National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for medium high unknown

  1. Energy Recovery for Medium- and High-Temperature Industrial Furnaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krumm, E. D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of metallic heat exchangers on medium- and high-temperature industrial furnaces is examined. A thorough technical understanding of all furnace operating conditions and the duties imposed upon heat exchangers is identified as a key...

  2. High harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production in dense medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Andreas

    High harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production in dense medium v.v. Stre1kov1'2', V ABSTRACT We have studied the high harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production in a plasma or gas positions of the particles using the Monte-Carlo method. We observe a change of the harmonic properties due

  3. FLAME SURFACE DENSITIES IN PREMIXED COMBUSTION AT MEDIUM TO HIGH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    FLAME SURFACE DENSITIES IN PREMIXED COMBUSTION AT MEDIUM TO HIGH TURBULENCE INTENSITIES O¨ MER L in turbulent premixed propane= air flames were determined experimentally. The instantaneous flame fronts were combustion regime as defined by the most recent turbulent premixed combustion dia- grams. From 100 to 800

  4. High-harmonic generation in a dense medium V. V. Strelkov,1,2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Andreas

    High-harmonic generation in a dense medium V. V. Strelkov,1,2, * V. T. Platonenko,3 and A. Becker1 2005 The high-harmonic generation in a plasma or gas under conditions when the single-atom response using the Monte Carlo method. Harmonic spectra are calculated for different medium densities and laser

  5. Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small-and medium-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small- and medium is a useful complement or alternative to existing methods for high-resolution measurements in small- to medium has led to a dramatic increase in terrain information and opened up new opportunities for hydro- logic

  6. Ly? heating of inhomogeneous high-redshift intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oklop?i?, Antonija; Hirata, Christopher M., E-mail: oklopcic@astro.caltech.edu [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) prior to the epoch of reionization consists mostly of neutral hydrogen gas. Lyman-? (Ly?) photons produced by early stars resonantly scatter off hydrogen atoms, causing energy exchange between the radiation field and the gas. This interaction results in moderate heating of the gas due to the recoil of the atoms upon scattering, which is of great interest for future studies of the pre-reionization IGM in the H I 21 cm line. We investigate the effect of this Ly? heating in the IGM with linear density, temperature, and velocity perturbations. Perturbations smaller than the diffusion length of photons could be damped due to heat conduction by Ly? photons. The scale at which damping occurs and the strength of this effect depend on various properties of the gas, the flux of Ly? photons, and the way in which photon frequencies are redistributed upon scattering. To find the relevant length scale and the extent to which Ly? heating affects perturbations, we calculate the gas heating rates by numerically solving linearized Boltzmann equations in which scattering is treated by the Fokker-Planck approximation. We find that (1) perturbations add a small correction to the gas heating rate, and (2) the damping of temperature perturbations occurs at scales with comoving wavenumber k ? 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup –1}, which are much smaller than the Jeans scale and thus unlikely to substantially affect the observed 21 cm signal.

  7. Homogenization in random media and effective medium theory for high frequency waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume

    Homogenization in random media and effective medium theory for high frequency waves Guillaume Bal May 1, 2007 Abstract We consider the homogenization of the wave equation with high frequency initial density of high frequency waves propagating in highly heterogeneous media when the wavelength is much

  8. The SKA and the Unknown Unknowns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As new scientists and engineers join the SKA project and as the pressures come on to maintain costs within a chosen envelope it is worth restating and updating the rationale for the 'Exploration of the Unknown' (EoU). Maintaining an EoU philosophy will prove a vital ingredient for realizing the SKA's discovery potential. Since people make the discoveries enabled by technology a further axis in capability parameter space, the'human bandwidth' is emphasised. Using the morphological approach pioneered by Zwicky, a currently unexploited region of observational parameter space can be identified viz: time variable spectral patterns on all spectral and angular scales, one interesting example would be 'spectral transients'. We should be prepared to build up to 10 percent less collecting area for a given overall budget in order to enhance the ways in which SKA1 can be flexibly utilized.

  9. The Strikingly Uniform, Highly Turbulent Interstellar Medium of the Most Luminous Galaxy in the Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz-Santos, T; Blain, A W; Tsai, C -W; Aravena, M; Eisenhardt, P; Wu, J; Stern, D; Bridge, C

    2015-01-01

    Observed at z = 4.601 and with L_bol = 3.5 x 10^14 Lsun, W2246-0526 is the most luminous galaxy known in the Universe, and hosts a deeply-buried active galactic nucleus (AGN)/super-massive black hole (SMBH). Discovered using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), W2246-0526 is classified as a Hot Dust Obscured Galaxy (Hot DOG), based on its luminosity and dust temperature. Here we present spatially resolved ALMA [CII]157.7um observations of W2246-0526, providing unique insight into the kinematics of its interstellar medium (ISM). The measured [CII]-to-far-infrared ratio is ~2 x 10^-4, implying ISM conditions that compare only with the most obscured, compact starbursts and AGN in the local Universe today. The spatially resolved [CII] line is strikingly uniform and very broad, 500-600 km/s wide, extending throughout the entire galaxy over about 2.5 kpc, with modest shear. Such a large, homogeneous velocity dispersion indicates a highly turbulent medium. W2246-0526 is unstable in terms of the energy and...

  10. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  11. Lead-iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1984-04-11

    Disclosed are lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste

  12. Homogenization of a locally-periodic medium with areas of low and high diffusivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Noorden, T

    2010-01-01

    We aim at understanding transport in porous materials including regions with both high and low diffusivities. For such scenarios, the transport becomes structured (here: {\\em micro-macro}). The geometry we have in mind includes regions of low diffusivity arranged in a locally-periodic fashion. We choose a prototypical advection-diffusion system (of minimal size), discuss its formal homogenization (the heterogenous medium being now assumed to be made of zones with circular areas of low diffusivity of $x$-varying sizes), and prove the weak solvability of the limit two-scale reaction-diffusion model. A special feature of our analysis is that most of the basic estimates (positivity, $L^\\infty$-bounds, uniqueness, energy inequality) are obtained in $x$-dependent Bochner spaces.

  13. Stages of destruction and elastic compression of granular nanoporous carbon medium at high pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; N. B. Bobrova; A. A. Chupikov

    2015-05-14

    The granular nanoporous carbon medium, made of the cylindrical coal granules of the adsorbent of SKT 3, at an influence by the high pressures from 1MPa to 3GPa has been researched. The eight consecutive stages of the materials specific volume change, which is characterized by a certain dependence of the volume change on the pressure change, have been registered. It is shown that there is a linear dependence on the double log log plot of the materials specific volume change on the pressure for an every stage of considered process. The two stages are clearly distinguished such as a stage of materials mechanical destruction, and a stage of elastic compression of material without the disintegration of structure at a nanscale. The hysteresis dependence of the materials specific volume change on the pressure change at the pressure decrease is observed. The small disperse coal dust particles jettisoning between the high pressure cell and the base plate was observed, resulting in the elastic stress reduction in relation to the small disperse coal dust particles volume. The obtained research data can be used to improve the designs of air filters for the radioactive chemical elements absorption at the NPP with the aims to protect the environment.

  14. Development of high productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikejiri, T.; Hamamoto, N.; Hisada, S.; Iwasawa, K.; Kawakami, K.; Kokuryu, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Nogami, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasada, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, T. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., LTD., 575, Kuze-tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto, 601-8205 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    High productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2' is developed. In semiconductor manufacturing field, improvement of the productivity is continuously required. Especially mass production lines recently tend to use low energy beam and 2 pass implant for higher throughput. The 'Evo2' has been developed in an effort to fulfill these requirements. The 'Evo2' increases low energy beam current by 150 to 250% by applying electrostatic einzel lens called 'V-lens' installed at the exit of the Collimator magnet. This lens is also able to control the beam incident angle by adjusting the upper and lower electrode's voltages independently. Besides, mechanical scanning speed is enhanced to minimize process time of 2 pass implant, while also frequency of the fast beam scanning is enhanced to keep dose uniformity. In addition, a vacuum pumping capability at the target chamber is enhanced to reduce a vacuum waiting time during processing photo-resist wafers. This improvement achieved to reduce process time by 40% for a specific recipe. Furthermore, a modified Indirectly Heated Cathode with electron active Reflection 2 (IHC-R2) ion source which has a long life time filament has been installed. These new elements and/or functions have realized typically 25% improvement of productivity compared to standard EXCEED, and also improve a precise implantation capability.

  15. Scattering lengths and medium and high energy {pi}{pi} scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Buettiker, P.

    1996-11-01

    Crucial tests of chiral perturbation theory and determinations of chiral coupling constants rely on fine details of dispersion relation analysis of {pi}{pi} scattering data. Whereas a recent Roy equation analysis of low energy {ital S} and {ital P} waves with {ital a}{sup 0}{sub 0} in the range predicted by standard one-loop chiral perturbation theory, yielded sharp determinations of certain {ital S}- and {ital P}-wave threshold parameters only, we now extend the discussion to medium and high energy. This is shown to contribute to the {ital D}-wave scattering lengths {ital a}{sup 0}{sub 2} and {ital a}{sup 2}{sub 2} significantly, roughly 10{percent} and 30{percent} of their central experimental values, remaining consistent with chiral predictions. Results of our Roy equation fits to the {ital F}-wave scattering length {ital a}{sup 1}{sub 3}, a quantity for which two-loop chiral perturbation theory holds important predictions, are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. HIGH SPEED, IN-FLIGHT STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM FOR MEDIUM ALTITUDE LONG ENDURANCE UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HIGH SPEED, IN-FLIGHT STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM FOR MEDIUM ALTITUDE LONG ENDURANCE on Structural Health Monitoring July 8-11, 2014. La Cité, Nantes, France Copyright © Inria (2014) 274 hal Health Monitoring (2014)" #12;substantiation of structural bonded jointsmay be based on: "repeatable

  17. On soliton structure of higher order (2+1)-dimensional equations of a relaxing medium beneath high-frequency perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuetche Kamgang Victor; Bouetou Bouetou Thomas; Timoleon Crepin Kofane

    2007-09-27

    We investigate the soliton structure of novel (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear partial differential evolution(NLPDE) equations which may govern the behavior of a barothropic relaxing medium beneath high-frequency perturbations. As a result, we may derive some soliton solutions amongst which three typical pattern formations with loop-, cusp- and hump-like shapes.

  18. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical El Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305 K. Bergey University of Oklahoma Aero Engineering Department Norman, OK 73069 Ir. Jos Beurskens Programme Manager for...

  19. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R. Lynette & Assoc., Inc. 15042 NE 40th Street Suite 206 Redmond, WA 98052 P. H. Madsen Riso National Laboratory Postbox 49 DK-4000 Roskilde DENMARK D. Malcolm R. Lynette &...

  20. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Assoc., Inc. 15042 NE 40th Street Suite 206 Redmond, WA 98052 Peter Hauge Madsen Riso National Laboratory Postbox 49 DK-4000 Roskilde DENW David Malcolm R. Lynette &...

  1. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185 ABSTRACT The LIFE2 computer code is a fatiguefracture analysis code that is specialized to the analysis of wind turbine components. The...

  2. UNKNOWN

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700, 1. .&. ' , c 1afr a .w-wnRonlauJOURNAL

  3. UNKNOWN

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700, 1. .&. ' , c 1afr a

  4. UNKNOWN

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700, 1. .&. ' , c 1afr aDOI:

  5. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0 - 19Portal University of ColoradoEnergy,1750

  6. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedof Rochester | National NuclearScientific and

  7. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedof Rochester | National NuclearScientific

  8. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedof Rochester | National NuclearScientific*

  9. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedof Rochester | National

  10. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedof Rochester | NationalProceedinsw of the

  11. Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting (HTMWG) held October 10, 2007 in Washington, D.C.

  12. High resolution ALMA observations of dense molecular medium in the central regions of active galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohno, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Akio; Izumi, Takuma; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2016-01-01

    In the central regions of active galaxies, dense molecular medium are exposed to various types of radiation and energy injections, such as UV, X-ray, cosmic ray, and shock dissipation. With the rapid progress of chemical models and implementation of new-generation mm/submm interferometry, we are now able to use molecules as powerful diagnostics of the physical and chemical processes in galaxies. Here we give a brief overview on the recent ALMA results to demonstrate how molecules can reveal underlying physical and chemical processes in galaxies. First, new detections of Galactic molecular absorption systems with elevated HCO/H$^{13}$CO$^+$ column density ratios are reported, indicating that these molecular media are irradiated by intense UV fields. Second, we discuss the spatial distributions of various types of shock tracers including HNCO, CH$_3$OH and SiO in NGC 253 and NGC 1068. Lastly, we provide an overview of proposed diagnostic methods of nuclear energy sources using ALMA, with an emphasis on the syne...

  13. Heating and Ionization of the Primordial Intergalactic Medium by High Mass X-ray Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knevitt, Gillian; Power, Chris; Bolton, James

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the influence of High Mass X-ray Binaries on their high redshift environments. Using a one-dimensional radiative transfer code, we predict the ionization and temperature profiles surrounding a coeval stellar population, composed of main sequence stars and HMXBs, at various times after its formation. We consider both uniform density surroundings, and a cluster embedded in a 10^8 solar mass NFW halo. HMXBs in a constant density environment produce negligible enhanced ionization because of their high-energy SEDs and short lifetimes. In this case, HMXBs only marginally contribute to the local heating rate. For NFW profiles, radiation from main sequence stars cannot prevent the initially ionized volume from recombining since it is unable to penetrate the high density galactic core. However, HMXB photons stall recombinations behind the front, keeping it partially ionized for longer. The increased electron density in these partially ionized regions promotes further cooling, resulting in lower IGM temp...

  14. The final stage of gravitational collapse for high density fluid medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, R. G.; De Campos, M.

    2013-03-25

    The High density high density fluids can be represented by a stiff matter state equation P={rho} and also by the Hagedorn state equation. The first is constructed using a lagrangian that allows bare nucleons to interact attractively via scalar meson exchange, and repulsively by a more massive vector meson exchange; the second consider that for large mass the spectrum of hadrons grows exponentially, namely {rho}(m) {approx}exp(m/T{sub H}), where T{sub H} is the Hagedorn temperature, resulting the state equation P = P{sub 0}+{rho}{sub 0}ln({rho}/{rho}{sub 0}). We study the gravitational collapse for a high density fluid, considering a Hagedorn state equation in a presence of a vacuum component.

  15. Design of an ambient aerosol sampling system for high and medium speed applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irshad, Hammad

    2002-01-01

    Two ambient sampling systems were designed and tested for high speed sampling application for a wind speed range of 4.47 m/s to 26.82 m/s. These systems will be used as inlets for sampling of bioaerosol from air. These systems consist of shrouded...

  16. Technical manual: a survey of scintillating medium for high-energy particle detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baitenov, Adil; Beznosko, Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    There are various particle detection methods used nowadays and the most common is using scintillators. Among scintillating materials, solid plastic and water-based liquid scintillators (WbLS) are the latest development. In particular, WbLS allows researchers to apply different particle detection methods for increased experiment efficiency. This survey attempts to make an overview on detection methods and detectors in high-energy physics using scintillators. It is meant as a summary for those new to scintillator detectors and looking for general material on the topic.

  17. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  18. Fission gas induced fuel swelling in low and medium burnup fuel during high temperature transients. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1980-01-01

    The behavior of light water reactor fuel elements under postulated accident conditions is being studied by the EG and G Idaho, Inc., Thermal Fuels Behavior Program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. As a part of this program, unirradiated and previously irradiated, pressurized-water-reactor type fuel rods were tested under power-cooling-mismatch (PCM) conditions in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). During these integral in-reactor experiments, film boiling was produced on the fuel rods which created high fuel and cladding temperatures. Fuel rod diameters increased in the film boiling region to a greater extent for irradiated rods than for unirradiated rods. The purpose of the study was to investigate and assess the fuel swelling which caused the fuel rod diameter increases and to evaluate the ability of an analytical code, the Gas Release and Swelling Subroutine - Steady-State and Transient (GRASS-SST), to predict the results.

  19. Process and system for producing high-density pellets from a gaseous medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Christopher A. (Clinton, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A process and system for producing pellets of high density carbon dioxide or other gases utilize a chamber containing a plurality of cell-like freezing compartments within which ice is to be formed. A gas desired to be frozen into ice is introduced into the chamber while the internal pressure of the chamber is maintained at a level which is below the equilibrium triple pressure of the gas. The temperature of the freezing compartments is lowered to a temperature which is below the equilibrium vapor pressure temperature of the gas at the chamber pressure so that the gas condenses into ice within the compartments. The temperature of the freezing compartments is thereafter raised so that the ice is thereby released from and falls out of the compartments as pellets for collection.

  20. High-frequency acoustic sensors for operation in a gaseous medium. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kino, G.S.

    1990-12-31

    Photothermal microscopy is a technique for measuring thermal properties on a small scale by using focused laser beams as heat sources and as temperature probes. Typically used for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials, its main advantage is its ability to measure types of flaws that are not visible optically or acoustically. Because of the optical nature of photothermal microscopy, sub-micron resolutions can be obtained in many of these thermal measurements. The greatest limitation of these systems is their relatively poor signal-to-noise ratios and, consequently, slow imaging speeds. To circumvent this problem, a variety of approaches to the detection of thermal waves has been pursued in recent years. This thesis compares the relative merits of a common class of techniques that rely on direct observation of physical changes in the heated sample, including a novel approach to interferometric measurement of the thermal expansion. It is found that the optimum approach depends not only on the physical properties of the sample being studies, but also upon the resolution of the experiment and the damage threshold of the specimen. Finally, this dissertation describes the applications of photothermal microscopy to the study of the anisotropic thermal properties of the new high-{Tc} superconductors. By adding a high-vacuum cryostat to the microscope, the authors have been able to study the influence of the superconducting transition on the thermal conductivity. The measurements of the anisotropic thermal conductivity demonstrate that the heat flow along the superconducting planes is enhanced below the transition, and that no such enhancement exists in the non-superconducting direction. Material examined was Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O.

  1. Unambiguous discrimination between two unknown qudit states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao Zhou

    2011-11-15

    We consider the unambiguous discrimination between two unknown qudit states in $n$-dimensional ($n\\geqslant2$) Hilbert space. By equivalence of unknown pure states to known mixed states and with the Jordan-basis method, we demonstrate that the optimal success probability of the discrimination between two unknown states is independent of the dimension $n$. We also give a scheme for a physical implementation of the programmable state discriminator that unambiguously discriminate between two unknown states with optimal probability of success.

  2. Synthetic laser medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  3. Aggie Band - Unknown Date - 10 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2006-11-22

    in the interlayer of smectites: 1) exchanging interlayer cations, 2) selecting natural bentonites with different cation exchange capacities (CEC), and 3) reducing charge density of a high CEC smectite. Six bentonites were fractionated, with their major...

  4. An alternative scheme of angular-dispersion analyzers for high-resolution medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xian-Rong

    2011-01-01

    The development of medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) optics with meV and sub-meV resolution has attracted considerable efforts in recent years. Meanwhile, there are also concerns or debates about the fundamental and feasibility of the involved schemes. Here the central optical component, the back-reflection angular-dispersion monochromator or analyzer, is analyzed. The results show that the multiple-beam diffraction effect together with transmission-induced absorption can noticeably reduce the diffraction efficiency, although it may not be a fatal threat. In order to improve the efficiency, a simple four-bounce analyzer is proposed that completely avoids these two adverse effects. The new scheme is illustrated to be a feasible alternative approach for developing meV- to sub-meV-resolution IXS spectroscopy.

  5. Discovering Point Sources in Unknown Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    - ted from the yet-to-be-located source. We will refer to the information from the range sensorDiscovering Point Sources in Unknown Environments Yanina Landa1 , Nicolay M. Tanushev2 , Richard of Texas at Austin, {nicktan,ytsai}@math.utexas.edu 3 Institute for Computational and Appplied Mathematics

  6. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  7. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  8. The Local Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redfield, S

    2006-01-01

    The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general interstellar phenomena in great detail and in three dimensions. In particular, high resolution optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy have proven to be powerful tools for addressing fundamental questions concerning the physical conditions and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of this local material. After reviewing our current understanding of the structure of gas in the solar neighborhood, I will discuss the influence that the LISM can have on stellar and planetary systems, including LISM dust deposition onto planetary atmospheres and the modulation of galactic cosmic rays through the astrosphere - the balancing interface between the outward pressure of the magnetized stellar wind and the inward pressure of the surrounding interstellar medium. On Earth, galactic cosmic rays may play a role as contributors to ozone layer chemistry, planetary electrical discharge frequency, biological mutation rates, and cl...

  9. Industrial co-generation through use of a medium BTU gas from biomass produced in a high throughput reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, H.F.; Ball, D.A.; Paisley, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    A high-throughput gasification system has been developed for the steam gasification of woody biomass to produce a fuel gas with a heating value of 475 to 500 Btu/SCF without using oxygen. Recent developments have focused on the use of bark and sawdust as feedstocks in addition to wood chips and the testing of a new reactor concept, the so-called controlled turbulent zone (CTZ) reactor to increase gas production per unit of wood fed. Operating data from the original gasification system and the CTZ system are used to examine the preliminary economics of biomass gasification/gas turbine cogeneration systems. In addition, a ''generic'' pressurized oxygen-blown gasification system is evaluated. The economics of these gasification systems are compared with a conventional wood boiler/steam turbine cogeneration system.

  10. Experiments and Model for Serration Statistics in Low-Entropy, Medium-Entropy, and High-Entropy Alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carroll, Robert; Lee, Chi; Tsai, Che-Wei; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Antonaglia, James; Brinkman, Braden A.W.; LeBlanc, Michael; Xie, Xie; Chen, Shuying; Liaw, Peter K; et al

    2015-11-23

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are new alloys that contain five or more elements in roughly equal proportion. We present new experiments and theory on the deformation behavior of HEAs under slow stretching (straining), and observe differences, compared to conventional alloys with fewer elements. For a specific range of temperatures and strain-rates, HEAs deform in a jerky way, with sudden slips that make it difficult to precisely control the deformation. An analytic model explains these slips as avalanches of slipping weak spots and predicts the observed slip statistics, stress-strain curves, and their dependence on temperature, strain-rate, and material composition. The ratio ofmore »the weak spots’ healing rate to the strain-rate is the main tuning parameter, reminiscent of the Portevin-LeChatellier effect and time-temperature superposition in polymers. Our model predictions agree with the experimental results. The proposed widely-applicable deformation mechanism is useful for deformation control and alloys design.« less

  11. High stable suspension of magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol by using sono-synthesized nanomagnetite in polyol medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Entezari, Mohammad H.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The sonochemical synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles was carried out in EG without any surfactant. • The nanoparticles with sizes ?24 nm were composed of small building blocks with sizes ?2 nm. • The hydrophilic magnetite nanoparticles were stable in ethanol even after 8 months. • Ultrasonic intensity showed a crucial role on the obtained high stable magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol. - Abstract: The sonochemical synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles was carried out at relatively low temperature (80 °C) in ethylene glycol (EG) as a polyol solvent. The particle size was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetite nanoparticles with an average size of 24 nm were composed of small building blocks with an average size of 2–3 nm and the particles exhibited nearly spherical shape. The surface characterization was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The stability of magnetite nanoparticles was studied in ethanol as a polar solvent. The nanoparticles showed an enhanced stability in ethanol which is due to the hydrophilic surface of the particles. The colloidal stability of magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol was monitored by UV–visible spectrophotometer. According to the results, the nanoparticles synthesized in 30 min of sonication with intensity of 35 W/cm{sup 2} (50%) led to a maximum stability in ethanol as a polar solvent with respect to the other applied intensities. The obtained magnetite nanoparticles were stable for more than12 months.

  12. The Learnability of Unknown Quantum Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao-Chung Cheng; Min-Hsiu Hsieh; Ping-Cheng Yeh

    2015-01-03

    Quantum machine learning has received significant attention in recent years, and promising progress has been made in the development of quantum algorithms to speed up traditional machine learning tasks. In this work, however, we focus on investigating the information-theoretic upper bounds of sample complexity - how many training samples are sufficient to predict the future behaviour of an unknown target function. This kind of problem is, arguably, one of the most fundamental problems in statistical learning theory and the bounds for practical settings can be completely characterised by a simple measure of complexity. Our main result in the paper is that, for learning an unknown quantum measurement, the upper bound, given by the fat-shattering dimension, is linearly proportional to the dimension of the underlying Hilbert space. Learning an unknown quantum state becomes a dual problem to ours, and as a byproduct, we can recover Aaronson's famous result [Proc. R. Soc. A 463:3089-3144 (2007)] solely using a classical machine learning technique. In addition, other famous complexity measures like covering numbers and Rademacher complexities are derived explicitly. We are able to connect measures of sample complexity with various areas in quantum information science, e.g. quantum state/measurement tomography, quantum state discrimination and quantum random access codes, which may be of independent interest. Lastly, with the assistance of general Bloch-sphere representation, we show that learning quantum measurements/states can be mathematically formulated as a neural network. Consequently, classical ML algorithms can be applied to efficiently accomplish the two quantum learning tasks.

  13. Charmonium in Hot Medium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xingbo

    2012-02-14

    We investigate charmonium production in the hot medium created by heavy-ion collisions by setting up a framework in which in-medium charmonium properties are constrained by thermal lattice QCD (lQCD) and subsequently ...

  14. Unknown Word Extraction for Chinese Documents Keh-Jiann Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown Word Extraction for Chinese Documents Keh-Jiann Chen Institute of Information science@iis.sinica.edu.tw Abstract There is no blank to mark word boundaries in Chinese text. As a result, identifying words is difficult, because of segmentation ambiguities and occurrences of unknown words. Conventionally unknown

  15. The Local Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth Redfield

    2006-01-06

    The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general interstellar phenomena in great detail and in three dimensions. In particular, high resolution optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy have proven to be powerful tools for addressing fundamental questions concerning the physical conditions and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of this local material. After reviewing our current understanding of the structure of gas in the solar neighborhood, I will discuss the influence that the LISM can have on stellar and planetary systems, including LISM dust deposition onto planetary atmospheres and the modulation of galactic cosmic rays through the astrosphere - the balancing interface between the outward pressure of the magnetized stellar wind and the inward pressure of the surrounding interstellar medium. On Earth, galactic cosmic rays may play a role as contributors to ozone layer chemistry, planetary electrical discharge frequency, biological mutation rates, and climate. Since the LISM shares the same volume as practically all known extrasolar planets, the prototypical debris disks systems, and nearby low-mass star-formation sites, it will be important to understand the structures of the LISM and how they may influence planetary atmospheres.

  16. Data series subtraction with unknown and unmodeled background noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Vitale; Giuseppe Congedo; Rita Dolesi; Valerio Ferroni; Mauro Hueller; Daniele Vetrugno; William Joseph Weber; Heather Audley; Karsten Danzmann; Ingo Diepholz; Martin Hewitson; Natalia Korsakova; Luigi Ferraioli; Ferran Gibert; Nikolaos Karnesis; Miquel Nofrarias; Henri Inchauspe; Eric Plagnol; Oliver Jennrich; Paul W. McNamara; Michele Armano; James Ira Thorpe; Peter Wass

    2014-08-04

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), ESA's precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory, will measure the degree to which two test-masses can be put into free-fall, aiming to demonstrate a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below 30 fm/s$^2$/Hz$^{1/2}$ around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the measured relative acceleration data series must be fit to other various measured time series data. This fitting is required in different experiments, from system identification of the test mass and satellite dynamics to the subtraction of noise contributions from measured known disturbances. In all cases, the background noise, described by the PSD of the fit residuals, is expected to be coloured, requiring that we perform such fits in the frequency domain. This PSD is unknown {\\it a priori}, and a high accuracy estimate of this residual acceleration noise is an essential output of our analysis. In this paper we present a fitting method based on Bayesian parameter estimation with an unknown frequency-dependent background noise. The method uses noise marginalisation in connection with averaged Welch's periodograms to achieve unbiased parameter estimation, together with a consistent, non-parametric estimate of the residual PSD. Additionally, we find that the method is equivalent to some implementations of iteratively re-weighted least-squares fitting. We have tested the method both on simulated data of known PSD, and to analyze differential acceleration from several experiments with the LISA Pathfinder end-to-end mission simulator.

  17. Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Unknown Bridge Foundation Depth Determination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arjwech, Rungroj

    2012-02-14

    as suitable to investigate unknown bridge foundations. The objective of the present study is to apply advanced 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) in order to identify depth of unknown bridge foundations. A survey procedure is carried out in mixed terrain...

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF RELIABLE PREDICTOR MODELS FOR UNKNOWN SYSTEMS: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campi, Marco

    IDENTIFICATION OF RELIABLE PREDICTOR MODELS FOR UNKNOWN SYSTEMS: A DATA-CONSISTENCY APPROACH BASED mechanism ­ DGM), a selected family of models, with which we want to describe the observed data (the data, that is a statement of probability that the computed model will be consistent with future unknown data. Keywords

  19. THE MULTIWAVELENGTH SURVEY BY YALE-CHILE (MUSYC): DEEP MEDIUM-BAND OPTICAL IMAGING AND HIGH-QUALITY 32-BAND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS IN THE ECDF-S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Urry, C. Megan; Brammer, Gabriel [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Taniguchi, Yoshi [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Taylor, Edward; Damen, Maaike [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Treister, Ezequiel [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Cobb, Bethany E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Schawinski, Kevin [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronoma, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Murayama, Takashi [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Saito, Tomoki [Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sumikawa, Kentaro, E-mail: carolin.cardamone@astro.yale.ed [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    We present deep optical 18-medium-band photometry from the Subaru telescope over the {approx}30' x 30' Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, as part of the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). This field has a wealth of ground- and space-based ancillary data, and contains the GOODS-South field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. We combine the Subaru imaging with existing UBVRIzJHK and Spitzer IRAC images to create a uniform catalog. Detecting sources in the MUSYC 'BVR' image we find {approx}40,000 galaxies with R {sub AB} < 25.3, the median 5{sigma} limit of the 18 medium bands. Photometric redshifts are determined using the EAzY code and compared to {approx}2000 spectroscopic redshifts in this field. The medium-band filters provide very accurate redshifts for the (bright) subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts, particularly at 0.1 < z < 1.2 and at z {approx}> 3.5. For 0.1 < z < 1.2, we find a 1{sigma} scatter in {Delta}z/(1 + z) of 0.007, similar to results obtained with a similar filter set in the COSMOS field. As a demonstration of the data quality, we show that the red sequence and blue cloud can be cleanly identified in rest-frame color-magnitude diagrams at 0.1 < z < 1.2. We find that {approx}20% of the red sequence galaxies show evidence of dust emission at longer rest-frame wavelengths. The reduced images, photometric catalog, and photometric redshifts are provided through the public MUSYC Web site.

  20. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy. 37 figs.

  1. Autonomous flight in unstructured and unknown indoor environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachrach, Abraham Galton

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the design, implementation, and validation of a system that enables a micro air vehicle to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. Such a vehicle would be of considerable ...

  2. The 1995 ABBOT LVCSR system for multiple unknown microphones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kershaw, Dan; Robinson, Tony; Renals, Steve

    of the phone classes, which are used as observation probabilities within an HMM. This paper describes the system which participated in the November 1995 ARPA Hub-3 multiple unknown microphones (MUM) evaluation of continuous speech recognition systems, under...

  3. Method for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, John S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  4. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, John S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  5. Holographic Nucleons in the Nuclear Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bum-Hoon Lee; Chanyong Park

    2015-03-12

    We investigate the nucleon's rest mass and dispersion relation in the nuclear medium which is holographically described by the thermal charged AdS geometry. On this background, the chiral condensate plays an important role to determine the nucleon's mass in both the vacuum and the nuclear medium. It also significantly modifies the nucleon's dispersion relation. The nucleon's mass in the high density regime increases with density as expected, while in the low density regime it slightly decreases. We further study the splitting of the nucleon's masses caused by the isospin interaction with the nuclear medium.

  6. Sintered composite medium and filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A particulate filter medium is formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers. A preferred composition is about 40 vol. % quartz and about 60 vol. % stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100.degree. C. to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550.degree. C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  7. Incompatibility of Contrast Medium and Trisodium Citrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delcour, Christian Bruninx, Guy

    2013-02-15

    To test the compatibility of trisodium citrate, a catheter lock solution, with iodinated contrast medium. Iohexol, iobitridol, iodixanol, ioxaglate, ioxithalamate, iomeprol, and iopromide were tested. In all tests, 2 ml of contrast medium were mixed with 2 ml of trisodium citrate solution. Iodixanol and ioxaglate provoked a highly viscous gluelike precipitation when mixed with trisodium citrate. A brief transient precipitate was observed with iohexol, iomeprol, and ioxithalamate. Permanent precipitation occurred with iobitridol and iopromide. One must be aware of the potential for precipitation when contrast medium is mixed with trisodium citrate solution. Before trisodium citrate solution is injected, the catheter should be thoroughly flushed with saline if a contrast medium has previously been injected through it.

  8. Photometric Stereo with General, Unknown Lighting Ronen Basri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daume III, Hal

    Photometric Stereo with General, Unknown Lighting Ronen Basri£ David Jacobs Dept. of Computer properties of an object using multiple images taken with a fixed viewpoint and variable lighting conditions. This work has primarily relied on the presence of a single point source of light in each image. In this pa

  9. Online Bipartite Matching with Unknown Distributions Chinmay Karande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Online Bipartite Matching with Unknown Distributions Chinmay Karande Google Research Mountain View, CA chinmayk@google.com Aranyak Mehta Google Research Mountain View, CA aranyak@google.com Pushkar Research, Mountain View Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal

  10. Handling Advertisements of Unknown Quality in Search Advertising

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olston, Christopher

    Handling Advertisements of Unknown Quality in Search Advertising Sandeep Pandey Christopher Olston@yahoo-inc.com Abstract We consider how a search engine should select advertisements to display with search results well the displayed advertisements appeal to users. The main difficulty stems from new ad- vertisements

  11. Proportional Hazards Regression with Unknown Link Function By WEI WANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jane-Ling

    Proportional Hazards Regression with Unknown Link Function By WEI WANG Harvard Medical School@amss.ac.cn The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong qhwang@hku.hk Summary Proportional hazards regression model assumes of the covariates. Traditional ap- proaches, such as the Cox proportional hazards model, focus on estimating

  12. Color and perceptual variation revisited: Unknown facts, alien modalities, and perfect psychosemantics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohe, J

    2006-01-01

    Revisited: Unknown Facts, Alien Modalities, and Perfectunwarranted optimism. 7 Alien Modalities A related objection

  13. Characterization of Residual Medium Peptides from Yersinia pestis Cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clowers, Brian H.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2013-04-03

    Using a range of common microbial medium formulations (TSB, BHI, LB, and G-media), two attenuated strains of Y. pestis (KIM D27 (pgm-) and KIMD1 lcr-) were cultivated in triplicate. These cellular suspensions were used to develop a method of extracting residual medium peptides from the final microbial preparation to assess their relative abundance and identity. Across the conditions examined, which included additional cellular washing and different forms of microbial inactivation, residual medium peptides were detected. Despite the range of growth medium sources used and the associated manufacturing processes used in their production, a high degree of peptide similarity was observed for a given medium recipe. These results demonstrate that residual medium peptides are retained using traditional microbial cultivation techniques and may be used to inform forensic investigations with respect to production deduction.

  14. Remote implementation of partially unknown operations and its entanglement costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu-Hui Luo; An-Min Wang

    2013-01-24

    We present the generalized version of Wang's protocol[A.M.Wang, Phys.Rev.A 74,032317 (2006)] for the remote implementation(sometimes referred to as quantum remote control) of partially unknown quantum operations. The protocol only requires no more than half of the entanglements used in Bidirectional Quantum State Teleportation. We also propose a protocol for another form of quantum remote control. It can remotely implement a unitary operation which is a combination of the projective representations of a group. Moreover, we prove that the Schmidt rank of the entanglements cannot not be less than the number of controlled parameters of the operations, which for the first time gives a lower bound on entanglement costs in remote implementation of quantum operations.

  15. Energy Efficiency Programs for Small and Medium Sized Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shipley, A. M.; Elliott, R. N.

    2001-01-01

    Abundant, low-cost energy efficiency opportunities exist in industries with a high representation of small and medium-sized manufacturers. Small industrial facilities with fewer than 250 employees consume 25% of all industrial energy. Designing...

  16. In-Medium Properties of Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuqiang Wang

    2007-07-05

    Modifications of jet-like azimuthal correlations have revealed novel properties of the medium created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Experimental results on jet-like 2- and 3-particle correlations, specificly "punch-through" at high transverse momentum, broadening at low and modest transverse momentum, and particularly the possible experimental evidence for conical flow, are reviewed. Future prospects of jet-like correlations and their physics potential are discussed.

  17. Lyman alpha Absorption Systems and the Intergalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Efstathiou; Joop Schaye; Tom Theuns

    2000-04-10

    The last few years have seen a dramatic improvement in our understanding of the origin of Lyman alpha absorption systems. Hydrodynamic numerical simulations of cold dark matter dominated universes have shown that the many properties of the Lyman alpha absorption systems can be explained by a photoionized, space-filling, intergalactic medium. Lyman alpha lines offer promising probes of the photoionizing background, the amplitude of the mass fluctuations at high redshift and the evolution of the equation of state of the intergalactic medium.

  18. Glasma Evolution in Partonic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Nazarenko

    2010-11-23

    We examine a scenario of the abelianized Glasma evolution with accounting for back-reaction of partonic medium in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We announce that such a generalization leads to the instabilities and the presence of negative color conductivity in the system.

  19. Dynamics of Electricity Markets with Unknown Utility Functions: An Extremum Seeking Control Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Guoqiang; Spanos, Costas J

    2014-01-01

    of demand response in electricity markets,” Electric Powerthe dynamics of electricity markets with unknown utilityvolatility in the electricity markets and consider more

  20. The Multi-robot Coverage Problem for Optimal Coordinated Search with an Unknown Number of Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    The Multi-robot Coverage Problem for Optimal Coordinated Search with an Unknown Number of Robots of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55455 Email: {hjmin|npapas}@cs.umn.edu Abstract-- This work presents a novel multi-robot coverage scheme for an unknown number of robots; it focuses on optimizing the number of robots and each

  1. A biped static balance control and torque pattern learning under unknown periodic external forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Satoshi

    A biped static balance control and torque pattern learning under unknown periodic external forces balancing task in which an unknown external force is exerted, using so-called `ankle strategy' model. When an external force is pe- riodic, a human adaptively maintains the balance, next learns how much force should

  2. A Bottom-up Merging Algorithm for Chinese Unknown Word Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Bottom-up Merging Algorithm for Chinese Unknown Word Extraction Wei-Yun Ma Institute, Academia Sinica kchen@iis.sinica.edu.tw Abstract Statistical methods for extracting Chinese unknown words of characters with no delimiters to mark word boundaries. Therefore the initial step for Chinese processing

  3. Positioning Unknown Words in a Thesaurus by Using Information Extracted from a Corpus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Positioning Unknown Words in a Thesaurus by Using Information Extracted from a Corpus Na extracted from a large corpus. A suitable area (if the thesaurus for an unknown woM ix estimated l)y inte- grating the human intuition I)urled in the thesaurus and statistical data extracted from the corpus

  4. WIND OBSERVATIONS OF SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    WIND OBSERVATIONS OF SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM R. P. LIN Space Sciences Particle Instrument on the WIND spacecraft, which provides high sensitivity electron and ion measurements from solar wind thermal plasma up to &MeV energies. These results include: (1) the observation of solar

  5. Confronting the Unknown: Tejanas in the Transformation of Spanish and Mexican Texas, 1735-1836 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincones, Cassandra

    2015-05-12

    Confronting the Unknown: Tejanas in the Transformation of Spanish and Mexican Texas, 1735-1836 sheds light on Tejana legal and social roles in this tumultuous period. Despite great strides in the field of Borderlands history ...

  6. Vision-based guidance and control of a hovering vehicle in unknown environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Spencer Greg

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a methodology, architecture, hardware implementation, and results of a system capable of controlling and guiding a hovering vehicle in unknown environments, emphasizing cluttered indoor spaces. Six-axis ...

  7. Interaction of gravitational waves with an elastic solid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Carter

    2001-02-28

    Contents. 1. Introduction. 2. Kinematics of a Material Medium: Material Representation. 3. Kinematics of a Material Medium: Convected Differentials. 4. Kinematics of a Perfect Elastic Medium. 5. Small Gravitational Perturbations of an Elastic Medium.

  8. Ab initiomultireference in-medium similarity renormalization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on October 23, 2015 Title: Ab initiomultireference in-medium similarity renormalization group calculations...

  9. Magnetic and electric contributions to the energy loss in a dynamical QCD medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Djordjevic

    2011-05-21

    The computation of radiative energy loss in a finite size QCD medium with dynamical constituents is a key ingredient for obtaining reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. It was previously shown that energy loss in dynamical QCD medium is significantly higher compared to static QCD medium. To understand this difference, we here analyze magnetic and electric contributions to energy loss in dynamical QCD medium. We find that the significantly higher energy loss in the dynamical case is entirely due to appearance of magnetic contribution in the dynamical medium. While for asymptotically high energies, the energy loss in static and dynamical medium approach the same value, we find that the physical origin of the energy loss in these two cases is different.

  10. Enrichment of the Intracluster Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Thomas

    1998-11-25

    The relevance of galaxies of different luminosity and mass for the chemical enrichment of the intracluster medium (ICM) is analysed. For this purpose, I adopt the composite luminosity function of cluster galaxies from Trentham (1998), which exhibits a significant rise at the very faint end. The model - adopting a universal Salpeter IMF - is calibrated on reproducing the M_Fe/L_tot, M_Fe/M_*, and alpha/Fe ratios observed in clusters. Although the contribution to total luminosity and ICM metals peaks around L* galaxies (M* approx -20), faint objects with M_B>-18 still provide at least 30 per cent of the metals present in the ICM. In consistency with the solar alpha/Fe ratios determined by {ASCA}, the model predicts that 60 per cent of the ICM iron comes from Type Ia supernovae. The predicted slope of the relation between intracluster gas mass and cluster luminosity emerges shallower than the observed one, indicating that the fraction of primordial gas increases with cluster richness.

  11. Generalized unknown morpheme guessing for hybrid POS tagging Jeongwon Cha and Geunbae Lee and Jong-Hyeok Lee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generalized unknown morpheme guessing for hybrid POS tagging of Korean* Jeongwon Cha and Geunbae anal- ysis and POS (Part-of-Speech) tagging are caused by unknown morphemes. This paper presents hybrid POS tagging system. The generalized unknown mor- pheme guessing is based on a combination

  12. The medium is the medium : the convergence of video, art and television at WGBH (1969)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadeau, James A. (James Andrew)

    2006-01-01

    On March 23rd 1969 Boston's public television station WGBH broadcast a program titled The Medium is the Medium. The program was a half-hour long compilation of short videos by six artists. The six pieces ranged from ...

  13. A renewed look at eta' in medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngshin Kwon; Su Houng Lee; Kenji Morita; Gyuri Wolf

    2012-04-14

    We revisit the question of whether the U_A(1) symmetry is effectively restored in hot and dense medium. In particular, by generalizing the Witten-Veneziano formula to finite temperature, we investigate whether the mass of eta'-meson will change in medium due to the restoration of chiral symmetry.

  14. High-Power Solar PanelHigh-Power Solar Panel Gives your mission electricity.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Medium-Power Solar Panel 15 25 Gives your mission electricity. 8 POWER LIMIT 15 PROS: Low cost, medium mass. LastsHigh-Power Solar PanelHigh-Power Solar Panel 25 Gives your mission electricity. 9 POWER LIMIT 20 40 PROS: Medium cost, medium mass. Lasts a few years. CONS: Must have sunlight. Only works during daylight

  15. Fault-Tolerant Exploration of an Unknown Dangerous Graph by Scattered Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flocchini, Paola

    Fault-Tolerant Exploration of an Unknown Dangerous Graph by Scattered Agents Paola Flocchini1 a network where there are dangerous sites (black holes) that eliminate any incoming searcher without leaving a discernible trace. Dangerous graph exploration (Dge) extends the Bhs problem to include dangerous links (black

  16. Bayesian Design for the Normal Linear Model with Unknown Error Variance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of specific design criteria to specific prior assumptions on the variance has been demonstrated, but a general, 1985; Pilz, 1991) defined Bayesian optimal design criteria as functions OE(X) of the posteriorBayesian Design for the Normal Linear Model with Unknown Error Variance Isabella Verdinelli

  17. A Note on Bayesian Design for the Normal Linear Model with Unknown Error Variance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the assumption of known variance. The insensitivity of specific design criteria to prior assumptions thought. Some Key Words: Bayesian design criteria; Design for prediction; Linear model; Expected Utility known coincides with the one that minimizes OE(X) for oe 2 unknown. A number of optimal design criteria

  18. Discovering Unknown Genes Technical Report FIU-SCIS-2015-01-20-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Michael

    [5]. The main characteristic of Human Genome data is its large size. The Genome Project started, and others. Of the 3.2 billion bases present in the Human Genome we find genes in about 2% of the genome that represents the known 2% of the human genome and the black section represents the unknown 98% called "Dark

  19. Particle Filter-based Trajectory Estimation with Passive UHF RFID Fingerprints in Unknown Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zell, Andreas

    Particle Filter-based Trajectory Estimation with Passive UHF RFID Fingerprints in Unknown approach to esti- mating the trajectory of a robot by means of inexpensive passive RFID tags and odometry), where map building and estimating the trajectory of the robot are performed concur- rently. A crucial

  20. Abstract Planning with Unknown Object Quantities and Properties Siddharth Srivastava and Neil Immerman and Shlomo Zilberstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zilberstein, Shlomo

    01003 Abstract State abstraction has been widely used for state aggregation in approaches to AI search common. For instance, consider a simplified recycling problem where a recycling robot must pick up objects from a set of unknown number of bins, perform a sensing action to determine recyclability

  1. ADAPTIVE CALIBRATION AND CONTROL OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH UNKNOWN MEASUREMENT MODEL AND ACTUATOR DYNAMICS AND ITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    ADAPTIVE CALIBRATION AND CONTROL OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH UNKNOWN MEASUREMENT MODEL AND ACTUATOR the material being processed goes through a sequence of processing units. The output of an upstream processing unit is fed into the input of the unit downstream. In many cases, the variables of interests are only

  2. Orientation Refinement of Virus Structures with Unknown Symmetry Yongchang Ji, Dan C. Marinescu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Timothy S.

    Orientation Refinement of Virus Structures with Unknown Symmetry Yongchang Ji, Dan C. Marinescu, in particular the structure determina- tion of viruses and other large macromolecular complexes leads to data determina- tion of viruses, the orientation refinement. 1. Introduction and Motivation Viruses are large

  3. Finding Relevant Concepts for Unknown Terms Using a Web-based Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Previous research on automatic thesaurus construction most focused on extracting relevant terms for each relevant concepts for unknown terms. 1. INTRODUCTION It has been well recognized that a thesaurus retrieval systems. One of the important functions of a thesaurus is to provide the information of term

  4. Target localization in unknown environments using static wireless sensors and mobile robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Thomas C.

    localization in unknown environments using a prior-deployed static wireless sensor network (WSN). The goal the global maxima. It is assumed that there is no global coordinate frame for the region i.e. the WSN-densities and obstacle- filled regions. Index Terms--RSSI, Target Localization, Virtual Topological Gradient, WSN

  5. Future instrumentation for the study of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. B. S. Paerels; J. S. Kaastra; T. Ohashi; P. Richter; A. M. Bykov; J. Nevalainen

    2008-01-07

    We briefly review capabilities and requirements for future instrumentation in UV- and X-ray astronomy that can contribute to advancing our understanding of the diffuse, highly ionised intergalactic medium.

  6. Novel Coherent Optical Medium Based on Buffer-Gas-Cooled Rb Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tao; Patterson, David; Zibrov, Alexander S; Doyle, John M; Lukin, Mikhail D; Prentiss, Mara G

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel coherent optical medium with high optical depth and low Doppler broadening that offers metastable states with low collisional and motional decoherence. In our approach, helium buffer gas cools 87Rb atoms to below 7 K, while at the same time slowing atom diffusion. We demonstrate that electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) allows 50% transmission in a medium with initial OD > 70. Slow pulse propagation experiments in this medium yield delays exceeding initial pulse duration by a factor > 25. Efficient four-wave mixing is observed in the high-OD regime, resulting in a pronounced modification of the atomic optical response.

  7. Detecting the Violation of Factorial Invariance with an Unknown Reference Variable 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Eunju

    2014-08-04

    DETECTING THE VIOLATION OF FACTORIAL INVARIANCE WITH AN UNKNOWN REFERENCE VARIABLE A Dissertation by EUNJU JUNG Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Factor Analysis PFI Partial Factorial Invariance PMI Partial Metric Invariance PSI Partial Scalar Invariance ST-IM Standardization Identification Method RV Reference Variable RV-IM Reference Variable Identification Method VRV-IM Variation...

  8. The Unknown Ecology of an Environmental Pathogen: Buruli ulcer Disease in West Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Lindsay P.

    2013-11-20

    GIS DAY 2013 THE UNKNOWN ECOLOGY OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL PATHOGEN: BURULI ULCER DISEASE IN WEST AFRICA LINDSAY CAMPBELL ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Buruli Ulcer Disease (BU) ? Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) ? Environmental... Africa using a correlative modeling approach Images courtesy of Lindsay Campbell and http://www.who.int/buruli/photos Occurrence Data ? Laboratory confirmed cases ? (1997 – 2006) ? Sampling bias ? Random points ? 3 data sets ? ~275 locations...

  9. The Baryon Catastrophe and the multiphase intracluster medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. F. Gunn; P. A. Thomas

    1995-10-17

    We review the theories and observations which together have led to the concept of the Baryon Catastrophe: observations of the baryon fraction on the scale of clusters of galaxies appear to be at least three times as high as the universal baryon fraction predicted by the theory of primordial nucleosynthesis in a flat, $\\Omega_0 = 1$, universe. We investigate whether this discrepancy could be eliminated by treating the intracluster gas as a multiphase medium, and find that this treatment both lowers the calculated mass of gas in a cluster and increases the inferred gravitational potential. These combined effects can reduce the calculated baryon fraction by between a quarter and a half: the precise amount depends upon the volume fraction distribution of density phases in the gas but is independent of the temperature profile across the cluster. Thus moving to a multiphase intracluster medium cannot resolve the Baryon Catastrophe by itself; other possible causes and explanations are discussed.

  10. Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)

    2000-01-01

    This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

  11. Reconstruction of an unknown cavity with Robin boundary condition inside a heat conductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gen Nakamura; Haibing Wang

    2015-05-22

    Active thermography is a non-destructive testing technique to detect the internal structure of a heat conductor, which is widely applied in industrial engineering. In this paper, we consider the problem of identifying an unknown cavity with Robin boundary condition inside a heat conductor from boundary measurements. To set up the inverse problem mathematically, we first state the corresponding forward problem and show its well-posedness in an anisotropic Sobolev space by the integral equation method. Then, taking the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map as mathematically idealized measured data for the active thermography, we present a linear sampling method for reconstructing the unknown Robin-type cavity and give its mathematical justification by using the layer potential argument. In addition, we analyze the indicator function used in this method and show its pointwise asymptotic behavior by investigating the reflected solution of the fundamental solution. From our asymptotic analysis, we can establish a pointwise reconstruction scheme for the boundary of the cavity, and can also know the distance to the unknown cavity as we probe it from its inside.

  12. Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging...

  13. Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling Expansion Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling Expansion 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  14. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with high-redshift quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calverley, Alexander Peter

    2011-11-08

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 7.2 Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Bibliography 147 List of Figures xv LIST OF FIGURES 1.1 A brief history of the Universe... the Andromeda Nebula1, which implied that it was heading towards the Solar System at a speed of ? 300 kms?1, the fastest speed ever recorded for an astronomical object. Additional observations of other nebu- lae found NGC 4594 (now known as the Sombrero Galaxy...

  15. Modeling mesoscopic attenuation in a highly heterogeneous Biot's medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    and dispersion at seismic frequencies is known as mesoscopic loss, and is caused by the presence-wave diffusion process. It is also the case that the exact spatial distribution of these heterogeneities the effect of underground carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulations on the amplitude and attenuation of seismic

  16. Medium-induced jet evolution: wave turbulence and energy loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard Fister; Edmond Iancu

    2014-09-06

    We study the gluon cascade generated via successive medium-induced branchings by an energetic parton propagating through a dense QCD medium. We focus on the high-energy regime where the energy $E$ of the leading particle is much larger than the characteristic medium scale $\\omega_c=\\hat q L^2/2$, with $\\hat q$ the jet quenching parameter and $L$ the distance travelled through the medium. In this regime the leading particle loses only a small fraction $\\sim\\alpha_s(\\omega_c/E)$ of its energy and can be treated as a steady source of radiation for gluons with energies $\\omega\\le\\omega_c$. For this effective problem with a source, we obtain exact analytic solutions for the gluon spectrum and the energy flux. The solutions exhibit wave turbulence: the basic physical process is a continuing fragmentation which is `quasi-democratic' (i.e. quasi-local in energy) and which provides an energy transfer from the source to the medium at a rate (the energy flux $\\mathcal{F}$) which is quasi-independent of $\\omega$. The locality of the branching process implies a spectrum of the Kolmogorov-Obukhov type, i.e. a power-law spectrum which is a fixed point of the branching process and whose strength is proportional to the energy flux: $D(\\omega)\\sim\\mathcal{F}/\\sqrt\\omega$ for $\\omega\\ll\\omega_c$. Via this turbulent flow, the gluon cascade loses towards the medium an energy $\\Delta E\\sim\\alpha_s^2\\omega_c$, which is independent of the initial energy $E$ of the leading particle and of the details of the thermalization mechanism at the low-energy end of the cascade. This energy is carried away by very soft gluons, which propagate at very large angles with respect to the jet axis. Our predictions for the value of $\\Delta E$ and for its angular distribution appear to agree quite well, qualitatively and even semi-quantitatively, with the phenomenology of di-jet asymmetry in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC.

  17. In-Medium Properties of Hadrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Krusche

    2006-08-24

    A diverse experimental program for the study of the photoproduction of mesons off nuclei has been carried out - and is still running - at the Mainz MAMI and Bonn ELSA electron accelerators with the TAPS, Crystal Barrel, and Crystal Ball calorimeters. It is motivated as a detailed study of the in-medium properties of hadrons and the meson - nucleus interactions. Typical examples for the in-medium behavior of vector mesons ($\\omega$), scalar mesons ($\\sigma$), and nucleon resonances (P$_{33}$(1232), S$_{11}$(1535), D$_{15}$(1520)) are discussed. Special attention is paid to meson - nucleus final state interactions.

  18. In-medium properties of nucleon resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Krusche

    2004-12-06

    Recent experimental results for the in-medium properties of nucleon resonances are discussed. The experiments were done with the TAPS detector at the tagged photon beam of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. Measured was the photoproduction of mesons (final states $\\pi^o X$, $\\eta X$, $2\\pi^oX$ and $\\pi^o\\pi^{\\pm}X$) from the nuclei $^{12}$C, $^{40}$Ca, $^{93}$Nb, and $^{208}$Pb up to the second resonance region. The results were analyzed in view of the in-medium properties of the P$_{33}$(1232), the D$_{13}$(1520), and the S$_{11}$(1535) resonances.

  19. Reconstruction of signals with unknown spectra in information field theory with parameter uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ensslin, Torsten A.; Frommert, Mona [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The optimal reconstruction of cosmic metric perturbations and other signals requires knowledge of their power spectra and other parameters. If these are not known a priori, they have to be measured simultaneously from the same data used for the signal reconstruction. We formulate the general problem of signal inference in the presence of unknown parameters within the framework of information field theory. To solve this, we develop a generic parameter-uncertainty renormalized estimation (PURE) technique. As a concrete application, we address the problem of reconstructing Gaussian signals with unknown power-spectrum with five different approaches: (i) separate maximum-a-posteriori power-spectrum measurement and subsequent reconstruction, (ii) maximum-a-posteriori reconstruction with marginalized power-spectrum, (iii) maximizing the joint posterior of signal and spectrum, (iv) guessing the spectrum from the variance in the Wiener-filter map, and (v) renormalization flow analysis of the field-theoretical problem providing the PURE filter. In all cases, the reconstruction can be described or approximated as Wiener-filter operations with assumed signal spectra derived from the data according to the same recipe, but with differing coefficients. All of these filters, except the renormalized one, exhibit a perception threshold in case of a Jeffreys prior for the unknown spectrum. Data modes with variance below this threshold do not affect the signal reconstruction at all. Filter (iv) seems to be similar to the so-called Karhune-Loeve and Feldman-Kaiser-Peacock estimators for galaxy power spectra used in cosmology, which therefore should also exhibit a marginal perception threshold if correctly implemented. We present statistical performance tests and show that the PURE filter is superior to the others, especially if the post-Wiener-filter corrections are included or in case an additional scale-independent spectral smoothness prior can be adopted.

  20. Passive advection in nonlinear medium Michael Chertkov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chertkov, Mikhael

    Passive advection in nonlinear medium Michael Chertkov Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Received 23 September 1998; accepted 15 April 1999 Forced advection of passive on velocity, in com- parison with those of advection and nonlinearity, is called passive. The passiveness does

  1. Numerical simulations of the intergalactic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Theuns

    2002-09-05

    The intergalactic medium at redshifts 2--6 can be studied observationally through the absorption features it produces in the spectra of background quasars. Most of the UV-absorption lines arise in mildly overdense regions, which can be simulated reliably with current hydrodynamical simulations. Comparison of observed and simulated spectra allows one to put contraints on the model's parameters.

  2. A New Cavity Design For Medium Beta Acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feisi [Peking University, Beijing (China); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Heavy duty or cw, superconducting proton and heavy ion accelerators are being proposed and constructed worldwide. The total length of the machine is one of the main drivers in terms of cost. Thus hwr and spoke cavities at medium beta are usually optimized to achieve low surface field and high gradient. A novel accelerating structure at beta=0.5 evolved from spoke cavity is proposed, with lower surface fields but slightly higher heat load. It would be an interesting option for pulsed and cw accelerators with beam energy of more than 200mev/u.

  3. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  4. Hard and soft probe - medium interactions in a 3D hydro+micro approach at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bass, S A; Ruppert, J; Nonaka, C

    2007-01-01

    We utilize a 3D hybrid hydro+micro model for a comprehensive and consistent description of soft and hard particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. In the soft sector we focus on the dynamics of (multi-)strange baryons, where a clear strangeness dependence of their collision rates and freeze-out is observed. In the hard sector we study the radiative energy loss of hard partons in a soft medium in the multiple soft scattering approximation. While the nuclear suppression factor $R_{AA}$ does not reflect the high quality of the medium description (except in a reduced systematic uncertainty in extracting the quenching power of the medium), the hydrodynamical model also allows to study different centralities and in particular the angular variation of $R_{AA}$ with respect to the reaction plane, allowing for a controlled variation of the in-medium path-length.

  5. GAMIDENT: a program to aid in the identification of unknown materials by gamma-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howerton, R.J.; Eggens, C.J.

    1980-01-04

    A computer code, called GAMIDENT, was written to help identify isotopes by their gamma-ray emissions and thus to assist in the non-destructive assay of unknown materials. The program searches a file (called GAMIN) of gamma-ray spectra, from both radioactive decays and neutron captures, for matches with observed photon energies. This report describes the search procedure used, outlines the use of the code, and gives examples. The code is designed for operation at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on a CDC-7600 computer. It is written in standard Fortran (ANSI) as much as possible, but it contains some LRLTRAN instructions required to make use of the Livermore Timesharing System. The code uses about 30,000 words of SCM and about 550,000 words of LCM. Typical problems run in less than 30 seconds. The source program and the data file are available on request.

  6. Physical vacuum is a special superfluid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sbitnev, Valeriy I

    2015-01-01

    The Navier-Stokes equation contains two terms which have been subjected to slight modification: (a) the viscosity term depends of time (the viscosity in average on time is zero, but its variance is non-zero); (b) the pressure gradient contains an added term describing the quantum entropy gradient multiplied by the pressure. Owing to these modifications, the Navier-Stokes equation can be reduced to the Schr\\"odinger equation describing behavior of a particle into the vacuum being as a superfluid medium. Vortex structures arising in this medium show infinitely long life owing to zeroth average viscosity. The non-zero variance describes exchange of the vortex energy with zero-point energy of the vacuum. Radius of the vortex trembles around some average value. This observation sheds the light to the Zitterbewegung phenomenon. The long-lived vortex has a non-zero core where the vortex velocity vanishes.

  7. Physical vacuum is a special superfluid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valeriy I. Sbitnev

    2015-02-05

    The Navier-Stokes equation contains two terms which have been subjected to slight modification: (a) the viscosity term depends of time (the viscosity in average on time is zero, but its variance is non-zero); (b) the pressure gradient contains an added term describing the quantum entropy gradient multiplied by the pressure. Owing to these modifications, the Navier-Stokes equation can be reduced to the Schr\\"odinger equation describing behavior of a particle into the vacuum being as a superfluid medium. Vortex structures arising in this medium show infinitely long life owing to zeroth average viscosity. The non-zero variance describes exchange of the vortex energy with zero-point energy of the vacuum. Radius of the vortex trembles around some average value. This observation sheds the light to the Zitterbewegung phenomenon. The long-lived vortex has a non-zero core where the vortex velocity vanishes.

  8. Investigating the Selection of Example Sentences for Unknown Target Words in ICALL Reading Texts for L2 German 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segler, Thomas M.

    2007-06-26

    This thesis considers possible criteria for the selection of example sentences for difficult or unknown words in reading texts for students of German as a Second Language (GSL). The examples are intended to be provided ...

  9. The warm ionized medium in spiral galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haffner, L M; Beckman, J E; Wood, K; Slavin, J D; Giammanco, C; Madsen, G J; Zurita, A; Reynolds, R J

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews observations and models of the diffuse ionized gas that permeates the disk and halo of our Galaxy and others. It was inspired by a series of invited talks presented during an afternoon scientific session of the 65th birthday celebration for Professor Carl Heiles held at Arecibo Observatory in August 2004. This review is in recognition of Carl's long standing interest in and advocacy for studies of the ionized as well as the neutral components of the interstellar medium.

  10. Cosmic Minivoids in the Intergalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avery Meiksin

    1996-11-01

    The Gunn-Peterson effect, absorption of Lya photons by a homogeneous component of the intergalactic medium (IGM), potentially provides a test of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). With a lower limit on the UV radiation field estimated from the contribution due to QSOs, a measurement of the Lya opacity of the intergalactic medium would permit the derivation of a lower bound to the baryonic density of the universe. The effect, however, has continually eluded a convincing detection, both in HI and HeII, despite extensive searches. Recent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of structure formation in the intergalactic medium suggest an explanation for its absence. In a Cold Dark Matter dominated cosmology, the fragmentation of the baryons is nearly complete, leaving a negligible remnant to comprise a smoothly distributed component. The fragmentation extends even into regions that are underdense, where it gives rise to most of the optically thin HI systems and nearly all of the HeII systems, both thin and saturated. The result is a Lya opacity from a smooth IGM that is suppressed by over two orders of magnitude from the BBN value.

  11. CALCIUM-RICH GAP TRANSIENTS: SOLVING THE CALCIUM CONUNDRUM IN THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Kasliwal, Mansi M., E-mail: mulchaey@obs.carnegiescience.edu [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    X-ray measurements suggest that the abundance of calcium in the intracluster medium is higher than can be explained using favored models for core-collapse and Type Ia supernovae alone. We investigate whether the ''calcium conundrum'' in the intracluster medium can be alleviated by including a contribution from the recently discovered subclass of supernovae known as calcium-rich gap transients. Although the calcium-rich gap transients make up only a small fraction of all supernovae events, we find that their high calcium yields are sufficient to reproduce the X-ray measurements found for nearby rich clusters. We find the ?{sup 2} goodness-of-fit metric improves from 84 to 2 by including this new class. Moreover, calcium-rich supernovae preferentially occur in the outskirts of galaxies making it easier for the nucleosynthesis products of these events to be incorporated in the intracluster medium via ram-pressure stripping. The discovery of calcium-rich gap transients in clusters and groups far from any individual galaxy suggests that supernovae associated with intracluster stars may play an important role in enriching the intracluster medium. Calcium-rich gap transients may also help explain anomalous calcium abundances in many other astrophysical systems including individual stars in the Milky Way, the halos of nearby galaxies, and the circumgalactic medium. Our work highlights the importance of considering the diversity of supernovae types and corresponding yields when modeling the abundance of the intracluster medium and other gas reservoirs.

  12. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation vss043barnitt2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field...

  13. Wave scattering by small particles in a medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. Ramm

    2007-02-14

    Wave scattering is considered in a medium in which many small particles are embedded. Equations for the effective field in the medium are derived when the number of particles tends to infinity.

  14. Transport of positrons in the interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Gillard; P. Jean; A. Marcowith; K. Ferriere

    2007-02-06

    This work investigates some aspects of the transport of low-energy positrons in the interstellar medium (ISM). We consider resonance interactions with magnetohydrodynamic waves above the resonance threshold. Below the threshold, collisions take over and deflect positrons in their motion parallel to magnetic-field lines. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, we model the propagation and energy losses of positrons in the different phases of the ISM until they annihilate. We suggest that positrons produced in the disk by an old population of stars, with initial kinetic energies below 1 MeV, and propagating in the spiral magnetic field of the disk, can probably not penetrate the Galactic bulge.

  15. Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond G. P. Gilfoyle Physics Physics: Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Program Program Manager: Dr. Gulshan Rai 1 #12;2 #12;Contents 1 Justification 39 3 #12;4 #12;Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond G. P. Gilfoyle

  16. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Kupitz, Christopher; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; White, Thomas A.; Zhao, Yun; Zook, James; Boutet, Sébastien; Cherezov, Vadim; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Raimund; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5 Å resolution using 300 µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.

  17. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; et al

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, themore »structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5 Å resolution using 300 µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.« less

  18. First all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endr\\Hoczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO Science Run and the second and third Virgo Science Runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ~2,254 h and a frequency- and period-dependent range of frequency modulation depths from 0.277 to 100 mHz. This corresponds to a range of projected semi-major axes of the orbit from ~0.6e-3 ls to ~6,500 ls assuming the orbit of the binary is circular. While no plausible candidate gravitational wave events survive the pipeline, upper limits are set on the analyzed data. The most sensitive 95% confidence upper limit obtained on gravitational wave strain is 2.3e-24 at 217 Hz, assuming the source waves are circularly polarized. Although this search has been optimized for ci...

  19. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B

    2012-08-01

    Researchers have envisioned an electron-ion collider with ion species up to heavy ions, high polarization of electrons and light ions, and a well-matched center-of-mass energy range as an ideal gluon microscope to explore new frontiers of nuclear science. In its most recent Long Range Plan, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation endorsed such a collider in the form of a 'half-recommendation.' As a response to this science need, Jefferson Lab and its user community have been engaged in feasibility studies of a medium energy polarized electron-ion collider (MEIC), cost-effectively utilizing Jefferson Lab's already existing Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). In close collaboration, this community of nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists has rigorously explored the science case and design concept for this envisioned grand instrument of science. An electron-ion collider embodies the vision of reaching the next frontier in Quantum Chromodynamics - understanding the behavior of hadrons as complex bound states of quarks and gluons. Whereas the 12 GeV Upgrade of CEBAF will map the valence-quark components of the nucleon and nuclear wave functions in detail, an electron-ion collider will determine the largely unknown role sea quarks play and for the first time study the glue that binds all atomic nuclei. The MEIC will allow nuclear scientists to map the spin and spatial structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadrons from quarks and gluons. The proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab will collide a highly polarized electron beam originating from the CEBAF recirculating superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) linear accelerator (linac) with highly polarized light-ion beams or unpolarized light- to heavy-ion beams from a new ion accelerator and storage complex. Since the very beginning, the design studies at Jefferson Lab have focused on achieving high collider performance, particularly ultrahigh luminosities up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} per detector with large acceptance, while maintaining high polarization for both the electron and light-ion beams. These are the two key performance requirements of a future electron-ion collider facility as articulated by the NSAC Long Range Plan. In MEIC, a new ion complex is designed specifically to deliver ion beams that match the high bunch repetition and highly polarized electron beam from CEBAF. During the last two years, both development of the science case and optimization of the machine design point toward a medium-energy electron-ion collider as the topmost goal for Jefferson Lab. The MEIC, with relatively compact collider rings, can deliver a luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at a center-of-mass energy up to 65 GeV. It offers an electron energy up to 11 GeV, a proton energy up to 100 GeV, and corresponding energies per nucleon for heavy ions with the same magnetic rigidity. This design choice balances the scope of the science program, collider capabilities, accelerator technology innovation, and total project cost. An energy upgrade could be implemented in the future by adding two large collider rings housed in another large tunnel to push the center-of-mass energy up to or exceeding 140 GeV. After careful consideration of an alternative electron energy recovery linac on ion storage ring approach, a ring-ring collider scenario at high bunch repetition frequency was found to offer fully competitive performance while eliminating the uncertainties of challenging R&D on ampere-class polarized electron sources and many-pass energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). The essential new elements of an MEIC facility at Jefferson Lab are an electron storage ring and an entirely new, modern ion acceleration and storage complex. For the high-current electron collider ring, the upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF SRF linac will serve as a full-energy injector, and, if needed, provide top

  20. Jet Quenching: the medium modification of the single and double fragmentation functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Majumder

    2005-01-11

    The physics of the quenching of hard jets in dense matter is briefly reviewed. This is presented within the framework of the partonic medium modification of the fragmentation functions. Modifications in both deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) off large nuclei and high-energy heavy-ion collisions are presented.

  1. FITTING WEIBULL AND LOGNORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS TO MEDIUM-DENSITY FIBERBOARD FIBER AND WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dimension and morphology on cer- tain mechanical properties (e.g., bending strength and internal bonding strength) of wood fiber-based products such as paper, paper board, insulation board, medium in the pulp and paper industry. Compared with other automated techniques, im- age analyzers have high accuracy

  2. PAPER-64 CONSTRAINTS ON REIONIZATION. II. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE z = 8.4 INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pober, Jonathan C.

    We present constraints on both the kinetic temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 8.4, and on models for heating the IGM at high-redshift with X-ray emission from the first collapsed objects. These constraints ...

  3. Resistive transition anisotropy in superconducting granular ceramics: Interplay of effective medium approximation and percolation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strelniker, Yakov M.

    Resistive transition anisotropy in superconducting granular ceramics: Interplay of effective medium directions of the c axis, the current j and the magnetic field H in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 x ceramics. We provided in high-Tc superconduct- ing granular ceramics remain an intriguing subject of inten- sive investigations

  4. Reconstruction of the Reflection Coefficient and Interface in Homogeneous Medium by Means of Gaussian Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Gaussian Jets A.P.Katchalov 1 , V.V. Zalipaev 2 1 V.A.Steklov Mathematical Institute, St Gaussian jet de- scribed as a high-frequency non-stationary localized asymptotic solution (wave package). The parameters of the medium above the interface are known. Measuring the intensity of the reflected Gaussian jet

  5. Nuclear structure studies with medium energy probes. [Northwestern Univ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seth, Kamal K.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the continuing program of experimental research in nuclear structure with medium-energy probes during the year 1979-1980 is reviewed, and the research activities planned for the year 1980-1981 are discussed. In the study of pion-induced reactions emphasis is placed on investigation of isovector characteristics of nuclear excitations and on double charge exchange reactions. Pion production studies form the major part of the program of experiments with proton beams of 400 to 800 MeV at LAMPF. Current emphasis is on the bearing of these investigations on di-baryon existence. The study of high-spin states and magnetic scattering constitute the main goals of the electron scattering program at Bates. Representative results are presented; completed work is reported in the usual publications. (RWR)

  6. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackie, Robin J. D.

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  7. Light Vector Mesons in the Nuclear Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Michael; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Weygand, Dennis; Djalali, Chaden; Tur, Clarisse; Mosel, Ulrich; Muehlich, Pascal; Adams, Gary; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asryan, Gegham; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, James; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Burkert, Volker; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Carnahan, Bryan; Casey, Liam; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Crabb, Donald; Crannell, Hall; Crede, Volker; Cummings, John; Dashyan, Natalya; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Denizli, Haluk; Dennis, Lawrence; Deur, Alexandre; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Dickson, Richard; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Feuerbach, Robert; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gordon, Christopher; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hadjidakis, Cynthia; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hakobyan, Rafael; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Hassall, Neil; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Khetarpal, Puneet; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Klimenko, Alexei; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Li, Ji; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacCormick, Marion; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mehrabyan, Surik; Melone, Joseph; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Minehart, Ralph; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Raue, Brian; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinsky, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Williams, Michael; Wolin, Elliott; Yegneswaran, Amrit; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2008-07-01

    The light vector mesons ($\\rho$, $\\omega$, and $\\phi$) were produced in deuterium, carbon, titanium, and iron targets in a search for possible in-medium modifications to the properties of the $\\rho$ meson at normal nuclear densities and zero temperature. The vector mesons were detected with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) via their decays to $e^{+}e^{-}$. The rare leptonic decay was chosen to reduce final-state interactions. A combinatorial background was subtracted from the invariant mass spectra using a well-established event-mixing technique. The $\\rho$ meson mass spectrum was extracted after the $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ signals were removed in a nearly model-independent way. Comparisons were made between the $\\rho$ mass spectra from the heavy targets ($A > 2$) with the mass spectrum extracted from the deuterium target. With respect to the $\\rho$-meson mass, we obtain a small shift compatible with zero. Also, we measure widths consistent with standard nuclear many-body eff

  8. Casimir stress in an inhomogeneous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. G. Philbin; C. Xiong; U. Leonhardt

    2009-09-16

    The Casimir effect in an inhomogeneous dielectric is investigated using Lifshitz's theory of electromagnetic vacuum energy. A permittivity function that depends continuously on one Cartesian coordinate is chosen, bounded on each side by homogeneous dielectrics. The result for the Casimir stress is infinite everywhere inside the inhomogeneous region, a divergence that does not occur for piece-wise homogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries. A Casimir force per unit volume can be extracted from the infinite stress but it diverges on the boundaries between the inhomogeneous medium and the homogeneous dielectrics. An alternative regularization of the vacuum stress is considered that removes the contribution of the inhomogeneity over small distances, where macroscopic electromagnetism is invalid. The alternative regularization yields a finite Casimir stress inside the inhomogeneous region, but the stress and force per unit volume diverge on the boundaries with the homogeneous dielectrics. The case of inhomogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries thus falls outside the current understanding of the Casimir effect.

  9. On the Virial Theorem for Interstellar Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D

    2007-09-24

    An attempt has been made to derive a version of the virial integral that would describe average properties of the interstellar medium (ISM). It is suggested to eliminate the (large) contribution of stellar matter by introducing 'exclusion zones' surrounding stars. Such an approach leads to the appearance of several types of additional surface integrals in the general expression. Their contribution depends on the rate of energy and matter exchange between the stars and ISM. If this exchange is weak, one can obtain a desired virial integral for ISM. However, the presence of intermittent large-scale energetic events significantly constrains the applicability of the virial theorem. If valid, the derived virial integral is dominated by cold molecular/atomic clouds, with only minor contribution of the global magnetic field and low-density warm part.

  10. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Tsouris, Constantinos (Oak Ridge, TN); Feng, James Q. (Fairport, NY)

    1998-01-01

    A method for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway.

  11. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Feng, J.Q.

    1998-06-09

    A method is described for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway. 4 figs.

  12. Face Synthesis and Recognition from a Single Image under Arbitrary Unknown Lighting using a Spherical Harmonic Basis Morphable Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samaras, Dimitris

    of lighting conditions can be approxi- mated accurately by a 9 dimensional linear subspace. This led to faceFace Synthesis and Recognition from a Single Image under Arbitrary Unknown Lighting using that the set of images of a convex Lambertian object obtained under a wide variety of lighting conditions can

  13. Anorexia nervosa (AN), a disorder of unknown aetiol-ogy, is characterized by restricted eating and a relent-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a disorder of unknown aetiol- ogy, is characterized by restricted eating nervosa Walter H. Kaye*, Julie L. Fudge and Martin Paulus§ Abstract | Individuals with anorexia nervosa.1038/nrn2682 Published online 15 July New insights into symptoms and neurocircuit function of anorexia

  14. The use of a new logistic regression model for predicting the outcome of pregnancies of unknown location

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .8, a positive predictive value of 27.5% and a negative predictive value of 99.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The logisticThe use of a new logistic regression model for predicting the outcome of pregnancies of unknown, London UK. E-mail: gcondous@hotmail.com BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to generate and evaluate

  15. Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized Cities in India Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban...

  16. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Meeting vss043gonder2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Battery Pack Requirements and Targets...

  17. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington D.C. vssarravt068miyasato2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Vehicle...

  18. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation arravt068vssmiyasato2011o .pdf More Documents & Publications Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation SCAQMD:Plug-In...

  19. Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials Authors: Sun, Lei ; Li, Zhigang ; Luk, Ting S. ; Yang, Xiaodong ; Gao, Jie Publication Date:...

  20. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2004-08-03

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  1. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Franklin, Elizabeth (Rolla, MO); Prickett, Zane T. (Golden, CO); Artau, Alexander (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-05-30

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  2. Novel Bose-Einstein Interference in the Passage of a Fast Particle in a Dense Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheuk-Yin Wong

    2012-03-20

    When an energetic particle collides coherently with many medium particles at high energies, the Bose-Einstein symmetry with respect to the interchange of the exchanged virtual bosons leads to a destructive interference of the Feynman amplitudes in most regions of the phase space but a constructive interference in some other regions of the phase space. As a consequence, the recoiling medium particles have a tendency to come out collectively along the direction of the incident fast particle, each carrying a substantial fraction of the incident longitudinal momentum. Such an interference appearing as collective recoils of scatterers along the incident particle direction may have been observed in angular correlations of hadrons associated with a high-$p_T$ trigger in high-energy AuAu collisions at RHIC.

  3. The Impact of Galactic Feedback on the Circumgalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, Joshua; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Torrey, Paul; Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Galactic feedback strongly affects the way galactic environments are enriched. We examine this connection by performing a suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, exploring a range of parameters based on the galaxy formation model developed in Vogelsberger et al. 2013 (henceforth V13). We examine the effects of AGN feedback, wind mass loading, wind specific energy, and wind metal-loading on the properties of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of galaxies with $M_\\text{halo} > 10^{11} M_\\odot$. Note that while the V13 model was tuned to match observations including the stellar mass function, no explicit tuning was done for the CGM. The wind energy per unit outflow mass has the most significant effect on the CGM enrichment. High energy winds launch metals far beyond the virial radius. AGN feedback also has a significant effect, but only at $z < 3$. We compare to high redshift HI and CIV observations. All our simulations produce the observed number of Damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ Absorbers. At lower column densi...

  4. Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    1 Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond G. P. Gilfoyle Physics Physics: Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Program Program Manager: Dr. Ted Barnes #12;2 #12;3 Contents 1 Project Introduction 5 2 Project Description 7 2.1 Status of Current Projects

  5. Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    1 Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond G. P. Gilfoyle Physics Physics: Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Program Program Manager: Dr. Brad Tippens #12;2 #12;3 Contents 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.4.1 Facilities and Support for Nuclear Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2

  6. Cooperative Decentralized Resource Allocation in Heterogeneous Wireless Access Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Weihua

    1 Cooperative Decentralized Resource Allocation in Heterogeneous Wireless Access Medium Muhammad--In this paper, radio resource allocation in a hetero- geneous wireless access medium is investigated. Mobile the performance tradeoffs of the proposed algorithm. Index Terms--Heterogeneous wireless networks, resource allo

  7. AN ANALYSIS FOR A FORMULATION OF THE POROUS MEDIUM EQUATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fadimba, Koffi B.

    a porous medium, with S the saturation of the invading fluid. In this model, one assumption (the wet phase and the dry phase) occupying entirely the pores of the medium, e.g. water and oil, so , we make the assumption that n = 0, (1..4) where n is the outward unit normal vector to the boundary

  8. Medium energy pitch angle distribution during substorm injected electron clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    Medium energy pitch angle distribution during substorm injected electron clouds A. A° snes,1 J, N. �stgaard, and M. Thomsen (2005), Medium energy pitch angle distribution during substorm injected to obtain pitch angle resolved electron distribution data for measurements at energies 10 eV to 47 keV. [3

  9. THE IMPACT OF STARBURSTS ON THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Heckman, Timothy; Strickland, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wild, Vivienne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 95S (United Kingdom); Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA) (United Kingdom); Schiminovich, David, E-mail: sanch@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We present a study exploring the impact of a starburst on the properties of the surrounding circumgalactic medium (CGM): gas located beyond the galaxy's stellar body and extending out to the virial radius ({approx}200 kpc). We obtained ultraviolet spectroscopic data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) probing the CGM of 20 low-redshift foreground galaxies using background QSOs. Our sample consists of starburst and control galaxies. The latter comprises normal star-forming and passive galaxies with similar stellar masses and impact parameters as the starbursts. We used optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to estimate the properties of the starbursts, inferring average ages of {approx}200 Myr and burst fractions involving {approx}10% of their stellar mass. The COS data reveal highly ionized gas traced by C IV in 80%(4/5) of the starburst and in 17%(2/12) of the control sample. The two control galaxies with C IV absorbers differed from the four starbursts in showing multiple low-ionization transitions and strong saturated Ly{alpha} lines. They therefore appear to be physically different systems. We show that the C IV absorbers in the starburst CGM represent a significant baryon repository. The high detection rate of this highly ionized material in the starbursts suggests that starburst-driven winds can affect the CGM out to radii as large as 200 kpc. This is plausible given the inferred properties of the starbursts and the known properties of starburst-driven winds. This would represent the first direct observational evidence of local starbursts impacting the bulk of their gaseous halos, and as such provides new evidence of the importance of this kind of feedback in the evolution of galaxies.

  10. Supernova Feedback and the Hot Gas Filling Fraction of the Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Miao; Cen, Renyue; Bryan, Greg L; Naab, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Supernovae are the most energetic among stellar feedback processes, and are crucial for regulating the interstellar medium (ISM) and launching galactic winds. We explore how supernova remnants (SNRs) create a multiphase medium by performing high resolution, 3D hydrodynamical simulations at various SN rates, $S$, and ISM average densities, $n$. We find that the evolution of a SNR in a self-consistently generated three-phase ISM is qualitatively different from that in a uniform or a two-phase warm/cold medium. By traveling faster and further in the cooling-inefficient hot phase, the spatial-temporal domain of a SNR is enlarged by $>10^{2.5}$ in a hot-dominated multiphase medium (HDMM) compared to the uniform case. We then examine the resultant ISM as we vary $n$ and $S$, finding that a steady state can only be achieved when the hot gas volume fraction \\fvh $\\lesssim 0.6\\pm 0.1$. Above that, overlapping SNRs render connecting topology of the hot gas, and such a HDMM is subjected to thermal runaway with growing p...

  11. The Application of Ultrasonic Energy into Liquid Mediums to Increase Effectiveness 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    could perform such a useful function. High intensity waves perform work through the creation of cavitation. Cavitation is the phenomenon associated with the passage of intense sound waves through a liquid medium. When sound waves pass through... or dust. If the shock waves encounter agglomerates, they will break them up. The energy released by cavitation is in two forms: heat and pressure. Pressures generated by cavitation implosions have been measured to over 15,000 PSI. And temperatures...

  12. Regression analysis with missing data and unknown colored noise: application to the MICROSCOPE space mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baghi, Q; Bergé, J; Christophe, B; Touboul, P; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of physical measurements often copes with highly correlated noises and interruptions caused by outliers, saturation events or transmission losses. We assess the impact of missing data on the performance of linear regression analysis involving the fit of modeled or measured time series. We show that data gaps can significantly alter the precision of the regression parameter estimation in the presence of colored noise, due to the frequency leakage of the noise power. We present a regression method which cancels this effect and estimates the parameters of interest with a precision comparable to the complete data case, even if the noise power spectral density (PSD) is not known a priori. The method is based on an autoregressive (AR) fit of the noise, which allows us to build an approximate generalized least squares estimator approaching the minimal variance bound. The method, which can be applied to any similar data processing, is tested on simulated measurements of the MICROSCOPE space mission, whos...

  13. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  14. Heating and cooling of the intergalactic medium by resonance photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonid Chuzhoy; Paul R. Shapiro

    2007-01-27

    During the epoch of reionization a large number of photons were produced with frequencies below the hydrogen Lyman limit. After redshifting into the closest resonance, these photons underwent multiple scatterings with atoms. We examine the effect of these scatterings on the temperature of the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM). Continuum photons, emitted between the Ly_alpha and Ly_gamma frequencies, heat the gas after being redshifted into the H Ly_alpha or D Ly_beta resonance. By contrast, photons emitted between the Ly_gamma and Ly-limit frequencies, produce effective cooling of the gas. Prior to reionization, the equilibrium temperature of ~100 K for hydrogen and helium atoms is set by these two competing processes. At the same time, Ly_beta resonance photons thermally decouple deuterium from other species, raising its temperature as high as 10^4 K. Our results have important consequences for the cosmic 21-cm background and the entropy floor of the early IGM which can affect star formation and reionization.

  15. Nonlocal effective medium approximation for metallic nanorod metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geng, Tao; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical nonlocal effective medium approximation to describe the optical nonlocal effects in metallic nanorod metamaterials based on Mie scattering theory. It is shown that the developed nonlocal effective medium theory can predict a coexistence state of two modes around the epsilon-near-zero region, where strong optical nonlocal effects lead to the behavior of both positive refraction and negative refraction in the nanorod metamaterials. Outside of the coexistence region, only one mode can be excited and its behavior can be well described using the local effective medium theory.

  16. Electromagnetic field quantization in a linear dielectric medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Kheirandish; M. Amooshahi

    2005-11-13

    By modeling a dielectric medium with two independent reservoirs, i.e., electric and magnetic reservoirs, the electromagnetic field is quantized in a linear dielectric medium consistently. A Hamiltonian is proposed from which using the Heisenberg equations, not only the Maxwell equations but also the structural equations can be obtained. Using the Laplace transformation, the wave equation for the electromagnetic vector potential is solved in the case of a homogeneous dielectric medium. Some examples are considered showing the applicability of the model to both absorptive and nonabsorptive dielectrics.

  17. Lyman alpha Transfer in a thick, dusty, and static medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang-Hyeon Ahn; Hee-Won Lee; Hyung-Mok Lee

    2000-06-13

    We developed a Monte Carlo code that describes the resonant Lyman alpha line transfer in an optically thick, dusty, and static medium. The code was tested against the analytic formula derived by Neufeld (1990). We explain the line transfer mechanism for a wide range of line center optical depths by tracing histories of photons in the medium. We find that photons escape from the medium by a series of wing scatterings, during which polarization may develop. We applied our code to examine the amount of dust extinction around the Lyman alpha in primeval galaxies. Brief discussions on the astrophysical application of our work are presented.

  18. Regression analysis with missing data and unknown colored noise: application to the MICROSCOPE space mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q. Baghi; G. Métris; J. Bergé; B. Christophe; P. Touboul; M. Rodrigues

    2015-03-04

    The analysis of physical measurements often copes with highly correlated noises and interruptions caused by outliers, saturation events or transmission losses. We assess the impact of missing data on the performance of linear regression analysis involving the fit of modeled or measured time series. We show that data gaps can significantly alter the precision of the regression parameter estimation in the presence of colored noise, due to the frequency leakage of the noise power. We present a regression method which cancels this effect and estimates the parameters of interest with a precision comparable to the complete data case, even if the noise power spectral density (PSD) is not known a priori. The method is based on an autoregressive (AR) fit of the noise, which allows us to build an approximate generalized least squares estimator approaching the minimal variance bound. The method, which can be applied to any similar data processing, is tested on simulated measurements of the MICROSCOPE space mission, whose goal is to test the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) with a precision of $10^{-15}$. In this particular context the signal of interest is the WEP violation signal expected to be found around a well defined frequency. We test our method with different gap patterns and noise of known PSD and find that the results agree with the mission requirements, decreasing the uncertainty by a factor 60 with respect to ordinary least squares methods. We show that it also provides a test of significance to assess the uncertainty of the measurement.

  19. Microbes in thawing permafrost: the unknown variable in the climate change equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, David E; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Vishnivetskaya, T.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Onstott, T. C.; Whyte, Lyle; Rivkina, Elizaveta; Gilichinsky, David A; Elias, Dwayne A; Mackelprang, Rachel; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Wagner, Dirk; Wullschleger, Stan D; Jansson, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Considering that 25% of Earth s terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost (ground that has been continuously frozen for at least 2 years), our understanding of the diversity of microbial life in this extreme habitat is surprisingly limited. Taking into account the total mass of perennially frozen sediment (up to several hundred meters deep), permafrost contains a huge amount of buried, ancient organic carbon (Tarnocai et al., 2009). In addition, permafrost is warming rapidly in response to global climate change (Romanovsky et al., 2010), potentially leading to widespread thaw and a larger, seasonally thawed soil active layer. This concern has prompted the question: will permafrost thawing lead to the release of massive amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) into the atmosphere? This question can only be answered by understanding how the microbes residing in permafrost will respond to thaw, through processes such as respiration, fermentation, methanogenesis and CH4 oxidation (Schuur et al., 2009). Predicting future carbon fluxes is complicated by the diversity of permafrost environments, ranging from high mountains, southern boreal forests, frozen peatlands and Pleistocene ice complexes (yedoma) up to several hundred meters deep, which vary widely in soil composition, soil organic matter (SOM) quality, hydrology and thermal regimes (Figure 1). Permafrost degradation can occur in many forms: thaw can progress downward from seasonally-thawed active layer soils in warming climates or laterally because of changes in surface or groundwater flow paths (Grosse et al., 2011). Permafrost degradation can sometimes lead to dramatic changes in ecosystem structure and function

  20. Metallicity of the Intergalactic Medium Using Pixel Statistics: I. Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony Aguirre; Joop Schaye; Tom Theuns

    2002-07-04

    Studies of absorption spectra of high-z QSOs have revealed that the intergalactic medium at z ~ 2-3 is enriched to ~ 0.1%-1% solar for gas densities more than a few times the mean cosmic density, but have not yet produced an accurate metallicity estimate, nor constrained variations in the metallicity with density, redshift, or spatial location. This paper discusses the ``pixel optical depth'' (POD) method of QSO spectrum analysis, using realistic simulated spectra from cosmological simulations. In this method, absorption in Ly-alpha is compared to corresponding metal absorption on a pixel-by-pixel basis, yielding for each analyzed spectrum a single statistical correlation encoding metal enrichment information. Our simulations allow testing and optimization of each step of the technique's implementation. Tests show that previous studies have probably been limited by C IV self-contamination and O VI contamination by HI lines; we have developed and tested an effective method of correcting for both contaminants. We summarize these and other findings, and provide a useful recipe for the POD technique's application to observed spectra. Our tests reveal that the POD technique applied to spectra of presently available quality is effective in recovering useful metallicity information even in underdense gas. We present an extension of the POD technique to directly recover the intergalactic metallicity as a function of gas density. For a given ionizing background, both the oxygen and carbon abundance can be measured with errors of at most a factor of a few over at least an order of magnitude in density, using a single high-quality spectrum.

  1. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash...

  2. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis PI: Jeff Gonder (NREL) Team: Laurie Ramroth and Aaron Brooker May 15, 2012 Project ID : VSS043 This...

  3. Medium energy ion implantation of Germanium into heated Silicon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCoy, John Curtis

    1993-01-01

    Medium energy ion implantation of Ge into heated Si was investigated. legh fluence implants of Ge were made at energies of 40 or 60 keV into Si substrates at room temperature or heated to 300'C or higher. ...

  4. New IRS Rules for Small and Medium Wind Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Wind Certification Council (SWCC) will host a webinar on how certification is being used to meet the new Internal Revenue Service (IRS) requirements for small and medium wind turbines...

  5. Heat pipe effect in porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, M.

    1992-12-01

    In this thesis a parametric study of the thermal and hydrologic characteristics of the fractured porous tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada was conducted. The effects of different fracture and matrix properties including permeability, thermal conductivity, specific heat, porosity, and tortuosity on heat pipe performance in the vicinity of the waste package were observed. Computer simulations were carried out using TOUGH code on a Cray YMP-2 supercomputer. None of the fracture parameters affected the heat pipe performance except the mobility of the liquid in the fracture. Matrix permeability and thermal conductivity were found to have significant effect on the heat pipe performance. The effect of mass injection was studied for liquid water and air injected at the fracture boundary. A high rate of mass injection was required to produce any effect on the heat pipe. The fracture-matrix equilibrium is influenced by the matrix permeability and the matrix thermal conductivity.

  6. Experimental Demonstration of Effective Medium Approximation Breakdown in Deeply Subwavelength All-Dielectric Multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Malureanu, Radu; Jensen, Flemming; Lavrinenko, Andrei V

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the effect of anomalous breakdown of the effective medium approximation in all-dielectric deeply subwavelength thickness ($d \\sim\\lambda/160-\\lambda/30$) multilayers, as recently predicted theoretically [H.H. Sheinfux et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 243901 (2014)]. Multilayer stacks are composed of alternating alumina and titania layers fabricated using atomic layer deposition. For light incident on such multilayers at angles near the total internal reflection we observe pronounced differences in the reflectance spectra for structures with 10-nm versus 20-nm thick layers, as well as for structures with different layers ordering, contrary to the predictions of the effective medium approximation. The reflectance difference can reach values up to 0.5, owing to the chosen geometrical configuration with an additional resonator layer employed for the enhancement of the effect. Our results are important for the development of new high-precision multilayer ellipsometry methods and schemes,...

  7. Diverse properties of interstellar medium embedding gamma-ray bursts at the epoch of reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cen, Renyue; Kimm, Taysun

    2014-10-10

    Analysis is performed on ultra-high-resolution large-scale cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to quantify, for the first time, the physical environment of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at the epoch of reionization. We find that, on parsec scales, 13% of GRBs remain in high-density (?10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) low-temperature star-forming regions, whereas 87% of GRBs occur in low-density (?10{sup –2.5} cm{sup –3}) high-temperature regions heated by supernovae. More importantly, the spectral properties of GRB afterglows, such as the neutral hydrogen column density, total hydrogen column density, dust column density, gas temperature, and metallicity of intervening absorbers, vary strongly from sight line to sight line. Although our model explains extant limited observationally inferred values with respect to circumburst density, metallicity, column density, and dust properties, a substantially larger sample of high-z GRB afterglows would be required to facilitate a statistically solid test of the model. Our findings indicate that any attempt to infer the physical properties (such as metallicity) of the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy based on a very small number (usually one) of sight lines would be precarious. Utilizing high-z GRBs to probe the ISM and intergalactic medium should be undertaken properly, taking into consideration the physical diversities of the ISM.

  8. Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term Supply Potential of Domestic Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Andrew; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term SupplyAugust 22, 2007 Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-significant amount of liquid biofuel (equivalent to 30-100%

  9. Unknown 2 (Cultivated) 2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    ), Nueces Delta Mitigation Project, and Mustang Island, Texas. Analysis focused on black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), long-billed curlew (Numenitus americanus, peeps (Calidris sandpipers), willet (Cataptrophorus semipalmatus), great blue heron...

  10. Erythroderma of unknown etiology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altiner, Ahmet; Chu, Julie; Patel, Rishi; Latkowski, Jo-Ann; Schaffer, Julie; Sanders, Scott

    2011-01-01

    family history of atopy and psoriasis. Physical examinationdiagnosis such as psoriasis or atopic dermatitis. However,with erythroderma found psoriasis to be the most common

  11. Unknown shrub (Native) 3 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    Plankton communities are influenced, in part, by water exchange with adjacent estuarine and oceanic ecosystems. Reduced advective transport through tidal passes or with adjacent bay systems can affect chemical processes and biological interactions...

  12. Four unknown constants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-02-27

    Purdue University. West Lafayette, IN 47907 banuelos@math.purdue.edu. 1 Four inequalities. Let ? ? R2 be an arbitrary simply connected domain in the plane.

  13. Unknown (Native) 5 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    capabilities and code validation, a model of the GT-MHR reactor pressure vessel (RPV) was developed. Based on the currently available data, a model of the NGNP RPV was then developed through modifying the GT-MHR RPV model. For both RPV models, coolant outlet...

  14. Improved Dosimetric and Clinical Outcomes With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Li Baoqing; Farwell, D. Gregory; Marsano, Joseph; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Purdy, James A.

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To compare differences in dosimetric, clinical, and quality-of-life endpoints among a cohort of patients treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (CRT) for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 51 patients treated by radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis of occult primary origin were reviewed. Twenty-four patients (47%) were treated using CRT, and 27 (53%) were treated using IMRT. The proportions of patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy were 54% and 63%, respectively. Results: The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and disease-specific survival for the entire patient population were 86%, 89%, and84%, respectively. There were no significant differences in any of these endpoints with respect to radiation therapy technique (p > 0.05 for all). Dosimetric analysis revealed that the use of IMRT resulted in significant improvements with respect to mean dose and V30 to the contralateral (spared) parotid gland. In addition, mean doses to the ipsilateral inner and middle ear structures were significantly reduced with IMRT (p < 0.05 for all). The incidence of severe xerostomia in the late setting was 58% and 11% among patients treated by CRT and IMRT, respectively (p < 0.001). The percentages of patients who were G-tube dependent at 6 months after treatment were 42% and 11%, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: IMRT results in significant improvements in the therapeutic ratio among patients treated by radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin.

  15. Testing for the Possible Influence of Unknown Climate Forcings upon Global Temperature Increases from 1950-2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Bruce T.; Knight, Jeff R.; Ringer, Mark A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Cherchi, Annalisa

    2012-10-15

    Global-scale variations in the climate system over the last half of the twentieth century, including long-term increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures, are consistent with concurrent human-induced emissions of radiatively active gases and aerosols. However, such consistency does not preclude the possible influence of other forcing agents, including internal modes of climate variability or unaccounted for aerosol effects. To test whether other unknown forcing agents may have contributed to multidecadal increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures from 1950 to 2000, data pertaining to observed changes in global-scale sea surface temperatures and observed changes in radiatively active atmospheric constituents are incorporated into numerical global climate models. Results indicate that the radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trends in sea surface temperatures—and global-mean near-surface temperatures—is provided predominantly by known changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols. Further, results indicate that less than 10% of the long-term historical increase in global-mean near-surface temperatures over the last half of the twentieth century could have been the result of internal climate variability. In addition, they indicate that less than 25%of the total radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trend in global-mean near-surface temperatures could have been provided by changes in net radiative forcing from unknown sources (either positive or negative). These results, which are derived from simple energy balance requirements, emphasize the important role humans have played in modifying the global climate over the last half of the twentieth century.

  16. Towards a consistent description of in-medium parton branching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apolinário, Liliana; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are a window of opportunity to study QCD matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density, such as the quark-gluon plasma. Among the several possibilities, the study of jet quenching - generic name given to in-medium energy loss modifications of the parton branching - is a powerful tool to assess the properties of this new state of matter. The description of the parton shower is very well understood in vacuum (controlled reference) and medium-induced modifications of this process can be experimentally accessed through jet measurements. Current experimental data, however, cannot be entirely described only with energy loss phenomena. Transverse momentum broadening and decoherence effects, both theoretically established by now, and their interplay are essential to build a consistent picture of the medium-modifications of the parton branching and to achieve a correct description of the current experimental data. In this write-up, we will present the latest develop...

  17. Origin of coherent structures in a discrete chaotic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinovich, M.I.; Torres, J.J.; Varona, P.; Huerta, R.; Varona, P.; Huerta, R.; Weidman, P.

    1999-08-01

    Using as an example a large lattice of locally interacting Hindmarsh-Rose chaotic neurons, we disclose the origin of ordered structures in a discrete nonequilibrium medium with fast and slow chaotic oscillations. The origin of the ordering mechanism is related to the appearance of a periodic average dynamics in the group of chaotic neurons whose individual slow activity is significantly synchronized by the group mean field. Introducing the concept of a {open_quotes}coarse grain{close_quotes} as a cluster of neuron elements with periodic averaged behavior allows consideration of the dynamics of a medium composed of these clusters. A study of this medium reveals spatially ordered patterns in the periodic and slow dynamics of the coarse grains that are controlled by the average intensity of the fast chaotic pulsation. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Unified Description of Charmonium Suppression in QGP Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Captain R; Ganesh, S; Mishra, M

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the quarkonia suppression in a thermal QCD medium created at heavy ion collisions is a complex interplay of various physical processes. In this article we put together most of these processes in a unified way to calculate the charmonium survival probability (nuclear modification factor) at energies available at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. We have included shadowing as the dominant cold nuclear matter (CNM) effect. Further, gluo-dissociation and collision damping has been included which provide width to the spectral function of charmonia in a thermal medium and causes the dissociation of charmonium along with usual colour screening. We include the colour screening using our recently proposed modified Chu and Matsui model. Furthermore we incorporate the recombination of uncorrelated charm and anti-charm quark for the regeneration of charmonium over the entire temporal evolution of QGP medium. Finally...

  19. Plane-Wave Propagation in Electromagnetic PQ Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindell, Ismo V

    2015-01-01

    Two basic classes of electromagnetic media, recently defined and labeled as those of P media and Q media, are generalized to define the class of PQ media. Plane wave propagation in the general PQ medium is studied and the quartic dispersion equation is derived in analytic form applying four-dimensional dyadic formalism. The result is verified by considering various special cases of PQ media for which the dispersion equation is known to decompose to two quadratic equations or be identically satisfied (media with no dispersion equation). As a numerical example, the dispersion surface of a PQ medium with non-decomposable dispersion equation is considered.

  20. Fluctuations of the Casimir potential above a disordered medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Cherroret; Romain Guérout; Astrid Lambrecht; Serge Reynaud

    2015-03-03

    We study the statistical fluctuations of the Casimir potential felt by an atom approaching a dielectric disordered medium. Starting from a microscopic model for the disorder, we calculate the variance of potential fluctuations in the limit of a weak density of heterogeneities. We show that fluctuations are essentially governed by scattering of the radiation on a single heterogeneity, and discuss in which limits they become larger than the average value predicted by effective medium theory. Finally, for denser disorder we show that multiple scattering processes become relevant.

  1. INVERSE MEDIUM SCATTERING PROBLEMS IN NEAR-FIELD ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-05-08

    verse medium scattering problem that arises in near-field optics, which .... Throughout, by assuming nonmagnetic materials and transverse electric polarization, ..... and J. Schotland, Determination of three-dimensional structure in photon scanning ... method for 3D electromagnetic imaging using adjoint fields, Inverse Probl., ...

  2. Bioremediation of Waste in a Porous Medium Changsheng Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chadam, John

    .g., water and carbon dioxide). Bioremediation was first systematically studied by Borden and BedientBioremediation of Waste in a Porous Medium Changsheng Chen Yahoo! Inc., Sunnyvale, CA 94089 and their co-workers [1, 2]. A discussion of the techological and practical aspects of bioremediation can

  3. English-Medium Instruction in Multilingual Universities: The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 English-Medium Instruction in Multilingual Universities: The Case of Finland. Challenges (HEI) in Europe The case of Finland: International Master's Programmes at Jyväskylä University 1 October 2008 The case of Finland Native languages spoken in Finland Finnish: 5 Mio. Swedish (Finland

  4. Distributed Medium Access Control for Next Generation CDMA Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Weihua

    Distributed Medium Access Control for Next Generation CDMA Wireless Networks Hai Jiang, Princeton wireless networks are expected to have a simple infrastructure with distributed control. In this article, we consider a generic distributed network model for future wireless multi- media communications

  5. In-medium antikaon interactions and bound states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avraham Gal; Eli Friedman; Nir Barnea; Aleš Cieplý; Ji?í Mareš; Daniel Gazda

    2014-11-05

    Correct treatment of subthreshold Kbar-N dynamics is mandatory in kaonic-atom and Kbar-nuclear bound-state calculations, as demonstrated by using in-medium chirally-based models of Kbar-N interactions. Recent studies of kaonic-atom data reveal appreciable multi-nucleon contributions. Kbar-nuclear widths larger than 50 MeV are anticipated.

  6. The Solar Wind and Its Interaction with the Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    The Solar Wind and Its Interaction with the Interstellar Medium John D. Richardson Abstract The solar wind is a magnetized plasma of ions and electrons which flows outward from the Sun. This chapter begins with a brief history of the discovery of the solar wind. Solar wind properties at 1 AU

  7. Medium Term Planning & Scheduling under Uncertainty for BP Chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Results & Future Research #12;5 By Products Benzene: Used elsewhere by other BP companies. Styrene can1 Medium Term Planning & Scheduling under Uncertainty for BP Chemicals Progress Report Murat Kurt Products & Applications Models Results & Future Research #12;4 Products - PTA Purified Terephthalic Acid

  8. Dynamics of a Supernova Envelope in a Cloudy Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korolev, V V; Kovalenko, I G; Shchekinov, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of a supernova remnant in a cloudy medium as a function of the volume filling factor of the clouds is studied in a three-dimensional axially symmetrical model. The model includes the mixing of heavy elements (metals) ejected by the supernova and their contribution to radiative losses. The interaction of the supernova envelope with the cloudy phase of the interstellar medium leads to nonsimultaneous, and on average earlier, onsets of the radiative phase in different parts of the supernova envelope. Growth in the volume filling factor $f$ leads to a decrease in the time for the transition of the envelope to the radiative phase and a decrease in the envelope's mean radius, due to the increased energy losses by the envelope in the cloudy medium. When the development of hydrodynamical instabilities in the supernova envelope is efficient, the thermal energy falls as $E_t\\sim t^{-2.3}$, for the propagation of the supernova remnant through either a homogeneous or a cloudy medium. When the volume filling...

  9. MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL LAYER FOR UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Min

    sensor networks, energy-efficient reliable MAC protocol, and slotted FAMA MAC protocol and low1 CHAPTER 1 MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL LAYER FOR UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS* Yanping Zhang* , Yang Xiao of Alabama Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0290 USA E-mail: yangxiao@ieee.org + Dept. of Electrical and Computer

  10. Bushing retention system for thermal medium cooling delivery tubes in a gas turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Bushings are provided in counterbores for wheels and spacers for supporting thermal medium cooling tubes extending axially adjacent the rim of the gas turbine rotor. The retention system includes a retaining ring disposed in a groove adjacent an end face of the bushing and which retaining ring projects radially inwardly to prevent axial movement of the bushing in one direction. The retention ring has a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs along its inner diameter whereby the ring is supported by the lands of the tube maintaining its bushing retention function, notwithstanding operation in high centrifugal fields and rotation of the ring in the groove into other circular orientations.

  11. HIGHLY COMPRESSED ION BEAMS FOR HIGH ENERGY DENSITY SCIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    HIGHLY COMPRESSED ION BEAMS FOR HIGH ENERGY DENSITY SCIENCE A. Friedman1,2 , J.J.Barnard1,2 , R Energy Density regimes required for Inertial Fu- sion Energy and other applications. An interim goal we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto

  12. In-Medium Pion Properties from Chiral Perturbation Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchbach, M

    1996-01-01

    Two--point functions related to the pion weak decay constant $f_\\pi$ are calculated from the generating functional of chiral perturbation theory in the mean field approximation and the heavy--baryon limit. The aim is to demonstrate that Lorentz invariance is violated in the presence of background matter. This fact manifests itself in the splitting of both $f_\\pi$ and the pion mass into uncorrelated time-- and space--like parts. We emphasize the different in--medium renormalizations of the correlation functions, show the inequivalence between the in--medium values of $f_\\pi$ deduced from Walecka--type models, on the one hand, and QCD sum rules, on the other hand, and elaborate on the importance for some nuclear physics observables.

  13. Light scattering by radiation fields: the optical medium analogy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donato Bini; Pierluigi Fortini; Andrea Geralico; Maria Haney; Antonello Ortolan

    2014-08-23

    The optical medium analogy of a radiation field generated by either an exact gravitational plane wave or an exact electromagnetic wave in the framework of general relativity is developed. The equivalent medium of the associated background field is inhomogeneous and anisotropic in the former case, whereas it is inhomogeneous but isotropic in the latter. The features of light scattering are investigated by assuming the interaction region to be sandwiched between two flat spacetime regions, where light rays propagate along straight lines. Standard tools of ordinary wave optics are used to study the deflection of photon paths due to the interaction with the radiation fields, allowing for a comparison between the optical properties of the equivalent media associated with the different background fields.

  14. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  15. PASSPORTS TO PRIVILEGE: THE ENGLISH-MEDIUM SCHOOLS IN PAKISTAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, Tariq

    2005-01-01

    IN PAKISTAN TARIQ RAHMAN _____________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT Based on two recent surveys of some selected urban areas of Pakistan, the author draws interesting conclusions in this article about the English... -medium schools in Pakistan. The elites of the country have long realized the power of the English language and have even institutionalized the process of acquiring the same. As seen elsewhere in South Asia, the English-speaking elites of the country profess...

  16. Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Choi, Daiwon; Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, G.; Sun, C.

    2014-12-12

    This is one of the chapters in the book titled “Advances in batteries for large- and medium-scale energy storage: Applications in power systems and electric vehicles” that will be published by the Woodhead Publishing Limited. The chapter discusses the basic electrochemical fundamentals of electrochemical energy storage devices with a focus on the rechargeable batteries. Several practical secondary battery systems are also discussed as examples

  17. Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory: Quantum nonlocal effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-04-15

    We develop the Maxwell-Garnett theory for the effective medium approximation of composite materials with metallic nanoparticles by taking into account the quantum spatial dispersion effects in dielectric response of nanoparticles. We derive a quantum nonlocal generalization of the standard Maxwell-Garnett formula, by means the linearized quantum hydrodynamic theory in conjunction with the Poisson equation as well as the appropriate additional quantum boundary conditions.

  18. Towards a consistent description of in-medium parton branching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liliana Apolinário; Néstor Armesto; Guilherme Milhano; Carlos A. Salgado

    2015-05-25

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are a window of opportunity to study QCD matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density, such as the quark-gluon plasma. Among the several possibilities, the study of jet quenching - generic name given to in-medium energy loss modifications of the parton branching - is a powerful tool to assess the properties of this new state of matter. The description of the parton shower is very well understood in vacuum (controlled reference) and medium-induced modifications of this process can be experimentally accessed through jet measurements. Current experimental data, however, cannot be entirely described only with energy loss phenomena. Transverse momentum broadening and decoherence effects, both theoretically established by now, and their interplay are essential to build a consistent picture of the medium-modifications of the parton branching and to achieve a correct description of the current experimental data. In this write-up, we will present the latest developments that address such unified description.

  19. Unified Description of Charmonium Suppression in QGP Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Captain R. Singh; P. K. Srivastava; S. Ganesh; M. Mishra

    2015-05-21

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the quarkonia suppression in a thermal QCD medium created at heavy ion collisions is a complex interplay of various physical processes. In this article we put together most of these processes in a unified way to calculate the charmonium survival probability (nuclear modification factor) at energies available at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. We have included shadowing as the dominant cold nuclear matter (CNM) effect. Further, gluo-dissociation and collision damping has been included which provide width to the spectral function of charmonia in a thermal medium and causes the dissociation of charmonium along with usual colour screening. We include the colour screening using our recently proposed modified Chu and Matsui model. Furthermore we incorporate the recombination of uncorrelated charm and anti-charm quark for the regeneration of charmonium over the entire temporal evolution of QGP medium. Finally we do the feed-down correction from the excited states to calculate the survival probability of charmonium. We find that our unified model suitably describes the experimental nuclear modification data of $J/\\psi$ at RHIC and LHC simultaneously.

  20. The in-medium few-body problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Sofianos; M. Beyer

    2004-08-31

    We are concerned with few-particle correlations in a fermionic system at finite temperature and density. Within the many-body Green functions formalism the description of correlations is provided by the Dyson equation approach that leads to effective few-body equations. They contain the dominant medium effects, which are self energy corrections and the Pauli blocking. Hence the effective two-body interactions between quasiparticles are momentum/energy-dependent and therefore they can be usesed in the medium modified, momentum space, integral AGS equations for three- and four-body systems. To investigate correlations and clusters beyond four-body, we employ, instead, the configuration space two-variable integro-differential equations (IDEA) for $A$-body bound systems which are based on Hyperspherical Harmonics and the Faddeev decomposition of the wave function in two-body amplitudes. This requires the transformation of the energy dependent two-body interactions to equivalent local, energy independent, ones. To achieve this we use inverse scattering techniques the resulting interactions being, on-- and (to all practical purposes) off--shell equivalent to the energy dependent potentials. In this way we obtain binding energy results for the 2--, 3--, 4--, and 16--particle in a medium at a finite temperature and various densities. Several aspects of the problem are discussed and the behavior of the potential surfaces obtained in the extreme adiabatic approximation, below and above the Mott transition, is investigated.

  1. Optical Anisotropy of Schwarzschild Metric within Equivalent Medium Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sina Khorasani; Bizhan Rashidian

    2009-12-16

    It is has been long known that the curved space in the presence of gravitation can be described as a non-homogeneous anisotropic medium in flat geometry with different constitutive equations. In this article, we show that the eigenpolarizations of such medium can be exactly solved, leading to a pseudo-isotropic description of curved vacuum with two refractive index eigenvalues having opposite signs, which correspond to forward and backward travel in time. We conclude that for a rotating universe, time-reversal symmetry is broken. We also demonstrate the applicability of this method to Schwarzschild metric and derive exact forms of refractive index. We derive the subtle optical anisotropy of space around a spherically symmetric, non-rotating and uncharged blackhole in the form of an elegant closed form expression, and show that the refractive index in such a pseudo-isotropic system would be a function of coordinates as well as the direction of propagation. Corrections arising from such anisotropy in the bending of light are shown and a simplified system of equations for ray-tracing in the equivalent medium of Schwarzschild metric is found.

  2. Continued development of a semianalytical solution for two-phase fluid and heat flow in a porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, C.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Over the past few years the authors have developed a semianalytical solution for transient two-phase water, air, and heat flow in a porous medium surrounding a constant-strength linear heat source, using a similarity variable {eta} = r/{radical}t. Although the similarity transformation approach requires a simplified geometry, all the complex physical mechanisms involved in coupled two-phase fluid and heat flow can be taken into account in a rigorous way, so that the solution may be applied to a variety of problems of current interest. The work was motivated by adverse to predict the thermohydrological response to the proposed geologic repository for heat-generating high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in a partially saturated, highly fractured volcanic formation. The paper describes thermal and hydrologic conditions near the heat source; new features of the model; vapor pressure lowering; and the effective-continuum representation of a fractured/porous medium.

  3. ISMabs: A COMPREHENSIVE X-RAY ABSORPTION MODEL FOR THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gatuzz, E.; Mendoza, C.; García, J.; Kallman, T. R.; Gorczyca, T. W. E-mail: claudio@ivic.gob.ve E-mail: timothy.r.kallman@nasa.gov

    2015-02-10

    We present an X-ray absorption model for the interstellar medium, to be referred to as ISMabs, that takes into account both neutral and ionized species of cosmically abundant elements, and includes the most accurate atomic data available. Using high-resolution spectra from eight X-ray binaries obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, we proceed to benchmark the atomic data in the model particularly in the neon K-edge region. Compared with previous photoabsorption models, which solely rely on neutral species, the inclusion of ions leads to improved spectral fits. Fit parameters comprise the column densities of abundant contributors that allow direct estimates of the ionization states. ISMabs is provided in the appropriate format to be implemented in widely used X-ray spectral fitting packages such as XSPEC, ISIS, and SHERPA.

  4. Neutral hydrogen structures trace dust polarization angle: Implications for the interstellar medium and CMB foregrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, S E; Peek, J E G; Putman, M E; Babler, B L

    2015-01-01

    Using high-resolution data from the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array HI (GALFA-HI) survey, we show that linear structure in Galactic neutral hydrogen (HI) correlates with the magnetic field orientation implied by Planck 353 GHz polarized dust emission. The structure of the neutral interstellar medium is more tightly coupled to the magnetic field than previously known. At high Galactic latitudes, where the Planck data are noise-dominated, the HI data provide an independent constraint on the Galactic magnetic field orientation, and hence the local dust polarization angle. We detect strong cross-correlations between template maps constructed from estimates of dust intensity combined with either HI-derived angles, starlight polarization angles, or Planck 353 GHz angles. The HI data thus provide a new tool in the search for inflationary gravitational wave B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which is currently limited by dust foreground contamination.

  5. Feynman Amplitude Approach to study the Passage of a Jet in a Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheuk-Yin Wong

    2012-11-29

    In the Feynman amplitude approach for coherent collisions of a jet with medium partons, the Bose-Einstein symmetry with respect to the interchange of the exchanged bosons leads to a destructive interference of the amplitudes in most regions of the phase space but a constructive interference in some other regions. As a consequence, there is a collective longitudinal momentum transfer to the scatterers along the jet direction, each scatterer carrying a substantial fraction of the incident jet longitudinal momentum. The manifestation of the Bose-Einstein interference may have been observed in angular correlations of hadrons associated with a high-p_T trigger in high-energy collisions at RHIC and LHC.

  6. \\\\server05\\productn\\C\\CJP\\14-1\\CJP102.txt unknown Seq: 1 24-FEB-05 17:48 REGULATING OFFSHORE WIND POWER AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 R C. DIFFERENCES IN THE E.U. AND U.S. WITH RESPECT TO OFFSHORE WIND FARMS\\\\server05\\productn\\C\\CJP\\14-1\\CJP102.txt unknown Seq: 1 24-FEB-05 17:48 REGULATING OFFSHORE WIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 R A. OFFSHORE AQUACULTURE (MARICULTURE) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 R B. OFFSHORE WIND POWER

  7. \\\\server05\\productn\\C\\CJP\\14-1\\CJP102.txt unknown Seq: 1 24-FEB-05 17:48 REGULATING OFFSHORE WIND POWER AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    \\\\server05\\productn\\C\\CJP\\14-1\\CJP102.txt unknown Seq: 1 24-FEB-05 17:48 REGULATING OFFSHORE WIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 R A. OFFSHORE AQUACULTURE (MARICULTURE) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 R B. OFFSHORE WIND POWER PRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 R C. POTENTIAL CONNECTIONS AMONG OFFSHORE WIND POWER, MARINE

  8. Teleportation of a two-qubit arbitrary unknown state using a four-qubit genuine entangled state with the combination of bell-state measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Li; Xiu, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: xiuxiaomingdl@126.com [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology (China)] [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology (China); Ren, Yuan-Peng [Bohai University, Higher Professional Technical Institute (China)] [Bohai University, Higher Professional Technical Institute (China); Gao, Ya-Jun [Bohai University, College of Mathematics and Physics (China)] [Bohai University, College of Mathematics and Physics (China); Yi, X. X. [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology (China)] [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology (China)

    2013-01-15

    We propose a protocol transferring an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state using the quantum channel of a four-qubit genuine entangled state. Simplifying the four-qubit joint measurement to the combination of Bell-state measurements, it can be realized more easily with currently available technologies.

  9. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The objective of the current...

  10. Exploration of the comics medium developed for use on the internet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Brian James

    2000-01-01

    A new derivative of the comics medium may be created by incorporating computer and internet technology into the design process. Traditionally a printed medium, comics is now finding its way onto the internet; more comic creators are presenting...

  11. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

    1994-02-08

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

  12. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Cosgrove, Jon; Duran, Adam; Konan, Arnaud; Lammert, Mike; Prohaska, Bob

    2015-06-09

    This presentation summarizes medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicle field evaluation test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis.

  13. Newcomers Meet the Intracluster Medium in the Coma Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. M. Poggianti; T. J. Bridges; M. Yagi; Y. Komiyama; D. Carter; B. Mobasher; S. Okamura; N. Kashikawa

    2004-04-24

    A main topic at this meeting is how galaxies are affected when they enter for the first time the cluster environment from the outskirts. Most of the times we are forced to infer the environmental effects indirectly, relying on systematic variations of galaxy properties with environment, but there aren't many examples of direct observations able to unveil ongoing transformations taking place, and the corresponding mechanism producing it. We present a case in which it is possible to identify the cluster environment, and in particular the intracluster medium and the recent infall history of galaxies onto the cluster, as the cause for a recent, abrupt change in the evolutionary history of galaxies.

  14. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vermeulen, Theodore (Berkeley, CA); Grens, II, Edward A. (Danville, CA); Holten, Ronald R. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl.sub.2 catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl.sub.2 and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon, selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  15. Nuclear medium effects in $?(\\bar?)$-nucleus deep inelastic scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Haider; I. Ruiz Simo; M. Sajjad Athar; M. J. Vicente Vacas

    2011-08-16

    We study the nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $F_3(x,Q^2)$ in the deep inelastic neutrino/antineutrino reactions in nuclei. We use a theoretical model for the nuclear spectral functions which incorporates the conventional nuclear effects, such as Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions calculated from a microscopic model for meson-nucleus self-energies. The calculations have been performed using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations. Our results are compared with the experimental data of NuTeV and CDHSW.

  16. Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safetyof Energy ThisSitesStoragePlanningEnergy UseMedium Base

  17. Radio-nuclide mixture identification using medium energy resolution detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Karl Einar

    2013-09-17

    According to one embodiment, a method for identifying radio-nuclides includes receiving spectral data, extracting a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and using a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library. In another embodiment, a device for identifying unknown radio-nuclides includes a processor, a multi-channel analyzer, and a memory operatively coupled to the processor, the memory having computer readable code stored thereon. The computer readable code is configured, when executed by the processor, to receive spectral data, to extract a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and to use a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library.

  18. Ray Theory for a Locally Layered Random Medium K. S lna G. Papanicolaou y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papanicolaou, George C.

    Ray Theory for a Locally Layered Random Medium K. S#28;lna #3; G. Papanicolaou y August 6, 1999 directions relative to the layering. Keywords: Wave propagation, random medium, locally layered medium, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112; solna@math.utah.edu. Supported by the Norwegian Research Council y

  19. Oil displacement through a porous medium with a temperature gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliveira, C L N; Herrmann, H J

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a temperature gradient on oil recovery in a two-dimensional pore-network model. The oil viscosity depends on temperature as, $\\mu_o=exp(B/T)$, where $B$ is a physico-chemical parameter depending on the type of oil, and $T$ is the temperature. A temperature gradient is applied across the medium in the flow direction. Initially, the porous medium is saturated with oil and, then, another fluid is injected. We have considered two cases representing different injection strategies. In the first case, the invading fluid viscosity is constant (finite viscosity ratio) while in the second one, the invading fluid is inviscid (infinite viscosity ratio). Our results show that, for the case of finite viscosity ratio, recovery increases with $\\Delta T$ independently on strength or sign of the gradient. For an infinite viscosity ratio, a positive temperature gradient is necessary to enhance recovery. Moreover, we show that, for $\\Delta T>0$, the percentage of oil recovery generally decreases (inc...

  20. Dynamics of few-body states in a medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Beyer; S. Mattiello; S. Strauss; T. Frederico; H. J. Weber; P. Schuck; S. A. Sofianos

    2004-10-02

    Strongly interacting matter such as nuclear or quark matter leads to few-body bound states and correlations of the constituents. As a consequence quantum chromodynamics has a rich phase structure with spontaneous symmetry breaking, superconductivity, condensates of different kinds. All this appears in many astrophysical scenarios. Among them is the formation of hadrns during the early stage of the Universe, the structure of a neutron star, the formation of nuclei during a supernova explosion. Some of these extreme conditions can be simulated in heavy ion colliders. To treat such a hot and dense system we use the Green function formalism of many-body theory. It turns out that a systematic Dyson expansion of the Green functions leads to modified few-body equations that are capable to describe phase transitions, condensates, cluster formation and more. These equations include self energy corrections and Pauli blocking. We apply this method to nonrelativistic and relativistic matter. The latter one is treated on the light front. Because of the medium and the inevitable truncation of space, the few-body dynamics and states depend on the thermodynamic parameters of the medium.

  1. Overcoming the Diffraction Limit Using Multiple Light Scattering in a Highly Disordered Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Youngwoon

    We report that disordered media made of randomly distributed nanoparticles can be used to overcome the diffraction limit of a conventional imaging system. By developing a method to extract the original image information ...

  2. Comprehensive Evaluation of High-Speed and Medium-Speed Implementations of Five SHA-3 Finalists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    of view of its implementation in hardware are identified. Keywords: benchmarking, hash functions, SHA-3 codes and the corresponding block diagrams have been published on the web and made available for public-cell library based on the similar 65nm CMOS technology. #12; 2 2. Previous Work Previous results

  3. Develop the dual fuel conversion system for high output, medium speed diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-16

    The original plan for the project involved design modifications to an existing system to enhance its performance and increase the limit of power that was achieved by the original design and to apply the higher performance product to the full sized engine and test its performance. The new system would also be applied to a different engine model. The specific work would include the redesign of gas injectors, piston configurations and two types of igniters, engine instrumentation, monitoring and testing.

  4. High-temperature gas-cooled reactors: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning medium-enriched uranium/thorium once-through fuel cycle; medium-enrichment uranium-233/thorium recycle fuel; high-enrichment uranium-235/thorium recycle (spiked) fuel cycle; high-enrichment uranium-233/thorium recycle (spiked) fuel cycle; and gas-turbine high-temperature gas-cooled reactor.

  5. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  6. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  7. In academia Not in academia Not working or studying Unknown *PhD students received their award in financial year 2003/04.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    In academia Not in academia Not working or studying Unknown *PhD students received their award in financial year 2003/04. SP-5666/01-2013/PE Wave 1 PhD Wave 2 Wave 3 Wave 5 Wave 4 2009 2010 2011 2013 2012 PhD students (cohort 2003/04) join Wave 1 of BSCT Total cohort 2003/04 Former PhD students (cohort

  8. Connection Between the Circumgalactic Medium and the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies:Results from the COS-GASS Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Tumlinson, Jason; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Thom, Christopher; Catinella, Barbara; Schiminovich, David; Dave, Romeel; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Moran, Sean M; Saintonge, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    We present a study exploring the nature and properties of the Circum-Galactic Medium (CGM) and its connection to the atomic gas content in the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies as traced by the HI 21 cm line. Our sample includes 45 low-z (0.026-0.049) galaxies from the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey. Their CGM was probed via absorption in the spectra of background Quasi-Stellar Objects at impact parameters of 63 to 231 kpc. The spectra were obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. We detected neutral hydrogen (Ly{\\alpha} absorption-lines) in the CGM of 92% of the galaxies. We find the radial profile of the CGM as traced by the Ly{\\alpha} equivalent width can be fit as an exponential with a scale length of about 0.85 times the virial radius of the dark matter halo. We found no correlation between the orientation of the galaxies and their Ly{\\alpha} equivalent widths. The velocity spread of the circumgalactic gas is consistent with that seen in the atomic gas in the inters...

  9. THE ORIGIN OF METALS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z = 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Sijing; Madau, Piero; Aguirre, Anthony; Guedes, Javiera [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Mayer, Lucio [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-9057 Zurich (Switzerland); Wadsley, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Main Street West, Hamilton L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2012-11-20

    We present a detailed study of the metal-enriched circumgalactic medium (CGM) of a massive galaxy at z = 3 using results from 'ErisMC', a new cosmological hydrodynamic 'zoom-in' simulation of a disk galaxy with mass comparable to the Milky Way. The reference run adopts a blast wave scheme for supernova feedback that generates galactic outflows without explicit wind particles, a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold and high-temperature metal cooling. ErisMC's main progenitor at z = 3 resembles a 'Lyman break' galaxy of total mass M {sub vir} = 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M {sub Sun }, virial radius R {sub vir} = 48 kpc, and star formation rate 18 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and its metal-enriched CGM extends as far as 200 (physical) kpc from its center. Approximately 41%, 9%, and 50% of all gas-phase metals at z = 3 are locked in a hot (T > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K), warm (3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K > T > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K), and cold (T < 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K) medium, respectively. We identify three sources of heavy elements: (1) the main host, responsible for 60% of all the metals found within 3 R {sub vir}; (2) its satellite progenitors, which shed their metals before and during infall, and are responsible for 28% of all the metals within 3 R {sub vir}, and for only 5% of those beyond 3 R {sub vir}; and (3) nearby dwarfs, which give origin to 12% of all the metals within 3 R {sub vir} and 95% of those beyond 3 R {sub vir}. Late (z < 5) galactic 'superwinds'-the result of recent star formation in ErisMC-account for only 9% of all the metals observed beyond 2 R {sub vir}, the bulk having been released at redshifts 5 {approx}< z {approx}< 8 by early star formation and outflows. In the CGM, lower overdensities are typically enriched by 'older', colder metals. Heavy elements are accreted onto ErisMC along filaments via low-metallicity cold inflows and are ejected hot via galactic outflows at a few hundred km s{sup -1}. The outflow mass-loading factor is of order unity for the main halo, but can exceed a value of 10 for nearby dwarfs. We stress that our 'zoom-in' simulation focuses on the CGM of a single massive system and cannot describe the enrichment history of the intergalactic medium as a whole by a population of galaxies with different masses and star formation histories.

  10. GROWTH OF A LOCALIZED SEED MAGNETIC FIELD IN A TURBULENT MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Jungyeon; Yoo, Hyunju

    2012-11-10

    Turbulence dynamo deals with the amplification of a seed magnetic field in a turbulent medium and has been studied mostly for uniform or spatially homogeneous seed magnetic fields. However, some astrophysical processes (e.g., jets from active galaxies, galactic winds, or ram-pressure stripping in galaxy clusters) can provide localized seed magnetic fields. In this paper, we numerically study amplification of localized seed magnetic fields in a turbulent medium. Throughout the paper, we assume that the driving scale of turbulence is comparable to the size of the system. Our findings are as follows. First, turbulence can amplify a localized seed magnetic field very efficiently. The growth rate of magnetic energy density is as high as that for a uniform seed magnetic field. This result implies that magnetic field ejected from an astrophysical object can be a viable source of a magnetic field in a cluster. Second, the localized seed magnetic field disperses and fills the whole system very fast. If turbulence in a system (e.g., a galaxy cluster or a filament) is driven at large scales, we expect that it takes a few large-eddy turnover times for the magnetic field to fill the whole system. Third, growth and turbulence diffusion of a localized seed magnetic field are also fast in high magnetic Prandtl number turbulence. Fourth, even in decaying turbulence, a localized seed magnetic field can ultimately fill the whole system. Although the dispersal rate of the magnetic field is not fast in purely decaying turbulence, it can be enhanced by an additional forcing.

  11. Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for HydrogenAmmonia As an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogenusing ammonia as an energy storage medium (Preston, 2006).

  12. Wavelength calibration of the JWST-MIRI medium resolution spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez-Galarza, J R; Hernan-Caballero, A; Azzollini, R; Glasse, A; Kendrew, S; Brandl, B; Lahuis, F

    2010-01-01

    We present the wavelength and spectral resolution characterisation of the Integral Field Unit (IFU) Medium Resolution Spectrometer for the Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI), to fly onboard the James Webb Space Telescope in 2014. We use data collected using the Verification Model of the instrument and develop an empirical method to calibrate properties such as wavelength range and resolving power in a portion of the spectrometer's full spectral range (5-28 microns). We test our results against optical models to verify the system requirements and combine them with a study of the fringing pattern in the instrument's detector to provide a more accurate calibration. We show that MIRI's IFU spectrometer will be able to produce spectra with a resolving power above R=2800 in the wavelength range 6.46-7.70 microns, and that the unresolved spectral lines are well fitted by a Gaussian profile.

  13. Heating and Acceleration of Intracluster Medium Electrons by Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahé Petrosian; William E. East

    2008-02-06

    In this paper we investigate the feasibility of bremsstrahlung radiation from `nonthermal' electrons as a source of hard X-rays from the intracluster medium of clusters of galaxies. With an exact treatment of the Coulomb collisions in a Fokker-Planck analysis of the electron distribution we find that the severe difficulties with lifetimes of `nonthermal' particles found earlier by Petrosian (2001) using a cold target model remain problematic. We then address possible acceleration of background electrons into a nonthermal tail. We assume a simplified but generic acceleration rate and determine the expected evolution of an initially Maxwellian distribution of electrons. We find that strong nonthermal components arise only for rapid rate of acceleration which also heats up the entire plasma. These results confirm the conclusion that if the observed `nonthermal' excesses are due to some process accelerating the background thermal electrons this process must be short lived.

  14. Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This project compiles medium-duty (MD) aggregated deployment data and provides the compiled detailed analyses to industry. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles, electrified accessories, and electric charging infrastructure. Over 3.2 million miles of in-service all-electric MD truck data from 560 different vehicles have been collected since 2011, and usage data from over 1,000 truck electrification sites have been collected since 2013. Through the DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office, NREL is working to analyze real-time data from these deployment and demonstration projects to quantify the benefits: results and summary statistics are made available through the NREL website as quarterly and annual reports; 23 aggregated reports have been published on the performance and operation of these vehicles; and detailed data are being extracted to help further understand battery use and performance.

  15. Phase segregation of passive advective particles in an active medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amit Das; Anirban Polley; Madan Rao

    2015-06-23

    Localized contractile configurations or asters spontaneously appear and disappear as emergent structures in the collective stochastic dynamics of active polar actomyosin filaments. Passive parti- cles which (un)bind to the active filaments get advected into the asters, forming transient clusters. We study the phase segregation of such passive advective scalars in a medium of dynamic asters, as a function of the aster density and the ratio of the rates of aster remodeling to particle diffusion. The dynamics of coarsening shows strong violation of Porod behaviour, suggesting diffuse interfaces. The phase segregated steady state shows strongly fluctuations characterized by multiscaling and in- termittency. We expect these unique nonequilibrium features to manifest in the actin-dependent molecular clustering at the cell surface.

  16. Gravity currents in a porous medium at an inclined plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vella, D; Huppert, Herbert E.; Vella, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    We consider the release from a point source of relatively heavy fluid into a porous saturated medium above an impermeable slope. We consider the case where the volume of the resulting gravity current increases with time like $t^\\alpha$ and show that for $\\alpha3$, this situation is reversed with spreading occurring predominantly downslope for short times. The governing equations admit similarity solutions whose scaling behaviour we determine, with the full similarity form being evaluated by numerical computations of the governing partial differential equation. We find that the results of these analyses are in good quantitative agreement with a series of laboratory experiments. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of our work for the sequestration of carbon dioxide in aquifers with a sloping, impermeable cap.

  17. Soot blower using fuel gas as blowing medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A soot blower assembly (10) for use in combination with a coal gasifier (14). The soot blower assembly is adapted for use in the hot combustible product gas generated in the gasifier as the blowing medium. The soot blower lance (20) and the drive means (30) by which it is moved into and out of the gasifier is housed in a gas tight enclosure (40) which completely surrounds the combination. The interior of the enclosure (40) is pressurized by an inert gas to a pressure level higher than that present in the gasifier so that any combustible product gas leaking from the soot blower lance (20) is forced into the gasifier rather than accumulating within the enclosure.

  18. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative agreements and their completion were problematic for the US and world economies. This resulted in the President and Congress implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, abbreviated ARRA (Pub.L. 111-5), commonly referred to as the Stimulus or The Recovery Act. The stimulus money available for transportation projects encouraged the SCAQMD to seek additional funds. In August of 2009, they eventually were awarded an additional $45.5 M, and the scope of their project was expanded to 378 vehicles. However, as a consequence of the stimulus money and the inundation of DOE with applications for new project under the ARRA, the expected time table for producing and testing vehicles was significantly delayed. As a result, these vehicles were not available for validating the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium. Therefore, in April of 2011, the Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) for the project was revised, and limited to producing the draft protocol for PHEV certification as its deliverable.

  19. The COS-Halos survey: physical conditions and baryonic mass in the low-redshift circumgalactic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werk, Jessica K.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Tejos, Nicolas [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Tumlinson, Jason; Peeples, Molly S.; Fox, Andrew J.; Thom, Christopher; Bordoloi, Rongmon [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lehner, Nicolas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN (United States); O'Meara, John M. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, VT (United States); Ford, Amanda Brady [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Oppenheimer, Benjamin D. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Davé, Romeel [University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Weinberg, David H., E-mail: jwerk@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We analyze the physical conditions of the cool, photoionized (T ?10{sup 4} K) circumgalactic medium (CGM) using the COS-Halos suite of gas column density measurements for 44 gaseous halos within 160 kpc of L ? L* galaxies at z ? 0.2. These data are well described by simple photoionization models, with the gas highly ionized (n {sub H} {sub II}/n {sub H} ? 99%) by the extragalactic ultraviolet background. Scaling by estimates for the virial radius, R {sub vir}, we show that the ionization state (tracked by the dimensionless ionization parameter, U) increases with distance from the host galaxy. The ionization parameters imply a decreasing volume density profile n {sub H} = (10{sup –4.2±0.25})(R/R {sub vir}){sup –0.8±0.3}. Our derived gas volume densities are several orders of magnitude lower than predictions from standard two-phase models with a cool medium in pressure equilibrium with a hot, coronal medium expected in virialized halos at this mass scale. Applying the ionization corrections to the H I column densities, we estimate a lower limit to the cool gas mass M{sub CGM}{sup cool}>6.5×10{sup 10} M {sub ?} for the volume within R < R {sub vir}. Allowing for an additional warm-hot, O VI-traced phase, the CGM accounts for at least half of the baryons purported to be missing from dark matter halos at the 10{sup 12} M {sub ?} scale.

  20. Investigation of the effects of various water mediums on desulfurization and deashing of a coal sample by flotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various water mediums on desulfurization and deashing of a coal sample using flotation. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a coal sample containing high ash and sulfur contents. The effects of pH, solid concentration, collector amount and frother amount on the flotation were investigated separately in Mediterranean Sea water, Cermik thermal spring water, snow water and tap water. Flotation, results indicated that, when comparing the various water mediums, the following order for the ash content was obtained: snow water < Cermik thermal spring water < tap water < the Mediterranean Sea water. For the reduction of total sulfur, the following order was obtained: snow water > Cermik thermal spring water > Mediterranean Sea water > tap water. When snow water was used as a flotation medium, it was found that a concentrate containing 3.01% total sulfur and 27.64% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 57.06% was obtained from a feed containing 7.01% total sulfur and 4.1.17% ash.

  1. Supports for high tech : permanence and change in building system design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luna Herrera, Pablo

    1990-01-01

    The obsolescence of our constantly changing built environment is leading architects, now more than ever, towards designing for unknown future requirements. This condition has become manifest in the design of "High Tech" ...

  2. THE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF Ly{alpha} RESONANT PHOTONS EMERGING FROM AN OPTICALLY THICK MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Yang; Shu Chiwang [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Roy, Ishani [Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering Division, St Thomas Hospital, Kings College London, SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Fang Lizhi [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We investigate the angular distribution of Ly{alpha} photons scattering or emerging from an optically thick medium. Since the evolution of specific intensity I in frequency space and angular space are coupled with each other, we first develop the WENO numerical solver to find the time-dependent solutions of the integro-differential equation of I in frequency and angular space simultaneously. We first show that the solutions with the Eddington approximation, which assume that I is linearly dependent on the angular variable {mu}, yield similar frequency profiles of the photon flux as those without the Eddington approximation. However, the solutions of the {mu} distribution evolution are significantly different from those given by the Eddington approximation. First, the angular distribution of I is found to be substantially dependent on the frequency of the photons. For photons with the resonant frequency {nu}{sub 0}, I contains only a linear term of {mu}. For photons with frequencies at the double peaks of the flux, the {mu}-distribution is highly anisotropic; most photons are emitted radially forward. Moreover, either at {nu}{sub 0} or at the double peaks, the {mu} distributions actually are independent of the initial {mu} distribution of photons of the source. This is because the photons with frequencies either at {nu}{sub 0} or the double peaks undergo the process of forgetting their initial conditions due to resonant scattering. We also show that the optically thick medium is a collimator of photons at the double peaks. Photons from the double peaks form a forward beam with a very small opening angle.

  3. In-Use Performance Results of Medium Duty Electric Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2012-07-01

    This presentation describes a DOE program to monitor and report on vehicle performance and energy utilization of medium-duty and heavy-duty electric vehicles.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  5. DYNAMMA: A DYNAmic Multi-channel Medium Access Framework for Wireless Ad HocNetworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Estrin. An energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensoradaptive energy- efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensorEnergy-efficient collision-free medium access control for wireless

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  9. Clean Cities' Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    Guide describes the alternative fuel and advanced medium- and heavy-duty vehicles available on the market, including buses, vans, refuse haulers, and more.

  10. Modelling credit risk of small and medium sized enterprises using transactional, accounting and market variables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Yigui

    2012-06-26

    This thesis comprehensively explores the credit risk of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) using transactional characteristics, financial variables and market information. It contributes SMEs credit risk modelling ...

  11. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    of conventional solar thermal collectors in California andof conventional solar thermal collectors in California andminichannel-tube solar thermal collectors for low to medium

  12. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governingmore »equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.« less

  13. Pipelines and laterally loaded piles in elastoplastic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajani, B. . Inst. for Research in Construction)

    1993-09-01

    The uplift behavior of a shallow pipeline embedded in an elastoplastic medium is examined. An analytical solution for a beam on elastoplastic foundation is developed and a characteristic nondimensional load-displacement and stress-displacement relationship are presented. An approximate three-dimensional (3D) solution is proposed that accounts for embedment and breakaway condition behind the pipeline making use of the load-displacement curves developed for rigid anchors by Rowe and Davis in 1982. A comparison of these results with those obtained by 3D finite-element analysis indicates that the simplified solution of a beam on elastoplastic foundation is a practical alternative for analyzing the uplift behavior of shallow pipelines. The approximate solution is also used to compare the behavior of a laterally loaded pile for which no separation or separation between the surrounding soil and the back of the pile is permitted as the load is monotonically increased. The results are presented in the form of nondimensional charts that permit hand calculations and rapid verification of structural design of the pipeline and piles.

  14. Formation of different isotopomers of chloronium in the interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Liton; Chakrabarti, Sandip K

    2014-01-01

    Main focus of this paper is to explore the possibility of findings two deuterated isotopomers of H2Cl^+ (Chloronium) in and around the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Presence of Chloronium ion has recently been confirmed by Herschel Space Observatory$'$s Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (Neufeld et al., 2012}. It observed para-chloronium towards six sources in the Galaxy. Existence of its deuterated isotopomers (HDCl^+ & D2Cl^+) are till date not discussed in the literature. We find that these deuterated gas phase ions could be destroyed by various ion-molecular reactions, dissociative recombination (DR) and by cosmic rays (CR). We compute all the Ion-molecular (polar) reaction rates by using the parameterized trajectory theory and the Ion-molecular (non-polar) reaction rates by using the Langevin theory. For DR and CR induced reactions, we adopt two well behaved rate formulas. We also include these rate coefficients into our large gas-grain chemical network to study the chemical evolution of these ...

  15. Determination of electromagnetic medium from the Fresnel surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matias F. Dahl

    2011-03-16

    We study Maxwell's equations on a 4-manifold where the electromagnetic medium is described by an antisymmetric $2\\choose 2$-tensor $\\kappa$. In this setting, the Tamm-Rubilar tensor density determines a polynomial surface of fourth order in each cotangent space. This surface is called the Fresnel surface and acts as a generalisation of the light-cone determined by a Lorentz metric; the Fresnel surface parameterises electromagnetic wave-speed as a function of direction. Favaro and Bergamin have recently proven that if $\\kappa$ has only a principal part and if the Fresnel surface of $\\kappa$ coincides with the light cone for a Lorentz metric $g$, then $\\kappa$ is proportional to the Hodge star operator of $g$. That is, under additional assumptions, the Fresnel surface of $\\kappa$ determines the conformal class of $\\kappa$. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we provide a new proof of this result using Gr\\"obner bases. Second, we describe a number of cases where the Fresnel surface does not determine the conformal class of the original $2\\choose 2$-tensor $\\kappa$. For example, if $\\kappa$ is invertible we show that $\\kappa$ and $\\kappa^{-1}$ have the same Fresnel surfaces.

  16. Fluorine Substituted Conjugated Polymer of Medium Band Gap Yields 7% Efficiency in Polymer--Fullerene Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, S C; Stuart, Andrew C.; Yang, L; Zhou, H; You, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Recent research advances on conjugated polymers for photovoltaic devices have focused on creating low band gap materials, but a suitable band gap is only one of many performance criteria required for a successful conjugated polymer. This work focuses on the design of two medium band gap (?2.0 eV) copolymers for use in photovoltaic cells which are designed to possess a high hole mobility and low highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels. The resulting fluorinated polymer PBnDT?FTAZ exhibits efficiencies above 7% when blended with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester in a typical bulk heterojunction, and efficiencies above 6% are still maintained at an active layer thicknesses of 1 ?m. PBnDT?FTAZ outperforms poly(3-hexylthiophene), the current medium band gap polymer of choice, and thus is a viable candidate for use in highly efficient tandem cells. PBnDT?FTAZ also highlights other performance criteria which contribute to high photovoltaic efficiency, besides a low band gap.

  17. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jujasz, Albert J. (North Olmsted, OH); Burkhart, James A. (Olmsted Falls, OH); Greenberg, Ralph (New York, NY)

    1988-01-01

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  18. Revealing asymmetries in the HD 181327 debris disk: A recent massive collision or interstellar medium warping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Christopher C.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Schneider, Glenn; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Debes, John H.; Grady, Carol A.; Jang-Condell, Hannah

    2014-07-01

    New multi-roll coronagraphic images of the HD 181327 debris disk obtained using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope reveal the debris ring in its entirety at high signal-to-noise ratio and unprecedented spatial resolution. We present and apply a new multi-roll image processing routine to identify and further remove quasi-static point-spread function-subtraction residuals and quantify systematic uncertainties. We also use a new iterative image deprojection technique to constrain the true disk geometry and aggressively remove any surface brightness asymmetries that can be explained without invoking dust density enhancements/deficits. The measured empirical scattering phase function for the disk is more forward scattering than previously thought and is not well-fit by a Henyey-Greenstein function. The empirical scattering phase function varies with stellocentric distance, consistent with the expected radiation pressured-induced size segregation exterior to the belt. Within the belt, the empirical scattering phase function contradicts unperturbed debris ring models, suggesting the presence of an unseen planet. The radial profile of the flux density is degenerate with a radially varying scattering phase function; therefore estimates of the ring's true width and edge slope may be highly uncertain. We detect large scale asymmetries in the disk, consistent with either the recent catastrophic disruption of a body with mass >1% the mass of Pluto, or disk warping due to strong interactions with the interstellar medium.

  19. ORIGIN OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM: PRIMORDIAL OR ASTROPHYSICAL?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Jungyeon

    2014-12-20

    The origin of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters is still an unsolved problem that is largely due to our poor understanding of initial seed magnetic fields. If the seed magnetic fields have primordial origins, it is likely that large-scale pervasive magnetic fields were present before the formation of the large-scale structure. On the other hand, if they were ejected from astrophysical bodies, then they were highly localized in space at the time of injection. In this paper, using turbulence dynamo models for high magnetic Prandtl number fluids, we find constraints on the seed magnetic fields. The hydrodynamic Reynolds number based on the Spitzer viscosity in the intracluster medium (ICM) is believed to be less than O(10{sup 2}), while the magnetic Reynolds number can be much larger. In this case, if the seed magnetic fields have primordial origins, they should be stronger than O(10{sup –11})G, which is very close to the upper limit of O(10{sup –9})G set by the cosmic microwave background observations. On the other hand, if the seed magnetic fields were ejected from astrophysical bodies, any seed magnetic fields stronger than O(10{sup –9})G can safely magnetize the ICM. Therefore, it is less likely that primordial magnetic fields are the direct origin of present-day magnetic fields in the ICM.

  20. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, J.K.

    1989-11-14

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

  1. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  2. TIMESCALES ON WHICH STAR FORMATION AFFECTS THE NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Warren, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, CSS Building, Room 1024, Stadium Drive, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Turbulent neutral hydrogen (H I) line widths are often thought to be driven primarily by star formation (SF), but the timescale for converting SF energy to H I kinetic energy is unclear. As a complication, studies on the connection between H I line widths and SF in external galaxies often use broadband tracers for the SF rate, which must implicitly assume that SF histories (SFHs) have been constant over the timescale of the tracer. In this paper, we compare measures of H I energy to time-resolved SFHs in a number of nearby dwarf galaxies. We find that H I energy surface density is strongly correlated only with SF that occurred 30-40 Myr ago. This timescale corresponds to the approximate lifetime of the lowest mass supernova progenitors ({approx}8 M{sub Sun }). This analysis suggests that the coupling between SF and the neutral interstellar medium is strongest on this timescale, due either to an intrinsic delay between the release of the peak energy from SF or to the coherent effects of many supernova explosions during this interval. At {Sigma}{sub SFR} > 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, we find a mean coupling efficiency between SF energy and H I energy of {epsilon} = 0.11 {+-} 0.04 using the 30-40 Myr timescale. However, unphysical efficiencies are required in lower {Sigma}{sub SFR} systems, implying that SF is not the primary driver of H I kinematics at {Sigma}{sub SFR} < 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}.

  3. Thermal Balance in the Intracluster Medium: Is AGN Feedback Necessary?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charlie Conroy; Jeremiah P. Ostriker

    2008-03-10

    A variety of physical heating mechanisms are combined with radiative cooling to explore, via one dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, the expected thermal properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the context of the cooling flow problem. Energy injection from type Ia supernovae, thermal conduction, and dynamical friction (DF) from orbiting satellite galaxies are considered. The novel feature of this work is the exploration of a wide range of efficiencies of each heating process. While the latter two can provide a substantial amount of energy, neither mechanism operating alone can produce nor maintain an ICM in thermal balance over cosmological timescales, in stark contrast with observations. For simulated clusters with initially isothermal temperature profiles, both mechanisms acting in combination result in long-term thermal balance for a range of ICM temperatures and for central electron densities less than n_e~0.02 cm^-3; at greater densities catastrophic cooling invariably occurs. Furthermore, these heating mechanisms can neither produce nor maintain clusters with a declining temperature profile in the central regions, implying that the observed "cooling-core'' clusters, which have such declining temperature profiles, cannot be maintained with these mechanisms alone. Thus, while there appears to be an abundant supply of energy capable of heating the ICM in clusters, it is extremely difficult for the energy deposition to occur in such a way that the ICM remains in thermal balance over cosmological time-scales. These results strongly suggest that a more dynamic heating process such as feedback from a central black hole is required to generate the properties of observed intracluster media. (ABRIDGED)

  4. Acceptance of Internet-based Learning Medium: The Role of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Po, Lai-Man

    Acceptance of Internet-based Learning Medium: The Role of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation acceptance of Internet-based learning medium (ILM) Research Model: This model integrates the motivational perspective into the original Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and includes an intrinsic motivator

  5. Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-97 Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium J. C. Moulu'importance relative des forces de viscosité et des forces capillaires. Abstract. 2014 The velocity of oil ganglia residual oil phase by water injection in a porous medium [1, 2]. These studies have demonstrated

  6. Reduced Models of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Reduced Models of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium and the Solar Wind A and the solar wind. These equations apply to a plasma permeated by a spatially varying mean magnetic field when of turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM) and the solar wind. There is strong observa- tional evidence

  7. Humanoid robots as a passive-social medium -a field experiment at a train station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanda, Takayuki

    Humanoid robots as a passive-social medium - a field experiment at a train station ­ Kotaro Hayashi Ishiguro1&3 , Tsukasa Ogasawara1&2 , Norihiro Hagita1 1 ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Labs. 2-shiomi}@atr.jp, {satoshi, ishiguro}@ams.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp, ogasawar@is.naist.jp ABSTRACT (a) Robots as medium in station (b

  8. CRYSTAL PRECIPITATION AND DISSOLUTION IN A POROUS MEDIUM: EFFECTIVE EQUATIONS AND NUMERICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    CRYSTAL PRECIPITATION AND DISSOLUTION IN A POROUS MEDIUM: EFFECTIVE EQUATIONS AND NUMERICAL expansions to derive a macroscopic law for crystal dissolution and precipitation in a porous medium and precipitation, are of practical importance in many physical, biological and chemical applications. Macroscopic

  9. High peak-power kilohertz laser system employing single-stage multi-pass amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shan, Bing; Wang, Chun; Chang, Zenghu

    2006-05-23

    The present invention describes a technique for achieving high peak power output in a laser employing single-stage, multi-pass amplification. High gain is achieved by employing a very small "seed" beam diameter in gain medium, and maintaining the small beam diameter for multiple high-gain pre-amplification passes through a pumped gain medium, then leading the beam out of the amplifier cavity, changing the beam diameter and sending it back to the amplifier cavity for additional, high-power amplification passes through the gain medium. In these power amplification passes, the beam diameter in gain medium is increased and carefully matched to the pump laser's beam diameter for high efficiency extraction of energy from the pumped gain medium. A method of "grooming" the beam by means of a far-field spatial filter in the process of changing the beam size within the single-stage amplifier is also described.

  10. Aggie Band - Unknown Date - 19 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2006-11-22

    3044g3290uni0020g3288g3276g3299 g3404uni0031g3398g4666uni0031g3398g1848g4667g4672 g3043g3298g3281 g3043g3267 g4673g3398g1848g4672 g3043g3298g3281 g3043g3267 g4673 g2870.???????????????..(eq.1.6) If V = 0 barb2right straight-line IPR, V = 0.8 barb2... on the inflow performance relationship (IPR), the well vertical lift performance (VLP), and the facilities network performance (Economides et al., 1993). 5 Fig. 1.2?A production system (Economides et al., 1993) uni2206g1868 g3404 uni2206g1868g3045g3032...

  11. Radiation Therapy in the Management of Head-and-Neck Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin: How Does the Addition of Concurrent Chemotherapy Affect the Therapeutic Ratio?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Lau, Derick H.; Li Baoqing; Luu, Quang; Donald, Paul J.

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To determine how the addition of cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy influences outcomes among a cohort of patients treated for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 60 consecutive patients treated by radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis of occult primary origin were reviewed. Thirty-two patients (53%) were treated by concurrent chemoradiation, and 28 patients (47%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Forty-five patients (75%) received radiation therapy after surgical resection, and 15 patients (25%) received primary radiation therapy. Thirty-five patients (58%) were treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Results: The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival were 89%, 89%, and 79%, respectively, among patients treated by chemoradiation, compared to 90%, 92%, and 83%, respectively, among patients treated by radiation therapy alone (p > 0.05, for all). Exploratory analysis failed to identify any subset of patients who benefited from the addition of concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy. The use of concurrent chemotherapy was associated with a significantly increased incidence of Grade 3+ acute and late toxicity (p < 0.001, for both). Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation is associated with significant toxicity without a clear advantage to overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival in the treatment of head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Although selection bias cannot be ignored, prospective data are needed to further address this question.

  12. Metallicity of the intergalactic medium using pixel statistics: IV. Oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony Aguirre; Corey Dow-Hygelund; Joop Schaye; Tom Theuns

    2008-07-21

    We have studied the abundance of oxygen in the IGM by analyzing OVI, CIV, SiIV, and HI pixel optical depths derived from a set of high-quality VLT and Keck spectra of 17 QSOs at 2.1 ~ 0.2. Consistent results are obtained by similarly comparing OVI to HI or OVI to SiIV optical depth ratios to simulation values, and also by directly ionization-correcting OVI optical depths as function of HI optical depths into [O/H] as a function of density. Subdividing the sample reveals no evidence for evolution, but low- and high-density samples are inconsistent, suggesting either density-dependence of [O/C] or -- more likely -- prevalence of collisionally-ionized gas at high density.

  13. U.S. NWTRB March Meeting to Focus on DOE R&D Related to Salt as a Geologic Medium for Disposal of SNF and HLW

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board will hold a public meeting in Albuquerque, NM, on Wednesday, March 19, 2014. The main topic of the meeting is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development (R&D) activities related to salt as a geologic medium for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW).

  14. Benchmark Evaluation of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiment Program Critical Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2013-02-01

    A series of small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were performed in 1962-1965 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for the Medium-Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) program. The MPRE was a stainless-steel clad, highly enriched uranium (HEU)-O2 fuelled, BeO reflected reactor design to provide electrical power to space vehicles. Cooling and heat transfer were to be achieved by boiling potassium in the reactor core and passing vapor directly through a turbine. Graphite- and beryllium-reflected assemblies were constructed at ORCEF to verify the critical mass, power distribution, and other reactor physics measurements needed to validate reactor calculations and reactor physics methods. The experimental series was broken into three parts, with the third portion of the experiments representing the beryllium-reflected measurements. The latter experiments are of interest for validating current reactor design efforts for a fission surface power reactor. The entire series has been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments and submitted for publication in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  15. Laser utilizing a gaseous lasing medium and method for operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerr, B.A.

    1983-10-18

    The invention relates to an improvement in gas lasers and a method of operating the same. In one aspect, the invention is an improved method for operating a high-power gas laser. The improvement comprises introducing the gas lasing medium tangentially to the laser tube at a pressure establishing a forced vortex in the tube. The vortex defines an axially extending core region characterized by a low pressure and temperature relative to the gas inlet and the exterior of the vortex. An electrical discharge is established in the core region to initiate lasing of the gas. The gas discharge from the tube is passed through a diffuser. As in conventional gas lasers, firing results in a very abrupt increase in gas temperature and in severe disruption of the gas. However, the gas vortex, almost immediately restores the gas to its prefiring condition. That is, almost all of the waste heat is transferred radially to the laser wall, and the original gas-flow pattern is restored. As a result, the power output of the laser is increased significantly, and the laser firing repetition rate is markedly increased.

  16. NectarCAM : a camera for the medium size telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch~Bigas, O; Bolmont, J; Bouyjou, F; Brun, P; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ginzov, C Diaz; Durand, D; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Gascon, D; Giebels, B; Henault, F; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Horan, D; Houles, J; Jean, P; Jocou, L; Karkar, S; Knoedlseder, J; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lenain, J-P; Leveque, A; Louis, F; Martinez, G; Moudden, Y; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Pavy, S; Petrucci, P-O; Pierre, E; Prast, J; Punch, M; Ramon, P; Rateau, S; Ravel, T; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Shayduk, M; Sizun, P-Y; Sulanke, K-H; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor~Alvarez, L-A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Wischnewski, R

    2015-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) covering the central energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and a 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes the photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The camera trigger will be flexible so as to minimize the read-out dead-time of the NECTAr chips. NectarCAM is designed to sustain a data rate of more than 4 kHz with less than 5\\% dead time. The camera concept, the design and tests of the various subcomponents and results of thermal and electrical prototypes are presented. The design includes the mechanical structure, cooling of the electro...

  17. Model-Based Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.

    2010-12-01

    Medium-duty vehicles are used in a broad array of fleet applications, including parcel delivery. These vehicles are excellent candidates for electric drive applications due to their transient-intensive duty cycles, operation in densely populated areas, and relatively high fuel consumption and emissions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a robust assessment of parcel delivery routes and completed a model-based techno-economic analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle configurations. First, NREL characterized parcel delivery vehicle usage patterns, most notably daily distance driven and drive cycle intensity. Second, drive-cycle analysis results framed the selection of drive cycles used to test a parcel delivery HEV on a chassis dynamometer. Next, measured fuel consumption results were used to validate simulated fuel consumption values derived from a dynamic model of the parcel delivery vehicle. Finally, NREL swept a matrix of 120 component size, usage, and cost combinations to assess impacts on fuel consumption and vehicle cost. The results illustrated the dependency of component sizing on drive-cycle intensity and daily distance driven and may allow parcel delivery fleets to match the most appropriate electric drive vehicle to their fleet usage profile.

  18. Laser utilizing a gaseous lasing medium and method for operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerr, Bruce A. (Harriman, TN)

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to an improvement in gas lasers and a method of operating the same. In one aspect, the invention is an improved method for operating a high-power gas laser. The improvement comprises introducing the gas lasing medium tangentially to the laser tube at a pressure establishing a forced vortex in the tube. The vortex defines an axially extending core region characterized by a low pressure and temperature relative to the gas inlet and the exterior of the vortex. An electrical discharge is established in the core region to initiate lasing of the gas. The gas discharge from the tube is passed through a diffuser. As in conventional gas lasers, firing results in a very abrupt increase in gas temperature and in severe disruption of the gas. However, the gas vortex almost immediately restores the gas to its pre-firing condition. That is, almost all of the waste heat is transferred radially to the laser wall, and the original gas-flow pattern is restored. As a result, the power output of the laser is increased significantly, and the laser firing repetition rate is markedly increased.

  19. The Vermont Biomass Gasifier Project -- Medium heating value gas for electric power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, K.; Overend, R.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gillette, L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The Vermont Biomass Gasifier Project is part of a major DOE initiative to demonstrate indirect gasification of renewable biomass for electricity production. The Vermont Project has been undertaken to demonstrate the integration of the Battelle Columbus Laboratories (Battelle) indirectly-heated gasifier with a high-efficiency gas turbine. The demonstration and validation of this gasification/gas turbine system is being performed at the existing 50 MW wood-fired McNeil Power Generating Station in Burlington, Vermont, thereby significantly reducing the time scale for deployment and the necessary capital investment for DOE and the Vermont project partnership. The development and commercialization of this technology is important for several reasons: (1) it does not require a hot-gas clean-up for gas turbine operation, thus removing this technical hurdle from the commercialization path; (2) it is the only US biomass gasification system that has successfully powered a gas turbine, supporting its near-term viability for commercial deployment; and (3) it produces a medium-heating-value gas without employing an oxygen plant, thus allowing the use of existing unmodified industrial gas turbines. Gasifier construction was completed in late 1997; commissioning and parametric testing was completed during the spring and summer of 1998. This paper discusses the results of this testing and presents plans for both the next phase of testing and prospects for near-term commercialization.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Disk Galaxy Formation: the Magnetization of The Cold and Warm Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Wang; Tom Abel

    2007-12-06

    Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we study the formation and early evolution of disk galaxies with a magnetized interstellar medium. For a $10^{10}$ \\msun halo with initial NFW dark matter and gas profiles, we impose a uniform $10^{-9}$ G magnetic field and follow its collapse, disk formation and evolution up to 1 Gyr. Comparing to a purely hydrodynamic simulation with the same initial condition, we find that a protogalactic field of this strength does not significantly influence the global disk properties. At the same time, the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified by the differentially rotating turbulent disk. After the initial rapid amplification lasting $\\sim500$ Myr, subsequent field amplification appears self-regulated. As a result, highly magnetized material begin to form above and below the disk. Interestingly, the field strengths in the self-regulated regime agrees well with the observed fields in the Milky Way galaxy both in the warm and the cold HI phase and do not change appreciably with time. Most of the cold phase shows a dispersion of order ten in the magnetic field strength. The global azimuthal magnetic fields reverse at different radii and the amplitude declines as a function of radius of the disk. By comparing the estimated star formation rate (SFR) in hydrodynamic and MHD simulations, we find that after the magnetic field strength saturates, magnetic forces provide further support in the cold gas and lead to a decline of the SFR.

  1. MHD SIMULATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS IN A DYNAMIC GALAXY CLUSTER MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendygral, P. J.; Jones, T. W.; Dolag, K.

    2012-05-10

    We present a pair of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of intermittent jets from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a galaxy cluster extracted from a high-resolution cosmological simulation. The selected cluster was chosen as an apparently relatively relaxed system, not having undergone a major merger in almost 7 Gyr. Despite this characterization and history, the intracluster medium (ICM) contains quite active 'weather'. We explore the effects of this ICM weather on the morphological evolution of the AGN jets and lobes. The orientation of the jets is different in the two simulations so that they probe different aspects of the ICM structure and dynamics. We find that even for this cluster, which can be characterized as relaxed by an observational standard, the large-scale, bulk ICM motions can significantly distort the jets and lobes. Synthetic X-ray observations of the simulations show that the jets produce complex cavity systems, while synthetic radio observations reveal bending of the jets and lobes similar to wide-angle tail radio sources. The jets are cycled on and off with a 26 Myr period using a 50% duty cycle. This leads to morphological features similar to those in 'double-double' radio galaxies. While the jet and ICM magnetic fields are generally too weak in the simulations to play a major role in the dynamics, Maxwell stresses can still become locally significant.

  2. Study of in-medium mass modification at J-PARC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazuya Aoki; for the J-PARC E16 Collaboration

    2015-02-03

    Study of in-medium mass modification has attracted interest in terms of the restoration of the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, which is responsible for the generation of hadron mass. Many experiments were performed to measure in-medium property of hadrons but there is no consensus yet. J-PARC E16 has been proposed to study in-medium property of vector mesons via dilepton decay channel. The status of spectrometer R \\& D is explained. Other related experiments planned at J-PARC are also introduced.

  3. Investigation of NO{sub x} conversion characteristics in a porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afsharvahid, S.; Ashman, P.J.; Dally, B.B. [The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2008-03-15

    The conversion of nitric oxide (using CNG/air as fuel/oxidizer) inside a porous medium is investigated in this study. Unlike freely propagating flames, porous burners provide a solid medium that facilitates heat exchange with the gaseous phase. The heat exchange allows the stabilization of a variety of fuel mixtures from lean to rich and with a variety of calorific values. In addition, it allows the control of the reaction zone temperature and thus the control of pollutant formation while maintaining flame stability. An experimental porous burner was designed and manufactured for this purpose. The effects of equivalence ratio and flow velocity on the flame stabilization, NO{sub x} and TFN (total fixed nitrogen) conversion ratios, and temperature profiles along the burner are investigated. In addition, numerical calculations using the PLUG flow simulator model and the GRI 3.0 kinetic mechanism reveals the key reactions which control the conversion efficiency. It was found that under slightly fuel-rich conditions ({phi}{<=}1.3) NO{sub x} mostly converts to N{sub 2} with a maximum conversion ratio of 65%, while for higher equivalence ratios ({phi}>1.3) a large proportion of NO{sub x} converts to NH{sub 3}. Results from experiments and numerical modeling showed that the temperature profile along the burner has significant effects on the NO{sub x} and TFN conversion ratios. It was also found that temperatures between 1000 and 1500 K are most desirable for NO{sub x} and TFN conversion in the porous burner. Analysis of the chemical paths for the low- and high-equivalence-ratio cases showed that the formation of nitrogen-containing species under very rich conditions ({phi}>1.3) is due to the increased importance of the HCNO path as compared to the HNO path. The latter is the dominant path at low equivalence ratios ({phi}{<=}1.3) and leads to the formation of N{sub 2}. The NO concentration in the initial mixture was found to improve the conversion by up to 20% at low equivalence ratios ({phi}{<=}1.3) and to have negligible effect at higher equivalence ratios. (author)

  4. High power gas laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leland, Wallace T. (Los Alamos, NM); Stratton, Thomas F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  5. Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Youngwoon

    Multiple scatterings occurring in a turbid medium attenuate the intensity of propagating waves. Here, we propose a method to efficiently deliver light energy to the desired target depth in a scattering medium. We measure ...

  6. Characterization of a pulsed beam Time-of-Flight system for medium energy He+ and C+ backscattering spectrometry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    Efficiencies of a microchannel plate detector for medium energy helium and carbon ions were determined using a recently developed time of flight technique for near surface analysis by medium energy ion scattering. This technique utilizes a pulsed...

  7. JC3 Medium Impact Assessment Bulletins | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 | International Nuclear Energyat Larger26,High

  8. Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Lei; Luk, Ting S; Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The optical nonlocality in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials is theoretically and experimentally investigated with respect to transverse-magnetic-polarized incident light. A nonlocal effective medium theory is derived from the transfer-matrix method to determine the nonlocal effective permittivity depending on both the frequency and wave vector in a symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer stack. In contrast to the local effective medium theory, our proposed nonlocal effective medium theory can accurately predict measured incident angle-dependent reflection spectra from a fabricated multilayer stack and provide nonlocal dispersion relations. Moreover, the bulk plasmon polaritons with large wave vectors supported in the multilayer stack are also investigated with the nonlocal effective medium theory through the analysis of the dispersion relation and eigenmode.

  9. "Shelter within my reach" : medium rise apartment housing for the middle income group in Karachi, Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmood, Saman, 1972-

    1999-01-01

    This thesis identifies the project development processes of medium rise (five storied or less) apartment housing built by the private formal sector, catering to the middle income groups in Karachi, Pakistan. Middle income ...

  10. The shock-excitation of molecular hydrogen in the interstellar medium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Michael Graham

    This dissertation presents a study of shock-excited molecular hydrogen (H2) in the interstellar medium. The aims of this thesis are to understand the shock-excitation process and to understand the global role of shocks in ...

  11. Analysis of asset health : an approach to monitoring and diagnostics for medium voltage circuit breakers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corona, Erick (Erick Gustavo)

    2013-01-01

    The Medium Voltage Electric Industry is a very conservative and risk adverse sector that has undergone very little change in the past 30 years when compared to other technologically dependent activities; this reality is ...

  12. Role of noise operators on two-photon correlations in an extended coherent Raman medium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

    2007-01-01

    An extended medium driven in a double Raman configuration generates Stokes and anti-Stokes fields that are described by coupled parametric oscillator equations with solutions that depend on input boundary operators and quantum noise operators. We...

  13. Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide for Small and Medium Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-07-07

    The Guide was developed to provide project management principles and guidelines to small and medium projects that fall outside the scope of DOE O 415.1, Information Technology Project Management, dated 12-3-12.

  14. A Distributed Medium Access Control Scheme for a Large Network of Wireless Routers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Bin; Hua, Yingbo

    2008-01-01

    for a Large Network of Wireless Routers Bin Zhao and Yingboof a large network of wireless routers critically depends onLarge network of wireless routers, medium access control,

  15. Energy Conservation Through Heating/Cooling Retrofits in Small and Medium-Sized Industrial Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saman, N.; Eggebrecht, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses energy conservation projects in the area of industrial environment heating and cooling that have been recommended by the Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) to small and medium-sized industries in Texas...

  16. The design of a compact integral medium size PWR : the CIRIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirvan, Koroush

    2010-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced medium size, modular integral light water reactor design, rated currently at 1000 MWt. IRIS design has been under development by over 20 organizations ...

  17. A Model for Wave Propagation in a Porous Medium Saturated by a ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Let us consider a porous medium saturated by a mixture of oil and water, and. let So = So(x) and Sw = Sw(x) denote the oil and water saturations, respectively.

  18. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  19. Energy Conservation Through Improved Industrial Ventilation in Small and Medium-Sized Industrial Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saman, N. F.; Nutter, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE 1994 ESL-PA-94/04-03 REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION ENERGY CONSERVATION THROUGH IMPROVED INDUSTRIAL VENTILATION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED INDUSTRIAL PLANTS Namir Saman, Ph.D., P.E. Visiting Assistant Professor Energy System... Laboratory Texas A&M University ABSTRACT This paper discusses energy conservation projects in the area of industrial ventilation that have been recommended by the Texas A&M University Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADQ to small and medium...

  20. Extension of the Huttner-Barnett model to a magnetodielectric medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fardin Kheirandish; Morteza Soltani

    2008-01-12

    The Huttner$-$Barnett model is extended to a magnetodielectric medium by adding a new matter field to this model. The eigenoperators for the coupled system are calculated and electromagnetic field is written in terms of these operators. The electric and magnetic susceptibility of the medium are explicitly derived and shown to satisfy the Kramers$-$Kronig relations. It is shown that the results obtained in this model are equivalent to the results obtained from the phenomenological methods.

  1. ULTRASONICALLY-ENHANCED DENSE-MEDIUM CYCLONING FOR FINE COAL AND COAL REFUSE IMPOUNDMENT MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mark S. Klima; Dr. Barbara J. Arnold

    2001-08-01

    The Pennsylvania State University, its project team (Typlex, Inc., DAGER, Inc., and PrepTech, Inc.), and advisory committee members have demonstrated the application of ultrasonic energy during dense-medium cyclining and subsequent recovery of fine coal and coal refuse impoundment materials. The results will help to extend the range of conventional dense-medium cyclining to sizes now typically cleaned in relatively inefficient water-only cyclone and spiral concentrators circuits. This technology also provides a potential approach to produce ultra-clean material as would be used for feedstocks for premium carbon products. This report describes Phase I of the project, which involved laboratory testing of dense-medium cyclining and subsequent medium recovery, with and without ultrasonic treatment, along with fundamental dispersion testing. Dense-medium cycloning was conducted with a 76.2-mm (3-in.) diameter cyclone under various conditions including magnetite grade, medium relative density, inlet pressure, cyclone geometry, and feed coal. Dense-medium recovery testing was carried out with a 305-mm (12-in.) diameter x 152-mm (6-in.) wide wet-drum magnetic separator using the cyclone clean coal and refuse products as the feed material. Fundamental testing of dispersion/reagglomeration phenomena was conducted with coal/clay mixtures. In almost all cases, the dense-medium cyclone was capable of achieving separations down to approximately 0.037 mm. Ultrasonic treatment had a slight effect on reducing the ash content of the clean coal. It was also found that ultrasonic treatment improved the purity of the magnetic fraction during wet-drum magnetic separation. The treatment was particularly beneficial for the cyclone overflow material. The fundamental testing indicated that agitation after ultrasonic treatment is necessary to disperse fine particles and to prevent agglomeration.

  2. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  3. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  4. Roel Neggers European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein Structures Print ScientistsRodney Ellis About

  5. Medium Power Lead Alloy Fast Reactor Balance of Plant Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaclav Dosta; Pavel Hejzlar; Neil E. Todreas; Jacopo Buongiorno

    2004-09-01

    Proper selection of the power conversion cycle is a very important step in the design of a nuclear reactor. Due to the higher core outlet temperature (~550°C) compared to that of light water reactors (~300°C), a wide portfolio of power cycles is available for the lead alloy fast reactor (LFR). Comparison of the following cycles for the LFR was performed: superheated steam (direct and indirect), supercritical steam, helium Brayton, and supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) recompression. Heat transfer from primary to secondary coolant was first analyzed and then the steam generators or heat exchangers were designed. The direct generation of steam in the lead alloy coolant was also evaluated. The resulting temperatures of the secondary fluids are in the range of 530-545°C, dictated by the fixed space available for the heat exchangers in the reactor vessel. For the direct steam generation situation, the temperature is 312°C. Optimization of each power cycle was carried out, yielding net plant efficiency of around 40% for the superheated steam cycle while the supercritical steam and S-CO2 cycles achieved net plant efficiency of 41%. The cycles were then compared based on their net plant efficiency and potential for low capital cost. The superheated steam cycle is a very good candidate cycle given its reasonably high net plant efficiency and ease of implementation based on the extensive knowledge and operating experience with this cycle. Although the supercritical steam cycle net plant efficiency is slightly better than that of the superheated steam cycle, its high complexity and high pressure result in higher capital cost, negatively affecting plant economics. The helium Brayton cycle achieves low net plant efficiency due to the low lead alloy core outlet temperature, and therefore, even though it is a simpler cycle than the steam cycles, its performance is mediocre in this application. The prime candidate, however, appears to be the S-CO2 recompression cycle, because it achieves about the same net plant efficiency as the supercritical steam cycle and is significantly simpler than the steam cycles. Moreover, the S-CO2 cycle offers a significantly higher potential for an increase in efficiency than steam cycles, after better materials allow the LFR operating temperatures to be increased. Therefore, the S-CO2 is chosen as the reference cycle for the LFR, with the superheated or supercritical steam cycles as backups if the S-CO2 cycle development efforts do not succeed.

  6. MATERIAL STUDIES FOR PULSED HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON BEAM TARGETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    as high-Z target to be evaluated for effects of irradiation on CTE, fracture toughness and ductility loss or strength) degrade with radiation is unknown. Titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy The evaluation of the fracture toughness changes due to irradiation is of interest regarding this alloy that combines good tensile strength

  7. The influence of ambient medium density on laser ablation processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, M.M. III

    1995-11-01

    Interest in high flux transport processes has grown in recent years along with the ability and need to manipulate systems with microscopic length and time scales. These systems present unique engineering challenges. Because the time and length scales associated with these problems are very small, assumptions of local equilibrium, physical and mathematical smoothness of boundaries and the unambiguous definition of thermodynamic fields can not be automatically made, even though they may ultimately be acceptable. Furthermore, the observations are made on macroscopic or integrated scales. The large difference in scales between the temporal evolution of the process and the observation requires careful consideration of the claims made regarding the system`s microscopic, temporal behavior. In particular, consistency of a proposed model with observed results does not guarantee uniqueness, or predictive accuracy for the model. For these reasons, microscale heat transfer systems demand a careful consideration of the framework within which the experimentation and analysis are conducted.

  8. Graph-based interpretation of the Molecular Interstellar Medium Segmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colombo, Dario; Ginsburg, Adam; Duarte-Cabral, Ana; Hughes, Annie

    2015-01-01

    We present a generalization of the Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) identification problem based on cluster analysis. The method we designed, SCIMES (Spectral Clustering for Interstellar Molecular Emission Segmentation) considers the dendrogram of emission in the broader framework of graph theory and utilizes spectral clustering to find discrete regions with similar emission properties. For Galactic molecular cloud structures, we show that the characteristic volume and/or integrated CO luminosity are useful criteria to define the clustering, yielding emission structures that closely reproduce "by-eye" identification results. SCIMES performs best on well-resolved, high-resolution data, making it complementary to other available algorithms. Using 12CO(1-0) data for the Orion-Monoceros complex, we demonstrate that SCIMES provides robust results against changes of the dendrogram-construction parameters, noise realizations and degraded resolution. By comparing SCIMES with other cloud decomposition approaches, we show t...

  9. Methods and computer readable medium for improved radiotherapy dosimetry planning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessol, Daniel E.; Frandsen, Michael W.; Wheeler, Floyd J.; Nigg, David W.

    2005-11-15

    Methods and computer readable media are disclosed for ultimately developing a dosimetry plan for a treatment volume irradiated during radiation therapy with a radiation source concentrated internally within a patient or incident from an external beam. The dosimetry plan is available in near "real-time" because of the novel geometric model construction of the treatment volume which in turn allows for rapid calculations to be performed for simulated movements of particles along particle tracks therethrough. The particles are exemplary representations of alpha, beta or gamma emissions emanating from an internal radiation source during various radiotherapies, such as brachytherapy or targeted radionuclide therapy, or they are exemplary representations of high-energy photons, electrons, protons or other ionizing particles incident on the treatment volume from an external source. In a preferred embodiment, a medical image of a treatment volume irradiated during radiotherapy having a plurality of pixels of information is obtained.

  10. Synchrotron based infrared imaging and spectroscopy via focal plane array on live fibroblasts in D2O enriched medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaroni, Luca; Zlateva, Theodora; Sarafimov, Blagoj; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Wehbe, Katia; Hegg, Eric L.; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2014-03-26

    We tested the viability of using synchrotron based infrared imaging to study biochemical processes inside living cells. As a model system, we studied fibroblast cells exposed to a medium highly enriched with D2O. We could show that the experimental technique allows us to reproduce at the cellular level measurements that are normally performed on purified biological molecules. We can obtain information about lipid conformation and distribution, kinetics of hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and the formation of concentration gradients of H and O isotopes in water that are associated with cell metabolism. The implementation of the full field technique in a sequential imaging format gives a description of cellular biochemistry and biophysics that contains both spatial and temporal information.

  11. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Chapman, Scott; Pak, Soojong; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ?25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  12. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  13. The Hot Interstellar Medium in Normal Elliptical Galaxies III: The Thermal Structure of the Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven Diehl; Thomas S. Statler

    2008-06-11

    This is the third paper in a series analyzing X-ray emission from the hot interstellar medium in a sample of 54 normal elliptical galaxies observed by Chandra, focusing on 36 galaxies with sufficient signal to compute radial temperature profiles. We distinguish four qualitatively different types of profile: positive gradient (outwardly rising), negative gradients (falling), quasi-isothermal (flat) and hybrid (falling at small radii, then rising). We measure the mean logarithmic temperature gradients in two radial regions: from 0--2 $J$-band effective radii $R_J$ (excluding the central point source), and from 2--$4R_J$. We find the outer gradient to be uncorrelated with intrinsic host galaxy properties, but strongly influenced by the environment: galaxies in low-density environments tend to show negative outer gradients, while those in high-density environments show positive outer gradients, suggesting influence of circumgalactic hot gas. The inner temperature gradient is unaffected by the environment but strongly correlated with intrinsic host galaxy characteristics: negative inner gradients are more common for smaller, optically faint, low radio-luminosity galaxies, whereas positive gradients are found in bright galaxies with stronger radio sources. There is no evidence for bimodality in the distribution of inner or outer gradients. We propose three scenarios to explain the inner temperature gradients: (1) Weak AGN heat the ISM locally, higher-luminosity AGN heat the system globally through jets inflating cavities at larger radii; (2) The onset of negative inner gradients indicates a declining importance of AGN heating relative to other sources, such as compressional heating or supernovae; (3) The variety of temperature profiles are snapshots of different stages of a time-dependent flow.

  14. Recycled waste oil: A fuel for medium speed diesel engines?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, A.B.L.; Poynton, W.A.; Howard, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the exploratory engine trials that Mirrlees Blackstone has undertaken to investigate the effect of fueling an engine using waste oil derived from used lubricants. The effect on the engine`s mechanical components, and thermal performance are examined, and the steps taken to overcome problems are discussed. The proposed engine is sited within the Research and Development facilities, housed separately from the manufacturing plant. The unit is already capable of operating on two different types of fuel with single engine set up. It is a 3 cylinder, 4-stroke turbocharged direct injection engine mounted on an underbase and it operates at 600 rpm, 15.0 bar B.M.E.P. (Brake Mean Effective Pressure). It is a mature engine, built {approximately} 20 years previously, and used for emergency stand-by duties in the company`s powerhouse. The test engine is coupled to an alternator and the electricity generated is fed to the national grid. Initial samples of treated fuel oil, analyzed by an independent oil analysis consultant, indicated that the fuel oil does not correspond to a normal fuel oil. They contained high concentrations of trace elements (i.e. calcium, phosphorus, lead, aluminum and silicon) which was consistent with sourcing from waste lubricating oils. The fuel oil was considered to be too severe for use in an engine.

  15. Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

    2007-01-01

    DTIC Review: Energy Supply Alternatives: ADA433359, 2004.Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen2007 Ammonia As an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for

  16. Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

    2007-01-01

    ISO 14687: Hydrogen fuel -- Product Specification, 2007.Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific andStorage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and

  17. The effects of similarity breaking on the intracluster medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. J. Lloyd-Davies; R. G. Bower; T. J. Ponman

    2002-03-28

    We construct a family of simple analytical models of galaxy clusters at the present epoch and compare its predictions with observational data. We explore two processes that break the self-similarity of galaxy clusters: systematic variation in the dark matter halo concentration and energy injection into the intracluster gas, through their effects on the observed cluster properties. Three observed relations between cluster properties and temperature are employed to constrain the model; mass, slope of gas density profile (beta) and luminosity. The slope of the mass-temperature relation is found to be reproduced by our model when the observed variation in concentration is included, raising the slope from the self-similar prediction of 1.5, to that of the observed relation, ~ 2. Heating of the gas is observed to have little effect on the mass-temperature relation. The mean trend in the beta-temperature relation is reproduced by energy injection of 0.5-0.75 keV per particle, while concentration variation has only a small effect. Excess energies calculated for individual systems from the beta-temperature relation suggest that the lowest mass systems may have excess energies that are biased to lower values by selection effects. The observed properties of the luminosity-temperature relation are reproduced by the combined effects of excess energy and a trend in the dark matter concentration. At high masses the observed variation in dark matter concentration results a slope of ~ 2.7 compared to recent observations in the range 2.6-2.9, whilst the observed steepening in galaxy groups is predicted when heating of 0.5-0.75 keV per particle is included. Hence a combination of energy injection and dark matter concentration variation appears able to account for the mean trends in the observed relations.

  18. System and method for monitoring water content or other dielectric influences in a medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Robert S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Allen A. (Firth, ID)

    2001-01-01

    A sensor system is provided that measures water content or other detectable properties in a medium along the entire length of the sensor at any point in time. The sensor system includes an electromagnetic signal generator and a transmission line disposed in a medium to be monitored. Alternatively, the transmission line can be configured for movement across a medium to be monitored, or the transmission line can be fixed relative to a moving medium being monitored. A signal is transmitted along the transmission line at predetermined frequencies, and the signal is returned back along the transmission line and/or into an optional receive line in proximity to the transmission line. The returned signal is processed to generate a one-dimensional data output profile that is a function of a detectable property of the medium. The data output profile can be mapped onto a physical system to generate a two-dimensional or three-dimensional profile if desired. The sensor system is useful in a variety of different applications such as agriculture, horticulture, biofiltration systems for industrial offgases, leak detection in landfills or drum storage facilities at buried waste sites, and in many other applications.

  19. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant additives in a critical fluid medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2005-05-03

    A process for producing alkyl esters useful in biofuels and lubricants by transesterifying glyceride- or esterifying free fatty acid-containing substances in a single critical phase medium is disclosed. The critical phase medium provides increased reaction rates, decreases the loss of catalyst or catalyst activity and improves the overall yield of desired product. The process involves the steps of dissolving an input glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with an alcohol or water into a critical fluid medium; reacting the glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with the alcohol or water input over either a solid or liquid acidic or basic catalyst and sequentially separating the products from each other and from the critical fluid medium, which critical fluid medium can then be recycled back in the process. The process significantly reduces the cost of producing additives or alternatives to automotive fuels and lubricants utilizing inexpensive glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substances, such as animal fats, vegetable oils, rendered fats, and restaurant grease.

  20. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Georg (Livermore, CA); George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sooy, Walter (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

    1996-01-01

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

  1. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

    1996-06-11

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

  2. Supercritical Water Reactor Cycle for Medium Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BD Middleton; J Buongiorno

    2007-04-25

    Scoping studies for a power conversion system based on a direct-cycle supercritical water reactor have been conducted. The electric power range of interest is 5-30 MWe with a design point of 20 MWe. The overall design objective is to develop a system that has minimized physical size and performs satisfactorily over a broad range of operating conditions. The design constraints are as follows: Net cycle thermal efficiency {ge}20%; Steam turbine outlet quality {ge}90%; and Pumping power {le}2500 kW (at nominal conditions). Three basic cycle configurations were analyzed. Listed in order of increased plant complexity, they are: (1) Simple supercritical Rankine cycle; (2) All-supercritical Brayton cycle; and (3) Supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating. The sensitivity of these three configurations to various parameters, such as reactor exit temperature, reactor pressure, condenser pressure, etc., was assessed. The Thermoflex software package was used for this task. The results are as follows: (a) The simple supercritical Rankine cycle offers the greatest hardware simplification, but its high reactor temperature rise and reactor outlet temperature may pose serious problems from the viewpoint of thermal stresses, stability and materials in the core. (b) The all-supercritical Brayton cycle is not a contender, due to its poor thermal efficiency. (c) The supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating affords acceptable thermal efficiency with lower reactor temperature rise and outlet temperature. (d) The use of a moisture separator improves the performance of the supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating and allows for a further reduction of the reactor outlet temperature, thus it was selected for the next step. Preliminary engineering design of the supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating and moisture separation was performed. All major components including the turbine, feedwater heater, feedwater pump, condenser, condenser pump and pipes were modeled with realistic assumptions using the PEACE module of Thermoflex. A three-dimensional layout of the plant was also generated with the SolidEdge software. The results of the engineering design are as follows: (i) The cycle achieves a net thermal efficiency of 24.13% with 350/460 C reactor inlet/outlet temperatures, {approx}250 bar reactor pressure and 0.75 bar condenser pressure. The steam quality at the turbine outlet is 90% and the total electric consumption of the pumps is about 2500 kWe at nominal conditions. (ii) The overall size of the plant is attractively compact and can be further reduced if a printed-circuit-heat-exchanger (vs shell-and-tube) design is used for the feedwater heater, which is currently the largest component by far. Finally, an analysis of the plant performance at off-nominal conditions has revealed good robustness of the design in handling large changes of thermal power and seawater temperature.

  3. Analysis of ray stability and caustic formation in a layered moving fluid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, David R

    2015-01-01

    Caustic formation occurs within a ray skeleton as optical or acoustic fields propagate in a medium with variable refractive properties and are unphysical, their presence being an artifact of the ray approximation of the field, and methods of correcting the field near a caustic are well known. Differential geometry provides a novel approach to calculating acoustic intensity, assessing ray stability and locating caustics in acoustic ray traces when the properties of medium are completely arbitrary by identifying points on the caustic with conjugate points along various rays. The method of geodesic deviation is applied to the problem of determining ray stability and locating caustics in 2-dimensional acoustic ray traces in a layered moving medium. Specifically, a general treatment of caustic formation in sound ducts and in piecewise continuous media is presented and applied to various idealized and realistic scenarios.

  4. Time Evolution of Tunneling in Thermal Medium -- Environment-driven Excited Tunneling --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sh. Matsumoto; M. Yoshimura

    2003-07-18

    Time evolution of tunneling phenomena proceeding in thermal medium is studied using a standard model of environment interaction. A semiclassical probability formula for the particle motion in a metastable state of one dimensional system put in thermal medium is combined with the formula of quantum penetration factor through a potential barrier, to derive the tunneling rate in medium. Effect of environment, its influence on time evolution in particular, is clarified in a real-time formalism. A nonlinear resonance effect is shown to enhance the tunneling rate at finite times of order $2/\\eta $, with $\\eta $ the friction coefficient. In the linear approximation this effect has relevance to the parametric resonance. This effect enhances the possibility of early termination of the cosmological phase transition much prior to the typical Hubble time.

  5. Formation of bubbly horizon in liquid-saturated porous medium by surface temperature oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2015-01-01

    We study non-isothermal diffusion transport of a weakly-soluble substance in a liquid-saturated porous medium being in contact with the reservoir of this substance. The surface temperature of the porous medium half-space oscillates in time, which results in a decaying solubility wave propagating deep into the porous medium. In such a system, the zones of saturated solution and non-dissolved phase coexist with the zones of undersaturated solution. The effect is firstly considered for the case of annual oscillation of the surface temperature of water-saturated ground being in contact with atmosphere. We reveal the phenomenon of formation of a near-surface bubbly horizon due to the temperature oscillation. An analytical theory of the phenomenon is developed. Further, the treatment is extended to the case of higher frequency oscillations and case of weakly-soluble solids and liquids.

  6. Formation of bubbly horizon in liquid-saturated porous medium by surface temperature oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis S. Goldobin; Pavel V. Krauzin

    2015-10-08

    We study non-isothermal diffusion transport of a weakly-soluble substance in a liquid-saturated porous medium being in contact with the reservoir of this substance. The surface temperature of the porous medium half-space oscillates in time, which results in a decaying solubility wave propagating deep into the porous medium. In such a system, the zones of saturated solution and non-dissolved phase coexist with the zones of undersaturated solution. The effect is firstly considered for the case of annual oscillation of the surface temperature of water-saturated ground being in contact with atmosphere. We reveal the phenomenon of formation of a near-surface bubbly horizon due to the temperature oscillation. An analytical theory of the phenomenon is developed. Further, the treatment is extended to the case of higher frequency oscillations and case of weakly-soluble solids and liquids.

  7. Neutrino propagation in nuclear medium and neutrinoless double-beta decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kovalenko, S; Simkovic, F

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a novel effect in neutrinoless double beta decay related with the fact that its underlying mechanisms take place in the nuclear matter environment. We study a particular case of neutrino exchange mechanism and demonstrate possible impact of nuclear medium via Lepton Number Violating (LNV) 4-fermion neutral current interactions of neutrino with quarks from decaying nucleus. The net effect of these interactions is generation of an effective in-medium Majorana neutrino mass matrix. We calculate the corresponding effective masses and construct the neutrino mixing matrix in nuclear medium for the complete set of the relevant 4-fermion neutrino-quark operators. Using the experimental data on neutrinoless double beta decay in combination with the cosmological and tritium beta decay data we evaluate lower limits on the characteristic scales of the studied 4-fermion operators. For the LNV scale we have > 2.4 TeV.

  8. Quantum vacuum emission in a nonlinear optical medium illuminated by a strong laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Finazzi; Iacopo Carusotto

    2013-02-27

    A strong light pulse propagating in a nonlinear Kerr medium produces a change in the refractive index, which makes light travel at different speeds inside and outside the pulse. By tuning the pulse velocity, an analog black hole horizon can be obtained in a suitable frequency window. In this paper, we develop a quantum theory of light propagation for this system, including the frequency dispersion of the refractive index of the medium by coupling the electromagnetic field to matter polarization fields. In a configuration with a single black hole horizon, the spectrum of spontaneously emitted particles presents some similarities with Hawking radiation. Furthermore, even in horizonless systems spontaneous vacuum emission is still possible due to the dispersive nature of the medium, yet with dramatically different spectral properties.

  9. A Medium Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope Mechanical Design Proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrum, K; Benbow, W; Cameron, R; Criswell, S; Errando, M; Guarino, V; Kaaret, P; Kieda, D; Mukherjee, R; Naumann, D; Nieto, D; Northrop, R; Okumura, A; Roache, E; Rousselle, J; Schlenstedt, S; Sternberger, R; Vassiliev, V; Wakely, S; Zhao, H

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be implemented as southern and northern hemisphere arrays of tens of small, medium and large-sized imaging Cherenkov telescopes with the goal of improving the sensitivity over the current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude. CTA will provide energy coverage from ~20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium size (9.5m) telescopes will feature a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of accommodating a wide field-of-view with significantly improved angular resolution as compared to the traditional Davies-Cotton optical design. A full-scale prototype SC medium size telescope structure has been designed and will be constructed at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona during the fall of 2015. concentrate on the novel features of the design.

  10. Energy dependence of $\\bar{K}N$ interaction in nuclear medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Cieply

    2011-12-05

    When the $\\bar{K}N$ system is submerged in nuclear medium the $\\bar{K}N$ scattering amplitude and the final state branching ratios exhibit a strong energy dependence when going to energies below the $\\bar{K}N$ threshold. A sharp increase of $\\bar{K}N$ attraction below the $\\bar{K}N$ threshold provides a link between shallow $\\bar{K}$-nuclear potentials based on the chiral $\\bar{K}N$ amplitude evaluated at threshold and the deep phenomenological optical potentials obtained in fits to kaonic atoms data. We show the energy dependence of the in-medium $K^{-}p$ amplitude and demonstrate the impact of energy dependent branching ratios on the $\\Lambda$-hypernuclear production rates. \\keywords{kaon-nucleon amplitude \\and nuclear medium \\and hypernuclei

  11. Photon Radiation and Dilepton Production Induced by Rescattering in Strong Interacting Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanzhong Zhang; Zhongbo Kang; Ben-Wei Zhang; Enke Wang

    2008-04-27

    Using the opacity expansion technique we investigate the photon radiation and dilepton production induced by multiple rescattering as energetic parton jet passing through the strong interacting medium. The real photon radiation and dilepton invariant-mass spectrums of the bremsstrahlung contribution from an energetic quark jet are presented. The leading contribution of total energy loss by photon emmision in medium of a higher energy quark jet is found to be proportional to the jet energy and has a linear dependence on the thickness of the nuclear target. The rescattering contribution for the dilepton is important only for small value of the invariant-mass and for the not so fast jet. The contribution fraction of the dilepton induced by rescattering in medium is found to be nearly a constant when the ratio of jet energy to Debye screening mass $E/\\mu$ is large.

  12. Selective coupling of optical energy into the fundamental diffusion mode of a scattering medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojambati, Oluwafemi S; Lagendijk, Ad; Mosk, Allard P; Vos, Willem L

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that optical wavefront shaping selectively couples light into the fundamental diffusion mode of a scattering medium. The total energy density inside a scattering medium of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles was probed by measuring the emitted fluorescent power of spheres that were randomly positioned inside the medium. The fluorescent power of an optimized incident wave front is observed to be enhanced compared to a non-optimized incident front. The observed enhancement increases with sample thickness. Based on diffusion theory, we derive a model wherein the distribution of energy density of wavefront-shaped light is described by the fundamental diffusion mode. The agreement between our model and the data is striking not in the least since there are no adjustable parameters. Enhanced total energy density is crucial to increase the efficiency of white LEDs, solar cells, and of random lasers, as well as to realize controlled illumination in biomedical optics.

  13. Method and apparatus for communicating computer data from one point to another over a communications medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arneson, Michael R. (Chippewa Falls, WI); Bowman, Terrance L. (Sumner, WA); Cornett, Frank N. (Chippewa Falls, WI); DeRyckere, John F. (Eau Claire, WI); Hillert, Brian T. (Chippewa Falls, WI); Jenkins, Philip N. (Eau Claire, WI); Ma, Nan (Chippewa Falls, WI); Placek, Joseph M. (Chippewa Falls, WI); Ruesch, Rodney (Eau Claire, WI); Thorson, Gregory M. (Altoona, WI)

    2007-07-24

    The present invention is directed toward a communications channel comprising a link level protocol, a driver, a receiver, and a canceller/equalizer. The link level protocol provides logic for DC-free signal encoding and recovery as well as supporting many features including CRC error detection and message resend to accommodate infrequent bit errors across the medium. The canceller/equalizer provides equalization for destabilized data signals and also provides simultaneous bi-directional data transfer. The receiver provides bit deskewing by removing synchronization error, or skewing, between data signals. The driver provides impedance controlling by monitoring the characteristics of the communications medium, like voltage or temperature, and providing a matching output impedance in the signal driver so that fewer distortions occur while the data travels across the communications medium.

  14. An effective medium theory for predicting the existence of surface states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Meng; Fang, Anan; Chan, C T

    2015-01-01

    We build an effective medium theory for two-dimensional photonic crystals comprising a rectangular lattice of dielectric cylinders with the incident electric field polarized along the axis of the cylinders. In particular, we discuss the feasibility of constructing an effective medium theory for the case where the Bloch wave vector is far away from the center of Brillouin zone, where the optical response of the photonic crystal is necessarily anisotropic and hence the effective medium description becomes inevitability angle dependent. We employ the scattering theory and treat the two-dimensional system as a stack of one-dimensional arrays. We consider only the zero-order interlayer diffraction and all the higher order diffraction terms of interlayer scattering are ignored. This approximation works well when the higher order diffraction terms are all evanescent waves and the interlayer distance is far enough for them to decay out. Scattering theory enables the calculation of transmission and reflection coeffici...

  15. Experimental Determination of In-Medium Cluster Binding Energies and Mott Points in Nuclear Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hagel; R. Wada; L. Qin; J. B. Natowitz; S. Shlomo; A. Bonasera; G. Röpke; S. Typel; Z. Chen; M. Huang; J. Wang; H. Zheng; S. Kowalski; C. Bottosso; M. Barbui; M. R. D. Rodrigues; K. Schmidt; D. Fabris; M. Lunardon; S. Moretto; G. Nebbia; S. Pesente; V. Rizzi; G. Viesti; M. Cinausero; G. Prete; T. Keutgen; Y. El Masri; Z. Majka

    2012-03-20

    In medium binding energies and Mott points for $d$, $t$, $^3$He and $\\alpha$ clusters in low density nuclear matter have been determined at specific combinations of temperature and density in low density nuclear matter produced in collisions of 47$A$ MeV $^{40}$Ar and $^{64}$Zn projectiles with $^{112}$Sn and $^{124}$Sn target nuclei. The experimentally derived values of the in medium modified binding energies are in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions based upon the implementation of Pauli blocking effects in a quantum statistical approach.

  16. Method for charging and discharging a latent-heat storage medium and heat storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreikenbohm, R.; Reusch, H.

    1982-12-28

    A heat storage unit is disclosed having a vertically cylindrical container accommodating a latent-heat storage medium and a conduit introducing a heat carrier liquid not miscible with the medium at the bottom of the container. The conduit has an exit nozzle which is located outside the axial center of the cylinder and nearly perpendicular to the radius of the cylinder so that the heat carrier liquid enters the cylinder at the bottom in a direction to cause the heat storage melt to be set into a rotary motion.

  17. Method for charging and discharging a latent-heat storage medium and heat storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreikenbohm, R.; Reusch, H.

    1981-10-13

    A heat storage unit is disclosed having a vertically cylindrical container accommodating a latent-heat storage medium and a conduit introducing a heat carrier liquid not miscible with the medium at the bottom of the container. The conduit has an exit nozzle which is located outside the axial center of the cylinder and nearly perpendicular to the radius of the cylinder so that the heat carrier liquid enters the cylinder at the bottom in a direction to cause the heat storage melt to be set into a rotary motion.

  18. Elliptic flow of thermal photons in chemically non-equilibrated QCD medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akihiko Monnai

    2014-10-31

    Heavy-ion experiments have recently revealed that azimuthal momentum anisotropy -- elliptic flow -- of direct photons from a QCD medium is a few times larger than hydrodynamic predictions. I present a possible explanation for the enhancement based on late quark chemical equilibration. The color glass theory indicates that the medium is initially gluon-rich. Thermal photons are then mainly produced after quarks are produced, at which point large flow anisotropy is developed. The numerical estimations indicate that slow chemical equilibration visibly enhances the elliptic flow of thermal photons.

  19. Pion parameters in nuclear medium from chiral perturbation theory and virial expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Mallik; Sourav Sarkar

    2003-09-11

    We consider two methods to find the effective parameters of the pion traversing a nuclear medium. One is the first order chiral perturbation theoretic evaluation of the pion pole contribution to the two-point function of the axial-vector current. The other is the exact, first order virial expansion of the pion self-energy. We find that, although the results of chiral perturbation theory are not valid at normal nuclear density, those from the virial expansion may be reliable at such density. The latter predicts both the mass-shift and the in-medium decay width of the pion to be small, of about a few MeV.

  20. Visco-elastic fluid simulations of coherent structures in strongly coupled dusty plasma medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh Dharodi, Vikram; Kumar Tiwari, Sanat; Das, Amita, E-mail: amita@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-07-15

    A generalized hydrodynamic model depicting the behaviour of visco-elastic fluids has often been invoked to explore the behaviour of a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium below their crystallization limit. The model has been successful in describing the collective normal modes of the strongly coupled dusty plasma medium observed experimentally. The paper focuses on the study of nonlinear dynamical characteristic features of this model. Specifically, the evolution of coherent vorticity patches is being investigated here within the framework of this model. A comparison with Newtonian fluids and molecular dynamics simulations treating the dust species interacting through the Yukawa potential has also been presented.

  1. Recipient luminophoric mediums having narrow spectrum luminescent materials and related semiconductor light emitting devices and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeToquin, Ronan P; Tong, Tao; Glass, Robert C

    2014-12-30

    Light emitting devices include a light emitting diode ("LED") and a recipient luminophoric medium that is configured to down-convert at least some of the light emitted by the LED. In some embodiments, the recipient luminophoric medium includes a first broad-spectrum luminescent material and a narrow-spectrum luminescent material. The broad-spectrum luminescent material may down-convert radiation emitted by the LED to radiation having a peak wavelength in the red color range. The narrow-spectrum luminescent material may also down-convert radiation emitted by the LED into the cyan, green or red color range.

  2. SIDDHARTA impact on $\\bar{K}N$ amplitudes used in in-medium applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ales Cieply; Jaroslav Smejkal

    2013-01-25

    We have performed new fits of our chirally motivated coupled--channels model for meson-baryon interactions and discussed the impact of the SIDDHARTA measurement on the $\\bar{K}N$ amplitudes in the free space and in nuclear medium. The kaon--nucleon amplitudes generated by the model are fully consistent with our earlier studies that used the older kaonic hydrogen data by the DEAR collaboration. The subthreshold energy dependence of the in-medium $\\bar{K}N$ amplitudes plays a crucial role in $\\bar{K}$--nuclear applications.

  3. Medium Corrections to the Nucleon Electroweak Observables in a Light-Front Quark Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araujo, W.R.B. de; Suisso, E.F.; Batista, E.F.; Carlson, B.V.; Frederico, T. [Dep. de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, 12.228-900 Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2004-12-02

    We study the nuclear medium effects on the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio GEp/GMp within a light-front constituent quark model with different quark spin coupling schemes and momentum components of the wave functions. We compute only effects from the quark and nucleon in-medium masses. The effective masses are obtained from a relativistic {sigma} - {omega} self-consistent mean-field approximation of the nuclear matter within a quark-meson coupling model. Our calculation describes qualitatively the recent experimental data.

  4. Generation of unipolar pulses from nonunipolar optical pulses in a nonlinear medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlov, Victor V. [Department of Information Engineering, Universita degli Studi di Brescia, Via Branze 38, I-25123 Brescia (Italy); Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, Petrodvoretz, St. Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation); Rosanov, Nikolay N. [Institute of Laser Physics, Vavilov State Optical Institute, Birzhevaya liniya, 12, St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation); De Angelis, Costantino; Wabnitz, Stefan [Department of Information Engineering, Universita degli Studi di Brescia, Via Branze 38, I-25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    A unipolar electromagnetic pulse is a pulse with nonzero value of the static component of the Fourier spectrum of its real electric field (and not its envelope). We show how to efficiently generate unipolar pulses through propagation of an initially nonunipolar pulse in a nonlinear optical medium. One of the major results is the demonstration that the static component can only be generated in equal portions between the forward- and backward-traveling waves in the presence of nonlinear backscattering in a nonlinear medium.

  5. Effective Diffusion-Medium Thickness for Simplified Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.

    2008-07-30

    In this manuscript, conformal mapping is applied to a rib/channel domain of a polymer-electrolyte-fuel-cell diffusion medium. The analysis leads to the calculation of an effective diffusion-medium thickness, which can subsequently be used in 1-D simulations to account for the average rib/channel 2-D geometric effect. Extensions of the analysis to anisotropic and multilayer diffusion media are also given. Both equations and figures show the impact on a given variable at the catalyst layer of having a combined conducting/nonconducting boundary across from it.

  6. Efficient Communication over Highly Spread Underwater Acoustic Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schniter, Philip

    unforgiving wireless medium" [2]. In fact, re- liable high-rate underwater acoustic communication remains a principal challenge in the construction of underwater net- works. The physical characteristics of the UAC of optimal and fail altogether in very highly spread environments such as the surf zone [20

  7. Canonical quantization of electromagnetic field in the presence of nonlinear anisotropic magnetodielectric medium with spatial-temporal dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majid Amooshahi

    2015-10-17

    Modeling a nonlinear anisotropic magnetodielectric medium with spatial-temporal dispersion by two continuum collections of three dimensional harmonic oscillators, a fully canonical quantization of the electromagnetic field is demonstrated in the presence of such a medium. Some coupling tensors of various ranks are introduced that couple the magnetodielectric medium with the electromagnetic field. The polarization and magnetization fields of the medium are defined in terms of the coupling tensors and the oscillators modeling the medium. The electric and magnetic susceptibility tensors of the medium are obtained in terms of the coupling tensors. It is shown that the electric field satisfy an integral equation in frequency domain. The integral equation is solved by an iteration method and the electric field is found up to an arbitrary accuracy.

  8. Proposed Plan for the R-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pits (643-8G, -9G, -10G) and R-Area Unknown Pits No.1, No.2, No.3 (RUNK-1, -2, -3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mundy, S.

    2002-07-31

    The purpose of this proposed plan is to describe the preferred remedial alternative for the R-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pits (R BPOPs) and the R-Area Unknowns (RUNKs) operable unit (OU) and to provide for public involvement in the decision-making process.

  9. High resolution laser spectroscopy of cesium and rubidium molecules with optically induced coherence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hui

    2006-10-30

    This work is devoted to the study of the quantum coherent effects in diatomic molecular systems by using high resolution laser spectroscopy. In particular, we have studied the rubidium diatomic molecular gaseous medium's ...

  10. Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Building Operations and Weather for a Medium-Size Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    by Building Operations and Weather for a Medium-Size OfficeHVAC systems, (3) actual weather, (4) variations in buildingconsumption due to actual weather and building operational

  11. Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low carbon electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon electricity generation: A technical note Robert Gross Ausilio Bauen ICEPT October 2005 #12;Alternative fuels for transport and electricity generation: A technical note on costs and cost projections ................................................................................................................. 3 Current and projected medium-term costs of electricity generating technologies....... 4 Biofuels

  12. NOISE SOURCE LOCALIZATION IN AN ATTENUATING MEDIUM HABIB AMMARI, ELIE BRETIN, JOSSELIN GARNIER, AND ABDUL WAHAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnier, Josselin

    NOISE SOURCE LOCALIZATION IN AN ATTENUATING MEDIUM HABIB AMMARI, ELIE BRETIN, JOSSELIN GARNIER of noise sources from boundary measurements using cross correlation techniques. We consider media where the noise sources are spatially correlated. We present numerical results to show the viability

  13. The electromagneto-acoustic surface wave in a piezoelectric medium: The BleusteinGulyaev mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Shaofan

    The electromagneto-acoustic surface wave in a piezoelectric medium: The Bleustein­Gulyaev mode electromagneto-acoustic surface wave mode in a class of piezoelectric media. As the wave speed is much less than­Gulyaev wave. The Bleustein­Gulyaev BG sur- face wave is an unique result in the repertoire of surface acoustic

  14. One-way wave-equation migration of compressional and converted waves in a VTI medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ursin, Bjørn

    One-way wave-equation migration of compressional and converted waves in a VTI medium Ørjan Pedersen- sure and shear-wave reflections, one can increase the amount of information obtained about the subsur- face than by recording pressure waves alone. Geo- logic structures which are not visible by using con

  15. Calculation of higher moments of the neutron multiplication process in a time-varying medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    Available online 20 April 2007 Abstract The zero-power reactor noise theory in a steady neutron multiplying back to the late 1940's. The mathematical method mainly used in the zero-power reactor noise theory such as a power reactor, the nuclear properties of multiplying mediums, in which the transport

  16. Selecting a Green Roof Medium for Water Quality Benefits Brett Long, S. ASCE1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Selecting a Green Roof Medium for Water Quality Benefits Brett Long, S. ASCE1 ; Shirley E. Clark, F: rdb4@psu.edu ABSTRACT Green roofs are a best management practice for urban areas where land roofs that will improve roof runoff quality while maintaining the known water retention benefits

  17. Visualizing Multiphase Flow and Trapped Fluid Configurations in a Model Three-Dimensional Porous Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the Science of Light and Center for Medical Physics and Technology, Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg, Erlangen-scale resolution. Using confocal microscopy, we directly image the drainage of the medium by the nonwetting oil and subsequent imbibition by the wetting fluid. During imbibition, the wetting fluid pinches off threads of oil

  18. USC/ISI TECHNICAL REPORT ISITR567, JANUARY 2003 1 Medium Access Control with Coordinated,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidemann, John

    USC/ISI TECHNICAL REPORT ISI­TR­567, JANUARY 2003 1 Medium Access Control with Coordinated and a grant from the Intel Cor­ poration. W. Ye (weiye@isi.edu) and J. Heidemann (johnh@isi.edu) are with the Information Sciences Institute (ISI), University of Southern California (USC). D. Estrin (destrin

  19. An Experimental Study of Oil Secondary Migration in a Three Dimensional Tilted Porous Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toussaint, Renaud

    . With the buoyancy as a primary driven force, a vertical cylindrical shape of oil migration pathway was observedAn Experimental Study of Oil Secondary Migration in a Three Dimensional Tilted Porous Medium secondary migration under an impermeable inclined cap. Light colored oil was released continuously at a slow

  20. A one-dimensional model of vertical gas plume migration through a heterogeneous porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    A one-dimensional model of vertical gas plume migration through a heterogeneous porous medium Buoyancy Countercurrent flow Plume migration a b s t r a c t This work is motivated by the growing interest or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leakage from primary storage. Even

  1. Axisymmetrical separator for separating particulate matter from a fluid carrying medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linhardt, Hans D. (Newport Beach, CA)

    1984-09-04

    A separator for separating particles carried in a fluid carrying medium is disclosed. The separator includes an elongated duct and associated openings incorporated in a solid body. The duct is axisymmetrical relative to its longitudinal axis, and includes a curved wall portion having a curved cross-section taken along the longitudinal axis. An axisymmetrical opening located downstream of the curved wall portion leads from the duct into an axisymmetrical channel which is substantially radially disposed relative to the longitudinal axis. Continuation of the duct downstream of the opening is a discharge portion which is substantially colinear with the longitudinal axis. In operation, a substantial majority of the fluid carrying medium leaves the duct radially through the opening and channel in a state substantially free of particles. A remaining small portion of the fluid carrying medium and a substantial majority of the particles are channelled into the discharge portion by centrifugal forces arising due to travel of the particles along the curved walls. For industrial scale separation of particles from a fluid carrying medium, such as for the clean-up of stack gases, an array of several hundred to several thousand of the separators is provided.

  2. Real Time Voice Transmission Darshana Shah Real Time Voice transmission over Wireless medium using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Chansu

    to 300+ MHz Receiver #12;Real Time Voice Transmission Darshana Shah - 3 - LFTX -- DC-30 MHz TransmitterReal Time Voice Transmission Darshana Shah - 1 - Real Time Voice transmission over Wireless medium Yu 06/07/2009 #12;Real Time Voice Transmission Darshana Shah - 2 - Abstract My project is to transmit

  3. DOES ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY ENABLE THE UPTAKE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 DOES ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY ENABLE THE UPTAKE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN SOUTH AFRICA? G to electricity. The socio-political benefits of the national electrification programme are documented. Variation in electrification rates among households seems correlated with SMME uptake, but the nature

  4. In-medium effects for nuclear matter in the Fermi energy domain D. Durand,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    In-medium effects for nuclear matter in the Fermi energy domain O. Lopez,1 D. Durand,1 G. Lehaut,1 of nuclear reactions in the Fermi energy domain. I. INTRODUCTION Transport properties in nuclear matter energy domain, transport features should exhibit the in- terplay between mean-field (nuclear degrees

  5. An exact solution for the Casimir force in a spherically symmetric medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulf Leonhardt; William M. R. Simpson

    2011-07-03

    We calculated the force of the quantum vacuum, the Casimir force, in a spherically symmetric medium, Maxwell's fish eye, surrounded by a perfect mirror and derived an exact analytic solution. Our solution questions the idea that the Casimir force of a spherical mirror is repulsive - we found an attractive force that diverges at the mirror.

  6. Physical Channel Characterization for Medium-Range Nano-Networks using Flagellated Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Physical Channel Characterization for Medium-Range Nano-Networks using Flagellated Bacteria Maria-µm): flagellated bacteria. This tech- nique is based on the transport of DNA-encoded information between emit- ters-machines. Keywords: Nano-networks; Molecular Communication; Flagellated Bacteria; DNA Packet; Propagation delay

  7. Supplementation of canine oocyte in vitro maturation medium with progesterone, somatotropin, and epidermal growth factor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willingham-Rocky, Lauri Ann

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess meiotic resumption of canine oocytes in vitro in response to medium supplemented with either progesterone (P?), somatotropin (ST), and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF). A mono-phasic in vitro maturation (IVM...

  8. Method for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations, medium for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wasserman, Stephen R. (Darien, IL); Anderson, Kenneth B. (Lisle, IL); Song, Kang (Woodridge, IL); Yuchs, Steven E. (Naperville, IL); Marshall, Christopher L. (Naperville, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A method for encapsulating hazardous cations is provided comprising supplying a pretreated substrate containing the cations; contacting the substrate with an organo-silane compound to form a coating on the substrate; and allowing the coating to cure. A medium for containing hazardous cations is also provided, comprising a substrate having ion-exchange capacity and a silane-containing coating on the substrate.

  9. PASSIVE SENSOR IMAGING USING CROSS CORRELATIONS OF NOISY SIGNALS IN A SCATTERING MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnier, Josselin

    PASSIVE SENSOR IMAGING USING CROSS CORRELATIONS OF NOISY SIGNALS IN A SCATTERING MEDIUM JOSSELIN's function between two passive sensors can be estimated from the cross correlation of recorded signal source region. We extend this analysis to passive sensor imaging of reflectors with different ambient

  10. Circumferential creeping waves around a fluid-filled cylindrical cavity in an elastic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    of fluid fuel trapped in these rather small approximately 6­7 mm in diameter holes would strongly affectCircumferential creeping waves around a fluid-filled cylindrical cavity in an elastic medium Waled The dispersion behavior of circumferential creeping waves around a fluid-filled cylindrical cavity in an infinite

  11. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2010-09-28

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  12. Supplemental Grant Request to Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    1 Supplemental Grant Request to Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University Manager: Dr. Ted Barnes Abstract This is a supplemental grant request to support a joint University) #12;2 1 Plan of Work This is a supplemental grant request to support a joint University of Richmond

  13. Capillary pressure in a porous medium with distinct pore surface and pore volume fractal dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deinert, Mark

    Capillary pressure in a porous medium with distinct pore surface and pore volume fractal dimensions been substantiated by assuming that capillary pressure is directly related to the pore radius. When capillary pressure and pore volume are directly propor- tional to the pore radius. If a system's pore space

  14. Android as a Telecommunication Medium with a Human-like Presence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanda, Takayuki

    Android as a Telecommunication Medium with a Human-like Presence Daisuke Sakamoto1&2 , Takayuki, we realize human telepresence by developing a remote-controlled android system called Geminoid HI-1 the android than when he appeared on a video monitor in a video conference system. In addition, participants

  15. Medium-Speed Drivetrain Test Report: September 1, 2002 -- December 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walford, C.; Lybarger, K.; Lettenmaier, T.; Roberts, D.

    2012-09-01

    This report describes the tests conducted by researchers at the National Wind Technology Center at NREL on a 1.5-MW integrated drivetrain consisting of a single-stage, epicyclic gearbox and close-coupled medium-speed permanent-magnet generator.

  16. Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide for Small and Medium Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-12-21

    The guide supports consistent and effective implementation of DOE O 415.1 and assists IT Project Managers in effectively managing and applying sound project management to IT projects of small and medium size. Does not cancel/supersede other directives.

  17. ORNL/TM-2012/240 Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Tim LaClair, Alan Barker, Helmut Knee #12;DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1 Lascurain Oscar Franzese Gary Capps Adam Siekmann Neil Thomas Tim LaClair Alan Barker Helmut Knee DateORNL/TM-2012/240 Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Final

  18. Contention-Free Periodic Message Scheduler Medium Access Control in Wireless Sensor / Actuator Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barua, Rajeev

    , and chemical content to enable precise application of agents such as water, fertilizer, and pesticideContention-Free Periodic Message Scheduler Medium Access Control in Wireless Sensor / Actuator implemented with a contention-free message scheduler. A message scheduler is used to determine which message

  19. Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Regulations while Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Turbines Incorporated is a leading manufacturer of industrial gas turbine packages for the power generation- bility for the introduction of new combustion systems for gas turbine products to enhance fuel

  20. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  1. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  2. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  3. Design principle and calculations of a Scheffler fixed focus concentrator for medium temperature applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munir, A.; Hensel, O. [Department of Agricultural Engineering,University of Kassel, Nordbahnhofstr. 1 a 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Scheffler, W. [Solar Bruecke G.v.Werdenbergstr.6 D-89344 Aislingen (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Scheffler fixed focus concentrators are successfully used for medium temperature applications in different parts of the world. These concentrators are taken as lateral sections of paraboloids and provide fixed focus away from the path of incident beam radiations throughout the year. The paper presents a complete description about the design principle and construction details of an 8 m{sup 2} surface area Scheffler concentrator. The first part of the paper presents the mathematical calculations to design the reflector parabola curve and reflector elliptical frame with respect to equinox (solar declination = 0) by selecting a specific lateral part of a paraboloid. Crossbar equations and their ellipses, arc lengths and their radii are also calculated to form the required lateral section of the paraboloid. Thereafter, the seasonal parabola equations are calculated for two extreme positions of summer and winter in the northern hemisphere (standing reflectors). The slopes of the parabola equations for equinox (solar declination = 0), summer (solar declination = +23.5) and winter (solar declination = -23.5) for the Scheffler reflector (8 m{sup 2} surface area) are calculated to be 0.17, 0.28, and 0.13 respectively. The y-intercepts of the parabola equations for equinox, summer and winter are calculated as 0, 0.54, and -0.53 respectively. By comparing with the equinox parabola curve, the summer parabola is found to be smaller in size and uses the top part of the parabola curve while the winter parabola is bigger in size and uses the lower part of the parabola curve to give the fixed focus. For this purpose, the reflector assembly is composed of flexible crossbars and a frame to induce the required change of the parabola curves with the changing solar declination. The paper also presents the calculation procedure of seasonal parabola equations for standing reflectors in the southern hemisphere as well as for laying reflectors in the northern and southern hemispheres. Highly reflective aluminium sheets are used on the crossbar profiles to complete the concentrator. The reflector is installed at the required site by setting its axis of rotation at an angle equal to the latitude of the site. For daily tracking, these concentrators rotate along an axis parallel to the polar axis of the earth at an angular velocity of one revolution per day with the help of simpler and cheaper self-tracking devices. For seasonal tracking, the reflector rotates at half the solar declination angle with the help of a telescopic clamp mechanism. The design procedure is simple, flexible and does not need any special computational setup, thus offering the prospect of potential application in domestic as well as industrial configurations. (author)

  4. Polymeric medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-03-06

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  5. HACK: Hierarchical ACKs for Efficient Wireless Medium Utilization Lynne Salameh, Astrit Zhushi, Mark Handley, Kyle Jamieson, Brad Karp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handley, Mark

    HACK: Hierarchical ACKs for Efficient Wireless Medium Utilization Lynne Salameh, Astrit Zhushi acquisition overhead for TCP ACKs. In this paper, we propose TCP/HACK (Hierarchical AC- Knowledgment in unidirectional TCP flows, TCP/HACK significantly improves medium utilization, and thus significantly in- creases

  6. Transmission Channel Model and Capacity of Overhead Multi-conductor Medium-Voltage Power-lines for Broadband Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavehrad, Mohsen

    Transmission Channel Model and Capacity of Overhead Multi-conductor Medium-Voltage Power-lines signal transmission, power-line has many non-ideal properties as a communications medium. Impedance-voltage power distribution networks for broadband power-line communications applications. Keywords - channel

  7. THE ABUNDANCE OF CARBON DIOXIDE ICE IN THE QUIESCENT INTRACLOUD MEDIUM D. C. B. Whittet,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerakines, Perry

    THE ABUNDANCE OF CARBON DIOXIDE ICE IN THE QUIESCENT INTRACLOUD MEDIUM D. C. B. Whittet,1,2 S. S: ISM: lines and bands -- ISM: molecules 1. INTRODUCTION Carbon dioxide (CO2) has proven to be a common in the cold, quiescent regions of molecular clouds, i.e., in the ``intracloud medium'' (ICM), remote from

  8. The Fracture Toughness of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) Including the Effects of Fiber Bridging and Crack-Plane Interference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    1 The Fracture Toughness of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) Including the Effects of Fiber Bridging University, Corvallis, OR, USA Abstract The fracture toughness of medium density fiberboard (MDF) as a function of crack length (R curve) was measured. Fracture toughness was determined from force

  9. The $E1$ & $M1$ Spontaneous Decay Rates for an Emitter Inside a Cavity Within a Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the $E1$ and $M1$ spontaneous decay rates of the an emitter residing inside of a real cavity carved out of a vast, uniform, homogenous, isotropic, linear, lossless, dispersionless, and continuous medium. The ratio of the medium rate to vacuum rate is given by $\\Gamma_m/\\Gamma_0 = [G(u)]^2 n^3 / u$, where $G(u) = 3u/(2u+1)$ is the local field correction factor, $n = \\sqrt{\\epsilon\\mu/(\\epsilon_0\\mu_0)}$ is the index of refraction of the medium, $\\epsilon(\\epsilon_0)$ is the electric permitivity of the medium (vacuum), $\\mu(\\mu_0)$ is the magnetic permeability of the medium (vacuum), and $u = \\epsilon/\\epsilon_0$ for $E1$ transitions or $u = \\mu_0/\\mu$ for $M1$ transitions.

  10. On the Future High Energy Colliders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    High energy particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). A number of the next generation collider facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium and far-future of accelerator-based high energy physics. In this paper we offer a uniform approach to evaluation of various accelerators based on the feasibility of their energy reach, performance potential and cost range.

  11. On the Future High Energy Colliders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Shiltsev

    2015-09-28

    High energy particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). A number of the next generation collider facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium and far-future of accelerator-based high energy physics. In this paper we offer a uniform approach to evaluation of various accelerators based on the feasibility of their energy reach, performance potential and cost range.

  12. Calculating alpha Eigenvalues in a Continuous-Energy Infinite Medium with Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betzler, Benjamin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiedrowski, Brian C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-04

    The {alpha} eigenvalue has implications for time-dependent problems where the system is sub- or supercritical. We present methods and results from calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum for a continuous-energy infinite medium with a simplified Monte Carlo transport code. We formulate the {alpha}-eigenvalue problem, detail the Monte Carlo code physics, and provide verification and results. We have a method for calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum in a continuous-energy infinite-medium. The continuous-time Markov process described by the transition rate matrix provides a way of obtaining the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum and kinetic modes. These are useful for the approximation of the time dependence of the system.

  13. Quantum optical effective-medium theory for loss-compensated metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehsan Amooghorban; N. Asger Mortensen; Martijn Wubs

    2013-03-13

    A central aim in metamaterial research is to engineer sub-wavelength unit cells that give rise to desired effective-medium properties and parameters, such as a negative refractive index. Ideally one can disregard the details of the unit cell and employ the effective description instead. A popular strategy to compensate for the inevitable losses in metallic components of metamaterials is to add optical gain material. Here we study the quantum optics of such loss-compensated metamaterials at frequencies for which effective parameters can be unambiguously determined. We demonstrate that the usual effective parameters are insufficient to describe the propagation of quantum states of light. Furthermore, we propose a quantum-optical effective-medium theory instead and show that it correctly predicts the properties of the light emerging from loss-compensated metamaterials.

  14. Navier-Stokes equation describes the movement of a special superfluid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valeriy I. Sbitnev

    2015-04-28

    The Navier-Stokes equation contains two terms which have been subjected to slight modification: (a) the viscosity term depends of time (the viscosity in average on time is zero, but its variance is nonzero); (b) the pressure gradient contains an added term describing the entropy gradient multiplied by the pressure. Owing to these modifications, the Navier-Stokes equation can be reduced to the Schr\\"odinger equation describing behavior of a particle into the vacuum, where the vacuum is a superfluid medium. Vortex structures arising in this medium show infinitely long life owing to zero average viscosity. The nonzero variance describes exchange of the vortex energy with zero-point energy of the vacuum. Radius of the vortex trembles around some average value. This observation sheds the light to the Zitterbewegung phenomenon. The vortex has a non-zero core where the vortex velocity vanishes. Its organization is discussed with the point of view of the Calabi-Yau manifold.

  15. Navier-Stokes equation describes the movement of a special superfluid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sbitnev, Valeriy I

    2015-01-01

    The Navier-Stokes equation contains two terms which have been subjected to slight modification: (a) the viscosity term depends of time (the viscosity in average on time is zero, but its variance is nonzero); (b) the pressure gradient contains an added term describing the entropy gradient multiplied by the pressure. Owing to these modifications, the Navier-Stokes equation can be reduced to the Schr\\"odinger equation describing behavior of a particle into the vacuum, where the vacuum is a superfluid medium. Vortex structures arising in this medium show infinitely long life owing to zero average viscosity. The nonzero variance describes exchange of the vortex energy with zero-point energy of the vacuum. Radius of the vortex trembles around some average value. This observation sheds the light to the Zitterbewegung phenomenon. The vortex has a non-zero core where the vortex velocity vanishes. Its organization is discussed with the point of view of the Calabi-Yau manifold.

  16. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  17. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  18. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  19. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Das, Amita; Patel, Bhavesh G. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Angom, Dilip [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

    2012-07-15

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in the context of strongly coupled dusty plasma medium has been investigated. In particular, the role of transverse shear and the compressional acoustic modes in both the linear and nonlinear regimes of the KH instability has been studied. It is observed that in addition to the conventional nonlocal KH instability, there exists a local instability in the strong coupling case. The interplay of the KH mode with this local instability shows up in the simulations as an interesting phenomenon of recurrence in the nonlinear regime. Thus, a cyclic KH instability process is observed to occur. These cyclic events are associated with bursts of activity in terms of transverse and compressional wave generation in the medium.

  20. In-Medium Chiral Perturbation Theory and Pion Weak Decay in the Presence of Background Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchbach, M; Kirchbach, Mariana; Wirzba, Andreas

    1997-01-01

    Two-point functions related to the pion weak decay constant f_\\pi are calculated from the generating functional of chiral perturbation theory in the mean-field approximation and the heavy-baryon limit. The aim is to demonstrate that Lorentz invariance is violated in the presence of background matter. This fact manifests itself in the splitting of both f_\\pi and the pion mass into uncorrelated time- and spacelike parts. We emphasize the different in-medium renormalizations of the correlation functions, show the inequivalence between the in-medium values of f_\\pi deduced from Walecka-type models, on the one hand, and QCD sum rules, on the other hand, and elaborate on the importance for some nuclear physics observables.

  1. In-Medium Chiral Perturbation Theory and Pion Weak Decay in the Presence of Background Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariana Kirchbach; Andreas Wirzba

    1997-01-07

    Two-point functions related to the pion weak decay constant f_\\pi are calculated from the generating functional of chiral perturbation theory in the mean-field approximation and the heavy-baryon limit. The aim is to demonstrate that Lorentz invariance is violated in the presence of background matter. This fact manifests itself in the splitting of both f_\\pi and the pion mass into uncorrelated time- and spacelike parts. We emphasize the different in-medium renormalizations of the correlation functions, show the inequivalence between the in-medium values of f_\\pi deduced from Walecka-type models, on the one hand, and QCD sum rules, on the other hand, and elaborate on the importance for some nuclear physics observables.

  2. Hot Plasma Modes Across Reissner-Nordstrom de Sitter Horizon in a Veselago Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ifra Noureen; Hafiza Rizwana Kausar

    2015-09-11

    In this manuscript, wave attributes of hot plasma around Reissner- Nordstrom-de Sitter (RN-dS) metric in a Veselago medium are in- vestigated. General relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (GRMHD) equations in planar coordinates for the RN-dS horizon are reformulated by implementation of ADM 3+1 technique. Further, perturba- tion scheme is used to arrive at linearly perturbed GRMHD equations whose component form is used to attain dispersion relations for rotating (non-magnetized and magnetized) plasma. Wave propagation in hot plasma is explained by three dimensional graphical representation of the wave number, refractive index, its change with respect to angular velocity, phase and group velocities. Finally, comparison of wave properties is presented, results reassert the presence of Veselago medium.

  3. Hot Plasma Modes Across Reissner-Nordstrom de Sitter Horizon in a Veselago Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noureen, Ifra

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, wave attributes of hot plasma around Reissner- Nordstrom-de Sitter (RN-dS) metric in a Veselago medium are in- vestigated. General relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (GRMHD) equations in planar coordinates for the RN-dS horizon are reformulated by implementation of ADM 3+1 technique. Further, perturba- tion scheme is used to arrive at linearly perturbed GRMHD equations whose component form is used to attain dispersion relations for rotating (non-magnetized and magnetized) plasma. Wave propagation in hot plasma is explained by three dimensional graphical representation of the wave number, refractive index, its change with respect to angular velocity, phase and group velocities. Finally, comparison of wave properties is presented, results reassert the presence of Veselago medium.

  4. Comparative analysis of the secondary electron yield from carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verkhovtsev, Alexey; de Vera, Pablo; Surdutovich, Eugene; Guatelli, Susanna; Korol, Andrei V; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Solov'yov, Andrey V

    2015-01-01

    The production of secondary electrons generated by carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium irradiated by fast protons is studied by means of model approaches and Monte Carlo simulations. It is demonstrated that due to a prominent collective response to an external field, the nanoparticles embedded in the medium enhance the yield of low-energy electrons. The maximal enhancement is observed for electrons in the energy range where plasmons, which are excited in the nanoparticles, play the dominant role. Electron yield from a solid carbon nanoparticle composed of fullerite, a crystalline form of C60 fullerene, is demonstrated to be several times higher than that from liquid water. Decay of plasmon excitations in carbon-based nanosystems thus represents a mechanism of increase of the low-energy electron yield, similar to the case of sensitizing metal nanoparticles. This observation gives a hint for investigation of novel types of sensitizers to be composed of metallic and organic parts.

  5. Method for in situ characterization of a medium of dispersed matter in a continuous phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Eric N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A method for in situ characterization of a medium of a dispersed phase in a continuous phase, including the steps of adding a fluorescent dye to one phase capable of producing fluorescence therein when the fluorescent dye is optically excited, optically exciting the fluorescent dye at a wavelength to produce fluorescence in the one phase, and monitoring the fluorescence to distinguish the continuous phase from the dispersed phase.

  6. Scale effects on velocity dispersion: From ray to effective medium theories in stratified media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, D. (Elf Aquitaine, Pau (France)); Mukerji, T.; Mavko, G. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Rockphysics Lab.)

    1994-10-01

    Wave propagation in stratified media may be explained by ray theory, effective medium theory, or scattering theory depending on the scales of wavelength and layer spacing. To effectively integrate and use seismic data ate different frequencies and widely varying scales, it is essential to understand the domain of applicability of long and short wavelength behavior and the transition between them. A joint experimental and theoretical study was conducted to investigate velocity behavior at the transition from ray theory to effective medium theory in stratified media. Velocity measurements were performed at 50 and 500 kHz on periodic media composed of steel and plastic discs. The ratio of wavelength to layer spacing, [lambda]/d, spanned more than two orders of magnitude between 0.1 and 50, and the volume fraction of steel ranged from 9 to 89 percent by volume. The results confirm that velocities in stratified media depend on composition and are controlled by the ratio of wavelength to layer spacing. Velocities in the short wavelength limit are generally faster than velocities in the long wavelength limit. The authors find that transition from ray to effective medium approximations occurs over a narrow range of [lambda]/d at a value of approximately 10. The amount of velocity change increases with impedance contrast, but the value of [lambda]/d at the transition is generally independent of the composition of the stratified medium. The numerically simulated waveforms are in close agreement with the experimentally observed delayed first arrival in the long wavelength limit and with the reduced amplitudes at the transition from short to long wavelength regime.

  7. Method for in situ characterization of a medium of dispersed matter in a continuous phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, E.N.

    1995-03-07

    A method is described for the in situ characterization of a medium of a dispersed phase in a continuous phase, including the steps of adding a fluorescent dye to one phase capable of producing fluorescence therein when the fluorescent dye is optically excited, optically exciting the fluorescent dye at a wavelength to produce fluorescence in the one phase, and monitoring the fluorescence to distinguish the continuous phase from the dispersed phase. 2 figs.

  8. Method for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations, medium for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wasserman, S.R.; Anderson, K.B.; Song, K.; Yuchs, S.E.; Marshall, C.L.

    1998-04-28

    A method for encapsulating hazardous cations is provided comprising supplying a pretreated substrate containing the cations; contacting the substrate with an organo-silane compound to form a coating on the substrate; and allowing the coating to cure. A medium for containing hazardous cations is also provided, comprising a substrate having ion-exchange capacity and a silane-containing coating on the substrate. 3 figs.

  9. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2011-03-01

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in mixed-sugars medium comprising xylose, and, in particular, in the presence of acetate.

  10. A Collaborative Model for a Sustainable Management System for Energy at Small to Medium Industrial Enterprises 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imel, M.; Gromacki, M.; Magoon, D.

    2009-01-01

    Model for a Sustainable Management System for Energy at Small to Medium Industrial Enterprises Mark Imel Technical Manager ? Energy Services Burns & McDonnell Kansas City, MO Michael Gromacki Vice President ? Engineering and Loss Control Cook.... CCP considers ANSI/MSE 2000:2008 as the framework for a sustainable energy management system to provide triple bottom line economic, environmental and societal benefits. CCP continues to improve their Energy Intensity Index, eco- efficiency...

  11. Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecial ReportProposal to change FacRepMeasuring OFFICEMedium BaseMedium and

  12. Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecial ReportProposal to change FacRepMeasuring OFFICEMedium BaseMedium

  13. Light pressure on a solid body immersed in a liquid medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Vyacheslav P; Rukhadze, Anri A [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-30

    We have solved the problem about the force with which an electromagnetic pulse in a liquid (or gaseous) medium at rest affects a solid body (also at rest) immersed in it. We have shown that under certain conditions (relating to the characteristics of the medium and the pulse shape), the formula for the force exerted per unit area of a body surface is obtained from the Landau - Lifshitz equations for static fields in the same way as, according to Pitaevskii, the field stress tensor is obtained from the static field stress tensor with the dispersion taken into account. The formula for the force acting on the wall, from which an incident quasi-monochromatic plane wave with a given intensity is reflected, differs from the corresponding formula for the case when the body is in a vacuum by the factor {+-}n{sub 1}, where n{sub 1} is the refractive index, and the upper (lower) sign corresponds to a positive (negative) group velocity of the wave in the medium. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. Radio-wave propagation in the non-Gaussian interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanislav Boldyrev; Carl R. Gwinn

    2005-08-02

    Radio waves propagating from distant pulsars in the interstellar medium (ISM), are refracted by electron density inhomogeneities, so that the intensity of observed pulses fluctuates with time. The theory relating the observed pulse time-shapes to the electron-density correlation function has developed for 30 years, however, two puzzles have remained. First, observational scaling of pulse broadening with the pulsar distance is anomalously strong; it is consistent with the standard model only when non-uniform statistics of electron fluctuations along the line of sight are assumed. Second, the observed pulse shapes are consistent with the standard model only when the scattering material is concentrated in a narrow slab between the pulsar and the Earth. We propose that both paradoxes are resolved at once if one assumes stationary and uniform, but non-Gaussian statistics of the electron-density distribution. Such statistics must be of Levy type, and the propagating ray should exhibit a Levy flight. We propose that a natural realization of such statistics may be provided by the interstellar medium with random electron-density discontinuities. We develop a theory of wave propagation in such a non-Gaussian random medium, and demonstrate its good agreement with observations. The qualitative introduction of the approach and the resolution of the anomalous-scaling paradox was presented earlier in [PRL 91, 131101 (2003); ApJ 584, 791 (2003)].

  15. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  16. Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project for Small and Medium Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Janie; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Chiu, Albert K.; Kellow, Bashar; Koch, Ed; Lipkin, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Small and medium commercial customers in California make up about 20-25% of electric peak load in California. With the roll out of smart meters to this customer group, which enable granular measurement of electricity consumption, the investor-owned utilities will offer dynamic prices as default tariffs by the end of 2011. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, which successfully deployed Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) Programs to its large commercial and industrial customers, started investigating the same infrastructures application to the small and medium commercial customers. This project aims to identify available technologies suitable for automating demand response for small-medium commercial buildings; to validate the extent to which that technology does what it claims to be able to do; and determine the extent to which customers find the technology useful for DR purpose. Ten sites, enabled by eight vendors, participated in at least four test AutoDR events per site in the summer of 2010. The results showed that while existing technology can reliably receive OpenADR signals and translate them into pre-programmed response strategies, it is likely that better levels of load sheds could be obtained than what is reported here if better understanding of the building systems were developed and the DR response strategies had been carefully designed and optimized for each site.

  17. Pathological scattering by a defect in a slow-light medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen P. Shipman; Aaron T. Welters

    2014-10-04

    Scattering of electromagnetic fields by a defect layer embedded in a slow-light periodically layered ambient medium exhibits phenomena markedly different from typical scattering problems. In a slow-light medium, constructed by Figotin and Vitebskiy, the energy velocity of a propagating mode in one direction slows to zero, creating a "frozen mode" at a single frequency within a pass band, where the dispersion relation possesses a flat inflection point. The slow-light regime is characterized by a $3\\!\\times\\!3$ Jordan block of the log of the $4\\!\\times\\!4$ monodromy matrix for EM fields in a periodic medium at special frequency and parallel wavevector. The scattering problem breaks down as the 2D rightward and leftward mode spaces intersect in the frozen mode and therefore span only a 3D subspace $\\mathring V$ of the 4D space of EM fields. Analysis of pathological scattering near the slow-light frequency and wavevector is based on the interaction between the flux-unitary transfer matrix $T$ across the defect layer and the projections to the rightward and leftward spaces, which blow up as Laurent-Puiseux series. Two distinct cases emerge: the generic, non-resonant case when $T$ does not map $\\mathring V$ to itself and the quadratically growing mode is excited; and the resonant case, when $\\mathring V$ is invariant under $T$ and a guided frozen mode is resonantly excited.

  18. Possible relevance of softening of sigma meson to $\\eta$ decay into 3$\\pi$ in nuclear medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakai, Shuntaro

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role for the softening of the scalar-isoscalar (sigma) meson in the $\\eta\\rightarrow\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ and $3\\pi^0$ decay widths in the symmetric nuclear medium using a linear sigma model. Our calculation shows that these decay widths in the nuclear medium increase by up to a factor of four to ten compared with those in the free space mainly depending on the mass of the sigma meson in the free space which is an input parameter of the model. The enhancements are considerable even at a half of the normal nuclear density. Thus, the $\\eta$ decay into $3\\pi$ can be a new possible probe for the chiral restoration in the nuclear medium. We find that the density dependence of the $\\eta\\rightarrow3\\pi^0$ decay is moderate in comparison with that of the $\\eta\\rightarrow\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ although the former width is greater than the latter one at a given density: This is because the softening of the sigma meson causes the cancellation of the terms appearing from the Bose symmetry in the $\\eta\\rightarrow3...

  19. Line-of-Sight Reddening Predictions: Zero Points, Accuracies, the Interstellar Medium, and the Stellar Populations of Elliptical Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Burstein

    2003-08-04

    Revised (B-V)_0-Mg_2 data for 402 elliptical galaxies are given to test reddening predictions which can also tell us both what the intrinsic errors are in this relationship among gE galaxy stellar populations, as well as details of nearby structure in the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy and of the intrinsic errors in reddening predictions. Using least-squares fits, the explicit 1-sigma errors in the Burstein-Heiles (BH) and the Schlegel et al. (IR) predicted reddenings are calculated, as well as the 1-sigma observational error in the (B-V)_0-Mg_2 for gE galaxies. It is found that, in directions with E(B-V)= 0.100 mag, significantly better than those of the BH predictions (0.024-0.025). Gas-to-dust variations that vary by a factor of 3, both high and low, exist along many lines-of-sight in our Galaxy. The approx 0.02 higher reddening zero point in E(B-V) previously determined by Schlegel et al. is confirmed, primarily at the Galactic poles. Despite this, both methods also predict many directions with E(B-V)<0.015 mag. Independent evidence of reddening at the North Galactic pole is reviewed, with the conclusion that there still exists directions at the NGP that have E(B-V)<<0.01. Two lines of evidence suggest that IR reddenings are overpredicted in directions with high gas-to-dust ratios. As high gas-to-dust directions in the ISM also include the Galactic poles, this overprediction is the likely cause of the E(B-V) = 0.02 mag larger IR reddening zero point.

  20. THE COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION AND CONTINUUM OPACITY OF THE INTERGALACTIC AND CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM AT REDSHIFT (z) = 2.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudie, Gwen C.; Steidel, Charles C. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shapley, Alice E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States); Pettini, Max, E-mail: gwen@astro.caltech.edu [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-01

    We present new high-precision measurements of the opacity of the intergalactic and circumgalactic medium (IGM; CGM) at (z) = 2.4. Using Voigt profile fits to the full Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} forests in 15 high-resolution high-S/N spectra of hyperluminous QSOs, we make the first statistically robust measurement of the frequency of absorbers with H I column densities 14{approx}< log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2}){approx}<17.2. We also present the first measurements of the frequency distribution of H I absorbers in the volume surrounding high-z galaxies (the CGM, 300 pkpc), finding that the incidence of absorbers in the CGM is much higher than in the IGM. In agreement with Rudie et al., we find that there are fractionally more high-N{sub H{sub I}} absorbers than low-N{sub H{sub I}} absorbers in the CGM compared to the IGM, leading to a shallower power law fit to the CGM frequency distribution. We use these new measurements to calculate the total opacity of the IGM and CGM to hydrogen-ionizing photons, finding significantly higher opacity than most previous studies, especially from absorbers with log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2}) < 17.2. Reproducing the opacity measured in our data as well as the incidence of absorbers with log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2})>17.2 requires a broken power law parameterization of the frequency distribution with a break near N{sub H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. We compute new estimates of the mean free path ({lambda}{sub mfp}) to hydrogen-ionizing photons at z{sub em} = 2.4, finding {lambda}{sub mfp} = 147 {+-} 15 Mpc when considering only IGM opacity. If instead, we consider photons emanating from a high-z star-forming galaxy and account for the local excess opacity due to the surrounding CGM of the galaxy itself, the mean free path is reduced to {lambda}{sub mfp} = 121 {+-} 15 Mpc. These {lambda}{sub mfp} measurements are smaller than recent estimates and should inform future studies of the metagalactic UV background and of ionizing sources at z Almost-Equal-To 2-3.

  1. Space-frequency correlation of classical waves in disordered media: High-frequency and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fannjiang, Albert

    OFFPRINT Space-frequency correlation of classical waves in disordered media: High-frequency in disordered media: High-frequency and small-scale asymptotics A. C. Fannjiang Department of Mathematics-band high- frequency fields can be appreciably affected by small random changes of the medium parameters

  2. Time-domain simulation of ultrasound propagation in a tissue-like medium based on the resolution of the nonlinear acoustic constitutive relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiménez, Noé; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Hou, Yi; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-01-01

    A time-domain numerical code based on the constitutive relations of nonlinear acoustics for simulating ultrasound propagation is presented. To model frequency power law attenuation, such as observed in biological media, multiple relaxation processes are included and relaxation parameters are fitted to both exact frequency power law attenuation and empirically measured attenuation of a variety of tissues that does not fit an exact power law. A computational technique based on artificial relaxation is included to correct the non-negligible numerical dispersion of the numerical method and to improve stability when shock waves are present. This technique avoids the use of high order finite difference schemes, leading to fast calculations. The numerical code is especially suitable to study high intensity and focused axisymmetric acoustic beams in tissue-like medium, as it is based on the full constitutive relations that overcomes the limitations of the parabolic approximations, while some specific effects not cont...

  3. On conversion of high-frequency soliton solutions to a (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuetche Kamgang Victor; Bouetou Bouetou Thomas; Kofane Timoleon Crepin

    2007-09-13

    We derive a (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation (NLE) which may model the propagation of high-frequency perturbations in a relaxing medium. As a result, this equation may possess three typical solutions depending on a dissipative parameter.

  4. Transfers of user process innovations to process equipment producers: A study of Dutch high-tech firms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Jong, Jeroen P. J.

    A detailed survey of 498 high technology small and medium-sized enterprises in the Netherlands shows process innovation by user firms to be common practice. Fifty-four percent of these firms reported developing entirely ...

  5. Hadron-hadron correlations at low and high $p_T$ in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Majumder

    2007-03-12

    The modification of two particle correlations within a jet due to its propagation through dense strongly interacting matter is explored. Different properties of the medium may be probed by varying the momentum of the detected hadrons. Very high transverse momentum ($p_T$) correlations sample the gluon density of the medium; the minimal modification on the same side as the trigger is consistent with the picture and parameters of partonic energy loss. Lower momentum hadrons, sensitive to the presence of composite structures in the medium may excite collective modes such as Cherenkov radiation, resulting in conical patterns in the detected correlations.

  6. Helices in High Dimensional Regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ker-Chau Li

    2011-01-01

    of "Sliced inverse regression." J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 86C. (1992). Measurement error regression with unknown link:a projection-pursuit type regression model. Ann. Statist. 19

  7. Type IIn supernovae as sources of high energy neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zirakashvili, V N

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that high-energy astrophysical neutrinos observed in the IceCube experiment can be produced by protons accelerated in extragalactic Type IIn supernova remnants by shocks propagating in the dense circumstellar medium. The nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration model is used for description of particle acceleration.

  8. Device for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A system for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser. As the laser medium flows past the optical excitation source and the fluid warms its index of refraction changes creating an optical wedge. A system is provided for correcting the thermally induced optical phase errors.

  9. Effects of Ram-Pressure from Intracluster Medium on the Star Formation Rate of Disk Galaxies in Clusters of Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yutaka Fujita; Masahiro Nagashima

    1998-12-21

    Using a simple model of molecular cloud evolution, we have quantitatively estimated the change of star formation rate (SFR) of a disk galaxy falling radially into the potential well of a cluster of galaxies. The SFR is affected by the ram-pressure from the intracluster medium (ICM). As the galaxy approaches the cluster center, the SFR increases to twice the initial value, at most, in a cluster with high gas density and deep potential well, or with a central pressure of $\\sim 10^{-2} cm^{-3} keV$ because the ram-pressure compresses the molecular gas of the galaxy. However, this increase does not affect the color of the galaxy significantly. Further into the central region of the cluster ($\\lesssim 1$ Mpc from the center), the SFR of the disk component drops rapidly due to the effect of ram-pressure stripping. This makes the color of the galaxy redder and makes the disk dark. These effects may explain the observed color, morphology distribution and evolution of galaxies in high-redshift clusters. By contrast, in a cluster with low gas density and shallow potential well, or the central pressure of $\\sim 10^{-3} cm^{-3} keV$, the SFR of a radially infalling galaxy changes less significantly, because neither ram-pressure compression nor stripping is effective. Therefore, the color of galaxies in poor clusters is as blue as that of field galaxies, if other environmental effects such as galaxy-galaxy interaction are not effective. The predictions of the model are compared with observations.

  10. DRIVING OUTFLOWS WITH RELATIVISTIC JETS AND THE DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK EFFICIENCY ON INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM INHOMOGENEITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2012-10-01

    We examine the detailed physics of the feedback mechanism by relativistic active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets interacting with a two-phase fractal interstellar medium (ISM) in the kpc-scale core of galaxies using 29 three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations. The feedback efficiency, as measured by the amount of cloud dispersal generated by the jet-ISM interactions, is sensitive to the maximum size of clouds in the fractal cloud distribution but not to their volume filling factor. Feedback ceases to be efficient for Eddington ratios P{sub jet}/L{sub edd} {approx}< 10{sup -4}, although systems with large cloud complexes {approx}> 50 pc require jets of Eddington ratio in excess of 10{sup -2} to disperse the clouds appreciably. Based on measurements of the bubble expansion rates in our simulations, we argue that sub-grid AGN prescriptions resulting in negative feedback in cosmological simulations without a multi-phase treatment of the ISM are good approximations if the volume filling factor of warm-phase material is less than 0.1 and the cloud complexes are smaller than {approx}25 pc. We find that the acceleration of the dense embedded clouds is provided by the ram pressure of the high-velocity flow through the porous channels of the warm phase, flow that has fully entrained the shocked hot-phase gas it has swept up, and is additionally mass loaded by ablated cloud material. This mechanism transfers 10% to 40% of the jet energy to the cold and warm gas, accelerating it within a few 10 to 100 Myr to velocities that match those observed in a range of high- and low-redshift radio galaxies hosting powerful radio jets.

  11. Soil CO2 flux and photoautotrophic community composition in high-elevation, `barren' soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    unclear how microbial communities in the subnival zone obtain the C and energy necessary to sustain life described as `barren', despite their potential to host photoau- totrophic microbial communities. In high and function of these photoautotrophic microbial commu- nities remains essentially unknown. We measured soil CO

  12. Study of in-medium $?^\\prime$ properties in the ($?$, ${?^\\prime}p$) reaction on nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Ya. Paryev

    2015-03-31

    We study the near-threshold photoproduction of $\\eta^\\prime$ mesons from nuclei in coincidence with forward going protons in the kinematical conditions of the Crystal Barrel/TAPS experiment, recently performed at ELSA. The calculations have been performed within a collision model based on the nuclear spectral function. The model accounts for both the primary ${\\gamma}p \\to {\\eta^\\prime}p$ process and the two-step intermediate nucleon rescattering processes as well as the effect of the nuclear $\\eta^\\prime$ mean-field potential. We calculate the exclusive $\\eta^\\prime$ kinetic energy distributions for the $^{12}$C($\\gamma$, ${\\eta^\\prime}p$) reaction for different scenarios of $\\eta^\\prime$ in-medium modification. We find that the considered two-step rescattering mechanism plays an insignificant role in ${\\eta^\\prime}p$ photoproduction off the carbon target. We also demonstrate that the calculated $\\eta^\\prime$ kinetic energy distributions in primary photon--proton ${\\eta^\\prime}p$ production reveal strong sensitivity to the depth of the real ${\\eta^\\prime}$ potential at normal nuclear matter density (or to the ${\\eta^\\prime}$ in-medium mass shift) in the studied incident photon energy regime. Therefore, such observables may be useful to help determine the above ${\\eta^\\prime}$ in-medium renormalization from the comparison of the results of our calculations with the data from the CBELSA/TAPS experiment. In addition, we show that these distributions are also strongly influenced by the momentum-dependent optical potential, which the outgoing participant proton feels inside the carbon nucleus. This potential should be taken into account in the analysis of these data with the aim to obtain information on the ${\\eta^\\prime}$ modification in cold nuclear matter.

  13. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  14. Value of medium range weather forecasts in the improvement of seasonal hydrologic prediction skill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Voisin, Nathalie; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-08-15

    We investigated the contribution of medium range weather forecasts with lead times up to 14 days to seasonal hydrologic prediction skill over the Conterminous United States (CONUS). Three different Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP)-based experiments were performed for the period 1980-2003 using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model to generate forecasts of monthly runoff and soil moisture (SM) at lead-1 (first month of the forecast period) to lead-3. The first experiment (ESP) used a resampling from the retrospective period 1980-2003 and represented full climatological uncertainty for the entire forecast period. In the second and third experiments, the first 14 days of each ESP ensemble member were replaced by either observations (perfect 14-day forecast) or by a deterministic 14-day weather forecast. We used Spearman rank correlations of forecasts and observations as the forecast skill score. We estimated the potential and actual improvement in baseline skill as the difference between the skill of experiments 2 and 3 relative to ESP, respectively. We found that useful runoff and SM forecast skill at lead-1 to -3 months can be obtained by exploiting medium range weather forecast skill in conjunction with the skill derived by the knowledge of initial hydrologic conditions. Potential improvement in baseline skill by using medium range weather forecasts, for runoff (SM) forecasts generally varies from 0 to 0.8 (0 to 0.5) as measured by differences in correlations, with actual improvement generally from 0 to 0.8 of the potential improvement. With some exceptions, most of the improvement in runoff is for lead-1 forecasts, although some improvement in SM was achieved at lead-2.

  15. Draft - DOE G 415.1-2, Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide for Small and Medium Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The Guide was developed to provide project management principles and guidelines to small and medium projects that fall outside the scope of DOE O 415.1, Information Technology Project Management, dated 12-3-12.

  16. Production of Clostridium difficile toxin in a medium totally free of both animal and dairy proteins or digests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demain, Arnold L.

    In the hope of developing a vaccine against Clostridium difficile based on its toxin(s), we have developed a fermentation medium for the bacterium that results in the formation of Toxin A and contains no meat or dairy ...

  17. Effects of transport and precipitation of NaCl on drying characteristics of the porous medium coupled with free flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    of the medium under the influence of atmospheric processes, such as laminar/turbulent free flow and solar radia temperature distribution Outlook Following issues need to be addressed in detail: If given relationships

  18. X-RAY SCATTERING ECHOES AND GHOST HALOS FROM THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM: RELATION TO THE NATURE OF AGN VARIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrales, Lia

    X-ray bright quasars might be used to trace dust in the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium through the phenomenon of X-ray scattering, which is observed around Galactic objects whose light passes through a sufficient ...

  19. Unlocking the potential of small and medium sized enterprises in West Africa : a path for reform and action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiam, Ibrahima

    2007-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have proven their dynamism in West Africa. They are perceived by policy makers as an important reservoir for growth. The African Development Bank considers they represent over 90 ...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by SCAQMD at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about plug-in hybrid medium-duty truck...

  1. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  2. Sample-dependent first-passage time distribution in a disordered medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang Luo; Lei-Han Tang

    2015-09-26

    Above two dimensions, diffusion of a particle in a medium with quenched random traps is believed to be well-described by the annealed continuous time random walk (CTRW). We propose an approximate expression for the first-passage-time (FPT) distribution in a given sample that enables detailed comparison of the two problems. For a system of finite size, the number and spatial arrangement of deep traps yield significant sample-to-sample variations in the FPT statistics. Numerical simulations of a quenched trap model with power-law sojourn times confirm the existence of two characteristic time scales and a non-self-averaging FPT distribution, as predicted by theory.

  3. Tuning thermal mismatch between turbine rotor parts with a thermal medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

    2001-01-01

    In a turbine rotor, an aft shaft wheel and the final-stage wheel of the rotor are coupled together, including by a rabbeted joint. During shutdown and startup of the turbine, a thermal mismatch between the aft shaft wheel and final-stage wheel is avoided by respectively heating and cooling the aft shaft wheel to maintain the thermal mismatch within acceptable limits, thereby avoiding opening of the rabbeted joint and the potential for unbalancing the rotor and rotor vibration. The thermal medium may be supplied by piping in the aft bearing cavity into the cavity between the forward closure plate and the aft shaft wheel.

  4. Calculating infinite-medium {alpha}-eigenvalue spectra with a transition rate matrix method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betzler, B. R.; Kiedrowski, B. C.; Brown, F. B.; Martin, W. R.

    2013-07-01

    The time-dependent behavior of the energy spectrum in neutron transport was investigated with a formulation, based on continuous-time Markov processes, for computing {alpha}-eigenvalues and eigenvectors in an infinite medium. For this, a research Monte Carlo code called TORTE was created and used to estimate elements of a transition rate matrix. TORTE is capable of using both multigroup and continuous-energy nuclear data, and verification was performed. Eigenvalue spectra for infinite homogeneous mixtures were obtained and an eigenfunction expansion was used to investigate transient behavior of the neutron energy spectrum. (authors)

  5. Medium effects on the relaxation of dissipative flows in a hot pion gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukanya Mitra; Utsab Gangopadhyaya; Sourav Sarkar

    2015-05-27

    The relaxation times over which dissipative fluxes restore their steady state values have been evaluated for a pion gas using the 14-moment method. The effect of the medium has been implemented through a temperature dependent pi-pi cross-section in the collision integral which is obtained by including one-loop self-energies in the propagators of the exchanged rho and sigma mesons. To account for chemical freeze out in heavy ion collisions, a temperature dependent pion chemical potential has been introduced in the distribution function. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times for shear and bulk viscous flows as well as the heat flow is significantly affected.

  6. Medium effects on the relaxation of dissipative flows in a hot pion gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitra, Sukanya; Sarkar, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The relaxation times over which dissipative fluxes restore their steady state values have been evaluated for a pion gas using the 14-moment method. The effect of the medium has been implemented through a temperature dependent pi-pi cross-section in the collision integral which is obtained by including one-loop self-energies in the propagators of the exchanged rho and sigma mesons. To account for chemical freeze out in heavy ion collisions, a temperature dependent pion chemical potential has been introduced in the distribution function. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times for shear and bulk viscous flows as well as the heat flow is significantly affected.

  7. Spatial correction factors for YALINA Booster facility loaded with medium and low enriched fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Routkovskaya, C. [Joint Inst. for Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny, 99 Academician A.K.Krasin Str, Minsk 220109 (Belarus)

    2012-07-01

    The Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used in analyses of subcritical assemblies to correct the experimental reactivity as function of the detector position. Besides the detector position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the energy weighting function of the detector, the detector size, the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons, and the reactivity of the subcritical assembly. This work focuses on the dependency of the correction factor on the detector material and it investigates the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly loaded with medium (36%) and low (10%) enriched fuels. (authors)

  8. Effects of Isospin Asymmetry and In-Medium Corrections on Balance Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Daffin; Wolfgang Bauer

    1998-09-09

    The effects of an isospin asymmetry and in-medium corrections to the nucleon collision cross section on the balance energy are explored. The BUU model for intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions is used with isospin-dependent mean fields to calculate the balance energies of 58Fe + 58Fe and 58Ni + 58Ni for a range of impact parameters. We find that we are able to reproduce the impact parameter dependence of the balance energy, and the sign (but not the magnitude) of the shift in balance balance energy as a function of isospin asymmetry.

  9. Calculating infinite-medium ?-eigenvalue spectra with Monte Carlo using a transition rate matrix method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Betzler, Benjamin R.; Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Brown, Forrest B.; Martin, William R.

    2015-08-28

    The time-dependent behavior of the energy spectrum in neutron transport was investigated with a formulation, based on continuous-time Markov processes, for computing ? eigenvalues and eigenvectors in an infinite medium. In this study, a research Monte Carlo code called “TORTE” (To Obtain Real Time Eigenvalues) was created and used to estimate elements of a transition rate matrix. TORTE is capable of using both multigroup and continuous-energy nuclear data, and verification was performed. Eigenvalue spectra for infinite homogeneous mixtures were obtained, and an eigenfunction expansion was used to investigate transient behavior of the neutron energy spectrum.

  10. Slow light of an amplitude modulated Gaussian pulse in electromagnetically induced transparency medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzhuo Tang; Bin Luo; Yu Liu; Hong Guo

    2009-01-20

    The slow light effects of an amplitude modulated Gaussian (AMG) pulse in a cesium atomic vapor are presented. In a single-$\\Lambda$ type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium, more severe distortion is observed for an AMG pulse than a Gaussian one. Using Fourier spectrum analysis, we find that the distortion, as well as the loss, is dominantly caused by linear absorption than dispersion. Accordingly, a compensation method is proposed to reshape the slow light pulse based on the transmission spectrum. In addition, we find a novel way to obtain simultaneous slow and fast light.

  11. Kinetic studies of dry sorent for medium temperature applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Wang, Z.

    1996-07-12

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the fundamental nature of sorbent reactivity and reaction kinetics in the medium temperature range from 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) to 1200{degrees}F (649{degrees}C) available in the convective pass of a boiler upstream of the economizer, where dry sorbents are injected to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. Research focuses on the mechanisms of sorbent- flue gas interaction under economizer and hot baghouse conditions utilizing the experimental setup and the results of the first four years of research.

  12. Small- To Medium-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher iSlide 1 More Documents & PublicationsSmallEnergy Small- To Medium-Scale

  13. Care and Passage of MCF-10A Cells In Monolayer Culture 1) Aspirate the Growth Medium (see Table 1), and rinse with 10.0 mls of Phosphate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . of Resuspension Medium to the plate (Table 1) and pipette to break up cell clumps. 6) Transfer the cells to a 15 ml conical tube and rinse the plate with another 1.0ml of Resuspension Medium. Add an additional 1.0ml of Resuspension Medium to the conical tube. Ultimately the cells are resuspended in 3-4 mls

  14. Charmonium Transverse Momentum Distribution in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zebo Tang; Nu Xu; Kai Zhou; Pengfei Zhuang

    2014-09-19

    The Charmonium transverse momentum distribution is more sensitive to the nature of the hot QCD matter created in high energy nuclear collisions, in comparison with the yield. Taking a detailed transport approach for charmonium motion together with a hydrodynamic description for the medium evolution, the cancelation between the two hot nuclear matter effects, the dissociation and the regeneration, controls the charmonium transverse momentum distribution. Especially, the second moment of the distribution can be used to differentiate between the hot mediums produced at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.

  15. High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.

    2010-06-01

    A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.

  16. Diffuse interstellar bands versus known atomic and molecular species in the interstellar medium of M82 toward SN 2014J

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welty, Daniel E.; York, Donald G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ritchey, Adam M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dahlstrom, Julie A., E-mail: dwelty@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Carthage College, 2001 Alford Park Drive, Kenosha, WI 53140 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We discuss the absorption due to various constituents of the interstellar medium (ISM) of M82 seen in moderately high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra of SN 2014J. Complex absorption from M82 is seen, at velocities 45 ? v {sub LSR} ? 260 km s{sup –1}, for Na I, K I, Ca I, Ca II, CH, CH{sup +}, and CN; many of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are also detected. Comparisons of the column densities of the atomic and molecular species and the equivalent widths of the DIBs reveal both similarities and differences in relative abundances, compared to trends seen in the ISM of our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. Of the 10 relatively strong DIBs considered here, 6 (including ?5780.5) have strengths within ±20% of the mean values seen in the local Galactic ISM, for comparable N(K I); 2 are weaker by 20%-45% and 2 (including ?5797.1) are stronger by 25%-40%. Weaker than 'expected' DIBs (relative to N(K I), N(Na I), and E(B – V)) in some Galactic sight lines and toward several other extragalactic supernovae appear to be associated with strong CN absorption and/or significant molecular fractions. While the N(CH)/N(K I) and N(CN)/N(CH) ratios seen toward SN 2014J are similar to those found in the local Galactic ISM, the combination of high N(CH{sup +})/N(CH) and high W(5797.1)/W(5780.5) ratios has not been seen elsewhere. The centroids of many of the M82 DIBs are shifted relative to the envelope of the K I profile—likely due to component-to-component variations in W(DIB)/N(K I) that may reflect the molecular content of the individual components. We compare estimates for the host galaxy reddening E(B – V) and visual extinction A {sub V} derived from the various interstellar species with the values estimated from optical and near-IR photometry of SN 2014J.

  17. 2011 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    Distinguished Beidler Katilyn V. Highly Distinguished Belanger Brett Russell Highly Distinguished Bell Lauren Ashley Highly Distinguished Bennett Caitlin Renee Highly Distinguished Berdusco Ann Marie Highly Highly Distinguished Bertel Jeffrey Robert Highly Distinguished Bettendorf Caitlin Marie Highly

  18. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  19. Ultraslow Wave Nuclear Burning of Uranium-Plutonium Fissile Medium on Epithermal Neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. D. Rusov; V. A. Tarasov; M. V. Eingorn; S. A. Chernezhenko; A. A. Kakaev; V. M. Vashchenko; M. E. Beglaryan

    2014-09-29

    For a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238, the investigation of fulfillment of the wave burning criterion in a wide range of neutron energies is conducted for the first time, and a possibility of wave nuclear burning not only in the region of fast neutrons, but also for cold, epithermal and resonance ones is discovered for the first time. For the first time the results of the investigation of the Feoktistov criterion fulfillment for a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238 dioxide with enrichments 4.38%, 2.00%, 1.00%, 0.71% and 0.50% with respect to uranium-235, in the region of neutron energies 0.015-10.0eV are presented. These results indicate a possibility of ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning mode realization in the uranium-plutonium media, originally (before the wave initiation by external neutron source) having enrichments with respect to uranium-235, corresponding to the subcritical state, in the regions of cold, thermal, epithermal and resonance neutrons. In order to validate the conclusions, based on the slow wave neutron-nuclear burning criterion fulfillment depending on the neutron energy, the numerical modeling of ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning of a natural uranium in the epithermal region of neutron energies (0.1-7.0eV) was conducted for the first time. The presented simulated results indicate the realization of the ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning of the natural uranium for the epithermal neutrons.

  20. Trajectory of a light ray in Kerr field: A material medium approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saswati Roy; A. K. Sen

    2015-10-16

    The deflection of light ray as it passes around a gravitational mass can be calculated by different methods. Such calculations are generally done by using the null geodesics under both strong field and weak field approximation. However, several authors have studied the gravitational deflection of light ray using material medium approach. For a static, non-rotating spherical mass, one can determine the deflection in Schwarzschild field, by expressing the line element in an isotropic form and calculating the refractive index to determine the trajectory of the light ray. In this paper, we draw our attention to the refractive index of light ray in Kerr field using the material medium approach. The frame dragging effects in Kerr field was considered to calculate the velocity of light ray and finally the refractive index in Kerr field geometry was determined. Hence the deflection of light ray in Kerr field was calculated, assuming far field approximation and compared the results with those calculations done earlier using Null geodesics.

  1. Self-Limiting Trajectories of a Particle Moving Deterministically in a Random Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Webb; E. G. D. Cohen

    2015-07-25

    We study the motion of a particle moving on a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, whose sites are randomly occupied by either right or left rotators, which rotate the particle's velocity to its right or left, according to deterministic rules. In the model we consider, the scatterers are each initially oriented to the right with probability $p\\in[0,1]$. This is done independently, so that the initial configuration of scatterers, which forms the medium through which the particle moves, are both independent and identically distributed. For $p\\in(0,1)$, we show that as the particle moves through the lattice, it creates a number of reflecting structures. These structures ultimately \\emph{limit} the particle's motion, causing it to have a periodic trajectory. As $p$ approaches either 0 or 1, and the medium becomes increasingly homogenous, the particle's dynamics undergoes a discontinuous transition from this self-limiting, periodic motion to a self-avoiding motion, where the particle's trajectory, away from its initial position, is a self-avoiding walk. Additionally, we show that the periodic dynamics observed for $p\\in(0,1)$ can persist, even if the initial configuration of scatterers are not identically distributed. Furthermore, we show that if these orientations are not chosen independently, this can drastically change the particle's motion causing it to have a behavior that is nonperiodic.

  2. Nuclear physics with a medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Accardi; V. Guzey; A. Prokudin; C. Weiss

    2011-10-05

    A polarized ep/eA collider (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with variable center-of-mass energy sqrt(s) ~ 20-70 GeV and a luminosity ~ 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1} would be uniquely suited to address several outstanding questions of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the microscopic structure of hadrons and nuclei: (i) the three-dimensional structure of the nucleon in QCD (sea quark and gluon spatial distributions, orbital motion, polarization, correlations); (ii) the fundamental color fields in nuclei (nuclear parton densities, shadowing, coherence effects, color transparency); (iii) the conversion of color charge to hadrons (fragmentation, parton propagation through matter, in-medium jets). We briefly review the conceptual aspects of these questions and the measurements that would address them, emphasizing the qualitatively new information that could be obtained with the collider. Such a medium-energy EIC could be realized at Jefferson Lab after the 12 GeV Upgrade (MEIC), or at Brookhaven National Lab as the low-energy stage of eRHIC.

  3. Nuclear physics with a medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accardi, A; Prokudin, A; Weiss, C

    2011-01-01

    A polarized ep/eA collider (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with variable center-of-mass energy sqrt(s) ~ 20-70 GeV and a luminosity ~ 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1} would be uniquely suited to address several outstanding questions of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the microscopic structure of hadrons and nuclei: (i) the three-dimensional structure of the nucleon in QCD (sea quark and gluon spatial distributions, orbital motion, polarization, correlations); (ii) the fundamental color fields in nuclei (nuclear parton densities, shadowing, coherence effects, color transparency); (iii) the conversion of color charge to hadrons (fragmentation, parton propagation through matter, in-medium jets). We briefly review the conceptual aspects of these questions and the measurements that would address them, emphasizing the qualitatively new information that could be obtained with the collider. Such a medium-energy EIC could be realized at Jefferson Lab after the 12 GeV Upgrade (MEIC), or at Brookhaven National Lab as the low-ene...

  4. Exploiting Intrinsic Triangular Geometry in Relativistic He3+Au Collisions to Disentangle Medium Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagle, J L; Beckman, S; Koblesky, T; Koop, J Orjuela; McGlinchey, D; Romatschke, P; Carlson, J; Lynn, J; McCumber, M

    2013-01-01

    Recent results in d+Au and p+Pb collisions at RHIC and the LHC provide evidence for collective expansion and flow of the created medium. We propose a control set of experiments to directly compare particle emission patterns from p+Au, d+Au, and He3+Au or t+Au collisions at the same sqrt(sNN). Using Monte Carlo Glauber we find that a He3 or triton projectile, with a realistic wavefunction description, induces a significant intrinsic triangular shape to the initial medium and that, even with viscous damping, this survives into a significant third order flow moment v3. By comparing systems with one, two, and three initial hot spots, one can disentangle the effects from the initial spatial distribution of the deposited energy and viscous damping. These are key tools to answering the question of how small a droplet of matter is necessary to form a quark-gluon plasma described by nearly inviscid hydrodynamics.

  5. Ultraslow Wave Nuclear Burning of Uranium-Plutonium Fissile Medium on Epithermal Neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusov, V D; Eingorn, M V; Chernezhenko, S A; Kakaev, A A

    2014-01-01

    For a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238, the investigation of fulfillment of the wave burning criterion in a wide range of neutron energies is conducted for the first time, and a possibility of wave nuclear burning not only in the region of fast neutrons, but also for cold, epithermal and resonance ones is discovered for the first time. For the first time the results of the investigation of the Feoktistov criterion fulfillment for a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238 dioxide with enrichments 4.38%, 2.00%, 1.00%, 0.71% and 0.50% with respect to uranium-235, in the region of neutron energies 0.015-10.0eV are presented. These results indicate a possibility of ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning mode realization in the uranium-plutonium media, originally (before the wave initiation by external neutron source) having enrichments with respect to uranium-235, corresponding to the subcritical state, in the regions of cold, thermal, epithermal and resonance neutrons. In order to...

  6. Photoproduction of mesons from nuclei - In-medium properties of hadrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Krusche

    2004-11-18

    Recent experimental results for the in-medium properties of hadrons obtained with photoproduction of mesons from nuclei are discussed. The experiments were done with the TAPS detector at the tagged photon beam of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. Measured were the final states $\\pi^o X$, $\\eta X$, $2\\pi^oX$, and $\\pi^o\\pi^{\\pm}X$ for $^{12}$C, $^{40}$Ca, $^{93}$Nb, and $^{208}$Pb up to the second resonance region. The results were used for an investigation of the in-medium properties of the P$_{33}$(1232), the P$_{11}$(1440), the D$_{13}$(1520), and the S$_{11}$(1535) resonances. It was found that the cross sections can be spilt into a component which originates from the low density surface region of the nuclei and a component which scales like the nuclear volume. The energy dependence of the surface component is strikingly similar to the deuteron, it shows a clear signal for the second resonance peak. The volume component is lacking this peak and shows an enhancement at intermediate energies. Furthermore the measurement of coherent $\\eta$-photoproduction and the final state $p\\pi^o$ from $^3$He is discussed in the context of the search for $\\eta$-mesic nuclei.

  7. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  8. 2012 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    Distinguished Bell Lauren Ashley Highly Distinguished Benjamin Abigail Highly Distinguished Benson Alexandrea Hannah Elizabeth Highly Distinguished Bishop Anna Laurel Highly Distinguished Black Caitlin Emily Highly

  9. 2014 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    Morgan Highly Distinguished Beech Kaylie Schaefer Highly Distinguished Bell Brandi Lakeisha Highly Distinguished Billard Caitlin Rose Highly Distinguished Birk Christian Gustave Highly Distinguished Birkhead

  10. THE COS-HALOS SURVEY: AN EMPIRICAL DESCRIPTION OF METAL-LINE ABSORPTION IN THE LOW-REDSHIFT CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werk, Jessica K.; Prochaska, J. Xavier [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Thom, Christopher; Tumlinson, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tripp, Todd M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); O'Meara, John M. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, VT (United States); Peeples, Molly S., E-mail: jwerk@ucolick.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angles, CA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present the equivalent width and column density measurements for low and intermediate ionization states of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding 44 low-z, L Almost-Equal-To L* galaxies drawn from the COS-Halos survey. These measurements are derived from far-UV transitions observed in HST/COS and Keck/HIRES spectra of background quasars within an impact parameter R < 160 kpc to the targeted galaxies. The data show significant metal-line absorption for 33 of the 44 galaxies, including quiescent systems, revealing the common occurrence of a cool (T Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} K), metal-enriched CGM. The detection rates and column densities derived for these metal lines decrease with increasing impact parameter, a trend we interpret as a declining metal surface density profile for the CGM. A comparison of the relative column densities of adjacent ionization states indicates that the gas is predominantly ionized. The large surface density in metals demands a large reservoir of metals and gas in the cool CGM (very conservatively, M {sup cool} {sub CGM} > 10{sup 9} M {sub Sun }), which likely traces a distinct density and/or temperature regime from the highly ionized CGM traced by O{sup +5} absorption. The large dispersion in absorption strengths (including non-detections) suggests that the cool CGM traces a wide range of densities or a mix of local ionizing conditions. Lastly, the kinematics inferred from the metal-line profiles are consistent with the cool CGM being bound to the dark matter halos hosting the galaxies; this gas may serve as fuel for future star formation. Future work will leverage this data set to provide estimates on the mass, metallicity, dynamics, and origin of the cool CGM in low-z, L* galaxies.

  11. Comprehensive Compressor Calorimeter Testing of Lower-GWP Alternative Refrigerants for Heat Pump and Medium Temperature Refrigeration Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Sharma, Vishaldeep; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2014-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. This paper reports one of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributions to AREP. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants to that of R-410A and R-404A for heat pump and medium temperature applications, respectively. The alternatives reported in this paper are: R-32, DR-5, and L-41a for R-410A and ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and a mixture of R-32 and R-134a for R-404A. All performance comparison tests were conducted using scroll compressors of ~1.85 tons (6.5 kW) cooling capacity. Tests were conducted over a range of combinations of saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures for both compressors. The tests showed that, in general, energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of R-410A alternative refrigerants were slightly lower than that of the baseline refrigerant with a moderate increases in discharge temperature. On the other hand, R-404A alternative refrigerants showed relative performance dependence on saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures and larger increases in discharge temperature than for the R-410A alternatives. This paper summarizes the relative performance of all alternative refrigerants compared to their respective baseline.

  12. The interstellar medium and star formation in local galaxies: Variations of the star formation law in simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becerra, Fernando; Escala, Andrés, E-mail: fbecerra@cfa.harvard.edu [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-05-01

    We use the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo to model the interstellar medium (ISM) in isolated local disk galaxies. The simulation includes a treatment for star formation and stellar feedback. We get a highly supersonic turbulent disk, which is fragmented at multiple scales and characterized by a multi-phase ISM. We show that a Kennicutt-Schmidt relation only holds when averaging over large scales. However, values of star formation rates and gas surface densities lie close in the plot for any averaging size. This suggests an intrinsic relation between stars and gas at cell-size scales, which dominates over the global dynamical evolution. To investigate this effect, we develop a method to simulate the creation of stars based on the density field from the snapshots, without running the code again. We also investigate how the star formation law is affected by the characteristic star formation timescale, the density threshold, and the efficiency considered in the recipe. We find that the slope of the law varies from ?1.4 for a free-fall timescale, to ?1.0 for a constant depletion timescale. We further demonstrate that a power law is recovered just by assuming that the mass of the new stars is a fraction of the mass of the cell m {sub *} = ??{sub gas}?x {sup 3}, with no other physical criteria required. We show that both efficiency and density threshold do not affect the slope, but the right combination of them can adjust the normalization of the relation, which in turn could explain a possible bi-modality in the law.

  13. An Exploratory Energy Analysis of Electrochromic Windows in Small and Medium Office Buildings - Simulated Results Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, David B.

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP) has had an active research program in supporting the development of electrochromic (EC) windows. Electrochromic glazings used in these windows have the capability of varying the transmittance of light and heat in response to an applied voltage. This dynamic property allows these windows to reduce lighting, cooling, and heating energy in buildings where they are employed. The exploratory analysis described in this report examined three different variants of EC glazings, characterized by the amount of visible light and solar heat gain (as measured by the solar heat gain coefficients [SHGC] in their “clear” or transparent states). For these EC glazings, the dynamic range of the SHGC’s between their “dark” (or tinted) state and the clear state were: (0.22 - 0.70, termed “high” SHGC); (0.16 - 0.39, termed “low” SHGC); and (0.13 - 0.19; termed “very low” SHGC). These glazings are compared to conventional (static) glazing that meets the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 energy standard for five different locations in the U.S. All analysis used the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program for modeling EC windows and alternative control strategies. The simulations were conducted for a small and a medium office building, where engineering specifications were taken from the set of Commercial Building Benchmark building models developed by BTP. On the basis of these simulations, total source-level savings in these buildings were estimated to range between 2 to 7%, depending on the amount of window area and building location.

  14. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

  15. Method for optical pumping of thin laser media at high average power

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2004-07-13

    A thin, planar laser material is bonded to a light guide of an index-matched material forming a composite disk. Diode array or other pump light is introduced into the composite disk through the edges of the disk. Pump light trapped within the composite disk depletes as it multi-passes the laser medium before reaching an opposing edge of the disk. The resulting compound optical structure efficiently delivers concentrated pump light and to a laser medium of minimum thickness. The external face of the laser medium is used for cooling. A high performance cooler attached to the external face of the laser medium rejects heat. Laser beam extraction is parallel to the heat flux to minimize optical distortions.

  16. Probe the QCD phase diagram with ?-mesons in high energy nuclear collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Mohanty; N. Xu

    2009-01-03

    High-energy nuclear collision provide a unique tool to study the strongly interacting medium. Recent results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) on \\phi-meson production has revealed the formation of a dense partonic medium. The medium constituents are found to exhibit collective behaviour initiated due to partonic interactions in the medium. We present a brief review of the recent results on \\phi production in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. One crucial question is where, in the phase diagram, does the transition happen for the matter changing from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom. We discuss how \\phi-meson elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions can be used for the search of the QCD phase boundary.

  17. HIGH LEWIS NUMBER COMBUSTION WAVEFRONTS JOHN HORNIBROOK, SANJEEVA BALASURIYA, AND STEPHANE LAFORTUNE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sydney, University of

    HIGH LEWIS NUMBER COMBUSTION WAVEFRONTS JOHN HORNIBROOK, SANJEEVA BALASURIYA, AND ST are inherently unstable. Key words. Combustion waves, high Lewis number, wavespeed, stability, Evans function. In this article, we study the wavespeed and stability of a combustion wavefront along a one-dimensional medium

  18. High-Power Converters and AC Drives IEEE PESC2005 Tutorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Bin

    Overview · MV Drive Applications Industry Application Examples Petrochemical Pipeline pumps, gas Introduction Main Topics · Medium Voltage (MV) Drive Overview · High Power Converter Topologies · MV Industrial Topic 1 Introduction MV Drive Overview · MV Drive Market Survey Main purpose for high-power fan/pump

  19. High p T Measurements with BRAHMS Claus E. J rgensen a for the BRAHMS collaboration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; a Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark We present high transverse momentum particle spectra from Au the medium e#11;ects at forward rapidities. 1. Introduction The production of high p T particles is expected to be dominated by fragmentation of jets created at the early stages of the collision. Partons lose energy when

  20. EARLY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS IN A STRATIFIED MEDIUM WITH A POWER-LAW DENSITY DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-10-20

    A long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) has been widely thought to arise from the collapse of a massive star, and it has been suggested that its ambient medium is a homogenous interstellar medium (ISM) or a stellar wind. There are two shocks when an ultra-relativistic fireball that has been ejected during the prompt gamma-ray emission phase sweeps up the circumburst medium: a reverse shock that propagates into the fireball, and a forward shock that propagates into the ambient medium. In this paper, we investigate the temporal evolution of the dynamics and emission of these two shocks in an environment with a general density distribution of n?R {sup –k} (where R is the radius) by considering thick-shell and thin-shell cases. A GRB afterglow with one smooth onset peak at early times is understood to result from such external shocks. Thus, we can determine the medium density distribution by fitting the onset peak appearing in the light curve of an early optical afterglow. We apply our model to 19 GRBs and find that their k values are in the range of 0.4-1.4, with a typical value of k ? 1, implying that this environment is neither a homogenous ISM with k = 0 nor a typical stellar wind with k = 2. This shows that the progenitors of these GRBs might have undergone a new mass-loss evolution.