like "nanosponges" and offer many potential applications in medicine, environmental science, and

  5. NERSC_FutureDirections_SPXXLCanHelp.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future Directions and How SPXXL Can Help May 2 1, 2 015 Storage workloads at a user facility Centerwide S torage Petascale fi le s ystems ( NGF), a nd archival s torage ( HPSS) Data I ntensive Experiments a nd SimulaDons High B andwidth Capability S imulaDons High D emand Job T hroughput Data Explosion is Occurring Everywhere in DOE Genomics * Sequencer data volume increasing 12x over the next 3 years * Sequencer cost decreasing by 10x over same time period High Energy Physics * LHC experiments

  6. Direct growth of graphene on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanh Trung, Pham Joucken, Frdric; Colomer, Jean-Franois; Robert, Sporken; Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benot; Santos, Cristiane N.

    2014-06-14

    Due to the need of integrated circuit in the current silicon technology, the formation of graphene on Si wafer is highly desirable, but is still a challenge for the scientific community. In this context, we report the direct growth of graphene on Si(111) wafer under appropriate conditions using an electron beam evaporator. The structural quality of the material is investigated in detail by reflection high energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experimental results confirm that the quality of graphene is strongly dependent on the growth time during carbon atoms deposition.

  7. Fermilab | Visit Fermilab | Hours, Maps and Directions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site Access, Hours and Directions Check the Fermilab home page for our latest news and a calendar of events, which also includes days that our main building and exhibits are closed. Hours Fermilab's site is open to the public every day of the week from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. from November to March and from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. the rest of the year. A map of Fermilab's public areas is available online. Fermilab visitors are allowed to visit two buildings on their own: Wilson Hall and the Leon Lederman

  8. DIRECTIONS AND TIPS FOR USING INTEGRITY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DIRECTIONS AND TIPS FOR USING INTEGRITY When you go to the Integrity webpage, www.integrity.gov, click on the yellow box to log in. Integrity is connected to the OMB MAX Central Authentication Service. Employees who have previously used OMB MAX should use their MAX user ID and password. If you are not already a user of OMB MAX, your user ID is your official email address and at the login prompt for password, click on "Forgot or set password" and follow the on-screen instructions.

  9. Bi-Directional Fast Charging Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray

    2012-02-01

    This report details the hardware and software infrastructure needed to demonstrate the possibility of utilizing battery power in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) with a bi directional fast charger to support/offset peak building loads. This document fulfills deliverable requirements for Tasks 1.2.1.2, 1.2.1.3, and 1.2.1.4 of Statement of Work (SOW) No.5799 for Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, now ECOtality North America (NA) support for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  10. Bi-directional planar slide mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F.

    2003-11-04

    A bi-directional slide mechanism. A pair of master and slave disks engages opposite sides of the platform. Rotational drivers are connected to master disks so the disks rotate eccentrically about their respective axes of rotation. Opposing slave disks are connected to master disks on opposite sides of the platform by a circuitous mechanical linkage, or are electronically synchronized together using stepper motors, to effect coordinated motion. The synchronized eccentric motion of the pairs of master/slave disks compels smooth linear motion of the platform forwards and backwards without backlash. The apparatus can be incorporated in a MEMS device.

  11. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A', B and B' to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation.

  12. Synthesis, scale-up, and characterization of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105) (Conference) | SciTech Connect Synthesis, scale-up, and characterization of 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis, scale-up, and characterization of 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105) × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is

  13. Laser propagation in underdense plasmas: Scaling arguments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    The propagation of an intense laser beam in the underdense plasma is modelled by treating the plasma as a relativistic, zero temperature, charged fluid. For paraxial propagation and a sufficiently underdense plasma ({omega}p/{omega} {much_lt} 1), a multiple-scales technique is used to expand the exact equations in powers of the small parameter {theta} {equivalent_to} {omega}p/{omega}. The zeroth order equations are used in a critical examination of previous work on this problem, and to derive a scaling law for the threshold power required for cavitation.

  14. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  15. Large-Scale PV Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Diao, Ruisheng; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin; Hafen, Ryan P.; Jin, Chunlian; Kirkham, Harold; Shlatz, Eugene; Frantzis, Lisa; McClive, Timothy; Karlson, Gregory; Acharya, Dhruv; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford; Chadliev, Vladimir; Smart, Michael; Salgo, Richard; Sorensen, Rahn; Allen, Barbara; Idelchik, Boris

    2011-07-29

    This research effort evaluates the impact of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) and distributed generation (DG) output on NV Energy’s electric grid system in southern Nevada. It analyzes the ability of NV Energy’s generation to accommodate increasing amounts of utility-scale PV and DG, and the resulting cost of integrating variable renewable resources. The study was jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy and NV Energy, and conducted by a project team comprised of industry experts and research scientists from Navigant Consulting Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and NV Energy.

  16. HPBA Comments NOPR on Energy Conservation Standards for Direct...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HPBA Comments NOPR on Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment HPBA Comments NOPR on Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment The Hearth, Patio ...

  17. Geothermal Direct Use Technology and Marketplace Workshop | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    geothermal energy production to direct heating and cooling, to agricultural uses. ... Geothermal Direct Use Presentations Cascaded uses of geothermal energy include district ...

  18. Category:Geothermal Low Temperature Direct Use Facilities | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Low Temperature Direct Use Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Low Temperature Direct Use Geothermal Facilities. Add a Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Pages in...

  19. Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Markets Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Markets July...

  20. Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...

  1. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation...

  2. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #34B Direct Hire Authority for Contract...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4B Direct Hire Authority for Contract Specialist positions POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 34B Direct Hire Authority for Contract Specialist positions Policy Guidance Memorandum 34B...

  3. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #09A Direct Hire Authority for Acquisition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09A Direct Hire Authority for Acquisition Positions (Expired) POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 09A Direct Hire Authority for Acquisition Positions (Expired) THIS GUIDANCE HAS EXPIRED...

  4. Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Download the ...

  5. Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton ...

  6. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  7. Appendix B: Rules and Directives Applicable to Nuclear Facilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appendix B: Rules and Directives Applicable to Nuclear Facilities Line Management Oversight Appendix B: Rules and Directives Applicable to Nuclear Facilities Line Management ...

  8. A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Measurements. A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy Duty Diesel Emission ...

  9. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines ...

  10. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection This fact sheet describes a new ...

  11. Advanced Modeling of Direct-Injection Diesel Engines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling of Direct-Injection Diesel Engines Advanced Modeling of Direct-Injection Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters ...

  12. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI ...

  13. The Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection You are accessing a...

  14. Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors ...

  15. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  16. Direct-Current Resistivity At Honokowai Area (Thomas, 1986) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity At Honokowai Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity At...

  17. Direct-Current Resistivity At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity At...

  18. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Hualalai Northwest Rift...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  19. Direct-Current Resistivity At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  20. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  1. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  2. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Honokowai Area (Thomas,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Honokowai Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity...

  3. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Liquid...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Liquid (Combs 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  4. Direct-Current Resistivity At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity At...

  5. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  6. Geothermal Direct Use Technology & Marketplace Workshop Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GEOTHERMAL DIRECT USE TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................ 1 WORKSHOP SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................ 2 GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES .............................................................. 3 GEOTHERMAL DEEP DIRECT USE TECHNOLOGY

  7. Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors Citation Details ... Sponsoring Org: US DOE Office of Science (DOE SC);Laboratory Directed Research and ...

  8. Impact of Direct Financial Incentives in the Emerging Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Direct Financial Incentives in the Emerging Battery Electric Vehicle Market: A ... offered at the state level * Direct financial incentives o Rebates o Tax credits o Tax ...

  9. Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Lee, Kearn P.; Kelly, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

  10. Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2013-09-18

    This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

  11. Peptide partitioning properties from direct insertion studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulmschneider, Martin [University of Oxford; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Ulmschneider, Jakob [University of Heidelberg

    2010-06-01

    Partitioning properties of polypeptides are at the heart of biological membrane phenomena and their precise quantification is vital for ab-initio structure prediction and the accurate simulation of membrane protein folding and function. Recently the cellular translocon machinery has been employed to determine membrane insertion propensities and transfer energetics for a series of polyleucine segments embedded in a carrier sequence. We show here that the insertion propensity, pathway, and transfer energetics into synthetic POPC bilayers can be fully described by direct atomistic peptide partitioning simulations. The insertion probability as a function of peptide length follows two-state Boltzmann statistics, in agreement with the experiments. The simulations expose a systematic offset between translocon-mediated and direct insertion free energies. Compared to the experiment the insertion threshold is shifted toward shorter peptides by 2 leucine residues. The simulations reveal many hitherto unknown atomic-resolution details about the partitioning process and promise to provide a powerful tool for urgently needed calibration of lipid parameters to match experimentally observed peptide transfer energies.

  12. Nonlinear and linear timescales near kinetic scales in solar wind turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.; Shay, M. A.; Oughton, S.; Osman, K. T.; Chapman, S. C.; Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Gary, S. P.; Roytershteyn, V.; Karimabadi, H.

    2014-08-01

    The application of linear kinetic treatments to plasma waves, damping, and instability requires favorable inequalities between the associated linear timescales and timescales for nonlinear (e.g., turbulence) evolution. In the solar wind these two types of timescales may be directly compared using standard Kolmogorov-style analysis and observational data. The estimated local (in scale) nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic cascade times, evaluated as relevant kinetic scales are approached, remain slower than the cyclotron period, but comparable to or faster than the typical timescales of instabilities, anisotropic waves, and wave damping. The variation with length scale of the turbulence timescales is supported by observations and simulations. On this basis the use of linear theorywhich assumes constant parameters to calculate the associated kinetic ratesmay be questioned. It is suggested that the product of proton gyrofrequency and nonlinear time at the ion gyroscales provides a simple measure of turbulence influence on proton kinetic behavior.

  13. Process Development and Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials Process Development and Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies ...

  14. Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives PDF icon nanoparticulate-basedlubricati...

  15. Meter Scale Plasma Source for Plasma Wakefield Experiments (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Meter Scale Plasma Source for Plasma Wakefield Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Meter Scale Plasma Source for Plasma Wakefield Experiments Authors:...

  16. The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures...

  17. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research: Target 2014 ASCRFrontcover.png Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for ...

  18. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and local ... Title: The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and ...

  19. Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Opening Plenary Session: Celebrating Successes-The...

  20. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Renewable Energy ...