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Sample records for medium viscosity navy

  1. navy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5%2A en Powering the Nuclear Navy http:www.nnsa.energy.govourmissionpoweringnavy

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  2. navy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5%2A en Powering the Nuclear Navy http:nnsa.energy.govourmissionpoweringnavy

    Page...

  3. Nuclear Navy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    This video tells the story of the Navy`s development of nuclear power and its application in long-range submarines and the growing nuclear surface force. Narrated by Frank Blair.

  4. nuclear navy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    7%2A en Powering the Nuclear Navy http:www.nnsa.energy.govourmissionpoweringnavy

    Page...

  5. nuclear navy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    7%2A en Powering the Nuclear Navy http:nnsa.energy.govourmissionpoweringnavy

    Page...

  6. Navy Catching Waves in Hawaii

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The power-generating buoy is just one of several devices the Navy is testing with the hope of moving toward more use of alternative energy.

  7. Navy Geothermal Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Program Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Navy Geothermal Program Office Name: Navy Geothermal Program Office Address: 429 East Bowen Road Place: China Lake, CA Zip:...

  8. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  9. Unexpectedly, Navy?s Superlaser Blasts Away a Record (Wired) | Jefferson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab Unexpectedly, Navy?s Superlaser Blasts Away a Record (Wired) External Link: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2011/02/unexpectedly-navys-superlaser-blasts-awa... By jlab_admin on Fri, 2011-02-18

  10. navy | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    navy Fourth flight test for W88 Alt 370 successful A successful test conducted by the U.S. Navy, in coordination with NNSA, marked the fourth of its kind in support of NNSA's W88 alteration (Alt) 370 program. The unarmed W88 warhead was launched atop a Trident II missile from the USS Kentucky at the Pacific Missile Range Facility in Hawaii as part... The man who trains everyone on the bombs Mark Meyer, training coordinator and field engineer at Sandia National Laboratories. Over the past five

  11. Nuclear Navy | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Since U.S. Navy Capt. Hyman Rickover first visited Oak Ridge, Tenn., in 1946 to study nuclear reactor technology, Y-12 has worked frequently with the Navy. In 2002 Y-12 began ...

  12. Navy 1 Geothermal Area | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Navy 1 Geothermal Area Navy 1 Geothermal Area The Navy 1 Geothermal Project is located on the test and evaluation ranges of the Naval Air Weapons Station, China Lake. At its peak, the project produced more than 273 megawatts of electricity that was sold into the local utility grid under a long-term power sales agreement. Photo of the Coso Geothermal Area

  13. Department of the Navy Bioeconomy Activity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of the Navy Bioeconomy Activity Department of the Navy Bioeconomy Activity Plenary V: Federal Activities in the Bioeconomy Department of the Navy Bioeconomy Activity Chris Tindal, Director for Operational Energy, U.S. Department of Navy tindal_biomass_2014.pdf (2.47 MB) More Documents & Publications Department of the Navy, DPA Presentation U.S. Department of the Navy: Driving Alternative Fuels Adoption US Navy Tactical Fuels From Renewable Sources Program

  14. Navy Lowering Upfront Costs to Save Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A project started last year at a U.S. Navy base in Meridian, Miss., that will save thousands in taxpayer dollars has been successfully completed.

  15. Navy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  16. Duncan - Rickover and the Nuclear Navy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operational Management » History » Historical Resources » History Publications » Duncan - Rickover and the Nuclear Navy Duncan - Rickover and the Nuclear Navy Francis Duncan. Rickcover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. 1989. The text in each PDF is fully searchable. DuncanRickoverandtheNuclearNavyComplete.pdf (5.6 MB) DuncanRickoverandtheNuclearNavyPicturesOnly.pdf (10.32 MB) More Documents & Publications Hewlett and Duncan, Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962

  17. US Navy Tactical Fuels From Renewable Sources Program | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy US Navy Tactical Fuels From Renewable Sources Program US Navy Tactical Fuels From Renewable Sources Program Rick Kamin, Navy Fuels Lead, on US Navy Tactical Fuels From Renewable Sources Program. 5_kamin_roundtable.pdf (1.07 MB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Department of the Navy: Driving Alternative Fuels Adoption Department of the Navy Bioeconomy Activity HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses

  18. The Department of the Navy's Research Development and Acquisition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Community Efforts to Achieve the Navy's Energy Goals Enabling Energy Security Strategic Directions | Department of Energy the Navy's Research Development and Acquisition Community Efforts to Achieve the Navy's Energy Goals Enabling Energy Security Strategic Directions The Department of the Navy's Research Development and Acquisition Community Efforts to Achieve the Navy's Energy Goals Enabling Energy Security Strategic Directions Presented at the DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop on March 29,

  19. Viscosity measuring using microcantilevers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Patrick Ian

    2001-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the viscosity of a fluid uses a micromachined cantilever mounted on a moveable base. As the base is rastered while in contact with the fluid, the deflection of the cantilever is measured and the viscosity determined by comparison with standards.

  20. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People`s Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  1. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People's Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  2. Energy Department Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE, USDA, and Navy are working with private industry to produce advanced drop-in biofuels ... DOE, USDA, and Navy are working with private industry to produce advanced drop-in biofuels ...

  3. The Navy Saves Energy in its Buildings With EERE Expertise |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Navy Saves Energy in its Buildings With EERE Expertise The Navy Saves Energy in its Buildings With EERE Expertise May 7, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Thanks to a Naval Undersea ...

  4. February 20, 2008: Navy shoots down NASA satellite

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    February 20, 2008The Navy successfully shoots down with a missile an errant satellite 133 miles above the earth. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) assists the Navy using its Red...

  5. UESC Case Study: Philadelphia Navy Yard | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case Study: Philadelphia Navy Yard UESC Case Study: Philadelphia Navy Yard Presentation-given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting-features a utility energy services contract (UESC) case study concerning the Philadelphia Navy Yard. Download the Philadelphia Navy Yard case study. (165.75 KB) More Documents & Publications Guide to Government Witnessing and Review of Measurement and Verification Activities M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification

  6. Navy's Section 2922a Legislation Success Stories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—features U.S. Department of Navy success stories in relation to Section 2922a legislation, which involves contracts for energy or fuel for military installations.

  7. Nuclear Navy Turns 50 | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Navy Turns 50 Nuclear Navy Turns 50 Washington, DC Crew members of the U.S.S. Enterprise, the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, spell out NR-50! To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Nuclear Navy. Admiral Hyman G. Rickover formed the Nuclear Power Branch within the Navy's Bureau of Ships in August 1948. The Office of Naval Reactors is an integrated organization of DOE and the Department of Navy. The Enterprise's eight A2W nuclear reactors were developed by Bettis Laboratory, with the

  8. philadelphia navy yard | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Efficient Buildings Hub at the Philadelphia Navy Yard (managed by Penn State) The Energy Efficient Buildings Hub (EEB Hub) was established as an Energy-Regional Innovation Cluster (E-RIC) on February 1, 2011 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Economic Development Administration (EDA), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Small Business Administration (SBA), and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. More than 90 percent of the Federal funding

  9. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ENERGY PROGRAM | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ENERGY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ENERGY PROGRAM Tom Hicks, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Energy, presentation at the Industry Roundtable. 1_hicks_roundtable.pdf (2.35 MB) More Documents & Publications EA-1900: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment EIS-0465: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement CX-000940: Categorical Exclusion Determination

  10. Notices Marine Corps Base Camp Smith HI Landholding Agency: Navy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Register Vol. 81, No. 156 Friday, August 12, 2016 Notices Marine Corps Base Camp Smith HI Landholding Agency: Navy Property Number: 77201630011 Status: Excess Comments: ...

  11. Navy Follows DOE Lead in Using VPP to Enhance Safety

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary of the Navy Tells Congress – VPP is Part of Navy’s Plan for “Winning Today…While Transforming to Win Tomorrow”

  12. USDA, Departments of Energy and Navy Seek Input from Industry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry to Advance Biofuels for Military and Commercial Transportation USDA, Departments of Energy and Navy Seek Input from Industry to Advance Biofuels for Military and ...

  13. United States Department Of The Navy Geothermal Exploration Leading...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and modeling. The Navy recently completed a temperature gradient hole (TGH) drilling campaign. Results suggest multiple resources may exist on HAD lands. To further define the...

  14. EERE Success Story-Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture announced that Emerald Biofuels, Fulcrum Energy, and Red Rock Biofuels have been awarded contracts to construct ...

  15. California: Advanced 'Drop-In' Biofuels Power the Navy's Green...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to Pennsylvania Fueling the Navy's Great Green Fleet with Advanced Biofuels Cellana, ... Five Energy Department Accomplishments in Algal Biofuels Project Overview Positive Impact ...

  16. 11 Navy sites to save $871,000 yearly

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Navy is installing solar energy systems on 32 buildings at 11 naval installations across Florida, Mississippi and Texas.

  17. Department of the Navy, DPA Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of the Navy, DPA Presentation Session 1-B: Advancing Alternative Fuels for the Military and Aviation Sector Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Chris ...

  18. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY Energy Goals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    THE NAVY Energy Goals 31 May 2013 CAPT Kerry Gilpin, USN Director, 1GW Task Force Marines checking door-to-door in New Orleans, September 2005 SECNAV Energy Goals Increase Alternative Energy Sources Ashore Sail the "Great Green Fleet" Reduce Non-tactical Petroleum Use Energy Efficient Acquisitions Increase Alternative Energy Department-wide It's about the Mission Gunnery Control Console, USS ANZIO (CG 68) What's the next mission? SH-60F helicopter from USS RONALD REAGAN (CVN 76)

  19. ARPA-E 2011 Keynote: Ray Mabus, Secretary of the Navy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus addresses the 2nd annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit on the Navy's fuel consumption and successful implementation of biofuels.

  20. The Department of the Navys Research Development and Acquisition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Navy's Research Development and Acquisition Community Efforts to Achieve the Navy's Energy Goals Enabling Energy Security Strategic Directions Dr. John V. Amy, Jr. ASN (RDA) ...

  1. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  2. Philadelphia Navy Yard: UESC Project with Philadelphia Gas Works

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—provides information on the Philadelphia Navy Yard's utility energy services contract (UESC) project with Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW).

  3. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for ...

  4. Navy Enhanced Use Lease (EUL) website | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lease (EUL) website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Navy Enhanced Use Lease (EUL) website Abstract This website provides information...

  5. Manhattan Project: The Navy and Thermal Diffusion, 1944

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Diffusion columns, S-50 Thermal Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, 1945. THE NAVY AND THERMAL ... itself for a new influx of workers sent to build the S-50 Thermal Diffusion Plant (right). ...

  6. Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military September 25, 2014 - 12:35pm ...

  7. Powering the Nuclear Navy | National Nuclear Security Administration |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (NNSA) Programs Powering the Nuclear Navy The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program provides militarily effective nuclear propulsion plants and ensures their safe, reliable and long-lived operation. This mission requires the combination of fully trained U.S. Navy men and women with ships that excel in endurance, stealth, speed, and independence from supply chains. The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program provides militarily effective nuclear propulsion plants and ensures their safe, reliable and

  8. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Philadelphia Navy Yard - PA 08

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Philadelphia Navy Yard - PA 08 Site ID (CSD Index Number): PA.08 / PA.26 Site Name: PHILADELPHIA NAVY YARD Site Summary: This site was mistakenly assigned two numbers during FUSRAP's initial evaluation in the 1980s and 1990s. PA.26 was later removed from the site documents, and only PA.08 was used. Site Link: External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Naval Boiler and Turbine Lab Alternate Name Documents: Location: Philadelphia , Pennsylvania Location Documents: PA.08-1 Historical Operations

  9. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  10. U.S. Navy Launches First Nuclear Sub | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home About Us Our History NNSA Timeline U.S. Navy Launches First Nuclear Sub U.S. Navy Launches First Nuclear Sub January 21, 1954...

  11. U.S. Department of the Navy: Driving Alternative Fuels Adoption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary III: Early Market Adopters U.S. Department of the Navy: Driving Alternative Fuels Adoption Chris Tindal, Director for Operational Energy, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Energy

  12. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 2 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2 MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 2 2002_deer_hughes2.pdf (523.79 KB) More Documents & Publications MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 1 MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 4

  13. EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation of Navy Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. LeStrange

    1999-11-15

    The Monitored Geologic Repository Waste Package Operations of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management & Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Navy (Refs. 1 and 2). The Navy SNF has been considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain site. For some waste packages, the containment may breach (Ref. 3), allowing the influx of water. Water in the waste package may moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the waste package. The water may gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the waste package. In addition, the accumulation of silica (SiO{sub 2}) in the waste package over time may further affect the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages containing the Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II inner shell, Navy canister, and basket components. The calculations do not include the Navy SNF in the waste package. The specific study objectives were to determine the chemical composition of the water and the quantity of silicon (Si) and other solid corrosion products in the waste package during the first million years after the waste package is breached. The results of this calculation will be used to ensure that the type and amount of criticality control material used in the waste package design will prevent criticality.

  14. DOE and Navy Collaborate on Geothermal Drilling Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories has teamed up with U.S. Navy's Geothermal Program Office to revive decades-old polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) technology. The high performance PDC drill bit is being re-evaluated and improved to reduce the cost of drilling for geothermal energy.

  15. U.S. Navy Moanalua Terrace Housing Project, Oahu, Hawaii | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Navy Moanalua Terrace Housing Project, Oahu, Hawaii U.S. Navy Moanalua Terrace Housing Project, Oahu, Hawaii Photo of the Moanalua Terrace U.S. Navy Housing Project on Oahu, Hawaii Moanalua Terrace is a U.S. Navy housing project on Oahu, Hawaii. At this site the Navy had demolished 752 units of family housing, which were being rebuilt in four phases. The Hawaiian Electric Company's (HECO's) $1,500 per unit rebate for solar water heaters installed on new construction projects was an

  16. Energy Department Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation | Department of Energy Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy Transportation Energy Department Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy Transportation October 2, 2014 - 2:50pm Addthis DOE, USDA, and Navy are working with private industry to produce advanced drop-in biofuels that can be used by the Department of Defense and the private transportation sector. | Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy. DOE, USDA, and Navy are working with private industry to

  17. Hewlett and Duncan, Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duncan, Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962 Hewlett and Duncan, Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962 Richard G. Hewlett and Francis Duncan. Nuclear Navy: 1946-1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974. 477 pp. History Office publication. Traces growth of U.S. Navy's nuclear fleet from earliest beginnings to 1962 when twenty-seven submarines and three surface ships were in operation. Focuses on Admiral Hyman G. Rickover as the driving force who convinced the Navy and the Atomic Energy Commission to support the

  18. Radioluminescent emergency egress lighting for US Navy surface ships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adrian, D.K.; Pusey, H.C.; Jensen, G.A.; Traub, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    This very limited study examines only one of a number of shipboard applications to which (RL) might be applied. A detailed analysis is needed to fully explore the potential for use of state-of-the-art RL systems in the Navy. A more comprehensive study is highly recommended. It was also not possible to assess the implications of emerging RL technologies such as solid matrix light development and advanced gas techniques; it is strongly recommended that continued research level efforts do this. Nonetheless, for the emergency egress application, enough conclusive evidence was developed and critical questions answered to indicate that the RL option using current technology can economically improve emergency egress and crew safety significantly on Navy ships. 18 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Powering the Nuclear Navy | National Nuclear Security Administration |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (NNSA) Powering the Nuclear Navy The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program provides militarily effective nuclear propulsion plants and ensures their safe, reliable and long-lived operation. NNSA's Naval Reactors Program provides the design, development and operational support required to provide militarily effective nuclear propulsion plants and ensure their safe, reliable and long-lived operation. Learn More USS George H.W. Bush conducts flight operations USS George H.W. Bush conducts flight

  20. Russian Navy Fresh Fuel MPC and A Training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forehand, Harry M.; O'Shell, Parker; Opanassiouk, Yuri R.; Rexroth, Paul E.; Shmelev, Vladimir; Sukhoruchkin, Vladimir K.

    1999-07-06

    The goal of the Russian Navy Fuels Program is to incorporate nuclear fuel that is in the custody of the Russian Navy into a materials protection, control and accounting program. In addition to applying MPC and A upgrades to existing facilities, a program is underway to train site personnel in MPC and A activities. The goal is to assure that the upgraded facilities are managed, operated and maintained in an effective, sustainable manner. Training includes both the conceptual and necessary operational aspects of the systems and equipment. The project began with a Needs Assessment to identify priorities and objectives of required training. This led to the creation of a series of classes developed by Kurchatov Institute. One course was developed to allow attendees to get a general understanding of goals and objectives of nuclear MPC and A systems in the context of the Russian Navy. A follow-on course provided the detailed skills necessary for the performance of specialized duties. Parallel sessions with hands-on exercises provided the specific training needed for different personnel requirements. The courses were presented at KI facilities in Moscow. This paper reviews the work to date and future plans for this program.

  1. Saybolt universal viscosity converted to kinematic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anaya, C.; Bermudez, O.

    1987-09-21

    This article describes a program for personal and handheld computers, written in Basic, which has been developed for the conversion of Saybolt universal viscosity in Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU or SUS) to kinematic viscosity in centistokes (cSt), at any selected temperature. It was developed using the mathematical relationship presented in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D2161-82. In the standard, an equation is presented to convert kinematic viscosity to Saybolt universal viscosity, but nothing is presented to convert from Saybolt to kinematic because it is necessary to find the roots of a nonexplicit function. There are several numerical methods that can be used to determine the roots of the nonexplicit function, and therefore, convert Saybolt universal viscosity to kinematic viscosity. In the program, the first iteration of the second-order Newton-Raphson method is followed by the Wegstein method as a convergence accelerator.

  2. Reliable Viscosity Calculation from Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulations: A Time Decomposition Method - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research July 7, 2015, Research Highlights Reliable Viscosity Calculation from Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulations: A Time Decomposition Method Schematic demonstration of the time decomposition method Scientific Achievement An equilibrium molecular dynamics-based computational method is developed and tested for the reliable calculation of viscosity. Significance and Impact Viscosity is one of the key properties

  3. An Empirical Viscosity Model for Coal Slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Cooley, Scott K.; Sundaram, S. K.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Edmondson, Autumn B.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.

    2008-10-25

    Slags of low viscosity readily penetrate the refractory lining in slagging gasifiers, causing rapid and severe corrosion called spalling. In addition, a low-viscosity slag that flows down the gasifier wall forms a relatively thin layer of slag on the refractory surface, allowing the corrosive gases in the gasifier to participate in the chemical reactions between the refractory and the slag. In contrast, a slag viscosity of <25 Pa•s at 1400°C is necessary to minimize the possibility of plugging the slag tap. There is a need to predict and optimize slag viscosity so slagging gasifiers can operate continuously at temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1650°C. The approach adopted in this work was to statistically design and prepare simulated slags, measure the viscosity as a function of temperature, and develop a model to predict slag viscosity based on slag composition and temperature. Statistical design software was used to select compositions from a candidate set of all possible vertices that will optimally represent the composition space for 10 main components. A total of 21 slag compositions were generated, including 5 actual coal slag compositions. The Arrhenius equation was applied to measured viscosity versus temperature data of tested slags, and the Arrhenius coefficients (A and B in ln(vis) = A + B/T) were expressed as linear functions of the slag composition. The viscosity model was validated using 1) data splitting approach, and 2) viscosity/temperature data of selected slag compositions from the literature that were formulated and melted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The capability of the model to predict the viscosity of coal slags was compared with the model developed by Browning et al. because this model can predict the viscosity of slags from coal ash better than the most commonly used empirical models found in the literature.

  4. USDA, Departments of Energy and Navy Seek Input from Industry to Advance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuels for Military and Commercial Transportation | Department of Energy Departments of Energy and Navy Seek Input from Industry to Advance Biofuels for Military and Commercial Transportation USDA, Departments of Energy and Navy Seek Input from Industry to Advance Biofuels for Military and Commercial Transportation August 30, 2011 - 12:23pm Addthis WASHINGTON, Aug. 30, 2011 -Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, and Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus today

  5. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 1 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1 MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Marine Propulsion Systems - Integrated Project Team 2002_deer_hughes1.pdf (1.06 MB) More Documents & Publications MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 4 MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 2

  6. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 3 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3 MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 3 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Marine Propulsion Systems - Integrated Project Team 2002_deer_hughes3.pdf (620.67 KB) More Documents & Publications MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 4 MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 2

  7. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 4 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 4 MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 4 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Marine Propulsion Systems - Integrated Project Team 2002_deer_hughes4.pdf (330.26 KB) More Documents & Publications MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 2 MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 3

  8. PNNL Helps the Navy Stay Cool and Conserve Fuel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Helps the Navy Stay Cool and Conserve Fuel PNNL Helps the Navy Stay Cool and Conserve Fuel July 30, 2013 - 3:33pm Addthis As a Laboratory Fellow at the Energy Department's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Pete McGrail and his team are working to develop a more efficient adsorption chiller that could help the Navy cut its fuel costs. | Photo courtesy of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. As a Laboratory Fellow at the Energy Department's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Pete

  9. U.S. Navy Marine Diesel Engines and the Environment - Part 2 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 2 U.S. Navy Marine Diesel Engines and the Environment - Part 2 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: NAVSEA 2002_deer_osborne2.pdf (1.14 MB) More Documents & Publications MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 4 Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment of diesel exhaust particulates and NOx MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 1

  10. NREL Teams with Navy, Private Industry to Make Jet Fuel from...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Teams with Navy, Private Industry to Make Jet Fuel from Switchgrass Project could ... Department of Defense are poised to help private firms build the huge biorefineries that ...

  11. MHK Projects/US Navy Wave Energy Technology WET Program at Marine...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Navy Wave Energy Technology WET Program at Marine Corps Base Hawaii MCBH < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map......

  12. U.S. Navy Marine Diesel Engines and the Environment - Part 1...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Philadelphia Navy Yard: UESC Project with Philadelphia Gas Works 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner Naval Sea Systems Command EIS-0409: EPA Notice of ...

  13. Viscosity correlations for binary supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilly, K.D.; Foster, N.R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Tomasko, D.L. . School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry)

    1994-03-01

    The viscosities and densities of supercritical mixtures of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane, and acetone in carbon dioxide, at concentrations between 1 and 5 mol %, were determined using a falling weight viscometer at pressures up to 240 bar and at temperatures between 313 and 328 K. The effects of pressure, temperature, cosolvent concentration, and the physical properties of the cosolvents on the mixture viscosity and density were examined. The viscosities and the densities of the mixtures were found to increase with the size, polarity, and concentration of the cosolvent molecule. The mixture viscosity was correlated with several empirical dense gas viscosity correlations. The best correlation was the Ely and Hanley technique modified with a density-dependent noncorrespondence factor. The Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to correlate the mixture densities.

  14. Utilization of refuse derived fuels by the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehr, D.L.

    1983-07-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act are forcing those in charge of landfills to adhere to more stringent operating standards. This, along with the growing scarcity of landfill availability, makes the use of landfills less desirable for solid waste disposal. As such, new disposal methods that are environmentally safe and economically practical must be found. One alternative, that is not really new but which has gained renewed interest, is incineration. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act also requires that government agencies should direct their installations to recover as many resources as possible. Therefore if incineration is to be implemented, heat recovery should be incorporated into the system. There are several processes available to convert raw refuse into a fuel for use in a heat recovery system. Refuse derived fuels (RDF) can be in the form of raw refuse, densified refuse, powdered refuse, gas, or pyrolytic oil. The only form of RDF that is economically feasible for systems designed to process less than 200 TPD (tons per day) is raw refuse. Most Navy bases generate far less than 200 TPD of solid waste and therefore the Navy has focused most of its attention on modular heat recovery incinerator (HRI) systems that utilize raw refuse as fuel.

  15. Navy Breaks World Record With Futuristic Free-Electron Laser (FOX News.com)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Jefferson Lab Navy Breaks World Record With Futuristic Free-Electron Laser (FOX News.com) External Link: http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2011/02/18/navy-breaks-world-record-futuristic-la... By jlab_admin on Sun, 2011-02-20

  16. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER ...

  17. Quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  18. Development of an energy-use estimation methodology for the revised Navy Manual MO-303

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Wood, A.G.; Dittmer, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Navy commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to revise and/or update the Navy Utilities Targets Manual, NAVFAC MO-303 (U.S. Navy 1972b). The purpose of the project was to produce a current, applicable, and easy-to-use version of the manual for use by energy and facility engineers and staff at all Navy Public Works Centers (PWCs), Public Works Departments (PWDs), Engineering Field Divisions (EFDs), and other related organizations. The revision of the MO-303 manual involved developing a methodology for estimating energy consumption in buildings and ships. This methodology can account for, and equitably allocate, energy consumption within Navy installations. The analyses used to develop this methodology included developing end-use intensities (EUIs) from a vast collection of Navy base metering and billing data. A statistical analysis of the metering data, weather data, and building energy-use characteristics was used to develop appropriate EUI values for use at all Navy bases. A complete Navy base energy reconciliation process was also created for use in allocating all known energy consumption. Initial attempts to use total Navy base consumption values did not produce usable results. A parallel effort using individual building consumption data provided an estimating method that incorporated weather effects. This method produced a set of building EUI values and weather adjustments for use in estimating building energy use. A method of reconciling total site energy consumption was developed based on a {open_quotes}zero-sum{close_quotes} principle. This method provides a way to account for all energy use and apportion part or all of it to buildings and other energy uses when actual consumption is not known. The entire text of the manual was also revised to present a more easily read understood and usable document.

  19. Evaluation of technology transferring: The experiences of the first Navy Domestic Technology Transfair. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    In August 1989 the Office of the Chief of Naval Research and the American Defense Preparedness Association conducted the first Navy Domestic Technology Transfair. The objective of the Transfair was to expose the US Navy`s years of solid experience across a broad span of technology to organizations outside of the Navy. It was an opportunity for private industry to capitalize on the Navy developed technology and this opening for industry was the primary focus of the Transfair. The event provided a unique forum to meet leading Navy scientific and engineering innovators face-to-face. Information was available concerning licensing of naval technology that was for sale to the private sector. Further, discussions covered opportunities for new cooperative research and development agreements with Navy laboratories and R&D activities. These agreements were authorized under the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. The Transfair program was conducted in such a manner as to allow each Navy inventor, either scientist or engineer, to present a system, piece of hardware, or licensable concept in a formal paper presentation. Then, the Navy inventors were available in two, two-hour periods in which individual discussions were conducted, with attendees pursuing specific venues of cooperative agreements as desired. This report provides specifics concerning the technologies that were made available for transfer to the private sector during the Transfair. The Transfair concept sought to add special emphasis to the opening that the 1988 Technology Transfer Act brought to the marketplace. The experience was a step in the education of the possibilities for cooperation between the government and the private sector to share technology. Of additional significance is the economic enhancement for business expansion with the application of the technology to markets beyond defense.

  20. NREL Teams with Navy to Cut Energy Use - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teams with Navy to Cut Energy Use April 19, 2013 Photo of the USS O'Kane (DDG 77) returning to U.S. Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam. Enlarge image Guided-missile destroyer USS O'Kane returns to Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam after a seven-month deployment. The Navy and NREL have teamed up to find solutions to meet the Navy's ambitious energy goals, including working with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command in Hawaii and Guam to install and test advanced building efficiency, HVAC (heating,

  1. Dual-Fuel Combustion Turbine Provides Reliable Power to U.S. Navy Submarine Base New London in Groton, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, Mark A.)

    2002-01-01

    In keeping with a long-standing tradition of running Base utilities as a business, the U.S. Navy Submarine Base New London installed a dual-fuel combustion turbine with a heat recovery boiler. The 5-megawatt (MW) gas- and oil-fired combustion turbine sits within the Lower Base area, just off the shores of the Thames River. The U.S. Navy owns, operates, and maintains the combined heat and power (CHP) plant, which provides power to the Navy?s nuclear submarines when they are in port and to the Navy?s training facilities at the Submarine Base. Heat recovered from the turbine is used to produce steam for use in Base housing, medical facilities, and laundries. In FY00, the Navy estimates that it will save over $500,000 per year as a result of the combined heat and power unit.

  2. Polyfunctional dispersants for controlling viscosity of phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2006-07-25

    This invention provides phyllosilicates and polyfunctional dispersants which can be manipulated to selectively control the viscosity of phyllosilicate slurries. The polyfunctional dispersants used in the present invention, which include at least three functional groups, increase the dispersion and exfoliation of phyllosilicates in polymers and, when used in conjunction with phyllosilicate slurries, significantly reduce the viscosity of slurries having high concentrations of phyllosilicates. The functional groups of the polyfunctional dispersants are capable of associating with multivalent metal cations and low molecular weight organic polymers, which can be manipulated to substantially increase or decrease the viscosity of the slurry in a concentration dependent manner. The polyfunctional dispersants of the present invention can also impart desirable properties on the phyllosilicate dispersions including corrosion inhibition and enhanced exfoliation of the phyllosilicate platelets.

  3. Viscosity Meaurement Technique for Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban, Heng; Kennedy, Rory

    2015-02-09

    Metallic fuels have exceptional transient behavior, excellent thermal conductivity, and a more straightforward reprocessing path, which does not separate out pure plutonium from the process stream. Fabrication of fuel containing minor actinides and rare earth (RE) elements for irradiation tests, for instance, U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.0RE-15Zr samples at the Idaho National Laboratory, is generally done by melt casting in an inert atmosphere. For the design of a casting system and further scale up development, computational modeling of the casting process is needed to provide information on melt flow and solidification for process optimization. Therefore, there is a need for melt viscosity data, the most important melt property that controls the melt flow. The goal of the project was to develop a measurement technique that uses fully sealed melt sample with no Americium vapor loss to determine the viscosity of metallic melts and at temperatures relevant to the casting process. The specific objectives of the project were to: develop mathematical models to establish the principle of the measurement method, design and build a viscosity measurement prototype system based on the established principle, and calibrate the system and quantify the uncertainty range. The result of the project indicates that the oscillation cup technique is applicable for melt viscosity measurement. Detailed mathematical models of innovative sample ampoule designs were developed to not only determine melt viscosity, but also melt density under certain designs. Measurement uncertainties were analyzed and quantified. The result of this project can be used as the initial step toward the eventual goal of establishing a viscosity measurement system for radioactive melts.

  4. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, R.J. Jr.

    1986-02-25

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame. 7 figs.

  5. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, H. P. Thakor, P. B. Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  6. Shear Viscosity in a Gluon Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2008-05-02

    The relation of the shear viscosity coefficient to the recently introduced transport rate is derived within relativistic kinetic theory. We calculate the shear viscosity over entropy ratio {eta}/s for a gluon gas, which involves elastic gg{yields}gg perturbative QCD (PQCD) scatterings as well as inelastic gg{r_reversible}ggg PQCD bremsstrahlung. For {alpha}{sub s}=0.3 we find {eta}/s=0.13 and for {alpha}{sub s}=0.6, {eta}/s=0.076. The small {eta}/s values, which suggest strongly coupled systems, are due to the gluon bremsstrahlung incorporated.

  7. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Jr., Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame.

  8. California: Advanced 'Drop-In' Biofuels Power the Navy's Green Strike Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE's investment allowed Solezyme to increase its algal oil production by a factor of 10, leading to the U.S. Navy's purchase of 450,000 gallons of "drop-in" jet fuel.

  9. Long-range military implications of petroleum availability for Navy planning study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D.P.; O'Neill, T.C.

    1981-11-01

    This study evaluates petroleum issues facing the Navy over the next 20 years. It analyzes the threat of reduced availability of petroleum and the probable effects on naval warfare, on the selection of weapons, and on mobility. There are four areas of investigation: the current oil market, production forecasts, the prospect of import interruptions, and Navy options. The study address the changes in the oil market since the embargo of 1973. It explains how those changes in the market have affected Navy budgets and eroded steaming and flying hours. Published forecasts of lowered production of petroleum and the threat of interruptions of imports are evaluated for their potential to disrupt world markets out to the year 2000. Several aspects of future petroleum supplies are quantified. The study concludes by recommending measures the Navy can take to deal wtih the problems of reduced fuel availability and quality. (Author)

  10. EERE Success Story-The Navy Saves Energy in its Buildings With...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis Related Articles An unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) being deployed during a U.S. ... Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by Navy for Advanced Unmanned ...

  11. Memorandum of Understanding Between The Department Of The Navy And The

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy And the Department of Agriculture | Department of Energy Memorandum of Understanding Between The Department Of The Navy And The Department of Energy And the Department of Agriculture Memorandum of Understanding Between The Department Of The Navy And The Department of Energy And the Department of Agriculture On 30 March 2011, President Barack Obama directed the Parties to work with private industry to create advanced drop-in biofuels that will power both the Department of

  12. Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by Navy for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Unmanned Undersea Vehicles | Department of Energy Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by Navy for Advanced Unmanned Undersea Vehicles Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by Navy for Advanced Unmanned Undersea Vehicles January 31, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis An unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) being deployed during a U.S. Office of Naval Research demonstration near Panama City. Solid oxide fuel cell technology being developed by the Office of

  13. EERE Success Story-The Navy Saves Energy in its Buildings With EERE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Expertise | Department of Energy The Navy Saves Energy in its Buildings With EERE Expertise EERE Success Story-The Navy Saves Energy in its Buildings With EERE Expertise May 7, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Thanks to a Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) energy savings performance contract (ESPC) partnership, the NUWC installed geothermal heat pumps, high-efficiency HVAC and building systems; improved energy management controls; and repaired two significant underground water leaks. Since the

  14. Strategies for Integrating Renewable Energy into the Department of the Navy's Infrastructure

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Strategies for Integrating Renewable Energy into the Department of the Navy's Infrastructure John Kliem, PE, Deputy Director Department of the Navy Renewable Energy Program Office Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Why Does Energy Security Matter? Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX * Regional Energy Security: Pushing Power to Groton * Naval Submarine Base New London * Emergency Preparedness and

  15. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-05-15

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.

  16. Diesel fuel to dc power: Navy & Marine Corps Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomfield, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    During the past year Analytic Power has tested fuel cell stacks and diesel fuel processors for US Navy and Marine Corps applications. The units are 10 kW demonstration power plants. The USN power plant was built to demonstrate the feasibility of diesel fueled PEM fuel cell power plants for 250 kW and 2.5 MW shipboard power systems. We designed and tested a ten cell, 1 kW USMC substack and fuel processor. The complete 10 kW prototype power plant, which has application to both power and hydrogen generation, is now under construction. The USN and USMC fuel cell stacks have been tested on both actual and simulated reformate. Analytic Power has accumulated operating experience with autothermal reforming based fuel processors operating on sulfur bearing diesel fuel, jet fuel, propane and natural gas. We have also completed the design and fabrication of an advanced regenerative ATR for the USMC. One of the significant problems with small fuel processors is heat loss which limits its ability to operate with the high steam to carbon ratios required for coke free high efficiency operation. The new USMC unit specifically addresses these heat transfer issues. The advances in the mill programs have been incorporated into Analytic Power`s commercial units which are now under test.

  17. Navy's Geothermal Program Office: Overview of Recovery Act (ARRA...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to medium-sized (e.g. 5-50 MWe), conventional geothermal systems exist in the western U.S. Most of these may ultimately be classified as 'blind' discoveries because of their...

  18. Hydrothermal oxidation of Navy shipboard excess hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Haroldsen, B.L.; Rice, S.F.; Brown, B.G.

    1997-03-01

    This study demonstrated effective destruction, using a novel supercritical water oxidation reactor, of oil, jet fuel, and hydraulic fluid, common excess hazardous materials found on-board Navy vessels. This reactor uses an advanced injector design to mix the hazardous compounds with water, oxidizer, and a supplementary fuel and it uses a transpiring wall to protect the surface of the reactor from corrosion and salt deposition. Our program was divided into four parts. First, basic chemical kinetic data were generated in a simple, tubular-configured reactor for short reaction times (<1 second) and long reaction times (>5 seconds) as a function of temperature. Second, using the data, an engineering model was developed for the more complicated industrial reactor mentioned above. Third, the three hazardous materials were destroyed in a quarter-scale version of the industrial reactor. Finally, the test data were compared with the model. The model and the experimental results for the quarter-scale reactor are described and compared in this report. A companion report discusses the first part of the program to generate basic chemical kinetic data. The injector and reactor worked as expected. The oxidation reaction with the supplementary fuel was initiated between 400 {degrees}C and 450 {degrees}C. The released energy raised the reactor temperature to greater than 600 {degrees}C. At that temperature, the hazardous materials were efficiently destroyed in less than five seconds. The model shows good agreement with the test data and has proven to be a useful tool in designing the system and understanding the test results. 16 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Predicting Human Blood Viscosity in Silico | Argonne Leadership...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Predicting Human Blood Viscosity in Silico Authors: Fedosov., D. A., Pan, W., Caswell, B., Gompper, G., Karniadakis, G.E. The viscosity of blood has long been used as an indicator ...

  20. Methods of using cellulase for reducing the viscosity of feedstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Geddes, Claudia C.; Peterson, James J.; Mullinnix, Michael T.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham

    2016-04-26

    The invention provides methods for treatment of feedstock to reduce the relative viscosity and promote release of fermentable sugars.

  1. RELAP-7 Numerical Stabilization: Entropy Viscosity Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Berry; M. O. Delchini; J. Ragusa

    2014-06-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL's modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5's capability and extends the analysis capability for all reactor system simulation scenarios. RELAP-7 utilizes a single phase and a novel seven-equation two-phase flow models as described in the RELAP-7 Theory Manual (INL/EXT-14-31366). The basic equation systems are hyperbolic, which generally require some type of stabilization (or artificial viscosity) to capture nonlinear discontinuities and to suppress advection-caused oscillations. This report documents one of the available options for this stabilization in RELAP-7 -- a new and novel approach known as the entropy viscosity method. Because the code is an ongoing development effort in which the physical sub models, numerics, and coding are evolving, so too must the specific details of the entropy viscosity stabilization method. Here the fundamentals of the method in their current state are presented.

  2. The Role of Viscosity in TATB Hot Spot Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fried, L E; Zepeda-Ruis, L; Howard, W M; Najjar, F; Reaugh, J E

    2011-08-02

    The role of dissipative effects, such as viscosity, in the ignition of high explosive pores is investigated using a coupled chemical, thermal, and hydrodynamic model. Chemical reactions are tracked with the Cheetah thermochemical code coupled to the ALE3D hydrodynamic code. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the viscosity of liquid TATB. We also analyze shock wave experiments to obtain an estimate for the shock viscosity of TATB. Using the lower bound liquid-like viscosities, we find that the pore collapse is hydrodynamic in nature. Using the upper bound viscosity from shock wave experiments, we find that the pore collapse is closest to the viscous limit.

  3. Shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio from giant dipole resonances in hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Dinh Dang

    2011-09-15

    The Green-Kubo relation and fluctuation-dissipation theorem are employed to calculate the shear viscosity {eta} of a finite hot nucleus directly from the width and energy of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) of this nucleus. The ratio {eta}/s of shear viscosity {eta} to entropy density s is extracted from the experimental systematics of the GDR in copper, tin, and lead isotopes at finite temperature T. These empirical results are then compared with the predictions by several independent models as well as with almost model-independent estimations. Based on these results, it is concluded that the ratio {eta}/s in medium and heavy nuclei decreases with increasing temperature T to reach (1.3--4)x({h_bar}/2{pi})/(4{pi}k{sub B}) at T=5 MeV.

  4. NNSA Delivers All Scheduled W76-1 Units to Navy for 2012 | Y-12 National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Complex Delivers All Scheduled ... NNSA Delivers All Scheduled W76-1 Units to Navy for 2012 Posted: November 19, 2012 - 2:28pm The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) today announced that it delivered all of its scheduled W76-1 Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile warhead units to United States Navy in FY 2012. "As our stockpile ages, we have to put ourselves in a position where the president can be certain that it is safe, secure and effective," said NNSA

  5. Flight Test of Weapons System Body by Navy Successful | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Flight Test of Weapons System Body by Navy Successful April 02, 2015 Third Flight Demonstrated Dynamics and Functional Performance in Flight Environment WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) today announced the Follow-On Commander Evaluation Test-51 (FCET-51) flight body was successfully flown by the Navy recently. This test was one of several in a sequence of flight tests for the qualification efforts of the W88-0/Mk5 ALT 370

  6. Navy legend Carl Brashear speaks at JLab's Black History Month event |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Navy legend Carl Brashear speaks at JLab's Black History Month event Carl Brashear poster Carl Brashear will speak at JLab's Black History Month event on Wednesday, February 19 at 2p.m. Navy legend Carl Brashear speaks at JLab's Black History Month event February 6, 2003 U.S. Naval legend Carl Brashear will be at Jefferson Lab on Wednesday, February 19, as the Lab's guest speaker for Black History Month Directions to the Lab Enter through Onnes Dr. from Jefferson Ave. Anyone 16

  7. EERE Success Story-Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military | Department of Energy Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military EERE Success Story-Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military January 30, 2015 - 5:49pm Addthis In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy,

  8. Electric Demand Reduction for the U.S. Navy Public Works Center San Diego, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2000-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated the profitability of operating a Navy ship's generators (in San Diego) during high electricity price periods rather than the ships hooking up to the Base electrical system for power. Profitability is predicated on the trade-off between the operating and maintenance cost incurred by the Navy for operating the ship generators and the net profit associated with the sale of the electric power on the spot market. In addition, PNNL assessed the use of the ship's generators as a means to achieve predicted load curtailments, which can then be marketed to the California Independent System Operator.

  9. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Mare Island Navy Yard - CA 0-01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mare Island Navy Yard - CA 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: MARE ISLAND NAVY YARD (CA.0-01 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to DoD Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Mare Island , California CA.0-01-2 Evaluation Year: 1989 CA.0-01-1 Site Operations: Naval yard and shipping station. CA.0-01-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Referred to DOD CA.0-01-1 CA.0-01-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: None Indicated Primary Radioactive Materials Handled:

  10. Carports with Solar Panels do Double Duty for Navy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carports with Solar Panels do Double Duty for Navy Carports with Solar Panels do Double Duty for Navy May 14, 2010 - 12:22pm Addthis Joshua DeLung What does this project do? In total, all of China Lake's solar PV projects generate enough electricity a year to power up to 1,200 houses on the grid provided by Southern California Edison, the local utility. The base estimates that it saves about $557,000 a year from the solar panels. At Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, heat is a fact of life.

  11. Viscosity index calculated by program in GW-basic for personal computers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anaya, C.; Bermudez, O. )

    1988-12-26

    A computer program has been developed to calculate the viscosity index of oils when viscosities at two temperatures are known.

  12. Bulk viscosity of anisotropically expanding hot QCD plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, Vinod

    2011-11-01

    The bulk viscosity, {zeta} and its ratio with the shear viscosity, {zeta}/{eta} have been studied in an anisotropically expanding pure glue plasma in the presence of turbulent color fields. It has been shown that the anisotropy in the momentum distribution function of gluons, which has been determined from a linearized transport equation eventually leads to the bulk viscosity. For the isotropic (equilibrium) state, a recently proposed quasiparticle model of pure SU(3) lattice QCD equation of state has been employed where the interactions are encoded in the effective fugacity. It has been argued that the interactions present in the equation of state, significantly contribute to the bulk viscosity. Its ratio with the shear viscosity is significant even at 1.5T{sub c}. Thus, one needs to take in account the effects of the bulk viscosity while studying the hydrodynamic expansion of quark-gluon plasma in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider.

  13. EA-1876: Pennsylvania State Energy Program’s Conergy Navy Yard Solar Project, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Conergy Projects, Inc. (Conergy) proposes to construct and operate a 1.251 megawatt (MW) solar photovoltaic (PV) facility at the former Navy Yard site in south Philadelphia in Pennsylvania’s Philadelphia County to provide up to 1,596 MW hours of electricity per year, feeding directly into the distribution grid.

  14. Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman joined Tom Vilsack, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Secretary Ray Mabus of the U.S. Department of Navy, on September 19, 2014, to announce awards for three commercial-scale biorefinery projects that will help meet the transportation needs of the U.S. military and private sector.

  15. Molecular Topology and Local Dynamics Govern the Viscosity of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research October 27, 2015, Research Highlights Molecular Topology and Local Dynamics Govern the Viscosity of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids Ionic liquids (ILs) with branched alkyl chains were found to have higher viscosities than those with linear alkyl chains when the carbon numbers are the same. In addition, the branched chain IL with four carbons in the chain was found to have abnormally high viscosity. Our computational

  16. Non-invasive fluid density and viscosity measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2012-05-01

    The noninvasively measurement of the density and viscosity of static or flowing fluids in a section of pipe such that the pipe performs as the sensing apparatus, is described. Measurement of a suitable structural vibration resonance frequency of the pipe and the width of this resonance permits the density and viscosity to be determined, respectively. The viscosity may also be measured by monitoring the decay in time of a vibration resonance in the pipe.

  17. Super- and sub-Einstein intrinsic viscosities of spherical nanoparticl...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Super- and sub-Einstein intrinsic viscosities of spherical nanoparticles in concentrated low molecular weight polymer solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Super- ...

  18. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a ...

  19. Ultralow viscosity of carbonate melts at high pressures (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Ultralow viscosity of carbonate melts at high pressures Authors: Kono, Yoshio ; Kenney-Benson, Curtis ; Hummer, Daniel ; Ohfuji, Hiroaki ; Park, Changyong ; Shen, Guoyin ; ...

  20. Viscosity measurements and empirical predictions for coal slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Sundaram, S K; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Arrigoni, Benjamin M

    2009-10-25

    Slag viscosity in slagging coal gasifier is an important factor affecting the gasification regime and operating cost. Most of the empirical viscosity models of coal slags that are available in the literature are applicable to only limited ranges of temperature and composition. To develop a reliable slag viscosity model, additional data are needed. Slag viscosity was measured under air or reducing atmosphere (calculated pO2~1.2 10-12 atm at 1400°C) at temperatures in the range of 1150-1550°C on 63 statistically designed slags, including 5 actual coal slag compositions and 4 validation slag compositions. The Arrhenius equation, with Arrhenius coefficients A = constant and B expressed as linear function of mass fractions of nine major components was used to fit the viscosity/temperature data. This Arrhenius relationship represents the viscosity–temperature relationship of tested slags reasonably well, = 0.981 (reducing atmosphere) and = 0.974 (air atmosphere). The validation of the model with four randomly selected slags (two from the SciGlass database and two from experimental design) indicated an accurately measured viscosity-temperature data and a fairly good predictive performance of slag viscosity models over designed compositions. The capability of the developed model to predict the viscosity of coal slags under reducing atmosphere was found to be a superior to a number of the most commonly used empirical models in the literature that are based on simplified oxide melts and British or Australian coal ash slags.

  1. Note: Precision viscosity measurement using suspended microchannel resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, I.; Lee, J.; Park, K.

    2012-11-15

    We report the characterization of a suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) for viscosity measurements in a low viscosity regime (<10 mPa s) using two measurement schemes. First, the quality factor (Q-factor) of the SMR was characterized with glycerol-water mixtures. The measured Q-factor at 20 Degree-Sign C exhibits a bilinear behavior with the sensitivity of 1281 (mPa s){sup -1} for a lower (1-4 mPa s) and 355 (mPa s){sup -1} for a higher viscosity range (4-8 mPa s), respectively. The second scheme is the vibration amplitude monitoring of the SMR running in a closed loop feedback. When compared in terms of the measurement time, the amplitude-based measurement takes only 0.1 {approx} 1 ms while the Q-factor-based measurement takes {approx}30 s. However, the viscosity resolution of the Q-factor-based measurement is at least three times better than the amplitude-based measurement. By comparing the Q-factors of heavy water and 9.65 wt.% glycerol-water mixture that have very similar viscosities but different densities, we confirmed that the SMR can measure the dynamic viscosity without the density correction. The obtained results demonstrate that the SMR can measure the fluid viscosity with high precision and even real-time monitoring of the viscosity change is possible with the amplitude-based measurement scheme.

  2. Synthetic laser medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  3. Synthetic laser medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  4. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roln-Garrido, Vctor H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de; Wagner, Manfred H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de

    2014-05-15

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220C to obtain the master curve at 170C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  5. Live Webinar on the Marine and Hydrokinetic Demonstrations at The Navy's Wave Energy Test Site Funding Opportunity Announcement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On Wednesday, May 7, 2014 from 3:00 PM - 4:30 PM EDT the Water Power Program will hold an informational webinar on the Marine and Hydrokinetic (MHK) Demonstrations at The Navy's Wave Energy Test...

  6. Energy Management System Lowers U.S. Navy Energy Costs Through PV System Interconnection (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    To meet the U.S. Navy's energy goals, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) spent two years collaborating on demonstrations that tested market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - an energy management system - was identified as a promising method for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  7. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  8. U.S. Navy Marine Diesel Engines and the Environment - Part 3 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 3 U.S. Navy Marine Diesel Engines and the Environment - Part 3 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: NAVSEA 2002_deer_osborne3.pdf (1.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine The Maritime Administration's Energy and Emissions Program - Part 2

  9. Establishment of the United States Navy Mine Warfare Center of Excellence in the Corpus Christi Bay Area, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosclski, J.L.; Boyer, R.; Sloger, W.

    1997-08-01

    The proposed establishment of the US Navy Mine Warfare Center of Excellence (MWCE) in the Corpus Christi Bay Area, Texas, involved the collocation of the Navy`s Mine Warfare and Mine Counter Measures assets in proximity to each other at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Ingleside and Naval Air Station (NAS) Corpus Christi, Texas. Collocation of these Navy forces would provide significant advantages in meeting mission and operational requirements. This action would improve the operational training and readiness of the forces. In addition to new construction or modifications at NAVSTA Ingleside, NAS Corpus Christi, and off-base; the establishment of offshore training and operating areas was required. When the project was first proposed in 1993, considerable concern was expressed by environmental interests, shrimpers, and state and federal resource agencies regarding the impact of the proposed training activities within Gulf waters. The Navy and Turner Collie and Braden, Inc., under contract to the Navy, conducted several technical studies and extensive coordination with concerned interests during the environmental impact statement process to identify and document the potential intensity, magnitude, and duration of impact from each proposed training activity.

  10. Static and Dynamic Viscosity of a Single Layer Dusty Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, Peter; Sandor, Mate Cs.; Kovacs, Aniko; Donko, Zoltan

    2011-11-29

    We measured the static and dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a single layer complex plasma by applying, respectively, a stationary and a periodically modulated shear stress induced by the light pressure of manipulating laser beams. Under static conditions the shear viscosity reproduced the numerically predicted shear rate dependence, the so called shear-thinning effect. Under oscillating shear both the magnitude and the ratio of the dissipative and elastic contributions to the complex viscosity show strong frequency dependence. Accompanying molecular dynamics simulations explain and support the experimental observations.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS FINAL PROGRESS REPORT PERIOD: OCT 1999-MAY 2003 CONTRACT NUMBER: DE-FG26-99FT40615 ...

  12. Method for controlling the viscosity of siloxane oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, A. Andrew; Shor, Joel T.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the viscosity of siloxane oils in the presence of lead by adding a small amount of a dione such as p-benzoquinone or 2,3-butanedione.

  13. Method for controlling the viscosity of siloxane oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, A.A.; Shor, J.T.

    1984-09-12

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the viscosity of siloxane oils in the presence of lead by adding a small amount of a dione such as p-benzoquinone or 2,3-butanedione.

  14. Textured-surface quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.

    1998-08-25

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  15. Viscosity stabilization of SRC residual oil. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-05-01

    The use of SRC residual oils for No. 6 Fuel Oil substitutes has been proposed. The oils exhibit viscosity characteristics at elevated temperatures that allow this substitution with only minor modifications to the existing fuel oil infrastructure. However, loss of low-boiling materials causes an increase in the viscosity of the residual oils that is greater than expected from concentration changes. A process has been developed that minimizes the loss of volatiles and thus maintains the viscosity of these materials. The use of an additive (water, phenol, or an SRC light oil cut rich in low-boiling phenols in amounts up to 2.0 wt %) accomplishes this and hence stabilizes the pumping and atomizing characteristics for an extended period. During the course of the work, the components of the volatiles lost were identified and the viscosity change due to this loss was quantified. 3 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  16. JC3 Medium Impact Assessment Bulletins | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medium Impact Assessment Bulletins JC3 Medium

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory U.S. Navy Admiral Cecil D.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory U.S. Navy Admiral Cecil D. Haney visited Los Alamos in January 2014. The then-newly appointed Commander of U.S. Strategic Command (STRATCOM) toured the Laboratory and was briefed on the Lab's national security mission. "I've been really impressed," he told employees. "It's clear to me that the work we do collectively-work associated with deterrence and assurance-along with the business of space threats, cyber threats, missile defense, and combating

  18. The effects of atmosphere and additives on coal slag viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, J.P.; Strobel, T.M.; Nowok, J.W.

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of advanced coal-fired power systems operating at higher working fluid temperatures, slag corrosion, erosion, and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces will become even more of a problem than in today`s systems. Laboratory experiments have shown excessive corrosion of candidate alloy and ceramic heat exchanger materials by both calcium-rich subbituminous and iron-rich bituminous coal slags. The viscosity of the slag greatly affects the corrosion rate since it determines the rate of transfer of corrosive species to the materials and corrosion product away from the materials. Slag viscosity is controlled by the composition of the slag and surrounding atmosphere as well as its temperature. In this paper we report the results of investigations of the viscosities and critical temperatures of three coal slags in three atmospheres: air, air plus water vapor, and reducing gas. In addition, the effects of additions of alumina, magnesia, and copper oxide on viscosity, crystallization, and critical temperature of the slags are reported. Conclusions are drawn about appropriate test conditions for determining slag corrosion rates and about ways of modifying slag viscosity to reduce corrosion rates.

  19. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  20. Design of impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for U.S. Navy hulls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, K.E.; Thomas, E.D.; Kaznoff, A.I.; Hogan, E.A.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) design for ship hulls, under the Navy Ship's Technical Manual (NSTM, Chapter 633), is to provide a uniform potential distribution at {minus}0.85 V, {+-}0.05 V, versus a silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) reference cell, over the wetted hull surface during all operational aspects of an active ship. To accomplish this, the physical scale modeling (PSM) technique, combined with a rigid design protocol, has been used extensively by the US Navy to provide optimal and retrofit upgrade designs of ICCP systems for hulls. The ICCP design guidance, provided by the protocol, defines the hull properties, hull damage and general power supply requirements. PSM is utilized to determine optimal placement of ICCP components (anodes and reference cells) and to evaluate performance for up to a 15% wetted hull coatings loss under static (pierside) and dynamic (underway) conditions. Data are provided which illustrate the use of the design protocol criteria, along with the integrated PSM technique, to determine ICCP system design and evaluate performance.

  1. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  2. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  3. Effect of viscosity on seismic response of waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Yu; Uras, R.A.; Chang, Yao-Wen

    1992-06-01

    The dynamic response of liquid-storage tanks subjected to harmonic excitations and earthquake ground motions has been studied. A rigid tank of negligible mass, rigidly supported at the base having a diameter of 50 ft. and fluid height of 20.4 ft. was used in the computer analysis. The liquid is assumed to have a density of 1.5 g/ml. Viscosity values, {mu} = 60, 200, 100, and 10,000 cP, were used in the numerical analyses to study the effects of viscosity on sloshing wave height, impulsive and convective pressure on the tank wall, base shear and base moments. Harmonic excitations as well as earthquake ground motions were used as input motions. The harmonic excitations used in the analyses covers a wide range of frequencies, including both the resonant and non-resonant frequencies. Two earthquake motions were used. One matches the Newmark-Hall median response spectrum and is anchored at 0.24 g for a rock site with a damping of 2% and a time duration of 10 s. The other is the 1978 Tabas earthquake which had a peak ZPA of 0.81 g and a time duration of 29 s. A small tank, about 1/15 the size of the typical waste storage tank, was used in the harmonic excitation study to investigate the effect of viscosity on the response of liquid-storage tanks and how the viscosity effect is affected by the size of the storage tank. The results of this study show that for the typical waste storage tank subjected to earthquake motions, the effect of viscosity on sloshing wave height and impulsive and convective pressures is very small and can be neglected. For viscosity effect to become noticeable in the response of the typical waste storage tank, the waste viscosity must be greater than 10,000 cP. This value is far greater than the estimated viscosity value of the high level wastes, which may range from 60 to 200 cP for some tanks.

  4. Method for measuring liquid viscosity and ultrasonic viscometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Lawrence, William P.; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic viscometer and method for measuring fluid viscosity are provided. Ultrasonic shear and longitudinal waves are generated and coupled to the fluid. Reflections from the generated ultrasonic shear and longitudinal waves are detected. Phase velocity of the fluid is determined responsive to the detected ultrasonic longitudinal waves reflections. Viscosity of the fluid is determined responsive to the detected ultrasonic shear waves reflections. Unique features of the ultrasonic viscometer include the use of a two-interface fluid and air transducer wedge to measure relative signal change and to enable self calibration and the use of a ratio of reflection coefficients for two different frequencies to compensate for environmental changes, such as temperature.

  5. Application of the base catalyzed decomposition process to treatment of PCB-contaminated insulation and other materials associated with US Navy vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Gano, S.R.

    1996-09-01

    The BCD process was applied to dechlorination of two types of PCB-contaminated materials generated from Navy vessel decommissioning activities at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard: insulation of wool felt impregnated with PCB, and PCB-containing paint chips/debris from removal of paint from metal surfaces. The BCD process is a two-stage, low-temperature chemical dehalogenation process. In Stage 1, the materials are mixed with sodium bicarbonate and heated to 350 C. The volatilized halogenated contaminants (eg, PCBs, dioxins, furans), which are collected in a small volume of particulates and granular activated carbon, are decomposed by the liquid-phase reaction (Stage 2) in a stirred-tank reactor, using a high-boiling-point hydrocarbon oil as the reaction medium, with addition of a hydrogen donor, a base (NaOH), and a catalyst. The tests showed that treating wool felt insulation and paint chip wastes with Stage 2 on a large scale is feasible, but compared with current disposal costs for PCB-contaminated materials, using Stage 2 would not be economical at this time. For paint chips generated from shot/sand blasting, the solid-phase BCD process (Stage 1) should be considered, if paint removal activities are accelerated in the future.

  6. Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawler, Katherine

    2009-08-05

    The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may

  7. Residential Energy-Efficiency Equipment Shown to be a Good Investment for U.S. Navy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    A two-year project between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Navy's Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate energy efficiency technologies at bases in Hawaii and Guam resulted in the identification of several promising options for reducing energy use and costs, including whole-house energy efficiency retrofits.

  8. Reducing Idle Power Consumption in Office Spaces Saves U.S. Navy in Energy Costs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of a two-year project to demonstrate energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has identified advanced plug load controls as a promising technology for reducing energy use and related costs in the U.S. Navy's Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) office spaces.

  9. Flow pattern changes influenced by variation of viscosities of a heterogeneous gas-liquid mixture flow in a vertical channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keska, Jerry K.; Hincapie, Juan; Jones, Richard

    2011-02-15

    In the steady-state flow of a heterogeneous mixture such as an air-liquid mixture, the velocity and void fraction are space- and time-dependent parameters. These parameters are the most fundamental in the analysis and description of a multiphase flow. The determination of flow patterns in an objective way is extremely critical, since this is directly related to sudden changes in spatial and temporal changes of the random like characteristic of concentration. Flow patterns can be described by concentration signals in time, amplitude, and frequency domains. Despite the vital importance and countless attempts to solve or incorporate the flow pattern phenomena into multiphase models, it has still been a very challenging topic in the scientific community since the 1940's and has not yet reached a satisfactory solution. This paper reports the experimental results of the impact of fluid viscosity on flow patterns for two-phase flow. Two-phase flow was created in laboratory equipment using air and liquid as phase medium. The liquid properties were changed by using variable concentrations of glycerol in water mixture which generated a wide-range of dynamic viscosities ranging from 1 to 1060 MPa s. The in situ spatial concentration vs. liquid viscosity and airflow velocity of two-phase flow in a vertical ID=50.8 mm pipe were measured using two concomitant computer-aided measurement systems. After acquiring data, the in situ special concentration signals were analyzed in time (spatial concentration and RMS of spatial concentration vs. time), amplitude (PDF and CPDF), and frequency (PSD and CPSD) domains that documented broad flow pattern changes caused by the fluid viscosity and air velocity changes. (author)

  10. Large-density field theory, viscosity, and '$2k_F$' singularities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Large-density field theory, viscosity, and '2kF' singularities from string duals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large-density field theory, viscosity, and '2kF' ...

  11. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Shah, Vimal; Costley, R. Daniel; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2001-01-01

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  12. Environmental assessment for the granting of US Navy easements near Pearl Harbor and Waikele Gulch Oahu, Hawaii to Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luersen, P.; Wiley, M.; Hart, J.; Kanehiro, C.; Soloway, M.

    1994-09-23

    This document was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA: and Navy regulations (OPNAVINST 5090.1B)). The document addresses environmental impacts from the proposed granting of three easements to the Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. (HECO) for the use of Navy property near Waikele Gulch, Pearl City and the Waiau Power Plant. HECO`s proposed Waiau-CIP, Part 2, Project requires installation, operation, and maintenance of steel transmission line poles and associated equipment on three Navy parcels crossed by the 7.8 mile project. Health risks from exposure to the electric and magnetic fields of 138-kV transmission lines are discussed.

  13. Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronfenbrenner, James C.; Foster, Edward P.; Tewari, Krishna

    1985-01-01

    A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

  14. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture announced that Emerald Biofuels, Fulcrum Energy, and Red Rock Biofuels have been awarded contracts to construct biorefineries capable...

  15. EIS-0259: Disposal of Decommissioned, Defueled Cruiser, Ohio Class and Los Angeles Class Naval Reactor Plants, Hanford Site, Richland (adopted from Navy)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes the alternate ways for disposing of decommissioned, defieled reactor compliments from U.S. Navy nuclear-powered cruisers, (Bainbridge, Truxtun, Long Beach, California Class and Virginia Class) and Los Angeles Class, and Ohio Class submarines.

  16. Reducing Idle Power Consumption in Office Spaces Saves U.S. Navy in Energy Costs (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reducing Idle Power Consumption in Office Spaces Saves U.S. Navy in Energy Costs As part of a two-year project to demonstrate energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has identified advanced plug load controls as a promising technology for reducing energy use and related costs in the U.S. Navy's Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) office spaces. The demonstration was one of eight

  17. Demonstration of base catalyzed decomposition process, Navy Public Works Center, Guam, Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Brown, M.D.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.N.; Wilcox, W.A.; Gano, S.R.; Kim, B.C.; Gavaskar, A.R.

    1996-02-01

    Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) is a chemical dehalogenation process designed for treating soils and other substrate contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pesticides, dioxins, furans, and other hazardous organic substances. PCBs are heavy organic liquids once widely used in industry as lubricants, heat transfer oils, and transformer dielectric fluids. In 1976, production was banned when PCBs were recognized as carcinogenic substances. It was estimated that significant quantities (one billion tons) of U.S. soils, including areas on U.S. military bases outside the country, were contaminated by PCB leaks and spills, and cleanup activities began. The BCD technology was developed in response to these activities. This report details the evolution of the process, from inception to deployment in Guam, and describes the process and system components provided to the Navy to meet the remediation requirements. The report is divided into several sections to cover the range of development and demonstration activities. Section 2.0 gives an overview of the project history. Section 3.0 describes the process chemistry and remediation steps involved. Section 4.0 provides a detailed description of each component and specific development activities. Section 5.0 details the testing and deployment operations and provides the results of the individual demonstration campaigns. Section 6.0 gives an economic assessment of the process. Section 7.0 presents the conclusions and recommendations form this project. The appendices contain equipment and instrument lists, equipment drawings, and detailed run and analytical data.

  18. INL Fleet Vehicle Characterization Study for the U.S. Department of Navy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Brion Dale; Francfort, James Edward; Smart, John Galloway

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC collected and evaluated data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate use of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on US Department of Navy's fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  19. Measurement of surface tension and viscosity by open capillary techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye,Robert R. , Yost,Frederick G.

    1998-01-01

    An open-channel capillary is provided, having preferably a v-shaped groove in a flat wettable surface. The groove has timing marks and a source marker in which the specimen to be tested is deposited. The time of passage between the timing marks is recorded, and the ratio of surface tension .gamma. to viscosity .mu. is determined from the equation given below: ##EQU1## where h.sub.0 is the groove depth, .alpha. is the groove angle, .theta. is the liquid/solid contact angle, and t is the flow time. It has been shown by the

  20. Thermodynamic approach to the relaxation of viscosity and thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biro, T. S.; Van, P.; Molnar, E.

    2008-07-15

    A novel higher order theory of relaxation of heat and viscosity is proposed based on corrections to the traditional treatment of the relativistic energy density. In the framework of generalized Bjorken scaling solution to accelerating longitudinal flow we point out that the energy flux can be consequently set to zero in the stationary case, independently of the choice of a specific local rest frame, like the Landau-Lifshitz or Eckart one. We investigate and compare several cooling and reheating scenarios for the quark gluon plasma within this approach.

  1. Polyacrylamide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madabhushi, Ramakrishna S.; Gammon, Stuart A.

    2003-11-11

    A polyacryalmide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The polyacryalmide medium comprises high molecular weight polyacrylamides (PAAm) having a viscosity average molecular weight (M.sub.v) of about 675-725 kDa were synthesized by conventional red-ox polymerization technique. Using this separation medium, capillary electrophoresis of BigDye DNA sequencing standard was performed. A single base resolution of .about.725 bases was achieved in .about.60 minute in a non-covalently coated capillary of 50 .mu.m i.d., 40 cm effective length, and a filed of 160 V/cm at 40.degree. C. The resolution achieved with this formulation to separate DNA under identical conditions is much superior (725 bases vs. 625 bases) and faster (60 min. vs. 75 min.) to the commercially available PAAm, such as supplied by Amersham. The formulation method employed here to synthesize PAAm is straight-forward, simple and does not require cumbersome methods such as emulsion polymerizaiton in order to achieve very high molecular weights. Also, the formulation here does not require separation of PAAm from the reaction mixture prior to reconstituting the polymer to a final concentration. Furthermore, the formulation here is prepared from a single average mol. wt. PAAm as opposed to the mixture of two different average mo. wt. PAAm previously required to achieve high resolution.

  2. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governing equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.

  3. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governingmore » equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.« less

  4. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convectiondiffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluidfluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governing equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convectiondiffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.

  5. Major sources to waivers - lessons learned and $ saved at two U.S. Navy facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klitsch, M.

    1997-12-31

    Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division (NSWCCD) manages 17 US Navy research and development (R and D) facilities across the country. These include two facilities in Maryland -- one in Annapolis and the other in West Bethesda which is better known as Carderock. NO{sub x} is the only air emission which exceeds a threshold limit at both properties. The potential to emit NO{sub x} is 72 tpy for Annapolis and 51 tpy for Carderock. The facilities are in different counties but each county has a trigger limit for NO{sub x} of 25 tpy making both facilities major sources. In preparation for the Title V permit applications to the state of Maryland, Carderock budgeted $150,000 in fiscal year 1996 to have a contractor conduct air emission inventories and prepare the Title V permits for both Carderock and Annapolis. However, the Carderock Air Program Manager did not pursue a contractor to perform the work but personally conducted the air emission inventory for both Annapolis and Carderock. Noticing a large difference between the potential-to-emit and the actual emissions of NO{sub x}, the Air Program Manager began negotiations with the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) to waive the requirement for the Title V permit application. MDE responded in December 1996 that if the facility`s actual emissions would not exceed 50% of any of the threshold limits during any 12 month period, then a letter of understanding stating such should be submitted to MDE. This letter of understanding would be recognized by the US EPA and MDE and would act as a waiver to the Title V permit applicability up to July 31, 1998. Carderock and Annapolis meet this requirement and letters of understanding were drafted and sent to MDE in January 1997.

  6. Advanced cogeneration and absorption chillers potential for service to Navy bases. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Butcher, T.A.; Leigh, R.W.; McDonald, R.J.; Pierce, B.L.

    1996-04-01

    The US military uses millions of Btu`s of thermal energy to heat, cool and deliver process thermal energy to buildings on military bases, much of which is transmitted through a pipeline system incorporating thousands of miles of pipe. Much of this pipeline system is in disrepair and is nearing the end of its useful life, and the boilers which supply it are old and often inefficient. In 1993, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) proposed to SERDP a three-year effort to develop advanced systems of coupled diesel cogenerators and absorption chillers which would be particularly useful in providing a continuation of the services now provided by increasingly antiquated district systems. In mid-February, 1995, BNL learned that all subsequent funding for our program had been canceled. BNL staff continued to develop the Program Plan and to adhere to the requirements of the Execution Plan, but began to look for ways in which the work could be made relevant to Navy and DoD energy needs even without the extensive development plan formerly envisioned. The entire program was therefore re-oriented to look for ways in which small scale cogeneration and absorption chilling technologies, available through procurement rather than development, could provide some solutions to the problem of deteriorated district heating systems. The result is, we believe, a striking new approach to the provision of building services on military bases: in many cases, serious study should be made of the possibility that the old district heating system should be removed or abandoned, and small-scale cogenerators and absorption chillers should be installed in each building. In the remainder of this Summary, we develop the rationale behind this concept and summarize our findings concerning the conditions under which this course of action would be advisable and the economic benefits which will accrue if it is followed. The details are developed in the succeeding sections of the report.

  7. Viscosity of multi-component molten nitrate salts : liquidus to 200 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.

    2010-03-01

    The viscosity of molten salts comprising ternary and quaternary mixtures of the nitrates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium was determined experimentally. Viscosity was measured over the temperature range from near the relatively low liquidus temperatures of he individual mixtures to 200C. Molten salt mixtures that do not contain calcium nitrate exhibited relatively low viscosity and an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Molten salt mixtures that contained calcium nitrate were relatively more viscous and viscosity increased as the roportion of calcium nitrate increased. The temperature dependence of viscosity of molten salts containing calcium nitrate displayed curvature, rather than linearity, when plotted in Arrhenius format. Viscosity data for these mixtures were correlated by the Vogel-Fulcher- ammann-Hesse equation.

  8. Bulk and shear viscosities of the two-dimensional electron liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bulk and shear viscosities of the two-dimensional electron liquid in a doped graphene ... electron liquid in a doped graphene sheet Authors: Principi, Alessandro ; ...

  9. Viscosity of NaCl and other solutions up to 350{sup 0}C and 50...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental values for the viscosity of sodium chloride solutions are critically reviewed ... AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; EVALUATED DATA; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; HIGH PRESSURE; HIGH TEMPERATURE; ...

  10. Asymmetric tearing mode in the presence of viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Militello, F.; Grasso, D.; Marchetto, C.; Ottaviani, M.

    2011-11-15

    The linear stability of the tearing mode (TM) in a plasma column is investigated in the presence of viscosity and finite equilibrium current density gradients (i.e., asymmetries). It is shown that for low {beta}, both effects are essential in order to properly describe the mode behaviour close to marginality. In particular, the theory introduces a critical threshold for the destabilization, such that the perturbation grows only if {Delta}'>{Delta}'{sub cr}. The value of {Delta}'{sub cr} depends on the equilibrium configuration and on the plasma parameters. Most importantly, {Delta}'{sub cr} can take negative values, thus allowing unstable tearing modes for {Delta}' < 0 (even in the absence of bootstrap current).

  11. Viscosity of the QGP from a virial expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattiello, S.

    2012-06-15

    In this work we calculate the shear viscosity {eta} in the quark-gluon plasma within a virial expansion approach with particular interest in the ratio of {eta} to the entropy density s, i.e. {eta}/s. We derive a realistic equation of state using a virial expansion approach which allows us to include the interactions between the partons in the deconfined phase. From the interaction we directly extract the effective coupling {alpha}{sub V} for the determination of {eta}. Our results for {eta}/s show a minimum near to T{sub c} very close with the lowest bound and, furthermore, in line with the experimental point from RHIC as well as with the lattice calculations.

  12. Proposal for Universality in the Viscosity of Metallic Liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blodgett, M. E.; Egami, Takeshi; Nussinov, Z.; Kelton, K. F.

    2015-09-09

    The range of magnitude of the liquid viscosity, η, as a function of temperature is one of the most impressive of any physical property, changing by approximately 17 orders of magnitude from its extrapolated value at infinite temperature (ηo) to that at the glass transition temperature, Tg. We present experimental measurements of containerlessly processed metallic liquids that suggest that log(η/ηo) as a function of TA/T is a potentially universal scaled curve. In stark contrast to previous approaches, the scaling requires only two fitting parameters, which are on average predictable. The temperature TA corresponds to the onset of cooperative motion andmore » is strongly correlated with Tg, suggesting that the processes underlying the glass transition first appear in the high temperature liquid.« less

  13. Proposal for Universality in the Viscosity of Metallic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blodgett, M. E.; Egami, Takeshi; Nussinov, Z.; Kelton, K. F.

    2015-09-09

    The range of magnitude of the liquid viscosity, η, as a function of temperature is one of the most impressive of any physical property, changing by approximately 17 orders of magnitude from its extrapolated value at infinite temperature (ηo) to that at the glass transition temperature, Tg. We present experimental measurements of containerlessly processed metallic liquids that suggest that log(η/ηo) as a function of TA/T is a potentially universal scaled curve. In stark contrast to previous approaches, the scaling requires only two fitting parameters, which are on average predictable. The temperature TA corresponds to the onset of cooperative motion and is strongly correlated with Tg, suggesting that the processes underlying the glass transition first appear in the high temperature liquid.

  14. ParaDyn Implementation in the US Navy's DYSMAS Simulation System: FY08 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferencz, R M; DeGroot, A J; Lin, J I; Zywicz, E; Durrenberger, J K; Sherwood, R J; Corey, I R

    2008-07-29

    The goal of this project is to increase the computational efficiency and capacity of the Navy's DYSMAS simulation system for full ship shock response to underwater explosion. Specifically, this project initiates migration to a parallel processing capability for the structural portion of the overall fluid-structure interaction model. The capstone objective for the first phase is to demonstrate operation of the DYSMAS simulation engine with a production model on a Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD) parallel platform using the ParaDyn code for parallel processing of the structural dynamics. This year saw a successful launch to integrate ParaDyn, the high-parallel structural dynamics code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), into the DYSMAS system for simulating the response of ship structures to underwater explosion (UNDEX). The current LLNL version of DYNA3D, representing ten years of general development beyond the source branch used to initiate DYNA-N customization for DYSMAS, was first connected to the GEMINI flow code through DYSMAS Standard Coupler Interface (SCI). This permitted an early 'sanity check' by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC-IHD) personnel that equivalent results were generated for their standard UNDEX test problems, thus ensuring the Verification & Validation pedigree they have developed remains intact. The ParaDyn code was then joined to the SCI in a manner requiring no changes to GEMINI. Three NSWC-IHD engineers were twice hosted at LLNL to become familiar with LLNL computer systems, the execution of the prototype software system, and to begin assessment of its accuracy and performance. Scaling data for the flow solver GEMINI was attained up to a one billion cell, 1000 processor run. The NSWC-IHD engineers were granted privileges to continue their evaluations through remote connections to LLNL's Open Computing Facility. Finally, the prototype changes were integrated into the mainline ParaDyn source

  15. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

    1995-10-10

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  16. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  17. Density and viscosity for mixtures of propanoic acid with aromatic hydrocarbons at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; Gupta, P.C.; Kesharwani, R.N.

    1995-03-01

    The density and viscosity of binary mixtures of propanic acid + benzene, + toluene, and + o-, + m-, and + p-xylenes have been measured at 298.15 K. Excess volumes have been calculated. The interactions existing between the components have been discussed. The results are used to theoretically justify the validity of the viscosity models.

  18. Measurement of solubility, viscosity, and density of R-410A refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schafer, W.R.

    2000-07-01

    Measurements of the refrigerant vapor/liquid lubricant equilibrium viscosity reduction of four polyolester lubricants, viscosity grades 32 and 68 ISO VG, with the refrigerant R-410A were taken between {minus}13 F and 257 F and up to 700 psia. A high and low miscibility grade polyolester was analyzed for each viscosity. The viscosity, density, and composition of the solubilized gas mixture in solution with the lubricant was obtained with constant gas vapor composition in the viscometer head space. This refrigerant has a very small temperature glide but is considered a zeotropic blend nonetheless. The fractionation data presented were obtained from individual isothermal measurements. The isotherm for each temperature detailed the composition of the equilibrium gas fractionation of R-32 and R-125 in the lubricant, mixed vapor pressure, concentration of the total mixed blend (percent by weight) in the lubricant, and viscosity in centipoise (cP) and centistokes (cSt).

  19. Viscosity index improver-dispersant additive useful in oil compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, J.B.; Dick, M.N.

    1988-10-25

    A process comprising grafting in the substantial absence of solvent a hydrocarbon polymer of C/sub 2/ to C/sub 28/ olefin, the polymer having a number average molecular weight in the range of about 5,000 to 500,000 with an unsaturated material selected from the group consisting of: (A) ethylenically unsaturated C/sub 3/ to C/sub 10/ carboxylic acid having 1 to 2 carboxylic acid groups or an anhydride group, and (B) nitrogen-containing ethylenically unsaturated monomers containing 6 to 30 carbon atoms and 1 to 4 nitrogen atoms, in the presence of a free radical initiator and a chain stopping agent comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of alphatic mercaptans having 4 to 24 carbon atoms, deithyl hydroxyl amine cumene and phenols, the grafting being conducted in a manner and under conditions sufficient to form a substantially oil soluble graft copolymer useful as a viscosity index improver-dispersant additive for lubricating oil compositions.

  20. Magnetic viscosity in Ni/Cu compositionally-modulated alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, L.H.; Swartzendruber, L.J.; Ettedgui, H.; Atzmony, U.; Lashmore, D.S; Watson, R.E.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1989-01-01

    The existence of a magnetic aftereffect ( magnetic viscosity'') in Ni/Cu multilayered alloys was established using a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature and at 86 K. It was shown that the effect is strongly dependent on the step field, H{sub 2} (i.e., the value the field is reduced to after the magnetic moment has been aligned in high field) and exhibits a maximum relaxation rate for values of H{sub 2} around the reverse coercive field, {minus}H{sub c}. Aftereffect behavior of this type has been observed in other materials, though most often for systems composed of superparamagnetic particles, where the relaxation freezes out at low temperatures. In contrast, the relaxation in the CMA was shown to be enhanced at 86 K over its value at room temperature. New measurements over a wider temperature range show that the enhancement in this sample reaches a maximum near 120 K, but below that temperature the relaxation does freeze out. The temperature of maximum enhancement varies from sample to sample. 6 refs.

  1. Effective shear viscosity and dynamics of suspensions of micro-swimmers at moderate concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constantin, Lipnikov; Gyrya, V; Aronson, I; Berlyand, L

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there have been a number of experimental studies suggesting that a suspension of self-propelled bacteria (microswimmers in general) may have an effective viscosity significantly smaller than the viscosity of the ambient fluid. This is in sharp contrast with suspensions of hard passive inclusions, whose presence always increases the viscosity. Here we present a 2D model for a suspension of microswimmers in a fluid and analyze it analytically in the dilute regime (no swimmer-swimmer interactions) and numerically using a Mimetic Finite Difference discretization. Our analysis shows that in the dilute regime the effective shear viscosity is not affected by self-propulsion. But at the moderate concentrations (due to swimmer-swimmer interactions) the effective viscosity decreases linearly as a function of the propulsion strength of the swimmers. These findings prove that (i) a physically observable decrease of viscosity for a suspension of self-propelled bacteria can be explained purely by hydrodynamic interactions and (ii) self-propulsion and interaction of swimmers are both essential to the reduction of the effective shear viscosity. We performed a number of numerical experiments analyzing the dynamics of swimmers resulting from pairwise interactions. The numerical results agree with the physically observed phenomena (e.g., attraction of swimmer to swimmer and swimmer to the wall). This is viewed as an additional validation of the model and the numerical scheme.

  2. Effect of Viscosity on the Microformability of Bulk Amorphous Alloy in Supercooled Liquid Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng Ming; Zhang Shihong; Wang Ruixue

    2010-06-15

    Previously published results have shown that viscosity greatly influences on the deformation behavior of the bulk amorphous alloy in supercooled liquid region during microforming process. And viscosity is proved to be a component of the evaluation index which indicating microformability. Based on the fluid flow theory and assumptions, bulk amorphous alloy can be regarded as the viscous materials with a certain viscosity. It is helpful to understand how the viscosity plays an important role in viscous materials with various viscosities by numerical simulation on the process. Analysis is carried out by linear state equation in FEM with other three materials, water, lubricant oil and polymer melt, whose viscosities are different obviously. The depths of the materials flow into the U-shaped groove during the microimprinting process are compared in this paper. The result shows that the deformation is quite different when surface tension effect is not considered in the case. With the lowest viscosity, water can reach the bottom of micro groove in a very short time. Lubricant oil and polymer melt slower than it. Moreover bulk amorphous alloys in supercooled liquid state just flow into the groove slightly. Among the alloys of different systems including Pd-, Mg- and Zr-based alloy, Pd-based alloy ranks largest in the depth. Mg-based alloy is the second. And Zr-based alloy is the third. Further more the rank order of the viscosities of the alloys is Pd-, Mg- and Zr-based. It agrees well with the results of calculation. Therefore viscosity plays an important role in the microforming of the bulk amorphous alloy in the supercooled liquid state.

  3. Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for Military

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As part of a 2011 Presidential directive, the Departments of Navy, Energy, and Agriculture announced today that three companies have been awarded contracts to construct and commission biorefineries capable of producing “drop-in” biofuels to meet the transportation needs of the military and private sector.

  4. Static and dynamic shear viscosity of a single-layer complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, Peter; Sandor, Mate Csaba; Kovacs, Aniko; Donko, Zoltan

    2011-07-15

    The static and dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a single-layer dusty plasma is measured by applying, respectively, a stationary and a periodically modulated shear stress, induced by the light pressure of manipulating laser beams. Under static conditions we observe a decrease of the viscosity with increasing shear rate, the so-called shear-thinning behavior. Under oscillating shear both the magnitude and the ratio of the dissipative and elastic contributions to the complex viscosity show strong frequency dependence, as the system changes from viscous to elastic in nature with increasing excitation frequency. Accompanying molecular dynamics simulations explain and support the experimental observations.

  5. From US NAVY Mate to Division Leader for Operations - Requirements, Development and Career Paths of LANL/LANSCE Accelerator Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spickermann, Thomas

    2012-07-26

    There are opportunities for advancement within the team. Operators advance by: (1) Becoming fully qualified - following the LANSCE Accelerator Operator Training Manual, Operator trainees go through 5 levels of qualification, from Radiation Security System to Experimental Area Operator. Must obtain Knowledge and Performance checkouts by an OSS or AOSS, and an End-of-Card checkout by the team leader or RSS engineer (level I). Program was inspired by US NAVY qualification program for nuclear reactor operators. Time to complete: 2-2.5 years. (2) Fully qualified operators are eligible to apply for vacant (OSS)/AOSS positions; and (3) Alternatively, experienced operators can sign up for the voluntary Senior Operator Qualification Program. They must demonstrate in-depth knowledge of all areas of the accelerator complex. Time to complete is 2-3 years (Minimum 4 years from fully qualified). Eligible for promotion to level between qualified operator and AOSS.

  6. An Analysis of Stream Culvert Fish Passage on the Navy Railroad Line between Bremerton and Shelton, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Christopher W.; Miller, Martin C.; Southard, John A.

    2004-10-25

    The Navy railroad service line runs between Shelton, Bremerton, and Silverdale, and is used by the Navy to transfer freight to its facilities. It is also used by commercial clients to ship service items and bulk cargo for municipalities along portions of the route. Culverts of various size and construction convey streams and stormwater runoff under the railroad line. These allow transfer of water and, in some cases allow for passage of juvenile and adult salmon into waters upstream of the culverts. As part of this project, 21 culverts along a 34-mile reach (Shelton to Bremerton) of this railroad were surveyed to evaluate their function and ability to allow salmon to utilize the streams. The culverts and attached watersheds were evaluated using criteria developed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife to assign a Priority Index (PI) to barriers present on each fish-bearing stream. The PI is a relative numeric rating indicator, assigned using consistent criteria related to the degree of potential habitat gained by removing barriers and improving the function of the watershed. Of the 21 culverts evaluated, five were found to be complete fish-passage barriers and six were found to be partial barriers, primarily to juvenile salmon. Three of these culverts had PI ratings above 10 and five others had ratings between 7 and 10. Corrective action can be taken based on any PI rating, but the WDFW normally assigns lower priority to projects with PI scores lower than 15. Several of the stream and culverts had previously been evaluated for structural integrity and function and have been scheduled for repair. A narrative indicating the condition of the culvert has been prepared as well as a table indicating the PI scores and a summary of recommendations for action for each culvert.

  7. Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2014-03-04

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A viscosity of one or more zones of the hydrocarbon layer is assessed. The heating rates in the zones are varied based on the assessed viscosities. The heating rate in a first zone of the formation is greater than the heating rate in a second zone of the formation if the viscosity in the first zone is greater than the viscosity in the second zone. Fluids are produced from the formation through the production wells.

  8. High-pressure viscosity of liquid Fe and FeS revisited by falling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-pressure viscosity of liquid Fe and FeS revisited by falling sphere viscometry using ultrafast X-ray imaging Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become ...

  9. Experimental Investigation of the Effective Foam Viscosity in Unsaturated Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Zhong, Lirong; White, Mark D.; Szecsody, James E.

    2012-11-01

    Foam has the potential to effectively carry and distribute either aqueous or gaseous amendments to the deep vadose zone for contaminant remediation. However, the transport of foam in porous media is complicated because flow characteristics such as the effective viscosity are affected not only by foam properties but also by the sediment properties and flow conditions. We determined the average effective foam viscosity via a series of laboratory experiments and found that the effective foam viscosity increased with the liquid fraction in foam, the injection rate, and sediment permeability. These impacts are quantified with an empirical expression, which is further demonstrated with data from literature. The results show that the liquid fraction in foam and sediment permeability are two primary factors affecting effective foam viscosity. These results suggest that, when foam is used in deep vadose zone remediation, foam flow will not suffer from gravitational drainage and can distribute amendments uniformly in heterogeneous sediments.

  10. Control of Slag Chemistry for the Reduction of Viscosity and Refractory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Corrosion - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Control of Slag Chemistry for the Reduction of Viscosity and Refractory Corrosion National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Control of Slag Chemistry for the Reduction of Viscosity and Refractory Corrosion (264 KB) Technology Marketing Summary The current invention describes methods to control slag

  11. Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S. Tsupko, O. Yu.

    2015-07-15

    The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.

  12. Viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes stabilized by chitosan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phuoc, Tran X.; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Chen, Ruey-Hung

    2011-01-01

    Thermal conductivity, viscosity, and stability of nanofluids containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) stabilized by cationic chitosan were studied. Chitosan with weight fraction of 0.1%, 0.2 wt%, and 0.5 wt% was used to disperse stably MWCNTs in water. The measured thermal conductivity showed an enhancement from 2.3% to 13% for nanofluids that contained from 0.5 wt% to 3 wt% MWCNTs (0.24 to 1.43 vol %). These values are significantly higher than those predicted using the Maxwell's theory. We also observed that the enhancements were independent of the base fluid viscosity. Thus, use of microconvection effect to explain the anomalous thermal conductivity enhancement should be reconsidered. MWCNTs can be used either to enhance or reduce the fluid base viscosity depending on the weight fractions. In the viscosity-reduction case, a reduction up to 20% was measured by this work. In the viscosity-enhancement case, the fluid behaved as a non-Newtonian shear-thinning fluid. By assuming that MWCNT nanofluids behave as a generalized second grade fluid where the viscosity coefficient depends upon the rate of deformation, a theoretical model has been developed. The model was found to describe the fluid behavior very well.

  13. Viscosity and termal conductivity of nanofluids containing mult-walled carbon nanotubes stabilized by chitosan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, P.X.: Massoudi, M: Chen, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal conductivity, viscosity, and stability of nanofluids containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) stabilized by cationic chitosan were studied. Chitosan with weight fraction of 0.1%, 0.2 wt%, and 0.5 wt% was used to disperse stably MWCNTs in water. The measured thermal conductivity showed an enhancement from 2.3% to 13% for nanofluids that contained from 0.5 wt% to 3 wt% MWCNTs (0.24 to 1.43 vol %). These values are significantly higher than those predicted using the Maxwell's theory. We also observed that the enhancements were independent of the base fluid viscosity. Thus, use of microconvection effect to explain the anomalous thermal conductivity enhancement should be reconsidered. MWCNTs can be used either to enhance or reduce the fluid base viscosity depending on the weight fractions. In the viscosity-reduction case, a reduction up to 20% was measured by this work. In the viscosity-enhancement case, the fluid behaved as a non-Newtonian shear-thinning fluid. By assuming that MWCNT nanofluids behave as a generalized second grade fluid where the viscosity coefficient depends upon the rate of deformation, a theoretical model has been developed. The model was found to describe the fluid behavior very well.

  14. Sintered composite medium and filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner

    1987-01-01

    A particulate filter medium is formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers. A preferred composition is about 40 vol. % quartz and about 60 vol. % stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100.degree. C. to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550.degree. C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  15. Users guide for the conversion of Navy paint-spray-booth particulate emission-control systems from wet to dry operation. Final report, January-September 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayer, J.; Tate, D.

    1990-03-01

    The report is a guide for converting U.S. Navy paint-spray-booth particulate emission control systems from wet to dry operation. The use of water curtains for air-pollution-control of paint-spray booths is considered a major source of water and solid-waste pollution from industrial painting operations. It is possible, however, to eliminate this water-pollution problem and significantly reduce the solid-waste load by converting the booth to utilize a dry-filter pollution-control system. The conversion, however, requires extensive planning prior to actual facility modification. The report describes requirements to facilitate the planning and preparation for conversion of typical spray booths. Although the report addresses modifications of Navy spray booths, the basic engineering requirements discussed apply also to other Department of Defense installations and to commercial industrial facilities.

  16. Shear viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma in a kinetic theory approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puglisi, A.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V.

    2014-05-09

    One of the main results of heavy ions collision (HIC) at relativistic energy experiments is the very small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, close to the conjectured lower bound ?/s=1/4? for systems in the infinite coupling limit. Transport coefficients like shear viscosity are responsible of non-equilibrium properties of a system: Green-Kubo relations give us an exact expression to compute these coefficients. We compute shear viscosity numerically using Green-Kubo relation in the framework of Kinetic Theory solving the relativistic transport Boltzmann equation in a finite box with periodic boundary conditions. We investigate a system of particles interacting via anisotropic and energy dependent cross-section in the range of temperature of interest for HIC. Green-Kubo results are in agreement with Chapman-Enskog approximation while Relaxation Time approximation can underestimates the viscosity of a factor 2. The correct analytic formula for shear viscosity can be used to develop a transport theory with a fixed ?/s and have a comparison with physical observables like elliptic flow.

  17. Viscosity of strongly interacting quantum fluids: Spectral functions and sum rules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Edward; Randeria, Mohit

    2010-05-15

    The viscosity of strongly interacting systems is a topic of great interest in diverse fields. We focus here on the bulk and shear viscosities of nonrelativistic quantum fluids, with particular emphasis on strongly interacting ultracold Fermi gases. We use Kubo formulas for the bulk and shear viscosity spectral functions, {zeta}({omega}) and {eta}({omega}), respectively, to derive exact, nonperturbative results. Our results include a microscopic connection between the shear viscosity {eta} and the normal-fluid density {rho}{sub n}; sum rules for {zeta}({omega}) and {eta}({omega}) and their evolution through the BCS-BEC crossover (where BEC denotes Bose-Einstein condensate); and universal high-frequency tails for {eta}({omega}) and the dynamic structure factor S(q,{omega}). We use our sum rules to show that, at unitarity, {zeta}({omega}) is identically zero and thus relate {eta}({omega}) to density-density correlations. We predict that frequency-dependent shear viscosity {eta}({omega}) of the unitary Fermi gas can be experimentally measured using Bragg spectroscopy.

  18. Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium Nucleon properties are modified in the nuclear medium. To understand these ...

  19. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurth, C.; Duane, B.; Whitfield, D.; Smith, S.; Nordquist, A.; Zenhausern, F.

    2013-12-28

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an “unknown” solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose.

  20. Dissipative kinetic Alfvén solitary waves resulting from viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, C.-R.; Kang, S.-B.; Min, K.-W.; Woo, M.-H.; Hwang, J.; Park, Y.-D.

    2013-11-15

    Nonlinear small-amplitude kinetic Alfvén solitary waves (KASWs) are investigated with their “anomalous” kinetic viscosity effect on electrons. It is found that the structure of a hump-type KASW solution develops into a shock-type (or double layer) KASW solution for large amplitude KASWs when viscosity exists. For small amplitude KASWs, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with an approximate pseudopotential was solved, and it is found that the hump-type KASWs develop into oscillating shock-type (kink-type) KASWs. It is also found that the oscillating scale of this structure is related to the propagation velocity and plasma beta, while the damping scale is inversely proportional to the viscosity.

  1. Effect of surface viscosity, anchoring energy, and cell gap on the response time of nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, R.F. de; Yang, D.-Ke; Lenzi, E.K.; Evangelista, L.R.; Zola, R.S.

    2014-07-15

    An analytical expression for the relaxation time of a nematic liquid crystal is obtained for the first time by considering the influence of surface viscosity, anchoring energy strength and cell gap, validated numerically by using the so-called relaxation method. This general equation for the molecular response time (?{sub 0}) was derived for a vertical aligned cell and by solving an eigenvalue equation coming from the usual balance of torque equation in the Derzhanskii and Petrov formulation, recovering the usual equations in the appropriate limit. The results show that ??d{sup b}, where b=2 is observed only for strongly anchored cells, while for moderate to weak anchored cells, the exponent lies between 1 and 2, depending on both, surface viscosity and anchoring strength. We found that the surface viscosity is important when calculating the response time, specially for thin cells, critical for liquid crystal devices. The surface viscositys effect on the optical response time with pretilt is also explored. Our results bring new insights about the role of surface viscosity and its effects in applied physics. - Highlights: The relaxation of nematic liquid crystals is calculated by taking the surface viscosity into account. An analytical expression for the relaxation time depending on surface viscosity, anchoring strength and cell gap is obtained. The results are numerically verified. Surface viscosity is crucial for thin and weak anchored cells. The effect on optical time and pretilt angle is also studied.

  2. Computation of shear viscosity of colloidal suspensions by SRD-MD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laganapan, A. M. K.; Videcoq, A. Bienia, M.; Ala-Nissila, T.; Bochicchio, D.; Ferrando, R.

    2015-04-14

    The behaviour of sheared colloidal suspensions with full hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) is numerically studied. To this end, we use the hybrid stochastic rotation dynamics-molecular dynamics (SRD-MD) method. The shear viscosity of colloidal suspensions is computed for different volume fractions, both for dilute and concentrated cases. We verify that HIs help in the collisions and the streaming of colloidal particles, thereby increasing the overall shear viscosity of the suspension. Our results show a good agreement with known experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies. This work demonstrates the ability of SRD-MD to successfully simulate transport coefficients that require correct modelling of HIs.

  3. Numerical investigation of low-viscosity drop breakup in a contracting flow

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Numerical investigation of low-viscosity drop breakup in a contracting flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical investigation of low-viscosity drop breakup in a contracting flow Authors: Zhu, Guangdong ; Mammoli, Andrea Publication Date: 2011-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1256411 Report Number(s): NREL/JA-550-51916 Journal ID: ISSN 1531-3492 DOE Contract Number: AC36-08GO28308 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name:

  4. Viscosity of liquid {sup 4}He and quantum of circulation: Are they related?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L’vov, Victor S. E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz; Skrbek, Ladislav E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R. E-mail: skrbek@fzu.cz

    2014-04-15

    In the vicinity of the superfluid transition in liquid {sup 4}He, we explore the relation between two apparently unrelated physical quantities—the kinematic viscosity, ν, in the normal state and the quantum of circulation, κ, in the superfluid state. The model developed here leads to the simple relationship ν ≈ κ/6, and links the classical and quantum flow properties of liquid {sup 4}He. We critically examine available data relevant to this relation and find that the prediction holds well at the saturated vapor pressure. Additionally, we predict the kinematic viscosity for liquid {sup 4}He along the λ-line at negative pressures.

  5. Micromechanical transient sensor for measuring viscosity and density of a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Oden, Patrick I.; Warmack, Robert J.; Finot, Eric Laurent

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the viscosity and/or specific density of a fluid utilizes a microcantilever vibrated in the analyte fluid. The source of vibration is switched on and off and the transient behavior or decay in amplitude of the vibration is monitored. The method is particularly useful for the measurement of process conditions in remote locations in real time.

  6. Correlation between the critical viscosity and ash fusion temperatures of coal gasifier ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Peter Y.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James

    2015-09-27

    Coal gasification yields synthesis gas, an important intermediate in chemical manufacturing. It is also vital to the production of liquid fuels through the Fischer-Tropsch process and electricity in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation. Minerals naturally present in coal become molten in entrained-flow slagging gasifiers. Molten coal ash slag penetrates and dissolves refractory bricks, leading to costly plant shutdowns. The extent of coal ash slag penetration and refractory brick dissolution depends on the slag viscosity, the gasification temperature, and the composition of slag and bricks. Here, we measured the viscosity of several synthetic coal ash slags with a high-temperature rotary viscometer and their ash fusion temperatures through optical image analysis. We made all measurements in a carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide reducing atmosphere that approximates coal gasification conditions. Empirical correlation models based on ash fusion temperatures were used to calculate critical viscosity temperatures based on the coal ash compositions. These values were then compared with those obtained from thermodynamic phase-transition models. Finally, an understanding of slag viscosity as a function of ash composition is important to reducing refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers, which would help to reduce the cost and environmental impact of coal for chemical and electricity production.

  7. A High-Wavenumber Viscosity for High-Resolution Numerical Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, A; Cabot, W H

    2003-02-19

    Numerical simulations of compressible flows are commonly based on the Euler equations when effects of viscosity are thought to be negligible. These equations admit singular solutions, even in cases where the initial and boundary conditions are smooth. So-called ''Euler solvers'' rely on numerical dissipation, explicitly or implicitly present in the scheme, to regularize the problem, such that physical solutions are selected.

  8. Method to prepare nanoparticles on porous mediums

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vieth, Gabriel M [Knoxville, TN; Dudney, Nancy J [Oak Ridge, TN; Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-10

    A method to prepare porous medium decorated with nanoparticles involves contacting a suspension of nanoparticles in an ionic liquid with a porous medium such that the particles diffuse into the pores of the medium followed by heating the resulting composition to a temperature equal to or greater than the thermal decomposition temperature of the ionic liquid resulting in the removal of the liquid portion of the suspension. The nanoparticles can be a metal, an alloy, or a metal compound. The resulting compositions can be used as catalysts, sensors, or separators.

  9. A study of the propagation of compression waves in porous medium filled with steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutrisno; Djoko Wintolo; Samsul Kamal; Sudarman, S.

    1996-01-24

    A preliminary investigation on the propagation of compression waves through a radial system of porous medium filled with steam has been conducted for the case of uniform and non-uniform basic temperature distributions. When a relatively weak pressure disturbance is introduced as a signal source in a uniform temperature system, it is found that the pressure disturbance decays away and smears out as time progresses. However, for the case of a nonuniform basic temperature distribution, the temperature gradient and fluid viscosity give significant effects on the reduction of pressure signal attenuation. The attenuation of the compression waves depends on the wave frequencies. For higher frequencies the strength of the signal decays rapidly, and for lower frequencies the signal could propagate farther away. It is found also that porosity and permeability distributions gives significant effects on the amplitude and the wave profiles.

  10. Incompatibility of Contrast Medium and Trisodium Citrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delcour, Christian Bruninx, Guy

    2013-02-15

    To test the compatibility of trisodium citrate, a catheter lock solution, with iodinated contrast medium. Iohexol, iobitridol, iodixanol, ioxaglate, ioxithalamate, iomeprol, and iopromide were tested. In all tests, 2 ml of contrast medium were mixed with 2 ml of trisodium citrate solution. Iodixanol and ioxaglate provoked a highly viscous gluelike precipitation when mixed with trisodium citrate. A brief transient precipitate was observed with iohexol, iomeprol, and ioxithalamate. Permanent precipitation occurred with iobitridol and iopromide. One must be aware of the potential for precipitation when contrast medium is mixed with trisodium citrate solution. Before trisodium citrate solution is injected, the catheter should be thoroughly flushed with saline if a contrast medium has previously been injected through it.

  11. MEDIUM VOLTAGE INTEGRATED DRIVE AND MOTOR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Calnetix Technologies – Cerritos, CA This project will focus on integrating a high voltage SiC device with advanced high-speed machine technology, medium voltage stators, high efficiency magnetic bearings and sensor high frequency drive technology that can work directly with high voltages, switch at high frequencies for low machine losses, and do so very efficiently. The new medium voltage motors are expected to achieve up to eight times the power density of similar traditional systems. Fact sheet coming soon.

  12. U.S. Navy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Flow, 2015 trillion cubic feet 1 Natural gas plant liquids production (NGPL), gaseous equivalent. 2 Quantities lost and imbalances in data due to differences among data sources. Excludes tran- sit shipments that cross the U.S.-Canada border (i.e., natural gas delivered to its destination via the other country). 3 Lease and plant fuel, and other industrial. 4 Natural gas consumed in the operation of pipelines (primarily in compressors) and as fuel in the delivery of natural gas to

  13. Measurement of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and viscosity of TiO{sub 2}-water nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duangthongsuk, Weerapun; Wongwises, Somchai

    2009-04-15

    Nanofluid is an innovative heat transfer fluid with superior potential for enhancing the heat transfer performance of conventional fluids. Many attempts have been made to investigate its thermal conductivity and viscosity, which are important thermophysical properties. No definitive agreements have emerged, however, about these properties. This article reports the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids experimentally. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in water with volume concentration of 0.2-2 vol.% are used in the present study. A transient hot-wire apparatus is used for measuring the thermal conductivity of nanofluids whereas the Bohlin rotational rheometer (Malvern Instrument) is used to measure the viscosity of nanofluids. The data are collected for temperatures ranging from 15 C to 35 C. The results show that the measured viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased as the particle concentrations increased and are higher than the values of the base liquids. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased with increasing nanofluid temperatures and, conversely, the viscosity of nanofluids decreased with increasing temperature of nanofluids. Moreover, the measured thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids are quite different from the predicted values from the existing correlations and the data reported by other researchers. Finally, new thermophysical correlations are proposed for predicting the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. (author)

  14. Viscosity and dilepton production of a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan Nana; Li Jianwei; He Zejun; Long Jiali; Cai Xiangzhou; Ma Yugang; Shen Wenqing

    2009-07-15

    By considering the effect of shear viscosity we have investigated the evolution of a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density. Based on the evolution of the system we have performed a complete calculation for the dilepton production from the following processes: qq{yields}ll, qq{yields}gll, Compton-like scattering (qg{yields}qll,qg{yields}qll), gluon fusion (gg{yields}cc), annihilation (qq{yields}cc), as well as the multiple scattering of quarks. We have found that quark-antiquark annihilation, Compton-like scatterring, gluon fusion, and multiple scattering of quarks give important contributions. Moreover, we have also found that the dilepton yield is an increasing function of the initial quark chemical potential, and the increase of the quark phase lifetime because of the viscosity also obviously raises the dilepton yield.

  15. Use of ammonia to reduce the viscosity of bottoms streams produced in hydroconversion processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaczepinski, Sioma; Billimoria, Rustom M.; Tao, Frank; Lington, Christopher G.; Plumlee, Karl W.

    1984-01-01

    Coal, petroleum residuum and similar carbonaceous feed materials are subjected to hydroconversion in the presence of molecular hydrogen to produce a hydroconversion effluent which is then subjected to one or more separation steps to remove lower molecular weight liquids and produce a heavy bottoms stream containing high molecular weight liquids and unconverted carbonaceous material. The viscosity of the bottoms streams produced in the separation step or steps is prevented from increasing rapidly by treating the feed to the separation step or steps with ammonia gas prior to or during the separation step or steps. The viscosity of the heavy bottoms stream produced in the final separation step is also controlled by treating these bottoms with ammonia gas. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the effluent from the hydroconversion reactor is subjected to an atmospheric distillation followed by a vacuum distillation and the feeds to these distillations are contacted with ammonia during the distillations.

  16. Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2000-01-01

    This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

  17. Viscosity Solutions of Systems of PDEs with Interconnected Obstacles and Switching Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamadene, S. Morlais, M. A.

    2013-04-15

    This paper deals with existence and uniqueness of a solution in viscosity sense, for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case is the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann system of the Markovian stochastic optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions depend on (t,x). The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with oblique reflection.

  18. Viscosity Solutions of HJB Equations with Unbounded Data and Characteristic Points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, Monica

    2003-12-15

    We study a class of infinite horizon and exit-time control problems for nonlinear systems with unbounded data using the dynamic programming approach. We prove local optimality principles for viscosity super- and subsolutions of degenerate Hamilton-Jacobi equations in a very general setting. We apply these results to characterize the (possibly multiple) discontinuous solutions of Dirichlet and free boundary value problems as suitable value functions for the above-mentioned control problems.

  19. Viscosity of α-pinene secondary organic material and implications for particle growth and reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Grayson, James W.; Bateman, Adam P.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Sellier, Mathieu; Murray, Benjamin J.; Shilling, John E.; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2013-05-14

    Particles composed of secondary organic material (SOM) are abundant in the lower troposphere and play important roles in climate, air quality, and health. The viscosity of these particles is a fundamental property that is presently poorly quantified for conditions relevant to the lower troposphere. Using two new techniques, namely a bead-mobility technique and a poke-flow technique, in conjunction with simulations of fluid flow, we measure the viscosity of the watersoluble component of SOM produced by α-pinene ozonolysis. The viscosity is comparable to that of honey at 90% relative humidity (RH), comparable to that of peanut butter at 70% RH and greater than or comparable to that of bitumen for ≤ 30% RH, implying that the studied SOM ranges from liquid to semisolid/solid at ambient relative humidities. With the Stokes-Einstein relation, the measured viscosities further imply that the growth and evaporation of SOM by the exchange of organic molecules between the gas and condensed phases may be confined to the surface region when RH ≤ 30%, suggesting the importance of an adsorption-type mechanism for partitioning in this regime. By comparison, for RH ≥ 70% partitioning of organic molecules may effectively occur by an absorption mechanism throughout the bulk of the particle. Finally, the net uptake rates of semi-reactive atmospheric oxidants such as O3 are expected to decrease by two to five orders of magnitude for a change in RH from 90% to ≤ 30% RH, with possible implications for the rates of chemical aging of SOM particles in the atmosphere.

  20. Real viscosity effects in inertial confinement fusion target deuterium–tritium micro-implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, R. J. Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Faehl, R. J.

    2014-02-15

    We report on numerical studies of real viscous effects on the implosion characteristics of imploded DT micro-targets. We use the implicit ePLAS code to perform 2D simulations of spherical and slightly ellipsoidal DT shells on DT gas filled ∼40 μm diameter voids. Before their final implosions the shells have been nearly adiabatically compressed up to 10{sup 2} or 10{sup 3} g/cm{sup 3} densities. While the use of conventional artificial viscosity can lead to high central densities for initially spherical shells, we find that a real physical viscosity from ion-ion collisions can give a high (>20 keV) central temperature but severely reduced central density (<200 g/cm{sup 3}), while the elliptical shells evidence p = 2 distortion of the heated central fuel region. These results suggest that the general use of artificial viscosities in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) modeling may have lead to overly optimistic yields for current NIF targets and that polar direct drive with more energy for the imploding capsule may be needed for ultimate ICF success.

  1. CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review ...

  2. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation SCAQMD:Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium-Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Vehicle ...

  3. Energy Assessments: What are the Benefits to Small and Medium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    November 6, 2008 Energy Assessments: What are the Benefits to Small and Medium Facilities? 2 Energy Assessments: What are the Benefits to Small and Medium Facilities? Webcast ...

  4. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations ...

  5. Solar collector having a solid transmission medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schertz, William W.; Zwerdling, Solomon

    1977-06-14

    There is provided a radiant energy transmission device capable of operation in a concentrative mode in which energy incident on an entrance area is directed toward and concentrated on an exit area of smaller area than the entrance area. The device includes a solid radiant energy transmission medium having surfaces coincident with the entrance and exit areas and particularly contoured reflective side walls. The surface coinciding with the entrance area is coupled to a cover plate formed of a radiant energy transmissive material. An energy transducer is coupled to the surface of the medium coinciding with the exit area.

  6. Comment on “Effects of damping solitary wave in a viscosity bounded plasma” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 022118 (2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, Uday Narayan Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2015-07-15

    Recently Gun Li et al. discussed “Effects of damping solitary wave in a viscosity bounded plasma” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 022118 (2014)]. The paper contains some serious errors which have been pointed out in this Comment.

  7. A framework for developing a mimetic tensor artificial viscosity for Lagrangian hydrocodes on arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral meshes (u)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-11

    We construct a new mimetic tensor artificial viscosity on general polygonal and polyhedral meshes. The tensor artificial viscosity is based on a mimetic discretization of coordinate invariant operators, divergence of a tensor and gradient of a vector. The focus of this paper is on the symmetric form, div ({mu},{var_epsilon}(u)), of the tensor artificial viscosity where {var_epsilon}(u) is the symmetrized gradient of u and {mu}, is a tensor. The mimetic discretizations of this operator is derived for the case of a full tensor coefficient {mu}, that may reflect a shock direction. We demonstrate performance of the new viscosity for the Noh implosion, Sedov explosion and Saltzman piston problems in both Cartesian and axisymmetric coordinate systems.

  8. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  9. A Brief Review of Viscosity Models for Slag in Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

    2011-11-01

    Many researchers have defined the phenomenon of 'slagging' as the deposition of ash in the radiative section of a boiler, while 'fouling' refers to the deposition of ash in the convective-pass region. Among the important parameters affecting ash deposition that need to be studied are ash chemistry, its transport, deposit growth, and strength development; removability of the ash deposit; heat transfer mechanisms; and the mode of operation for boilers. The heat transfer at the walls of a combustor depends on many parameters including ash deposition. This depends on the processes or parameters controlling the impact efficiency and the sticking efficiency. For a slagging combustor or furnace, however, the temperatures are so high that much of the coal particles are melted and the molten layer, in turn, captures more particles as it flows. The main problems with ash deposition are reduced heat transfer in the boiler and corrosion of the tubes. Common ways of dealing with these issues are soot blowing and wall blowing on a routine basis; however, unexpected or uncontrolled depositions can also complicate the situation, and there are always locations inaccessible to the use of such techniques. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1300 C and 1500 C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa {center_dot} s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. In such cases the slag should be regarded as a non-Newtonian suspension, consisting of liquid silicate and crystals. A better understanding of the rheological properties of the slag, such as yield stress and shear-thinning, are critical in determining the optimum operating conditions. To develop an accurate heat transfer model in any type of coal combustion or gasification process, the heat transfer and to some extent the rheological properties of ash and slag

  10. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rozelle, Peter; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2 = 10- 8 atm in themore » temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to

  11. The viscosity to entropy ratio: From string theory motivated bounds to warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G.; Libby, S. B.; Silvestrelli, P. L.

    2014-07-04

    Here, we study the ratio of viscosity to entropy density in Yukawa one-component plasmas as a function of coupling parameter at fixed screening, and in realistic warm dense matter models as a function of temperature at fixed density. In these two situations, the ratio is minimized for values of the coupling parameters that depend on screening, and for temperatures that in turn depend on density and material. In this context, we also examine Rosenfeld arguments relating transport coefficients to excess reduced entropy for Yukawa one-component plasmas. For these cases we show that this ratio is always above the lower-bound conjecture derived from string theory ideas.

  12. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rozelle, Peter; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2 = 10- 8 atm in the temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Strategies Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  14. Nonlinear simulations of peeling-ballooning modes with anomalous electron viscosity and their role in edge localized mode crashes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, X. Q.; Dudson, B.; Snyder, P. B.; Umansky, M. V.; Wilson, H.

    2010-10-22

    A minimum set of equations based on the peeling-ballooning (P-B) model with nonideal physics effects (diamagnetic drift, E×B drift, resistivity, and anomalous electron viscosity) is found to simulate pedestal collapse when using the new BOUT++ simulation code, developed in part from the original fluid edge code BOUT. Nonlinear simulations of P-B modes demonstrate that the P-B modes trigger magnetic reconnection, which leads to the pedestal collapse. With the addition of a model of the anomalous electron viscosity under the assumption that the electron viscosity is comparable to the anomalous electron thermal diffusivity, it is found from simulations using a realisticmore » high-Lundquist number that the pedestal collapse is limited to the edge region and the edge localized mode (ELM) size is about 5–10% of the pedestal stored energy. Furthermore, this is consistent with many observations of large ELMs.« less

  15. Chiral Restoration in the Nuclear Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djalali, C; Nasseripour, R; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H

    2007-10-01

    The photoproduction of vector mesons on various nuclei has been studied using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The vector mesons, rho, omega, and [cursive phi], are observed via their decay to e+e-, in order to reduce the effects of final state interactions in the nucleus. Of particular interest are possible in-medium effects on the properties of the rho meson. The rho mass spectrum is extracted from the data on various nuclei, D2, C, Fe, and Ti. We observe no significant mass shift and some broadening consistent with expected collisional broadening for the rho meson.

  16. Chiral Restoration in the Nuclear Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djalali, C.; Nasseripour, R.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.

    2007-10-26

    The photoproduction of vector mesons on various nuclei has been studied using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The vector mesons, {rho}, {omega}, and {phi}, are observed via their decay to e{sup +}e{sup -}, in order to reduce the effects of final state interactions in the nucleus. Of particular interest are possible in-medium effects on the properties of the {rho} meson. The {rho} mass spectrum is extracted from the data on various nuclei, D{sub 2}, C, Fe, and Ti. We observe no significant mass shift and some broadening consistent with expected collisional broadening for the {rho} meson.

  17. Two-dimensional nanostructured Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles for viscosity modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Xingliang; Xiao, Huaping; Liang, Hong; Kyle, Jonathan P.; Terrell, Elon J.

    2014-04-21

    Nanoparticle additives have been shown to improve the mechanical and transport phenomena of various liquids; however, little has been done to try and explain the rheological modifications provided from such modifications from a theoretical standpoint. Here, we report a non-Einstein-like reduction of viscosity of mineral oil with the utilization of yttrium oxide nanosheet additives. Experimental results, coupled with generalized smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulations, provide insight into the mechanism behind this reduction of fluid shear stress. The ordered inclination of these two-dimensional nanoparticle additives markedly improves the lubricating properties of the mineral oil, ultimately reducing the friction, and providing a way in designing and understanding next generation of lubricants.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring shear modulus and viscosity of a monomolecular film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Miyano, Kenjiro; Ketterson, John B.

    1985-01-01

    Instrument for measuring the shear modulus of a monomolecular film comprises a circular trough having inwardly sloping sides containing a liquid for supporting the monolayer on the surface thereof; a circular rotor suspended above the trough such that the lower surface of the rotor contacts the surface of the liquid, positioned such that the axis of the rotor is concentric with the axis of the trough and freely rotable about its axis; apparatus for hydrostatically compressing the monolayer in the annular region formed between the rotor and the sides of the trough; and apparatus for rotating the trough about its axis. Preferably, hydrostatic compression of the monolayer is achieved by removing liquid from the bottom of the trough (decreasing the surface area) while raising the trough vertically along its axis to maintain the monolayer at a constant elevation (and maintain rotor contact). In order to measure viscosity, a apparatus for rotating the rotor about its axis is added to the apparatus.

  19. Glass Melt Emissivity, Viscosity, and Foaming Monitoring with Millimeter-Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, S.K.; Daniel, William E.; Hadidi, Kamal; Bromberg, Leslie; Miller, Don; Rogers, L.A.

    2003-09-10

    Nuclear waste glass processing efficiencies, improved melter control to anomalies such as foaming, and environmental compliance would be facilitated by the availability of on-line monitoring technologies. It has been shown that the millimeter-wave (MMW) range of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.3-10 mm) is ideally suited to hot melter environments by having wavelengths long enough to penetrate optically obscure views yet short enough to provide spatial resolution with reliable refractory quasi-optical components. A thermal return reflection (TRR) method has been developed that allows a millimeter-wave pyrometer to determine emissivity by returning a portion of the thermal emission as a probe. Melt glass viscosities in the range 20 -2000 Poise and specific gravities have been measured by rates of flow and displacements inside hollow MMW ceramic waveguides immersed into the melts. Glass foaming has been observed by detecting the melt surface swelling followed by the increase in surface emissivity after gases break the surface.

  20. The viscosity to entropy ratio: From string theory motivated bounds to warm dense matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Faussurier, G.; Libby, S. B.; Silvestrelli, P. L.

    2014-07-04

    Here, we study the ratio of viscosity to entropy density in Yukawa one-component plasmas as a function of coupling parameter at fixed screening, and in realistic warm dense matter models as a function of temperature at fixed density. In these two situations, the ratio is minimized for values of the coupling parameters that depend on screening, and for temperatures that in turn depend on density and material. In this context, we also examine Rosenfeld arguments relating transport coefficients to excess reduced entropy for Yukawa one-component plasmas. For these cases we show that this ratio is always above the lower-bound conjecturemore » derived from string theory ideas.« less

  1. Bulk viscosity in a hyperonic star and r-mode instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, T. K.; Mishra, H.; Sreekanth, V.

    2010-08-15

    We consider a rotating neutron star with the presence of hyperons in its core. We use an equation of state in an effective chiral model within the relativistic mean-field approximation. We calculate the hyperonic bulk viscosity coefficient caused by nonleptonic weak interactions. By estimating the damping time scales of the dissipative processes, we investigate its role in the suppression of gravitationally driven instabilities in the r mode. We observe that r-mode instability remains very significant for hyperon core temperatures of around 10{sup 8} K, which results in a comparatively larger instability window. We find that such instability can reduce the angular velocity of the rapidly rotating star considerably up to {approx}0.04{Omega}{sub K}, with {Omega}{sub K} as the Keplerian angular velocity.

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring shear modulus and viscosity of a monomolecular film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-10-18

    Apparatus for measuring the shear modulus of a monomolecular film comprises a circular trough having inwardly sloping sides containing a liquid for supporting the monolayer on the surface thereof; a circular rotor suspended above the trough such that the lower surface of the rotor contacts the surface of the liquid, positioned such that the axis of the rotor is concentric with the axis of the trough and freely rotable about its axis; means for hydrostatically compressing the monolayer in the annular region formed between the rotor and the sides of the trough; and means for rotating the trough about its axis. Preferably, hydrostatic compression of the monolayer is achieved by removing liquid from the bottom of the trough (decreasing the surface area) while raising the trough vertically along its axis to maintain the monolayer at a constant elevation (and maintain rotor contact). In order to measure viscosity, a means for rotating the rotor about its axis is added to the apparatus.

  3. High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

    2012-07-31

    Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

  4. Three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model with eddy viscosity and turbulent resistivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2014-06-10

    We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are

  5. METHOD OF REMOVING IODINE FROM GASES AND FILTER MEDIUM THEREFOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silverman, L.

    1961-08-01

    A method for the removal of iodine from large gas volumes is described. The gaseous medium is heated to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C. Water vapor is then added to the medium in approximate amounts of 1 lb/cu ft of the medium. The medium is then passed through a porous copper fibrous pad having deposited thereon a coating of silver, the silver coating being treated with hydrogen sulfide forming a layer of silver sulfide. (AEC)

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Results | Department of Energy Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Data and Results Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Data and Results The Vehicle Technologies Office supports work to collect extensive data on light-duty, medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles through the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Idaho National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) test and evaluate medium and heavy-duty fleet vehicles that use hybrid

  7. METHOD OF OPPOSING IRRADIATION-INDUCED VISCOSITY INCREASE IN EMPLOYMENT OF ORGANIC FLUIDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balt, R.O.

    1961-10-24

    A method is described for conducting mechanical operations necessitating the use of a lubricant in a medium operaject to reactor irradiation of 0.5 x 10/ sup 12/ to 1 x 10/sup 12/ neut rons/ cm/sup 2//sec. A thiopolyether lubricant such as 16, 19-dioxa-13, 22-dithiatetratriacontane is used. (AEC)

  8. Inorganic/organic nanocomposites: Reaching a high filler content without increasing viscosity using core-shell structured nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benhadjala, W.; Gravoueille, M.; Weiss, M.; Bord-Majek, I.; Béchou, L.; Ousten, Y.; Suhir, E.; Buet, M.; Louarn, M.; Rougé, F.; Gaud, V.

    2015-11-23

    Extensive research is being conducted on the development of inorganic/organic nanocomposites for a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, biotechnologies, photonics, adhesives, or optical coatings. High filler contents are usually required to fully optimize the nanocomposites properties. However, numerous studies demonstrated that traditional composite viscosity increases with increasing the filler concentration reducing therefore significantly the material processability. In this work, we synthesized inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposites with different shell thicknesses. By reducing the shell thickness while maintaining a constant core size, the nanoparticle molecular mass decreases but the nanocomposite filler fraction is correlatively increased. We performed viscosity measurements, which clearly highlighted that intrinsic viscosity of hybrid nanoparticles decreases as the molecular mass decreases, and thus, as the filler fraction increases, as opposed to Einstein predictions about the viscosity of traditional inorganic/polymer two-phase mixtures. This exceptional behavior, modeled by Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation, proves to be a significant breakthrough for the development of industrializable nanocomposites with high filler contents.

  9. On the Virial Theorem for Interstellar Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D

    2007-09-24

    An attempt has been made to derive a version of the virial integral that would describe average properties of the interstellar medium (ISM). It is suggested to eliminate the (large) contribution of stellar matter by introducing 'exclusion zones' surrounding stars. Such an approach leads to the appearance of several types of additional surface integrals in the general expression. Their contribution depends on the rate of energy and matter exchange between the stars and ISM. If this exchange is weak, one can obtain a desired virial integral for ISM. However, the presence of intermittent large-scale energetic events significantly constrains the applicability of the virial theorem. If valid, the derived virial integral is dominated by cold molecular/atomic clouds, with only minor contribution of the global magnetic field and low-density warm part.

  10. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackie, Robin J. D.

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  11. ORIGIN OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM: PRIMORDIAL OR ASTROPHYSICAL?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Jungyeon

    2014-12-20

    The origin of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters is still an unsolved problem that is largely due to our poor understanding of initial seed magnetic fields. If the seed magnetic fields have primordial origins, it is likely that large-scale pervasive magnetic fields were present before the formation of the large-scale structure. On the other hand, if they were ejected from astrophysical bodies, then they were highly localized in space at the time of injection. In this paper, using turbulence dynamo models for high magnetic Prandtl number fluids, we find constraints on the seed magnetic fields. The hydrodynamic Reynolds number based on the Spitzer viscosity in the intracluster medium (ICM) is believed to be less than O(10{sup 2}), while the magnetic Reynolds number can be much larger. In this case, if the seed magnetic fields have primordial origins, they should be stronger than O(10{sup 11})G, which is very close to the upper limit of O(10{sup 9})G set by the cosmic microwave background observations. On the other hand, if the seed magnetic fields were ejected from astrophysical bodies, any seed magnetic fields stronger than O(10{sup 9})G can safely magnetize the ICM. Therefore, it is less likely that primordial magnetic fields are the direct origin of present-day magnetic fields in the ICM.

  12. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  13. Dependence of neoclassical toroidal viscosity on the poloidal spectrum of applied nonaxisymmetric fields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Logan, Nikolas C.; Park, Jong -Kyu; Paz-Soldan, Carloa; Lanctot, Matthew J.; Smith, Sterling P.; Burrell, K. H.

    2016-02-05

    This paper presents a single mode model that accurately predicts the coupling of applied nonaxisymmetric fields to the plasma response that induces neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque in DIII-D H-mode plasmas. The torque is measured and modeled to have a sinusoidal dependence on the relative phase of multiple nonaxisymmetric field sources, including a minimum in which large amounts of nonaxisymmetric drive is decoupled from the NTV torque. This corresponds to the coupling and decoupling of the applied field to a NTV-driving mode spectrum. Modeling using the perturbed equilibrium nonambipolar transport (PENT) code confirms an effective single mode coupling between themore » applied field and the resultant torque, despite its inherent nonlinearity. Lastly, the coupling to the NTV mode is shown to have a similar dependence on the relative phasing as that of the IPEC dominant mode, providing a physical basis for the efficacy of this linear metric in predicting error field correction optima in NTV dominated regimes.« less

  14. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongen, W. van

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  15. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2004-08-03

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  16. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2006-05-30

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  17. Effects of Measurement Materials and Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Viscosity of synthetic Eastern and Western United States Coal Slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Tetsuya, Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-07-01

    The viscosity of the molten ash (slag) resulting from the mineral constituents in carbon feedstock used in slagging gasifiers is critical for controlling the gasification process. The viscosity of two synthetic slags with compositions resembling the mineral impurities in average eastern and western coal feedstock was examined at temperatures from 1300–1500 °C using a rotating bob viscometer. A few combinations of atmospheres and experimental materials were investigated with respect to one another to determine slag viscosity. A CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere (CO/CO{sub 2} = 1.8, corresponding to a P{sub O{sub 2}} = 10–8 atm) is required to sustain ferrous ions in FeO-containing slags, an environment that is oxidizing to most metals. Iron oxide in the slag prevents usage of Fe parts. In unpurified Ar, the Fe metal surface oxidizes. Using purified argon prevents iron measurement components from oxidation; however, the metallic surfaces act as nucleation sites for the reduction of the Fe oxide in the slag into metallic Fe. Dissolution of ceramic materials into the slag, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}, occurs in both atmospheres. Therefore, evaluating slag properties in the laboratory is challenging. The measured viscosities of two synthetic slags in this study diverged depending upon material selection. This difference is likely attributable to container/spindle-slag interactions. Viscosity measurements of the eastern coal slag using all ceramic parts agreed best with FactSage prediction above 1350 °C, with an average activation energy of 271.2 kJ. For western coal slag, the dissolution of container/spindle materials was substantial during the measurement, with precipitation of crystalline phase noted. The experimental viscosity data of the western coal slag agreed best with Kalmanovitch prediction above 1350 °C. The activation energy changed dramatically for both data sets of western coal slag, likely indicating the Newtonian-to-non-Newtonian transition.

  18. Characterization of Residual Medium Peptides from Yersinia pestis Cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clowers, Brian H.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2013-04-03

    Using a range of common microbial medium formulations (TSB, BHI, LB, and G-media), two attenuated strains of Y. pestis (KIM D27 (pgm-) and KIMD1 lcr-) were cultivated in triplicate. These cellular suspensions were used to develop a method of extracting residual medium peptides from the final microbial preparation to assess their relative abundance and identity. Across the conditions examined, which included additional cellular washing and different forms of microbial inactivation, residual medium peptides were detected. Despite the range of growth medium sources used and the associated manufacturing processes used in their production, a high degree of peptide similarity was observed for a given medium recipe. These results demonstrate that residual medium peptides are retained using traditional microbial cultivation techniques and may be used to inform forensic investigations with respect to production deduction.

  19. Funding Opportunity: Small-Medium Commercial Buildings | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Opportunity: Small-Medium Commercial Buildings Funding Opportunity: Small-Medium Commercial Buildings October 30, 2015 - 10:29am Addthis Funding Opportunity: Small-Medium Commercial Buildings Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Number: DE-FOA-0001385 The Building Technologies Office (BTO) Commercial Buildings Integration Program has announced the availability of up to $9.5 million for Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-FOA-0001385, "Solutions to Improve the Energy

  20. CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 Peer Review | Department of Energy Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: James Braun, Purdue University View the Presentation CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review (1.8 MB) More Documents & Publications Control and Diagnostics for Rooftop Units - 2014 BTO Peer Review CBEI: Lessons

  1. LNT + SCR Aftertreatment for Medium-Heavy Duty Applications:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LNT + SCR Aftertreatment for Medium-Heavy Duty Applications: A Systems Approach Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER ...

  2. CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Russell Taylor, United Technologies Research Center View the Presentation CBEI: ...

  3. CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Mugdha Mokashi, Bayer Materials View the Presentation ...

  4. Roel Neggers European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transition from shallow to deep convection using a dual mass flux boundary layer scheme Roel Neggers European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts Introduction " " % % &...

  5. Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Europe (Presentation) Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation) Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting ...

  6. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer ...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Issues Notice of Intent for Medium...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Demonstration Funding Opportunity Vehicle Technologies Office Issues Notice of Intent for Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Demonstration Funding Opportunity ...

  8. Ab initio multireference in-medium similarity renormalization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    group calculations of even calcium and nickel isotopes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ab initio multireference in-medium similarity renormalization group ...

  9. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    More Documents & Publications Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Battery Pack Requirements and Targets Validation FY 2009 DOE Vehicle ...

  10. Predictions of flow through an isothermal serpentine passage with linear eddy-viscosity Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laskowski, Gregory Michael

    2005-12-01

    Flows with strong curvature present a challenge for turbulence models, specifically eddy viscosity type models which assume isotropy and a linear and instantaneous equilibrium relation between stress and strain. Results obtained from three different codes and two different linear eddy viscosity turbulence models are compared to a DNS simulation in order to gain some perspective on the turbulence modeling capability of SIERRA/Fuego. The Fuego v2f results are superior to the more common two-layer k-e model results obtained with both a commercial and research code in terms of the concave near wall behavior predictions. However, near the convex wall, including the separated region, little improvement is gained using the v2f model and in general the turbulent kinetic energy prediction is fair at best.

  11. Ionic Liquids as Anti-Wear Additives for Next-Generation Low-Viscosity Fuel-Efficient Engine Lubricants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    information Ionic Liquids as Anti-Wear Additives for Next- Generation Low-Viscosity Fuel-Efficient Engine Lubricants Project ID: FT014 ORNL: Jun Qu, Peter Blau (retired), Huimin Luo, Sheng Dai, Todd Toops, Brian West, and Bruce Bunting (retired) GM: Michael Viola, Gregory Mordukhovich (left GM), and Donald Smolenski (retired) DOE Management Team: Steve Goguen, Kevin Stork and Steve Przesmitzki 2014 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review, June 19, 2014 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for

  12. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, V. Sojka, P. E.

    2014-07-15

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ?12 < We < ?16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We=12(1+2/3Oh{sup 2}), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, Formation of drops and bubbles, in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  13. Chemical and Microbial Characterization of North Slope Viscous Oils to Assess Viscosity Reduction and Enhanced Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Mary Beth Leigh

    2008-12-31

    A large proportion of Alaska North Slope (ANS) oil exists in the form of viscous deposits, which cannot be produced entirely using conventional methods. Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a promising approach for improving oil recovery for viscous deposits. MEOR can be achieved using either ex situ approaches such as flooding with microbial biosurfactants or injection of exogenous surfactant-producing microbes into the reservoir, or by in situ approaches such as biostimulation of indigenous surfactant-producing microbes in the oil. Experimental work was performed to analyze the potential application of MEOR to the ANS oil fields through both ex situ and in situ approaches. A microbial formulation containing a known biosurfactant-producing strain of Bacillus licheniformis was developed in order to simulate MEOR. Coreflooding experiments were performed to simulate MEOR and quantify the incremental oil recovery. Properties like viscosity, density, and chemical composition of oil were monitored to propose a mechanism for oil recovery. The microbial formulation significantly increased incremental oil recovery, and molecular biological analyses indicated that the strain survived during the shut-in period. The indigenous microflora of ANS heavy oils was investigated to characterize the microbial communities and test for surfactant producers that are potentially useful for biostimulation. Bacteria that reduce the surface tension of aqueous media were isolated from one of the five ANS oils (Milne Point) and from rock oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), and may prove valuable for ex situ MEOR strategies. The total bacterial community composition of the six different oils was evaluated using molecular genetic tools, which revealed that each oil tested possessed a unique fingerprint indicating a diverse bacterial community and varied assemblages. Collectively we have demonstrated that there is potential for in situ and ex situ MEOR of ANS oils. Future work

  14. Exploratory Characterization of a Perfluoropolyether Oil as a Possible Viscosity Standard at Deepwater Production Conditions of 533 K and 241 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baled, Hseen O.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Morreale, Bryan D.; Soong, Yee; Gamwo, Isaac; Krukonis, Val; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; Wu, Yue; McHugh, Mark A.; Burgess, Ward A.; M Enick, Robert M.

    2013-10-01

    DuPonts perfluoropolyether oil Krytox GPL 102 is a promising candidate for the high-temperature, high-pressure Deepwater viscosity standard (DVS). The preferred DVS is a thermally stable liquid that exhibits a viscosity of roughly 20 mPa?s at 533 K and 241 MPa; a viscosity value representative of light oils found in ultra-deep formations beneath the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico. A windowed rolling-ball viscometer designed by our team is used to determine the Krytox GPL 102 viscosity at pressures to 245 MPa and temperatures of 311 K, 372 K, and 533 K. At 533 K and 243 MPa, the Krytox GPL 102 viscosity is (27.21.3)mPa?s . The rolling-ball viscometer viscosity results for Krytox GPL 102 are correlated with an empirical 10-parameter surface fitting function that yields an MAPD of 3.9 %. A Couette rheometer is also used to measure the Krytox GPL 102 viscosity, yielding a value of (26.21)mPa?s at 533 K and 241 MPa. The results of this exploratory study suggest that Krytox GPL 102 is a promising candidate for the DVS, primarily because this fluoroether oil is thermally stable and exhibits a viscosity closer to the targeted value of 20 mPa ? s at 533 K and 241 MPa than any other fluid reported to date. Nonetheless, further studies must be conducted by other researcher groups using various types of viscometers and rheometers on samples of Krytox GPL 102 from the same lot to further establish the properties of Krytox GPL 102.

  15. Viscosity Solutions for a System of Integro-PDEs and Connections to Optimal Switching and Control of Jump-Diffusion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Imran H.; Jakobsen, Espen R.; Karlsen, Kenneth H.

    2010-08-15

    We develop a viscosity solution theory for a system of nonlinear degenerate parabolic integro-partial differential equations (IPDEs) related to stochastic optimal switching and control problems or stochastic games. In the case of stochastic optimal switching and control, we prove via dynamic programming methods that the value function is a viscosity solution of the IPDEs. In our setting the value functions or the solutions of the IPDEs are not smooth, so classical verification theorems do not apply.

  16. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash...

  17. Preliminary Test Results from 650 MHz Single Cell Medium Beta...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Preliminary Test Results from 650 MHz Single Cell Medium Beta Cavities for Project X Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary Test Results from 650 MHz Single Cell ...

  18. New IRS Rules for Small and Medium Wind Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Wind Certification Council (SWCC) will host a webinar on how certification is being used to meet the new Internal Revenue Service (IRS) requirements for small and medium wind turbines...

  19. Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Presentation) | Department of Energy Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation) Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation) Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting (HTMWG) held October 10, 2007 in Washington, D.C. htwmg_oct07_jones.pdf (3.12 MB) More Documents & Publications CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe Minutes of the High Temperature

  20. Interferometric Method of Measuring Parameters of Medium Oscillations. |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Interferometric Method of Measuring Parameters of Medium Oscillations. A new interferometric method of measuring parameters of an oscillating medium by measuring the phase shift of scattered waves. The new method allows extracting information about parameters of oscillation. This invention may require further development. The invention could be used for designing a new type of interferometric equipment for plasma physics experiments. No.: M-877 Inventor(s):

  1. Modeling flow in a pressure-sensitive, heterogeneous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, Donald W.; Minkoff, Susan E.

    2009-06-01

    Using an asymptotic methodology, including an expansion in inverse powers of {radical}{omega}, where {omega} is the frequency, we derive a solution for flow in a medium with pressure dependent properties. The solution is valid for a heterogeneous medium with smoothly varying properties. That is, the scale length of the heterogeneity must be significantly larger then the scale length over which the pressure increases from it initial value to its peak value. The resulting asymptotic expression is similar in form to the solution for pressure in a medium in which the flow properties are not functions of pressure. Both the expression for pseudo-phase, which is related to the 'travel time' of the transient pressure disturbance, and the expression for pressure amplitude contain modifications due to the pressure dependence of the medium. We apply the method to synthetic and observed pressure variations in a deforming medium. In the synthetic test we model one-dimensional propagation in a pressure-dependent medium. Comparisons with both an analytic self-similar solution and the results of a numerical simulation indicate general agreement. Furthermore, we are able to match pressure variations observed during a pulse test at the Coaraze Laboratory site in France.

  2. Kinematic dust viscosity effect on linear and nonlinear dust-acoustic waves in space dusty plasmas with nonthermal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Hanbaly, A. M.; Sallah, M.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Darweesh, H. F.

    2015-10-15

    Linear and nonlinear dust-acoustic (DA) waves are studied in a collisionless, unmagnetized and dissipative dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged dust grains, Boltzmann-distributed electrons, and nonthermal ions. The normal mode analysis is used to obtain a linear dispersion relation illustrating the dependence of the wave damping rate on the carrier wave number, the dust viscosity coefficient, the ratio of the ion temperature to the electron temperatures, and the nonthermal parameter. The plasma system is analyzed nonlinearly via the reductive perturbation method that gives the KdV-Burgers equation. Some interesting physical solutions are obtained to study the nonlinear waves. These solutions are related to soliton, a combination between a shock and a soliton, and monotonic and oscillatory shock waves. Their behaviors are illustrated and shown graphically. The characteristics of the DA solitary and shock waves are significantly modified by the presence of nonthermal (fast) ions, the ratio of the ion temperature to the electron temperature, and the dust kinematic viscosity. The topology of the phase portrait and the potential diagram of the KdV-Burgers equation is illustrated, whose advantage is the ability to predict different classes of traveling wave solutions according to different phase orbits. The energy of the soliton wave and the electric field are calculated. The results in this paper can be generalized to analyze the nature of plasma waves in both space and laboratory plasma systems.

  3. PICKUP ION MEDIATED PLASMAS. I. BASIC MODEL AND LINEAR WAVES IN THE SOLAR WIND AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Mostafavi, P.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2014-12-20

    Pickup ions (PUIs) in the outer heliosphere and the local interstellar medium are created by charge exchange between protons and hydrogen (H) atoms, forming a thermodynamically dominant component. In the supersonic solar wind beyond >10 AU, in the inner heliosheath (IHS), and in the very local interstellar medium (VLISM), PUIs do not equilibrate collisionally with the background plasma. Using a collisionless form of Chapman-Enskog expansion, we derive a closed system of multi-fluid equations for a plasma comprised of thermal protons and electrons, and suprathermal PUIs. The PUIs contribute an isotropic scalar pressure to leading order, a collisionless heat flux at the next order, and a collisionless stress tensor at the second-order. The collisionless heat conduction and viscosity in the multi-fluid description results from a non-isotropic PUI distribution. A simpler one-fluid MHD-like system of equations with distinct equations of state for both the background plasma and the PUIs is derived. We investigate linear wave properties in a PUI-mediated three-fluid plasma model for parameters appropriate to the VLISM, the IHS, and the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. Five distinct wave modes are possible: Alfvn waves, thermal fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves, PUI fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves, and an entropy mode. The thermal and PUI acoustic modes propagate at approximately the combined thermal magnetoacoustic speed and the PUI sound speed respectively. All wave modes experience damping by the PUIs through the collisionless PUI heat flux. The PUI-mediated plasma model yields wave properties, including Alfvn waves, distinctly different from those of the standard two-fluid model.

  4. Extruder system and method for treatment of a gaseous medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silvi, Norberto; Perry, Robert James; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Balch, Gary Stephen; Westendorf, Tiffany Elizabeth Pinard

    2016-04-05

    A system for treatment of a gaseous medium, comprises an extruder having a barrel. The extruder further comprises a first inlet port, a second inlet port, and a plurality of outlet ports coupled to the barrel. The first inlet port is configured for feeding a lean sorbent, the second inlet port is configured for feeding a gaseous medium, and the plurality of outlet ports are configured for releasing a plurality of components removed from the gaseous medium. Further, the extruder comprises a plurality of helical elements coupled to a plurality of kneading elements, mounted on a shaft, and disposed within the barrel. The barrel and the plurality of helical and kneading elements together form an absorption unit and a desorption unit. The first and second inlet ports are formed in the absorption unit and the plurality of outlet ports are formed in the absorption and desorption units.

  5. Origin of coherent structures in a discrete chaotic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinovich, M.I.; Torres, J.J.; Varona, P.; Huerta, R.; Varona, P.; Huerta, R.; Weidman, P.

    1999-08-01

    Using as an example a large lattice of locally interacting Hindmarsh-Rose chaotic neurons, we disclose the origin of ordered structures in a discrete nonequilibrium medium with fast and slow chaotic oscillations. The origin of the ordering mechanism is related to the appearance of a periodic average dynamics in the group of chaotic neurons whose individual slow activity is significantly synchronized by the group mean field. Introducing the concept of a {open_quotes}coarse grain{close_quotes} as a cluster of neuron elements with periodic averaged behavior allows consideration of the dynamics of a medium composed of these clusters. A study of this medium reveals spatially ordered patterns in the periodic and slow dynamics of the coarse grains that are controlled by the average intensity of the fast chaotic pulsation. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. China-Medium and Long Term Energy Conservation Plan | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Medium and Long Term Energy Conservation Plan Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Medium and Long Term Energy Conservation Plan AgencyCompany Organization Government of China...

  7. CBEI - Coordinating RTUs in Small & Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Braun, jbraun@purdue.edu CBEI/Purdue University CBEI - Coordinating RTUs in Small & Medium Sized Commercial Buildings 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 5/1/2014 Planned end date: 4/30/2016 Key Milestones 1. Adaptive control modeling, 10/15/14 2. Energy savings assessments, 2/28/15 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $350,000 Total future DOE $: $200,000 Target Market/Audience: Small and medium-size commercial buildings (SMSCBs) served by RTUs Key

  8. Final Report - IHLW PCT, Spinel T1%, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity Model Development, VSL-07R1240-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Landmesser, S. M.; Pegg, I. L.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cooley, Scott K.; Gan, H.; Kot, W. K.

    2013-11-13

    This report is the last in a series of currently scheduled reports that presents the results from the High Level Waste (HLW) glass formulation development and testing work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America (CUA) and the development of IHLW property-composition models performed jointly by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL for the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP). Specifically, this report presents results of glass testing at VSL and model development at PNNL for Product Consistency Test (PCT), one-percent crystal fraction temperature (T1%), electrical conductivity (EC), and viscosity of HLW glasses. The models presented in this report may be augmented and additional validation work performed during any future immobilized HLW (IHLW) model development work. Completion of the test objectives is addressed.

  9. Computer simulator of coiled tubing wellbore cleanouts in deviated wells recommends optimum pump rate and fluid viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, I.C.

    1995-12-31

    Key factors in the efficient removal of sand fill from deviated wells are the proper selection of a fluid and the pump rates. The operation should be designed to (1) reduce or eliminate the formation of beds of particles in the annulus between the casing and tubing, (2) maintain the particles in suspension and (3) transport the fill to the surface. A new design tool for coiled tubing (CT) cleanouts in deviated wells has been developed. Based on a mechanistic model of particle transport in deviated wells, it predicts the conditions under which a particle bed is formed, calculates the depth of the bed and determines whether the bed slides upward, remains stationary or slides back down the well. Moreover, it calculates the minimum pump rate required to achieve complete suspension of the fill for different fluid viscosities, sand pick-up rates and deviation angles, thereby allowing a simple assessment of the optimum design parameters.

  10. Topical viscosity control for light hydrocarbon displacing fluids in petroleum recovery and in fracturing fluids for well stimulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heller, John P.; Dandge, Dileep K.

    1986-01-01

    Solvent-type flooding fluids comprising light hydrocarbons in the range of ethane to hexane (and mixtures thereof) are used to displace crude oil in formations having temperatures of about 20 degrees to about 150 degrees Centigrade and pressures above about 650 psi, the light hydrocarbons having dissolved therein from about 0.05% to about 3% of an organotin compound of the formula R.sub.3 SnF where each R is independently an alkyl, aryl or alkyaryl group from 3 to 12 carbon atoms. Under the pressures and temperatures described, the organotin compounds become pentacoordinated and linked through the electronegative bridges, forming polymers within the light hydrocarbon flooding media to render them highly viscous. Under ambient conditions, the viscosity control agents will not readily be produced from the formation with either crude oil or water, since they are insoluble in the former and only sparingly soluble in the latter.

  11. High-harmonic generation in a dense medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strelkov, V.V.; Platonenko, V.T.; Becker, A.

    2005-05-15

    The high-harmonic generation in a plasma or gas under conditions when the single-atom response is affected by neighboring ions or atoms of the medium is studied theoretically. We solve numerically the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a single-electron atom in the combined fields of the neighboring particles and the laser, and average the results over different random positions of the particles using the Monte Carlo method. Harmonic spectra are calculated for different medium densities and laser intensities. We observe a change of the harmonic properties due to a random variation of the harmonic phase induced by the field of the medium, when the medium density exceeds a certain transition density. The transition density is found to depend on the harmonic order, but it is almost independent of the fundamental intensity. It also differs for the two (shorter and longer) quantum paths. The latter effect leads for ionic densities in the transition regime to a narrowing of the harmonic lines and a shortening of the attosecond pulses generated using a group of harmonics.

  12. Oscillatory motion of a viscous fluid in a porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siraev, R. R.

    2015-08-15

    An oscillatory flow of an incompressible fluid in a saturated porous medium in the presence of a solid inclusion has been theoretically studied. Unsteady filtration has been described by the Brinkman–Forchheimer equation, where inertial effects and terms with acceleration characteristic of high filtration rates and the presence of pulsations are taken into account. The convective part of the acceleration is responsible for nonlinear effects near macroinhomogeneities. These effects can play a noticeable role in unsteady flows in the porous medium, as is shown for the problem of a solid ball streamed by an oscillatory flow having a given velocity at infinity. The results indicate that a secondary averaged flow appears in the case of high frequencies and cannot be described by Darcy’s or Forchheimer’s filtration laws.

  13. On fluid flow in a heterogeneous medium under nonisothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.W., Vasco

    2010-11-01

    An asymptotic technique, valid in the presence of smoothly-varying heterogeneity, provides explicit expressions for the velocity of a propagating pressure and temperature disturbance. The governing equations contain nonlinear terms due to the presence of temperature-dependent coefficients and due to the advection of fluids with differing temperatures. Two cases give well-defined expressions in terms of the parameters of the porous medium: the uncoupled propagation of a pressure disturbance and the propagation of a fully coupled temperature and pressure disturbance. The velocity of the coupled disturbance or front, depends upon the medium parameters and upon the change in temperature and pressure across the front. For uncoupled flow, the semi-analytic expression for the front velocity reduces to that associated with a linear diffusion equation. A comparison of the asymptotic travel time estimates with calculations from a numerical simulator indicates reasonably good agreement for both uncoupled and coupled disturbances.

  14. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  15. Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Choi, Daiwon; Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, G.; Sun, C.

    2014-12-12

    This is one of the chapters in the book titled “Advances in batteries for large- and medium-scale energy storage: Applications in power systems and electric vehicles” that will be published by the Woodhead Publishing Limited. The chapter discusses the basic electrochemical fundamentals of electrochemical energy storage devices with a focus on the rechargeable batteries. Several practical secondary battery systems are also discussed as examples

  16. Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory: Quantum nonlocal effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-04-15

    We develop the Maxwell-Garnett theory for the effective medium approximation of composite materials with metallic nanoparticles by taking into account the quantum spatial dispersion effects in dielectric response of nanoparticles. We derive a quantum nonlocal generalization of the standard Maxwell-Garnett formula, by means the linearized quantum hydrodynamic theory in conjunction with the Poisson equation as well as the appropriate additional quantum boundary conditions.

  17. Dissociation of a heavy meson in the quark medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Chanyong

    2010-02-15

    We investigate the dissociation of a heavy meson in the medium composed of light quarks and gluons. In the quark-gluon plasma, the dissociation length of the heavy meson becomes short as the temperature or quark chemical potential increases. On the contrary, in the hadronic phase the dissociation length becomes large as the chemical potential increases, due to the different dissociation mechanism with one used in the quark-gluon plasma.

  18. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prohaska, Robert; Duran, Adam; Ragatz, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-05-03

    In an effort to help commercialize technologies for electric vehicles (EVs) through deployment and demonstration projects, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) provided funding to participating U.S. companies to cover part of the cost of purchasing new EVs. Within the medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle segment, both Smith Electric Newton and and Navistar eStar vehicles qualified for such funding opportunities. In an effort to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new technologies deployed in these vehicles operating under real world conditions, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium-duty EVs were collected, compiled, and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Fleet Test and Evaluation team over a period of 3 years. More than 430 Smith Newton EVs have provided data representing more than 150,000 days of operation. Similarly, data have been collected from more than 100 Navistar eStar EVs, resulting in a comparative total of more than 16,000 operating days. Combined, NREL has analyzed more than 6 million kilometers of driving and 4 million hours of charging data collected from commercially operating medium-duty electric vehicles in various configurations. In this paper, extensive duty-cycle statistical analyses are performed to examine and characterize common vehicle dynamics trends and relationships based on in-use field data. The results of these analyses statistically define the vehicle dynamic and kinematic requirements for each vehicle, aiding in the selection of representative chassis dynamometer test cycles and the development of custom drive cycles that emulate daily operation. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented and discussed. Results are presented in both graphical and tabular formats illustrating a number of key relationships between parameters observed within the data set that relate to

  19. Pauli blocking in the nuclear medium π N transition matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest J.; Sevgen, A.

    1981-07-01

    We give an analytic expression for the in-medium nonstatic πN transition matrix in nuclear matter. Pauli blocking and spreading effects are included explicitly. Spin-flip terms are retained. We discuss the modifications of the free-space amplitude as a function of energy and density and show that large dynamical isospin effects are expected in pion scattering on heavy nuclei.

  20. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  1. Study of fractionation of refrigerant blends in contact with lubricants and measurement of the solubility, density, and viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Falconi, E.A.

    1999-07-01

    The fractionation of two refrigerant blends was studied using the gas equilibrium method. The amount of fractionation was measured by maintaining a constant composition of the refrigerant gas vapor over the lubricant, which was equal in composition to the liquid refrigerant gas blend introduced into the viscometer. Specifically, the concentration of the dissolved refrigerant gas in the lubricant ranges from 0.6% to 78% by weight in the specified temperature range of {minus}25 C to 125 C and within the highest test pressure of 500 psia (3.45 MPa). The polyolester chosen for this study was a 32 ISO VG complex branched acid pentaerythritol product. Smoothed graphical data presented were obtained from individual isothermal measurements. These individual isothermal measurement temperatures detail the composition of the equilibrium gas fractionation of R-32 and R-134a in the lubricant, mixed vapor pressure, concentration of the total mixed blend as percent by weight in the lubricant and viscosity in centipoise (cP) and centistokes (cSt). The raw data are presented in a smoothed graphical form based on a fixed vapor composition.

  2. Role of alkyl alcohol on viscosity of silica-based chemical gels for decontamination of highly radioactive nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, B. S.; Yoon, S. B.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.

    2012-07-01

    Silica-based chemical gel for the decontamination of nuclear facilities was prepared by using fumed silica as a viscosifier, a 0.5 M Ce (IV) solution dissolved in concentrated nitric acid as a chemical decontamination agent, and tripropylene glycol butyl ether (TPGBE) as a co-viscosifier. A new effective strategy for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the alkyl alcohols as organic solvents to effectively dissolve the co-viscosifier. The mixture solution of the co-viscosifier and alkyl alcohols was more effective in the control of viscosity than that of the co-viscosifier only in gel. Here, the alkyl alcohols played a key role as an effective dissolution solvent for the co-viscosifier in the preparation of the chemical gel, resulting in a reducing of the amount of the co-viscosifier and gel time compared with that of the chemical gel prepared without the alkyl alcohols. It was considered that the alkyl alcohols contributed to the effective dissolution of the co-viscosifier as well as the homogeneous mixing in the formation of the gel, while the co-viscosifier in an aqueous media of the chemical decontamination agent solution showed a lower solubility. The decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels prepared in this work using a multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed a high decontamination efficiency of over ca. 94% and ca. 92% for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on surface of the stainless steel 304, respectively. (authors)

  3. Information storage medium and method of recording and retrieving information thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchant, D. D.; Begej, Stefan

    1986-01-01

    Information storage medium comprising a semiconductor doped with first and second impurities or dopants. Preferably, one of the impurities is introduced by ion implantation. Conductive electrodes are photolithographically formed on the surface of the medium. Information is recorded on the medium by selectively applying a focused laser beam to discrete regions of the medium surface so as to anneal discrete regions of the medium containing lattice defects introduced by the ion-implanted impurity. Information is retrieved from the storage medium by applying a focused laser beam to annealed and non-annealed regions so as to produce a photovoltaic signal at each region.

  4. A New Cavity Design For Medium Beta Acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feisi; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2014-02-01

    Heavy duty or cw, superconducting proton and heavy ion accelerators are being proposed and constructed worldwide. The total length of the machine is one of the main drivers in terms of cost. Thus hwr and spoke cavities at medium beta are usually optimized to achieve low surface field and high gradient. A novel accelerating structure at beta=0.5 evolved from spoke cavity is proposed, with lower surface fields but slightly higher heat load. It would be an interesting option for pulsed and cw accelerators with beam energy of more than 200mev/u.

  5. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vermeulen, Theodore (Berkeley, CA); Grens, II, Edward A. (Danville, CA); Holten, Ronald R. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl.sub.2 catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl.sub.2 and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon, selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  6. In-Medium Vector Mesons, Dileptons and Chiral Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, Ralf

    2010-12-28

    Medium modifications of the electromagnetic spectral function in hadronic and quark-gluon matter are reviewed. A strong broadening of the {rho} meson, which dominates the spectral function in the low-mass regime, is quantitatively consistent with dilepton excess spectra measured in photoproduction off cold nuclei (CLAS/JLab) and in fixed-target ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions (NA45,NA60/CERN-SPS). The large excess observed by PHENIX at RHIC remains unexplained to date, but is most likely not due to emission from the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Connections to thermal lattice QCD promise progress in the search for chiral symmetry restoration.

  7. Experimental support for coal conversion demonstration projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: preheater rheology, slurry mixing, and vacuum bottoms viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Johnson, J.K.; Lee, D.D.; Wilson, J.H.; Youngblood, E.L.; Hightower, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has carried out a major support role in the area of thermophysical properties since 1978. From the outset, the emphasis has been on obtaining data on real coal liquids at process conditions of temperature and pressure. The results of rheology (viscosity and density) measurements of reacting mixtures under conditions similar to those of the SRC preheaters are presented, emphasizing the effects of the measured non-Newtonian behavior on design. Data obtained on mixing coal and process solvent up to 500/sup 0/K (450/sup 0/F) will be discussed, emphasizing its impact on thermal efficiency of the SRC processes. Finally, design and initial operation of a unique instrument to measure the viscosity on-line of streams containing up to 55% solids will be discussed.

  8. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The objective of the current ...

  9. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Kupitz, Christopher; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; White, Thomas A.; Zhao, Yun; Zook, James; Boutet, Sébastien; Cherezov, Vadim; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Raimund; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5 Å resolution using 300 µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.

  10. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; et al

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, themore » structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5 Å resolution using 300 µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.« less

  11. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Cosgrove, Jon; Duran, Adam; Konan, Arnaud; Lammert, Mike; Prohaska, Bob

    2015-06-09

    This presentation summarizes medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicle field evaluation test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis.

  12. Process for modifying the metal ion sorption capacity of a medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lundquist, Susan H. (White Bear Township, MN)

    2002-01-01

    A process for modifying a medium is disclosed that includes treating a medium having a metal ion sorption capacity with a solution that includes: A) an agent capable of forming a complex with metal ions; and B) ions selected from the group consisting of sodium ions, potassium ions, magnesium ions, and combinations thereof, to create a medium having an increased capacity to sorb metal ions relative to the untreated medium.

  13. Method of dispensing droplets to penetration-resistive mediums. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, V.L.; Ryon, A.D.; Haas, P.A.

    1982-06-10

    Uniform, monosized microspheroids are produced in a gelation medium characterized by a high resistance to surface penetration by reducing the effect of impact on entry of the droplets into the medium by contacting the droplet with a stream of medium and by introducing the resulting stream into a gelation column.

  14. Soot blower using fuel gas as blowing medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A soot blower assembly (10) for use in combination with a coal gasifier (14). The soot blower assembly is adapted for use in the hot combustible product gas generated in the gasifier as the blowing medium. The soot blower lance (20) and the drive means (30) by which it is moved into and out of the gasifier is housed in a gas tight enclosure (40) which completely surrounds the combination. The interior of the enclosure (40) is pressurized by an inert gas to a pressure level higher than that present in the gasifier so that any combustible product gas leaking from the soot blower lance (20) is forced into the gasifier rather than accumulating within the enclosure.

  15. Medium Modifications of Light Vector Mesons in Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djalali, Chaden; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Weygand, Dennis; Wood, Michael

    2007-11-01

    Preliminary results on the photoproduction of light vector mesons in nuclei using the Cebaf Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Laboratory are presented. The ?, ?, and ? mesons are clearly observed via their decay to e+e-. This decay channel reduces the effects of final state interactions in the nucleus. Of particular interest are the possible in-medium effects on the properties of the ? meson. The ? mass spectrum is extracted from the data on various nuclei, carbon, iron, and titanium, and compared to the spectrum from deuterium, which is relatively free of nuclear effects. No effects on the mass of the ? meson are observed, however, there is some widening of the resonance in titanium and iron, which is consistent with expected collisional broadening.

  16. Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This project compiles medium-duty (MD) aggregated deployment data and provides the compiled detailed analyses to industry. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles, electrified accessories, and electric charging infrastructure. Over 3.2 million miles of in-service all-electric MD truck data from 560 different vehicles have been collected since 2011, and usage data from over 1,000 truck electrification sites have been collected since 2013. Through the DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office, NREL is working to analyze real-time data from these deployment and demonstration projects to quantify the benefits: results and summary statistics are made available through the NREL website as quarterly and annual reports; 23 aggregated reports have been published on the performance and operation of these vehicles; and detailed data are being extracted to help further understand battery use and performance.

  17. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative

  18. Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peinado, C.O.; Koutz, S.L.

    1980-08-01

    This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 760/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics (a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant) and engineered safety features (core auxiliary cooling, relief valve, and steam generator dump systems).

  19. The insensitivity of reflected sh waves to anisotropy in an underlaying layered medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenberg, M.; Costa, J. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports on propagation in the plane of mirror symmetry of a monoclinic medium, with displacement normal to the plane which is the most general circumstance in anisotropic media for which pure shear-wave propagation can occur at all angles. Because the pure shear mode is uncoupled from the other two modes, its slowness surface in the plane is an ellipse. When the mirror symmetry plane is vertical the pure shear waves in this plane are SH waves and the elliptical SH sheet of the slowness surface is, in general, tilted with respect to the vertical axis. Consider a half-space of such a monoclinic medium, called medium M, overlain by a halfspace of isotropic medium I with plane SH waves incident on medium M propagating in the vertical symmetry plane of M. Contrary to the appearance of a lack of symmetry about the vertical axis due to the tilt of the SH-wave slowness ellipse, the reflection and transmission coefficients are symmetrical functions of the angle of incidence, and further, there exists an isotropic medium E with uniquely determined density and shear speed which gives exactly the same reflection and transmission coefficients underlying medium I as does monoclinic medium M. This means that the underlying monoclinic medium M can be replaced by isotropic medium E without changing the reflection and transmission coefficients for all values of the angle of incidence.

  20. Comparative study of medium damped and detuned linear accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jean-Francois Ostiguy et al.

    2001-08-22

    Long range wakefields are a serious concern for a future linear collider based on room temperature accelerating structures. They can be suppressed either by detuning and or local damping or with some combination of both strategies. Detuning relies on precisely phasing the contributions of the dipole modes excited by the passage of a single bunch. This is accomplished by controlling individual mode frequencies, a process which dictates individual cell dimensional tolerances. Each mode must be excited with the correct strength; this in turn, determines cell-to-cell alignment tolerances. In contrast, in a locally damped structure, the modes are attenuated at the cell level. Clearly, mode frequencies and relative excitation become less critical in that context; mechanical fabrication tolerances can be relaxed. While local damping is ideal from the stand-point of long range wakefield suppression, this comes at the cost of reducing the shunt impedance and possibly unacceptable localized heating. Recently, the Medium Damped Structure (MDS), a compromise between detuning and local damping, has generated some interest. In this paper, we compare a hypothetical MDS to the NLC Rounded Damped Detuned Structure (RDDS) and investigate possible advantages from the standpoint fabrication tolerances and their relation to beam stability and emittance preservation.

  1. Pipelines and laterally loaded piles in elastoplastic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajani, B. . Inst. for Research in Construction)

    1993-09-01

    The uplift behavior of a shallow pipeline embedded in an elastoplastic medium is examined. An analytical solution for a beam on elastoplastic foundation is developed and a characteristic nondimensional load-displacement and stress-displacement relationship are presented. An approximate three-dimensional (3D) solution is proposed that accounts for embedment and breakaway condition behind the pipeline making use of the load-displacement curves developed for rigid anchors by Rowe and Davis in 1982. A comparison of these results with those obtained by 3D finite-element analysis indicates that the simplified solution of a beam on elastoplastic foundation is a practical alternative for analyzing the uplift behavior of shallow pipelines. The approximate solution is also used to compare the behavior of a laterally loaded pile for which no separation or separation between the surrounding soil and the back of the pile is permitted as the load is monotonically increased. The results are presented in the form of nondimensional charts that permit hand calculations and rapid verification of structural design of the pipeline and piles.

  2. Two-phase flow in a chemically active porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darmon, Alexandre Dauchot, Olivier; Benzaquen, Michael; Salez, Thomas

    2014-12-28

    We study the problem of the transformation of a given reactant species into an immiscible product species, as they flow through a chemically active porous medium. We derive the equation governing the evolution of the volume fraction of the species, in a one-dimensional macroscopic description, identify the relevant dimensionless numbers, and provide simple models for capillary pressure and relative permeabilities, which are quantities of crucial importance when tackling multiphase flows in porous media. We set the domain of validity of our models and discuss the importance of viscous coupling terms in the extended Darcys law. We investigate numerically the steady regime and demonstrate that the spatial transformation rate of the species along the reactor is non-monotonous, as testified by the existence of an inflection point in the volume fraction profiles. We obtain the scaling of the location of this inflection point with the dimensionless lengths of the problem. Eventually, we provide key elements for optimization of the reactor.

  3. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: Long-length cable modeling and analysis HTS wire evaluation and testing Cable testing for AC losses Optimized cooling system design Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  4. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Evaluation | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt068_vss_miyasato_2011_o .pdf (575.74 KB) More Documents & Publications Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation SCAQMD:Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium-Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: SCAQMD: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium-Duty

  5. CBEI: AHU FDD in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review | Department of Energy AHU FDD in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: AHU FDD in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Jin Wen, Drexel View the Presentation CBEI: AHU FDD in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review (2.16 MB) More Documents & Publications Compatible and Cost-Effective Fault Diagnostic Solutions for Air Handling Unit-Variable Air Volume and Air Handling Unit-Constant Air

  6. CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Review | Department of Energy HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Russell Taylor, United Technologies Research Center View the Presentation CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review (996.29 KB) More Documents & Publications CBEI: FDD for Advanced RTUs - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Lessons Learned from

  7. CBEI: Lessons Learned from Integrated Retrofits in Small and Medium Sized

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review | Department of Energy Lessons Learned from Integrated Retrofits in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Lessons Learned from Integrated Retrofits in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Mark Stutman, PSU View the Presentation CBEI: Lessons Learned from Integrated Retrofits in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review (1.51 MB) More Documents & Publications

  8. CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review | Department of Energy Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Mugdha Mokashi, Bayer Materials View the Presentation CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review (1.25 MB) More Documents &

  9. Clean Cities' Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    Guide describes the alternative fuel and advanced medium- and heavy-duty vehicles available on the market, including buses, vans, refuse haulers, and more.

  10. In-Use Performance Results of Medium Duty Electric Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2012-07-01

    This presentation describes a DOE program to monitor and report on vehicle performance and energy utilization of medium-duty and heavy-duty electric vehicles.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  15. Formation of different isotopomers of chloronium in the interstellar medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Liton; Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2014-02-20

    The main focus of this paper is to explore the possibility of finding two deuterated isotopomers of H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} (chloronium) in and around the interstellar medium. The presence of a chloronium ion has recently been confirmed by the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the far-infrared. It observed para-chloronium toward six sources in the Galaxy. To date the existence of its deuterated isotopomers (HDCl{sup +} and D{sub 2}Cl{sup +}) have not been discussed in the literature. We find that these deuterated gas phase ions could be destroyed by various ion-molecular reactions, dissociative recombination (DR), and cosmic rays (CRs). We compute all of the ion-molecular (polar) reaction rates by using the parameterized trajectory theory and the ion-molecular (non-polar) reaction rates by using the Langevin theory. For DR- and CR-induced reactions, we adopt two well-behaved rate formulas. We also include these rate coefficients in our large gas-grain chemical network to study the chemical evolution of these species around the outer edge of the cold, dense cloud. In order to study spectral properties of the chloronium ion and its two deuterated isotopomers, we have carried out quantum chemical simulations. We calculated ground-state properties of these species by employing second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) along with quadruple-zeta correlation consistent (aug-cc-pVQZ) basis set. Infrared and electronic absorption spectra of these species are calculated by using the same level of theory. The MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory is used to report the different spectroscopic constants of these gas phase species. These spectroscopic constants are essential to predict the rotational transitions of these species. Our predicted column densities of D{sub 2}Cl{sup +}, HDCl{sup +}, along with spectral information may enable their future identification around outer edges of cold, dark clouds.

  16. THE IMPACT OF STARBURSTS ON THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Heckman, Timothy; Strickland, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wild, Vivienne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 95S (United Kingdom); Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA) (United Kingdom); Schiminovich, David, E-mail: sanch@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We present a study exploring the impact of a starburst on the properties of the surrounding circumgalactic medium (CGM): gas located beyond the galaxy's stellar body and extending out to the virial radius ({approx}200 kpc). We obtained ultraviolet spectroscopic data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) probing the CGM of 20 low-redshift foreground galaxies using background QSOs. Our sample consists of starburst and control galaxies. The latter comprises normal star-forming and passive galaxies with similar stellar masses and impact parameters as the starbursts. We used optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to estimate the properties of the starbursts, inferring average ages of {approx}200 Myr and burst fractions involving {approx}10% of their stellar mass. The COS data reveal highly ionized gas traced by C IV in 80%(4/5) of the starburst and in 17%(2/12) of the control sample. The two control galaxies with C IV absorbers differed from the four starbursts in showing multiple low-ionization transitions and strong saturated Ly{alpha} lines. They therefore appear to be physically different systems. We show that the C IV absorbers in the starburst CGM represent a significant baryon repository. The high detection rate of this highly ionized material in the starbursts suggests that starburst-driven winds can affect the CGM out to radii as large as 200 kpc. This is plausible given the inferred properties of the starbursts and the known properties of starburst-driven winds. This would represent the first direct observational evidence of local starbursts impacting the bulk of their gaseous halos, and as such provides new evidence of the importance of this kind of feedback in the evolution of galaxies.

  17. TIMESCALES ON WHICH STAR FORMATION AFFECTS THE NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan; Ott, Juergen; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2013-08-01

    Turbulent neutral hydrogen (H I) line widths are often thought to be driven primarily by star formation (SF), but the timescale for converting SF energy to H I kinetic energy is unclear. As a complication, studies on the connection between H I line widths and SF in external galaxies often use broadband tracers for the SF rate, which must implicitly assume that SF histories (SFHs) have been constant over the timescale of the tracer. In this paper, we compare measures of H I energy to time-resolved SFHs in a number of nearby dwarf galaxies. We find that H I energy surface density is strongly correlated only with SF that occurred 30-40 Myr ago. This timescale corresponds to the approximate lifetime of the lowest mass supernova progenitors ({approx}8 M{sub Sun }). This analysis suggests that the coupling between SF and the neutral interstellar medium is strongest on this timescale, due either to an intrinsic delay between the release of the peak energy from SF or to the coherent effects of many supernova explosions during this interval. At {Sigma}{sub SFR} > 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, we find a mean coupling efficiency between SF energy and H I energy of {epsilon} = 0.11 {+-} 0.04 using the 30-40 Myr timescale. However, unphysical efficiencies are required in lower {Sigma}{sub SFR} systems, implying that SF is not the primary driver of H I kinematics at {Sigma}{sub SFR} < 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}.

  18. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Zeolite nanocomposites synthesized by microwave assisted coprecipitation and its performance in reducing viscosity of heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iskandar, Ferry; Fitriani, Pipit; Merissa, Shanty; Khairurrijal,; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Mukti, Rino R.

    2014-02-24

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Zeolite nanocomposites have been synthesized via microwave assisted coprecipitation method and show to be efficient in reducing viscosity of heavy oil compared to other Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Zeolite nanocomposites prepared by conventional method. The following precursors such as FeCl{sub 3}⋅6H{sub 2}O, FeSO{sub 4}⋅7H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 4}OH, and natural zeolite of heulandite type were used in the sample preparation. In this study, the effect of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composition in the composite and microwave time heating were investigated. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Zeolite nanocomposites were then characterized to study the influence on crystal structures, morphology and physicochemical properties. The characterization techniques include X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen physisorption. The results show that by increasing the microwave heating time, the degree of nanocomposite intergrowth can be enhanced. The nanocomposite was tested in catalytic aquathermolysis of heavy oil at 200°C for 6 h and the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/zeolite of 1 to 4 ratios performed the highest viscosity reduction of heavy oil reaching 92%.

  19. Dissipative soliton-like plasmon-polariton pulses in extended medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabolotskii, A. A.

    2012-05-15

    The propagation of the coupled state of the electron density perturbation in an extended metallic medium and the excitation of a two-level resonant medium are analyzed. The one- and two-photon transitions in the resonant medium are considered. The electron density perturbation is described using the hydrodynamic approximation. The formation of plasmon-polariton pulses is analyzed in the case when losses in the extended medium are compensated for by the pumping of the two-level dielectric medium. Numerical analysis carried out for the two models revealed that the losses in a soliton-like pulse in a thin metallic medium can be compensated for due to the energy transfer from the amplifying medium to electron density waves. It is shown that the dispersion of a medium containing a two-level component may considerably affect the characteristics of the pulses. The possibility of effectively controlling the evolution of soliton-like pulses by varying an external electromagnetic field and the characteristics of the matrix is demonstrated.

  20. Navy/Marine Engineering Command Visits Sandia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... renewable energyrelated topics: wind-turbineradar interaction, photovoltaics (PV), ... grid modernization, wind energy, water power, concentrating solar power (CSP), ...

  1. NAVI-2 V4.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-02-24

    The software runs on embedded microcomputer interfaced to a neutron and a gamma-ray detector. A simple keypad interface provides a single button push to acquire data, store data, analyze it in real time and display the results on a LCD. The analysis involves a spectral analysis of the gamma-ray data to determine if the gamma-rays are being emitted from SNM or other common radioisotopes. Additional functionality includes a simple method of calibrating the instrument frommore » a single source, estimated dose rate, search algorithms and scan algorithms.« less

  2. Department of the Navy Bioeconomy Activity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flight Tests Planned Summer 2014 * Direct Sugar To Hydrocarbon Lab testing 90% ... testing planned 2015 F-76 * Direct Sugar To Hydrocarbon Laboratory testing 95% ...

  3. nuclear navy | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    use a pressurized-water reactor design that has two basic systems: the primary system and the secondary system. The primary system circulates ordinary water in an all-welded, ...

  4. Navy I Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  5. Navy II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  6. Viscosity and density of aqueous solutions of LiBr, LiCl, ZnBr[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2], and LiNO[sub 3]; 1: Single salt solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimby, J.M.; Berntsson, T.S. . Dept. of Heat and Power Technology)

    1994-01-01

    New experimental data for the viscosity and density of the binary systems lithium chloride + water, lithium bromide + water, calcium chloride + water, lithium nitrate + water, and zinc bromide + water are presented. Densities are presented in tabular form and as 10-parameter correlations, while kinematic and dynamic viscosities are presented in tabular form. Data are presented in the concentration range from intermediate dilution to close to room temperature crystallization concentration. The temperature ranges are 20--70 C for density and 25--90 C for viscosity. When available, literature data are compared with the new data, and some disagreement is found. New thermogravimetric curves are presented for the dehydration of CaCl[sub 2], ZnBr[sub 2], and LiBr in order to enable evaluation of drying as a composition determination technique.

  7. SIC ENABLED HIGH-FREQUENCY MEDIUM VOLTAGE DRIVE FOR HIGH-SPEED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A medium voltage drive system using SiC semiconductors and a high-speed motor to reduce ... MV high frequency drive, (ii) a high-speed motor, and (iii) advanced insulation systems. ...

  8. Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide for Small and Medium Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-07-07

    The Guide was developed to provide project management principles and guidelines to small and medium projects that fall outside the scope of DOE O 415.1, Information Technology Project Management, dated 12-3-12.

  9. New materials for methane capture from dilute and medium-concentration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New materials for methane capture from dilute and medium-concentration sources Previous Next List J. Kim, A. Maiti, L.-C. Lin, J. K. Stolaroff, B. Smit, and R. D. Aines, Nature...

  10. A Two-Dimensional Model for the Analysis of Contaminant Transport in a Fractured Porous Medium.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-03-05

    CHAINT-MC is a two-dimensional finite element model applicable to the transport of a dissolved radionuclide in a fractured porous medium along with radioactive chain decay and subsequent transport of the dissolved daughters.

  11. The Medium Matters | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    The Medium Matters Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 12.01.12 The Medium Matters Long-range, three-dimensional alignment and stacking

  12. Save Energy Now Energy Assessments What Are the Benefits for Small and Medium Facilities?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    February 19, 2009 Energy Assessments: What are the Benefits to Small and Medium Facilities? 2 Energy Assessments: What are the Benefits to Small and Medium Facilities? Webcast Agenda * Overview of Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program - Bill Prymak, US Department of Energy * Facility Assessment Process - Don Kasten, Rutgers University * Demonstration of IAC Website - Don Kasten/Michael B. Muller, Rutgers University * Q&A 3 DOE Industrial Technologies Goal: Drive a 25% reduction in

  13. Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scoping Study | Department of Energy Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review emrgtech05_brambley_040213.pdf (906.86 KB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Building Control Solutions PNNL: VOLTTRON Commercialization (CBI/ET Open Call) - 2015 Peer Review U.S. Industrial

  14. Operability and Emissions from a Medium-Duty Fleet Operating with GTL Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Catalyzed DPFs | Department of Energy Operability and Emissions from a Medium-Duty Fleet Operating with GTL Fuel and Catalyzed DPFs Operability and Emissions from a Medium-Duty Fleet Operating with GTL Fuel and Catalyzed DPFs 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. 2004_deer_cherrillo.pdf (144.9 KB) More Documents & Publications Diesel Particulate Filter Technology for Low-Temperature and Low-NOx/PM Applications

  15. DOE Issues Request for Information on Medium- and Heavy-Duty Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Truck Targets | Department of Energy Medium- and Heavy-Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Targets DOE Issues Request for Information on Medium- and Heavy-Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Targets June 10, 2016 - 3:45pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has issued a request for information (RFI) to obtain feedback and opinions from truck operators, truck and storage tank manufacturers, fuel cell manufacturers, station equipment designers, and

  16. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The objective of the current research is to assess differences in NOx emissions between biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels, resulting from fundamental issues and system-response issues. deer09_jacobs.pdf (775.62 KB) More Documents & Publications Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature

  17. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  18. The Impact of Lubricant on Emissions from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy on Emissions from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The Impact of Lubricant on Emissions from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: National Renewable Energy Lab 2002_deer_whitacre.pdf (355.38 KB) More Documents & Publications Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells: 2000 Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies

  19. ULTRASONICALLY-ENHANCED DENSE-MEDIUM CYCLONING FOR FINE COAL AND COAL REFUSE IMPOUNDMENT MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mark S. Klima; Dr. Barbara J. Arnold

    2001-08-01

    The Pennsylvania State University, its project team (Typlex, Inc., DAGER, Inc., and PrepTech, Inc.), and advisory committee members have demonstrated the application of ultrasonic energy during dense-medium cyclining and subsequent recovery of fine coal and coal refuse impoundment materials. The results will help to extend the range of conventional dense-medium cyclining to sizes now typically cleaned in relatively inefficient water-only cyclone and spiral concentrators circuits. This technology also provides a potential approach to produce ultra-clean material as would be used for feedstocks for premium carbon products. This report describes Phase I of the project, which involved laboratory testing of dense-medium cyclining and subsequent medium recovery, with and without ultrasonic treatment, along with fundamental dispersion testing. Dense-medium cycloning was conducted with a 76.2-mm (3-in.) diameter cyclone under various conditions including magnetite grade, medium relative density, inlet pressure, cyclone geometry, and feed coal. Dense-medium recovery testing was carried out with a 305-mm (12-in.) diameter x 152-mm (6-in.) wide wet-drum magnetic separator using the cyclone clean coal and refuse products as the feed material. Fundamental testing of dispersion/reagglomeration phenomena was conducted with coal/clay mixtures. In almost all cases, the dense-medium cyclone was capable of achieving separations down to approximately 0.037 mm. Ultrasonic treatment had a slight effect on reducing the ash content of the clean coal. It was also found that ultrasonic treatment improved the purity of the magnetic fraction during wet-drum magnetic separation. The treatment was particularly beneficial for the cyclone overflow material. The fundamental testing indicated that agitation after ultrasonic treatment is necessary to disperse fine particles and to prevent agglomeration.

  20. Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation | Department of Energy NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation Reports on preliminary measurements of particulate reactivity and changes in microstructure upon exposure to NO2, which is often present at significant levels in diesel engine exhaust.

  1. System and method for monitoring water content or other dielectric influences in a medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Robert S.; Anderson, Allen A.

    2001-01-01

    A sensor system is provided that measures water content or other detectable properties in a medium along the entire length of the sensor at any point in time. The sensor system includes an electromagnetic signal generator and a transmission line disposed in a medium to be monitored. Alternatively, the transmission line can be configured for movement across a medium to be monitored, or the transmission line can be fixed relative to a moving medium being monitored. A signal is transmitted along the transmission line at predetermined frequencies, and the signal is returned back along the transmission line and/or into an optional receive line in proximity to the transmission line. The returned signal is processed to generate a one-dimensional data output profile that is a function of a detectable property of the medium. The data output profile can be mapped onto a physical system to generate a two-dimensional or three-dimensional profile if desired. The sensor system is useful in a variety of different applications such as agriculture, horticulture, biofiltration systems for industrial offgases, leak detection in landfills or drum storage facilities at buried waste sites, and in many other applications.

  2. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant additives in a critical fluid medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2005-05-03

    A process for producing alkyl esters useful in biofuels and lubricants by transesterifying glyceride- or esterifying free fatty acid-containing substances in a single critical phase medium is disclosed. The critical phase medium provides increased reaction rates, decreases the loss of catalyst or catalyst activity and improves the overall yield of desired product. The process involves the steps of dissolving an input glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with an alcohol or water into a critical fluid medium; reacting the glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with the alcohol or water input over either a solid or liquid acidic or basic catalyst and sequentially separating the products from each other and from the critical fluid medium, which critical fluid medium can then be recycled back in the process. The process significantly reduces the cost of producing additives or alternatives to automotive fuels and lubricants utilizing inexpensive glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substances, such as animal fats, vegetable oils, rendered fats, and restaurant grease.

  3. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Feng, J.Q.

    1998-06-09

    A method is described for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway. 4 figs.

  4. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, David W.; Tsouris, Constantinos; Feng, James Q.

    1998-01-01

    A method for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway.

  5. Medium-range order in hydrogenated amorphous silicon measured by fluctuation microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, P. M.; Treacy, M. M. J.; Jin, H.-C.; Abelson, J. R.; Gibson, J. M.; Guha, S.; Crandall, R. S.

    2000-04-17

    The authors have characterized with fluctuation electron microscopy the medium-range order of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films deposited by a variety of methods. Films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering, hot-wire chemical vapor deposition, and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with and without H{sub 2} dilution of the SiH{sub 4} precursor gas. All of the films show the signature of the paracrystalline structure typical of amorphous Si. There are small variations in the degree of medium-range order with deposition methods and H{sub 2} content. The PECVD film grown with high H{sub 2} dilution contains Si crystals {approximately} 5 nm in diameter at a density of {approximately} 10{sup 9} cm{sup 2}. The amorphous matrix surrounding these crystals shows no difference in medium-range order from the standard PECVD film.

  6. Method and apparatus for communicating computer data from one point to another over a communications medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arneson, Michael R.; Bowman, Terrance L.; Cornett, Frank N.; DeRyckere, John F.; Hillert, Brian T.; Jenkins, Philip N.; Ma, Nan; Placek, Joseph M.; Ruesch, Rodney; Thorson, Gregory M.

    2007-07-24

    The present invention is directed toward a communications channel comprising a link level protocol, a driver, a receiver, and a canceller/equalizer. The link level protocol provides logic for DC-free signal encoding and recovery as well as supporting many features including CRC error detection and message resend to accommodate infrequent bit errors across the medium. The canceller/equalizer provides equalization for destabilized data signals and also provides simultaneous bi-directional data transfer. The receiver provides bit deskewing by removing synchronization error, or skewing, between data signals. The driver provides impedance controlling by monitoring the characteristics of the communications medium, like voltage or temperature, and providing a matching output impedance in the signal driver so that fewer distortions occur while the data travels across the communications medium.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of a plasma activated medium on cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohades, S.; Laroussi, M. Sears, J.; Barekzi, N.; Razavi, H.

    2015-12-15

    The interaction of low temperature plasma with liquids is a relevant topic of study to the field of plasma medicine. This is because cells and tissues are normally surrounded or covered by biological fluids. Therefore, the chemistry induced by the plasma in the aqueous state becomes crucial and usually dictates the biological outcomes. This process became even more important after the discovery that plasma activated media can be useful in killing various cancer cell lines. Here, we report on the measurements of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, a species known to have strong biological effects, produced by application of plasma to a minimum essential culture medium. The activated medium is then used to treat SCaBER cancer cells. Results indicate that the plasma activated medium can kill the cancer cells in a dose dependent manner, retain its killing effect for several hours, and is as effective as apoptosis inducing drugs.

  8. Quantum field theory in the presence of a medium: Green's function expansions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheirandish, Fardin; Salimi, Shahriar

    2011-12-15

    Starting from a Lagrangian and using functional-integration techniques, series expansions of Green's function of a real scalar field and electromagnetic field, in the presence of a medium, are obtained. The parameter of expansion in these series is the susceptibility function of the medium. Relativistic and nonrelativistic Langevin-type equations are derived. Series expansions for Lifshitz energy in finite temperature and for an arbitrary matter distribution are derived. Covariant formulations for both scalar and electromagnetic fields are introduced. Two illustrative examples are given.

  9. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prohaska, R.; Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.

    2015-05-03

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2011, NREL launched a large-scale performance evaluation of medium-duty electric vehicles. With support from vehicle manufacturers Smith and Navistar, NREL research focused on characterizing vehicle operation and drive cycles for electric delivery vehicles operating in commercial service across the nation.

  10. Argonne National Laboratory to Lead U.S. Consortium for Medium- and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy-Duty Truck Technical Track | Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory to Lead U.S. Consortium for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Technical Track August 1, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected Argonne National Laboratory to lead a consortium of university, private sector and national laboratory partners for a new, medium- and heavy-duty truck technical track under the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) Truck Research Utilizing

  11. Recipient luminophoric mediums having narrow spectrum luminescent materials and related semiconductor light emitting devices and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeToquin, Ronan P; Tong, Tao; Glass, Robert C

    2014-12-30

    Light emitting devices include a light emitting diode ("LED") and a recipient luminophoric medium that is configured to down-convert at least some of the light emitted by the LED. In some embodiments, the recipient luminophoric medium includes a first broad-spectrum luminescent material and a narrow-spectrum luminescent material. The broad-spectrum luminescent material may down-convert radiation emitted by the LED to radiation having a peak wavelength in the red color range. The narrow-spectrum luminescent material may also down-convert radiation emitted by the LED into the cyan, green or red color range.

  12. Visco-elastic fluid simulations of coherent structures in strongly coupled dusty plasma medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh Dharodi, Vikram; Kumar Tiwari, Sanat; Das, Amita, E-mail: amita@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-07-15

    A generalized hydrodynamic model depicting the behaviour of visco-elastic fluids has often been invoked to explore the behaviour of a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium below their crystallization limit. The model has been successful in describing the collective normal modes of the strongly coupled dusty plasma medium observed experimentally. The paper focuses on the study of nonlinear dynamical characteristic features of this model. Specifically, the evolution of coherent vorticity patches is being investigated here within the framework of this model. A comparison with Newtonian fluids and molecular dynamics simulations treating the dust species interacting through the Yukawa potential has also been presented.

  13. Syngas Generator Use for Retrofit DPF Active Regeneration on a Medium Duty

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Truck | Department of Energy Generator Use for Retrofit DPF Active Regeneration on a Medium Duty Truck Syngas Generator Use for Retrofit DPF Active Regeneration on a Medium Duty Truck Syngas enables low temperature in-use active regeneration of DPFs based on real-world data from a vehicle tested for over 1,000 hours deer09_towgood.pdf (186.5 KB) More Documents & Publications Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the

  14. Polymeric medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-03-06

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  15. Dynamics of shock wave propagation and interphase process in liquid-vapor medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokusaev, B.G.; Pribaturin, N.A.

    1995-09-01

    This paper considers the experimental results and physical effects on the pressure wave dynamics of a vapour-liquid two-phase medium of bubble and slug structure. The role of destruction and collapse of bubbles and slugs, phase transition (condensation and evaporation) on pressure wave dynamics is also studied. The general mechanisms of the wave formation, behavior and instability of a vapour-liquid structure under pressure waves, basic peculiarities of the interface heat transfer are obtained. In the experiments it has been shown that for the bubble medium the shock wave can be transformed into the powerful pressure pulse with an amplitude greater then the amplitude of the initial pressure wave. For the slug medium a characteristic structure of the amplificated wave is {open_quotes}comb{close_quotes} - like wave. It has been shown that the wave amplification caused by generation of secondary waves in a medium caused by destruction and collapse of bubbles and slugs. The obtained results can be useful at transient and emergency operational regimes of nuclear reactors, fuel tank, pipelines with two-phase flows and for development of safety models for chemical industry.

  16. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  17. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  18. Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide for Small and Medium Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-12-21

    The guide supports consistent and effective implementation of DOE O 415.1 and assists IT Project Managers in effectively managing and applying sound project management to IT projects of small and medium size. Does not cancel/supersede other directives.

  19. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  20. Axisymmetrical separator for separating particulate matter from a fluid carrying medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linhardt, Hans D.

    1984-09-04

    A separator for separating particles carried in a fluid carrying medium is disclosed. The separator includes an elongated duct and associated openings incorporated in a solid body. The duct is axisymmetrical relative to its longitudinal axis, and includes a curved wall portion having a curved cross-section taken along the longitudinal axis. An axisymmetrical opening located downstream of the curved wall portion leads from the duct into an axisymmetrical channel which is substantially radially disposed relative to the longitudinal axis. Continuation of the duct downstream of the opening is a discharge portion which is substantially colinear with the longitudinal axis. In operation, a substantial majority of the fluid carrying medium leaves the duct radially through the opening and channel in a state substantially free of particles. A remaining small portion of the fluid carrying medium and a substantial majority of the particles are channelled into the discharge portion by centrifugal forces arising due to travel of the particles along the curved walls. For industrial scale separation of particles from a fluid carrying medium, such as for the clean-up of stack gases, an array of several hundred to several thousand of the separators is provided.

  1. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  2. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann; Knoke, Kyle; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V.; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuying

    2010-09-28

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  3. Method for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations, medium for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wasserman, Stephen R.; Anderson, Kenneth B.; Song, Kang; Yuchs, Steven E.; Marshall, Christopher L.

    1998-01-01

    A method for encapsulating hazardous cations is provided comprising supplying a pretreated substrate containing the cations; contacting the substrate with an organo-silane compound to form a coating on the substrate; and allowing the coating to cure. A medium for containing hazardous cations is also provided, comprising a substrate having ion-exchange capacity and a silane-containing coating on the substrate.

  4. The influence of the drying medium on high temperature convective drying of single wood chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, A.; Rasmuson, A.

    1997-10-01

    High temperature convective drying of single wood chips with air and superheated steam respectively is studied theoretically. The two-dimensional model presented describes the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat. Transport mechanisms included are the convection of gas and liquid, intergas as well as bound water diffusion. In the initial part of the drying process, moisture is transported to the surface mainly due to capillary forces in the transversal direction where evaporation occurs. As the surface becomes dry, the drying front moves towards the center of the particle and an overpressure is simultaneously built up which affects the drying process. The differences between drying in air and steam respectively can be assigned to the physical properties of the drying medium. The period of constant drying rate which does not exist (or is very short) in air drying becomes more significant with decreasing amounts of air in the drying medium and is clearly visible in pure superheated steam drying. The maximal drying rate is larger in air drying, and shorter drying times are obtained since the heat flux to the wood chip particle increases with increasing amounts of air in the drying medium. The period of falling drying rate can be divided into two parts: in the first, the drying rate is dependent upon the humidity of the drying medium whereas in the second, there is no such correlation.

  5. Medium-Speed Drivetrain Test Report: September 1, 2002 -- December 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walford, C.; Lybarger, K.; Lettenmaier, T.; Roberts, D.

    2012-09-01

    This report describes the tests conducted by researchers at the National Wind Technology Center at NREL on a 1.5-MW integrated drivetrain consisting of a single-stage, epicyclic gearbox and close-coupled medium-speed permanent-magnet generator.

  6. Study on the activation of styrene-based shape memory polymer by medium-infrared laser light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng Jinsong; Yu Kai; Lan Xin; Zhang Dawei; Liu Yanju

    2010-03-15

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of shape memory polymer (SMP) activation by medium-infrared laser light. Medium-infrared light is transmitted by an optical fiber embedded in the SMP matrix, and the shape recovery process and temperature distribution are recorded by an infrared camera. Light-induced SMP exhibits potential applications in biomedicines and flexible displays.

  7. Localized states and their stability in an anharmonic medium with a nonlinear defect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerasimchuk, I. V.

    2015-10-15

    A comprehensive analysis of soliton states localized near a plane defect (a defect layer) possessing nonlinear properties is carried out within a quasiclassical approach for different signs of nonlinearity of the medium and different characters of interaction of elementary excitations of the medium with the defect. A quantum interpretation is given to these nonlinear localized modes as a bound state of a large number of elementary excitations. The domains of existence of such states are determined, and their properties are analyzed as a function of the character of interaction of elementary excitations between each other and with the defect. A full analysis of the stability of all the localized states with respect to small perturbations of amplitude and phase is carried out analytically, and the frequency of small oscillations of the state localized on the defect is determined.

  8. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Das, Amita; Patel, Bhavesh G. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Angom, Dilip [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

    2012-07-15

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in the context of strongly coupled dusty plasma medium has been investigated. In particular, the role of transverse shear and the compressional acoustic modes in both the linear and nonlinear regimes of the KH instability has been studied. It is observed that in addition to the conventional nonlocal KH instability, there exists a local instability in the strong coupling case. The interplay of the KH mode with this local instability shows up in the simulations as an interesting phenomenon of recurrence in the nonlinear regime. Thus, a cyclic KH instability process is observed to occur. These cyclic events are associated with bursts of activity in terms of transverse and compressional wave generation in the medium.

  9. Study of multiband disordered systems using the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yi; Terletska, Hanna; Moore, C.; Ekuma, Chinedu; Tam, Ka-Ming; Berlijn, Tom; Ku, Wei; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2015-11-06

    We generalize the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation to multiband disordered systems. Using our extended formalism, we perform a systematic study of the nonlocal correlation effects induced by disorder on the density of states and the mobility edge of the three-dimensional two-band Anderson model. We include interband and intraband hopping and an intraband disorder potential. Our results are consistent with those obtained by the transfer matrix and the kernel polynomial methods. We also apply the method to KxFe2-ySe2 with Fe vacancies. Despite the strong vacancy disorder and anisotropy, we find the material is not an Anderson insulator. Moreover our resultsmore » demonstrate the application of the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation method to study Anderson localization in real materials.« less

  10. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  11. A design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of the viscous barrier technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.; Yen, P.; Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Williams, P.; Myer, L.; Pruess, K.

    1996-09-01

    This report is the design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The test site is located in central California in a quarry owned by the Los Banos Gravel Company in Los Banos, California, in heterogeneous unsaturated deposits of sand, silt, and -ravel typical of many of the and DOE cleanup sites and particularly analogous to the Hanford site. The coals of the field demonstration are (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier isolating a medium-scale volume (30 ft long by 30 ft wide by 20 ft deep, i.e. 1/10th to 1/8th the size of a buried tank at the Hanford Reservation) in the subsurface, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier.

  12. Analysis of linear encroachment in two-immiscible fluid systems in a porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, V.; Vafai, K. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    The flow of two immiscible fluids in a porous medium was analyzed accounting for boundary and inertia effects. This problem was first solved by Muskat using Darcy's equation for fluid flow in a saturated porous medium. In the present analysis the boundary and inertia effects have been included to predict the movement of the interfacial front that is formed as one fluid displaces the other. In the present work a theoretical study that accounts for the boundary and inertia effects in predicting the movement of the interface for linear encroachment in two immiscible fluid system in a porous material is presented for the first time. The results of the present study when compared with the Muskat's model show that consideration of the boundary and inertia effects becomes important for low value of mobility ratio ([epsilon] < 1.0) and higher values of permeability (K > 1.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]10] m[sup 2]).

  13. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  14. Study of multiband disordered systems using the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yi; Terletska, Hanna; Moore, C.; Ekuma, Chinedu; Tam, Ka-Ming; Berlijn, Tom; Ku, Wei; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2015-11-06

    We generalize the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation to multiband disordered systems. Using our extended formalism, we perform a systematic study of the nonlocal correlation effects induced by disorder on the density of states and the mobility edge of the three-dimensional two-band Anderson model. We include interband and intraband hopping and an intraband disorder potential. Our results are consistent with those obtained by the transfer matrix and the kernel polynomial methods. We also apply the method to KxFe2-ySe2 with Fe vacancies. Despite the strong vacancy disorder and anisotropy, we find the material is not an Anderson insulator. Moreover our results demonstrate the application of the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation method to study Anderson localization in real materials.

  15. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  16. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  17. Medium-Voltage Cables in Nuclear Plant Applications - State of Industry and Conditioning Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Braun

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 This report reviews the types of medium-voltage (MV) cables in use in nuclear power plants and the techniques that are currently available to assess the condition of MV cable systems. The project identified the types of cable systems in nuclear plants and their operating conditions and then assessed the aging and failure mechanisms of these cables and suitable diagnostic test techniques. In addition, ways to alleviate conditions that cause the most severe aging were identified.

  18. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle and Engine Testing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy Duty Vehicle and Engine Testing Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle and Engine Testing 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. vss034_thornton_2010_p.pdf (1.26 MB) More Documents & Publications Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed (EDAB) Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed (EDAB) Electric Drive and Advanced Battery and Components Testbed (EDAB)

  19. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis DOE VTP Annual Merit Review PI: Robb A. Barnitt Organization: NREL May 10, 2011 Project ID: VSS043 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential or otherwise restricted information NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY Project Overview 2 Timeline * Project started in FY09 * Project is 75% complete Budget * Total DOE project funding - FY09: $150k - FY10: $150k - FY11: $250k * Total project partner funding: -

  20. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prohaska, R.; Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.

    2015-05-01

    In an effort to help commercialize technologies for electric vehicles (EVs) through deployment and demonstration projects, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE's) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) provided funding to participating U.S. companies to cover part of the cost of purchasing new EVs. Within the medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle segment, both Smith Electric Newton and and Navistar eStar vehicles qualified for such funding opportunities. In an effort to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new technologies deployed in these vehicles operating under real world conditions, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium-duty EVs were collected, compiled, and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Fleet Test and Evaluation team over a period of 3 years. More than 430 Smith Newton EVs have provided data representing more than 150,000 days of operation. Similarly, data have been collected from more than 100 Navistar eStar EVs, resulting in a comparative total of more than 16,000 operating days. Combined, NREL has analyzed more than 6 million kilometers of driving and 4 million hours of charging data collected from commercially operating medium-duty electric vehicles in various configurations. In this paper, extensive duty-cycle statistical analyses are performed to examine and characterize common vehicle dynamics trends and relationships based on in-use field data. The results of these analyses statistically define the vehicle dynamic and kinematic requirements for each vehicle, aiding in the selection of representative chassis dynamometer test cycles and the development of custom drive cycles that emulate daily operation. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented and discussed. Results are presented in both graphical and tabular formats illustrating a number of key relationships between parameters observed within the data set that relate to

  1. Instabilities of optical solitons and Hamiltonian singular solutions in a medium of finite extension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assemat, E.; Picozzi, A.; Jauslin, H. R.; Sugny, D.

    2011-07-15

    We analyze the role of soliton solutions and Hamiltonian singularities in the dynamics of counterpropagating waves in a medium of finite spatial extension. The soliton solution can become unstable due to the finite extension of the system. We show that the spatiotemporal dynamics then relaxes toward a Hamiltonian singular state of a nature different than that of the soliton state. This phenomenon can be explained through a geometrical analysis of the singularities of the stationary Hamiltonian system.

  2. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann; Knoke, Kyle; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V.; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuying

    2011-03-01

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in mixed-sugars medium comprising xylose, and, in particular, in the presence of acetate.

  3. Method for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations, medium for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wasserman, S.R.; Anderson, K.B.; Song, K.; Yuchs, S.E.; Marshall, C.L.

    1998-04-28

    A method for encapsulating hazardous cations is provided comprising supplying a pretreated substrate containing the cations; contacting the substrate with an organo-silane compound to form a coating on the substrate; and allowing the coating to cure. A medium for containing hazardous cations is also provided, comprising a substrate having ion-exchange capacity and a silane-containing coating on the substrate. 3 figs.

  4. Solutions of Boltzmann`s Equation for Mono-energetic Neutrons in an Infinite Homogeneous Medium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-11-30

    Boltzman's equation is solved for the case of monoenergetic neutrons created by a plane or point source in an infinite medium which has spherically symmetric scattering. The customary solution of the diffusion equation appears to be multiplied by a constant factor which is smaller than 1. In addition to this term the total neutron density contains another term which is important in the neighborhood of the source. It varies as 1/r{sup 2} in the neighborhood of a point source. (auth)

  5. Method for in situ characterization of a medium of dispersed matter in a continuous phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, E.N.

    1995-03-07

    A method is described for the in situ characterization of a medium of a dispersed phase in a continuous phase, including the steps of adding a fluorescent dye to one phase capable of producing fluorescence therein when the fluorescent dye is optically excited, optically exciting the fluorescent dye at a wavelength to produce fluorescence in the one phase, and monitoring the fluorescence to distinguish the continuous phase from the dispersed phase. 2 figs.

  6. Method for in situ characterization of a medium of dispersed matter in a continuous phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Eric N.

    1995-01-01

    A method for in situ characterization of a medium of a dispersed phase in a continuous phase, including the steps of adding a fluorescent dye to one phase capable of producing fluorescence therein when the fluorescent dye is optically excited, optically exciting the fluorescent dye at a wavelength to produce fluorescence in the one phase, and monitoring the fluorescence to distinguish the continuous phase from the dispersed phase.

  7. Composition-dependent stability of the medium-range order responsible for metallic glass formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Feng; Ji, Min; Fang, Xiao-Wei; Sun, Yang; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Kramer, M. J.; Napolitano, Ralph E.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-09-18

    The competition between the characteristic medium-range order corresponding to amorphous alloys and that in ordered crystalline phases is central to phase selection and morphology evolution under various processing conditions. We examine the stability of a model glass system, Cu–Zr, by comparing the energetics of various medium-range structural motifs over a wide range of compositions using first-principles calculations. Furthermore, we focus specifically on motifs that represent possible building blocks for competing glassy and crystalline phases, and we employ a genetic algorithm to efficiently identify the energetically favored decorations of each motif for specific compositions. These results show that a Bergman-type motifmore » with crystallization-resisting icosahedral symmetry is energetically most favorable in the composition range 0.63 < xCu < 0.68, and is the underlying motif for one of the three optimal glass-forming ranges observed experimentally for this binary system (Li et al., 2008). This work establishes an energy-based methodology to evaluate specific medium-range structural motifs which compete with stable crystalline nuclei in deeply undercooled liquids.« less

  8. Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project for Small and Medium Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Janie; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Chiu, Albert K.; Kellow, Bashar; Koch, Ed; Lipkin, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Small and medium commercial customers in California make up about 20-25% of electric peak load in California. With the roll out of smart meters to this customer group, which enable granular measurement of electricity consumption, the investor-owned utilities will offer dynamic prices as default tariffs by the end of 2011. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, which successfully deployed Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) Programs to its large commercial and industrial customers, started investigating the same infrastructures application to the small and medium commercial customers. This project aims to identify available technologies suitable for automating demand response for small-medium commercial buildings; to validate the extent to which that technology does what it claims to be able to do; and determine the extent to which customers find the technology useful for DR purpose. Ten sites, enabled by eight vendors, participated in at least four test AutoDR events per site in the summer of 2010. The results showed that while existing technology can reliably receive OpenADR signals and translate them into pre-programmed response strategies, it is likely that better levels of load sheds could be obtained than what is reported here if better understanding of the building systems were developed and the DR response strategies had been carefully designed and optimized for each site.

  9. Composition-dependent stability of the medium-range order responsible for metallic glass formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Feng; Ji, Min; Fang, Xiao-Wei; Sun, Yang; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Kramer, M. J.; Napolitano, Ralph E.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-09-18

    The competition between the characteristic medium-range order corresponding to amorphous alloys and that in ordered crystalline phases is central to phase selection and morphology evolution under various processing conditions. We examine the stability of a model glass system, Cu–Zr, by comparing the energetics of various medium-range structural motifs over a wide range of compositions using first-principles calculations. Furthermore, we focus specifically on motifs that represent possible building blocks for competing glassy and crystalline phases, and we employ a genetic algorithm to efficiently identify the energetically favored decorations of each motif for specific compositions. These results show that a Bergman-type motif with crystallization-resisting icosahedral symmetry is energetically most favorable in the composition range 0.63 < xCu < 0.68, and is the underlying motif for one of the three optimal glass-forming ranges observed experimentally for this binary system (Li et al., 2008). This work establishes an energy-based methodology to evaluate specific medium-range structural motifs which compete with stable crystalline nuclei in deeply undercooled liquids.

  10. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  11. Rigidity and resistance of larval- and adult schistosomes-medium interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migliardo, Federica; Tallima, Hatem; El Ridi, Rashika

    2014-03-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Schistosoma larvae and worms are studied by neutron scattering. • Measurements on larvae were repeated after one day and by increasing temperature. • The flexibility properties of larvae and adult parasites are compared. • The parasite rigidity is related to their resistance to the hostile environment. • Insight into the parasite defense mechanisms to the immune system attack is achieved. - Abstract: Schistosomiasis is second only to malaria in prevalence and severity, and is still a major health problem in many tropical countries worldwide with about 200–300 million cases and with more than 800 million people at risk of infection. Based on these data, the World Health Organization recommends fostering research efforts for understanding at any level the mechanisms of the infection and then decreasing the social and economical impact of schistosomiasis. A key role is played by the parasite apical lipid membrane, which is entirely impervious to the surrounding elements of the immune system. We have previously demonstrated that the interaction between schistosomes and surrounding medium is governed by a parasite surface membrane sphingomyelin-based hydrogen barrier. In the present article, the elastic contribution to the total motion as a function of the exchanged wave-vector Q and the mean square displacement values for Schistosoma mansoni larvae and worms and Schistosomahaematobium worms have been evaluated by quasi elastic neutron scattering (QENS). The results point out that S. mansoni larvae show a smaller mean square displacement in comparison to S. mansoni and S. haematobium worms. These values increased by repeating the measurements after one day. These differences, which are analogous to those observed for the diffusion coefficient we previously evaluated, are interpreted in terms of rigidity of the parasite-medium interaction. S. mansoni larvae are the most rigid systems, while S. haematobium worms are the most

  12. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  13. A submillimeter galaxy illuminating its circumgalactic medium: Ly? scattering in a cold, clumpy outflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geach, J. E.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Smith, D. J. B.; Bower, R. G.; Alexander, D. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Blain, A. W.; Bremer, M. N.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Dunlop, J. S.; Koprowski, M. P.; Micha?owski, M. J.; Farrah, D.; Jenness, T.; Robson, E. I.; Scott, D.; Spaans, M.; Van der Werf, P.

    2014-09-20

    We report the detection at 850 ?m of the central source in SSA22-LAB1, the archetypal 'Lyman-? Blob' (LAB), a 100 kpc scale radio-quiet emission-line nebula at z = 3.1. The flux density of the source, S {sub 850} = 4.6 1.1 mJy, implies the presence of a galaxy or group of galaxies with a total luminosity of L {sub IR} ? 10{sup 12} L {sub ?}. The position of an active source at the center of a ?50 kpc radius ring of linearly polarized Ly? emission detected by Hayes et al. suggests that the central source is leaking Ly? photons preferentially in the plane of the sky, which undergo scattering in H I clouds at a large galactocentric radius. The Ly? morphology around the submillimeter detection is reminiscent of a biconical outflow, and the average Ly? line profiles of the two 'lobes' are dominated by a red peak, which is expected for a resonant line emerging from a medium with a bulk velocity gradient that is outflowing relative to the line center. Taken together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the central active galaxy (or galaxies) is responsible for a large fraction of the extended Ly? emission and morphology. Less clear is the history of the cold gas in the circumgalactic medium being traced by Ly?: is it mainly pristine material accreting into the halo that has not yet been processed through an interstellar medium (ISM), now being blown back as it encounters an outflow, or does it mainly comprise gas that has been swept-up within the ISM and expelled from the galaxy?.

  14. Spatial correction factors for YALINA Booster facility loaded with medium and low enriched fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Routkovskaya, C. [Joint Inst. for Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny, 99 Academician A.K.Krasin Str, Minsk 220109 (Belarus)

    2012-07-01

    The Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used in analyses of subcritical assemblies to correct the experimental reactivity as function of the detector position. Besides the detector position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the energy weighting function of the detector, the detector size, the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons, and the reactivity of the subcritical assembly. This work focuses on the dependency of the correction factor on the detector material and it investigates the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly loaded with medium (36%) and low (10%) enriched fuels. (authors)

  15. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vermeulen, T.; Grens, E.A. II; Holten, R.R.

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl/sub 2/ catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S, or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl/sub 2/ and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  16. Effect of medium range order on pulsed laser crystallization of amorphous germanium thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, T. T.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Heo, T. W.; Santala, M. K.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Campbell, G. H.

    2016-06-03

    Sputter deposited amorphous Ge thin films had their nanostructure altered by irradiation with high-energy Ar+ ions. The change in the structure resulted in a reduction in medium range order (MRO) characterized using fluctuation electron microscopy. The pulsed laser crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited versus irradiated materials were investigated using the dynamic transmission electron microscope operated in the multi-frame movie mode. In conclusion, the propagation rate of the crystallization front for the irradiated material was lower; the changes were correlated to the MRO difference and formation of a thin liquid layer during crystallization.

  17. Theoretical/experimental considerations about oil displacement by water in a fractured porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Rosales, C.; Cruz-Hernandez, J.; Samaniego-V., F.

    1994-12-31

    Based upon observations made with a two-dimension porous cell, which allows direct visualization of fluid displacement processes, theoretical formulations were established for explaining oil displacement by water in a fractured porous medium. The theory rests on the idea that fluids are transported essentially through the fractures by a convective process, whereas water inflow to the matrix blocks is carried out by a dispersive process which depends on the difference between fracture and matrix water saturation. With these considerations, a derivation is presented of an expression for water saturation as a function of distance and time. Agreement between theory and experiment is reasonably good.

  18. Measurement of the in-medium Φ-meson width in proton–nucleus collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Polyanskiy, A.; Hartmann, M.; Kiselev, Yu. T.; Paryev, E. Ya.; Büscher, M.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S.; Dzyuba, A.; Gebel, R.; Hejny, V.; et al

    2010-10-28

    We measured the production of Φ mesons in the collisions of 2.83 GeV protons with C, Cu, Ag, and Au at forward angles via the Φ → K+K- decay using the COSY-ANKE magnetic spectrometer. The Φ meson production cross section follows a target mass dependence of A0.56±0.02 in the momentum region of 0.6-1.6 GeV/c. Moreover, the comparison of the data with model calculations suggests that the in-medium Φ width is about an order of magnitude larger than its free value.

  19. Tuning thermal mismatch between turbine rotor parts with a thermal medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2001-01-01

    In a turbine rotor, an aft shaft wheel and the final-stage wheel of the rotor are coupled together, including by a rabbeted joint. During shutdown and startup of the turbine, a thermal mismatch between the aft shaft wheel and final-stage wheel is avoided by respectively heating and cooling the aft shaft wheel to maintain the thermal mismatch within acceptable limits, thereby avoiding opening of the rabbeted joint and the potential for unbalancing the rotor and rotor vibration. The thermal medium may be supplied by piping in the aft bearing cavity into the cavity between the forward closure plate and the aft shaft wheel.

  20. Measurement of the in-medium phi-meson width in proton-nucleus collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Polyanskiy, A; Kiselev, Yu T; Paryev, E Ya; Buscher, M; Chiladze, D; Dymov, S; Dzyuba, A; Gebel, R; Hejny, V; Kampfer, B; et al

    2011-01-01

    The production of phi mesons in the collisions of 2.83 GeV protons with C, Cu, Ag, and Au at forward angles has been measured via the phi -> K+K- decay using the COSY-ANKE magnetic spectrometer. The phi meson production cross section follows a target mass dependence of A^0.56+/-0.02 in the momentum region of 0.6-1.6 GeV/c. The comparison of the data with model calculations suggests that the in-medium phi width is about an order of magnitude larger than its free value.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of soliton-like structures in a dusty plasma medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiwari, Sanat Kumar Das, Amita; Sen, Abhijit; Kaw, Predhiman

    2015-03-15

    The existence and evolution of soliton-like structures in a dusty plasma medium are investigated in a first principles approach using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of particles interacting via a Yukawa potential. These localized structures are found to exist in both weakly and strongly coupled regimes with their structures becoming sharper as the correlation effects between the dust particles get stronger. A surprising result, compared to fluid simulations, is the existence of rarefactive soliton-like structures in our non-dissipative system, a feature that arises from the charge conjugation symmetry property of the Yukawa fluid. Our simulation findings closely resemble many diverse experimental results reported in the past.

  2. Soliton dynamics at an interface between a uniform medium and a nonlinear optical lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdullaev, Fatkhulla Kh.; Galimzyanov, Ravil M.; Brtka, Marijana; Tomio, Lauro

    2009-05-15

    We study trapping and propagation of a matter-wave soliton through the interface between uniform medium and a nonlinear optical lattice. Different regimes for transmission of a broad and a narrow solitons are investigated. Reflections and transmissions of solitons are predicted as a function of the lattice phase. The existence of a threshold in the amplitude of the nonlinear optical lattice, separating the transmission and reflection regimes, is verified. The localized nonlinear surface state, corresponding to the soliton trapped by the interface, is found. Variational approach predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations for the original Gross-Pitaevskii equation with nonlinear periodic potentials.

  3. Operating characteristics of a cartridge collector utilizing medium-pressure purge air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, J. )

    1993-11-01

    For over 20 years, dust collectors equipped with cleanable paper cartridge pulse-jet cleaning mechanisms. Applications have been limited primarily to light inlet dust loads of 2 grains/dscf (4.6g/m[sup 3] or less). One manufacturer has successfully tested and operated a dust collector utilizing a full-scale, medium-pressure (6 to 8 psig, 4.0 to 5.5 MPa), utilizing 6-in. (150-mm) diameter by 50-in. (1,270-mm) cellulose cartridge filter elements, under high inlet dust load conditions.

  4. Kinetic studies of dry sorent for medium temperature applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Wang, Z.

    1996-07-12

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the fundamental nature of sorbent reactivity and reaction kinetics in the medium temperature range from 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) to 1200{degrees}F (649{degrees}C) available in the convective pass of a boiler upstream of the economizer, where dry sorbents are injected to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. Research focuses on the mechanisms of sorbent- flue gas interaction under economizer and hot baghouse conditions utilizing the experimental setup and the results of the first four years of research.

  5. Calculating infinite-medium {alpha}-eigenvalue spectra with a transition rate matrix method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betzler, B. R.; Kiedrowski, B. C.; Brown, F. B.; Martin, W. R.

    2013-07-01

    The time-dependent behavior of the energy spectrum in neutron transport was investigated with a formulation, based on continuous-time Markov processes, for computing {alpha}-eigenvalues and eigenvectors in an infinite medium. For this, a research Monte Carlo code called TORTE was created and used to estimate elements of a transition rate matrix. TORTE is capable of using both multigroup and continuous-energy nuclear data, and verification was performed. Eigenvalue spectra for infinite homogeneous mixtures were obtained and an eigenfunction expansion was used to investigate transient behavior of the neutron energy spectrum. (authors)

  6. Draft - DOE G 415.1-2, Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide for Small and Medium Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The Guide was developed to provide project management principles and guidelines to small and medium projects that fall outside the scope of DOE O 415.1, Information Technology Project Management, dated 12-3-12.

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by SCAQMD at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about plug-in hybrid medium-duty truck...

  8. Nuclear physics with a medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Accardi, V. Guzey, A. Prokudin, C. Weiss

    2012-06-01

    A polarized ep/eA collider (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with variable center-of-mass energy {radical}s {approx} 20-70 GeV and a luminosity {approx}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} would be uniquely suited to address several outstanding questions of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the microscopic structure of hadrons and nuclei: (i) the three-dimensional structure of the nucleon in QCD (sea quark and gluon spatial distributions, orbital motion, polarization, correlations); (ii) the fundamental color fields in nuclei (nuclear parton densities, shadowing, coherence effects, color transparency); (iii) the conversion of color charge to hadrons (fragmentation, parton propagation through matter, in-medium jets). We briefly review the conceptual aspects of these questions and the measurements that would address them, emphasizing the qualitatively new information that could be obtained with the collider. Such a medium-energy EIC could be realized at Jefferson Lab after the 12 GeV Upgrade (MEIC), or at Brookhaven National Lab as the low-energy stage of eRHIC.

  9. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  10. The effect of magnetic field on copper in various corrosive medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ang, L. Y.; Othman, N. K.; Jalar, A.; Ismail, I.

    2014-09-03

    The effect of applied magnetic field on the corrosion behaviour of copper within various corrosive medium is investigated. The copper coupon is immersed in 0.5 M HCl, 0.5 M NaCl and 0.5 M NaOH with or without applying up to 40 mT magnetic fields for 24 hours. The weight loss of copper coupon in HCl increased up to 96.56% with applied magnetic fields. However, in NaOH medium, only 33.33% more weight loss was observed and no difference were observed for coupons in NaCl when magnetic field is applied. This observation indicates that corrosion behaviour in HCl and NaOH is controlled by mass transport that can be influenced by the induced magneto hydrodynamics effect when magnetic field is applied. There was no change in weight loss of copper in NaCl when magnetic field is applied because the corrosion mechanism of copper in NaCl is governed by electron charge transfer.

  11. Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyasato, Matt; Kosowski, Mark

    2015-10-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funding. The purpose of the program is to develop a path to migrate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology to medium-duty vehicles by demonstrating and evaluating vehicles in diverse applications. The program also provided three production-ready PHEV systems—Odyne Systems, Inc. (Odyne) Class 6 to 8 trucks, VIA Motors, Inc. (VIA) half-ton pickup trucks, and VIA three-quarter-ton vans. The vehicles were designed, developed, validated, produced, and deployed. Data were gathered and tests were run to understand the performance improvements, allow cost reductions, and provide future design changes. A smart charging system was developed and produced during the program. The partnerships for funding included the DOE; the California Energy Commission (CEC); the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD); the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Odyne; VIA; Southern California Edison; and utility and municipal industry participants. The reference project numbers are DOE FOA-28 award number EE0002549 and SCAQMD contract number 10659.

  12. P-986 Letter of Intent: Medium-Energy Antiproton Physics at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asner, David M.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Apollinari, Giorgio; Broemmelsiek, Daniel R.; Brown, Charles N.; Christian, David C.; Derwent, Paul; Gollwitzer, Keith; Hahn, Alan; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Stefanski, Ray

    2009-02-05

    Fermilab has long had the world's most intense antiproton source. Despite this, the opportunities for medium-energy antiproton physics at Fermilab have been limited in the past and - with the antiproton source now exclusively dedicated to serving the needs of the Tevatron Collider - are currently nonexistent. The anticipated shutdown of the Tevatron in 2010 presents the opportunity for a world-leading medium-energy antiproton program. We summarize the current status of the Fermilab antiproton facility and review some physics topics for which the experiment we propose could make the world's best measurements. Among these, the ones with the clearest potential for high impact and visibility are in the area of charm mixing and CP violation. Continued running of the Antiproton Source following the shutdown of the Tevatron is thus one of the simplest ways that Fermilab can restore a degree of breadth to its future research program. The impact on the rest of the program will be minor. We request a small amount of effort over the coming months in order to assess these issues in more detail.

  13. Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made from medium and low-purity niobium ingots

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2016-04-07

    Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made of ingot niobium with residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250 have proven to have similar or better performance than fine-grain Nb cavities of the same purity, after standard processing. The high purity requirement contributes to the high cost of the material. As superconducting accelerators operating in continuous-wave typically require cavities to operate at moderate accelerating gradients, using lower purity material could be advantageous not only to reduce cost but also to achieve higher Q0-values. In this contribution we present the results from cryogenic RF tests of 1.3–1.5 GHz single-cell cavities made of ingot Nb ofmore » medium (RRR = 100–150) and low (RRR = 60) purity from different suppliers. Cavities made of medium-purity ingots routinely achieved peak surface magnetic field values greater than 70 mT with an average Q0-value of 2 × 1010 at 2 K after standard processing treatments. As a result, the performances of cavities made of low-purity ingots were affected by significant pitting of the surface after chemical etching.« less

  14. Adaptive multi-grid method for a periodic heterogeneous medium in 1-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, J.; Belsky, V.

    1995-12-31

    A multi-grid method for a periodic heterogeneous medium in 1-D is presented. Based on the homogenization theory special intergrid connection operators have been developed to imitate a low frequency response of the differential equations with oscillatory coefficients. The proposed multi-grid method has been proved to have a fast rate of convergence governed by the ratio q/(4-q), where omedium is treated as homogeneous with effective properties. Such a posteriori MRE indicators and estimators are developed on the basis of assessing the validity of two-scale asymptotic expansion.

  15. Diverse properties of interstellar medium embedding gamma-ray bursts at the epoch of reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cen, Renyue; Kimm, Taysun

    2014-10-10

    Analysis is performed on ultra-high-resolution large-scale cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to quantify, for the first time, the physical environment of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at the epoch of reionization. We find that, on parsec scales, 13% of GRBs remain in high-density (?10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}) low-temperature star-forming regions, whereas 87% of GRBs occur in low-density (?10{sup 2.5} cm{sup 3}) high-temperature regions heated by supernovae. More importantly, the spectral properties of GRB afterglows, such as the neutral hydrogen column density, total hydrogen column density, dust column density, gas temperature, and metallicity of intervening absorbers, vary strongly from sight line to sight line. Although our model explains extant limited observationally inferred values with respect to circumburst density, metallicity, column density, and dust properties, a substantially larger sample of high-z GRB afterglows would be required to facilitate a statistically solid test of the model. Our findings indicate that any attempt to infer the physical properties (such as metallicity) of the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy based on a very small number (usually one) of sight lines would be precarious. Utilizing high-z GRBs to probe the ISM and intergalactic medium should be undertaken properly, taking into consideration the physical diversities of the ISM.

  16. Effects of Porous Medium Heterogeneity on Vadose Zone Desiccation: Intermediate-scale Laboratory Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Dane, Jacob H.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-11-01

    Soil desiccation (drying), involving water evaporation induced by dry gas injection, is a potentially robust vadose zone remediation process to limit contaminant transport through the vadose zone. A series of four intermediate-scale flow cell experiments was conducted in homogeneous and simple layered heterogeneous porous medium systems to investigate the effects of heterogeneity on desiccation of unsaturated porous media. The permeability ratios of porous medium layers ranged from about five to almost two orders of magnitude. The insulated flow cell was equipped with twenty humidity and temperature sensors and a dual-energy gamma system was used to determine water saturations at various times. The multiphase code STOMP was used to simulate the desiccation process. Results show that injected dry gas flowed predominantly in the higher permeability layer and delayed water removal from the lower permeability material. For the configurations tested, water vapor diffusion from the lower to the higher permeability zone was considerable over the duration of the experiments, resulting in much larger relative humidity values of the outgoing air than based on permeability ratios alone. Acceptable numerical matches with the experimental data were obtained when an extension of the saturation-capillary pressure relation below the residual water saturation was used. The agreements between numerical and experimental results suggest that the correct physics are implemented in the simulator and that the thermal and hydraulic properties of the porous media, flow cell wall and insulation materials were properly represented.

  17. Intergalactic medium emission observations with the cosmic web imager. I. The circum-QSO medium of QSO 1549+19, and evidence for a filamentary gas inflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.

    2014-05-10

    The Palomar Cosmic Web Imager (PCWI), an integral field spectrograph designed to detect and map low surface brightness emission, has obtained imaging spectroscopic maps of Ly? from the circum-QSO medium (CQM) of QSO HS1549+19 at redshift z = 2.843. Extensive extended emission is detected from the CQM, consistent with fluorescent and pumped Ly? produced by the ionizing and Ly? continuum of the QSO. Many features present in PCWI spectral images match those detected in narrow-band images. Filamentary structures with narrow line profiles are detected in several cases as long as 250-400 kpc. One of these is centered at a velocity redshifted with respect to the systemic velocity, and displays a spatially collimated and kinematically cold line profile increasing in velocity width approaching the QSO. This suggests that the filament gas is infalling onto the QSO, perhaps in a cold accretion flow. Because of the strong ionizing flux, the neutral column density is low, typically N(H I)?10{sup 12}--10{sup 15} cm{sup ?2}, and the line center optical depth is also low (typically ?{sub 0} < 10), insufficient to display well separated double peak emission characteristic of higher line optical depths. With a simple ionization and cloud model we can very roughly estimate the total gas mass (log M {sub gas} = 12.5 0.5) and the total (log M {sub tot} = 13.3 0.5). We can also calculate a kinematic mass from the total line profile (2 10{sup 13} M {sub ?}), which agrees with the mass estimated from the gas emission. The intensity-binned spectrum of the CQM shows a progression in kinematic properties consistent with heirarchical structure formation.

  18. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    School Bus * Shuttle Bus * Transit Bus * Refuse Truck * Tractor * Van * Vocational Truck Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles 2 Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles 3 Table of Contents About the Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  19. THE ORIGIN OF METALS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z = 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Sijing; Madau, Piero; Aguirre, Anthony; Guedes, Javiera [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Mayer, Lucio [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-9057 Zurich (Switzerland); Wadsley, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Main Street West, Hamilton L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2012-11-20

    We present a detailed study of the metal-enriched circumgalactic medium (CGM) of a massive galaxy at z = 3 using results from 'ErisMC', a new cosmological hydrodynamic 'zoom-in' simulation of a disk galaxy with mass comparable to the Milky Way. The reference run adopts a blast wave scheme for supernova feedback that generates galactic outflows without explicit wind particles, a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold and high-temperature metal cooling. ErisMC's main progenitor at z = 3 resembles a 'Lyman break' galaxy of total mass M {sub vir} = 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M {sub Sun }, virial radius R {sub vir} = 48 kpc, and star formation rate 18 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and its metal-enriched CGM extends as far as 200 (physical) kpc from its center. Approximately 41%, 9%, and 50% of all gas-phase metals at z = 3 are locked in a hot (T > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K), warm (3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K > T > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K), and cold (T < 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K) medium, respectively. We identify three sources of heavy elements: (1) the main host, responsible for 60% of all the metals found within 3 R {sub vir}; (2) its satellite progenitors, which shed their metals before and during infall, and are responsible for 28% of all the metals within 3 R {sub vir}, and for only 5% of those beyond 3 R {sub vir}; and (3) nearby dwarfs, which give origin to 12% of all the metals within 3 R {sub vir} and 95% of those beyond 3 R {sub vir}. Late (z < 5) galactic 'superwinds'-the result of recent star formation in ErisMC-account for only 9% of all the metals observed beyond 2 R {sub vir}, the bulk having been released at redshifts 5 {approx}< z {approx}< 8 by early star formation and outflows. In the CGM, lower overdensities are typically enriched by 'older', colder metals. Heavy elements are accreted onto ErisMC along filaments via low-metallicity cold inflows and are ejected hot via galactic outflows at a few

  20. Cost-effective retrofit technology for reducing peak power demand in small and medium commercial buildings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nutaro, James J.; Fugate, David L.; Kuruganti, Teja; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Starke, Michael R.

    2015-05-27

    We describe a cost-effective retrofit technology that uses collective control of multiple rooftop air conditioning units to reduce the peak power consumption of small and medium commercial buildings. The proposed control uses a model of the building and air conditioning units to select an operating schedule for the air conditioning units that maintains a temperature set point subject to a constraint on the number of units that may operate simultaneously. A prototype of this new control system was built and deployed in a large gymnasium to coordinate four rooftop air conditioning units. Based on data collected while operating this prototype,more » we estimate that the cost savings achieved by reducing peak power consumption is sufficient to repay the cost of the prototype within a year.« less

  1. Mechanism of biocorrosion of low-alloy steel in a thionic bacteria medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baru, R.L.; Starosvetskaya, Z.O.; Timonin, V.A.

    1986-07-01

    This paper models the process of biocorrosion of Armco iron,low alloy steel 10KhSND (0.69 mass % Ni, 0.7 Cr, 0.55 Cu), and also alloys of Armco iron with chromium, copper, and nickel in concentrations corresponding to the level of their content in steel (of order 0.7%) in a medium of the thionic bacteria of the form Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Biocorrosion of metals inflicts losses on systems of water supply and recirculation in industrial plants, in the oil and gas industry, and in hydraulic structures. Investigations of the surface composition of the steel with the aid of a Cameca scanning electron microanalyzer and analysis of the corrosion products by the atomic absorption method revealed that, in contrast with the model, in the culture liquid the surface of steel 10KhSND and its corrosion products are depleted of nickel.

  2. A Hybrid Monte Carlo-Deterministic Method for Global Binary Stochastic Medium Transport Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keady, K P; Brantley, P

    2010-03-04

    Global deep-penetration transport problems are difficult to solve using traditional Monte Carlo techniques. In these problems, the scalar flux distribution is desired at all points in the spatial domain (global nature), and the scalar flux typically drops by several orders of magnitude across the problem (deep-penetration nature). As a result, few particle histories may reach certain regions of the domain, producing a relatively large variance in tallies in those regions. Implicit capture (also known as survival biasing or absorption suppression) can be used to increase the efficiency of the Monte Carlo transport algorithm to some degree. A hybrid Monte Carlo-deterministic technique has previously been developed by Cooper and Larsen to reduce variance in global problems by distributing particles more evenly throughout the spatial domain. This hybrid method uses an approximate deterministic estimate of the forward scalar flux distribution to automatically generate weight windows for the Monte Carlo transport simulation, avoiding the necessity for the code user to specify the weight window parameters. In a binary stochastic medium, the material properties at a given spatial location are known only statistically. The most common approach to solving particle transport problems involving binary stochastic media is to use the atomic mix (AM) approximation in which the transport problem is solved using ensemble-averaged material properties. The most ubiquitous deterministic model developed specifically for solving binary stochastic media transport problems is the Levermore-Pomraning (L-P) model. Zimmerman and Adams proposed a Monte Carlo algorithm (Algorithm A) that solves the Levermore-Pomraning equations and another Monte Carlo algorithm (Algorithm B) that is more accurate as a result of improved local material realization modeling. Recent benchmark studies have shown that Algorithm B is often significantly more accurate than Algorithm A (and therefore the L-P model

  3. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich; Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-08-24

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to sup>4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  4. Transient, radial temperature distribution in a porous medium during fluid injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.C.; Nilson, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical and numerical solutions are presented for the transient, radial temperature distribution in a porous medium which is subjected to a constant-rate injection of an incompressible fluid from a wellbore. The formulation includes energy transfer by conduction and convection, and the Danckwerts boundary condition is applied at the finite-radius wellbore. At late times, the numerical solutions approach a self-similar form which can be described in terms of the incomplete Gamma function. In typical petroleum and geothermal applications, convergence to the asymptotic similarity solutions occurs on a time scale of roughly one hour. The results are generally applicable to a broad range of convection-diffusion phenomena which are best described in radial coordinates.

  5. Method and apparatus for producing laser radiation following two-photon excitation of a gaseous medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bischel, William K. [Menlo Park, CA; Jacobs, Ralph R. [Livermore, CA; Prosnitz, Donald [Hamden, CT; Rhodes, Charles K. [Palo Alto, CA; Kelly, Patrick J. [Fort Lewis, WA

    1979-02-20

    Method and apparatus for producing laser radiation by two-photon optical pumping of an atomic or molecular gaseous medium and subsequent lasing action. A population inversion is created as a result of two-photon absorption of the gaseous species. Stark tuning is utilized, if necessary, in order to tune the two-photon transition into exact resonance. In particular, gaseous ammonia (NH.sub.3) or methyl fluoride (CH.sub.3 F) is optically pumped by a pair of CO.sub.2 lasers to create a population inversion resulting from simultaneous two-photon excitation of a high-lying vibrational state, and laser radiation is produced by stimulated emission of coherent radiation from the inverted level.

  6. Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Duran, Adam; Ragatz, Adam; Prohaska, Robert; Walkowicz, Kevin

    2015-06-11

    Medium-duty (MD) electric vehicle (EV) data collection and analysis will help drive design, purchase, and research investments. Over 4 million miles and 160,000 driving days of EV driving data were collected under this project. Publicly available data help drive technology research, development, and deployment. Feeding the vocational database for future analysis will lead to a better understanding of usage and will result in better design optimization and technology implementation. The performance of a vehicle varies with drive cycle and cargo load - MD vehicles are 'multi-functional.' Environment and accessory loads affect vehicle range and in turn add cost by adding battery capacity. MD EV vehicles can function in vocations traditionally serviced by gasoline or diesel vehicles. Facility implications (i.e., demand charges) need to be understood as part of site-based analysis for EV implementation.

  7. Darcy Flow in a Wavy Channel Filled with a Porous Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Donald D; Ogretim, Egemen; Bromhal, Grant S

    2013-05-17

    Flow in channels bounded by wavy or corrugated walls is of interest in both technological and geological contexts. This paper presents an analytical solution for the steady Darcy flow of an incompressible fluid through a homogeneous, isotropic porous medium filling a channel bounded by symmetric wavy walls. This packed channel may represent an idealized packed fracture, a situation which is of interest as a potential pathway for the leakage of carbon dioxide from a geological sequestration site. The channel walls change from parallel planes, to small amplitude sine waves, to large amplitude nonsinusoidal waves as certain parameters are increased. The direction of gravity is arbitrary. A plot of piezometric head against distance in the direction of mean flow changes from a straight line for parallel planes to a series of steeply sloping sections in the reaches of small aperture alternating with nearly constant sections in the large aperture bulges. Expressions are given for the stream function, specific discharge, piezometric head, and pressure.

  8. Method and apparatus for producing laser radiation following two-photon excitation of a gaseous medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bischel, W.K.; Jacobs, R.R.; Prosnitz, D.P.; Rhodes, C.K.; Kelly, P.J.

    1979-02-20

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing laser radiation by two-photon optical pumping of an atomic or molecular gaseous medium and subsequent lasing action. A population inversion is created as a result of two-photon absorption of the gaseous species. Stark tuning is utilized, if necessary, in order to tune the two-photon transition into exact resonance. In particular, gaseous ammonia (NH[sub 3]) or methyl fluoride (CH[sub 3]F) is optically pumped by a pair of CO[sub 2] lasers to create a population inversion resulting from simultaneous two-photon excitation of a high-lying vibrational state, and laser radiation is produced by stimulated emission of coherent radiation from the inverted level. 3 figs.

  9. Enhanced growth medium and method for culturing human mammary epithelial cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Smith, Helene S.; Hackett, Adeline J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for isolating and culturing human mammary epithelial cells of both normal and malignant origin. Tissue samples are digested with a mixture including the enzymes collagenase and hyaluronidase to produce clumps of cells substantially free from stroma and other undesired cellular material. Growing the clumps of cells in mass culture in an enriched medium containing particular growth factors allows for active cell proliferation and subculture. Clonal culture having plating efficiencies of up to 40% or greater may be obtained using individual cells derived from the mass culture by plating the cells on appropriate substrates in the enriched media. The clonal growth of cells so obtained is suitable for a quantitative assessment of the cytotoxicity of particular treatment. An exemplary assay for assessing the cytotoxicity of the drug adriamycin is presented.

  10. Enhancement of the visibility of objects located below the surface of a scattering medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos, Stavros

    2013-11-19

    Techniques are provided for enhancing the visibility of objects located below the surface of a scattering medium such as tissue, water and smoke. Examples of such an object include a vein located below the skin, a mine located below the surface of the sea and a human in a location covered by smoke. The enhancement of the image contrast of a subsurface structure is based on the utilization of structured illumination. In the specific application of this invention to image the veins in the arm or other part of the body, the issue of how to control the intensity of the image of a metal object (such as a needle) that must be inserted into the vein is also addressed.

  11. Cost-effective retrofit technology for reducing peak power demand in small and medium commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutaro, James J.; Fugate, David L.; Kuruganti, Teja; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Starke, Michael R.

    2015-05-27

    We describe a cost-effective retrofit technology that uses collective control of multiple rooftop air conditioning units to reduce the peak power consumption of small and medium commercial buildings. The proposed control uses a model of the building and air conditioning units to select an operating schedule for the air conditioning units that maintains a temperature set point subject to a constraint on the number of units that may operate simultaneously. A prototype of this new control system was built and deployed in a large gymnasium to coordinate four rooftop air conditioning units. Based on data collected while operating this prototype, we estimate that the cost savings achieved by reducing peak power consumption is sufficient to repay the cost of the prototype within a year.

  12. A Pair Production Telescope for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter , Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Depaola, Gerardo O.; Dion, Michael P.; DeNolfo, Georgia A.; Hanu, Andrei; Iparraguirre, Marcos; Legere, Jason; Longo, Francesco; McConnell, Mark L.; Nowicki, Suzanne F.; Ryan, James M.; Son, Seunghee; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-08-01

    We describe the science motivation and development of a pair production telescope for medium-13 energy gamma-ray polarimetry. Our instrument concept, the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope 14 (AdEPT), takes advantage of the Three-Dimensional Track Imager, a low-density gaseous time 15 projection chamber, to achieve angular resolution within a factor of two of the pair production 16 kinematics limit (~0.6 at 70 MeV), continuum sensitivity comparable with the Fermi-LAT front 17 detector (<310-6 MeV cm-2 s-1 at 70 MeV), and minimum detectable polarization less than 10% 18 for a 10 millicrab source in 106 seconds.

  13. RF System Requirements for a Medium-Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimmer, Robert A; Hannon, Fay E; Guo, Jiquan; Huang, Shichun; Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Wang, S

    2015-09-01

    JLab is studying options for a medium energy electron-ion collider that could fit on the JLab site and use CEBAF as a full-energy electron injector. A new ion source, linac and booster would be required, together with collider storage rings for the ions and electrons. In order to achieve the maximum luminosity these will be high-current storage rings with many bunches. We present the high-level RF system requirements for the storage rings, ion booster ring and high-energy ion beam cooling system, and describe the technology options under consideration to meet them. We also present options for staging that might reduce the initial capital cost while providing a smooth upgrade path to a higher final energy. The technologies under consideration may also be useful for other proposed storage ring colliders or ultimate light sources.

  14. ISMabs: A COMPREHENSIVE X-RAY ABSORPTION MODEL FOR THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gatuzz, E.; Mendoza, C.; García, J.; Kallman, T. R.; Gorczyca, T. W. E-mail: claudio@ivic.gob.ve E-mail: timothy.r.kallman@nasa.gov

    2015-02-10

    We present an X-ray absorption model for the interstellar medium, to be referred to as ISMabs, that takes into account both neutral and ionized species of cosmically abundant elements, and includes the most accurate atomic data available. Using high-resolution spectra from eight X-ray binaries obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, we proceed to benchmark the atomic data in the model particularly in the neon K-edge region. Compared with previous photoabsorption models, which solely rely on neutral species, the inclusion of ions leads to improved spectral fits. Fit parameters comprise the column densities of abundant contributors that allow direct estimates of the ionization states. ISMabs is provided in the appropriate format to be implemented in widely used X-ray spectral fitting packages such as XSPEC, ISIS, and SHERPA.

  15. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peffer, Therese; Blumstein, Carl; Culler, David; Modera, Mark; Meier, Alan

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  16. Effective-medium model of wire metamaterials in the problems of radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirmoosa, M. S. Nefedov, I. S. Simovski, C. R.; Rüting, F.

    2014-06-21

    In the present work, we check the applicability of the effective medium model (EMM) to the problems of radiative heat transfer (RHT) through so-called wire metamaterials (WMMs)—composites comprising parallel arrays of metal nanowires. It is explained why this problem is so important for the development of prospective thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems. Previous studies of the applicability of EMM for WMMs were targeted by the imaging applications of WMMs. The analogous study referring to the transfer of radiative heat is a separate problem that deserves extended investigations. We show that WMMs with practically realizable design parameters transmit the radiative heat as effectively homogeneous media. Existing EMM is an adequate tool for qualitative prediction of the magnitude of transferred radiative heat and of its effective frequency band.

  17. GROWTH OF A LOCALIZED SEED MAGNETIC FIELD IN A TURBULENT MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Jungyeon; Yoo, Hyunju

    2012-11-10

    Turbulence dynamo deals with the amplification of a seed magnetic field in a turbulent medium and has been studied mostly for uniform or spatially homogeneous seed magnetic fields. However, some astrophysical processes (e.g., jets from active galaxies, galactic winds, or ram-pressure stripping in galaxy clusters) can provide localized seed magnetic fields. In this paper, we numerically study amplification of localized seed magnetic fields in a turbulent medium. Throughout the paper, we assume that the driving scale of turbulence is comparable to the size of the system. Our findings are as follows. First, turbulence can amplify a localized seed magnetic field very efficiently. The growth rate of magnetic energy density is as high as that for a uniform seed magnetic field. This result implies that magnetic field ejected from an astrophysical object can be a viable source of a magnetic field in a cluster. Second, the localized seed magnetic field disperses and fills the whole system very fast. If turbulence in a system (e.g., a galaxy cluster or a filament) is driven at large scales, we expect that it takes a few large-eddy turnover times for the magnetic field to fill the whole system. Third, growth and turbulence diffusion of a localized seed magnetic field are also fast in high magnetic Prandtl number turbulence. Fourth, even in decaying turbulence, a localized seed magnetic field can ultimately fill the whole system. Although the dispersal rate of the magnetic field is not fast in purely decaying turbulence, it can be enhanced by an additional forcing.

  18. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth; Franzese, Oscar; Capps, Gary J; Siekmann, Adam; Thomas, Neil; LaClair, Tim J; Barker, Alan M; Knee, Helmut E

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  19. EARLY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS IN A STRATIFIED MEDIUM WITH A POWER-LAW DENSITY DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-10-20

    A long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) has been widely thought to arise from the collapse of a massive star, and it has been suggested that its ambient medium is a homogenous interstellar medium (ISM) or a stellar wind. There are two shocks when an ultra-relativistic fireball that has been ejected during the prompt gamma-ray emission phase sweeps up the circumburst medium: a reverse shock that propagates into the fireball, and a forward shock that propagates into the ambient medium. In this paper, we investigate the temporal evolution of the dynamics and emission of these two shocks in an environment with a general density distribution of n?R {sup k} (where R is the radius) by considering thick-shell and thin-shell cases. A GRB afterglow with one smooth onset peak at early times is understood to result from such external shocks. Thus, we can determine the medium density distribution by fitting the onset peak appearing in the light curve of an early optical afterglow. We apply our model to 19 GRBs and find that their k values are in the range of 0.4-1.4, with a typical value of k ? 1, implying that this environment is neither a homogenous ISM with k = 0 nor a typical stellar wind with k = 2. This shows that the progenitors of these GRBs might have undergone a new mass-loss evolution.

  20. A chemically defined culture medium containing Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 for the fabrication of stratified squamous epithelial cell grafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aslanova, Afag; Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2015-05-01

    With the development of a culture method for stratified squamous epithelial cells, tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheets have been successfully applied as clinical cell grafts. However, the implementation of these cell sheets without the use of any animal-derived materials is highly desirable. In this study, Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor Y-27632 was used to develop a chemically defined culture medium for the fabrication of stratified epithelial cell grafts consisting of human epidermal and oral keratinocytes, and the proliferation activity, cell morphology, and gene expressions of the keratinocytes were analyzed. The results of a colorimetric assay indicated that Y-27632 significantly promoted the proliferation of the keratinocytes in culture media both with and without fetal bovine serum (FBS), although there were no indications of Y-27632 efficacy on cell morphology and stratification of the keratinocytes in culture medium without any animal-derived materials. The results of quantitative RT-PCR revealed that gene expressions correlated with cell adhesion, cell–cell junction, proliferation markers, and stem/progenitor markers in cultured keratinocytes were not strongly affected by the addition of Y-27632 to the culture medium. Moreover, gene expressions of differentiation markers in stratified keratinocytes cultured in medium without FBS were nearly identical to those of keratinocytes co-cultured with 3T3 feeder cells. Interestingly, the expressions of differentiation markers in cultured stratified keratinocytes were suppressed by FBS, whereas they were reconstructed by either co-culture of a 3T3 feeder layer or addition of Y-27632 into the culture medium containing FBS. These findings indicate that Y-27632 is a useful supplement for the development of a chemically defined culture medium for fabrication of stratified epithelial cell grafts for clinical applications for the purpose of developing the culture medium with a lower risk of pathogen

  1. Investigation of NO{sub x} conversion characteristics in a porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afsharvahid, S.; Ashman, P.J.; Dally, B.B.

    2008-03-15

    The conversion of nitric oxide (using CNG/air as fuel/oxidizer) inside a porous medium is investigated in this study. Unlike freely propagating flames, porous burners provide a solid medium that facilitates heat exchange with the gaseous phase. The heat exchange allows the stabilization of a variety of fuel mixtures from lean to rich and with a variety of calorific values. In addition, it allows the control of the reaction zone temperature and thus the control of pollutant formation while maintaining flame stability. An experimental porous burner was designed and manufactured for this purpose. The effects of equivalence ratio and flow velocity on the flame stabilization, NO{sub x} and TFN (total fixed nitrogen) conversion ratios, and temperature profiles along the burner are investigated. In addition, numerical calculations using the PLUG flow simulator model and the GRI 3.0 kinetic mechanism reveals the key reactions which control the conversion efficiency. It was found that under slightly fuel-rich conditions ({phi}{<=}1.3) NO{sub x} mostly converts to N{sub 2} with a maximum conversion ratio of 65%, while for higher equivalence ratios ({phi}>1.3) a large proportion of NO{sub x} converts to NH{sub 3}. Results from experiments and numerical modeling showed that the temperature profile along the burner has significant effects on the NO{sub x} and TFN conversion ratios. It was also found that temperatures between 1000 and 1500 K are most desirable for NO{sub x} and TFN conversion in the porous burner. Analysis of the chemical paths for the low- and high-equivalence-ratio cases showed that the formation of nitrogen-containing species under very rich conditions ({phi}>1.3) is due to the increased importance of the HCNO path as compared to the HNO path. The latter is the dominant path at low equivalence ratios ({phi}{<=}1.3) and leads to the formation of N{sub 2}. The NO concentration in the initial mixture was found to improve the conversion by up to 20% at low

  2. X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich properties of the warm-hot intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ursino, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Huffenberger, K.

    2014-07-01

    We use numerical simulations to predict the soft X-ray ([0.4-0.6] keV) and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signal (at 150 GHz) from a large-scale structure in the universe and then compute two-point statistics to study the spatial distribution and time evolution of the signals. The average X-ray signal predicted for the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) is in good agreement with observational constraints that set it at about 10% of the total diffuse X-ray background. The characteristic angle computed with the autocorrelation function is of the order of some arcminutes and becomes smaller at higher redshift. The power spectrum peak of the SZ due to the WHIM is at l ∼ 10,000 and has an amplitude of ∼0.2 μK{sup 2}, about one order of magnitude below the signal measured with telescopes like Planck, Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and South Pole Telescope. Even if the high-redshift WHIM signal is too weak to be detected using X-rays only, the small-scale correlation between X-ray and SZ maps is dominated by the high-redshift WHIM. This makes the analysis of the SZ signal in support of X-rays a promising tool to study the early time WHIM.

  3. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzese, Oscar; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Capps, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so

  4. Progress on the design of the polarized Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider at JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, F.; Bogacz, A.; Brindza, P.; Camsonne, A.; Daly, E.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Douglas, D.; Ent, R.; Gaskell, D.; Geng, R.; Grames, J.; Guo, J.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Jordan, K.; Kimber, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Michalski, T.; Morozov, V. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; /Jefferson Lab /Argonne /DESY /Moscow , Inst. Phys. Tech., Dolgoprydny /Dubna, JINR /Northern Illinois U. /Old Doominion U. /Novosibirsk, GOO Zaryad /SLAC /Texas A-M

    2015-07-14

    The Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab is designed to provide high luminosity and high polarization needed to reach new frontiers in the exploration of nuclear structure. The luminosity, exceeding 1033 cm-2s-1 in a broad range of the center-of-mass (CM) energy and maximum luminosity above 1034 cm-2s-1, is achieved by high-rate collisions of short small-emittance low-charge bunches made possible by high-energy electron cooling of the ion beam and synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. The polarization of light ion species (p, d, 3He) can be easily preserved and manipulated due to the unique figure-8 shape of the collider rings. A fully consistent set of parameters have been developed considering the balance of machine performance, required technical development and cost. This paper reports recent progress on the MEIC accelerator design including electron and ion complexes, integrated interaction region design, figure-8-ring-based electron and ion polarization schemes, RF/SRF systems and ERL-based high-energy electron cooling. Luminosity performance is also presented for the MEIC baseline design.

  5. OPTICALLY THICK H I DOMINANT IN THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: AN ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATION TO ''DARK GAS''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukui, Y.; Torii, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Okamoto, R.; Hayakawa, T.; Tachihara, K.; Sano, H.; Onishi, T.

    2015-01-01

    Dark gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) is believed to not be detectable either in CO or H I radio emission, but it is detectable by other means including γ rays, dust emission, and extinction traced outside the Galactic plane at |b| > 5°. In these analyses, the 21 cm H I emission is usually assumed to be completely optically thin. We have reanalyzed the H I emission from the whole sky at |b| > 15° by considering temperature stratification in the ISM inferred from the Planck/IRAS analysis of the dust properties. The results indicate that the H I emission is saturated with an optical depth ranging from 0.5 to 3 for 85% of the local H I gas. This optically thick H I is characterized by spin temperature in the range 10 K-60 K, significantly lower than previously postulated in the literature, whereas such low temperature is consistent with emission/absorption measurements of the cool H I toward radio continuum sources. The distribution and the column density of the H I are consistent with those of the dark gas suggested by γ rays, and it is possible that the dark gas in the Galaxy is dominated by optically thick cold H I gas. This result implies that the average density of H I is 2-2.5 times higher than that derived on the optically thin assumption in the local ISM.

  6. Analysis of the growth of strike-slip faults using effective medium theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aydin, A.; Berryman, J.G.

    2009-10-15

    Increases in the dimensions of strike-slip faults including fault length, thickness of fault rock and the surrounding damage zone collectively provide quantitative definition of fault growth and are commonly measured in terms of the maximum fault slip. The field observations indicate that a common mechanism for fault growth in the brittle upper crust is fault lengthening by linkage and coalescence of neighboring fault segments or strands, and fault rock-zone widening into highly fractured inner damage zone via cataclastic deformation. The most important underlying mechanical reason in both cases is prior weakening of the rocks surrounding a fault's core and between neighboring fault segments by faulting-related fractures. In this paper, using field observations together with effective medium models, we analyze the reduction in the effective elastic properties of rock in terms of density of the fault-related brittle fractures and fracture intersection angles controlled primarily by the splay angles. Fracture densities or equivalent fracture spacing values corresponding to the vanishing Young's, shear, and quasi-pure shear moduli were obtained by extrapolation from the calculated range of these parameters. The fracture densities or the equivalent spacing values obtained using this method compare well with the field data measured along scan lines across the faults in the study area. These findings should be helpful for a better understanding of the fracture density/spacing distribution around faults and the transition from discrete fracturing to cataclastic deformation associated with fault growth and the related instabilities.

  7. Medium-speed diesel propulsion plant for new shallow-draft LPG tankers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Propulsion equipment from engine builder Krupp MaK and power transmission specialist Lohmann Stolterfoht has been specified for a series of liquefied petroleum gas tankers being built for various customers by Pattje Shipyards, of Waterhuizen, Holland. Pattje reports that the tankers are built using an innovative system of modular construction that has led to the very short building time of only nine months per ship. The tankers have a capacity of 4200 m[sup 3] of gas and a draft of only 5.2 m when fully loaded, to enable the use of shallow water ports. Further particulars of the vessels include an overall length of 100 m, beam dimension of 15.9 m and maximum speed of 14 knots. The tankers' propulsion system is based on a single, in-line, nine-cylinder type 9M453C medium-speed diesel from the [open quotes]C[close quotes] engine series of Krupp MaK, Kiel, Germany. The 33.8 L/cyl engine (bore 320 x stroke 420 mm) develops 3000 kW at 600 r/min. 2 figs.

  8. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich; Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-05-22

    MCNP6, the latest and most advanced LANL Monte Carlo transport code, representing a merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX, is actually much more than the sum of those two computer codes; MCNP6 is available to the public via RSICC at Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In the present work, MCNP6 was validated and verified (V&V) against different experimental data on intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions, and results by several other codes, using mainly the latest modifications of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) and of the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) event generators CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03. It was found that MCNP6 using CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 describes well fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium target nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below, and can serve as a reliable simulation tool for different applications, like cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets (SEU’s), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and ion beams, to name just a few. Future improvements of the predicting capabilities of MCNP6 for such reactions are possible, and are discussed in this work.

  9. MHD SIMULATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS IN A DYNAMIC GALAXY CLUSTER MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendygral, P. J.; Jones, T. W.; Dolag, K.

    2012-05-10

    We present a pair of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of intermittent jets from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a galaxy cluster extracted from a high-resolution cosmological simulation. The selected cluster was chosen as an apparently relatively relaxed system, not having undergone a major merger in almost 7 Gyr. Despite this characterization and history, the intracluster medium (ICM) contains quite active 'weather'. We explore the effects of this ICM weather on the morphological evolution of the AGN jets and lobes. The orientation of the jets is different in the two simulations so that they probe different aspects of the ICM structure and dynamics. We find that even for this cluster, which can be characterized as relaxed by an observational standard, the large-scale, bulk ICM motions can significantly distort the jets and lobes. Synthetic X-ray observations of the simulations show that the jets produce complex cavity systems, while synthetic radio observations reveal bending of the jets and lobes similar to wide-angle tail radio sources. The jets are cycled on and off with a 26 Myr period using a 50% duty cycle. This leads to morphological features similar to those in 'double-double' radio galaxies. While the jet and ICM magnetic fields are generally too weak in the simulations to play a major role in the dynamics, Maxwell stresses can still become locally significant.

  10. Benchmark Evaluation of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiment Program Critical Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2013-02-01

    A series of small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were performed in 1962-1965 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for the Medium-Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) program. The MPRE was a stainless-steel clad, highly enriched uranium (HEU)-O2 fuelled, BeO reflected reactor design to provide electrical power to space vehicles. Cooling and heat transfer were to be achieved by boiling potassium in the reactor core and passing vapor directly through a turbine. Graphite- and beryllium-reflected assemblies were constructed at ORCEF to verify the critical mass, power distribution, and other reactor physics measurements needed to validate reactor calculations and reactor physics methods. The experimental series was broken into three parts, with the third portion of the experiments representing the beryllium-reflected measurements. The latter experiments are of interest for validating current reactor design efforts for a fission surface power reactor. The entire series has been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments and submitted for publication in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  11. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  12. Model-Based Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.

    2010-12-01

    Medium-duty vehicles are used in a broad array of fleet applications, including parcel delivery. These vehicles are excellent candidates for electric drive applications due to their transient-intensive duty cycles, operation in densely populated areas, and relatively high fuel consumption and emissions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a robust assessment of parcel delivery routes and completed a model-based techno-economic analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle configurations. First, NREL characterized parcel delivery vehicle usage patterns, most notably daily distance driven and drive cycle intensity. Second, drive-cycle analysis results framed the selection of drive cycles used to test a parcel delivery HEV on a chassis dynamometer. Next, measured fuel consumption results were used to validate simulated fuel consumption values derived from a dynamic model of the parcel delivery vehicle. Finally, NREL swept a matrix of 120 component size, usage, and cost combinations to assess impacts on fuel consumption and vehicle cost. The results illustrated the dependency of component sizing on drive-cycle intensity and daily distance driven and may allow parcel delivery fleets to match the most appropriate electric drive vehicle to their fleet usage profile.

  13. Revealing asymmetries in the HD 181327 debris disk: A recent massive collision or interstellar medium warping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Christopher C.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Schneider, Glenn; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Debes, John H.; Grady, Carol A.; Jang-Condell, Hannah

    2014-07-01

    New multi-roll coronagraphic images of the HD 181327 debris disk obtained using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope reveal the debris ring in its entirety at high signal-to-noise ratio and unprecedented spatial resolution. We present and apply a new multi-roll image processing routine to identify and further remove quasi-static point-spread function-subtraction residuals and quantify systematic uncertainties. We also use a new iterative image deprojection technique to constrain the true disk geometry and aggressively remove any surface brightness asymmetries that can be explained without invoking dust density enhancements/deficits. The measured empirical scattering phase function for the disk is more forward scattering than previously thought and is not well-fit by a Henyey-Greenstein function. The empirical scattering phase function varies with stellocentric distance, consistent with the expected radiation pressured-induced size segregation exterior to the belt. Within the belt, the empirical scattering phase function contradicts unperturbed debris ring models, suggesting the presence of an unseen planet. The radial profile of the flux density is degenerate with a radially varying scattering phase function; therefore estimates of the ring's true width and edge slope may be highly uncertain. We detect large scale asymmetries in the disk, consistent with either the recent catastrophic disruption of a body with mass >1% the mass of Pluto, or disk warping due to strong interactions with the interstellar medium.

  14. Development of high productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikejiri, T.; Hamamoto, N.; Hisada, S.; Iwasawa, K.; Kawakami, K.; Kokuryu, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Nogami, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasada, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, T. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., LTD., 575, Kuze-tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto, 601-8205 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    High productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2' is developed. In semiconductor manufacturing field, improvement of the productivity is continuously required. Especially mass production lines recently tend to use low energy beam and 2 pass implant for higher throughput. The 'Evo2' has been developed in an effort to fulfill these requirements. The 'Evo2' increases low energy beam current by 150 to 250% by applying electrostatic einzel lens called 'V-lens' installed at the exit of the Collimator magnet. This lens is also able to control the beam incident angle by adjusting the upper and lower electrode's voltages independently. Besides, mechanical scanning speed is enhanced to minimize process time of 2 pass implant, while also frequency of the fast beam scanning is enhanced to keep dose uniformity. In addition, a vacuum pumping capability at the target chamber is enhanced to reduce a vacuum waiting time during processing photo-resist wafers. This improvement achieved to reduce process time by 40% for a specific recipe. Furthermore, a modified Indirectly Heated Cathode with electron active Reflection 2 (IHC-R2) ion source which has a long life time filament has been installed. These new elements and/or functions have realized typically 25% improvement of productivity compared to standard EXCEED, and also improve a precise implantation capability.

  15. Laser utilizing a gaseous lasing medium and method for operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerr, Bruce A.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to an improvement in gas lasers and a method of operating the same. In one aspect, the invention is an improved method for operating a high-power gas laser. The improvement comprises introducing the gas lasing medium tangentially to the laser tube at a pressure establishing a forced vortex in the tube. The vortex defines an axially extending core region characterized by a low pressure and temperature relative to the gas inlet and the exterior of the vortex. An electrical discharge is established in the core region to initiate lasing of the gas. The gas discharge from the tube is passed through a diffuser. As in conventional gas lasers, firing results in a very abrupt increase in gas temperature and in severe disruption of the gas. However, the gas vortex almost immediately restores the gas to its pre-firing condition. That is, almost all of the waste heat is transferred radially to the laser wall, and the original gas-flow pattern is restored. As a result, the power output of the laser is increased significantly, and the laser firing repetition rate is markedly increased.

  16. Laser utilizing a gaseous lasing medium and method for operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerr, B.A.

    1983-10-18

    The invention relates to an improvement in gas lasers and a method of operating the same. In one aspect, the invention is an improved method for operating a high-power gas laser. The improvement comprises introducing the gas lasing medium tangentially to the laser tube at a pressure establishing a forced vortex in the tube. The vortex defines an axially extending core region characterized by a low pressure and temperature relative to the gas inlet and the exterior of the vortex. An electrical discharge is established in the core region to initiate lasing of the gas. The gas discharge from the tube is passed through a diffuser. As in conventional gas lasers, firing results in a very abrupt increase in gas temperature and in severe disruption of the gas. However, the gas vortex, almost immediately restores the gas to its prefiring condition. That is, almost all of the waste heat is transferred radially to the laser wall, and the original gas-flow pattern is restored. As a result, the power output of the laser is increased significantly, and the laser firing repetition rate is markedly increased.

  17. Propagation of vector solitons in a quasi-resonant medium with stark deformation of quantum states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sazonov, S. V.; Ustinov, N. V.

    2012-11-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of a vector two-component optical pulse propagating in quasi-resonance conditions in a medium of nonsymmetric quantum objects is investigated for Stark splitting of quantum energy levels by an external electric field. We consider the case when the ordinary component of the optical pulse induces {sigma} transitions, while the extraordinary component induces the {pi} transition and shifts the frequencies of the allowed transitions due to the dynamic Stark effect. It is found that under Zakharov-Benney resonance conditions, the propagation of the optical pulse is accompanied by generation of an electromagnetic pulse in the terahertz band and is described by the vector generalization of the nonlinear Yajima-Oikawa system. It is shown that this system (as well as its formal generalization with an arbitrary number of optical components) is integrable by the inverse scattering transformation method. The corresponding Darboux transformations are found for obtaining multisoliton solutions. The influence of transverse effects on the propagation of vector solitons is investigated. The conditions under which transverse dynamics leads to self-focusing (defocusing) of solitons are determined.

  18. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B; Zhang, Y

    2012-08-01

    Researchers have envisioned an electron-ion collider with ion species up to heavy ions, high polarization of electrons and light ions, and a well-matched center-of-mass energy range as an ideal gluon microscope to explore new frontiers of nuclear science. In its most recent Long Range Plan, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation endorsed such a collider in the form of a 'half-recommendation.' As a response to this science need, Jefferson Lab and its user community have been engaged in feasibility studies of a medium energy polarized electron-ion collider (MEIC), cost-effectively utilizing Jefferson Lab's already existing Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). In close collaboration, this community of nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists has rigorously explored the science case and design concept for this envisioned grand instrument of science. An electron-ion collider embodies the vision of reaching the next frontier in Quantum Chromodynamics - understanding the behavior of hadrons as complex bound states of quarks and gluons. Whereas the 12 GeV Upgrade of CEBAF will map the valence-quark components of the nucleon and nuclear wave functions in detail, an electron-ion collider will determine the largely unknown role sea quarks play and for the first time study the glue that binds all atomic nuclei. The MEIC will allow nuclear scientists to map the spin and spatial structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadrons from quarks and gluons. The proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab will collide a highly polarized electron beam originating from the CEBAF recirculating superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) linear accelerator (linac) with highly polarized light-ion beams or unpolarized light- to heavy-ion beams from a new ion accelerator and storage complex. Since the very

  19. A medium-energy photoemission and ab-initio investigation of cubic yttria-stabilised zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cousland, G. P.; Cui, X. Y.; Smith, A. E.; Stampfl, C. M.; Wong, L.; Tayebjee, M.; Yu, D.; Triani, G.; Evans, P. J.; Ruppender, H.-J.; Jang, L.-Y.; Stampfl, A. P. J.

    2014-04-14

    Experimental and theoretical investigations into the electronic properties and structure of cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia are presented. Medium-energy x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements have been carried out for material with a concentration of 8-9?mol.?% yttria. Resonant photoemission spectra are obtained for a range of photon energies that traverse the L2 absorption edge for both zirconium and yttrium. Through correlation with results from density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, based on structural models proposed in the literature, we assign photoemission peaks appearing in the spectra to core lines and Auger transitions. An analysis of the core level features enables the identification of shifts in the core level energies due to different local chemical environments of the constituent atoms. In general, each core line feature can be decomposed into three contributions, with associated energy shifts. Their identification with results of DFT calculations carried out for proposed atomic structures, lends support to these structural models. The experimental results indicate a multi-atom resonant photoemission effect between nearest-neighbour oxygen and yttrium atoms. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra for zirconium and yttrium are also presented, which correlate well with calculated Zr- and Y-4d electron partial density-of-states and with Auger electron peak area versus photon energy curve.

  20. Freeze-cast alumina pore networks: Effects of freezing conditions and dispersion medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S. M.; Xiao, X.; Faber, K. T.

    2015-11-01

    Alumina ceramics were freeze-cast from water- and camphene-based slurries under varying freezing conditions and examined using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). Pore network characteristics, i.e., porosity, pore size, geometric surface area, and tortuosity, were measured from XCT reconstructions and the data were used to develop a model to predict feature size from processing conditions. Classical solidification theory was used to examine relationships between pore size, temperature gradients, and freezing front velocity. Freezing front velocity was subsequently predicted from casting conditions via the two-phase Stefan problem. Resulting models for water-based samples agreed with solidification-based theories predicting lamellar spacing of binary eutectic alloys, and models for camphene-based samples concurred with those for dendritic growth. Relationships between freezing conditions and geometric surface area were also modeled by considering the inverse relationship between pore size and surface area. Tortuosity was determined to be dependent primarily on the type of dispersion medium. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Medium-range structure and glass forming ability in Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glasses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Pei; Maldonis, Jason J.; Besser, M. F.; Kramer, M. J.; Voyles, Paul M.

    2016-03-05

    Fluctuation electron microscopy experiments combined with hybrid reverse Monte Carlo modeling show a correlation between medium-range structure at the nanometer scale and glass forming ability in two Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys. Both Zr50Cu35Al15 and Zr50Cu45Al5 exhibit two nanoscale structure types, one icosahedral and the other more crystal-like. In Zr50Cu35Al15, the poorer glass former, the crystal-like structure is more stable under annealing below the glass transition temperature, Tg, than in Zr50Cu45Al5. Variable resolution fluctuation microscopy of the MRO clusters show that in Zr50Cu35Al15 on sub-Tg annealing, the crystal-like clusters shrink even as they grow more ordered, while icosahedral-like clustersmore » grow. Furthermore, the results suggest that achieving better glass forming ability in this alloy system may depend more on destabilizing crystal-like structures than enhancing non-crystalline structures.« less

  2. Sensor and numerical simulator evaluation for porous medium desiccation and rewetting at the intermediate laboratory scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-02-01

    Soil desiccation, in conjunction with surface infiltration control, is considered at the Hanford Site as a potential technology to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. An intermediate-scale experiment was conducted to test the response of a series of instruments to desiccation and subsequent rewetting of porous media. The instruments include thermistors, thermocouple psychrometers, dual-probe heat pulse sensors, heat dissipation units, and humidity probes. The experiment was simulated with the multifluid flow simulator STOMP, using independently obtained hydraulic and thermal porous medium properties. All instrument types used for this experiment were able to indicate when the desiccation front passed a certain location. In most cases the changes were sharp, indicating rapid changes in moisture content, water potential, or humidity. However, a response to the changing conditions was recorded only when the drying front was very close to a sensor. Of the tested instruments, only the heat dissipation unit and humidity probes were able to detect rewetting. The numerical simulation results reasonably match the experimental data, indicating that the simulator captures the pertinent gas flow and transport processes related to desiccation and rewetting and may be useful in the design and analysis of field tests.

  3. Scattering lengths and medium and high energy {pi}{pi} scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Buettiker, P.

    1996-11-01

    Crucial tests of chiral perturbation theory and determinations of chiral coupling constants rely on fine details of dispersion relation analysis of {pi}{pi} scattering data. Whereas a recent Roy equation analysis of low energy {ital S} and {ital P} waves with {ital a}{sup 0}{sub 0} in the range predicted by standard one-loop chiral perturbation theory, yielded sharp determinations of certain {ital S}- and {ital P}-wave threshold parameters only, we now extend the discussion to medium and high energy. This is shown to contribute to the {ital D}-wave scattering lengths {ital a}{sup 0}{sub 2} and {ital a}{sup 2}{sub 2} significantly, roughly 10{percent} and 30{percent} of their central experimental values, remaining consistent with chiral predictions. Results of our Roy equation fits to the {ital F}-wave scattering length {ital a}{sup 1}{sub 3}, a quantity for which two-loop chiral perturbation theory holds important predictions, are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jujasz, Albert J.; Burkhart, James A.; Greenberg, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  5. Fueling the Navy's Great Green Fleet with Advanced Biofuels ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... These kinds of improvements, often resulting in the form of small, dense pellets, enable biomass to be transported greater distances at lower costs and stored for longer periods of ...

  6. Memorandum of Understanding Between The Department Of The Navy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    industry to create advanced drop-in biofuels that will power both the Department of ... and support of a sustainable commercial biofuels industry and to foster mutual ...

  7. Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    capable of producing "drop-in" biofuels to meet the transportation needs of the ... Emerald Biofuels: To build an 82 million gallon per year refinery on the Gulf Coast using ...

  8. Carports with Solar Panels do Double Duty for Navy | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    14, 2010 - 12:22pm Addthis Joshua DeLung What does this project do? In total, all of China Lake's solar PV projects generate enough electricity a year to power up to 1,200...

  9. Navy Veteran Back to Work on the Smart Grid

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Read about Power4Vets -- a program funded by Recovery Act money through the Energy Department’s Smart Grid Workforce Training program, which is helping to prepare the next generation of workers in the utility and electric industries for smart grid-related jobs.

  10. Cogeneration system selection using the Navy's CELCAP code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, T.Y.R.

    1988-08-01

    The performance of a cogeneration system is easily affected by several factors; number and type of engines used in the system, the manner in which the system is operated, and the electric and thermal load profile that the system has to supply. Other factors which the energy analyst must also consider are the electric utility rate structure, the price of fuel used in the cogeneration system, and the working habits of the people at the site. The evaluation of cogeneration energy systems for the purpose of selecting a configuration with the best performance requires a great amount of effort. A computer program to analyze a cogeneration system would greatly reduce the effort needed to evaluate cogeneration systems. Realizing the need for such a tool, the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory developed such a cogeneration analysis computer program, Civil Engineering Laboratory Cogeneration Analysis Program (CELCAP), for the purpose of evaluating the performance of cogeneration systems on a life-cycle operating cost basis.

  11. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Georgia BasinPuget Sound bocaccio have always been rare in ... background radiation (sun, earth etc,) is 0.3 remyr, and is ... as canned (inside a metal jacket) radiation ...

  12. US Department of the Navy Driving Alternative Fuels Adoption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 5 years (anything beyond 1 year is challenging) - Offtakes before facility is producing fuel - Another major capital infusion FA-18E , Pacific Ocean USS Nimitz (CVN-68) THANK YOU

  13. DuncanRickoverandtheNuclearNavyPicturesOnly.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  14. Nuclear Navy United States Atomic Energy Commission Historical Advisory

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy In accordance with DOE Order No. 202-05-03 Pepco is required to provide notification of any and all 230kV planned outages at Potomac River Generating Station. On Tuesday February 20, 2007 Potomac Electric Power Company (Pepco) will be taking a planned outage on the 23106 high voltage circuit between the Palmer's Corner Substation and the Potomac River Generating Station. Notification of Planned 230kV Outage at Potomac River Generating Station (13.36 KB) More Documents

  15. National Nuclear Security Administration Official Tours Cleanup Operations for Navy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – Adm. James F. Caldwell Jr., director of the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration’s Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, recently toured the Hanford Site cleanup activities managed by EM’s Richland Operations Office (RL). RL Manager Stacy Charboneau welcomed Caldwell to the site.

  16. The Department of the Navy's Research Development and Acquisition...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presented at the DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop on March 29, 2011. apu20114amy.pdf (1.19 MB) More Documents & Publications DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop Agenda Fuel Cell Power ...

  17. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Navy Ammunition Depot -...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to DOD Designated Name: Not ... NJ.15-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Referred to DOD NJ.15-2 Radioactive Materials ...

  18. Development of a rotary engine powered APU for a medium duty hybrid shuttle bus. Interim report July 1995--July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBroom, S.T.

    1998-07-01

    Under contract to the TARDEC Petroleum and Water Business Area, sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, SwRI has procured and installed a rotary Auxiliary Power Unit on a medium-duty series hybrid electric bus. This report covers the specification and distillation of the APU and the lessons learned from those efforts.

  19. A model problem of deceleration of a body in a resisting medium with a jet flow around the body

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eroshin, V.A.; Samsonov, V.A.; Shamolin, M.V.

    1995-11-01

    A mathematical model is constructed describing the deceleration of a solid body moving in a medium with a jet flow around the body. The regime of translational deceleration is shown to be normally unstable. This has made it possible to develop a relatively simple technique for determining model parameters experimentally. An example of the application of this technique to a cylindrical body is presented.

  20. Lead-iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1984-04-11

    Disclosed are lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste