Sample records for medium high unknown

  1. FLAME SURFACE DENSITIES IN PREMIXED COMBUSTION AT MEDIUM TO HIGH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, �mer L.

    premixed combustion diagrams. Small-scale transport of heat and species may be more important and chemistryFLAME SURFACE DENSITIES IN PREMIXED COMBUSTION AT MEDIUM TO HIGH TURBULENCE INTENSITIES O¨ MER L in turbulent premixed propane= air flames were determined experimentally. The instantaneous flame fronts were

  2. Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peinado, C.O.; Koutz, S.L.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 760/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics (a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant) and engineered safety features (core auxiliary cooling, relief valve, and steam generator dump systems).

  3. unknown title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene coating makes carbon nanotube aerogels superelastic and resistant to fatigue Kyu Hun Kim, Youngseok Oh and M. F. Islam* Lightweight materials that are both highly compressible and resilient under large cyclic strains can be used in a variety of applications 1–8. Carbon nanotubes offer a

  4. unknown title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David C. Kramer; Brent K. Lok; Russ R. Krug

    seen many phases of evolution. As it continues to evolve at an ever-increasing rate, base oil performance is making a larger contribution to finished lubricant performance. Turbine oils are perhaps the most dramatic example because they typically contain over 99 % base oil. Early lubrication began with animal fats and oils and slowly evolved to petroleum-based oils. Many generations of refining processes have since improved on Mother Nature. Early processes such as acid treating and solvent extraction improved the quality of base oils by removing some or most of the worst molecules from the oil. Later processes like hydrotreating, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic dewaxing, and modern wax hydroisomerization transformed feed molecules into molecules with improved lubricating qualities. Modern wax hydroisomerization, in particular, makes base oils with very low impurities and typically water-white appearance. Now, about one third of all base oils manufactured in North America are of such high quality. Looking to the future, the trend is toward even higher base oil purity, higher viscosity index (V.I.), lower volatility, and longer life. The distinction between heavily processed mineral oils and traditional “synthetic ” oils will continue to blur. The evolution and future of base oil technology will be discussed in more detail in this paper.

  5. Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small-and medium-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small- and medium is a useful complement or alternative to existing methods for high-resolution measurements in small- to medium has led to a dramatic increase in terrain information and opened up new opportunities for hydro- logic

  6. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE MULTIPHASE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM TOWARD Cyg X-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulz, Norbert S.

    High-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing chemical and physical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) at various phases. We present detections of K transition absorption ...

  7. Effect of high frequency modes of medium on an open quantum system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nirupam Dutta; A. K. Chaudhuri; P. K. Panigrahi

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method to calculate the real time effective propagator of a generic open quantum system, immersed in a medium using a wave function based framework. The medium is characterised by a set of harmonic oscillators having a continuous span of frequencies. This technique has been applied to the Caldeira-Leggett model showing that high frequency modes of the medium do not contribute towards decay of the population of states of the open system. In fact, they cause a Rabi type oscillation. Moreover, our wave function based approach provides an excellent alternative to conventional formalisms involving the density matrix.

  8. The SKA and the Unknown Unknowns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, Peter

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As new scientists and engineers join the SKA project and as the pressures come on to maintain costs within a chosen envelope it is worth restating and updating the rationale for the 'Exploration of the Unknown' (EoU). Maintaining an EoU philosophy will prove a vital ingredient for realizing the SKA's discovery potential. Since people make the discoveries enabled by technology a further axis in capability parameter space, the'human bandwidth' is emphasised. Using the morphological approach pioneered by Zwicky, a currently unexploited region of observational parameter space can be identified viz: time variable spectral patterns on all spectral and angular scales, one interesting example would be 'spectral transients'. We should be prepared to build up to 10 percent less collecting area for a given overall budget in order to enhance the ways in which SKA1 can be flexibly utilized.

  9. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  10. Homogenization of a locally-periodic medium with areas of low and high diffusivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Noorden, T

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We aim at understanding transport in porous materials including regions with both high and low diffusivities. For such scenarios, the transport becomes structured (here: {\\em micro-macro}). The geometry we have in mind includes regions of low diffusivity arranged in a locally-periodic fashion. We choose a prototypical advection-diffusion system (of minimal size), discuss its formal homogenization (the heterogenous medium being now assumed to be made of zones with circular areas of low diffusivity of $x$-varying sizes), and prove the weak solvability of the limit two-scale reaction-diffusion model. A special feature of our analysis is that most of the basic estimates (positivity, $L^\\infty$-bounds, uniqueness, energy inequality) are obtained in $x$-dependent Bochner spaces.

  11. Industrial Fabrication of Medium-Beta SCRF Cavities for a High-Intensity Proton Linac

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzminski, J; Gentzlinger, R C; Maccioni, P

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1999, four 700-MHz, medium-beta (b = 0.64), superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities for a high-intensity proton linac project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were manufactured by industry. The SCRF cavities were designed by a LANL team in Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, and manufactured at a CERCA plant in Romans, France. The cavities were made of 4-mm-thick, solid niobium sheets with a residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250. These niobium sheets were supplied by Wah Chang (USA), Heraeus AG (Germany), and Tokyo Denkai (Japan). The SCRF cavities were shipped to LANL for performance testing. This paper describes the experience gained during the manufacturing process at CERCA.

  12. Unknown: Multifocal scalp hair loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamsadini, Sadollah; Esfandiarpoor, Iraj; Zeinali, Hamid; Kalantari, Behjat; Ebrahimi, Hoseiali

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unknown: Multifocal scalp hair loss Sadllah Shamsadini 1 ,four patches of scalp hair loss. What is your diagnosis?

  13. Stages of destruction and elastic compression of granular nanoporous carbon medium at high pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; N. B. Bobrova; A. A. Chupikov

    2015-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The granular nanoporous carbon medium, made of the cylindrical coal granules of the adsorbent of SKT 3, at an influence by the high pressures from 1MPa to 3GPa has been researched. The eight consecutive stages of the materials specific volume change, which is characterized by a certain dependence of the volume change on the pressure change, have been registered. It is shown that there is a linear dependence on the double log log plot of the materials specific volume change on the pressure for an every stage of considered process. The two stages are clearly distinguished such as a stage of materials mechanical destruction, and a stage of elastic compression of material without the disintegration of structure at a nanscale. The hysteresis dependence of the materials specific volume change on the pressure change at the pressure decrease is observed. The small disperse coal dust particles jettisoning between the high pressure cell and the base plate was observed, resulting in the elastic stress reduction in relation to the small disperse coal dust particles volume. The obtained research data can be used to improve the designs of air filters for the radioactive chemical elements absorption at the NPP with the aims to protect the environment.

  14. Development of high productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikejiri, T.; Hamamoto, N.; Hisada, S.; Iwasawa, K.; Kawakami, K.; Kokuryu, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Nogami, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasada, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, T. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., LTD., 575, Kuze-tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto, 601-8205 (Japan)

    2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    High productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2' is developed. In semiconductor manufacturing field, improvement of the productivity is continuously required. Especially mass production lines recently tend to use low energy beam and 2 pass implant for higher throughput. The 'Evo2' has been developed in an effort to fulfill these requirements. The 'Evo2' increases low energy beam current by 150 to 250% by applying electrostatic einzel lens called 'V-lens' installed at the exit of the Collimator magnet. This lens is also able to control the beam incident angle by adjusting the upper and lower electrode's voltages independently. Besides, mechanical scanning speed is enhanced to minimize process time of 2 pass implant, while also frequency of the fast beam scanning is enhanced to keep dose uniformity. In addition, a vacuum pumping capability at the target chamber is enhanced to reduce a vacuum waiting time during processing photo-resist wafers. This improvement achieved to reduce process time by 40% for a specific recipe. Furthermore, a modified Indirectly Heated Cathode with electron active Reflection 2 (IHC-R2) ion source which has a long life time filament has been installed. These new elements and/or functions have realized typically 25% improvement of productivity compared to standard EXCEED, and also improve a precise implantation capability.

  15. HIGH SPEED, IN-FLIGHT STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM FOR MEDIUM ALTITUDE LONG ENDURANCE UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HIGH SPEED, IN-FLIGHT STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM FOR MEDIUM ALTITUDE LONG ENDURANCE on Structural Health Monitoring July 8-11, 2014. La Cité, Nantes, France Copyright © Inria (2014) 274 hal Health Monitoring (2014)" #12;substantiation of structural bonded jointsmay be based on: "repeatable

  16. Medium modifications of photon-tagged jet fragmentation function in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo-Liang Ma

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a multiphase transport model, medium modifications of prompt photon-tagged jet fragmentation function are investigated by comparing prompt photon-tagged hadron azimuthal correlation in Au+Au collisions (0-40\\%) with that in p+p collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}}$ = 200 GeV. The measured modification factor, $I_{AA}$, increases with the increasing integration range of the away side, which reveals a medium-modified jet shape in which the medium enhancement of soft particles is preferentially located far away from the jet axis. The $I_{AA}$ largely results from strong interactions between jets and partonic matter. However, both hadronization of coalescence and hadronic rescatterings play certain roles to modify the $I_{AA}$. These behaviors reflect a dynamical evolution of modifications of the prompt photon-tagged jet fragmentation function in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  17. UNKNOWN

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling7 AugustAFRICAN3uj: ;;IDEC. i'

  18. UNKNOWN

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling7 AugustAFRICAN3uj: ;;IDEC. i'Journal of

  19. UNKNOWN

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling7 AugustAFRICAN3uj: ;;IDEC. i'Journal ofDOI:

  20. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrinceton Plasma Physics LabUniversityOfficeScientific and

  1. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrinceton Plasma Physics LabUniversityOfficeScientific

  2. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrinceton Plasma Physics LabUniversityOfficeScientific* Sandia

  3. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrinceton Plasma Physics LabUniversityOfficeScientific*

  4. Unknown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrinceton Plasma Physics

  5. Absolute polarization standards at medium and high energies. [200 to 900 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNaughton, M.W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although measurement of a polarization asymmetry is rather easy, the normalization of the measurement to obtain the analyzing power requires an absolute knowledge of the beam polarization or comparison with a known standard analyzing power. Such calibration standards can be hard to find. This paper concentrates on medium and higher energies, and divides the techniques into four categories: double scattering, polarized target methods, polarized source methods, and theoretical methods. Secondary standards are also discussed, and earlier data are assessed. 52 references, 6 figures. (RWR)

  6. Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting (HTMWG) held October 10, 2007 in Washington, D.C.

  7. High-Flux Stress Testing of Encapsulants for Medium-Concentration CPV Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Kilkenny, M.; Moricone, T. J.; Zhang, J. Z.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study involved developing methods to expose transparent encapsulant materials to high (40 to 45 UV suns) optical fluxes of UV radiation to enable rapid evaluation of materials.

  8. Heating and Ionization of the Primordial Intergalactic Medium by High Mass X-ray Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knevitt, Gillian; Power, Chris; Bolton, James

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the influence of High Mass X-ray Binaries on their high redshift environments. Using a one-dimensional radiative transfer code, we predict the ionization and temperature profiles surrounding a coeval stellar population, composed of main sequence stars and HMXBs, at various times after its formation. We consider both uniform density surroundings, and a cluster embedded in a 10^8 solar mass NFW halo. HMXBs in a constant density environment produce negligible enhanced ionization because of their high-energy SEDs and short lifetimes. In this case, HMXBs only marginally contribute to the local heating rate. For NFW profiles, radiation from main sequence stars cannot prevent the initially ionized volume from recombining since it is unable to penetrate the high density galactic core. However, HMXB photons stall recombinations behind the front, keeping it partially ionized for longer. The increased electron density in these partially ionized regions promotes further cooling, resulting in lower IGM temp...

  9. Design of an ambient aerosol sampling system for high and medium speed applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irshad, Hammad

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two ambient sampling systems were designed and tested for high speed sampling application for a wind speed range of 4.47 m/s to 26.82 m/s. These systems will be used as inlets for sampling of bioaerosol from air. These systems consist of shrouded...

  10. Source localisation in an unknown reverberant environment using compressive sampling in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    case where the Green function of the medium is known [1]. In the case of a reverberant environmentSource localisation in an unknown reverberant environment using compressive sampling a source localisation method dealing with an unknown reverberant environment. The measured acoustic field

  11. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  12. Process and system for producing high-density pellets from a gaseous medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Christopher A. (Clinton, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and system for producing pellets of high density carbon dioxide or other gases utilize a chamber containing a plurality of cell-like freezing compartments within which ice is to be formed. A gas desired to be frozen into ice is introduced into the chamber while the internal pressure of the chamber is maintained at a level which is below the equilibrium triple pressure of the gas. The temperature of the freezing compartments is lowered to a temperature which is below the equilibrium vapor pressure temperature of the gas at the chamber pressure so that the gas condenses into ice within the compartments. The temperature of the freezing compartments is thereafter raised so that the ice is thereby released from and falls out of the compartments as pellets for collection.

  13. On p_T-broadening of high energy partons associated with the LPM effect in a finite-volume QCD medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bin Wu

    2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the contributions from radiation to $p_{\\perp}$-broadening of a high energy parton traversing a QCD medium with a finite length $L$. The interaction between the parton and the medium is described by decorrelated static multiple scattering. Amplitudes of medium-induced gluon emission and parton self-energy diagrams are evaluated in the soft gluon limit in the BDMPS formalism. We find both the double-logarithmic correction from incoherent scattering, which is parametrically the same as that in single scattering, and the logarithmic correction from the LPM effect. Therefore, we expect a parametrically large correction from radiation to the medium-induced $p_\\perp$-broadening in perturbative QCD.

  14. FEEDBACK FROM HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES ON THE HIGH-REDSHIFT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM: MODEL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Power, Chris [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)] [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); James, Gillian; Wynn, Graham [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Combet, Celine, E-mail: chris.power@icrar.org [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1/CNRS/IN2P3/INPG, 53 avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1/CNRS/IN2P3/INPG, 53 avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)

    2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive stars at redshifts z {approx}> 6 are predicted to have played a pivotal role in cosmological reionization as luminous sources of ultraviolet (UV) photons. However, the remnants of these massive stars could be equally important as X-ray-luminous (L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}) high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). Because the absorption cross section of neutral hydrogen decreases sharply with photon energy ({sigma}{proportional_to}E {sup -3}), X-rays can escape more freely than UV photons from the star-forming regions in which they are produced, allowing HMXBs to make a potentially significant contribution to the ionizing X-ray background during reionization. In this paper, we explore the ionizing power of HMXBs at redshifts z {approx}> 6 using a Monte Carlo model for a coeval stellar population of main-sequence stars and HMXBs. Using the archetypal Galactic HMXB Cygnus X-1 as our template, we propose a composite HMXB spectral energy distribution consisting of blackbody and power-law components, whose contributions depend on the accretion state of the system. We determine the time-dependent ionizing power of a combined population of UV-luminous stars and X-ray-luminous HMXBs and deduce fitting formulae for the boost in the population's ionizing power arising from HMXBs; these fits allow for simple implementation of HMXB feedback in numerical simulations. Based on this analysis, we estimate the contribution of high-redshift HMXBs to the present-day soft X-ray background, and we show that it is a factor of {approx}100-1000 smaller than the observed limit. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the role of HMXBs in reionization and in high-redshift galaxy formation.

  15. Study Medium-induced Parton Energy Loss in Gamma+jet Events of High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xin-Nian Wang; Zheng Huang

    1997-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of medium-induced parton energy loss on jet fragmentation is studied in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. It is shown that an effective jet fragmentation function can be extracted from the inclusive $p_T$ spectrum of charged particles in the opposite direction of a tagged direct photon with a fixed transverse energy. We study the modification of the effective jet fragmentation function due to parton energy loss in AA as compared to pp collisions, including $E_T$ smearing from initial state radiations for the photon-tagged jets. The effective fragmentation function at $z=p_T/E_T^\\gamma\\sim 1$ in pA collisions is shown to be sensitive to the additional $E_T$ smearing due to initial multiple parton scatterings whose effect must be subtracted out in AA collisions in order to extract the effective parton energy loss. Jet quenching in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleus scatterings as a measure of the parton energy loss in cold nuclear matter is also discussed. We also comment on the experimental feasibilities of the proposed study at the RHIC and LHC energies and some alternative measurements such as using $Z^0$ as a tag at the LHC energy.

  16. HIGH IONIZATION SPECIES IN THE NEARBY INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FROM AN EXHAUSTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE IUE INES DATABASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freire Ferrero, R.; Halbwachs, J.-L. [Observatoire Astronomique, Universite de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l'Universite, 67.000 Strasbourg (France); Morales Duran, C.; Cabo Cubeiro, A. M., E-mail: rubens.freire@astro.unistra.fr, E-mail: jean-louis.halbwachs@astro.unistra.fr, E-mail: morales@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: amcabo@cab.inta-csic.es [LAEX, Centro de Astrobiologia (CAB, CSIC-INTA), LAEFF, European Space Astronomy Centre, P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Main-sequence (MS) and giant late-B and early-A type stars are the best targets for searching for nearby interstellar (IS) Si IV and C IV resonance lines because they are not able to produce them, either in atmospheric layers or in their circumstellar environment, and because many stars of these spectral types are nearby and located in the local interstellar medium (LISM). In addition, the use of certain stars hotter than B6 can lead to misinterpretations (e.g., alpha Arae). This work analyzes the reliable Short-Wavelength Prime high-resolution UV spectra of 558 B6-A9 type stars observed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer at distances lower than 400 pc from the Sun. For the first time, this work utilizes the entire INES database to extract stellar and IS information in a systematic way from homogeneous data. Stars were classified into seven groups: normal (MS and subgiant), giant, peculiar, emission line, Algols, pre-main sequence or Herbig Ae/Be, and shell stars. Only 10 normal stars, located beyond 90 pc, show weak Si IV and C IV absorptions and are clustered around the direction of Sco-Cen, while 85 located closer than 90 pc, as well as another 89 beyond 90 pc, do not show any absorptions at all. We conclude that these highly ionized species originate most probably in the LISM, at 90 pc from the Sun, corresponding to the warm interaction zone (IZ), where the expanding Loop I super-shell and the Local Bubble collide. We base our results on a robust statistical analysis of both spectral types and spatial distributions of the different stellar groups we defined. Our estimated column densities N of both ions are similar to those obtained by other authors for distant stars, suggesting that these absorptions concentrate fundamentally in the IZ. A logarithmic correlation between N and the distance D confirms these results.

  17. An alternative scheme of angular-dispersion analyzers for high-resolution medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xian-Rong

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) optics with meV and sub-meV resolution has attracted considerable efforts in recent years. Meanwhile, there are also concerns or debates about the fundamental and feasibility of the involved schemes. Here the central optical component, the back-reflection angular-dispersion monochromator or analyzer, is analyzed. The results show that the multiple-beam diffraction effect together with transmission-induced absorption can noticeably reduce the diffraction efficiency, although it may not be a fatal threat. In order to improve the efficiency, a simple four-bounce analyzer is proposed that completely avoids these two adverse effects. The new scheme is illustrated to be a feasible alternative approach for developing meV- to sub-meV-resolution IXS spectroscopy.

  18. The Neutral Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Braun

    2005-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the physical conditions of the neutral medium within, and in the environments of, galaxies. The basic physical and morphological properties of the neutral medium within galaxy disks are now quite well-constrained. Systematic variations in temperature and phase-balance (of cool versus warm neutral gas) are indicated as a function of both radius and z-height. Interestingly, the cool medium line-widths are observed to be dominated by turbulent energy injection within cells of 10 pc to 1 kpc size. Deep new observations reveal that 5-10% of the neutral medium is associated within an extended halo which rotates more slowly and experiences radial inflow. Much of this component is likely to be associated with a ``galactic fountain'' type of phenomenon. However, compelling evidence is also accumulating for the importance of tidal disruption of satellites as well as continuous accretion (of both diffuse and discrete components) in fueling galaxy halos and disks. Continued fueling is even observed on scales of 100's of kpc in galaxy environments, where the neutral component is likely to be merely a trace constituent of a highly ionized plasma.

  19. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  20. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  1. Defining the Problem Known Environment Unknown Environment Improvements Reinforcement Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjellström, Hedvig

    Defining the Problem Known Environment Unknown Environment Improvements Reinforcement Learning Bel¨oningsbaserad Inl¨arning Defining the Problem Known Environment Unknown Environment Improvements 1 Defining the Problem Framework Role of Reward Simplifying Assumptions Central Concepts 2 Known Environment Bellmans

  2. Clearing a Pile of Unknown Objects using Interactive Perception

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Dov

    Clearing a Pile of Unknown Objects using Interactive Perception Dov Katz, Moslem Kazemi, J. Andrew of clearing a pile of unknown objects using an autonomous interactive perception approach. Our robot hypothesizes the boundaries of objects in a pile of unknown objects (object segmentation) and verifies its

  3. Froissart Bound on Inelastic Cross Section Without Unknown Constants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, André

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assuming that axiomatic local field theory results hold for hadron scattering, Andr\\'e Martin and S. M. Roy recently obtained absolute bounds on the D-wave below threshold for pion-pion scattering and thereby determined the scale of the logarithm in the Froissart bound on total cross sections in terms of pion mass only. Previously, Martin proved a rigorous upper bound on the inelastic cross-section $\\sigma_{inel}$ which is one-fourth of the corresponding upper bound on $\\sigma_{tot}$, and Wu, Martin,Roy and Singh improved the bound by adding the constraint of a given $\\sigma_{tot}$. Here we use unitarity and analyticity to determine, without any high energy approximation, upper bounds on energy averaged inelastic cross sections in terms of low energy data in the crossed channel. These are Froissart-type bounds without any unknown coefficient or unknown scale factors and can be tested experimentally. Alternatively, their asymptotic forms,together with the Martin-Roy absolute bounds on pion-pion D-waves below t...

  4. Data series subtraction with unknown and unmodeled background noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Vitale; Giuseppe Congedo; Rita Dolesi; Valerio Ferroni; Mauro Hueller; Daniele Vetrugno; William Joseph Weber; Heather Audley; Karsten Danzmann; Ingo Diepholz; Martin Hewitson; Natalia Korsakova; Luigi Ferraioli; Ferran Gibert; Nikolaos Karnesis; Miquel Nofrarias; Henri Inchauspe; Eric Plagnol; Oliver Jennrich; Paul W. McNamara; Michele Armano; James Ira Thorpe; Peter Wass

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), ESA's precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory, will measure the degree to which two test-masses can be put into free-fall, aiming to demonstrate a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below 30 fm/s$^2$/Hz$^{1/2}$ around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the measured relative acceleration data series must be fit to other various measured time series data. This fitting is required in different experiments, from system identification of the test mass and satellite dynamics to the subtraction of noise contributions from measured known disturbances. In all cases, the background noise, described by the PSD of the fit residuals, is expected to be coloured, requiring that we perform such fits in the frequency domain. This PSD is unknown {\\it a priori}, and a high accuracy estimate of this residual acceleration noise is an essential output of our analysis. In this paper we present a fitting method based on Bayesian parameter estimation with an unknown frequency-dependent background noise. The method uses noise marginalisation in connection with averaged Welch's periodograms to achieve unbiased parameter estimation, together with a consistent, non-parametric estimate of the residual PSD. Additionally, we find that the method is equivalent to some implementations of iteratively re-weighted least-squares fitting. We have tested the method both on simulated data of known PSD, and to analyze differential acceleration from several experiments with the LISA Pathfinder end-to-end mission simulator.

  5. Jet Fragmentation in Medium and Vacuum with the PHENIX Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Nguyen for the PHENIX Collaboration

    2010-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most active areas of investigation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is the study of the jet quenching phenomenon whereby hard partons lose their energy as they traverse the hot, dense matter created in such collisions. Strong parton energy loss has been observed in central nucleus-nucleus collisions as evidenced by the a large suppression of the yield of high pT hadrons as compared to the expected yield based on measurements in p+p collisions. Moreover, measurements of back-to-back correlations of charged hadrons suggest that jet shapes are strongly modified modified by the medium. The quantitative interpretation of single and di-hadron measurements is, however, complicated by the fact that the initial parton energy is unknown. A more informative measurement would be one in which the initial parton energy is known, allowing the determination of the fragmentation function, which may be effectively modified from its vacuum form by the presence of the medium. Two measurements in which the initial parton energy may be estimated are discussed in these proceedings: jet reconstruction and two- particle correlations using direct photons. Jet reconstruction in nuclear collisions is challenging due to the large background of soft particles, fluctuations of which give rise to fake jets. Direct photons can be used to estimate the initial parton energy of the recoil jet without recourse to jet reconstruction algorithms. However, such studies suffer from a smaller rate and the direct photon signal must be disentangled from a large background of decay photons. We present jet reconstruction results which use an algorithm suitable for a high multiplicity environment. We also present results of two-particle correlations using direct photons. These results are discussed in the context of medium modification to the fragmentation function.

  6. Multi-unit Auctions with Unknown Supply [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saberi, Amin

    Multi-unit Auctions with Unknown Supply [Extended Abstract] Mohammad Mahdian Microsoft Research Redmond, WA, USA mahdian@microsoft.com Amin Saberi Stanford University Stanford, CA, USA saberi

  7. Defining the Problem Known Environment Unknown Environment Improvements Reinforcement Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjellström, Hedvig

    Defining the Problem Known Environment Unknown Environment Improvements Reinforcement Learning Bel¨oningsbaserad Inl¨arning #12;Defining the Problem Known Environment Unknown Environment Improvements 1 Defining the Problem Framework Role of Reward Simplifying Assumptions Central Concepts 2 Known Environment Bellman

  8. Defining the Problem Known Environment Unknown Environment Improvements Reinforcement Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjellström, Hedvig

    Defining the Problem Known Environment Unknown Environment Improvements Reinforcement Learning Bel¨oningsbaserad Inl¨arning #12;Defining the Problem Known Environment Unknown Environment Improvements 1 Defining the Problem Framework Role of Reward Simplifying Assumptions Central Concepts 2 Known Environment Bellmans

  9. THE MULTIWAVELENGTH SURVEY BY YALE-CHILE (MUSYC): DEEP MEDIUM-BAND OPTICAL IMAGING AND HIGH-QUALITY 32-BAND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS IN THE ECDF-S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Urry, C. Megan; Brammer, Gabriel [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Taniguchi, Yoshi [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Taylor, Edward; Damen, Maaike [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Treister, Ezequiel [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Cobb, Bethany E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Schawinski, Kevin [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronoma, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Murayama, Takashi [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Saito, Tomoki [Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sumikawa, Kentaro, E-mail: carolin.cardamone@astro.yale.ed [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present deep optical 18-medium-band photometry from the Subaru telescope over the {approx}30' x 30' Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, as part of the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). This field has a wealth of ground- and space-based ancillary data, and contains the GOODS-South field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. We combine the Subaru imaging with existing UBVRIzJHK and Spitzer IRAC images to create a uniform catalog. Detecting sources in the MUSYC 'BVR' image we find {approx}40,000 galaxies with R {sub AB} < 25.3, the median 5{sigma} limit of the 18 medium bands. Photometric redshifts are determined using the EAzY code and compared to {approx}2000 spectroscopic redshifts in this field. The medium-band filters provide very accurate redshifts for the (bright) subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts, particularly at 0.1 < z < 1.2 and at z {approx}> 3.5. For 0.1 < z < 1.2, we find a 1{sigma} scatter in {Delta}z/(1 + z) of 0.007, similar to results obtained with a similar filter set in the COSMOS field. As a demonstration of the data quality, we show that the red sequence and blue cloud can be cleanly identified in rest-frame color-magnitude diagrams at 0.1 < z < 1.2. We find that {approx}20% of the red sequence galaxies show evidence of dust emission at longer rest-frame wavelengths. The reduced images, photometric catalog, and photometric redshifts are provided through the public MUSYC Web site.

  10. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, J.S.

    1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy. 37 figs.

  11. Method for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, John S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  12. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, John S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  13. Holographic Nucleons in the Nuclear Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bum-Hoon Lee; Chanyong Park

    2015-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the nucleon's rest mass and dispersion relation in the nuclear medium which is holographically described by the thermal charged AdS geometry. On this background, the chiral condensate plays an important role to determine the nucleon's mass in both the vacuum and the nuclear medium. It also significantly modifies the nucleon's dispersion relation. The nucleon's mass in the high density regime increases with density as expected, while in the low density regime it slightly decreases. We further study the splitting of the nucleon's masses caused by the isospin interaction with the nuclear medium.

  14. Medium Effects in Parton Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Detmold, Huey-Wen Lin

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A defining experiment of high-energy physics in the 1980s was that of the EMC collaboration where it was first observed that parton distributions in nuclei are non-trivially related to those in the proton. This result implies that the presence of the nuclear medium plays an important role and an understanding of this from QCD has been an important goal ever since Here we investigate analogous, but technically simpler, effects in QCD and examine how the lowest moment of the pion parton distribution is modified by the presence of a Bose-condensed gas of pions or kaons.

  15. Incompatibility of Contrast Medium and Trisodium Citrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delcour, Christian, E-mail: christian.delcour@chu-charleroi.be; Bruninx, Guy [CHU de Charleroi, Department of Radiology (Belgium)] [CHU de Charleroi, Department of Radiology (Belgium)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To test the compatibility of trisodium citrate, a catheter lock solution, with iodinated contrast medium. Iohexol, iobitridol, iodixanol, ioxaglate, ioxithalamate, iomeprol, and iopromide were tested. In all tests, 2 ml of contrast medium were mixed with 2 ml of trisodium citrate solution. Iodixanol and ioxaglate provoked a highly viscous gluelike precipitation when mixed with trisodium citrate. A brief transient precipitate was observed with iohexol, iomeprol, and ioxithalamate. Permanent precipitation occurred with iobitridol and iopromide. One must be aware of the potential for precipitation when contrast medium is mixed with trisodium citrate solution. Before trisodium citrate solution is injected, the catheter should be thoroughly flushed with saline if a contrast medium has previously been injected through it.

  16. Stochastic Online Learning for Network Optimization under Unknown Random Weights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Qing

    the results to general network optimization problems (e.g., minimum spanning tree and dominating set minimum spanning tree and minimum (connected) dominating set. Consider a communication network where1 Stochastic Online Learning for Network Optimization under Unknown Random Weights Keqin Liu

  17. Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Unknown Bridge Foundation Depth Determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arjwech, Rungroj

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    and spread footings. Both known to unknown foundations were investigated. The geotechnical test site is used as an experimental site for 2D and 3D ERI. The data acquisition is carried out along 2D profile with a linear array in the dipole-dipole configuration...

  18. Overall, in this case, Prob(happy, unknown employment)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerts, Diederik

    Overall, in this case, Prob(happy, unknown employment) = |M · U(t) · |cemployedl|2 · Prob(employed) + |M · U(t) · |c employed l|2 · Prob( employed). It should be clear that in such a case" reasoner is still uncertain about whether she will be employed. The crucial difference is that in this case

  19. Photometric Stereo with General, Unknown Lighting Ronen Basri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, David

    Photometric Stereo with General, Unknown Lighting Ronen Basri£ David Jacobs Dept. of Computer properties of an object using multiple images taken with a fixed viewpoint and variable lighting conditions. This work has primarily relied on the presence of a single point source of light in each image. In this pa

  20. Remote implementations of partially unknown quantum operations of multiqubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Min Wang

    2006-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and prove the protocol of remote implementations of partially unknown quantum operations of multiqubits belonging to the restricted sets. Moreover, we obtain the general and explicit forms of restricted sets and present evidence of their uniqueness and optimization. In addition, our protocol has universal recovery operations that can enhance the power of remote implementations of quantum operations.

  1. Iterative blind separation of Gaussian data of unknown order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Amy, 1980-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for blind separation of noisy jointly Gaussian multivariate signals X is presented, where X = AP + N, X is an observed set of vectors, A is the mixing matrix, P is the unknown signal matrix, and N is white noise. ...

  2. The positron density in the intergalactic medium and the galactic 511 keV line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vecchio; A. C. Vincent; J. Miralda-Escude; C. Pena-Garay

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 511 keV electron-positron annihilation line, most recently characterized by the INTEGRAL/SPI experiment, is highly concentrated towards the Galactic centre. Its origin remains unknown despite decades of scrutiny. We propose a novel scenario in which known extragalactic positron sources such as radio jets of active galactic nuclei (AGN) fill the intergalactic medium with MeV e+e- pairs, which are then accreted into the Milky Way. We show that interpreting the diffuse cosmic radio background (CRB) as arising from radio sources with characteristics similar to the observed cores and radio lobes in powerful AGN jets suggests that the intergalactic positron-to-electron ratio could be as high as 10^{-5}, although this can be decreased if the CRB is not all produced by pairs and if not all positrons escape to the intergalactic medium. Assuming an accretion rate of one solar mass per year of matter into the Milky Way, a positron-to-electron ratio of only 10^{-7} is already enough to account for much of the 511 keV emission of the Galaxy. A simple spherical accretion model predicts an emission profile highly peaked in the central bulge, consistent with INTEGRAL observations. However, a realistic model of accretion with angular momentum would likely imply a more extended emission over the disk, with uncertainties depending on the magnetic field structure and turbulence in the galactic halo.

  3. High Resolution Spectroscopy of X-ray Quasars: Searching for the X-ray Absorption from the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Taotao

    We present a survey of six low- to moderate-redshift quasars with Chandra and XMM-Newton. The primary goal is to search for the narrow X-ray absorption lines produced by highly ionized metals in the warm-hot intergalactic ...

  4. Fermion dispersion in axion medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Mikheev; E. N. Narynskaya

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of a fermion with the dense axion medium is investigated for the purpose of finding an axion medium effect on the fermion dispersion. It is shown that axion medium influence on the fermion dispersion under astrophysical conditions is negligible small if the correct Lagrangian of the axion-fermion interaction is used.

  5. Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. -S. B. Lee; H. -S. Sim

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved, by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

  6. The positron density in the intergalactic medium and the galactic 511 keV line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vecchio, A; Miralda-Escude, J; Pena-Garay, C

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 511 keV electron-positron annihilation line, most recently characterized by the INTEGRAL/SPI experiment, is highly concentrated towards the Galactic centre. Its origin remains unknown despite decades of scrutiny. We propose a novel scenario in which known extragalactic positron sources such as radio jets of active galactic nuclei (AGN) fill the intergalactic medium with MeV e+e- pairs, which are then accreted into the Milky Way. We show that interpreting the diffuse cosmic radio background (CRB) as arising from radio sources with characteristics similar to the observed cores and radio lobes in powerful AGN jets suggests that the intergalactic positron-to-electron ratio could be as high as 10^{-5}, although this can be decreased if the CRB is not all produced by pairs and if not all positrons escape to the intergalactic medium. Assuming an accretion rate of one solar mass per year of matter into the Milky Way, a positron-to-electron ratio of only 10^{-7} is already enough to account for much of the 511 keV...

  7. Ray Theory for a Locally Layered Random Medium G. Papanicolaou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papanicolaou, George C.

    variations in the medium parameters. The pulse is generated by a point source and the medium is modeled the source and the point of observation. The ray is determined by high frequency asymptotics (geometrical is motivated by wave propagation in sedimentary rock. Here the sedimentary cycles produce structures

  8. Remote implementation of partially unknown operations and its entanglement costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu-Hui Luo; An-Min Wang

    2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the generalized version of Wang's protocol[A.M.Wang, Phys.Rev.A 74,032317 (2006)] for the remote implementation(sometimes referred to as quantum remote control) of partially unknown quantum operations. The protocol only requires no more than half of the entanglements used in Bidirectional Quantum State Teleportation. We also propose a protocol for another form of quantum remote control. It can remotely implement a unitary operation which is a combination of the projective representations of a group. Moreover, we prove that the Schmidt rank of the entanglements cannot not be less than the number of controlled parameters of the operations, which for the first time gives a lower bound on entanglement costs in remote implementation of quantum operations.

  9. Optimal transfer of an unknown state via a bipartite operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang Liu; Yu Guo; D. L. Zhou

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental task in quantum information science is to transfer an unknown state from particle $A$ to particle $B$ (often in remote space locations) by using a bipartite quantum operation $\\mathcal{E}^{AB}$. We suggest the power of $\\mathcal{E}^{AB}$ for quantum state transfer (QST) to be the maximal average probability of QST over the initial states of particle $B$ and the identifications of the state vectors between $A$ and $B$. We find the QST power of a bipartite quantum operations satisfies four desired properties between two $d$-dimensional Hilbert spaces. When $A$ and $B$ are qubits, the analytical expressions of the QST power is given. In particular, we obtain the exact results of the QST power for a general two-qubit unitary transformation.

  10. Simulated NMIS Imaging Data for an Unknown Object

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Mark E [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents simulated Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging data for an unclassified object, whose characteristics are initially unknown to the reader. This data will be used to test various analysis capabilities and was created with a simple deterministic ray-tracing algorithm. NMIS is a time-dependent coincidence counting system that is used to characterize both fissile and non-fissile materials undergoing nondestructive assay. NMIS characterizes materials by interrogating them with neutrons, either from an associated-particle deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator, which produces a time and directionally tagged monoenergetic beam of 14.1 MeV neutrons, or a time-tagged spontaneous fission source in an ionization chamber.

  11. Age correlation of petroleum of unknown source using biological markers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moldowan, J.M.; Jacobson, S.R.; Lee, C.Y. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., Richmond, CA (USA)); Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Determination of age constraints on petroleums from unknown sources provides a means of choosing among possible source rock candidates, predicting migration scenarios for oil, and determining the timing of its emplacement in the reservoir. A number of parameters used to assign such age constraints to petroleum have been suggested by geochemists. However, any constraining marker, regardless of age, may not be found in a particular facies because the parent organisms are absent in those sediments. Thus, the presence of a specific age correlation marker may be significant whereas its absence may not. The authors have investigated two markers for their age-correlation significance. Oleanane, a marker related to pentacyclic triterpanes in flowering plants (angiosperms) occurs in many Late Cretaceous or younger rocks and oils, even though angiosperm fossils are known in older rocks. A survey of a sequence of middle to upper Cretaceous rocks from Wyoming provides an example of a Late Cretaceous age for the onset of oleanane. However, a level of uncertainty exists for older Cretaceous rocks where a trace component with many similarities to oleanane (which could in fact be oleanane) can occur. C{sub 30}-steranes (24-n-propylcholestanes) have been used as a widely occurring marker for marine organic input to petroleum. A recent report postulates the origin of C{sub 30}-steranes from marine Sarcinochrysidales order of Chrysophycase (golden brown algae). Although the fossil record of these algae has not been recorded, their sample base indicates that C{sub 30} steranes, and therefore their parent organisms, originate in the Middle Ordovician.

  12. [Medium energy meson research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, K.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The activities of this group are primarily concerned with experiments using the Crystal Barrel Detector. This detector is installed and operating at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. QCD, the modem theory of the strong interaction, is reasonably well understood at high energies, but unfortunately, low-energy QCD is still not well understood, and is far from being adequately tested. The Crystal Barrel experiments are designed to provide some of the tests. The basic line of research involves meson spectroscopy, analyses bearing on the quark and/or gluon content of nuclear states, and the exploration of mechanisms and rules which govern p[bar p] annihilation dynamics. The Crystal Barrel Detector detects and identifies charged and neutral particles with a geometric acceptance close to 100%. The principal component of the detector is an array of 1,380 CsI(TI) crystals. These crystals surround a Jet Drift Chamber (JDC), located in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field, which measures the momentum and dE/dx of charged particles. One of the very interesting physics goals of the detector is a search for exotic mesonic states -- glueballs and hybrids. Annihilation at rest will be studied with both liquid and gaseous hydrogen targets. The gaseous target offers the possibility of triggering on atomic L-shell X rays so that specific initial angular momentum states can be studied.These topics as well as other related topics are discussed in this report.

  13. [Medium energy meson research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, K.M.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The activities of this group are primarily concerned with experiments using the Crystal Barrel Detector. This detector is installed and operating at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. QCD, the modem theory of the strong interaction, is reasonably well understood at high energies, but unfortunately, low-energy QCD is still not well understood, and is far from being adequately tested. The Crystal Barrel experiments are designed to provide some of the tests. The basic line of research involves meson spectroscopy, analyses bearing on the quark and/or gluon content of nuclear states, and the exploration of mechanisms and rules which govern p{bar p} annihilation dynamics. The Crystal Barrel Detector detects and identifies charged and neutral particles with a geometric acceptance close to 100%. The principal component of the detector is an array of 1,380 CsI(TI) crystals. These crystals surround a Jet Drift Chamber (JDC), located in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field, which measures the momentum and dE/dx of charged particles. One of the very interesting physics goals of the detector is a search for exotic mesonic states -- glueballs and hybrids. Annihilation at rest will be studied with both liquid and gaseous hydrogen targets. The gaseous target offers the possibility of triggering on atomic L-shell X rays so that specific initial angular momentum states can be studied.These topics as well as other related topics are discussed in this report.

  14. Lyman alpha Absorption Systems and the Intergalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Efstathiou; Joop Schaye; Tom Theuns

    2000-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The last few years have seen a dramatic improvement in our understanding of the origin of Lyman alpha absorption systems. Hydrodynamic numerical simulations of cold dark matter dominated universes have shown that the many properties of the Lyman alpha absorption systems can be explained by a photoionized, space-filling, intergalactic medium. Lyman alpha lines offer promising probes of the photoionizing background, the amplitude of the mass fluctuations at high redshift and the evolution of the equation of state of the intergalactic medium.

  15. Fully defined saltwater medium for cultivation of and toxicity testing with marine copepod Acartia tonsa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusk, K.O.; Wollenberger, L.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The marine copepod Acartia tonsa and the food organism Rhodomonas salina were cultured in fully defined medium for 8 months without problems. Both organisms were also cultured in natural seawater and in a commercial salt mixture for at least two generations before the sensitivities of A. tonsa to bisphenol A, potassium dichromate, and 3,5-dichlorophenol in the three different media were compared and found to be at the same level. The defined medium may be used for cultivation and testing, thus avoiding unknown background contaminants.

  16. Glasma Evolution in Partonic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Nazarenko

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine a scenario of the abelianized Glasma evolution with accounting for back-reaction of partonic medium in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We announce that such a generalization leads to the instabilities and the presence of negative color conductivity in the system.

  17. Information and treatment of unknown correlations in the combination of measurements using the BLUE method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Valassi; Roberto Chierici

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the effect of large positive correlations in the combinations of several measurements of a single physical quantity using the Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE) method. We suggest a new approach for comparing the relative weights of the different measurements in their contributions to the combined knowledge about the unknown parameter, using the well-established concept of Fisher information. We argue, in particular, that one We discuss the effect of large positive correlations in the combinations of several measurements of a single physical quantity using the Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE) method. We suggest a new approach for comparing the relative weights of the different measurements in their contributions to the combined knowledge about the unknown parameter, using the well-established concept of Fisher information. We argue, in particular, that one contribution to information comes from the collective interplay of the measurements through their correlations and that this contribution cannot be attributed to any of the individual measurements alone. We show that negative coefficients in the BLUE weighted average invariably indicate the presence of a regime of high correlations, where the effect of further increasing some of these correlations is that of reducing the error on the combined estimate. In these regimes, we stress that assuming fully correlated systematic uncertainties is not a truly conservative choice, and that the correlations provided as input to BLUE combinations need to be assessed with extreme care instead. In situations where the precise evaluation of these correlations is impractical, or even impossible, we provide tools to help experimental physicists perform more conservative combinations.

  18. Message Terminating Algorithms for Anonymous Rings of Unknown Israel Cidon \\Lambda and Yuval Shavitt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shavitt, Yuval

    Message Terminating Algorithms for Anonymous Rings of Unknown Size Israel Cidon \\Lambda and Yuval Abstract We consider a ring of an unknown number of anonymous processors. We focus on message terminating algorithms, i.e., algorithms that terminate when no more messages are present in the system

  19. Quasi-optimal Coverage Algorithm for Simple Robot in an Unknown Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Quasi-optimal Coverage Algorithm for Simple Robot in an Unknown Environment Dominique DUHAUT Lab algorithm to make a quasi-optimal coverage of an unknown environment. Under some hypothesis, we demonstrate that it is possible to build a map of the environment and to cover it, without passing two times in the same space

  20. Suppression pattern of neutral pions at high transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV and constraints on medium transport coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PHENIX Collaboration; A. Adare

    2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    For Au + Au collisions at 200 GeV we measure neutral pion production with good statistics for transverse momentum, p_T, up to 20 GeV/c. A fivefold suppression is found, which is essentially constant for 5 transport coefficient of the medium, e.g. \\mean(q^hat) in the parton quenching model. The spectral shape is similar for all collision classes, and the suppression does not saturate in Au+Au collisions; instead, it increases proportional to the number of participating nucleons, as N_part^2/3.

  1. PAPER-64 Constraints On Reionization II: The Temperature Of The z=8.4 Intergalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pober, Jonathan C; Parsons, Aaron R; McQuinn, Matthew; Aguirre, James E; Bernardi, Gianni; Bradley, Richard F; Carilli, Chris L; Cheng, Carina; DeBoer, David R; Dexter, Matthew R; Furlanetto, Steven R; Grobbelaar, Jasper; Horrell, Jasper; Jacobs, Daniel C; Klima, Patricia J; Kohn, Saul A; Liu, Adrian; MacMahon, David H E; Maree, Matthys; Mesinger, Andrei; Moore, David F; Razavi-Ghods, Nima; Stefan, Irina I; Walbrugh, William P; Walker, Andre; Zheng, Haoxuan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present constraints on both the kinetic temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z=8.4, and on models for heating the IGM at high-redshift with X-ray emission from the first collapsed objects. These constraints are derived using a semi-analytic method to explore the new measurements of the 21 cm power spectrum from the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), which were presented in a companion paper, Ali et al. (2015). Twenty-one cm power spectra with amplitudes of hundreds of mK^2 can be generically produced if the kinetic temperature of the IGM is significantly below the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB); as such, the new results from PAPER place lower limits on the IGM temperature at z=8.4. Allowing for the unknown ionization state of the IGM, our measurements find the IGM temperature to be above ~5 K for neutral fractions between 10% and 85%, above ~7 K for neutral fractions between 15% and 80%, or above ~10 K for neutral fractions betw...

  2. The Interstellar Medium Surrounding the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    interstellar medium (ISM) suggest an in- homogeneous Galactic environment, with shocks that destroy grainsThe Interstellar Medium Surrounding the Sun Priscilla C. Frisch,1 Seth Redfield,2 and Jonathan D by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 0066-4146/11/0922-0237$20.00 Keywords interstellar medium

  3. Vision-based guidance and control of a hovering vehicle in unknown, gps-denied environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Gregory

    This paper describes the system architecture and core algorithms for a quadrotor helicopter that uses vision data to navigate an unknown, indoor, GPS-denied environment. Without external sensing, an estimation system that ...

  4. unknown title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Composite fuel tanks lightweight vehicles allowing alternative fuels to be carried onboard plastics autos Composite fuel tanks lightweight vehicles allowing alternative fuels to be carried onboard Alternative fuel vehicles using gaseous material (i.e., compressed natural gas [CNG], hydrogen, etc.) require strong, safe, lightweight tanks to maintain “normal ” vehicle size, weight, and driving ranges. Traditional alternative fuel tanks are made of common grade steel and, over time, the gas can migrate into the metal. This makes the metal brittle, fatiguing it to the point that gas, such as hydrogen, can leak from the tank. 1 Higher quality steel can prevent embrittlement, but can raise the

  5. unknown title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virtuelle Realität; Xd Vrml; G. Zachmann; Verhalten Und Animationen; Vorteile Von Xd

    ? Die Spezifikation von VRML ist an einigen Stellen nicht eindeutig ? In X3D präzisiert ? X3D hat 100+ Knoten (aufgeteilt in Components / Profiles) ? VRML hat nur 54 Knoten ? X3D hat 3 verschiedene sog. "File Encodings": ? Classic: sieht aus wie VRML; Suffix =.wrl oder.x3dv- Jede Software, die X3D lesen kann, kann (im Prinzip) auch VRML lesen

  6. unknown title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geoffrey J. Barnes Andrea Litva

    The social impact of land contamination: reflections on the development of a community advocacy and counselling service following the Weston village incident

  7. unknown title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Scoglio; J. C. De Oliveira; G. Uhl

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    www.elsevier.com/locate/comnet Optimal policy for label switched path setup in MPLS networks q T. Anjali a,*

  8. unknown title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    In this study, our main focus is on finding alternative fuel resources and utilizing them to eliminate their negative effects. Because of the limitations of petroleum products, the used engine oils can be used in engine as engine oil after purifying it. Production of gasoline like fuel from used engine oil is involving chemical filtrations and blending process. The GLF is produced from waste engine lubrication oil (WLO) using the pyrolitic distillation method. Firstly, the WLO collected in a tank was particulates removed by a refining process. The refined lubrication oil samples were taken into a reactor and blended with some catalysts, and purified from dust, heavy carbon soot, metal particles, gum-type materials and other impurities. A fuel production system mainly consisting of a seven main parts using are waste oil storage tank, filters, a reactor, oil pump, a product storage tank, thermostats and control panel. The characteristic such as density, viscosity, flash point, heating value, sulphur content and distillation of the GLF are deliberated. The gasoline like fuel can be used in gasoline engine without any problem and increases the engine performance.

  9. unknown title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    The need for used oil conservation, recycling, and ultimate nonpolluting disposal has been a matter of increasing concern since the early 1960s. The oil embargo of 1974, the energy crisis which emerged in 1979, and as much as a tenfold increase in the price of imported crude oil have even more strongly emphasized the need for oil conservation and recycling. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the U.S. annually generates approximately 1.O billion gallons of recoverable used oil (Table I). * Approximately 70 million gallons are rerefined as lubricating oils. An estimated 60 million gallons are reprocessed for use as metalworking oils and other industrial oils and an estimated 150 million gallons are sprayed on roads and for other uses. Approximately 500 million gallons are used as fuel, usually mixed with virgin residual and distillate fuels.

  10. unknown title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is a schematic of the fission theory for formation of planets and major moons. The left column is the

  11. unknown title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lalmuanpuia Vanchhawng; P. C. Rohmingliana; R. K. Thapa; R. Mishra; B. K. Sahoo; B. Zoliana; Y. S. Mayya

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radon ( 222 Rn), being a radioactive gas has its parent nucleus originated from 238 U. From 238 U there is a series of 14 decays to form a stable nucleus of 206 Pb. The equilibrium factor in its simple term may be defined as ratio of the amount of progeny nucleus to that of a parent nucleus. Measurement of Equilibrium Factor (F-factor) for radon has been carried out in 24 dwellings in Aizawl City, which were specifically selected according to the site location and materials used for construction of the dwellings. In measuring F-factor for radon we have made use of absorber-mounted nuclear track detectors (LR-115) which selectively register the tracks due to alpha emissions from 214 Po which is the 222 Rn progeny species. This detector is termed as DRPS (direct radon progeny sensor). DRPS is used for estimating the Equilibrium Equivalent Radon Concentration (EERC). The concentration of 222 Rn is measured by using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (LR-115) mounted in a BARC type twin cup dosimeter. The F-factor for radon is then calculated using the measured EERC and measured concentrations of radon. Our measurement shows the F-factor for radon in Aizawl city is 0.3, which is close to the worldwide value (0.4) for indoor conditions. Key words: DRPS; EERC; equilibrium factor; radon; progeny, SSNTD.

  12. Energy trapping and shock disintegration in a composite granular medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Daraio; V. F. Nesterenko; E. B. Herbold; S. Jin

    2005-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Granular materials demonstrate a strongly nonlinear behavior influencing the wave propagation in the medium. We report the first experimental observation of impulse energy confinement and the resultant disintegration of shock and solitary waves. The medium consists of alternating ensambles of high-modulus vs orders of magnitude lower modulus chains of different masses. The trapped energy is contained within the "softer" portions of the composite chain and is slowly released in the form of weak, separated pulses over an extended period of time. This effect is enhanced by using a specific group assembly and superimposed force.

  13. Medium Modifications of Hadron Properties and Partonic Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. K. Brooks, S. Strauch, K. Tsushima

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chiral symmetry is one of the most fundamental symmetries in QCD. It is closely connected to hadron properties in the nuclear medium via the reduction of the quark condensate , manifesting the partial restoration of chiral symmetry. To better understand this important issue, a number of Jefferson Lab experiments over the past decade have focused on understanding properties of mesons and nucleons in the nuclear medium, often benefiting from the high polarization and luminosity of the CEBAF accelerator. In particular, a novel, accurate, polarization transfer measurement technique revealed for the first time a strong indication that the bound proton electromagnetic form factors in 4He may be modified compared to those in the vacuum. Second, the photoproduction of vector mesons on various nuclei has been measured via their decay to e+e- to study possible in-medium effects on the properties of the rho meson. In this experiment, no significant mass shift and some broadening consistent with expected collisional broadening for the rho meson has been observed, providing tight constraints on model calculations. Finally, processes involving in-medium parton propagation have been studied. The medium modifications of the quark fragmentation functions have been extracted with much higher statistical accuracy than previously possible.

  14. Interaction of gravitational waves with an elastic solid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Carter

    2001-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents. 1. Introduction. 2. Kinematics of a Material Medium: Material Representation. 3. Kinematics of a Material Medium: Convected Differentials. 4. Kinematics of a Perfect Elastic Medium. 5. Small Gravitational Perturbations of an Elastic Medium.

  15. A pulser for medium-frequency modulated direct-current reactive sputter deposition of insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Hui

    for medium-frequency modulated direct-current dc reactive sputter deposition of electrical insulators at the target surface inherent to high- deposition-rate reactive sputtering of electrical insulators. TypicallyA pulser for medium-frequency modulated direct-current reactive sputter deposition of insulators G

  16. Ray Theory for a Locally Layered Random Medium K. S lna G. Papanicolaou y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papanicolaou, George C.

    variations in the medium parameters. The pulse is generated by a point source and the medium is modeled the source and the point of observation. The ray is determined by high frequency asymptotics (geometrical is motivated by wave propagation in sedimentary rock. Here the sedimentary cycles produce structures

  17. Magnetic and electric contributions to the energy loss in a dynamical QCD medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Djordjevic

    2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The computation of radiative energy loss in a finite size QCD medium with dynamical constituents is a key ingredient for obtaining reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. It was previously shown that energy loss in dynamical QCD medium is significantly higher compared to static QCD medium. To understand this difference, we here analyze magnetic and electric contributions to energy loss in dynamical QCD medium. We find that the significantly higher energy loss in the dynamical case is entirely due to appearance of magnetic contribution in the dynamical medium. While for asymptotically high energies, the energy loss in static and dynamical medium approach the same value, we find that the physical origin of the energy loss in these two cases is different.

  18. Enrichment of the Intracluster Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Thomas

    1998-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The relevance of galaxies of different luminosity and mass for the chemical enrichment of the intracluster medium (ICM) is analysed. For this purpose, I adopt the composite luminosity function of cluster galaxies from Trentham (1998), which exhibits a significant rise at the very faint end. The model - adopting a universal Salpeter IMF - is calibrated on reproducing the M_Fe/L_tot, M_Fe/M_*, and alpha/Fe ratios observed in clusters. Although the contribution to total luminosity and ICM metals peaks around L* galaxies (M* approx -20), faint objects with M_B>-18 still provide at least 30 per cent of the metals present in the ICM. In consistency with the solar alpha/Fe ratios determined by {ASCA}, the model predicts that 60 per cent of the ICM iron comes from Type Ia supernovae. The predicted slope of the relation between intracluster gas mass and cluster luminosity emerges shallower than the observed one, indicating that the fraction of primordial gas increases with cluster richness.

  19. A method for teleporting an unknown quantum state and its application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng-Li Yan; Hai-Rui Huo

    2005-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest a method for teleporting an unknown quantum state. In this method the sender Alice first uses a Controlled-Not operation on the particle in the unknown quantum state and an ancillary particle which she wants to send to the receiver Bob. Then she sends ancillary particle to Bob. When Alice is informed by Bob that the ancillary particle is received, she performs a local measurement on the particle and sends Bob the outcome of the local measurement via a classical channel. Depending on the outcome Bob can restore the unknown quantum state, which Alice destroyed, on the ancillary particle successfully. As an application of this method we propose a quantum secure direct communication protocol.

  20. A renewed look at eta' in medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngshin Kwon; Su Houng Lee; Kenji Morita; Gyuri Wolf

    2012-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We revisit the question of whether the U_A(1) symmetry is effectively restored in hot and dense medium. In particular, by generalizing the Witten-Veneziano formula to finite temperature, we investigate whether the mass of eta'-meson will change in medium due to the restoration of chiral symmetry.

  1. Axion-medium effect on fermion dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikheev, N. V., E-mail: mikheev@uniyar.ac.ru; Narynskaya, E. N., E-mail: elenan@uniyar.ac.r [Yaroslavl State University (Russian Federation)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of fermions with a dense axion medium is considered with the aim of studying the effect of the axionmediumon fermion dispersion. It is shown that, if use is made of a correct Lagrangian for axion-fermion interaction, the effect of a dense axion medium on fermion dispersion is negligible under real astrophysical conditions.

  2. Going Home Through an Unknown Street \\Lambda Alejandro L'opezOrtiz y Sven Schuierer z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López-Ortiz, Alex

    consider the problem of a robot traversing an unknown polygon with the aid of standard visibility. The robot has to find a path from a starting point s to a target point t. We provide upper and lower bounds on the ratio of the distance traveled by the robot in comparison to the length of a shortest path. Since

  3. Ontology based Holonic Diagnostic System (OHDS) for the Research and Control of Unknown Diseases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulieru, Mihaela

    Ontology based Holonic Diagnostic System (OHDS) for the Research and Control of Unknown Diseases Alberta, Canada Email: ulieru@ucalgary.ca Abstract - This paper presents an Ontology-based Holonic Diagnostic System (OHDS) that combines the advantages of the holonic paradigm with multi-agent system

  4. Kalman filtering with unknown inputs via optimal state estimation of singular systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Kalman filtering with unknown inputs via optimal state estimation of singular systems M. DAROUACH de Lorraine, 54400 COSNES ET ROMAIN, FRANCE A new method for designing a Kalman filter for linear the Kalman filter, it is generally assumed that all system parameters, noise covariances, and inputs

  5. Fault-Tolerant Exploration of an Unknown Dangerous Graph by Scattered Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flocchini, Paola

    Fault-Tolerant Exploration of an Unknown Dangerous Graph by Scattered Agents Paola Flocchini1 a network where there are dangerous sites (black holes) that eliminate any incoming searcher without leaving a discernible trace. Dangerous graph exploration (Dge) extends the Bhs problem to include dangerous links (black

  6. Direct adaptive suppression of multiple unknown vibrations using an inertial actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    principle and the Youla- Kucera parametrization. Index Terms-- direct adaptive regulation, internal model realization are practically constant. The correspond- ing "control plant model" to be used for control design are in the context of an adaptive regulation problem with a known plant model and an unknown disturbance model

  7. TURBO EQUALIZATIONWITH AN UNKNOWN CHANNEL SeongwookSong', Andrew C. Singer2,Koeng-MoSun?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Andrew C

    TURBO EQUALIZATIONWITH AN UNKNOWN CHANNEL SeongwookSong', Andrew C. Singer2,Koeng-MoSun? l t 2Univ the method of turbo equalization originally de- veloped by Douillard, et al. [3]. In its original form, turbo and without training data. The resultingjoint channeland data estimator is shown to outperform standard turbo

  8. The Application of Ultrasonic Energy into Liquid Mediums to Increase Effectiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, M. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of high frequency or ultrasonic vibrations transmitted into and through a suitable medium can increase solution effectiveness. This means that in a continuous cleaning process, ultrasonic activation of the cleaning solution can increase...

  9. Development of a Chemically Defined Medium to Assay the Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Inhye

    2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    twelve chemically-defined ingredients. In order to increase the bioavailability of hydrophobic chemical additives, such as the isoflavone genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), tween 80 was incorporated into the final medium at high levels (10% v...

  10. Polyacrylamide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madabhushi, Ramakrishna S.; Gammon, Stuart A.

    2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A polyacryalmide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The polyacryalmide medium comprises high molecular weight polyacrylamides (PAAm) having a viscosity average molecular weight (M.sub.v) of about 675-725 kDa were synthesized by conventional red-ox polymerization technique. Using this separation medium, capillary electrophoresis of BigDye DNA sequencing standard was performed. A single base resolution of .about.725 bases was achieved in .about.60 minute in a non-covalently coated capillary of 50 .mu.m i.d., 40 cm effective length, and a filed of 160 V/cm at 40.degree. C. The resolution achieved with this formulation to separate DNA under identical conditions is much superior (725 bases vs. 625 bases) and faster (60 min. vs. 75 min.) to the commercially available PAAm, such as supplied by Amersham. The formulation method employed here to synthesize PAAm is straight-forward, simple and does not require cumbersome methods such as emulsion polymerizaiton in order to achieve very high molecular weights. Also, the formulation here does not require separation of PAAm from the reaction mixture prior to reconstituting the polymer to a final concentration. Furthermore, the formulation here is prepared from a single average mol. wt. PAAm as opposed to the mixture of two different average mo. wt. PAAm previously required to achieve high resolution.

  11. Method to prepare nanoparticles on porous mediums

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vieth, Gabriel M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Dudney, Nancy J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to prepare porous medium decorated with nanoparticles involves contacting a suspension of nanoparticles in an ionic liquid with a porous medium such that the particles diffuse into the pores of the medium followed by heating the resulting composition to a temperature equal to or greater than the thermal decomposition temperature of the ionic liquid resulting in the removal of the liquid portion of the suspension. The nanoparticles can be a metal, an alloy, or a metal compound. The resulting compositions can be used as catalysts, sensors, or separators.

  12. Special light trajectories in optical medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslav Pardy

    2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fermat principle is used to define trajectories in nonhomogenous optical media. The Poincare model of the Lobachevskii geometry is derived. The index of refraction is determined for the light confined in the circular trajectory in the optical medium.

  13. Charmonium in medium: From correlators to experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xingbo; Rapp, Ralf.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We set up a framework in which in-medium charmonium properties are constrained by thermal lattice quantum chromodynamics and subsequently implemented into a thermal rate equation enabling the comparison with experimental data in heavy-ion collisions...

  14. Jet-mass Dependence of the in-Medium Shower Modification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorsten Renk

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    While the modification of jets by a medium as created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is often thought of as a phenomenon affecting a hard near on-shell parton and hence treated as partonic energy loss, a more realistic view is to think of the medium effect as a relatively small correction to the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum radiation pattern which reduces the initial high virtuality of hard partons and leads to the development of a shower. The uncertainty relation can be used to argue that a significant part of this shower is developed even before a medium can be formed. The initial virtuality of a shower-initiating parton is reflected in the final state in the measured invariant mass of a jet - high mass jets are characterized by more branchings, higher multiplicity and a wider angular structure. Since most of this structure is determined before the medium affects the jet, selecting a particular jet mass range strongly biases the partonic configuration that enters the medium, and thus the medium is expected to modify high mass jets more strongly than low mass jets. In this work, this scenario is explored using the in-medium shower evolution code YaJEM and a possible strategy for a measurement is suggested.

  15. Medium energy nuclear physics research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UMass group has concentrated on using electromagnetic probes, particularly the electron in high-energy scattering experiments at the Stanford Liner Accelerator Center (SLAC). Plans are also being made for high energy work at the Continuous Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The properties of this accelerator should permit a whole new class of coincidence experiments to be carried out. At SLAC UMass has made major contributions toward the plans for a cluster-jet gas target and detector system at the 16 GeV PEP storage ring. For the future CEBAF accelerator, tests were made of the feasibility of operating wire drift chambers in the vicinity of a continuous electron beam at the University Illinois microtron. At the same time a program of studies of the nuclear structure of more complex nuclei has been continued at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center and in Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K laboratory. At the MIT-Bates Accelerator, because of an unforeseen change in beam scheduling as a result of problems with the T{sub 20} experiment, the UMass group was able to complete data acquisition on experiments involving 180{degrees} elastic magnetic scattering on {sup 117}Sn and {sup 41}Ca. A considerable effort has been given to preparations for a future experiment at Bates involving the high-resolution threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron. The use of these chambers should permit a high degree of discrimination against background events in the measurement of the almost neutrino-like small cross sections that are expected. In Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K facility, single arm (e,e{prime}) measurements were made in November of 1987 on {sup 10}B in order to better determine the p{sub 3/2} wave function from the transition from the J{sup pi} = 3{sup +} ground state to the O{sup +} excited state at 1.74 MeV. In 1988, (e,e{prime}p) coincidence measurements on {sup 10}B were completed. The objective was to obtain information on the p{sub 3/2} wave function by another means.

  16. Study of solar and other unknown anti-neutrino fluxes with Borexino at LNGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Bellini; Borexino Collaboration

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the search for anti-neutrinos of yet unknown origin with the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. In particular, a hypothetical anti-neutrino flux from the Sun is investigated. Anti-neutrinos are detected through the neutron inverse $\\beta$ decay reaction in a large liquid organic scintillator target. We set a new upper limit for a hypothetical solar $\\bar{\

  17. The Baryon Catastrophe and the multiphase intracluster medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. F. Gunn; P. A. Thomas

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the theories and observations which together have led to the concept of the Baryon Catastrophe: observations of the baryon fraction on the scale of clusters of galaxies appear to be at least three times as high as the universal baryon fraction predicted by the theory of primordial nucleosynthesis in a flat, $\\Omega_0 = 1$, universe. We investigate whether this discrepancy could be eliminated by treating the intracluster gas as a multiphase medium, and find that this treatment both lowers the calculated mass of gas in a cluster and increases the inferred gravitational potential. These combined effects can reduce the calculated baryon fraction by between a quarter and a half: the precise amount depends upon the volume fraction distribution of density phases in the gas but is independent of the temperature profile across the cluster. Thus moving to a multiphase intracluster medium cannot resolve the Baryon Catastrophe by itself; other possible causes and explanations are discussed.

  18. Charmonium in a hot medium: melting vs absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Z. Kopeliovich; I. K. Potashnikova; Ivan Schmidt; M. Siddikov

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A charmonium produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC propagates through a dense co-moving matter with a rather high relative momentum, =4-10GeV^2. In spite of Debye screening of the binding potential, the charmonium survives with a substantial probability, even if the c-cbar potential is completely screened in the hot environment. In addition, the color-exchange interaction with the medium is another important source of charmonium suppression. Attenuation in a hot medium caused by both effects is evaluated by means of the path integral technique, which requires ability of boosting the binding potential to a moving reference frame. This problem is solved in the approximation of small intrinsic velocities of the charmed quarks.

  19. Reconstruction of an unknown cavity with Robin boundary condition inside a heat conductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gen Nakamura; Haibing Wang

    2015-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Active thermography is a non-destructive testing technique to detect the internal structure of a heat conductor, which is widely applied in industrial engineering. In this paper, we consider the problem of identifying an unknown cavity with Robin boundary condition inside a heat conductor from boundary measurements. To set up the inverse problem mathematically, we first state the corresponding forward problem and show its well-posedness in an anisotropic Sobolev space by the integral equation method. Then, taking the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map as mathematically idealized measured data for the active thermography, we present a linear sampling method for reconstructing the unknown Robin-type cavity and give its mathematical justification by using the layer potential argument. In addition, we analyze the indicator function used in this method and show its pointwise asymptotic behavior by investigating the reflected solution of the fundamental solution. From our asymptotic analysis, we can establish a pointwise reconstruction scheme for the boundary of the cavity, and can also know the distance to the unknown cavity as we probe it from its inside.

  20. Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

  1. Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging...

  2. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation 2011 DOE...

  3. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  4. alkaline medium peliculas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    38 The Local Interstellar Medium Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general...

  5. assessing short medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    W. 66 The Local Interstellar Medium Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general...

  6. aeruginosa culture medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    W. 95 The Local Interstellar Medium Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general...

  7. activation depolarizes medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    W. 173 The Local Interstellar Medium Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general...

  8. Removal of carbon tetrachloride from a layered porous medium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon tetrachloride from a layered porous medium by means of soil vapor extraction enhanced by desiccation and water Removal of carbon tetrachloride from a layered porous medium...

  9. Removal of Carbon Tetrachloride from a Layered Porous Medium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Tetrachloride from a Layered Porous Medium by Means of Soil Vapor Extraction Enhanced by Desiccation and Water Removal of Carbon Tetrachloride from a Layered Porous Medium...

  10. Energy Recovery for Medium- and High-Temperature Industrial Furnaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krumm, E. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and potassium chloride salts and halogens. Off-line fluxing does not completely eliminate the presence of these materials, which cause corrosion and possibly plug ging. The oil and other foreign materials in alum inum scrap burn off, causing periodic...

  11. Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    between Industry - European Commission - Research Organisations * The JTI is a new management structure that will allow efficient organisation of the R&DD resources in...

  12. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with high-redshift quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calverley, Alexander Peter

    2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    . In Chapter 4 I present the first measurements of ?_bkg at z > 5 from the proximity effect. The UVB intensity declines smoothly with redshift over 4.6 < z < 6.4, implying a smooth evolution in the mean free path of ionizing photons. This suggests...

  13. In-medium properties of nucleon resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Krusche

    2004-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental results for the in-medium properties of nucleon resonances are discussed. The experiments were done with the TAPS detector at the tagged photon beam of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. Measured was the photoproduction of mesons (final states $\\pi^o X$, $\\eta X$, $2\\pi^oX$ and $\\pi^o\\pi^{\\pm}X$) from the nuclei $^{12}$C, $^{40}$Ca, $^{93}$Nb, and $^{208}$Pb up to the second resonance region. The results were analyzed in view of the in-medium properties of the P$_{33}$(1232), the D$_{13}$(1520), and the S$_{11}$(1535) resonances.

  14. In-Medium Properties of Hadrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Krusche

    2006-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A diverse experimental program for the study of the photoproduction of mesons off nuclei has been carried out - and is still running - at the Mainz MAMI and Bonn ELSA electron accelerators with the TAPS, Crystal Barrel, and Crystal Ball calorimeters. It is motivated as a detailed study of the in-medium properties of hadrons and the meson - nucleus interactions. Typical examples for the in-medium behavior of vector mesons ($\\omega$), scalar mesons ($\\sigma$), and nucleon resonances (P$_{33}$(1232), S$_{11}$(1535), D$_{15}$(1520)) are discussed. Special attention is paid to meson - nucleus final state interactions.

  15. A New Cavity Design For Medium Beta Acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feisi [Peking University, Beijing (China); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy duty or cw, superconducting proton and heavy ion accelerators are being proposed and constructed worldwide. The total length of the machine is one of the main drivers in terms of cost. Thus hwr and spoke cavities at medium beta are usually optimized to achieve low surface field and high gradient. A novel accelerating structure at beta=0.5 evolved from spoke cavity is proposed, with lower surface fields but slightly higher heat load. It would be an interesting option for pulsed and cw accelerators with beam energy of more than 200mev/u.

  16. Numerical simulations of the intergalactic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Theuns

    2002-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The intergalactic medium at redshifts 2--6 can be studied observationally through the absorption features it produces in the spectra of background quasars. Most of the UV-absorption lines arise in mildly overdense regions, which can be simulated reliably with current hydrodynamical simulations. Comparison of observed and simulated spectra allows one to put contraints on the model's parameters.

  17. Portable total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis in the identification of unknown laboratory hazards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ying, E-mail: liu.ying.48r@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Imashuku, Susumu; Sasaki, Nobuharu; Ze, Long; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Takano, Shotaro; Sohrin, Yoshiki [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Seki, Hiroko; Miyauchi, Hiroya [Kyoto Prefectural Technology Center for Small and Medium Enterprises, Chudojiminami machi, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8813 (Japan)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a portable total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer was used to analyze unknown laboratory hazards that precipitated on exterior surfaces of cooling pipes and fume hood pipes in chemical laboratories. With the aim to examine the accuracy of TXRF analysis for the determination of elemental composition, analytical results were compared with those of wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, x-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Detailed comparison of data confirmed that the TXRF method itself was not sufficient to determine all the elements (Z?>?11) contained in the samples. In addition, results suggest that XRD should be combined with XPS in order to accurately determine compound composition. This study demonstrates that at least two analytical methods should be used in order to analyze the composition of unknown real samples.

  18. Investigating the Selection of Example Sentences for Unknown Target Words in ICALL Reading Texts for L2 German 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segler, Thomas M.

    2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis considers possible criteria for the selection of example sentences for difficult or unknown words in reading texts for students of German as a Second Language (GSL). The examples are intended to be provided ...

  19. Simple scheme for encoding and decoding a qubit in unknown state for various topological codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Justyna ?odyga; Pawe? Mazurek; Andrzej Grudka; Micha? Horodecki

    2014-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a scheme for encoding and decoding an unknown state for CSS codes, based on syndrome measurements. We illustrate our method by means of Kitaev toric code, defected-lattice code, topological subsystem code and Haah 3D code. The protocol is local whenever in a given code the crossings between the logical operators consist of next neighbour pairs, which holds for the above codes. For subsystem code we also present scheme in a noisy case, where we allow for bit and phase-flip errors on qubits as well as state preparation and syndrome measurement errors. Similar scheme can be built for two other codes. We show that the fidelity of the protected qubit in the noisy scenario in a large code size limit is of $1-\\mathcal{O}(p)$, where $p$ is a probability of error on a single qubit. Regarding Haah code we provide noiseless scheme, leaving the noisy case as an open problem.

  20. Brownian motor in a granular medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Balzan; Fergal Dalton; Vittorio Loreto; Alberto Petri; Giorgio Pontuale

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we experimentally study the behavior of a freely-rotating asymmetric probe immersed in a vibrated granular medium. For a wide variety of vibration conditions the probe exhibits a steady rotation whose direction is constant with respect to the asymmetry. By changing the vibration amplitude and by filtering the noise in different frequency bands we show that the velocity of rotation does not depend only on the RMS acceleration $\\Gamma$, but also on the amount of energy provided to two separate frequency bands which are revealed to be important for the dynamics of the granular medium: the first band governs the transfer of energy from the grains to the probe, and the second affects the dynamics by altering the viscosity of the vibro-fluidized material.

  1. Electromagnetic Radiation and in-Medium Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralf Rapp

    2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The theory of thermal photon and dilepton emission from a hot and dense hadronic gas, as well as from the Quark-Gluon Plasma, is reviewed in the context of extracting in-medium properties of the matter constituents. In phenomenological applications to ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions we focus on recent photon and dilepton spectra as measured by WA98 and CERES/NA45, respectively, at CERN-SPS energies.

  2. Exploring medium effects on the nuclear force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Sammarruca

    2004-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This STI product contains a description of results from theoretical studies in nuclear physics. The goal is a systematic investigation of the nuclear force in the nuclear medium. The problems addressed are: density-dependent effective interactions as seen through proton-nucleus reactions, nuclear matter with unequal densities of protons and neutrons, applications to asymmetric nuclei through predictions of neutron radii and neutron skins.

  3. INTRODUCTION Asphalt is a mixture of a wide variety of chemical compounds that include aliphatic hydrocarbons and highly fused

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    hydrocarbons and highly fused aromatic ring systems.They are classified as asphaltenes (medium molecular weight

  4. Cosmic Minivoids in the Intergalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avery Meiksin

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gunn-Peterson effect, absorption of Lya photons by a homogeneous component of the intergalactic medium (IGM), potentially provides a test of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). With a lower limit on the UV radiation field estimated from the contribution due to QSOs, a measurement of the Lya opacity of the intergalactic medium would permit the derivation of a lower bound to the baryonic density of the universe. The effect, however, has continually eluded a convincing detection, both in HI and HeII, despite extensive searches. Recent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of structure formation in the intergalactic medium suggest an explanation for its absence. In a Cold Dark Matter dominated cosmology, the fragmentation of the baryons is nearly complete, leaving a negligible remnant to comprise a smoothly distributed component. The fragmentation extends even into regions that are underdense, where it gives rise to most of the optically thin HI systems and nearly all of the HeII systems, both thin and saturated. The result is a Lya opacity from a smooth IGM that is suppressed by over two orders of magnitude from the BBN value.

  5. Medium induced jet absorption at relativistic heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axel Drees; Haidong Feng; Jiangyong Jia

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The dense medium created in Au + Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) significantly suppresses particle production from hard scattering processes and their characteristic back-to-back angular correlation. We present a simple model of jet absorption in dense matter which incorporates a realistic nuclear geometry. Our calculations are performed at the jet level and assume independent jet fragmentation in the vacuum. This model describes quantitatively the centrality dependence of the observed suppression of the high $p_T$ hadron yield and of the back-to-back angular correlations. The azimuthal anisotropy of high $p_T$ particle production can not be accounted for using a realistic nuclear geometry.

  6. Wave scattering by small particles in a medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. Ramm

    2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Wave scattering is considered in a medium in which many small particles are embedded. Equations for the effective field in the medium are derived when the number of particles tends to infinity.

  7. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  8. The Enrichment of the Intracluster Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brad K. Gibson; Francesca Matteucci

    1996-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The enrichment of the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters, within the framework of the supernovae-driven wind model for elliptical galaxies, has been considered under two extreme assumptions regarding the binding energy-mass-radius relations. Unless the binding energy at the time of wind commencement, for a given galactic mass, was a factor of approximately five lower than that predicted by the present-day relation, at most 20% of the ICM gas could have originated within the cluster ellipticals themselves, the remainder being of primordial origin.

  9. Category:MediumOffice | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformationCashtonGo Back to PVMagnetotelluricsMediumOffice

  10. First all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endr\\Hoczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO Science Run and the second and third Virgo Science Runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ~2,254 h and a frequency- and period-dependent range of frequency modulation depths from 0.277 to 100 mHz. This corresponds to a range of projected semi-major axes of the orbit from ~0.6e-3 ls to ~6,500 ls assuming the orbit of the binary is circular. While no plausible candidate gravitational wave events survive the pipeline, upper limits are set on the analyzed data. The most sensitive 95% confidence upper limit obtained on gravitational wave strain is 2.3e-24 at 217 Hz, assuming the source waves are circularly polarized. Although this search has been optimized for ci...

  11. First all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration; J. Aasi; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. Abbott; M. R. Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; K. Ackley; C. Adams; T. Adams; P. Addesso; R. X. Adhikari; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; N. Aggarwal; O. D. Aguiar; A. Ain; P. Ajith; A. Alemic; B. Allen; A. Allocca; D. Amariutei; M. Andersen; R. Anderson; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. C. Araya; C. Arceneaux; J. Areeda; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; L. Austin; B. E. Aylott; S. Babak; P. T. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. W. Ballmer; J. C. Barayoga; M. Barbet; B. C. Barish; D. Barker; F. Barone; B. Barr; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; A. Basti; J. C. Batch; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; B. Behnke; M. Bejger; M. G. Beker; C. Belczynski; A. S. Bell; C. Bell; G. Bergmann; D. Bersanetti; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; P. T. Beyersdorf; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; S. Biscans; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; S. Bloemen; M. Blom; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; M. Boer; G. Bogaert; C. Bogan; C. Bond; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; Sukanta Bose; L. Bosi; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; M. Branchesi; J. E. Brau; T. Briant; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; D. D. Brown; F. Brückner; S. Buchman; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; R. Burman; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; J. Calderón Bustillo; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; P. Campsie; K. C. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. D. Capano; F. Carbognani; L. Carbone; S. Caride; A. Castiglia; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglià; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; C. Celerier; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; R. Chakraborty; T. Chalermsongsak; S. J. Chamberlin; S. Chao; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; X. Chen; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; H. S. Cho; J. Chow; N. Christensen; Q. Chu; S. S. Y. Chua; S. Chung; G. Ciani; F. Clara; J. A. Clark; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; A. Colla; C. Collette; M. Colombini; L. Cominsky; M. Constancio Jr.; A. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; M. Cordier; N. Cornish; A. Corpuz; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; M. W. Coughlin; S. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; S. Countryman; P. Couvares; D. M. Coward; M. Cowart; D. C. Coyne; R. Coyne; K. Craig; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; S. G. Crowder; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; K. Dahl; T. Dal Canton; M. Damjanic; S. L. Danilishin; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; V. Dattilo; H. Daveloza; M. Davier; G. S. Davies; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; G. Debreczeni; J. Degallaix; S. Deléglise; W. Del Pozzo; T. Denker; T. Dent; H. Dereli; V. Dergachev; R. De Rosa; R. T. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; S. Dhurandhar; M. Díaz; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; A. Di Virgilio; A. Donath; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; S. Doravari; S. Dossa; R. Douglas; T. P. Downes; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; Z. Du; S. Dwyer; T. Eberle; T. Edo; M. Edwards; A. Effler; H. Eggenstein; P. Ehrens; J. Eichholz; S. S. Eikenberry; G. Endr?czi; R. Essick; T. Etzel; M. Evans; T. Evans; M. Factourovich; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Q. Fang; S. Farinon; B. Farr; W. M. Farr; M. Favata; H. Fehrmann; M. M. Fejer; D. Feldbaum; F. Feroz; I. Ferrante; F. Ferrini; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. P. Fisher; R. Flaminio; J. -D. Fournier; S. Franco; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; P. Fulda; M. Fyffe; J. Gair; L. Gammaitoni; S. Gaonkar; F. Garufi; N. Gehrels; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; C. Gill; J. Gleason; E. Goetz; R. Goetz; L. Gondan; G. González; N. Gordon; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Gossan; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Gräf; P. B. Graff; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; P. Groot; H. Grote; K. Grover; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; C. Guido; K. Gushwa; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; M. Hanke; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; M. Hart; M. T. Hartman; C. -J. Haster; K. Haughian; A. Heidmann; M. Heintze; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; G. Hemming; M. Hendry; I. S. Heng; A. W. Heptonstall; M. Heurs; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; S. Hooper; P. Hopkins; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. J. Howell; Y. Hu; E. Huerta; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; M. Huynh; T. Huynh-Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; B. R. Iyer; K. Izumi; M. Jacobson; E. James; H. Jang; P. Jaranowski; Y. Ji; F. Jiménez-Forteza; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; R. Jones; R. J. G. Jonker; L. Ju; Haris K; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; G. Kang; J. B. Kanner; J. Karlen; M. Kasprzack; E. Katsavounidis; W. Katzman; H. Kaufer; K. Kawabe; F. Kawazoe; F. Kéfélian; G. M. Keiser; D. Keitel; D. B. Kelley; W. Kells; A. Khalaidovski

    2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO Science Run and the second and third Virgo Science Runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ~2,254 h and a frequency- and period-dependent range of frequency modulation depths from 0.277 to 100 mHz. This corresponds to a range of projected semi-major axes of the orbit from ~0.6e-3 ls to ~6,500 ls assuming the orbit of the binary is circular. While no plausible candidate gravitational wave events survive the pipeline, upper limits are set on the analyzed data. The most sensitive 95% confidence upper limit obtained on gravitational wave strain is 2.3e-24 at 217 Hz, assuming the source waves are circularly polarized. Although this search has been optimized for circular binary orbits, the upper limits obtained remain valid for orbital eccentricities as large as 0.9. In addition, upper limits are placed on continuous gravitational wave emission from the low-mass x-ray binary Scorpius X-1 between 20 Hz and 57.25 Hz.

  12. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers have envisioned an electron-ion collider with ion species up to heavy ions, high polarization of electrons and light ions, and a well-matched center-of-mass energy range as an ideal gluon microscope to explore new frontiers of nuclear science. In its most recent Long Range Plan, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation endorsed such a collider in the form of a 'half-recommendation.' As a response to this science need, Jefferson Lab and its user community have been engaged in feasibility studies of a medium energy polarized electron-ion collider (MEIC), cost-effectively utilizing Jefferson Lab's already existing Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). In close collaboration, this community of nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists has rigorously explored the science case and design concept for this envisioned grand instrument of science. An electron-ion collider embodies the vision of reaching the next frontier in Quantum Chromodynamics - understanding the behavior of hadrons as complex bound states of quarks and gluons. Whereas the 12 GeV Upgrade of CEBAF will map the valence-quark components of the nucleon and nuclear wave functions in detail, an electron-ion collider will determine the largely unknown role sea quarks play and for the first time study the glue that binds all atomic nuclei. The MEIC will allow nuclear scientists to map the spin and spatial structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadrons from quarks and gluons. The proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab will collide a highly polarized electron beam originating from the CEBAF recirculating superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) linear accelerator (linac) with highly polarized light-ion beams or unpolarized light- to heavy-ion beams from a new ion accelerator and storage complex. Since the very beginning, the design studies at Jefferson Lab have focused on achieving high collider performance, particularly ultrahigh luminosities up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} per detector with large acceptance, while maintaining high polarization for both the electron and light-ion beams. These are the two key performance requirements of a future electron-ion collider facility as articulated by the NSAC Long Range Plan. In MEIC, a new ion complex is designed specifically to deliver ion beams that match the high bunch repetition and highly polarized electron beam from CEBAF. During the last two years, both development of the science case and optimization of the machine design point toward a medium-energy electron-ion collider as the topmost goal for Jefferson Lab. The MEIC, with relatively compact collider rings, can deliver a luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at a center-of-mass energy up to 65 GeV. It offers an electron energy up to 11 GeV, a proton energy up to 100 GeV, and corresponding energies per nucleon for heavy ions with the same magnetic rigidity. This design choice balances the scope of the science program, collider capabilities, accelerator technology innovation, and total project cost. An energy upgrade could be implemented in the future by adding two large collider rings housed in another large tunnel to push the center-of-mass energy up to or exceeding 140 GeV. After careful consideration of an alternative electron energy recovery linac on ion storage ring approach, a ring-ring collider scenario at high bunch repetition frequency was found to offer fully competitive performance while eliminating the uncertainties of challenging R&D on ampere-class polarized electron sources and many-pass energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). The essential new elements of an MEIC facility at Jefferson Lab are an electron storage ring and an entirely new, modern ion acceleration and storage complex. For the high-current electron collider ring, the upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF SRF linac will serve as a full-energy injector, and, if needed, provide top

  13. Efficacy and Toxicity of Chemoradiotherapy Using Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Unknown Primary of Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sher, David J., E-mail: dsher@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Balboni, Tracy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Haddad, Robert I. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Norris, Charles M. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Posner, Marshall R. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Wirth, Lori J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Goguen, Laura A.; Annino, Donald [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: No single standard treatment paradigm is available for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma of an unknown primary (HNCUP). Bilateral neck radiotherapy with mucosal axis irradiation is widely used, with or without chemotherapy and/or surgical resection. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a highly conformal method for delivering radiation that is becoming the standard of care and might reduce the long-term treatment-related sequelae. We report the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute experience with IMRT-based treatment for HNCUP. Patients and Materials: A retrospective study of all patients treated at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for HNCUP with IMRT between August 2004 and January 2009. The primary endpoint was overall survival; the secondary endpoints were locoregional and distant control, and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: A total of 24 patients with HNCUP were included. Of these patients, 22 had Stage N2 disease or greater. All patients underwent neck computed tomography, positron emission tomography-computed tomography, and examination under anesthesia with directed biopsies. Of the 24 patients, 22 received concurrent chemotherapy, and 7 (29%) also underwent induction chemotherapy. The median involved nodal dose was 70 Gy, and the median mucosal dose was 60 Gy. With a median follow-up of 2.1 years, the 2-year actuarial overall survival and locoregional control rate was 92% and 100%, respectively. Only 25% of the patients had Grade 2 xerostomia, although 11 patients (46%) required esophageal dilation for stricture. Conclusion: In a single-institution series, IMRT-based chemoradiotherapy for HNCUP was associated with superb overall survival and locoregional control. The xerostomia rates were promising, but the aggressive therapy was associated with significant rates of esophageal stenosis.

  14. dance. But, if we assume that the true iron abundance of the hot interstellar medium is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tlusty, Tsvi

    that the hot compo- nent is not in hydrostatic equilibrium and is the basic driving force for the galactic wind outflow of chemically enriched material into the intergalactic medium. Such high- temperature plasmas, D. A. Schwartz, J. Schwarz, J. C. Blades, Astrophys. J. 230, L21 (1979). 9. M. G. Watson, V. Stanger

  15. Demonstration Abstract: WARP A Flexible Platform for Clean-Slate Wireless Medium Access Protocol Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knightly, Edward W.

    Demonstration Abstract: WARP ­ A Flexible Platform for Clean-Slate Wireless Medium Access Protocol University Wireless Open-Access Research Platform (WARP) provides a high performance research tool for clean-slate provides a general environment for a clean-slate MAC/PHY de- velopment unlike other platforms which rely

  16. Buoyancy Instabilities in a Weakly Collisional Intracluster Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunz, Matthew W; Reynolds, Christopher S; Stone, James M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intracluster medium of galaxy clusters is a weakly collisional, high-beta plasma in which the transport of heat and momentum occurs primarily along magnetic-field lines. Anisotropic heat conduction allows convective instabilities to be driven by temperature gradients of either sign, the magnetothermal instability (MTI) in the outskirts of non-isothermal clusters and the heat-flux buoyancy-driven instability (HBI) in their cooling cores. We employ the Athena MHD code to investigate the nonlinear evolution of these instabilities, self-consistently including the effects of anisotropic viscosity (i.e. Braginskii pressure anisotropy), anisotropic conduction, and radiative cooling. We highlight the importance of the microscale instabilities that inevitably accompany and regulate the pressure anisotropies generated by the HBI and MTI. We find that, in all but the innermost regions of cool-core clusters, anisotropic viscosity significantly impairs the ability of the HBI to reorient magnetic-field lines orthogonal...

  17. Nuclear structure studies with medium energy probes. [Northwestern Univ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seth, Kamal K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in the continuing program of experimental research in nuclear structure with medium-energy probes during the year 1979-1980 is reviewed, and the research activities planned for the year 1980-1981 are discussed. In the study of pion-induced reactions emphasis is placed on investigation of isovector characteristics of nuclear excitations and on double charge exchange reactions. Pion production studies form the major part of the program of experiments with proton beams of 400 to 800 MeV at LAMPF. Current emphasis is on the bearing of these investigations on di-baryon existence. The study of high-spin states and magnetic scattering constitute the main goals of the electron scattering program at Bates. Representative results are presented; completed work is reported in the usual publications. (RWR)

  18. Erosion dynamics of a wet granular medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gautier Lefebvre; Pierre Jop

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid may give strong cohesion properties to a granular medium, and confer a solid-like behavior. We study the erosion of a fixed circular aggregate of wet granular matter subjected to a flow of dry grains inside a half-filled rotating drum. During the rotation, the dry grains flow around the fixed obstacle. We show that its diameter decreases linearly with time for low liquid content, as wet grains are pulled-out of the aggregate. This erosion phenomenon is governed by the properties of the liquids. The erosion rate decreases exponentially with the surface tension while it depends on the viscosity to the power -1. We propose a model based on the force fluctuations arising inside the flow, explaining both dependencies: the capillary force acts as a threshold and the viscosity controls the erosion time scale. We also provide experiments using different flowing grains confirming our model.

  19. Double hadron leptoproduction in the nuclear medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Belostotskii, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Borysenko, A; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; Demey, M; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E G; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Funel, A; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Gavrilov, G; Karibian, V; Giordano, F; Grebenyuk, O; Gregor, I M; Griffioen, K; Guler, H; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hasegawa, T; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Hristova, I; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kiselev, A; Kobayashi, T; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhizhin, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikas, L; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Linden-Levy, L A; Lorenzon, W; Lü, J; Lu, S; Ma, B Q; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Michler, T; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Negodaev, M; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Ohsuga, H; Osborne, A; Perez-Benito, R; Pickert, N; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shearer, C; Shibata, T A; Shutov, V; Sinram, K; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Streit, J; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S P; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A R; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; Van Haarlem, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    First measurement of double-hadron production in deep-inelastic scattering has been measured with the HERMES spectrometer at HERA using a 27.6 GeV positron beam with deuterium, nitrogen, krypton and xenon targets. The influence of the nuclear medium on the ratio of double-hadron to single-hadron yields has been investigated. Nuclear effects are clearly observed but with substantially smaller magnitude and reduced $A$-dependence compared to previously measured single-hadron multiplicity ratios. The data are in fair agreement with models based on partonic or pre-hadronic energy loss, while they seem to rule out a pure absorptive treatment of the final state interactions. Thus, the double-hadron ratio provides an additional tool for studying modifications of hadronization in nuclear matter.

  20. Multiple hot images from an obscuration in an intense laser beam through cascaded Kerr medium disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Youwen; Wen Shuangchun; You Kaiming; Tang Zhixiang; Deng Jianqin; Zhang Lifu; Fan Dianyuan

    2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical investigation on the formation of hot images in an intense laser beam through cascaded Kerr medium disks, to disclose the distribution and intensity of hot images in high-power disk amplifiers. It is shown that multiple hot images from an obscuration may be formed, instead of one hot image as reported previously in the literature. This gives a clear explanation for the curious damage pattern of hot images, namely, damage sites appearing on alternating optics in periodic trains. Further analysis demonstrates that the distribution and intensity of hot images depend closely on the number of Kerr medium disks, the distance from the obscuration to the front of the first disk downstream, the space between two neighboring disks, and the thickness and B integral of each disk. Moreover, we take two cascaded Kerr medium disks for example to detail multiple hot images from an obscuration and confirm the theoretical results by numerical simulations.

  1. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Tsouris, Constantinos (Oak Ridge, TN); Feng, James Q. (Fairport, NY)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway.

  2. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Feng, J.Q.

    1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway. 4 figs.

  3. 2 1/2 D visual servoing with respect to planar contours having complex and unknown shapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cipolla, Roberto

    2 1/2 D visual servoing with respect to planar contours having complex and unknown shapes E. Malis with arbitrary contours of any shape and without any prior knowl- edge of their models. The system is first shown complex shapes such as leaves, keys and coastal outlines of islands. Experiments using a ship mockup

  4. Simultaneous state and unknown inputs estimation with PI and PMI observers for Takagi Sugeno model with unmeasurable premise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Simultaneous state and unknown inputs estimation with PI and PMI observers for Takagi Sugeno model-- In this paper, a proportional integral (PI) and a proportional multiple integral observer (PMI) are proposed and PMI observers developed for linear systems. The state estimation error is written as a perturbed

  5. On the enrichment of the intergalactic medium by galactic winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biman Nath; Neil Trentham

    1997-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of metal lines in $\\lyal$ absorption systems of small H~I column density and their ubiquitous nature suggest that the intergalactic medium (IGM) was enriched to about $Z \\sim 0.01 \\> Z_{\\odot}$ by a redshift $z \\sim 3$. We investigate the role of winds from small star-forming galaxies at high $z$ in enriching the IGM. The existence of large numbers of small galaxies at high $z$ follows naturally from hierarchical clustering theories (e.g. CDM). For analytical simplicity we assume that the galactic winds escape the galaxies at a single characteristic redshift $z_{in}$, and we model the galactic winds as spherical shock waves propagating through the IGM. We then calculate the probability distribution of the metallicity of the IGM, as a function of time (for different values of $z_{in}$), adopting plausible galaxy mass functions (from Press-Schechter formalism), cooling physics, star-formation efficiencies, gas ejection dynamics, and nucleosynthesis yields. We compare this expected distribution with the observed distribution of metallicities in the Ly$\\alpha$ forest at $z=3$, the metal poor stars in the halo of our Galaxy, and with other observational constraints on such a scenario. We find that galactic winds at high $z$ could have enriched the IGM to a mean metallicity of $Z \\sim 0.01 Z_{\\odot}$ at $z \\sim 3$, with a standard deviation of the same order, if $z_{in} \\la 5$, and that this satisfies all the observational constraints.

  6. DETECTION OF DIFFUSE NEUTRAL INTRAGROUP MEDIUM IN HICKSON COMPACT GROUPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Yun, Min Su [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes, E-mail: sanch@astro.umass.ed, E-mail: myun@astro.umass.ed, E-mail: lourdes@iaa.e [Instituto de Astrofisica de AndalucIa, CSIC, Apdo. Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

    2010-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new Green Bank Telescope (GBT) 21 cm neutral hydrogen (H I) observations of a complete distance-limited sample of 22 Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) with at least four true members. We detected an average H I mass of 8 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun} (median = 6 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}), which is significantly larger than previous single-dish measurements. Consequently, the H I deficiencies for these HCGs have been reduced, although not completely eliminated. Spectral comparison of the GBT data with complementary Very Large Array data shows significant H I excess in the GBT spectra. The observed excess is primarily due to the high surface brightness (HSB) sensitivity of the GBT detecting diffuse, low column density H I in these groups. The excess gas forms a faint diffused neutral medium which is an intermediate stage in the evolution of HSB H I tidal debris in the intragroup medium (IGM) before it is fully ionized. The excess gas mass fraction, (M(H I){sub GBT} - M(H I){sub VLA})/M(H I){sub GBT}, for our complete sample varies from 5% to 81% with an average of 36% (median = 30%). The excess gas mass fraction is highest in slightly H I deficient groups where the tidal debris has had enough time to evolve. We also find the excess gas content increases with the evolutionary phase of the group described in Verdes-Montenegro et al. Theoretical calculations indicate that an H I cloud of radius >= 200 pc would survive in an IGM of 2 x 10{sup 6} K for more than the typical dynamical lifetime of a group. However, smaller clouds get evaporated and assimilated into the hot IGM in a much shorter timescale.

  7. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants: A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring. Re-direct Destination: In a...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Issues Notice of Intent for Medium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicle Technologies Office Issues Notice of Intent for Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Demonstration Funding Opportunity Vehicle Technologies Office Issues Notice of Intent for...

  9. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new EVs. Within the medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle segment, both the Smith Electric Newton and Navistar eStar vehicles qualified for such funding opportunities....

  10. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    arravt068vssmiyasato2011o .pdf More Documents & Publications SCAQMD:Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium-Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Plug-In Hybrid...

  11. acid medium application: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University - TxSpace Summary: substrate and their catalytic function takes place in acid medium. This harsh environment causes an undesired reaction, which is the dissolution of...

  12. acid aqueous medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transfer radical polymerization technique ... Yao, Jia 3 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  13. air dense medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and X-ray afterglows. Explanations of this behavior include models invoking a dense medium environment which makes the shock wave evolve quickly into the sub-relativistic...

  14. acidic aqueous medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transfer radical polymerization technique ... Yao, Jia 3 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  15. adaptive medium access: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cost reduction of wireless technologies, ITS is finding favour, transport efficiency and environment concerns. However, the vehicular network applications require a medium...

  16. Light Vector Mesons in the Nuclear Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. H. Wood; R. Nasseripour; D. P. Weygand; C. Djalali; C. Tur; U. Mosel; P. Muehlich; CLAS Collaboration

    2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The light vector mesons ($\\rho$, $\\omega$, and $\\phi$) were produced in deuterium, carbon, titanium, and iron targets in a search for possible in-medium modifications to the properties of the $\\rho$ meson at normal nuclear densities and zero temperature. The vector mesons were detected with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) via their decays to $e^{+}e^{-}$. The rare leptonic decay was chosen to reduce final-state interactions. A combinatorial background was subtracted from the invariant mass spectra using a well-established event-mixing technique. The $\\rho$ meson mass spectrum was extracted after the $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ signals were removed in a nearly model-independent way. Comparisons were made between the $\\rho$ mass spectra from the heavy targets ($A > 2$) with the mass spectrum extracted from the deuterium target. With respect to the $\\rho$-meson mass, we obtain a small shift compatible with zero. Also, we measure widths consistent with standard nuclear many-body effects such as collisional broadening and Fermi motion.

  17. The Impact of Galactic Feedback on the Circumgalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, Joshua; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Torrey, Paul; Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Galactic feedback strongly affects the way galactic environments are enriched. We examine this connection by performing a suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, exploring a range of parameters based on the galaxy formation model developed in Vogelsberger et al. 2013 (henceforth V13). We examine the effects of AGN feedback, wind mass loading, wind specific energy, and wind metal-loading on the properties of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of galaxies with $M_\\text{halo} > 10^{11} M_\\odot$. Note that while the V13 model was tuned to match observations including the stellar mass function, no explicit tuning was done for the CGM. The wind energy per unit outflow mass has the most significant effect on the CGM enrichment. High energy winds launch metals far beyond the virial radius. AGN feedback also has a significant effect, but only at $z < 3$. We compare to high redshift HI and CIV observations. All our simulations produce the observed number of Damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ Absorbers. At lower column densi...

  18. Can you explain the key objectives of your research project, `The Land Unknown'?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillow, Jonathan

    of ice flow processes.Through other funding sources from NASA and the Department of Energy (Do represent realistic maps of the subglacial bed using a statistical model of bed morphology (Dr John Goff a statistical framework and manages the execution of thousands of ice sheet simulations over high performance

  19. BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLANNING RESOURCES FOR SMALL-AND MEDIUM-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLANNING RESOURCES FOR SMALL- AND MEDIUM- SIZED BUSINESSES May 2010 Prepared and supported by the Northwest Regional Technology Center for Homeland Security Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium- Sized Businesses KS Judd AM Lesperance May 14, 2010 #12;DISCLAIMER

  20. Optical quantum swapping in a coherent atomic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aurelien Dantan

    2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to realize a passive optical quantum swapping device which allows for the exchange of the quantum fluctuations of two bright optical fields interacting with a coherent atomic medium in an optical cavity. The device is based on a quantum interference process between the fields within the cavity bandwidth arising from coherent population trapping in the atomic medium.

  1. Invariant measures for a stochastic porous medium equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Röckner, Michael

    Invariant measures for a stochastic porous medium equation Giuseppe Da Prato (Scuola Normale AMS :76S05,35J25, 37L40 . 1 Introduction The porous medium equation X t = (Xm ), m N, (1 Brownian motion in H and C is a positive definite bounded operator on H of trace class. To be more concrete

  2. Theory of Neutron Noise in a Temporally Fluctuating Multiplying Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    Theory of Neutron Noise in a Temporally Fluctuating Multiplying Medium Lénárd Pál KFKI Atomic, respec- tively. In this paper we develop a theory of neutron fluctuations in a medium randomly varying place in a time-varying environment. I. INTRODUCTION The theory of neutron fluctuations in multiplying

  3. AN ANALYSIS FOR A FORMULATION OF THE POROUS MEDIUM EQUATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fadimba, Koffi B.

    a porous medium, with S the saturation of the invading fluid. In this model, one assumption (the wet phase and the dry phase) occupying entirely the pores of the medium, e.g. water and oil, so , we make the assumption that n = 0, (1..4) where n is the outward unit normal vector to the boundary

  4. Waste Heat Recovery Using a Circulating Heat Medium Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, E., Jr.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by a circulating heat medium loop where waste heat is recovered for useful purposes. The heat medium chosen is turbine fuel. It is pumped around the refinery to pick up heat at the crude distilling unit, the hydrocracker, the catalytic cracker...

  5. Open bottom mesons in hot asymmetric hadronic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Divakar Pathak; Amruta Mishra

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The in-medium masses and optical potentials of $B$ and ${\\bar B}$ mesons are studied in an isospin asymmetric, strange, hot and dense hadronic environment using a chiral effective model. The chiral $SU(3)$ model originally designed for the light quark sector, is generalized to include the heavy quark sector ($c$ and $b$) to derive the interactions of the $B$ and $\\bar B$ mesons with the light hadrons. Due to large mass of bottom quark, we use only the empirical form of these interactions for the desired purpose, while treating the bottom degrees of freedom to be frozen in the medium. Hence, all medium effects are due to the in-medium interaction of the light quark content of these open-bottom mesons. Both $B$ and $\\bar B$ mesons are found to experience net attractive interactions in the medium, leading to lowering of their masses in the medium. The mass degeneracy of particles and antiparticles, ($B^+$, $B^-$) as well as ($B^0$, ${\\bar B}^0$), is observed to be broken in the medium, due to equal and opposite contributions from a vectorial Weinberg-Tomozawa interaction term. Addition of hyperons to the medium lowers further the in-medium mass for each of these four mesons, while a non-zero isospin asymmetry is observed to break the approximate mass degeneracy of each pair of isospin doublets. These medium effects are found to be strongly density dependent, and bear a considerably weaker temperature dependence. The results obtained in the present investigation are compared to predictions from the quark-meson coupling model, heavy meson effective theory, and the QCD Sum Rule approach.

  6. Supernova Feedback and the Hot Gas Filling Fraction of the Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Miao; Cen, Renyue; Bryan, Greg L; Naab, Thorsten

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supernovae are the most energetic among stellar feedback processes, and are crucial for regulating the interstellar medium (ISM) and launching galactic winds. We explore how supernova remnants (SNRs) create a multiphase medium by performing high resolution, 3D hydrodynamical simulations at various SN rates, $S$, and ISM average densities, $n$. We find that the evolution of a SNR in a self-consistently generated three-phase ISM is qualitatively different from that in a uniform or a two-phase warm/cold medium. By traveling faster and further in the cooling-inefficient hot phase, the spatial-temporal domain of a SNR is enlarged by $>10^{2.5}$ in a hot-dominated multiphase medium (HDMM) compared to the uniform case. We then examine the resultant ISM as we vary $n$ and $S$, finding that a steady state can only be achieved when the hot gas volume fraction \\fvh $\\lesssim 0.6\\pm 0.1$. Above that, overlapping SNRs render connecting topology of the hot gas, and such a HDMM is subjected to thermal runaway with growing p...

  7. Corrections to Eikonal Approximation for Nuclear Scattering at Medium Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micah Buuck; Gerald A. Miller

    2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The upcoming Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University has reemphasized the importance of accurate modeling of low energy nucleus-nucleus scattering. Such calculations have been simplified by using the eikonal approximation. As a high energy approximation, however, its accuracy suffers for the medium energy beams that are of current experimental interest. A prescription developed by Wallace \\cite{Wallace:1971zz,Wallace:1973iu} that obtains the scattering propagator as an expansion around the eikonal propagator (Glauber approach) has the potential to extend the range of validity of the approximation to lower energies. Here we examine the properties of this expansion, and calculate the first-, second-, and third-order corrections for the scattering of a spinless particle off of a ${}^{40}$Ca nucleus, and for nuclear breakup reactions involving ${}^{11}$Be. We find that, including these corrections extends the lower bound of the range of validity of the down to energies of 40 MeV. At that energy the corrections provide as much as a 15\\% correction to certain processes.

  8. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  9. Lyman alpha Transfer in a thick, dusty, and static medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang-Hyeon Ahn; Hee-Won Lee; Hyung-Mok Lee

    2000-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a Monte Carlo code that describes the resonant Lyman alpha line transfer in an optically thick, dusty, and static medium. The code was tested against the analytic formula derived by Neufeld (1990). We explain the line transfer mechanism for a wide range of line center optical depths by tracing histories of photons in the medium. We find that photons escape from the medium by a series of wing scatterings, during which polarization may develop. We applied our code to examine the amount of dust extinction around the Lyman alpha in primeval galaxies. Brief discussions on the astrophysical application of our work are presented.

  10. Microbes in thawing permafrost: the unknown variable in the climate change equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, David E [ORNL; Wallenstein, Matthew D [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Vishnivetskaya, T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Waldrop, Mark P. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Pfiffner, Susan M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Onstott, T. C. [Princeton University; Whyte, Lyle [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Rivkina, Elizaveta [Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences; Gilichinsky, David A [Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Mackelprang, Rachel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Wagner, Dirk [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Jansson, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering that 25% of Earth s terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost (ground that has been continuously frozen for at least 2 years), our understanding of the diversity of microbial life in this extreme habitat is surprisingly limited. Taking into account the total mass of perennially frozen sediment (up to several hundred meters deep), permafrost contains a huge amount of buried, ancient organic carbon (Tarnocai et al., 2009). In addition, permafrost is warming rapidly in response to global climate change (Romanovsky et al., 2010), potentially leading to widespread thaw and a larger, seasonally thawed soil active layer. This concern has prompted the question: will permafrost thawing lead to the release of massive amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) into the atmosphere? This question can only be answered by understanding how the microbes residing in permafrost will respond to thaw, through processes such as respiration, fermentation, methanogenesis and CH4 oxidation (Schuur et al., 2009). Predicting future carbon fluxes is complicated by the diversity of permafrost environments, ranging from high mountains, southern boreal forests, frozen peatlands and Pleistocene ice complexes (yedoma) up to several hundred meters deep, which vary widely in soil composition, soil organic matter (SOM) quality, hydrology and thermal regimes (Figure 1). Permafrost degradation can occur in many forms: thaw can progress downward from seasonally-thawed active layer soils in warming climates or laterally because of changes in surface or groundwater flow paths (Grosse et al., 2011). Permafrost degradation can sometimes lead to dramatic changes in ecosystem structure and function

  11. Metallicity of the Intergalactic Medium Using Pixel Statistics: I. Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony Aguirre; Joop Schaye; Tom Theuns

    2002-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of absorption spectra of high-z QSOs have revealed that the intergalactic medium at z ~ 2-3 is enriched to ~ 0.1%-1% solar for gas densities more than a few times the mean cosmic density, but have not yet produced an accurate metallicity estimate, nor constrained variations in the metallicity with density, redshift, or spatial location. This paper discusses the ``pixel optical depth'' (POD) method of QSO spectrum analysis, using realistic simulated spectra from cosmological simulations. In this method, absorption in Ly-alpha is compared to corresponding metal absorption on a pixel-by-pixel basis, yielding for each analyzed spectrum a single statistical correlation encoding metal enrichment information. Our simulations allow testing and optimization of each step of the technique's implementation. Tests show that previous studies have probably been limited by C IV self-contamination and O VI contamination by HI lines; we have developed and tested an effective method of correcting for both contaminants. We summarize these and other findings, and provide a useful recipe for the POD technique's application to observed spectra. Our tests reveal that the POD technique applied to spectra of presently available quality is effective in recovering useful metallicity information even in underdense gas. We present an extension of the POD technique to directly recover the intergalactic metallicity as a function of gas density. For a given ionizing background, both the oxygen and carbon abundance can be measured with errors of at most a factor of a few over at least an order of magnitude in density, using a single high-quality spectrum.

  12. Multiphase turbulent interstellar medium: some recent results from radio astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Nirupam

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radio frequency 1.4 GHz transition of the atomic hydrogen is one of the important tracers of the diffuse neutral interstellar medium. Radio astronomical observations of this transition, using either a single dish telescope or an array interferometer, reveal different properties of the interstellar medium. Such observations are particularly useful to study the multiphase nature and turbulence in the interstellar gas. Observations with multiple radio telescopes have recently been used to study these two closely related aspects in greater detail. Using various observational techniques, the density and the velocity fluctuations in the Galactic interstellar medium was found to have a Kolmogorov-like power law power spectra. The observed power law scaling of the turbulent velocity dispersion with the length scale can be used to derive the true temperature distribution of the medium. Observations from a large ongoing atomic hydrogen absorption line survey have also been used to study the distribution of gas at d...

  13. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington D.C. vssarravt068miyasato2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation SCAQMD:Plug-In...

  14. aqueous medium including: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  15. anisotropic porous medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    outflows ... Germain, Joel; Martel, Hugo 2009-01-01 24 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  16. aqueous medium propriedades: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  17. aqueous medium promoted: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chennakesava Reddy; Gudimella Santosh Kumar 2012-01-01 2 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  18. absorbing gaseous medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2001-01-01 17 Gravitational drag on a point mass in hypersonic motion through a gaseous medium CERN Preprints Summary: We explore a ballistic orbit model to infer the...

  19. areas medium sized: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 to Medium Sized Enterprises CiteSeer Summary: Knowledge Management has been identified as a...

  20. aqueous medium formacion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  1. aqueous medium viewing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  2. aqueous alkaline medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which is essential for the formation Sahai, Nita 2 Ultrasonic measurement of porous medium in an aqueous environment Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: August 1995 Major...

  3. Gluon Radiation off Massive Quarks in a QCD Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Armesto; C. A. Salgado; U. A. Wiedemann

    2004-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Medium-induced gluon radiation from massless and massive quarks is treated in the same formalism. The dead cone which regulates gluon radiation from massive quarks in the vacuum at small angles, is filled in the medium but constitutes a small fraction of the available phase space. Our study indicates that the energy loss for charmed hadrons at RHIC should be smaller than for light hadrons, but still sizable.

  4. Structure functions of free and in-medium nucleons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Cloet; W. Bentz; Anthony Thomas

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spin-dependent quark light-cone momentum distributions are calculated for a nucleon in the nuclear medium. We utilize a modified NJL model where the nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state. Scalar and vector mean fields are incorporated in the nuclear medium and these fields couple to the confined quarks in the nucleon. The effect of these fields on the spin-dependent distributions is investigated. Our results for the ''spin-dependent EMC effect'' are also discussed.

  5. Ultimate disposal of low and medium radioactive waste in France

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringeard, C. [National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Environmental, Safety, Quality Dept.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) has been entrusted with the long-term management of radioactive waste. This paper presents the methodology of safety assessment used by ANDRA for a land disposal facility of radioactive waste with short or medium half-life and with low or medium specific activity. This methodology was used in the design of ``the Centre de stockage de l`Aube``.

  6. Model for Synchrotron Emission from Shell Supernova Remnants in Nonuniform Interstellar Medium and Nonuniform Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Petruk

    2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Possibility to model the high energy synchrotron emission (in X- and gamma-rays) from supernova remnants is an important task for modern astronomy and astrophysics, because it may be responsible for the nonthermal X-rays and TeV gamma-rays observed recently from a number of SNRs. This emission allows as to look in the processes of particle acceleration on SNR shocks and generation of cosmic rays. In this paper, a model for the synchrotron emission from shell SNR in nonuniform interstellar medium and nonuniform magnetic field is presented. This model is a generalization of the model of Reynolds and Chevalier developed for a spherical SNR in the uniform medium and uniform magnetic field. The model will be used for studies on the thermal and nonthermal X-ray images and spectra from nonspherical SNRs in different interstellar magnetic field configurations.

  7. A Preliminary Study of Oxidation of Lignin from Rubber Wood to Vanillin in Ionic Liquid Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamsuri, A A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, lignin was oxidised to vanillin by means of oxygen in ionic liquid (1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate) medium. The parameters of the oxidation reaction that have been investigated were the following: concentration of oxygen (5, 10, 15 and 20 ft3 h-1), reaction time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) and reaction temperature (25, 40, 60, 80 and 100{\\deg}C). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses were used to characterise the product. The results revealed vanillin as the product obtained via the oxidation reaction. The optimum parameters of vanillin production were 20 ft3 h-1 of oxygen for 10 h at 100{\\deg}C. In conclusion, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate could be used as an oxidation reaction medium for the production of vanillin from rubber wood lignin.

  8. The reemergence of medium scale gasifications technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reindl, W.J.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasification of solid material is a well proven field, but the introduction of abundant and cheap petroleum fuels after WW II caused the technology to be neglected. There are three types of reactors: the fixed fuel bed, the fluidized bed, and the entrained fuel reactor. The advantages, but more to the point, the drawbacks of each system are reviewed. In order for gasification to fill modern industrial needs the advantages of the three types must be combined without their drawbacks. A reactor needs to be tar-free, have a high volume gas output relative to reactor size, accept a wide range of fuels, and have a comparable Btu production level of fuel gas. These specifications are met by the Series 8000 gas generator manufactured by Enerdyne Corporation.

  9. Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term Supply Potential of Domestic Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Andrew; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term SupplyAugust 22, 2007 Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-significant amount of liquid biofuel (equivalent to 30-100%

  10. Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project for Small and Medium Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, Janie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand Response for Small Commercial Buildings.   Lawrence small?medium buildings’ roles in demand response  efforts.  demand response for small? medium commercial buildings 

  11. Unknown (Native) 5 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    capabilities and code validation, a model of the GT-MHR reactor pressure vessel (RPV) was developed. Based on the currently available data, a model of the NGNP RPV was then developed through modifying the GT-MHR RPV model. For both RPV models, coolant outlet...

  12. Four unknown constants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Purdue University. West Lafayette, IN 47907 banuelos@math.purdue.edu. 1 Four inequalities. Let ? ? R2 be an arbitrary simply connected domain in the plane.

  13. Testing for the Possible Influence of Unknown Climate Forcings upon Global Temperature Increases from 1950-2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Bruce T.; Knight, Jeff R.; Ringer, Mark A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Cherchi, Annalisa

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Global-scale variations in the climate system over the last half of the twentieth century, including long-term increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures, are consistent with concurrent human-induced emissions of radiatively active gases and aerosols. However, such consistency does not preclude the possible influence of other forcing agents, including internal modes of climate variability or unaccounted for aerosol effects. To test whether other unknown forcing agents may have contributed to multidecadal increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures from 1950 to 2000, data pertaining to observed changes in global-scale sea surface temperatures and observed changes in radiatively active atmospheric constituents are incorporated into numerical global climate models. Results indicate that the radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trends in sea surface temperatures—and global-mean near-surface temperatures—is provided predominantly by known changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols. Further, results indicate that less than 10% of the long-term historical increase in global-mean near-surface temperatures over the last half of the twentieth century could have been the result of internal climate variability. In addition, they indicate that less than 25%of the total radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trend in global-mean near-surface temperatures could have been provided by changes in net radiative forcing from unknown sources (either positive or negative). These results, which are derived from simple energy balance requirements, emphasize the important role humans have played in modifying the global climate over the last half of the twentieth century.

  14. Gamma-ray burst interaction with dense interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Barkov; Gennady Bisnovatyi-Kogan

    2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Interaction of cosmological gamma ray burst radiation with the dense interstellar medium of host galaxy is considered. Gas dynamical motion of interstellar medium driven by gamma ray burst is investigated in 2D approximation for different initial density distributions of host galaxy matter and different total energy of gamma ray burst. The maximum velocity of motion of interstellar medium is $1.8\\cdot10^4$ km/s. Light curves of gamma ray burst afterglow are calculated for set of non homogeneous density, distribution gamma ray burst total energy, and different viewing angles. Spectra of gamma ray burst afterglow are modeled taking into account conversion of hard photons (soft X-ray, hard UV) to soft UV and optics photons.

  15. Turbulence production and turbulent pressure support in the intergalactic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iapichino, L; Niemeyer, J C; Merklein, J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The injection and evolution of turbulence in the intergalactic medium is studied by means of mesh-based hydrodynamical simulations, including a subgrid scale (SGS) model for small-scale unresolved turbulence. The simulations show that the production of turbulence has a different redshift dependence in the intracluster medium (ICM) and the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). We show that turbulence in the ICM is produced chiefly by merger-induced shear flows, whereas the production in the WHIM is dominated by shock interactions. Secondly, the effect of dynamical pressure support on the gravitational contraction has been studied. This turbulent support is stronger in the WHIM gas at baryon overdensities 1 < delta < 100, and less relevant for the ICM. Although the relative mass fraction of the gas with large vorticity is considerable (52% in the ICM), we find that for only about 10% in mass this is dynamically relevant, namely not associated to an equally large thermal pressure support. According to this...

  16. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors: Free Space and Medium Modifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wally Melnitchouk

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review recent developments in the study of electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, both in free space and in the nuclear medium. For the free nucleon case, we discuss the ratio of electric to magnetic proton form factors, and the influence of two-photon exchange on the form factor extraction. For the bound nucleon, we examine the implications of the small but non-zero modification of proton form factors in the nuclear medium suggested by recent data on polarized proton knockout reactions off He-4, and discuss constraints which it could place on models of the nuclear EMC effect.

  17. Translating Indian miniature paintings into a time-based medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaidya, Aradhana

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    : Visualization Sciences iii ABSTRACT Translating Indian Miniature Paintings into a Time-based Medium. (May 2008) Aradhana Vaidya, B.Arch., Nagpur University, India Chair of Advisory Committee: Prof. Carol LaFayette The purpose of this research... ................................ 4 II VISUAL ANALYSIS OF MINIATURE PAINTINGS....................... 8 II.1 Characteristics of Indian miniature paintings..................... 8 II.2 Themes of Indian miniature paintings................................ 23 III...

  18. Dynamics of a Supernova Envelope in a Cloudy Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korolev, V V; Kovalenko, I G; Shchekinov, Yu A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution of a supernova remnant in a cloudy medium as a function of the volume filling factor of the clouds is studied in a three-dimensional axially symmetrical model. The model includes the mixing of heavy elements (metals) ejected by the supernova and their contribution to radiative losses. The interaction of the supernova envelope with the cloudy phase of the interstellar medium leads to nonsimultaneous, and on average earlier, onsets of the radiative phase in different parts of the supernova envelope. Growth in the volume filling factor $f$ leads to a decrease in the time for the transition of the envelope to the radiative phase and a decrease in the envelope's mean radius, due to the increased energy losses by the envelope in the cloudy medium. When the development of hydrodynamical instabilities in the supernova envelope is efficient, the thermal energy falls as $E_t\\sim t^{-2.3}$, for the propagation of the supernova remnant through either a homogeneous or a cloudy medium. When the volume filling...

  19. The Solar Wind and Its Interaction with the Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    outward through the solar system and interacts with the interstellar neutrals which slow and heat the wind. The arrows in the top panel show the flow of the solar wind and the interstellar J. D. Richardson CenterThe Solar Wind and Its Interaction with the Interstellar Medium John D. Richardson Abstract

  20. CARIBBEAN SEACRUISE IN LUXURY ABOARD CRYSTAL SERENITY BEST MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    CARIBBEAN SEACRUISE IN LUXURY ABOARD CRYSTAL SERENITY WORLD'S BEST MEDIUM CRUISE LINE SIX and brilliantly colored colonial architecture -- this forms the backdrop for our Cruise the Caribbean Sea program at the Caribbean's many offerings, from picturesque lagoons to quaint towns to bustling beaches. Experience

  1. Coupling free flow / porous-medium flow General idea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    equation t (v) + div (vv ) - div(v) + p - g - qv = 0 Darcy flow equation t (S) - div K (p - g) - qpmT transport equation t (X) + div (vX - DsteamX) = qsteam 16/14 #12;Backup additional Darcy flow equations-Stokes 1 phase, 2 components, temperature sharp interface porous-medium / Darcy flow 2 phases, 2 component

  2. Mortar spectral element discretization of Darcy's equations in nonhomogeneous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mortar spectral element discretization of Darcy's equations in nonhomogeneous medium Mouna Daadaa Cedex 05 France. daadaa@ann.jussieu.fr 4 mai 2010 Abstract : We consider Darcy's equations. They turn out to be in good coherency with the theoretical results. R´esum´e : Les ´equations de Darcy mod

  3. Effective medium theory of permeation through ideal polymer networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong Wu

    2007-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The diffusion process through an ideal polymer network is studied by applying the effective medium theory (EMT) to a lattice-gas model. Polymers are modeled by random walks on the lattice bonds, across which molecules can hop with a certain probability. The steady state current of the system is calculated using the EMT and the results are compared to the simulations.

  4. Model of innovation transfer in small and medium enterprises (SME)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Model of innovation transfer in small and medium enterprises (SME) Justyna Patalas-Maliszewska1 society, governments and entrepreneurs. In this paper the concept of innovation transfer in SME based of innovation transfer - based on correlations between innovation level in the enterprise sector SME

  5. CalHEAT Research and Market Transformation Roadmap for Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    - 8 Work Trucks Work Site Support Tractors - Short Haul/ Regional Class 2b/3 vans/pickup s Class 3 - 8CalHEAT Research and Market Transformation Roadmap for Medium and Heavy Duty Trucks Delivering President CALSTART #12;California Hybrid, Efficient and Advanced Truck Research Center What is Cal

  6. Distributed Medium Access Control for Next Generation CDMA Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Weihua

    Distributed Medium Access Control for Next Generation CDMA Wireless Networks Hai Jiang, Princeton wireless networks are expected to have a simple infrastructure with distributed control. In this article, we consider a generic distributed network model for future wireless multi- media communications

  7. MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL LAYER FOR UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Min

    sensor networks, energy-efficient reliable MAC protocol, and slotted FAMA MAC protocol and low1 CHAPTER 1 MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL LAYER FOR UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS* Yanping Zhang* , Yang Xiao of Alabama Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0290 USA E-mail: yangxiao@ieee.org + Dept. of Electrical and Computer

  8. Medium modifications of jet shapes in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV within a multiphase transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo-Liang Ma

    2014-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Within a multiphase transport model, medium modifications of differential jet shapes are investigated in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV. The differential jet shapes are significantly modified by the strong interactions between jets and a partonic medium in Pb+Pb collisions relative to that in p+p collisions. The modifications are slightly weakened by the hadronization of coalescence, but strengthened by resonance decays in hadronic rescatterings. Subleading jets display larger medium modifications than leading jets, especially in central Pb+Pb collisions with large dijet asymmetries. These behaviors of medium modifications of differential jet shapes reflect a dynamical evolution of redistribution of jet energy inside a quenched jet cone in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  9. Functional outcome and survival after radiotherapy of metastatic spinal cord compression in patients with cancer of unknown primary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany)]. E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Fehlauer, Fabian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Veninga, Theo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Basic, Hiba [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital, Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Hoskin, Peter J. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood (United Kingdom); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Josef Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum (Germany); Karstens, Johann H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany)

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) account for about 10% of patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). This study aims to define the appropriate radiation regimen for these patients. Methods and Materials: Data of 143 CUP patients irradiated for MSCC were retrospectively evaluated. Short-course radiotherapy (RT) (1x8 Gy, 5x4 Gy, n = 68) and long-course RT (10x3 Gy, 15x2.5 Gy, 20x2 Gy, n = 75) plus 8 further potential prognostic factors (age, gender, performance status, visceral metastases, other bone metastases, number of involved vertebrae, ambulatory status, time of developing motor deficits before RT) were compared for functional outcome and survival. Results: Improvement of motor function occurred in 10% of patients, no further progression of motor deficits in 57%, and deterioration in 33%. On multivariate analysis, functional outcome was positively associated with slower development of motor deficits (p < 0.001), absence of visceral metastases (p = 0.008) and other bone metastases (p = 0.027), and ambulatory status (p = 0.054), not with the radiation regimen (p = 0.74). Recurrence of MSCC in the irradiated region occurred in 7 patients after median 6 months. Median survival was 4 months. On multivariate analysis, better survival was significantly associated with absence of visceral metastases (p < 0.001), absence of other bone metastases (p = 0.005), ambulatory status (p = 0.001), and slower development of motor deficits (p = 0.030). Conclusions: For MSCC treatment in patients with CUP, no significant difference was observed between short-course and long-course RT regarding functional outcome and survival. Short-course RT appears preferable, at least for patients with a poor predicted survival, as it is more patient convenient and more cost-effective.

  10. Light scattering by radiation fields: the optical medium analogy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donato Bini; Pierluigi Fortini; Andrea Geralico; Maria Haney; Antonello Ortolan

    2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical medium analogy of a radiation field generated by either an exact gravitational plane wave or an exact electromagnetic wave in the framework of general relativity is developed. The equivalent medium of the associated background field is inhomogeneous and anisotropic in the former case, whereas it is inhomogeneous but isotropic in the latter. The features of light scattering are investigated by assuming the interaction region to be sandwiched between two flat spacetime regions, where light rays propagate along straight lines. Standard tools of ordinary wave optics are used to study the deflection of photon paths due to the interaction with the radiation fields, allowing for a comparison between the optical properties of the equivalent media associated with the different background fields.

  11. Continuum Electrodynamics of a Piecewise-Homogeneous Linear Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crenshaw, Michael E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy--momentum tensor and the tensor continuity equation serve as the conservation laws of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum for a continuous flow. Previously, we derived equations of motion for macroscopic electromagnetic fields in a homogeneous linear dielectric medium that is draped with a gradient-index antireflection coating (J. Math Phys. 55, 042901 (2014) ). These results are consistent with the electromagnetic tensor continuity equation in the limit that reflections and the accompanying surface forces are negligible thereby satisfying the condition of an unimpeded flow in a thermodynamically closed system. Here, we take the next step and derive equations of motion for the macroscopic fields in the limiting case of a piecewise-homogeneous simple linear dielectric medium. The presence of radiation surface forces on the interface between two different homogeneous linear materials means that the energy--momentum formalism must be modified to treat separate homogeneous media in which the ...

  12. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  13. Probabilistic picture of in-medium jet evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yacine Mehtar-Tani

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly discuss the recently developed probabilistic picture for in-medium jet evolution that is driven by independent multiple scatterings and branchings. These are controlled by the jet quenching parameter $\\hat q$. In this framework, large radiative corrections to $p_\\perp$-broadening of partons in the jet, enhanced by a double logarithm (DL) of the medium size $L$, are recovered. We argue that these non-local corrections are universal and can be reabsorbed in a renormalization of the jet quenching parameter without spoiling the probabilistic picture. As a consequence, we find that for large media, the mean radiative energy loss result scales as $L^{2+\\gamma}$, where the anomalous dimension $\\gamma=2\\sqrt{\\alpha_sN_c/\\pi}$.

  14. An Improved Treatment of Cosmological Intergalactic Medium Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manrique, Alberto

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The modeling of galaxy formation and reionization, two central issues of modern cosmology, relies on the accurate follow-up of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Unfortunately, owing to the complex nature of this medium, the differential equations governing its ionization state and temperature are only approximate. In this paper, we improve these master equations. We derive new expression for the distinct composite inhomogeneous IGM phases, including all relevant ionizing/recombining and cooling/heating mechanisms, taking into account inflows/outflows into/from halos, and using more accurate recombination coefficients. Furthermore, to better compute the source functions in the equations we provide an analytic procedure for calculating the halo mass function in ionized environments, accounting for the bias due to the ionization state of their environment. Such an improved treatment of IGM evolution is part of a complete realistic model of galaxy formation presented elsewhere.

  15. Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Choi, Daiwon; Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, G.; Sun, C.

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one of the chapters in the book titled “Advances in batteries for large- and medium-scale energy storage: Applications in power systems and electric vehicles” that will be published by the Woodhead Publishing Limited. The chapter discusses the basic electrochemical fundamentals of electrochemical energy storage devices with a focus on the rechargeable batteries. Several practical secondary battery systems are also discussed as examples

  16. RF-MEMS Switched Varactors for Medium Power Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maury, F; Crunteanu, A; Conseil, F; Blondy, P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In RF (Radio Frequency) domain, one of the limitations of using MEMS (Micro Electromechanical Systems) switching devices for medium power applications is RF power. Failure phenomena appear even for 500 mW. A design of MEMS switched capacitors with an enhanced topology is presented in this paper to prevent it. This kind of device and its promising performances will serve to fabricate a MEMS based phase shifter able to work under several watts.

  17. Diffusion of hidden charm mesons in hadronic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukanya Mitra; Sabyasachi Ghosh; Santosh K. Das; Sourav Sarkar; Jan-e Alam

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The drag and diffusion coefficients of a hot hadronic medium have been evaluated by using hidden charm mesons as probes. The matrix elements for the evaluation of these coefficients are calculated using an effective theory as well as from scattering lengths. Although the transport coefficients show a significant rise with temperature its effects on the suppression of $J/\\psi$ in hadronic matter is not significant.

  18. Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium by the Milky Way Subgroup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leticia Carigi

    2001-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    I study the effect of the galaxies of the Milky Way subgroup on the chemical enrichment of the diffuse gas within the Local Group. The preferred model predicts that the present-day intergalactic medium mass is 1/22 of the initial baryonic mass and its metallicity is 1/20 $Z_\\odot$. Nearly 80 % of intergalactic metals were produced in the Galactic bulge.

  19. Metal Enrichment in the Intra-Cluster Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabine Schindler

    2006-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The enrichment of the Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM) with heavy elements is reviewed. There is now good observational evidence for enrichment including abundance ratios and metallicity distributions. Various processes involved in the enrichment process -- ram-pressure stripping, galactic winds, galaxy-galaxy interactions, AGN outflows and intra-cluster supernovae -- are described. Simulations of the ICM evolution taking into account metal enrichment are presented.

  20. Continued development of a semianalytical solution for two-phase fluid and heat flow in a porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, C.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past few years the authors have developed a semianalytical solution for transient two-phase water, air, and heat flow in a porous medium surrounding a constant-strength linear heat source, using a similarity variable {eta} = r/{radical}t. Although the similarity transformation approach requires a simplified geometry, all the complex physical mechanisms involved in coupled two-phase fluid and heat flow can be taken into account in a rigorous way, so that the solution may be applied to a variety of problems of current interest. The work was motivated by adverse to predict the thermohydrological response to the proposed geologic repository for heat-generating high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in a partially saturated, highly fractured volcanic formation. The paper describes thermal and hydrologic conditions near the heat source; new features of the model; vapor pressure lowering; and the effective-continuum representation of a fractured/porous medium.

  1. Optical Anisotropy of Schwarzschild Metric within Equivalent Medium Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sina Khorasani; Bizhan Rashidian

    2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    It is has been long known that the curved space in the presence of gravitation can be described as a non-homogeneous anisotropic medium in flat geometry with different constitutive equations. In this article, we show that the eigenpolarizations of such medium can be exactly solved, leading to a pseudo-isotropic description of curved vacuum with two refractive index eigenvalues having opposite signs, which correspond to forward and backward travel in time. We conclude that for a rotating universe, time-reversal symmetry is broken. We also demonstrate the applicability of this method to Schwarzschild metric and derive exact forms of refractive index. We derive the subtle optical anisotropy of space around a spherically symmetric, non-rotating and uncharged blackhole in the form of an elegant closed form expression, and show that the refractive index in such a pseudo-isotropic system would be a function of coordinates as well as the direction of propagation. Corrections arising from such anisotropy in the bending of light are shown and a simplified system of equations for ray-tracing in the equivalent medium of Schwarzschild metric is found.

  2. \\\\server05\\productn\\C\\CJP\\14-1\\CJP102.txt unknown Seq: 1 24-FEB-05 17:48 REGULATING OFFSHORE WIND POWER AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 R C. DIFFERENCES IN THE E.U. AND U.S. WITH RESPECT TO OFFSHORE WIND FARMS\\\\server05\\productn\\C\\CJP\\14-1\\CJP102.txt unknown Seq: 1 24-FEB-05 17:48 REGULATING OFFSHORE WIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 R A. OFFSHORE AQUACULTURE (MARICULTURE) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 R B. OFFSHORE WIND POWER

  3. Distributed Broadcast Scheduling in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Unknown Guang Tan, Stephen A. Jarvis, James W. J. Xue, and Simon D. Hammond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarvis, Stephen

    Distributed Broadcast Scheduling in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Unknown Topologies Guang Tan. In this paper we study the distributed broadcast schedul- ing problem in ad hoc networks. In broadcasting is a fundamental communication task in mobile ad hoc networks, and minimizing broadcasting time (or latency

  4. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The objective of the current...

  5. Exploration of the comics medium developed for use on the internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Brian James

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new derivative of the comics medium may be created by incorporating computer and internet technology into the design process. Traditionally a printed medium, comics is now finding its way onto the internet; more comic creators are presenting...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - anisotropic random medium Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    39 Discrete-ordinates solution of short-pulsed laser transport in two-dimensional turbid media Summary: of the medium is L W 10 mm. The medium is anisotropically scattering with...

  7. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Dublin, CA); Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

  8. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

    1994-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

  9. Theoretical and experimental investigation of thermohydrologic processes in a partially saturated, fractured porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, R.T.; Manteufel, R.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Dodge, F.T.; Svedeman, S.J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste will be influenced to a large degree by thermohydrologic phenomena created by the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste. The importance of these phenomena is manifest in that they can greatly affect the movement of moisture and the resulting transport of radionuclides from the repository. Thus, these phenomena must be well understood prior to a definitive assessment of a potential repository site. An investigation has been undertaken along three separate avenues of analysis: (i) laboratory experiments, (ii) mathematical models, and (iii) similitude analysis. A summary of accomplishments to date is as follows. (1) A review of the literature on the theory of heat and mass transfer in partially saturated porous medium. (2) A development of the governing conservation and constitutive equations. (3) A development of a dimensionless form of the governing equations. (4) A numerical study of the importance and sensitivity of flow to a set of dimensionless groups. (5) A survey and evaluation of experimental measurement techniques. (6) Execution of laboratory experiments of nonisothermal flow in a porous medium with a simulated fracture.

  10. Interacting FisherWright Diffusions in a Catalytic Medium Andreas Greven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klenke, Achim

    environment (catalytic medium). Here we introduce a model of interacting Fisher­Wright diffusions where environment, catalytic medium, longtime behaviour, rescaling. AMS Subject Classification: 60K35, 60J70Interacting Fisher­Wright Diffusions in a Catalytic Medium Andreas Greven Mathematisches Institut

  11. Radio-nuclide mixture identification using medium energy resolution detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Karl Einar

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    According to one embodiment, a method for identifying radio-nuclides includes receiving spectral data, extracting a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and using a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library. In another embodiment, a device for identifying unknown radio-nuclides includes a processor, a multi-channel analyzer, and a memory operatively coupled to the processor, the memory having computer readable code stored thereon. The computer readable code is configured, when executed by the processor, to receive spectral data, to extract a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and to use a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library.

  12. On viscosity, conduction and sound waves in the intracluster medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Fabian; C. S. Reynolds; G. B. Taylor; R. J. H. Dunn

    2005-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent X-ray and optical observations of the Perseus cluster indicate that the viscous and conductive dissipation of sound waves is the mechanism responsible for heating the intracluster medium and thus balancing radiative cooling of cluster cores. We discuss this mechanism more generally and show how the specific heating and cooling rates vary with temperature and radius. It appears that the heating mechanism is most effective above 10^7K, which allows for radiative cooling to proceed within normal galaxy formation but will stifle the growth of very massive galaxies. The scaling of the wavelength of sound waves with cluster temperature and feedback in the system are investigated.

  13. Nuclear medium effects in $?(\\bar?)$-nucleus deep inelastic scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Haider; I. Ruiz Simo; M. Sajjad Athar; M. J. Vicente Vacas

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $F_3(x,Q^2)$ in the deep inelastic neutrino/antineutrino reactions in nuclei. We use a theoretical model for the nuclear spectral functions which incorporates the conventional nuclear effects, such as Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions calculated from a microscopic model for meson-nucleus self-energies. The calculations have been performed using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations. Our results are compared with the experimental data of NuTeV and CDHSW.

  14. Tunneling properties of nonplanar molecules in a gas medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahrami, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Bassi, Angelo [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste Section, Via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple, general, and accurate formula for analyzing the tunneling between classical configurations of a nonplanar molecule in a gas medium, as a function of the thermodynamic parameters of the gas. We apply it to two interesting cases: (i) the shift to zero frequency of the inversion line of ammonia, upon an increase in the pressure of the gas; and (ii) the destruction of the coherent tunneling of D{sub 2}S{sub 2} molecules in a He gas. In both cases, we compare our analysis with previous theoretical and experimental results.

  15. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Medium office | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012EnergyBuilding Type: Medium office Reference Buildings by

  16. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Medium office | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012EnergyBuilding Type: Medium office Reference Buildings

  17. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Medium office | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012EnergyBuilding Type: Medium office Reference

  18. High-temperature gas-cooled reactors: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning medium-enriched uranium/thorium once-through fuel cycle; medium-enrichment uranium-233/thorium recycle fuel; high-enrichment uranium-235/thorium recycle (spiked) fuel cycle; high-enrichment uranium-233/thorium recycle (spiked) fuel cycle; and gas-turbine high-temperature gas-cooled reactor.

  19. Doppler effect in the oscillator radiation process in the medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekdar Gevorgian; Valeri Vardanyan

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the radiation process of the charged particle passing through an external periodic field in a dispersive medium. In the optical range of spectrum we will consider two cases: first, the source has not eigenfrequency, and second, the source has eigenfrequency. In the first case, when the Cherenkov radiation occurs, the non-zero eigenfrequency produces a paradox for Doppler effect. It is shown that the absence of the eigenfrequency solves the paradox known in the literature. The question whether the process is normal (i.e. hard photons are being radiated under the small angles) or anomalous depends on the law of the medium dispersion. When the source has an eigenfrequency the Doppler effects can be either normal or anomalous. In the X-ray range of the oscillator radiation spectrum we have two photons radiated under the same angle- soft and hard. In this case the radiation obeys to so-called complicated Doppler effect, i.e. in the soft photon region we have anomalous Doppler effect and in the hard photon region we have normal Doppler effect.

  20. Medium-solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for use in Urban Environments S. Tullis, A. Fiedler, K. McLaren, S. Ziada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    high turbine solidities (the ratio of total blade area to turbine swept area), which result in lowMedium-solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for use in Urban Environments S. Tullis, A. Fiedler, K Vertical axis wind turbines are currently experiencing a renewed interest in small- scale applications

  1. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  2. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  3. Overcoming the Diffraction Limit Using Multiple Light Scattering in a Highly Disordered Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Youngwoon

    We report that disordered media made of randomly distributed nanoparticles can be used to overcome the diffraction limit of a conventional imaging system. By developing a method to extract the original image information ...

  4. Yttrium-dispersed C{sub 60} fullerenes as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Zi-Ya; Dong, Shun-Le, E-mail: dongshunle2013@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)] [Department of Physics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Interaction between hydrogen molecules and functionalized C{sub 60} is investigated using density functional theory method. Unlike transition metal atoms that tend to cluster on the surface, C{sub 60} decorated with 12 Yttrium atoms on each of its 12 pentagons is extremely stable and remarkably enhances the hydrogen adsorption capacity. Four H{sub 2} molecules can be chemisorbed on a single Y atom through well-known Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson interaction. The nature of bonding is a weak physisorption for the fifth adsorbed H{sub 2} molecule. Consequently, the C{sub 60}Y{sub 12} complex with 60 hydrogen molecules has been demonstrated to lead to a hydrogen storage capacity of ?6.30 wt. %.

  5. In academia Not in academia Not working or studying Unknown *PhD students received their award in financial year 2003/04.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    In academia Not in academia Not working or studying Unknown *PhD students received their award in financial year 2003/04. SP-5666/01-2013/PE Wave 1 PhD Wave 2 Wave 3 Wave 5 Wave 4 2009 2010 2011 2013 2012 PhD students (cohort 2003/04) join Wave 1 of BSCT Total cohort 2003/04 Former PhD students (cohort

  6. Connection Between the Circumgalactic Medium and the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies:Results from the COS-GASS Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Tumlinson, Jason; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Thom, Christopher; Catinella, Barbara; Schiminovich, David; Dave, Romeel; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Moran, Sean M; Saintonge, Amelie

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study exploring the nature and properties of the Circum-Galactic Medium (CGM) and its connection to the atomic gas content in the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies as traced by the HI 21 cm line. Our sample includes 45 low-z (0.026-0.049) galaxies from the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey. Their CGM was probed via absorption in the spectra of background Quasi-Stellar Objects at impact parameters of 63 to 231 kpc. The spectra were obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. We detected neutral hydrogen (Ly{\\alpha} absorption-lines) in the CGM of 92% of the galaxies. We find the radial profile of the CGM as traced by the Ly{\\alpha} equivalent width can be fit as an exponential with a scale length of about 0.85 times the virial radius of the dark matter halo. We found no correlation between the orientation of the galaxies and their Ly{\\alpha} equivalent widths. The velocity spread of the circumgalactic gas is consistent with that seen in the atomic gas in the inters...

  7. Fault-tolerant Partial-resonant High-frequency AC-link Converters and Their Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keyhani, Hamidreza

    2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, the demand for high-power-density converters with high efficiency and enhanced reliability has increased considerably. To address this demand, this dissertation introduces several low, medium, and high power ...

  8. Gravity currents in a porous medium at an inclined plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vella, D; Huppert, Herbert E.; Vella, Dominic

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the release from a point source of relatively heavy fluid into a porous saturated medium above an impermeable slope. We consider the case where the volume of the resulting gravity current increases with time like $t^\\alpha$ and show that for $\\alpha3$, this situation is reversed with spreading occurring predominantly downslope for short times. The governing equations admit similarity solutions whose scaling behaviour we determine, with the full similarity form being evaluated by numerical computations of the governing partial differential equation. We find that the results of these analyses are in good quantitative agreement with a series of laboratory experiments. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of our work for the sequestration of carbon dioxide in aquifers with a sloping, impermeable cap.

  9. Two-phase flow in a chemically active porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandre Darmon; Michael Benzaquen; Thomas Salez; Olivier Dauchot

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the problem of the transformation of a given reactant species into an immiscible product species, as they flow through a chemically active porous medium. We derive the equation governing the evolution of the volume fraction of the species -- in a one-dimensional macroscopic description --, identify the relevant dimensionless numbers, and provide simple models for capillary pressure and relative permeabilities, which are quantities of crucial importance when tackling multiphase flows in porous media. We set the domain of validity of our models and discuss the importance of viscous coupling terms in the extended Darcy's law. We investigate numerically the steady regime and demonstrate that the spatial transformation rate of the species along the reactor is non-monotonous, as testified by the existence of an inflection point in the volume fraction profiles. We obtain the scaling of the location of this inflection point with the dimensionless lengths of the problem. Eventually, we provide key elements for optimization of the reactor.

  10. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative agreements and their completion were problematic for the US and world economies. This resulted in the President and Congress implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, abbreviated ARRA (Pub.L. 111-5), commonly referred to as the Stimulus or The Recovery Act. The stimulus money available for transportation projects encouraged the SCAQMD to seek additional funds. In August of 2009, they eventually were awarded an additional $45.5 M, and the scope of their project was expanded to 378 vehicles. However, as a consequence of the stimulus money and the inundation of DOE with applications for new project under the ARRA, the expected time table for producing and testing vehicles was significantly delayed. As a result, these vehicles were not available for validating the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium. Therefore, in April of 2011, the Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) for the project was revised, and limited to producing the draft protocol for PHEV certification as its deliverable.

  11. Heating and Acceleration of Intracluster Medium Electrons by Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahé Petrosian; William E. East

    2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we investigate the feasibility of bremsstrahlung radiation from `nonthermal' electrons as a source of hard X-rays from the intracluster medium of clusters of galaxies. With an exact treatment of the Coulomb collisions in a Fokker-Planck analysis of the electron distribution we find that the severe difficulties with lifetimes of `nonthermal' particles found earlier by Petrosian (2001) using a cold target model remain problematic. We then address possible acceleration of background electrons into a nonthermal tail. We assume a simplified but generic acceleration rate and determine the expected evolution of an initially Maxwellian distribution of electrons. We find that strong nonthermal components arise only for rapid rate of acceleration which also heats up the entire plasma. These results confirm the conclusion that if the observed `nonthermal' excesses are due to some process accelerating the background thermal electrons this process must be short lived.

  12. Wavelength calibration of the JWST-MIRI medium resolution spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez-Galarza, J R; Hernan-Caballero, A; Azzollini, R; Glasse, A; Kendrew, S; Brandl, B; Lahuis, F

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the wavelength and spectral resolution characterisation of the Integral Field Unit (IFU) Medium Resolution Spectrometer for the Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI), to fly onboard the James Webb Space Telescope in 2014. We use data collected using the Verification Model of the instrument and develop an empirical method to calibrate properties such as wavelength range and resolving power in a portion of the spectrometer's full spectral range (5-28 microns). We test our results against optical models to verify the system requirements and combine them with a study of the fringing pattern in the instrument's detector to provide a more accurate calibration. We show that MIRI's IFU spectrometer will be able to produce spectra with a resolving power above R=2800 in the wavelength range 6.46-7.70 microns, and that the unresolved spectral lines are well fitted by a Gaussian profile.

  13. Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project compiles medium-duty (MD) aggregated deployment data and provides the compiled detailed analyses to industry. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles, electrified accessories, and electric charging infrastructure. Over 3.2 million miles of in-service all-electric MD truck data from 560 different vehicles have been collected since 2011, and usage data from over 1,000 truck electrification sites have been collected since 2013. Through the DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office, NREL is working to analyze real-time data from these deployment and demonstration projects to quantify the benefits: results and summary statistics are made available through the NREL website as quarterly and annual reports; 23 aggregated reports have been published on the performance and operation of these vehicles; and detailed data are being extracted to help further understand battery use and performance.

  14. Ionization front-driven turbulence in the clumpy interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Peters; Robi Banerjee; Ralf S. Klessen

    2008-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present 3D radiation-gasdynamical simulations of an ionization front running into a dense clump. In our setup, a B0 star irradiates an overdensity which is at a distance of 10 pc and modelled as a supercritical 100 M_sol Bonnor-Ebert sphere. The radiation from the star heats up the gas and creates a shock front that expands into the interstellar medium. The shock compresses the clump material while the ionizing radiation heats it up. The outcome of this "cloud-crushing" process is a fully turbulent gas in the wake of the clump. In the end, the clump entirely dissolves. We propose that this mechanism is very efficient in creating short-living supersonic turbulence in the vicinity of massive stars.

  15. Lorentz-symmetry violating decays in a medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieves, Jose F.; Pal, Palash B. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 23343, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, 00931-3343 (Puerto Rico); Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan-Nagar, Calcutta 700064 (India)

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various decay processes, such as the decay of a spin-1 particle into two photons or the gravitational decay of a spin-1/2 fermion, are forbidden in the vacuum by a combination of requirements, including angular momentum conservation, Lorentz invariance, and gauge invariance. We show that such processes can occur in a medium, such as a thermal background of particles, even if it is homogeneous and isotropic. We carry out a model-independent analysis of the vertex function for such processes in terms of a set of form factors, and show that the amplitude can be nonzero while remaining consistent with the symmetry principles mentioned above. The results simulate Lorentz symmetry violating effects, although in this case they arise from completely Lorentz-invariant physics.

  16. Soot blower using fuel gas as blowing medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A soot blower assembly (10) for use in combination with a coal gasifier (14). The soot blower assembly is adapted for use in the hot combustible product gas generated in the gasifier as the blowing medium. The soot blower lance (20) and the drive means (30) by which it is moved into and out of the gasifier is housed in a gas tight enclosure (40) which completely surrounds the combination. The interior of the enclosure (40) is pressurized by an inert gas to a pressure level higher than that present in the gasifier so that any combustible product gas leaking from the soot blower lance (20) is forced into the gasifier rather than accumulating within the enclosure.

  17. The role of the Interstellar Medium in Galaxy Formation Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greg L. Bryan

    2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a strong connection between the formation of a disk galaxy and the properties of the interstellar medium (ISM). Theoretical work has typically either focused on the cosmological buildup of a galaxy with a relatively crude model for the gas physics, or examined local processes in the ISM and ignored the global evolution of the galaxy itself. Here, I briefly review what has been learned from both of these approaches, and what can be done to bridge the gap between them. I argue that cosmological simulations need to learn from observational and theoretical work on local ISM properties and adopt more sophisticated models for the processes that they cannot resolve. Since the ISM is still incompletely understood, there are a number of reasonable approaches for these "subgrid" models, and I will discuss the strengths and limitations of each.

  18. Supports for high tech : permanence and change in building system design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luna Herrera, Pablo

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The obsolescence of our constantly changing built environment is leading architects, now more than ever, towards designing for unknown future requirements. This condition has become manifest in the design of "High Tech" ...

  19. Dust in the Ionized Medium of the Galaxy: GHRS Measurements of Al III and S III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Christopher Howk; Blair D. Savage

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present interstellar absorption line measurements of the ions S III and Al III towards six stars using archival Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph data. The ions Al III and S III trace heavily depleted and non-depleted elements, respectively, in ionized gas. We use the photoionization code CLOUDY to derive the ionization correction relating N(Al III)/N(S III) to the gas-phase abundance [Al/S]_i in the ionized gas. For spectral types considered here, the corrections are small and independent of the assumed ionization parameter. Using the results of these photoionization models, we find [Al/S]_i = -1.0 in the ionized gas towards three disk stars. These values of [Al/S]_i (=[Al/H]_i) imply that Al-bearing grains are present in the ionized nebulae around these stars. If the WIM of the Galaxy is photoionized by OB stars, our data for two halo stars imply [Al/S]_i = -0.4 to -0.5 in the WIM and thus the presence of dust grains containing Al in this important phase of the ISM. While photoionization appears to be the most likely origin of the ionization for Al III and S III, we cannot rule out confusion from the presence of hot, collisionally ionized gas along two sightlines. We find that [Al/S]_i in the ionized gas along the six sightlines is anti-correlated with the electron density and average sightline neutral density. The degree of grain destruction in the ionized medium of the Galaxy is not much higher than in the warm neutral medium. The existence of grains in the ionized regions studied here has important implications for the thermal balance of these regions. (Abstract Abridged)

  20. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN BARNARD'S LOOP, COMPONENTS OF THE ORION-ERIDANUS BUBBLE, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE WARM IONIZED MEDIUM COMPONENT OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dell, C. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Ferland, G. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Porter, R. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Simulational Physics, University of Georgia at Athens, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Van Hoof, P. A. M. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We have supplemented existing spectra of Barnard's Loop with high accuracy spectrophotometry of one new position. Cloudy photoionization models were calculated for a variety of ionization parameters and stellar temperatures and compared with the observations. After testing the procedure with recent observations of M43, we establish that Barnard's Loop is photoionized by four candidate ionizing stars, but agreement between the models and observations is only possible if Barnard's Loop is enhanced in heavy elements by about a factor of 1.4. Barnard's Loop is very similar in properties to the brightest components of the Orion-Eridanus Bubble and the warm ionized medium (WIM). We are able to establish models that bound the range populated in low-ionization color-color diagrams (I([S II])/I(H{alpha}) versus I([N II])/I(H{alpha})) using only a limited range of ionization parameters and stellar temperatures. Previously established variations in the relative abundance of heavy elements render uncertain the most common method of determining electron temperatures for components of the Orion-Eridanus Bubble and the WIM based only on the I([N II])/I(H{alpha}) ratio, although we confirm that the lowest surface brightness components of the WIM are on average of higher electron temperature. The electron temperatures for a few high surface brightness WIM components determined by direct methods are comparable to those of classical bright H II regions. In contrast, the low surface brightness H II regions studied by the Wisconsin H{alpha} Mapper are of lower temperatures than the classical bright H II regions.

  1. In-Use Performance Results of Medium Duty Electric Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes a DOE program to monitor and report on vehicle performance and energy utilization of medium-duty and heavy-duty electric vehicles.

  2. Clean Cities' Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guide describes the alternative fuel and advanced medium- and heavy-duty vehicles available on the market, including buses, vans, refuse haulers, and more.

  3. Plasma Wave Properties of the Schwarzschild Magnetosphere in a Veselago Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sharif; Noureen Mukhtar

    2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We re-formulate the 3+1 GRMHD equations for the Schwarzschild black hole in a Veselago medium. Linear perturbation in rotating (non-magnetized and magnetized) plasma is introduced and their Fourier analysis is considered. We discuss wave properties with the help of wave vector, refractive index and change in refractive index in the form of graphs. It is concluded that some waves move away from the event horizon in this unusual medium. We conclude that for the rotating non-magnetized plasma, our results confirm the presence of Veselago medium while the rotating magnetized plasma does not provide any evidence for this medium.

  4. antigen predicts medium-term: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in both disembodied and embodied technological change, research & development, and the efficiency of resource utilization. We then develop a model to explain the medium term...

  5. addresses medium-term development: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in both disembodied and embodied technological change, research & development, and the efficiency of resource utilization. We then develop a model to explain the medium term...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  10. Changes in high cloud conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himebrook, Richard Frank

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ). When the effect of unknowns is added to the data (Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), p, 21), the period with most high-cloud cover seems to alter- nate back and forth almost monthly, The average, global, solar radiation (Fig. 3(c), p. 21) depicts a decrease from... radiation, per cent possible sunshine, and average sky cover. The increases in high-cloud cover occurred in areas with the following characteristics: strong upper-air flow; frequent jet ' aircraft traffic; coverage of less than half the sky; late...

  11. Fluorine Substituted Conjugated Polymer of Medium Band Gap Yields 7% Efficiency in Polymer--Fullerene Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, S C; Stuart, Andrew C.; Yang, L; Zhou, H; You, Wei

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent research advances on conjugated polymers for photovoltaic devices have focused on creating low band gap materials, but a suitable band gap is only one of many performance criteria required for a successful conjugated polymer. This work focuses on the design of two medium band gap (?2.0 eV) copolymers for use in photovoltaic cells which are designed to possess a high hole mobility and low highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels. The resulting fluorinated polymer PBnDT?FTAZ exhibits efficiencies above 7% when blended with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester in a typical bulk heterojunction, and efficiencies above 6% are still maintained at an active layer thicknesses of 1 ?m. PBnDT?FTAZ outperforms poly(3-hexylthiophene), the current medium band gap polymer of choice, and thus is a viable candidate for use in highly efficient tandem cells. PBnDT?FTAZ also highlights other performance criteria which contribute to high photovoltaic efficiency, besides a low band gap.

  12. Brief history of the metal accumulation in the intracluster medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Ettori

    2005-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We use models of the rates of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and core-collapse supernovae, built in such a way that both are consistent with recent observational constraints at zaccumulation in the intra-cluster medium. We show that these SN rates, in unit of SN number per comoving volume and rest-frame year, provide on average a total amount of Iron that is marginally consistent with the value measured in galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0-1, and a relative evolution with redshift that is in agreement with the observational constraints up to z~1.2. Moreover, we verify that the predicted metals to Iron ratios reproduce the measurements obtained in nearby clusters through X-ray analysis, implying that (1) about half of the Iron mass and >75 per cent of the Nickel mass observed locally are produced by SN Ia ejecta, (2) the SN Ia contribution to the metal budget decreases steeply with redshift and by z~1 is already less than half of the local amount and (3) a transition in the abundance ratios relative to the Iron is present between redshifts ~0.5 and 1.4, with core-collapse SN products becoming dominant at higher redshifts.

  13. On the Crystallinity of Silicate Dust in the Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. P. Li; G. Zhao; Aigen Li

    2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An accurate knowledge of the mineralogy (chemical composition and crystal structure) of the silicate dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) is crucial for understanding its origin in evolved stars, the physical and chemical processing in the ISM, and its subsequent incorporation into protostellar nebulae, protoplanetary disks and cometary nuclei where it is subjected to further processing. While an appreciable fraction of silicate dust in evolved stars, in protoplanetary disks around pre-main sequence stars, in debris disks around main sequence stars, and in cometary nuclei is found to be in crystalline form, very recent infrared spectroscopic studies of the dust along the sightline toward the Galactic center source Sgr A* placed an upper limit of ~1.1% on the silicate crystalline fraction, well below the previous estimates of ~5% or ~60% derived from the observed 10 micron absorption profile for the local ISM toward Cyg OB2 No.12. Since the sightline toward SgrA contains molecular cloud materials as revealed by the detection of the 3.1 and 6.0 micron water ice absorption features, we argue that by taking into account the presence of ice mantles on silicate cores, the upper limit on the degree of silicate crystallinity in the ISM is increased to ~3--5%.

  14. Nuclear thermodynamics and the in-medium chiral condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvatore Fiorilla; Norbert Kaiser; Wolfram Weise

    2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at varying baryon density is investigated using thermal in-medium chiral effective field theory. This framework provides a realistic approach to the thermodynamics of the correlated nuclear many-body system and permits calculating systematically the pion-mass dependence of the free energy per particle. One- and two-pion exchange processes, $\\Delta(1232)$-isobar excitations, Pauli blocking corrections and three-body correlations are treated up to and including three loops in the expansion of the free energy density. It is found that nuclear matter remains in the Nambu-Goldstone phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry in the temperature range $T\\lesssim 100\\,$MeV and at baryon densities at least up to about twice the density of normal nuclear matter, $2\\rho_0 \\simeq 0.3\\, $fm$^{-3}$. Effects of the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition on the chiral condensate at low temperatures are also discussed.

  15. Characterizing the Jeans Filtering Scale of the Intergalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Girish; Oñorbe, Jose; Rorai, Alberto; Springel, Volker

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z nature and timing of cosmic reionization events, but its inference from the Ly-alpha forest is degenerate with the 3-D structure of the IGM on ~100 kpc scales, where, analogous to the classical Jeans argument, the pressure of the T~$10^4$ K gas supports it against gravity. We simulate the IGM using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and find that, at z gas density power spectrum does not exhibit the expected Jeans filtering cutoff, because dense gas in collapsed halos dominates the small-scale power masking pressure smoothing effects. We introduce a new statistic, the real-space Ly-alpha flux, $F_\\mathrm{real}$, which naturally suppresses dense gas, and is thus robust against the poorly understood physics of galaxy formation, revealing pressure smoothing in the diffuse IGM. The $F_\\mathrm{real}$ power spectrum is accurately described by a simple fitting function with cutoff at $\\lambda_F$, allowing us to rigorously quanti...

  16. Pseudo-scalar photon mixing in a magnetized medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Avijit K. [Haldia Institute of Technology, Indian Center for Advancement of Research and Education Complex, Haldia 721657 (India)]. E-mail: avijitk@hotmail.com

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Axions are pseudo-scalar particles, those which arise because of breaking of Peccei Queen (PQ) symmetry. Axions have a tree level coupling to two photons. As a consequence there exists a tree level coupling of axion to photon in a magnetic field. However, in an external magnetic field, there exists a new loop induced, axion photon vertex that gives rise to axion photon coupling. The strength of the tree level axion photon coupling in magnetic field is known to be model dependent. However, in a magnetic field, the new loop induced coupling has some interesting features. This note discusses the new axion photon vertex in a magnetized medium and the corrections arising from there. The magnitude of the correction to axion photon coupling, because of magnetized vacuum and matter, is estimated in this note. While making this estimate we note that the form of the axion photon vertex is related to the axial polarization tensor. This vertex is shown to satisfy the Ward identity. The coupling is shown to have a momentum dependent piece in it. Astrophysical importance of this extra modification is also pointed out.

  17. Determination of electromagnetic medium from the Fresnel surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matias F. Dahl

    2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We study Maxwell's equations on a 4-manifold where the electromagnetic medium is described by an antisymmetric $2\\choose 2$-tensor $\\kappa$. In this setting, the Tamm-Rubilar tensor density determines a polynomial surface of fourth order in each cotangent space. This surface is called the Fresnel surface and acts as a generalisation of the light-cone determined by a Lorentz metric; the Fresnel surface parameterises electromagnetic wave-speed as a function of direction. Favaro and Bergamin have recently proven that if $\\kappa$ has only a principal part and if the Fresnel surface of $\\kappa$ coincides with the light cone for a Lorentz metric $g$, then $\\kappa$ is proportional to the Hodge star operator of $g$. That is, under additional assumptions, the Fresnel surface of $\\kappa$ determines the conformal class of $\\kappa$. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we provide a new proof of this result using Gr\\"obner bases. Second, we describe a number of cases where the Fresnel surface does not determine the conformal class of the original $2\\choose 2$-tensor $\\kappa$. For example, if $\\kappa$ is invertible we show that $\\kappa$ and $\\kappa^{-1}$ have the same Fresnel surfaces.

  18. The Galactic center interstellar medium as seen by ISO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. J. Rodriguez-Fernandez; J. Martin-Pintado

    2004-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the heating and the ionization of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the 500 central pc of the Milky Way (hereafter Galactic center, GC). We review the results of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observations of a sample of GC molecular clouds located far from thermal radiocontinuum or far-infrared sources. For the first time, we have been able to study in detail the dust continuum spectra from 40 to 190 microns founding a warm (30-40 K) dust component in addition to the well known 15-20 K component. Fine-structure lines observations have revealed the presence of diffuse ionized gas associated with the molecular clouds. The effective temperature of the ionizing radiation is higher than 33000 K. ISO has also allow us to measure the fraction of warm (~ 150 K) H2 in the GC clouds, which is on average of 30 %. The observations of the warm (a few 100 K) neutral gas are compatible with a Photon Dominated Region (PDR) scenario.

  19. The Galactic Center Interstellar Medium: from ISO to FIRST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. J. Rodriguez-Fernandez; J. Martin-Pintado

    2001-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) has shown the complexity of the Galactic center (GC) Interstellar medium (ISM) detecting, not only large column densities of warm molecular gas (H2), but the emission of neutral atoms and ions of low ionization potential (CII, OI, SiII,...) that should arise in shocked or photon-dominated regions (PDRs). In addition, ISO has also detected emission from ions like SIII, NeII, ArII, or NII (in some clouds we have even detected NeIII and OIII) that should arise from HII regions that were previously unsuspected due to the non-detection of Hydrogen recombination lines. Here we review some ISO results on the large scale study of the GC ISM and in particular, on the heating mechanisms of the clouds. Although, shocks should play an important role on the physics and chemistry of the GC ISM, ISO shows that the effect of radiation on the heating of the gas cannot be ruled out with the simple argument that the dust temperature is lower than that of the gas.

  20. active microwave medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that silica shell addition through microwave synthesis Park, Jeong Chan; Gilbert, Dustin A; Liu, Kai; Louie, Angelique Y. 2012-01-01 149 MURI High Energy Microwave Sources...

  1. STAR FORMATION LAWS AND THRESHOLDS FROM INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM STRUCTURE AND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renaud, Florent; Kraljic, Katarina; Bournaud, Frederic, E-mail: florent.renaud@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp, Universite Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical model of the relation between the surface density of gas and star formation rate in galaxies and clouds, as a function of the presence of supersonic turbulence and the associated structure of the interstellar medium (ISM). The model predicts a power-law relation of index 3/2, flattened under the effects of stellar feedback at high densities or in very turbulent media, and a break at low surface densities when ISM turbulence becomes too weak to induce strong compression. This model explains the diversity of star formation laws and thresholds observed in nearby spirals and their resolved regions, the Small Magellanic Cloud, high-redshift disks and starbursting mergers, as well as Galactic molecular clouds. While other models have proposed interstellar dust content and molecule formation to be key ingredients to the observed variations of the star formation efficiency, we demonstrate instead that these variations can be explained by ISM turbulence and structure in various types of galaxies.

  2. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jujasz, Albert J. (North Olmsted, OH); Burkhart, James A. (Olmsted Falls, OH); Greenberg, Ralph (New York, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  3. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  4. Professional Learning Communities as a Leadership-Initiated Reform Strategy for Math and Science Teaching in Urban High Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huggins, Kristin Shawn

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    . Thus, this research sought to understand how two urban high schools, one comprehensive high school in a large urban center and one small career academy high school in a medium-sized urban center, implemented professional learning communities as a...

  5. Sound-insulation layer modelling in car computational vibroacoustics in the medium-frequency range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Sound-insulation layer modelling in car computational vibroacoustics in the medium-frequency range In a previous article, a simplified low- and medium-frequency model for un- certain automotive sound-insulation. In this paper, the insulation simplified model is implemented in an in- dustrial stochastic vibroacoustic model

  6. Global Gevrey Regularity for the B'enard Convection in Porous Medium with Zero

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Gevrey Regularity for the B'enard Convection in Porous Medium with Zero Darcy­Prandtl Number for the three­dimensional B'enard convection model in porous medium with zero Darcy­Prandtl number using system for energy conservation, enhancing recovery of oil by thermal methods, assessing risks for nuclear

  7. Thermal recovery from a fractured medium in local thermal non-equilibrium Rachel Geleta,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Australia Abstract Thermal recovery from a hot dry rock reservoir viewed as a deformable fractured mediumThermal recovery from a fractured medium in local thermal non-equilibrium Rachel Geleta phase being made by impermeable solid blocks separated by saturated fractures. The finite element

  8. RANDOM WALK IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENT IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL STRATIFIED MEDIUM WITH ORIENTATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pène, Françoise

    RANDOM WALK IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENT IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL STRATIFIED MEDIUM WITH ORIENTATIONS ALEXIS walk in random environment, random walk in random scenery, functional limit theorem, transience. This research was supported by the french ANR project MEMEMO2. 1 #12;RWRE IN A STRATIFIED ORIENTED MEDIUM 2 Our

  9. RANDOM WALK IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENT IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL STRATIFIED MEDIUM WITH ORIENTATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RANDOM WALK IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENT IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL STRATIFIED MEDIUM WITH ORIENTATIONS ALEXIS oriented lattices, random walk in random environment, random walk in random scenery, functional limit-00634636,version2-24Nov2012 #12;RWRE IN A STRATIFIED ORIENTED MEDIUM 2 We denote by E and E

  10. Virtual Reality and Desktop as a Combined Interaction-Visualisation Medium for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zudilova-Seinstra, Elena

    these mediums within the same environment. 2. The Simulated Environment for Vascular Reconstruction 2Virtual Reality and Desktop as a Combined Interaction-Visualisation Medium for a Problem-Solving Environment E.V. Zudilova, P.M.A. Sloot Section Computational Science Faculty of Science, University

  11. Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-97 Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium J. C. Moulu'importance relative des forces de viscosité et des forces capillaires. Abstract. 2014 The velocity of oil ganglia residual oil phase by water injection in a porous medium [1, 2]. These studies have demonstrated

  12. Patterned medium for heat assisted magnetic recording Krat endur1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    medium are compared using finite element method solutions of Maxwell's and the heat transfer equations a magnetic recording medium based on the fundamental principles of optical energy transfer and heat transfer. In this study, the basic principles of Maxwell's and heat transfer equations are utilized to obtain a magnetic

  13. TIMESCALES ON WHICH STAR FORMATION AFFECTS THE NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Warren, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, CSS Building, Room 1024, Stadium Drive, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbulent neutral hydrogen (H I) line widths are often thought to be driven primarily by star formation (SF), but the timescale for converting SF energy to H I kinetic energy is unclear. As a complication, studies on the connection between H I line widths and SF in external galaxies often use broadband tracers for the SF rate, which must implicitly assume that SF histories (SFHs) have been constant over the timescale of the tracer. In this paper, we compare measures of H I energy to time-resolved SFHs in a number of nearby dwarf galaxies. We find that H I energy surface density is strongly correlated only with SF that occurred 30-40 Myr ago. This timescale corresponds to the approximate lifetime of the lowest mass supernova progenitors ({approx}8 M{sub Sun }). This analysis suggests that the coupling between SF and the neutral interstellar medium is strongest on this timescale, due either to an intrinsic delay between the release of the peak energy from SF or to the coherent effects of many supernova explosions during this interval. At {Sigma}{sub SFR} > 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, we find a mean coupling efficiency between SF energy and H I energy of {epsilon} = 0.11 {+-} 0.04 using the 30-40 Myr timescale. However, unphysical efficiencies are required in lower {Sigma}{sub SFR} systems, implying that SF is not the primary driver of H I kinematics at {Sigma}{sub SFR} < 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}.

  14. Metal Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium in Cosmological Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony Aguirre; Lars Hernquist; Joop Schaye; Neal Katz; David H. Weinberg; Jeffrey Gardner

    2001-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations have established that the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) at z ~ 3 is enriched to ~0.1-1% solar metallicity and that the hot gas in large clusters of galaxies (ICM) is enriched to 1/3-1/2 solar metallicity at z=0. Metals in the IGM may have been removed from galaxies (in which they presumably form) during dynamical encounters between galaxies, by ram-pressure stripping, by supernova-driven winds, or as radiation-pressure driven dust efflux. This study develops a method of investigating the chemical enrichment of the IGM and of galaxies, using already completed cosmological simulations. To these simulations, we add dust and (gaseous) metals, distributing the dust and metals in the gas according to three simple parameterized prescriptions, one for each enrichment mechanism. These prescriptions are formulated to capture the basic ejection physics, and calibrated when possible with empirical data. Our results indicate that dynamical removal of metals from >~ 3*10^8 solar mass galaxies cannot account for the observed metallicity of low-column density Ly-alpha absorbers, and that dynamical removal from >~ 3*10^10 solar mass galaxies cannot account for the ICM metallicities. Dynamical removal also fails to produce a strong enough mass-metallicity relation in galaxies. In contrast, either wind or radiation-pressure ejection of metals from relatively large galaxies can plausibly account for all three sets of observations (though it is unclear whether metals can be distributed uniformly enough in the low-density regions without overly disturbing the IGM, and whether clusters can be enriched quite as much as observed). We investigate in detail how our results change with variations in our assumed parameters, and how results for the different ejection processes compare. (Abridged)

  15. Diffusion of Cosmic Rays in a Multiphase Interstellar Medium Swept-Up by a Supernova Remnant Blast Wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roh, Soonyoung; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are one of the most energetic astrophysical events and are thought to be the dominant source of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs). A recent report on observations from the Fermi satellite has shown a signature of pion decay in the gamma-ray spectra of SNRs. This provides strong evidence that high-energy protons are accelerated in SNRs. The actual gamma-ray emission from pion decay should depend on the diffusion of CRs in the interstellar medium. In order to quantitatively analyse the diffusion of high-energy CRs from acceleration sites, we have performed test particle numerical simulations of CR protons using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of an interstellar medium swept-up by a blast wave. We analyse the diffusion of CRs at a length scale of order a few pc in our simulated SNR, and find the diffusion of CRs is precisely described by a Bohm diffusion, which is required for efficient acceleration at least for particles with energies above 30 TeV for a realistic int...

  16. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE STRONGLY INTERACTING WITH THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair; Ben-Ami, Sagi [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Howell, D. Andrew; Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cao, Yi; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chornock, Ryan; Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Griffith, Christopher V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M., E-mail: jsilverman@astro.as.utexas.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to their utility for measurements of cosmic acceleration, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are perhaps the best-studied class of SNe, yet the progenitor systems of these explosions largely remain a mystery. A rare subclass of SNe Ia shows evidence of strong interaction with their circumstellar medium (CSM), and in particular, a hydrogen-rich CSM; we refer to them as SNe Ia-CSM. In the first systematic search for such systems, we have identified 16 SNe Ia-CSM, and here we present new spectra of 13 of them. Six SNe Ia-CSM have been well studied previously, three were previously known but are analyzed in depth for the first time here, and seven are new discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory. The spectra of all SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by H{alpha} emission (with widths of {approx}2000 km s{sup -1}) and exhibit large H{alpha}/H{beta} intensity ratios (perhaps due to collisional excitation of hydrogen via the SN ejecta overtaking slower-moving CSM shells); moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission. They also show possible evidence of dust formation through a decrease in the red wing of H{alpha} 75-100 days past maximum brightness, and nearly all SNe Ia-CSM exhibit strong Na I D absorption from the host galaxy. The absolute magnitudes (uncorrected for host-galaxy extinction) of SNe Ia-CSM are found to be -21.3 mag {<=} M{sub R} {<=} -19 mag, and they also seem to show ultraviolet emission at early times and strong infrared emission at late times (but no detected radio or X-ray emission). Finally, the host galaxies of SNe Ia-CSM are all late-type spirals similar to the Milky Way, or dwarf irregulars like the Large Magellanic Cloud, which implies that these objects come from a relatively young stellar population. This work represents the most detailed analysis of the SN Ia-CSM class to date.

  17. Metallicity of the intergalactic medium using pixel statistics: IV. Oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony Aguirre; Corey Dow-Hygelund; Joop Schaye; Tom Theuns

    2008-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the abundance of oxygen in the IGM by analyzing OVI, CIV, SiIV, and HI pixel optical depths derived from a set of high-quality VLT and Keck spectra of 17 QSOs at 2.1 ~ 0.2. Consistent results are obtained by similarly comparing OVI to HI or OVI to SiIV optical depth ratios to simulation values, and also by directly ionization-correcting OVI optical depths as function of HI optical depths into [O/H] as a function of density. Subdividing the sample reveals no evidence for evolution, but low- and high-density samples are inconsistent, suggesting either density-dependence of [O/C] or -- more likely -- prevalence of collisionally-ionized gas at high density.

  18. The HBI in a quasi-global model of the intracluster medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latter, Henrik N

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we investigate how convective instabilities influence heat conduction in the intracluster medium (ICM) of cool-core galaxy clusters. The ICM is a high-beta, weakly collisional plasma in which the transport of momentum and heat is aligned with the magnetic field. The anisotropy of heat conduction, in particular, gives rise to instabilities that can access energy stored in a temperature gradient of either sign. We focus on the heat-flux buoyancy-driven instability (HBI), which feeds on the outwardly increasing temperature profile of cluster cool cores. Our aim is to elucidate how the global structure of a cluster impacts on the growth and morphology of the linear HBI modes when in the presence of Braginskii viscosity, and ultimately on the ability of the HBI to thermally insulate cores. We employ an idealised quasi-global model, the plane-parallel atmosphere, which captures the essential physics -- e.g. the global radial profile of the cluster -- while letting the problem remain analytically tract...

  19. Model-Based Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Medium-duty vehicles are used in a broad array of fleet applications, including parcel delivery. These vehicles are excellent candidates for electric drive applications due to their transient-intensive duty cycles, operation in densely populated areas, and relatively high fuel consumption and emissions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a robust assessment of parcel delivery routes and completed a model-based techno-economic analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle configurations. First, NREL characterized parcel delivery vehicle usage patterns, most notably daily distance driven and drive cycle intensity. Second, drive-cycle analysis results framed the selection of drive cycles used to test a parcel delivery HEV on a chassis dynamometer. Next, measured fuel consumption results were used to validate simulated fuel consumption values derived from a dynamic model of the parcel delivery vehicle. Finally, NREL swept a matrix of 120 component size, usage, and cost combinations to assess impacts on fuel consumption and vehicle cost. The results illustrated the dependency of component sizing on drive-cycle intensity and daily distance driven and may allow parcel delivery fleets to match the most appropriate electric drive vehicle to their fleet usage profile.

  20. Tracing the distribution and evolution of Iron in the IntraCluster Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Tozzi

    2008-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission lines in X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies reveal the presence of heavy elements in the diffuse hot plasma (ICM) in virial equilibrium in the dark matter potential well. Thanks to the X-ray satellites Chandra and XMM-Newton we are now able to measure with good accuracy the distribution and evolution of Iron up to redshift z ~ 1.3. The capability of studying the chemical and thermodynamical properties of the ICM in high redshift clusters is an efficient tool to constrain the interaction processes between the cluster galaxies and the surrounding medium. We confirm that the ICM is already significantly enriched at a look-back time of 9 Gyr, and find that the Iron abundance change with redshift as (1+z)^(-1.25), implying an increase of a factor of ~2 with respect to z=1.3. This result can be explained by a prompt enrichment by star formation processes in massive ellipticals at z>2, followed by a slower release of enriched gas from disk galaxies into the ICM, associated to a morphological transition from disk to S0.

  1. Analysis of the growth of strike-slip faults using effective medium theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aydin, A.; Berryman, J.G.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Increases in the dimensions of strike-slip faults including fault length, thickness of fault rock and the surrounding damage zone collectively provide quantitative definition of fault growth and are commonly measured in terms of the maximum fault slip. The field observations indicate that a common mechanism for fault growth in the brittle upper crust is fault lengthening by linkage and coalescence of neighboring fault segments or strands, and fault rock-zone widening into highly fractured inner damage zone via cataclastic deformation. The most important underlying mechanical reason in both cases is prior weakening of the rocks surrounding a fault's core and between neighboring fault segments by faulting-related fractures. In this paper, using field observations together with effective medium models, we analyze the reduction in the effective elastic properties of rock in terms of density of the fault-related brittle fractures and fracture intersection angles controlled primarily by the splay angles. Fracture densities or equivalent fracture spacing values corresponding to the vanishing Young's, shear, and quasi-pure shear moduli were obtained by extrapolation from the calculated range of these parameters. The fracture densities or the equivalent spacing values obtained using this method compare well with the field data measured along scan lines across the faults in the study area. These findings should be helpful for a better understanding of the fracture density/spacing distribution around faults and the transition from discrete fracturing to cataclastic deformation associated with fault growth and the related instabilities.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Disk Galaxy Formation: the Magnetization of The Cold and Warm Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Wang; Tom Abel

    2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we study the formation and early evolution of disk galaxies with a magnetized interstellar medium. For a $10^{10}$ \\msun halo with initial NFW dark matter and gas profiles, we impose a uniform $10^{-9}$ G magnetic field and follow its collapse, disk formation and evolution up to 1 Gyr. Comparing to a purely hydrodynamic simulation with the same initial condition, we find that a protogalactic field of this strength does not significantly influence the global disk properties. At the same time, the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified by the differentially rotating turbulent disk. After the initial rapid amplification lasting $\\sim500$ Myr, subsequent field amplification appears self-regulated. As a result, highly magnetized material begin to form above and below the disk. Interestingly, the field strengths in the self-regulated regime agrees well with the observed fields in the Milky Way galaxy both in the warm and the cold HI phase and do not change appreciably with time. Most of the cold phase shows a dispersion of order ten in the magnetic field strength. The global azimuthal magnetic fields reverse at different radii and the amplitude declines as a function of radius of the disk. By comparing the estimated star formation rate (SFR) in hydrodynamic and MHD simulations, we find that after the magnetic field strength saturates, magnetic forces provide further support in the cold gas and lead to a decline of the SFR.

  3. Benchmark Evaluation of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiment Program Critical Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were performed in 1962-1965 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for the Medium-Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) program. The MPRE was a stainless-steel clad, highly enriched uranium (HEU)-O2 fuelled, BeO reflected reactor design to provide electrical power to space vehicles. Cooling and heat transfer were to be achieved by boiling potassium in the reactor core and passing vapor directly through a turbine. Graphite- and beryllium-reflected assemblies were constructed at ORCEF to verify the critical mass, power distribution, and other reactor physics measurements needed to validate reactor calculations and reactor physics methods. The experimental series was broken into three parts, with the third portion of the experiments representing the beryllium-reflected measurements. The latter experiments are of interest for validating current reactor design efforts for a fission surface power reactor. The entire series has been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments and submitted for publication in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  4. Laser utilizing a gaseous lasing medium and method for operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerr, Bruce A. (Harriman, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to an improvement in gas lasers and a method of operating the same. In one aspect, the invention is an improved method for operating a high-power gas laser. The improvement comprises introducing the gas lasing medium tangentially to the laser tube at a pressure establishing a forced vortex in the tube. The vortex defines an axially extending core region characterized by a low pressure and temperature relative to the gas inlet and the exterior of the vortex. An electrical discharge is established in the core region to initiate lasing of the gas. The gas discharge from the tube is passed through a diffuser. As in conventional gas lasers, firing results in a very abrupt increase in gas temperature and in severe disruption of the gas. However, the gas vortex almost immediately restores the gas to its pre-firing condition. That is, almost all of the waste heat is transferred radially to the laser wall, and the original gas-flow pattern is restored. As a result, the power output of the laser is increased significantly, and the laser firing repetition rate is markedly increased.

  5. Laser utilizing a gaseous lasing medium and method for operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerr, B.A.

    1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to an improvement in gas lasers and a method of operating the same. In one aspect, the invention is an improved method for operating a high-power gas laser. The improvement comprises introducing the gas lasing medium tangentially to the laser tube at a pressure establishing a forced vortex in the tube. The vortex defines an axially extending core region characterized by a low pressure and temperature relative to the gas inlet and the exterior of the vortex. An electrical discharge is established in the core region to initiate lasing of the gas. The gas discharge from the tube is passed through a diffuser. As in conventional gas lasers, firing results in a very abrupt increase in gas temperature and in severe disruption of the gas. However, the gas vortex, almost immediately restores the gas to its prefiring condition. That is, almost all of the waste heat is transferred radially to the laser wall, and the original gas-flow pattern is restored. As a result, the power output of the laser is increased significantly, and the laser firing repetition rate is markedly increased.

  6. Metal Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium at z=3 by Galactic Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony Aguirre; Lars Hernquist; Joop Schaye; David Weinberg; Neal Katz; Jeffrey Gardner

    2001-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of quasar absorption lines reveal that the low density intergalactic medium at z ~ 3 is enriched to 0.001-0.01 solar metallicity. This enrichment may have occurred in an early generation of Population III stars at redshift z >~ 10, by protogalaxies at 6 enrichment of the IGM at z >~ 3 by galaxies of baryonic mass >~ 10^8.5 solar masses. We use already completed cosmological simulations to which we add a prescription for chemical evolution and metal ejection by winds, assuming that the winds have properties similar to those observed in local starbursts and Lyman-break galaxies. Results are given for a number of representative models, and we also examine the properties of the galaxies responsible for the enrichment as well as the physical effects responsible for wind escape and propagation. We find that winds of velocity >~ 200-300 km/s are capable of enriching the IGM to the mean level observed, though many low-density regions would remain metal free. Calibrated by observations of Lyman-break galaxies, our calculations suggest that most galaxies at z >~ 3 should drive winds that can escape and propagate to large radii. The primary effect limiting the enrichment of low-density IG gas in our scenario is then the travel time from high- to low-density regions, implying that the metallicity of low-density gas is a strong function of redshift.

  7. Analytical optimization of digital subtraction mammography with contrast medium using a commercial unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosado-Mendez, I.; Palma, B. A.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico City (Mexico)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Contrast-medium-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) is an image subtraction technique which might help unmasking lesions embedded in very dense breasts. Previous works have stated the feasibility of CEDM and the imperative need of radiological optimization. This work presents an extension of a former analytical formalism to predict contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in subtracted mammograms. The goal is to optimize radiological parameters available in a clinical mammographic unit (x-ray tube anode/filter combination, voltage, and loading) by maximizing CNR and minimizing total mean glandular dose (D{sub gT}), simulating the experimental application of an iodine-based contrast medium and the image subtraction under dual-energy nontemporal, and single- or dual-energy temporal modalities. Total breast-entrance air kerma is limited to a fixed 8.76 mGy (1 R, similar to screening studies). Mathematical expressions obtained from the formalism are evaluated using computed mammographic x-ray spectra attenuated by an adipose/glandular breast containing an elongated structure filled with an iodinated solution in various concentrations. A systematic study of contrast, its associated variance, and CNR for different spectral combinations is performed, concluding in the proposal of optimum x-ray spectra. The linearity between contrast in subtracted images and iodine mass thickness is proven, including the determination of iodine visualization limits based on Rose's detection criterion. Finally, total breast-entrance air kerma is distributed between both images in various proportions in order to maximize the figure of merit CNR{sup 2}/D{sub gT}. Predicted results indicate the advantage of temporal subtraction (either single- or dual-energy modalities) with optimum parameters corresponding to high-voltage, strongly hardened Rh/Rh spectra. For temporal techniques, CNR was found to depend mostly on the energy of the iodinated image, and thus reduction in D{sub gT} could be achieved if the spectral energy of the noniodinated image is decreased and the breast-entrance air kerma is evenly distributed between both acquisitions. Predicted limits, in terms of iodine concentration, are found to guarantee the visualization of common clinical angiogenic concentrations in the breast.

  8. Hot Plasma Waves Surrounding the Schwarzschild Event Horizon in a Veselago Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sharif; Noureen Mukhtar

    2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates wave properties of hot plasma in a Veselago medium. For the Schwarzschild black hole, the $3+1$ GRMHD equations are re-formulated which are linearly perturbed and then Fourier analyzed for rotating (non-magnetized and magnetized) plasmas. The graphs of wave vector, refractive index and change in refractive are used to discuss the wave properties. The results obtained confirm the presence of Veselago medium for both rotating (non-magnetized and magnetized) plasmas. This work generalized the isothermal plasma waves in the Veselago medium to hot plasma case.

  9. Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Youngwoon

    Multiple scatterings occurring in a turbid medium attenuate the intensity of propagating waves. Here, we propose a method to efficiently deliver light energy to the desired target depth in a scattering medium. We measure ...

  10. In Medium Nucleon Structure Functions, SRC, and the EMC effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Hen; L. B. Weinstein; S. Gilad; S. A. Wood

    2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposal approved by the Jefferson Lab PAC to study semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) off the deuteron, tagged with high momentum recoiling protons or neutrons emitted at large angle relative to the momentum transfer. This experiment aims at studying the virtuality dependence of the bound nucleon structure function as a possible cause to the EMC effect and the EMC-SRC correlations. The experiment was approved in 2011 for a total run time of 40 days.

  11. Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide for Small and Medium Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Guide was developed to provide project management principles and guidelines to small and medium projects that fall outside the scope of DOE O 415.1, Information Technology Project Management, dated 12-3-12.

  12. The design of a compact integral medium size PWR : the CIRIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirvan, Koroush

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced medium size, modular integral light water reactor design, rated currently at 1000 MWt. IRIS design has been under development by over 20 organizations ...

  13. Analysis of asset health : an approach to monitoring and diagnostics for medium voltage circuit breakers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corona, Erick (Erick Gustavo)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Medium Voltage Electric Industry is a very conservative and risk adverse sector that has undergone very little change in the past 30 years when compared to other technologically dependent activities; this reality is ...

  14. "Shelter within my reach" : medium rise apartment housing for the middle income group in Karachi, Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmood, Saman, 1972-

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis identifies the project development processes of medium rise (five storied or less) apartment housing built by the private formal sector, catering to the middle income groups in Karachi, Pakistan. Middle income ...

  15. Georgia Power- Small and Medium Scale Advanced Solar Initiative (GPASI) (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: The application process for the small and medium scale solar programs began on March 1, 2013 and will continue through March 11, 2013. If completed applications exceed program capacity...

  16. Breathing dynamics of an asymmetric Gaussian beam propagating in a saturable absorbing medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ianetz, D.; Kaganovskii, Yu.; Rosenbluh, M. [Jack and Pearl Resnick Institute for Advanced Technology, Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan IL-52900 (Israel); Wilson-Gordon, A. D. [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan IL-52900 (Israel)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Propagation of an asymmetric Gaussian beam in a medium with saturated nonlinear refractive index is analyzed using a 'collective variable approach' to solve the general nonlinear Schroedinger equation and compared with that of a symmetric beam in both lossless and lossy media. For a lossless medium, we construct a diagram which defines regions of oscillatory and diffractive propagation of an asymmetric beam and compare it with that of a symmetric beam. We detect breathing dynamics of the widths and amplitude of the asymmetric beam in the oscillatory regime of propagation and identify two different types of width and amplitude beating, Type 1 and 2, depending on the initial beam energy and saturation constant of the medium. This is in contrast to a cubic-quintic medium where only one type of beating is obtained.

  17. Green's Function expansion of scalar and vector fields in the presence of a medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fardin Kheirandish; Shahriar Salimi

    2010-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a canonical approach and functional-integration techniques, a series expansion of Green's function of a scalar field, in the presence of a medium, is obtained. A series expansion for Lifshitz-energy, in finite-temperature, in terms of the susceptibility of the medium is derived and the whole formalism is generalized to the case of electromagnetic field in the presence of some dielectrics. A covariant formulation of the problem is presented.

  18. Use of semiconducting polymer sensors to detect bacterial cultures in medium and in irradiated ground beef

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivers, Andrea M

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    USE OF SEMICONDUCTING POLYMER SENSORS TO DETECT BACTERIAL CULTURES IN MEDIUM AND IN IRRADIATED GROUND BEEF A Thesis by ANDREA M. IVERS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2000 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology USE OF SEMICONDUCTING POLYMER SENSORS TO DETECT BACTERIAL CULTURES IN MEDIUM AND IN IRRADIATED GROUND BEEF A Thesis by ANDREA M. IVERS Submitted...

  19. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  20. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, J.W. [Zurn/NEPCO, South Portland, MA (United States); Paisley, M. [Battelle Laboratories, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  1. Interferometric Method of Measuring Parameters of Medium Oscillations. |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other NewsSpinInteragency Panel InteragencyProcessPrinceton

  2. The Relativistic Dynamics of Photon Gas Two dynamic equations are established in photon gas, which is just the carrier or medium of electromagnetic waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jikang Chen

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The carrier or medium of electromagnetic waves has been vainly searched for many years, and now it has been caught after the establishment of the dynamic equations in photon gas. The photon's rest mass has been estimated from the cosmic background temperature in space where the photon gas is at an open state of thermal equilibrium, and the photon's proper magnetic moment is calculated from the dynamic equations of photon gas too. As the carrier of electromagnetic waves, the photon gas is a discrete medium at very high frequency, and then the Bohr's electron is hardly to emit energy in wave form and can be stably rounding the nuclei in discrete orbits at lower temperature.

  3. Methods and computer readable medium for improved radiotherapy dosimetry planning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessol, Daniel E.; Frandsen, Michael W.; Wheeler, Floyd J.; Nigg, David W.

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and computer readable media are disclosed for ultimately developing a dosimetry plan for a treatment volume irradiated during radiation therapy with a radiation source concentrated internally within a patient or incident from an external beam. The dosimetry plan is available in near "real-time" because of the novel geometric model construction of the treatment volume which in turn allows for rapid calculations to be performed for simulated movements of particles along particle tracks therethrough. The particles are exemplary representations of alpha, beta or gamma emissions emanating from an internal radiation source during various radiotherapies, such as brachytherapy or targeted radionuclide therapy, or they are exemplary representations of high-energy photons, electrons, protons or other ionizing particles incident on the treatment volume from an external source. In a preferred embodiment, a medical image of a treatment volume irradiated during radiotherapy having a plurality of pixels of information is obtained.

  4. The influence of ambient medium density on laser ablation processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, M.M. III

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in high flux transport processes has grown in recent years along with the ability and need to manipulate systems with microscopic length and time scales. These systems present unique engineering challenges. Because the time and length scales associated with these problems are very small, assumptions of local equilibrium, physical and mathematical smoothness of boundaries and the unambiguous definition of thermodynamic fields can not be automatically made, even though they may ultimately be acceptable. Furthermore, the observations are made on macroscopic or integrated scales. The large difference in scales between the temporal evolution of the process and the observation requires careful consideration of the claims made regarding the system`s microscopic, temporal behavior. In particular, consistency of a proposed model with observed results does not guarantee uniqueness, or predictive accuracy for the model. For these reasons, microscale heat transfer systems demand a careful consideration of the framework within which the experimentation and analysis are conducted.

  5. FATIMA; A data acquisition system for medium scale experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watzlawik, K.H.; Nellen, R.; Noll, T.; Karnadi, M.; Machner, H. (Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (DE))

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the data acquisition system FATIMA (Fera Amplitude and Time Multiparameter Analyzer) utilizing CAMAC, FERA and a VAX-Station, designed and built for nuclear physics experiments like subthreshold {pi}{sup 0}-production in Heavy Ion Collisions. The major features of the system are fast data readout of up to 352 ADCs and/or TDCs in conjunction with data reduction, event buffering, high speed data transfer and simple interfacing to any workstation. For on-line acquisition, recording and analysis of data as well as experiment control a modular program system was developed on VAX/VMS. Data analysis comprises on-line sort of real and pseudo channels and graphical representation of sorted data.

  6. NMR Experiments on a Three-Dimensional Vibrofluidized Granular Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao Huan; Xiaoyu Yang; D. Candela; R. W. Mair; R. L. Walsworth

    2003-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional granular system fluidized by vertical container vibrations was studied using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR coupled with one-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The system consisted of mustard seeds vibrated vertically at 50 Hz, and the number of layers N_ell <= 4 was sufficiently low to achieve a nearly time-independent granular fluid. Using NMR, the vertical profiles of density and granular temperature were directly measured, along with the distributions of vertical and horizontal grain velocities. The velocity distributions showed modest deviations from Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, except for the vertical velocity distribution near the sample bottom which was highly skewed and non-Gaussian. Data taken for three values of N_ell and two dimensionless accelerations Gamma=15,18 were fit to a hydrodynamic theory, which successfully models the density and temperature profiles including a temperature inversion near the free upper surface.

  7. Synchrotron based infrared imaging and spectroscopy via focal plane array on live fibroblasts in D2O enriched medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaroni, Luca; Zlateva, Theodora; Sarafimov, Blagoj; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Wehbe, Katia; Hegg, Eric L.; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We tested the viability of using synchrotron based infrared imaging to study biochemical processes inside living cells. As a model system, we studied fibroblast cells exposed to a medium highly enriched with D2O. We could show that the experimental technique allows us to reproduce at the cellular level measurements that are normally performed on purified biological molecules. We can obtain information about lipid conformation and distribution, kinetics of hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and the formation of concentration gradients of H and O isotopes in water that are associated with cell metabolism. The implementation of the full field technique in a sequential imaging format gives a description of cellular biochemistry and biophysics that contains both spatial and temporal information.

  8. Introduction of the MC3-II/GP system, medium current ion implanter with enhanced multi-charge beam current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koike, Masazumi; Sato, Fumiaki; Sano, Makoto; Kawatsu, Sho; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Kudo, Tetsuya; Shiraishi, Miyuki; Shinozuka, Masamitsu; Takahashi, Yuji; Ishida, Yuji; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Ueno, Kazuyoshi; Sugitani, Michiro [SEN Corporation, 1501, Imazaike, Saijo, Ehime, 799-1362 (Japan)

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The MC3-II/GP is a leading-edge single-wafer medium-current ion implanter, newly developed by SEN Corporation. It demonstrates exceptional productivity based on a high speed wafer-handling station and enhanced beam current. It covers a substantively wider energy range in order to fully meet advanced device requirements. Retaining the superior features of the MC3-II/WR, the MC3-II/GP provides a remarkable increase of multiply-charged beam current coupled with longer ion source lifetime. Another advanced feature of the MC3-II/GP is a 30 second or 14% reduction in auto beam setup time. These improvements enable a fabrication line to reduce the total number of ion implanters and dramatically reduce COO.

  9. ON THE AMPLIFICATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD BY A SUPERNOVA BLAST SHOCK WAVE IN A TURBULENT MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Fan; Li Shengtai; Li Hui; Li, David [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Giacalone, Joe; Jokipii, J. R. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed extensive two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to study the amplification of magnetic fields when a supernova blast wave propagates into a turbulent interstellar plasma. The blast wave is driven by injecting high pressure in the simulation domain. The interstellar magnetic field can be amplified by two different processes, occurring in different regions. One is facilitated by the fluid vorticity generated by the 'rippled' shock front interacting with the background turbulence. The resulting turbulent flow keeps amplifying the magnetic field, consistent with earlier work. The other process is facilitated by the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the contact discontinuity between the ejecta and the shocked medium. This can efficiently amplify the magnetic field and tends to produce the highest magnetic field. We investigate the dependence of the amplification on numerical parameters such as grid-cell size and on various physical parameters. We show that the magnetic field has a characteristic radial profile such that the downstream magnetic field gets progressively stronger away from the shock. This is because the downstream magnetic field needs a finite time to reach the efficient amplification, and will get further amplified in the Rayleigh-Taylor region. In our simulation, we do not observe a systematic strong magnetic field within a small distance to the shock. This indicates that if the magnetic-field amplification in supernova remnants indeed occurs near the shock front, other processes such as three-dimensional instabilities, plasma kinetics, and/or cosmic ray effect may need to be considered to explain the strong magnetic field in supernova remnants.

  10. The Hot Interstellar Medium in Normal Elliptical Galaxies III: The Thermal Structure of the Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven Diehl; Thomas S. Statler

    2008-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the third paper in a series analyzing X-ray emission from the hot interstellar medium in a sample of 54 normal elliptical galaxies observed by Chandra, focusing on 36 galaxies with sufficient signal to compute radial temperature profiles. We distinguish four qualitatively different types of profile: positive gradient (outwardly rising), negative gradients (falling), quasi-isothermal (flat) and hybrid (falling at small radii, then rising). We measure the mean logarithmic temperature gradients in two radial regions: from 0--2 $J$-band effective radii $R_J$ (excluding the central point source), and from 2--$4R_J$. We find the outer gradient to be uncorrelated with intrinsic host galaxy properties, but strongly influenced by the environment: galaxies in low-density environments tend to show negative outer gradients, while those in high-density environments show positive outer gradients, suggesting influence of circumgalactic hot gas. The inner temperature gradient is unaffected by the environment but strongly correlated with intrinsic host galaxy characteristics: negative inner gradients are more common for smaller, optically faint, low radio-luminosity galaxies, whereas positive gradients are found in bright galaxies with stronger radio sources. There is no evidence for bimodality in the distribution of inner or outer gradients. We propose three scenarios to explain the inner temperature gradients: (1) Weak AGN heat the ISM locally, higher-luminosity AGN heat the system globally through jets inflating cavities at larger radii; (2) The onset of negative inner gradients indicates a declining importance of AGN heating relative to other sources, such as compressional heating or supernovae; (3) The variety of temperature profiles are snapshots of different stages of a time-dependent flow.

  11. Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DTIC Review: Energy Supply Alternatives: ADA433359, 2004.Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen2007 Ammonia As an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for

  12. From the warm magnetized atomic medium to molecular clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Hennebelle; R. Banerjee; E. Vazquez-Semadeni; R. Klessen; E. Audit

    2008-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    {It has recently been proposed that giant molecular complexes form at the sites where streams of diffuse warm atomic gas collide at transonic velocities.} {We study the global statistics of molecular clouds formed by large scale colliding flows of warm neutral atomic interstellar gas under ideal MHD conditions. The flows deliver material as well as kinetic energy and trigger thermal instability leading eventually to gravitational collapse.} {We perform adaptive mesh refinement MHD simulations which, for the first time in this context, treat self-consistently cooling and self-gravity.} {The clouds formed in the simulations develop a highly inhomogeneous density and temperature structure, with cold dense filaments and clumps condensing from converging flows of warm atomic gas. In the clouds, the column density probability density distribution (PDF) peaks at $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{21} \\psc$ and decays rapidly at higher values; the magnetic intensity correlates weakly with density from $n \\sim 0.1$ to $10^4 \\pcc$, and then varies roughly as $n^{1/2}$ for higher densities.} {The global statistical properties of such molecular clouds are reasonably consistent with observational determinations. Our numerical simulations suggest that molecular clouds formed by the moderately supersonic collision of warm atomic gas streams.}

  13. Visualizing multiphase flow and trapped fluid configurations in a model three-dimensional porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amber T. Krummel; Sujit S. Datta; Stefan Münster; David A. Weitz

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an approach to fully visualize the flow of two immiscible fluids through a model three-dimensional (3D) porous medium at pore-scale resolution. Using confocal microscopy, we directly image the drainage of the medium by the non-wetting oil and subsequent imbibition by the wetting fluid. During imbibition, the wetting fluid pinches off threads of oil in the narrow crevices of the medium, forming disconnected oil ganglia. Some of these ganglia remain trapped within the medium. By resolving the full 3D structure of the trapped ganglia, we show that the typical ganglion size, and the total amount of residual oil, decreases as the capillary number Ca increases; this behavior reflects the competition between the viscous pressure in the wetting fluid and the capillary pressure required to force oil through the pores of the medium. This work thus shows how pore-scale fluid dynamics influence the trapped fluid configurations in multiphase flow through 3D porous media.

  14. System and method for monitoring water content or other dielectric influences in a medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Robert S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Allen A. (Firth, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor system is provided that measures water content or other detectable properties in a medium along the entire length of the sensor at any point in time. The sensor system includes an electromagnetic signal generator and a transmission line disposed in a medium to be monitored. Alternatively, the transmission line can be configured for movement across a medium to be monitored, or the transmission line can be fixed relative to a moving medium being monitored. A signal is transmitted along the transmission line at predetermined frequencies, and the signal is returned back along the transmission line and/or into an optional receive line in proximity to the transmission line. The returned signal is processed to generate a one-dimensional data output profile that is a function of a detectable property of the medium. The data output profile can be mapped onto a physical system to generate a two-dimensional or three-dimensional profile if desired. The sensor system is useful in a variety of different applications such as agriculture, horticulture, biofiltration systems for industrial offgases, leak detection in landfills or drum storage facilities at buried waste sites, and in many other applications.

  15. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant additives in a critical fluid medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing alkyl esters useful in biofuels and lubricants by transesterifying glyceride- or esterifying free fatty acid-containing substances in a single critical phase medium is disclosed. The critical phase medium provides increased reaction rates, decreases the loss of catalyst or catalyst activity and improves the overall yield of desired product. The process involves the steps of dissolving an input glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with an alcohol or water into a critical fluid medium; reacting the glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with the alcohol or water input over either a solid or liquid acidic or basic catalyst and sequentially separating the products from each other and from the critical fluid medium, which critical fluid medium can then be recycled back in the process. The process significantly reduces the cost of producing additives or alternatives to automotive fuels and lubricants utilizing inexpensive glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substances, such as animal fats, vegetable oils, rendered fats, and restaurant grease.

  16. The effects of similarity breaking on the intracluster medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. J. Lloyd-Davies; R. G. Bower; T. J. Ponman

    2002-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a family of simple analytical models of galaxy clusters at the present epoch and compare its predictions with observational data. We explore two processes that break the self-similarity of galaxy clusters: systematic variation in the dark matter halo concentration and energy injection into the intracluster gas, through their effects on the observed cluster properties. Three observed relations between cluster properties and temperature are employed to constrain the model; mass, slope of gas density profile (beta) and luminosity. The slope of the mass-temperature relation is found to be reproduced by our model when the observed variation in concentration is included, raising the slope from the self-similar prediction of 1.5, to that of the observed relation, ~ 2. Heating of the gas is observed to have little effect on the mass-temperature relation. The mean trend in the beta-temperature relation is reproduced by energy injection of 0.5-0.75 keV per particle, while concentration variation has only a small effect. Excess energies calculated for individual systems from the beta-temperature relation suggest that the lowest mass systems may have excess energies that are biased to lower values by selection effects. The observed properties of the luminosity-temperature relation are reproduced by the combined effects of excess energy and a trend in the dark matter concentration. At high masses the observed variation in dark matter concentration results a slope of ~ 2.7 compared to recent observations in the range 2.6-2.9, whilst the observed steepening in galaxy groups is predicted when heating of 0.5-0.75 keV per particle is included. Hence a combination of energy injection and dark matter concentration variation appears able to account for the mean trends in the observed relations.

  17. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

  18. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Georg (Livermore, CA); George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sooy, Walter (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

  19. Collisional parton energy loss in a finite size QCD medium revisited: Off mass-shell effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Ayala; J. Magnin; Luis Manuel Montano; Eduardo Rojas

    2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the collisional energy loss mechanism for particles produced off mass-shell in a finite size QCD medium. The off mass-shell effects introduced are to consider particles produced in wave packets instead of plane waves and the length scale associated to an in-medium particles' life-time. We show that these effects reduce the energy loss as compared to the case when the particles are described as freely propagating from the source. The reduction of the energy loss is stronger as this scale becomes of the order or smaller than the medium size. We discuss possible consequences of the result on the description of the energy loss process in the parton recombination scenario.

  20. Energy dependence of $\\bar{K}N$ interaction in nuclear medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Cieply

    2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    When the $\\bar{K}N$ system is submerged in nuclear medium the $\\bar{K}N$ scattering amplitude and the final state branching ratios exhibit a strong energy dependence when going to energies below the $\\bar{K}N$ threshold. A sharp increase of $\\bar{K}N$ attraction below the $\\bar{K}N$ threshold provides a link between shallow $\\bar{K}$-nuclear potentials based on the chiral $\\bar{K}N$ amplitude evaluated at threshold and the deep phenomenological optical potentials obtained in fits to kaonic atoms data. We show the energy dependence of the in-medium $K^{-}p$ amplitude and demonstrate the impact of energy dependent branching ratios on the $\\Lambda$-hypernuclear production rates. \\keywords{kaon-nucleon amplitude \\and nuclear medium \\and hypernuclei

  1. Skewon-Axion Medium and Soft-and-Hard/DB Boundary Condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismo V. Lindell; Ari Sihvola

    2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The class of skewon-axion media can be defined in a simple and natural manner applying four-dimensional differential-form representation of electromagnetic fields and media. It has been recently shown that an interface of a uniaxial skewon-axion medium acts as a DB boundary requiring vanishing normal components of the D and B vectors. In the present paper a more general skewon-axion medium is considered. It is shown that a planar interface of such a medium acts as a boundary generalizing both soft-and-hard (SH) and DB boundary conditions to SHDB conditions. Reflection of a plane wave from a planar SHDB boundary is studied. It is shown that for the two eigenpolarizations the boundary can be replaced by equivalent PEC or PMC boundaries. The theory is tested with a numerical example.

  2. Selective coupling of optical energy into the fundamental diffusion mode of a scattering medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojambati, Oluwafemi S; Lagendijk, Ad; Mosk, Allard P; Vos, Willem L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate experimentally that optical wavefront shaping selectively couples light into the fundamental diffusion mode of a scattering medium. The total energy density inside a scattering medium of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles was probed by measuring the emitted fluorescent power of spheres that were randomly positioned inside the medium. The fluorescent power of an optimized incident wave front is observed to be enhanced compared to a non-optimized incident front. The observed enhancement increases with sample thickness. Based on diffusion theory, we derive a model wherein the distribution of energy density of wavefront-shaped light is described by the fundamental diffusion mode. The agreement between our model and the data is striking not in the least since there are no adjustable parameters. Enhanced total energy density is crucial to increase the efficiency of white LEDs, solar cells, and of random lasers, as well as to realize controlled illumination in biomedical optics.

  3. Can the Abraham Light Momentum and Energy in a Medium Constitute a Lorentz Four-Vector?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changbiao Wang

    2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    By analyzing the Einstein-box thought experiment with the principle of relativity, it is shown that Abraham's light momentum and energy in a medium cannot constitute a Lorentz four-vector, and they consequentially break global momentum and energy conservation laws. In contrast, Minkowski's momentum and energy always constitute a Lorentz four-vector no matter whether in a medium or in vacuum, and the Minkowski's momentum is the unique correct light momentum. A momentum-associated photon mass in a medium is exposed, which explains why only the Abraham's momentum is derived in the traditional "center-of-mass-energy" approach. The EM boundary-condition matching approach, combined with Einstein light-quantum hypothesis, is proposed to analyze this thought experiment, and it is found for the first time that only from Maxwell equations without resort to the relativity, the correctness of light momentum definitions cannot be identified. Optical pulling effect is studied as well.

  4. Analysis of ray stability and caustic formation in a layered moving fluid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, David R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Caustic formation occurs within a ray skeleton as optical or acoustic fields propagate in a medium with variable refractive properties and are unphysical, their presence being an artifact of the ray approximation of the field, and methods of correcting the field near a caustic are well known. Differential geometry provides a novel approach to calculating acoustic intensity, assessing ray stability and locating caustics in acoustic ray traces when the properties of medium are completely arbitrary by identifying points on the caustic with conjugate points along various rays. The method of geodesic deviation is applied to the problem of determining ray stability and locating caustics in 2-dimensional acoustic ray traces in a layered moving medium. Specifically, a general treatment of caustic formation in sound ducts and in piecewise continuous media is presented and applied to various idealized and realistic scenarios.

  5. Time Evolution of Tunneling in Thermal Medium -- Environment-driven Excited Tunneling --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sh. Matsumoto; M. Yoshimura

    2003-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Time evolution of tunneling phenomena proceeding in thermal medium is studied using a standard model of environment interaction. A semiclassical probability formula for the particle motion in a metastable state of one dimensional system put in thermal medium is combined with the formula of quantum penetration factor through a potential barrier, to derive the tunneling rate in medium. Effect of environment, its influence on time evolution in particular, is clarified in a real-time formalism. A nonlinear resonance effect is shown to enhance the tunneling rate at finite times of order $2/\\eta $, with $\\eta $ the friction coefficient. In the linear approximation this effect has relevance to the parametric resonance. This effect enhances the possibility of early termination of the cosmological phase transition much prior to the typical Hubble time.

  6. Method and apparatus for communicating computer data from one point to another over a communications medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arneson, Michael R. (Chippewa Falls, WI); Bowman, Terrance L. (Sumner, WA); Cornett, Frank N. (Chippewa Falls, WI); DeRyckere, John F. (Eau Claire, WI); Hillert, Brian T. (Chippewa Falls, WI); Jenkins, Philip N. (Eau Claire, WI); Ma, Nan (Chippewa Falls, WI); Placek, Joseph M. (Chippewa Falls, WI); Ruesch, Rodney (Eau Claire, WI); Thorson, Gregory M. (Altoona, WI)

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed toward a communications channel comprising a link level protocol, a driver, a receiver, and a canceller/equalizer. The link level protocol provides logic for DC-free signal encoding and recovery as well as supporting many features including CRC error detection and message resend to accommodate infrequent bit errors across the medium. The canceller/equalizer provides equalization for destabilized data signals and also provides simultaneous bi-directional data transfer. The receiver provides bit deskewing by removing synchronization error, or skewing, between data signals. The driver provides impedance controlling by monitoring the characteristics of the communications medium, like voltage or temperature, and providing a matching output impedance in the signal driver so that fewer distortions occur while the data travels across the communications medium.

  7. Propagation of an asymmetric Gaussian beam in a nonlinear absorbing medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ianetz, D.; Kaganovskii, Yu.; Rosenbluh, M. [Jack and Pearl Resnick Institute for Advanced Technology, Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Wilson-Gordon, A. D. [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Propagation of an asymmetric Gaussian beam in a cubic-quintic absorbing medium is analyzed and compared with that of a symmetric beam in both lossless and lossy media. A 'collective variable approach' technique, based on trial functions, is used for solution of the general nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Using this variational approach, we investigate the self-focusing and breathing of an intense asymmetric Gaussian beam, taking into account both linear and nonlinear absorption. For a lossless medium, we define regions of oscillatory and diffractive beam propagation, for both symmetric and asymmetric beams. In particular, for an asymmetric beam, we find that there is no sharp boundary between the oscillatory self-focusing and oscillatory diffractive regimes of propagation. In the oscillatory region, we detect an interesting phenomenon -'beats' of the amplitude and perpendicular widths of the beam. For a lossy medium, significant differences between the amplitudes, widths, and phases of the symmetric and asymmetric beams have been predicted.

  8. Lattice NRQCD study on in-medium bottomonium spectra using a novel Bayesian reconstruction approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seyong Kim; Peter Petreczky; Alexander Rothkopf

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present recent results on the in-medium modification of S- and P-wave bottomonium states around the deconfinement transition. Our study uses lattice QCD with $N_f=2+1$ light quark flavors to describe the non-perturbative thermal QCD medium between $140$MeV$Maximum Entropy Method. Based on a systematic comparison of interacting and free spectral functions we conclude that the ground states of both the S-wave $(\\Upsilon)$ and P-wave $(\\chi_{b1})$ channel survive up to $T=249$MeV. Stringent upper limits on the size of the in-medium modification of bottomonium masses and widths are provided.

  9. Supercritical Water Reactor Cycle for Medium Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BD Middleton; J Buongiorno

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Scoping studies for a power conversion system based on a direct-cycle supercritical water reactor have been conducted. The electric power range of interest is 5-30 MWe with a design point of 20 MWe. The overall design objective is to develop a system that has minimized physical size and performs satisfactorily over a broad range of operating conditions. The design constraints are as follows: Net cycle thermal efficiency {ge}20%; Steam turbine outlet quality {ge}90%; and Pumping power {le}2500 kW (at nominal conditions). Three basic cycle configurations were analyzed. Listed in order of increased plant complexity, they are: (1) Simple supercritical Rankine cycle; (2) All-supercritical Brayton cycle; and (3) Supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating. The sensitivity of these three configurations to various parameters, such as reactor exit temperature, reactor pressure, condenser pressure, etc., was assessed. The Thermoflex software package was used for this task. The results are as follows: (a) The simple supercritical Rankine cycle offers the greatest hardware simplification, but its high reactor temperature rise and reactor outlet temperature may pose serious problems from the viewpoint of thermal stresses, stability and materials in the core. (b) The all-supercritical Brayton cycle is not a contender, due to its poor thermal efficiency. (c) The supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating affords acceptable thermal efficiency with lower reactor temperature rise and outlet temperature. (d) The use of a moisture separator improves the performance of the supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating and allows for a further reduction of the reactor outlet temperature, thus it was selected for the next step. Preliminary engineering design of the supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating and moisture separation was performed. All major components including the turbine, feedwater heater, feedwater pump, condenser, condenser pump and pipes were modeled with realistic assumptions using the PEACE module of Thermoflex. A three-dimensional layout of the plant was also generated with the SolidEdge software. The results of the engineering design are as follows: (i) The cycle achieves a net thermal efficiency of 24.13% with 350/460 C reactor inlet/outlet temperatures, {approx}250 bar reactor pressure and 0.75 bar condenser pressure. The steam quality at the turbine outlet is 90% and the total electric consumption of the pumps is about 2500 kWe at nominal conditions. (ii) The overall size of the plant is attractively compact and can be further reduced if a printed-circuit-heat-exchanger (vs shell-and-tube) design is used for the feedwater heater, which is currently the largest component by far. Finally, an analysis of the plant performance at off-nominal conditions has revealed good robustness of the design in handling large changes of thermal power and seawater temperature.

  10. In-Medium Energy Loss and Correlations in Pb-Pb Collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Fiete Grosse-Oetringhaus; for the ALICE collaboration

    2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the LHC. In fall 2010, Pb-Pb collisions were recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair, about 14 times higher than the energy achieved in A-A collisions at RHIC. The study of the produced hot and dense matter with an unprecedented energy density allows the characterization of the quark-gluon plasma, the deconfined state of quarks and gluons, predicted by QCD. The study of in-medium partonic energy loss allows insights into the density of the medium and the energy-loss mechanisms. This paper presents results based on inclusive spectra as well as two and more-particle correlations of charged particles. These are well suited to assess in-medium effects, ranging from the suppression of particles (R_AA) and away-side jets (I_AA) at high pT to long-range phenomena attributed to collective effects like the ridge at low pT. The analysis is discussed and the results are presented in the context of earlier RHIC measurements where appropriate.

  11. Propagation of sound waves through a spatially homogeneous but smoothly time-dependent medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayrapetyan, A.G., E-mail: armen@physi.uni-heidelberg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Grigoryan, K.K.; Petrosyan, R.G. [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Str., 0025 Yerevan (Armenia)] [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Str., 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Fritzsche, S. [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany) [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation of sound through a spatially homogeneous but non-stationary medium is investigated within the framework of fluid dynamics. For a non-vortical fluid, especially, a generalized wave equation is derived for the (scalar) potential of the fluid velocity distribution in dependence of the equilibrium mass density of the fluid and the sound wave velocity. A solution of this equation for a finite transition period ? is determined in terms of the hypergeometric function for a phenomenologically realistic, sigmoidal change of the mass density and sound wave velocity. Using this solution, it is shown that the energy flux of the sound wave is not conserved but increases always for the propagation through a non-stationary medium, independent of whether the equilibrium mass density is increased or decreased. It is found, moreover, that this amplification of the transmitted wave arises from an energy exchange with the medium and that its flux is equal to the (total) flux of the incident and the reflected wave. An interpretation of the reflected wave as a propagation of sound backward in time is given in close analogy to Feynman and Stueckelberg for the propagation of anti-particles. The reflection and transmission coefficients of sound propagating through a non-stationary medium is analyzed in more detail for hypersonic waves with transition periods ? between 15 and 200 ps as well as the transformation of infrasound waves in non-stationary oceans. -- Highlights: •Analytically exact study of sound propagation through a non-stationary medium. •Energy exchange between the non-stationary medium and the sound wave. •Transformation of hypersonic and ultrasound frequencies in non-stationary media. •Propagation of sound backward in time in close analogy to anti-particles. •Prediction of tsunamis both in spatially and temporally inhomogeneous oceans.

  12. Omega Transmission Lines with Applications to Effective Medium Models of Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vehmas, Joni; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we introduce the concept of transmission lines with inherent bi-anisotropy and establish an analogy between these lines and volumetric bi-anisotropic materials. In particular, we find under what conditions a periodically loaded transmission line can be treated as an effective omega medium. Two example circuits are introduced and analyzed. The results have two-fold implications: opening a route to emulate electromagnetic properties of bi-anisotropic omega media using transmission-line meshes and understanding and improving effective medium models of composite materials with the use of effective circuit models of unit cells.

  13. A synthetic medium for the production of candidin by Streptomyces viridoflavus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Don Wayne

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    half liters. The fermentor was sterilized for forty-five minutes at 121 C. A 250 ml sterile glucose solution was added to the fermenter which would give a final glucose concentration equal to the one found to give the highest antibiotic yield.... The fermenter was then allowed to set idle for two days to determine if the medium was sterile. Cultures to be used as the inoculum source were grown in a synthetic medium. Five flask cultures which were to provide the cells for each fermentor were washed...

  14. Visco-elastic fluid simulations of coherent structures in strongly coupled dusty plasma medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh Dharodi, Vikram; Kumar Tiwari, Sanat; Das, Amita, E-mail: amita@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized hydrodynamic model depicting the behaviour of visco-elastic fluids has often been invoked to explore the behaviour of a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium below their crystallization limit. The model has been successful in describing the collective normal modes of the strongly coupled dusty plasma medium observed experimentally. The paper focuses on the study of nonlinear dynamical characteristic features of this model. Specifically, the evolution of coherent vorticity patches is being investigated here within the framework of this model. A comparison with Newtonian fluids and molecular dynamics simulations treating the dust species interacting through the Yukawa potential has also been presented.

  15. Effective Diffusion-Medium Thickness for Simplified Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.

    2008-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this manuscript, conformal mapping is applied to a rib/channel domain of a polymer-electrolyte-fuel-cell diffusion medium. The analysis leads to the calculation of an effective diffusion-medium thickness, which can subsequently be used in 1-D simulations to account for the average rib/channel 2-D geometric effect. Extensions of the analysis to anisotropic and multilayer diffusion media are also given. Both equations and figures show the impact on a given variable at the catalyst layer of having a combined conducting/nonconducting boundary across from it.

  16. In-medium nucleon-nucleon cross-sections with non-spherical Pauli blocking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. White; F. Sammarruca

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a formalism to solve the Bethe-Goldstone scattering equation without the use of partial wave expansion which is alternative to the one we developed in a previous work. The present approach is more suitable for the calculation of in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections, which are the focal point of this paper. The impact of removing the spherical approximation on the angle and energy dependence of, particularly, in-medium proton-proton and proton-neutron differential cross sections is discussed along with its potential implication.

  17. Experimental Determination of In-Medium Cluster Binding Energies and Mott Points in Nuclear Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hagel; R. Wada; L. Qin; J. B. Natowitz; S. Shlomo; A. Bonasera; G. Röpke; S. Typel; Z. Chen; M. Huang; J. Wang; H. Zheng; S. Kowalski; C. Bottosso; M. Barbui; M. R. D. Rodrigues; K. Schmidt; D. Fabris; M. Lunardon; S. Moretto; G. Nebbia; S. Pesente; V. Rizzi; G. Viesti; M. Cinausero; G. Prete; T. Keutgen; Y. El Masri; Z. Majka

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In medium binding energies and Mott points for $d$, $t$, $^3$He and $\\alpha$ clusters in low density nuclear matter have been determined at specific combinations of temperature and density in low density nuclear matter produced in collisions of 47$A$ MeV $^{40}$Ar and $^{64}$Zn projectiles with $^{112}$Sn and $^{124}$Sn target nuclei. The experimentally derived values of the in medium modified binding energies are in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions based upon the implementation of Pauli blocking effects in a quantum statistical approach.

  18. Method for charging and discharging a latent-heat storage medium and heat storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreikenbohm, R.; Reusch, H.

    1982-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat storage unit is disclosed having a vertically cylindrical container accommodating a latent-heat storage medium and a conduit introducing a heat carrier liquid not miscible with the medium at the bottom of the container. The conduit has an exit nozzle which is located outside the axial center of the cylinder and nearly perpendicular to the radius of the cylinder so that the heat carrier liquid enters the cylinder at the bottom in a direction to cause the heat storage melt to be set into a rotary motion.

  19. Method for charging and discharging a latent-heat storage medium and heat storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreikenbohm, R.; Reusch, H.

    1981-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat storage unit is disclosed having a vertically cylindrical container accommodating a latent-heat storage medium and a conduit introducing a heat carrier liquid not miscible with the medium at the bottom of the container. The conduit has an exit nozzle which is located outside the axial center of the cylinder and nearly perpendicular to the radius of the cylinder so that the heat carrier liquid enters the cylinder at the bottom in a direction to cause the heat storage melt to be set into a rotary motion.

  20. Defining medium-specific condensates in QCD sum rules for $D$ and $B$ mesons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchheim; T. Hilger; B. Kampfer

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    QCD sum rules for $D$ and $B$ mesons in a strongly interacting environment require the decomposition of Gibbs averaged operators related to tensor structures. We present a procedure to decompose these operators into vacuum and medium-specific parts, thus defining plain medium-specific condensates with coefficients vanishing in vacuum. Our decomposition allows for an identification of potential elements of order parameters for chiral restoration, in particular for higher mass-dimension quark-condensates which would be masked otherwise if operators with uncontracted Lorentz indices would be linked to DIS amplitudes.

  1. Quantum field theory in the presence of a medium: Green's function expansions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheirandish, Fardin [Department of Physics, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza-Branch, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Shahriar [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting from a Lagrangian and using functional-integration techniques, series expansions of Green's function of a real scalar field and electromagnetic field, in the presence of a medium, are obtained. The parameter of expansion in these series is the susceptibility function of the medium. Relativistic and nonrelativistic Langevin-type equations are derived. Series expansions for Lifshitz energy in finite temperature and for an arbitrary matter distribution are derived. Covariant formulations for both scalar and electromagnetic fields are introduced. Two illustrative examples are given.

  2. Generation of unipolar pulses from nonunipolar optical pulses in a nonlinear medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlov, Victor V. [Department of Information Engineering, Universita degli Studi di Brescia, Via Branze 38, I-25123 Brescia (Italy); Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, Petrodvoretz, St. Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation); Rosanov, Nikolay N. [Institute of Laser Physics, Vavilov State Optical Institute, Birzhevaya liniya, 12, St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation); De Angelis, Costantino; Wabnitz, Stefan [Department of Information Engineering, Universita degli Studi di Brescia, Via Branze 38, I-25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A unipolar electromagnetic pulse is a pulse with nonzero value of the static component of the Fourier spectrum of its real electric field (and not its envelope). We show how to efficiently generate unipolar pulses through propagation of an initially nonunipolar pulse in a nonlinear optical medium. One of the major results is the demonstration that the static component can only be generated in equal portions between the forward- and backward-traveling waves in the presence of nonlinear backscattering in a nonlinear medium.

  3. Recipient luminophoric mediums having narrow spectrum luminescent materials and related semiconductor light emitting devices and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeToquin, Ronan P; Tong, Tao; Glass, Robert C

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Light emitting devices include a light emitting diode ("LED") and a recipient luminophoric medium that is configured to down-convert at least some of the light emitted by the LED. In some embodiments, the recipient luminophoric medium includes a first broad-spectrum luminescent material and a narrow-spectrum luminescent material. The broad-spectrum luminescent material may down-convert radiation emitted by the LED to radiation having a peak wavelength in the red color range. The narrow-spectrum luminescent material may also down-convert radiation emitted by the LED into the cyan, green or red color range.

  4. Role of noise operators on two-photon correlations in an extended coherent Raman medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Role of noise operators on two-photon correlations in an extended coherent Raman medium C. H. Raymond Ooi1,2,3,4,* and M. Suhail Zubairy3,5 1Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 Korea 2Max... & Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544, USA 5Texas A&M University at Qatar, Education City, P.O. Box 23874, Doha, Qatar #1;Received 8 January 2007; published 29 May 2007#2; An extended medium driven in a double Raman configuration...

  5. Metal Enrichment of the Intra-Cluster Medium: Ram-Pressure Stripping of Cluster Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Domainko; W. Kapferer; S. Schindler; E. van Kampen; S. Kimeswenger; M. Mair; M. Ruffert

    2004-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present numerical simulations of the dynamical and chemical evolution of galaxy clusters. X-ray spectra show that the intra-cluster medium contains a significant amount of metals. As heavy elements are produced in the stars of galaxies material from the galaxies must have been expelled to enrich the ambient medium. We have performed hydrodynamic simulations investigating various processes. In this presentation we show the feedback from gas which is stripped from galaxies by ram-pressure stripping. The efficiency, resulting spatial distribution of the metals and the time dependency of this enrichment process on galaxy cluster scale is shown.

  6. Systematics of delayed neutron emission probabilities in medium mass nuclides (fission products)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nir-El, Y

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The systematic behavior of emission probabilities was found to be determined by the nuclear pairing and the mass region of the precursor. The derivation of the systematics is based on a simplification of the general formula of the emission probability. The comparison made with the available experimental data leads to a semi- empirical formula for delayed neutron probabilities. This formula was used for the prediction of unknown values of emission probabilities for unidentified precursors.

  7. High resolution laser spectroscopy of cesium and rubidium molecules with optically induced coherence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hui

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is devoted to the study of the quantum coherent effects in diatomic molecular systems by using high resolution laser spectroscopy. In particular, we have studied the rubidium diatomic molecular gaseous medium's absorption spectrum...

  8. Comparison between two common collocation approaches based on radial basis functions for the case of heat transfer equations arising in porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Parand; S. Abbasbandy; S. Kazem; A. R. Rezaei

    2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper two common collocation approaches based on radial basis functions have been considered; one be computed through the integration process (IRBF) and one be computed through the differentiation process (DRBF). We investigated the two approaches on natural convection heat transfer equations embedded in porous medium which are of great importance in the design of canisters for nuclear wastes disposal. Numerical results show that the IRBF be performed much better than the common DRBF, and show good accuracy and high rate of convergence of IRBF process.

  9. Comparison between two common collocation approaches based on radial basis functions for the case of heat transfer equations arising in porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parand, K; Kazem, S; Rezaei, A R; 10.1016/j.cnsns.2010.07.011

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper two common collocation approaches based on radial basis functions have been considered; one be computed through the integration process (IRBF) and one be computed through the differentiation process (DRBF). We investigated the two approaches on natural convection heat transfer equations embedded in porous medium which are of great importance in the design of canisters for nuclear wastes disposal. Numerical results show that the IRBF be performed much better than the common DRBF, and show good accuracy and high rate of convergence of IRBF process.

  10. In-medium effects for nuclear matter in the Fermi energy domain D. Durand,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    In-medium effects for nuclear matter in the Fermi energy domain O. Lopez,1 D. Durand,1 G. Lehaut,1 of nuclear reactions in the Fermi energy domain. I. INTRODUCTION Transport properties in nuclear matter energy domain, transport features should exhibit the in- terplay between mean-field (nuclear degrees

  11. Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Regulations while Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission and the oil & gas industries. The combustion system used in Solar's products are discussed along- bility for the introduction of new combustion systems for gas turbine products to enhance fuel

  12. An exact solution for the Casimir force in a spherically symmetric medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulf Leonhardt; William M. R. Simpson

    2011-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculated the force of the quantum vacuum, the Casimir force, in a spherically symmetric medium, Maxwell's fish eye, surrounded by a perfect mirror and derived an exact analytic solution. Our solution questions the idea that the Casimir force of a spherical mirror is repulsive - we found an attractive force that diverges at the mirror.

  13. Calculation of higher moments of the neutron multiplication process in a time-varying medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    , which only calculates this new component added and com- pletely ignores the zero-power reactor noiseCalculation of higher moments of the neutron multiplication process in a time-varying medium Y Available online 20 April 2007 Abstract The zero-power reactor noise theory in a steady neutron multiplying

  14. Method for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations, medium for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wasserman, Stephen R. (Darien, IL); Anderson, Kenneth B. (Lisle, IL); Song, Kang (Woodridge, IL); Yuchs, Steven E. (Naperville, IL); Marshall, Christopher L. (Naperville, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for encapsulating hazardous cations is provided comprising supplying a pretreated substrate containing the cations; contacting the substrate with an organo-silane compound to form a coating on the substrate; and allowing the coating to cure. A medium for containing hazardous cations is also provided, comprising a substrate having ion-exchange capacity and a silane-containing coating on the substrate.

  15. DOES ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY ENABLE THE UPTAKE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 DOES ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY ENABLE THE UPTAKE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN SOUTH AFRICA? G to electricity. The socio-political benefits of the national electrification programme are documented correlation of SMMEs and electricity access in poor rural areas does sem apparent. 1. INTRODUCTION The South

  16. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  17. Questions, Answers and Clarifications Used MediumDuty Electric Vehicle Repower Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Questions, Answers and Clarifications Used MediumDuty Electric Vehicle Repower Demonstration PON). Q5. A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle repower could provide some electric drive with an engine for extended range. Would a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with an internal combustion engine be considered

  18. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  19. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  20. Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low carbon electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low on the costs of a range of `alternative' energy sources for electricity generation and transport markets;Alternative fuels for transport and electricity generation: A technical note on costs and cost projections

  1. Medium-Speed Drivetrain Test Report: September 1, 2002 -- December 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walford, C.; Lybarger, K.; Lettenmaier, T.; Roberts, D.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the tests conducted by researchers at the National Wind Technology Center at NREL on a 1.5-MW integrated drivetrain consisting of a single-stage, epicyclic gearbox and close-coupled medium-speed permanent-magnet generator.

  2. Circumferential creeping waves around a fluid-filled cylindrical cavity in an elastic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    of fluid fuel trapped in these rather small approximately 6­7 mm in diameter holes would strongly affectCircumferential creeping waves around a fluid-filled cylindrical cavity in an elastic medium Waled The dispersion behavior of circumferential creeping waves around a fluid-filled cylindrical cavity in an infinite

  3. Analysis, simulation and impedance operator of a non local model of porous medium for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of a porous wall devoted to aircraft motor noise reduction. For such a medium, the parameters motor noise reduction is currently an important challenge for aerospace industry. Control of acoustic manuscript, published in "Journal of Vibration and Control (2013) -" DOI : 10.1177/1077546313493815 #12

  4. VALIDATION OF SHORT AND MEDIUM TERM OPERATIONAL SOLAR RADIATION FORECASTS IN THE US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    VALIDATION OF SHORT AND MEDIUM TERM OPERATIONAL SOLAR RADIATION FORECASTS IN THE US Richard Perez This paper presents an initial validation of a solar radiation service that provides historical, as well observed solar radiation conditions based on immediate measured history: The position and impact of future

  5. Representing Energy Price Variability in Long-and Medium-term Hydropower Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    1 Representing Energy Price Variability in Long- and Medium- term Hydropower Optimization Marcelo A Resources Planning and Management, 2012, in press ABSTRACT Representing peak and off-peak energy prices and examines the reliability of an existing approximate method to incorporate hourly energy price information

  6. Organizational Learning and Knowledge Development Peculiarities in Small and Medium Family Enterprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Organizational Learning and Knowledge Development Peculiarities in Small and Medium Family Enterprises Abstract The aim of this theoretical contribution is to analyze the processes of organizational of piece of information and knowledge take place not only in the organizational context but also

  7. Solving the BuckleyLeverett Equation with Gravity in a Heterogeneous Porous Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    be described by two equations for conservation of mass and two equations for Darcy's law. These equa­ tionsSolving the Buckley­Leverett Equation with Gravity in a Heterogeneous Porous Medium E equation is a non­linear hyperbolic conservation law, known as the Buckley­Leverett equation. This equation

  8. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  9. Non-classical properties of quantum wave packets propagating in a Kerr-like medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Sudheesh; S. Lakshmibala; V. Balakrishnan

    2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate non-classical effects such as fractional revivals, squeezing and higher-order squeezing of photon-added coherent states propagating through a Kerr-like medium.The Wigner functions corresponding to these states at the instants of fractional revivals are obtained, and the extent of non-classicality quantified.

  10. Pre-critical Chiral Fluctuations in Nuclear Medium -- precursors of chiral restoration at $?_{B}\

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Hatsuda; T. Kunihiro

    1999-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that an enhancement in the spectral function near 2$m_{\\pi}$ threshold in the I=J=0 channel is a good signal of the partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear medium. Several experiments are discussed to detect the enhancement, which uses hadron-nucleus and photo-nucleus reactions.

  11. Experimental and numerical study of the evolution of stored and dissipated energies in a medium carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental and numerical study of the evolution of stored and dissipated energies in a medium estimations of the fatigue limit from energy-based fatigue criteria, consti- tutive laws must include a correct description of the energy balance when modeling the cyclic behavior. The present paper aims

  12. Focusing of an elongated hole in porous medium S. B. Angenent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    which is valid for all m. This approximation indicates that the numerically observed power law behavior other applications such as population biology [21], diffusion of strong thermal waves [9], and, most. By Darcy's law, the velocity in porous medium flow is proportional to the pressure gradient. Thus, in order

  13. HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : A METHOD FOR RANKING IMPACTS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    99-57 HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : A METHOD FOR RANKING IMPACTS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES A. Accorsi', J.P. Pineau, A. Prats l. INERIS, Vemeuil-en-Halatte, France Key words : safety management System, ranking, health, safety, environment ABSTRACT ELF ATOCHEM and INERIS have

  14. Multi-Gaussian Modes of Diffusion in a Quenched Random Medium Tapio Simula1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multi-Gaussian Modes of Diffusion in a Quenched Random Medium Tapio Simula1 and Mikko Stenlund2,3 1 University of Helsinki, Finland We have studied a model of a random walk in a quenched random environment environments (RWRE) [3, 9­11]. In these models the environment describes the local propagation laws, which

  15. Type Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of small and medium-sized enterprises in mechanical and electrical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of a study, dealing with the topic of Type Toyota Management Systems. In the survey SMEs in mechanicalType Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of small and medium-sized enterprises in mechanical; Institute of Industrial Manufacturing and Management (IFF), University of Stuttgart, Nobelstr. 12, D-70569

  16. Abstract, International Applied Geochemistry Symposium, 2009 Peat groundwater as a medium for surficial geochemical exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract, International Applied Geochemistry Symposium, 2009 1 Peat groundwater as a medium-mail: stew.hamilton@ontario.ca) ABSTRACT: Kimberlite-specific chemical responses are visible in shallow peat and migrated through the Tyrell Sea sediment into shallow peat groundwater. The presence of elevated values

  17. MediumAlloy ManganeseRich TransformationInduced Plasticity Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    for strong and ductile alloys containing some 6 wt% of manganese, but with aluminium additions in orderMedium­Alloy Manganese­Rich Transformation­Induced Plasticity Steels D. W. Suha , J. H. Ryua , M. S to permit heat treatments which are amenable to rapid production. However, large concentrations of aluminium

  18. Confirmation of X-ray Absorption by Warm-hot Intergalactic Medium in the Sculptor Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Taotao

    In a previous paper, we reported a 3? detection of an absorption line from the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) using the Chandra and XMM X-ray grating spectra of the blazar H2356-309, the sight line of which intercepts ...

  19. Polymeric medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  20. A Harmonic Kicker Scheme for the Circulator Cooler Ring in the Proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nissen, Edward W.; Hutton, Andrew M.; Kimber, Andrew J.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current electron cooler design for the proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab utilizes a circulator ring for reuse of the cooling electron bunch up to 100 times to cool the ion beams. This cooler requires a fast kicker system for injecting and extracting individual bunches in the circulator ring. Such a kicker must work at a high repetition rate, up to 7.5 to 75 MHz depending on the number of turns in the recirculator ring. It also must have a very short rise and fall time (of order of 1 ns) such that it will kick an individual bunch without disturbing the others in the ring. Both requirements are orders of magnitude beyond the present state-of-the-art as well as the goals of other on-going kicker R&D programs such as that for the ILC damping rings. In this paper we report a scheme of creating this fast, high repetition rate kicker by combining RF waveforms at multiple frequencies to create a kicker waveform that will, for example, kick every eleventh bunch while leaving the other ten unperturbed. We also present a possible implementation of this scheme as well as discuss its limitations.

  1. Dynamics of heavy flavor quarks in high energy nuclear collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Beraudo

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A general overview on the role of heavy quarks as probes of the medium formed in high energy nuclear collisions is presented. Experimental data compared to model calculations at low and moderate pT are exploited to extract information on the transport coefficients of the medium, on possible modifications of heavy flavor hadronization in a hot environment and to provide quantitative answers to the issue of kinetic (and chemical, at conceivable future experimental facilities) thermalization of charm. Finally, the role of heavy flavor at high pT as a tool to study the mass and color-charge dependence the jet quenching is also analyzed.

  2. QUANTIFYING THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF THE HEATING TIME,1 THE TEMPERATURE AND THE RECOVERY MEDIUM PH ON THE2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    QUANTIFYING THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF THE HEATING TIME,1 THE TEMPERATURE AND THE RECOVERY MEDIUM PH of the conditions of the heat treatment: temperature, duration15 and pH of the recovery medium. For a given heating Keywords: Bacillus cereus, heat treatment, lag time, recovery.29 30 1. Introduction31 32 Bacillus cereus

  3. Transmission Channel Model and Capacity of Overhead Multi-conductor Medium-Voltage Power-lines for Broadband Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavehrad, Mohsen

    Transmission Channel Model and Capacity of Overhead Multi-conductor Medium-Voltage Power-lines signal transmission, power-line has many non-ideal properties as a communications medium. Impedance-voltage power distribution networks for broadband power-line communications applications. Keywords - channel

  4. Study on the activation of styrene-based shape memory polymer by medium-infrared laser light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng Jinsong; Yu Kai; Lan Xin [Center for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, HeiLongJiang 150001 (China); Zhang Dawei [Center for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, HeiLongJiang 150001 (China); Material Science and Engineering College, Northeast Forestry University, HeiLongJiang 150040 (China); Liu Yanju [Department of Astronautical Science and Mechanics, Harbin Institute of Technology, HeiLongJiang 150001 (China)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of shape memory polymer (SMP) activation by medium-infrared laser light. Medium-infrared light is transmitted by an optical fiber embedded in the SMP matrix, and the shape recovery process and temperature distribution are recorded by an infrared camera. Light-induced SMP exhibits potential applications in biomedicines and flexible displays.

  5. Cell damage extent due to irradiation with nanosecond laser pulses under cell culturing medium and dry environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    Cell damage extent due to irradiation with nanosecond laser pulses under cell culturing medium and dry environment Francisco G. Pérez-Gutiérrez1 , Gabriel Guillen2 , Rodger Evans3 Santiago Camacho with nanosecond laser pulses under two distinct scenarios: (a) with culturing medium positioning the beam waist

  6. Measurement of the Neutral Current Deep Inelastic Scattering Cross Section at Low and Medium Q{sup 2} Using H1 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Picuric, Ivana [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Montenegro, P. O. Box 211, 81001 Podgorica (Montenegro)

    2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the measurements of the inclusive deep inelastic e{sup +}p scattering cross section at low and medium virtuality of the exchanged boson, 0.2high gluon densities. The transition region from the photo-production to the DIS, Q{sup 2}{approx_equal}1 GeV{sup 2}, cannot be analyzed with QCD. The data therefore are studied by the phenomenological models. In the region of medium Q{sup 2}, 12high precision was achieved up to 2%.

  7. Corrosion Resistant Coatings for High Temperature Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besman, T.M.; Cooley, K.M.; Haynes, J.A.; Lee, W.Y.; Vaubert, V.M.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts to increase efficiency of energy conversion devices have required their operation at ever higher temperatures. This will force the substitution of higher-temperature structural ceramics for lower temperature materials, largely metals. Yet, many of these ceramics will require protection from high temperature corrosion caused by combustion gases, atmospheric contaminants, or the operating medium. This paper discusses examples of the initial development of such coatings and materials for potential application in combustion, aluminum smelting, and other harsh environments.

  8. Comparative analysis of the secondary electron yield from carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verkhovtsev, Alexey; de Vera, Pablo; Surdutovich, Eugene; Guatelli, Susanna; Korol, Andrei V; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Solov'yov, Andrey V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of secondary electrons generated by carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium irradiated by fast protons is studied by means of model approaches and Monte Carlo simulations. It is demonstrated that due to a prominent collective response to an external field, the nanoparticles embedded in the medium enhance the yield of low-energy electrons. The maximal enhancement is observed for electrons in the energy range where plasmons, which are excited in the nanoparticles, play the dominant role. Electron yield from a solid carbon nanoparticle composed of fullerite, a crystalline form of C60 fullerene, is demonstrated to be several times higher than that from liquid water. Decay of plasmon excitations in carbon-based nanosystems thus represents a mechanism of increase of the low-energy electron yield, similar to the case of sensitizing metal nanoparticles. This observation gives a hint for investigation of novel types of sensitizers to be composed of metallic and organic parts.

  9. Calculating alpha Eigenvalues in a Continuous-Energy Infinite Medium with Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betzler, Benjamin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiedrowski, Brian C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The {alpha} eigenvalue has implications for time-dependent problems where the system is sub- or supercritical. We present methods and results from calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum for a continuous-energy infinite medium with a simplified Monte Carlo transport code. We formulate the {alpha}-eigenvalue problem, detail the Monte Carlo code physics, and provide verification and results. We have a method for calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum in a continuous-energy infinite-medium. The continuous-time Markov process described by the transition rate matrix provides a way of obtaining the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum and kinetic modes. These are useful for the approximation of the time dependence of the system.

  10. Unexpected short- and medium-range atomic structure of sputtered amorphous silicon upon thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haberl, B.; McKerracher, I.; Ruffell, S.; Williams, J. S.; Bradby, J. E. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Bogle, S. N.; Li, T.; Abelson, J. R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Munroe, P. [Electron Microscope Unit, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the structure of magnetron-sputtered (MS) amorphous silicon (a-Si) prepared under standard deposition conditions and compare this to pure ion-implanted (II) a-Si. The structure of both films is characterized in their as-prepared and thermally annealed states. Significant differences are observed in short- and medium-range order following thermal annealing. Whereas II a-Si undergoes structural relaxation toward a continuous random network, MS a-Si exhibits little change. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals the presence of nanopores in the MS film consistent with reduced mass-density. Therefore, the short- and medium-range order of annealed, MS a-Si is tentatively attributed to these pores.

  11. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Das, Amita; Patel, Bhavesh G. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Angom, Dilip [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in the context of strongly coupled dusty plasma medium has been investigated. In particular, the role of transverse shear and the compressional acoustic modes in both the linear and nonlinear regimes of the KH instability has been studied. It is observed that in addition to the conventional nonlocal KH instability, there exists a local instability in the strong coupling case. The interplay of the KH mode with this local instability shows up in the simulations as an interesting phenomenon of recurrence in the nonlinear regime. Thus, a cyclic KH instability process is observed to occur. These cyclic events are associated with bursts of activity in terms of transverse and compressional wave generation in the medium.

  12. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  13. Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, M.G.; Roop, J.M.; Seely, H.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Muller, M.R. [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Jones, T.W. [Alliance to Save Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Dowd, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based on the experiences of companies participating in the DOE Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program. The IAC program is a network of university-based centers that provides energy and waste assessments to small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The purposes of this report are to do the following: (1) Examine what the data collected reveal about patterns of implementation of recommended energy- efficiency measures, (2) Evaluate how various factors, such as the type of industry, the characteristics of the manufacturing plants, or the cost of the measures, appear to effect implementation rates, (3) Examine reasons why recommended energy-saving measures are accepted or rejected.

  14. Navier-Stokes equation describes the movement of a special superfluid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sbitnev, Valeriy I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Navier-Stokes equation contains two terms which have been subjected to slight modification: (a) the viscosity term depends of time (the viscosity in average on time is zero, but its variance is nonzero); (b) the pressure gradient contains an added term describing the entropy gradient multiplied by the pressure. Owing to these modifications, the Navier-Stokes equation can be reduced to the Schr\\"odinger equation describing behavior of a particle into the vacuum, where the vacuum is a superfluid medium. Vortex structures arising in this medium show infinitely long life owing to zero average viscosity. The nonzero variance describes exchange of the vortex energy with zero-point energy of the vacuum. Radius of the vortex trembles around some average value. This observation sheds the light to the Zitterbewegung phenomenon. The vortex has a non-zero core where the vortex velocity vanishes. Its organization is discussed with the point of view of the Calabi-Yau manifold.

  15. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  16. Contrast-Medium-Enhanced Digital Mammography: Contrast vs. Iodine Concentration Phantom Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosado-Mendez, I.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico); Villasenor, Y. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, Tlalpan 14080 DF (Mexico); Benitez-Bribiesca, L. [Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Av. Cuauhtemoc 330, Col. Doctores 06725 DF (Mexico)

    2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This work deals with the application of the contrast-medium-enhanced digital subtraction mammography technique in order to calibrate the contrast level in subtracted phantom images as function of iodine concentration to perform dynamic studies of the contrast-medium uptake in the breast. Previously optimized dual-energy temporal subtraction modalities were used (a) to determine radiological parameters for a dynamic clinical study composed of 1 mask+3 post-contrast images limiting the total mean glandular dose to 2.5 mGy, and (b) to perform a contrast vs iodine concentration calibration using a custom-made phantom. Calculated exposure values were applied using a commercial full-field digital mammography unit. Contrast in subtracted phantom images (one mask and one post-CM) is linear as function of iodine concentration, although the sensitivity (contrast per iodine concentration) decreases beyond 8 mg/mL. This calibration seems to apply only to thin and normal thickness breasts.

  17. A design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of the viscous barrier technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Yen, P. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States); Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Williams, P.; Myer, L.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The test site is located in central California in a quarry owned by the Los Banos Gravel Company in Los Banos, California, in heterogeneous unsaturated deposits of sand, silt, and -ravel typical of many of the and DOE cleanup sites and particularly analogous to the Hanford site. The coals of the field demonstration are (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier isolating a medium-scale volume (30 ft long by 30 ft wide by 20 ft deep, i.e. 1/10th to 1/8th the size of a buried tank at the Hanford Reservation) in the subsurface, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier.

  18. In-Medium Effects on K0 Mesons in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Agakishiev; A. Balanda; B. Bannier; R. Bassini; D. Belver; A. V. Belyaev; A. Blanco; M. Böhmer; J. L. Boyard; P. Cabanelas; E. Castro; S. Chernenko; T. Christ; M. Destefanis; J. Díaz; F. Dohrmann; A. Dybczak; T. Eberl; E. Epple; L. Fabbietti; O. V. Fateev; P. Finocchiaro; P. Fonte; J. Friese; I. Fröhlich; T. Galatyuk; J. A. Garzón; R. Gernhäuser; A. Gil; C. Gilardi; M. Golubeva; D. González-Díaz; F. Guber; M. Heilmann; T. Heinz; T. Hennino; R. Holzmann; A. Ierusalimov; I. Iori; A. Ivashkin; M. Jurkovic; B. Kämpfer; K. Kanaki; T. Karavicheva; D. Kirschner; I. Koenig; W. Koenig; B. W. Kolb; R. Kotte; F. Krizek; R. Krücken; W. Kühn; A. Kugler; A. Kurepin; S. Lang; J. S. Lange; K. Lapidus; T. Liu; L. Lopes; M. Lorenz; L. Maier; A. Mangiarotti; J. Markert; V. Metag; B. Michalska; J. Michel; D. Mishra; E. Morinière; J. Mousa; C. Müntz; L. Naumann; J. Otwinowski; Y. C. Pachmayer; M. Palka; Y. Parpottas; V. Pechenov; O. Pechenova; T. PérezCavalcanti; J. Pietraszko; W. Przygoda; B. Ramstein; A. Reshetin; M. Roy-Stephan; A. Rustamov; A. Sadovsky; B. Sailer; P. Salabura; A. Schmah; E. Schwab; Yu. G. Sobolev; S. Spataro; B. Spruck; H. Ströbele; J. Stroth; C. Sturm; M. Sudol; A. Tarantola; K. Teilab; P. Tlusty; M. Traxler; R. Trebac; H. Tsertos; V. Wagner; M. Weber; M. Wisniowski; T. Wojcik; J. Wüstenfel; S. Yurevich; Y. V. Zanevsky; P. Zhou; P. Zumbruch

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the transverse momentum spectra and rapidity distributions of $\\pi^{-}$ and K$^0_S$ in Ar+KCl reactions at a beam kinetic energy of 1.756 A GeV measured with the spectrometer HADES. The reconstructed K$^0_S$ sample is characterized by good event statistics for a wide range in momentum and rapidity. We compare the experimental $\\pi^{-}$ and K$^0_S$ distributions to predictions by the IQMD model. The model calculations show that K$^0_S$ at low tranverse momenta constitute a particularly well suited tool to investigate the kaon in-medium potential. Our K$^0_S$ data suggest a strong repulsive in-medium K$^0$ potential of about 40 MeV strength.

  19. Method for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations, medium for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wasserman, S.R.; Anderson, K.B.; Song, K.; Yuchs, S.E.; Marshall, C.L.

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for encapsulating hazardous cations is provided comprising supplying a pretreated substrate containing the cations; contacting the substrate with an organo-silane compound to form a coating on the substrate; and allowing the coating to cure. A medium for containing hazardous cations is also provided, comprising a substrate having ion-exchange capacity and a silane-containing coating on the substrate. 3 figs.

  20. Scale effects on velocity dispersion: From ray to effective medium theories in stratified media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, D. (Elf Aquitaine, Pau (France)); Mukerji, T.; Mavko, G. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Rockphysics Lab.)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wave propagation in stratified media may be explained by ray theory, effective medium theory, or scattering theory depending on the scales of wavelength and layer spacing. To effectively integrate and use seismic data ate different frequencies and widely varying scales, it is essential to understand the domain of applicability of long and short wavelength behavior and the transition between them. A joint experimental and theoretical study was conducted to investigate velocity behavior at the transition from ray theory to effective medium theory in stratified media. Velocity measurements were performed at 50 and 500 kHz on periodic media composed of steel and plastic discs. The ratio of wavelength to layer spacing, [lambda]/d, spanned more than two orders of magnitude between 0.1 and 50, and the volume fraction of steel ranged from 9 to 89 percent by volume. The results confirm that velocities in stratified media depend on composition and are controlled by the ratio of wavelength to layer spacing. Velocities in the short wavelength limit are generally faster than velocities in the long wavelength limit. The authors find that transition from ray to effective medium approximations occurs over a narrow range of [lambda]/d at a value of approximately 10. The amount of velocity change increases with impedance contrast, but the value of [lambda]/d at the transition is generally independent of the composition of the stratified medium. The numerically simulated waveforms are in close agreement with the experimentally observed delayed first arrival in the long wavelength limit and with the reduced amplitudes at the transition from short to long wavelength regime.

  1. A Priori Estimates and Regularization for a Class of Porous Medium Equations 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharpley, Robert

    and Robert C. Sharpley Abstract The general class of porous medium equations: @S @t +r \\Delta f(S)u \\Gamma r of saturation problems arise: @S @t +r \\Delta (f(S)u) \\Gamma r \\Delta (k(S)rS) = Q(S) on\\Omega \\Theta (0; T 0 ] (1:1a) with boundary conditions: (f(S)u \\Gamma k(S)rS) \\Delta n = q on @\\Omega \\Theta [0; T 0 ] (1:1b

  2. Effect of in-medium parameters of rho meson in its photoproduction reactions on nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Swapan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There exist model calculations showing the modification of the hadronic parameters of $\\rho$ meson in the nuclear environment. From these parameters, we extract the $\\rho$ meson nucleus optical potential and show the medium effect due to this potential on the $\\rho$ meson mass distribution spectra in the photonuclear reaction. The calculated results reproduced reasonably the measured $e^+e^-$ invariant mass, i.e., $\\rho$ meson mass, distribution spectra in the $( \\gamma, \\rho^0 \\to e^+e^- )$ reaction on nuclei.

  3. Effect of in-medium parameters of rho meson in its photoproduction reactions on nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swapan Das

    2015-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There exist model calculations showing the modification of the hadronic parameters of $\\rho$ meson in the nuclear environment. From these parameters, we extract the $\\rho$ meson nucleus optical potential and show the medium effect due to this potential on the $\\rho$ meson mass distribution spectra in the photonuclear reaction. The calculated results reproduced reasonably the measured $e^+e^-$ invariant mass, i.e., $\\rho$ meson mass, distribution spectra in the $( \\gamma, \\rho^0 \\to e^+e^- )$ reaction on nuclei.

  4. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in mixed-sugars medium comprising xylose, and, in particular, in the presence of acetate.

  5. A Collaborative Model for a Sustainable Management System for Energy at Small to Medium Industrial Enterprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imel, M.; Gromacki, M.; Magoon, D.

    A Collaborative Model for a Sustainable Management System for Energy at Small to Medium Industrial Enterprises Mark Imel Technical Manager ? Energy Services Burns & McDonnell Kansas City, MO Michael Gromacki Vice President ? Engineering... adequate resources to implement a sustainable energy management program. A strategy to overcome this constraint is to collaborate and develop partnerships between the company and other external resources. This paper describes a unique business...

  6. Method for in situ characterization of a medium of dispersed matter in a continuous phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Eric N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for in situ characterization of a medium of a dispersed phase in a continuous phase, including the steps of adding a fluorescent dye to one phase capable of producing fluorescence therein when the fluorescent dye is optically excited, optically exciting the fluorescent dye at a wavelength to produce fluorescence in the one phase, and monitoring the fluorescence to distinguish the continuous phase from the dispersed phase.

  7. MEDIUM POWER 352 MHZ SOLID STATE PULSED RF AMPLIFIERS FOR THE CERN LINAC4 PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MEDIUM POWER 352 MHZ SOLID STATE PULSED RF AMPLIFIERS FOR THE CERN LINAC4 PROJECT J. Broere, J in the CERN Linac4. The amplifiers are water-cooled and can provide up to 33 kW pulsed RF Power, 1.5 ms pulse RF Power for the debuncher cavity. The concept is based on 1.2 kW RF power modules using the latest 6

  8. The Magnus expansion and the in-medium similarity renormalization group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, T. D.; Bogner, S. K. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48844 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a variant of the in-medium similarity renormalization group(IMSRG) based on the Magnus expansion. In this new variant, the unitary transformation of the IMSRG is constructed explicitly, which allows for the transformation of observables quickly and easily. Additionally, the stiffness of equations encountered by the traditional solution of the IMSRG can be alleviated greatly. We present results and comparisons for the 3d electron gas.

  9. Influence of the nuclear medium on inclusive electron and neutrino scattering off nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, O.; Leitner, T.; Mosel, U.; Alvarez-Ruso, L. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC (Spain)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model for inclusive electron and neutrino scattering off nuclei paying special attention to the influence of in-medium effects on the quasielastic scattering and pion-production mechanisms. Our results for electron scattering off {sup 16}O are compared to experimental data at beam energies ranging from 0.7 to 1.5 GeV. The good description of electron scattering serves as a benchmark for neutrino scattering.

  10. Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project for Small and Medium Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Janie; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Chiu, Albert K.; Kellow, Bashar; Koch, Ed; Lipkin, Paul

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small and medium commercial customers in California make up about 20-25% of electric peak load in California. With the roll out of smart meters to this customer group, which enable granular measurement of electricity consumption, the investor-owned utilities will offer dynamic prices as default tariffs by the end of 2011. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, which successfully deployed Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) Programs to its large commercial and industrial customers, started investigating the same infrastructures application to the small and medium commercial customers. This project aims to identify available technologies suitable for automating demand response for small-medium commercial buildings; to validate the extent to which that technology does what it claims to be able to do; and determine the extent to which customers find the technology useful for DR purpose. Ten sites, enabled by eight vendors, participated in at least four test AutoDR events per site in the summer of 2010. The results showed that while existing technology can reliably receive OpenADR signals and translate them into pre-programmed response strategies, it is likely that better levels of load sheds could be obtained than what is reported here if better understanding of the building systems were developed and the DR response strategies had been carefully designed and optimized for each site.

  11. Heavy quark scattering and quenching in a QCD medium at finite temperature and chemical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berrehrah, H; Cassing, W; Gossiaux, P B; Aichelin, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heavy quark collisional scattering on partons of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) is studied in a QCD medium at finite temperature and chemical potential. We evaluate the effects of finite parton masses and widths, finite temperature $T$ and quark chemical potential $\\mu_q$ on the different elastic cross sections for dynamical quasi-particles (on- and off-shell particles in the QGP medium as described by the dynamical quasi-particles model "DQPM") using the leading order Born diagrams. Our results show clearly the decrease of the $qQ$ and $gQ$ total elastic cross sections when the temperature and the quark chemical potential increase. These effects are amplified for finite $\\mu_q$ at temperatures lower than the corresponding critical temperature $T_c (\\mu_q)$. Using these cross sections we, furthermore, estimate the energy loss and longitudinal and transverse momentum transfers of a heavy quark propagating in a finite temperature and chemical potential medium. Accordingly, we have shown that the transport pro...

  12. Radio-wave propagation in the non-Gaussian interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanislav Boldyrev; Carl R. Gwinn

    2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Radio waves propagating from distant pulsars in the interstellar medium (ISM), are refracted by electron density inhomogeneities, so that the intensity of observed pulses fluctuates with time. The theory relating the observed pulse time-shapes to the electron-density correlation function has developed for 30 years, however, two puzzles have remained. First, observational scaling of pulse broadening with the pulsar distance is anomalously strong; it is consistent with the standard model only when non-uniform statistics of electron fluctuations along the line of sight are assumed. Second, the observed pulse shapes are consistent with the standard model only when the scattering material is concentrated in a narrow slab between the pulsar and the Earth. We propose that both paradoxes are resolved at once if one assumes stationary and uniform, but non-Gaussian statistics of the electron-density distribution. Such statistics must be of Levy type, and the propagating ray should exhibit a Levy flight. We propose that a natural realization of such statistics may be provided by the interstellar medium with random electron-density discontinuities. We develop a theory of wave propagation in such a non-Gaussian random medium, and demonstrate its good agreement with observations. The qualitative introduction of the approach and the resolution of the anomalous-scaling paradox was presented earlier in [PRL 91, 131101 (2003); ApJ 584, 791 (2003)].

  13. Pathological scattering by a defect in a slow-light medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen P. Shipman; Aaron T. Welters

    2014-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Scattering of electromagnetic fields by a defect layer embedded in a slow-light periodically layered ambient medium exhibits phenomena markedly different from typical scattering problems. In a slow-light medium, constructed by Figotin and Vitebskiy, the energy velocity of a propagating mode in one direction slows to zero, creating a "frozen mode" at a single frequency within a pass band, where the dispersion relation possesses a flat inflection point. The slow-light regime is characterized by a $3\\!\\times\\!3$ Jordan block of the log of the $4\\!\\times\\!4$ monodromy matrix for EM fields in a periodic medium at special frequency and parallel wavevector. The scattering problem breaks down as the 2D rightward and leftward mode spaces intersect in the frozen mode and therefore span only a 3D subspace $\\mathring V$ of the 4D space of EM fields. Analysis of pathological scattering near the slow-light frequency and wavevector is based on the interaction between the flux-unitary transfer matrix $T$ across the defect layer and the projections to the rightward and leftward spaces, which blow up as Laurent-Puiseux series. Two distinct cases emerge: the generic, non-resonant case when $T$ does not map $\\mathring V$ to itself and the quadratically growing mode is excited; and the resonant case, when $\\mathring V$ is invariant under $T$ and a guided frozen mode is resonantly excited.

  14. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  15. Light pressure on a solid body immersed in a liquid medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Vyacheslav P; Rukhadze, Anri A [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We have solved the problem about the force with which an electromagnetic pulse in a liquid (or gaseous) medium at rest affects a solid body (also at rest) immersed in it. We have shown that under certain conditions (relating to the characteristics of the medium and the pulse shape), the formula for the force exerted per unit area of a body surface is obtained from the Landau - Lifshitz equations for static fields in the same way as, according to Pitaevskii, the field stress tensor is obtained from the static field stress tensor with the dispersion taken into account. The formula for the force acting on the wall, from which an incident quasi-monochromatic plane wave with a given intensity is reflected, differs from the corresponding formula for the case when the body is in a vacuum by the factor {+-}n{sub 1}, where n{sub 1} is the refractive index, and the upper (lower) sign corresponds to a positive (negative) group velocity of the wave in the medium. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Diffusion of $?_c$ in hot hadronic medium and its impact on $?_c/D$ ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabyasachi Ghosh; Santosh K. Das; Vincenzo Greco; Sourav Sarkar; Jan-e Alam

    2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The drag and diffusion coefficients of the $\\Lambda_c(2286$ MeV) have been evaluated in the hadronic medium which is expected to be formed in the later stages of the evolving fire ball produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. The interactions between the $\\Lambda_c$ and the hadrons in the medium have been derived from an effective hadronic Lagrangian as well as from the scattering lengths, obtained in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HB$\\chi$PT). In both the approaches, the magnitude of the transport coefficients are turn out to be significant. A larger value is obtained in the former approach with respect to the latter. Significant values of the coefficients indicate substantial amount of interaction of the $\\Lambda_c$ with the hadronic thermal bath. Furthermore, the transport coefficients of the $\\Lambda_c$ is found to be different from the transport coefficients of $D$ meson. Present study indicates that the hadronic medium has a significant impact on the $\\Lambda_c/D$ ratio in heavy ion collisions.

  17. Effective medium approach for stiff polymer networks with flexible cross-links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. P. Broedersz; C. Storm; F. C. MacKintosh

    2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that the nonlinear elasticity of in vitro networks of the biopolymer actin is dramatically altered in the presence of a flexible cross-linker such as the abundant cytoskeletal protein filamin. The basic principles of such networks remain poorly understood. Here we describe an effective medium theory of flexibly cross-linked stiff polymer networks. We argue that the response of the cross-links can be fully attributed to entropic stiffening, while softening due to domain unfolding can be ignored. The network is modeled as a collection of randomly oriented rods connected by flexible cross-links to an elastic continuum. This effective medium is treated in a linear elastic limit as well as in a more general framework, in which the medium self-consistently represents the nonlinear network behavior. This model predicts that the nonlinear elastic response sets in at strains proportional to cross-linker length and inversely proportional to filament length. Furthermore, we find that the differential modulus scales linearly with the stress in the stiffening regime. These results are in excellent agreement with bulk rheology data.

  18. Methyl Acetate and its singly deuterated isotopomers in the interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Ankan; Sahu, Dipen; Gorai, Prasanta; Sivaraman, B; Chakrabarti, Sandip K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl acetate (CH_3COOCH_3) has been recently observed by IRAM 30 m radio telescope in Orion though the presence of its deuterated isotopomers is yet to be confirmed. We therefore study the properties of various forms of methyl acetate, namely, CH_3COOCH_3, CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D. Our simulation reveals that these species could be produced efficiently both in gas as well as in ice phases. Production of methyl acetate could follow radical-radical reaction between acetyl (CH_3CO) and methoxy (CH_3O) radicals. To predict abundances of CH_3COOCH_3 along with its two singly deuterated isotopomers and its two isomers (ethyl formate and hydroxyacetone), we prepare a gas-grain chemical network to study chemical evolution of these molecules. Since gas phase rate coefficients for methyl acetate and its related species were unknown, either we consider similar rate coefficients for similar types of reactions (by following existing data bases) or we carry out quantum chemical calculations to estimate the unknown r...

  19. THE COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION AND CONTINUUM OPACITY OF THE INTERGALACTIC AND CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM AT REDSHIFT (z) = 2.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudie, Gwen C.; Steidel, Charles C. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shapley, Alice E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States); Pettini, Max, E-mail: gwen@astro.caltech.edu [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new high-precision measurements of the opacity of the intergalactic and circumgalactic medium (IGM; CGM) at (z) = 2.4. Using Voigt profile fits to the full Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} forests in 15 high-resolution high-S/N spectra of hyperluminous QSOs, we make the first statistically robust measurement of the frequency of absorbers with H I column densities 14{approx}< log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2}){approx}<17.2. We also present the first measurements of the frequency distribution of H I absorbers in the volume surrounding high-z galaxies (the CGM, 300 pkpc), finding that the incidence of absorbers in the CGM is much higher than in the IGM. In agreement with Rudie et al., we find that there are fractionally more high-N{sub H{sub I}} absorbers than low-N{sub H{sub I}} absorbers in the CGM compared to the IGM, leading to a shallower power law fit to the CGM frequency distribution. We use these new measurements to calculate the total opacity of the IGM and CGM to hydrogen-ionizing photons, finding significantly higher opacity than most previous studies, especially from absorbers with log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2}) < 17.2. Reproducing the opacity measured in our data as well as the incidence of absorbers with log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2})>17.2 requires a broken power law parameterization of the frequency distribution with a break near N{sub H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. We compute new estimates of the mean free path ({lambda}{sub mfp}) to hydrogen-ionizing photons at z{sub em} = 2.4, finding {lambda}{sub mfp} = 147 {+-} 15 Mpc when considering only IGM opacity. If instead, we consider photons emanating from a high-z star-forming galaxy and account for the local excess opacity due to the surrounding CGM of the galaxy itself, the mean free path is reduced to {lambda}{sub mfp} = 121 {+-} 15 Mpc. These {lambda}{sub mfp} measurements are smaller than recent estimates and should inform future studies of the metagalactic UV background and of ionizing sources at z Almost-Equal-To 2-3.

  20. Radiation drag driven mass accretion in clumpy interstellar medium: implications for the supermassive black hole-to-bulge relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nozomu Kawakatu; Masayuki Umemura

    2001-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We quantitatively scrutinize the effects of the radiation drag arising from the radiation fields in a galactic bulge in order to examine the possibility that the radiation drag could be an effective mechanism to extract angular momentum in a spheroidal system like a bulge and allow plenty of gas to accrete onto the galactic center. For this purpose, we numerically solve the relativistic radiation hydrodynamical equation coupled with the accurate radiative transfer and quantitatively assess the radiation drag efficiency. As a result, we find that in an optically thick regime the radiation drag efficiency is sensitively dependent on the density distributions of interstellar medium (ISM). The efficiency drops according to $\\tau_{\\rm T}^{-2}$ in an optically thick {\\it uniform} ISM, where $\\tau_{\\rm T}$ is the total optical depth of the dusty ISM, whereas the efficiency remains almost constant at a high level if the ISM is {\\it clumpy}. Hence, if the bulge formation begins with a star formation event in a clumpy ISM, the radiation drag will effectively work to remove the angular momentum and the accreted gas may form a supermassive black hole. As a natural consequence, this mechanism reproduces a putative linear relation between the mass of a supermassive black hole and the mass of a galactic bulge, although further detailed modeling for stellar evolution is required for the more precise prediction.

  1. Correlation between medium-range order structure and glass-forming ability for Al-based metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, N. C. [College of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yan, M. [Queensland Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacturing (AMPAM), School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Zuo, L. [College of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wang, J. Q., E-mail: jqwang@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    To clarify the correlation of medium-range order (MRO) structure with glass forming ability (GFA) of Al-based metallic glasses, Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 14-a}Y{sub a} (a?=?2?9 at.?%) metallic glasses were analyzed by x-ray diffraction in detail and further verified by synchrotron high-energy x-ray diffraction. The prepeak that reflects the MRO structural evolution was found to be much sensitive to alloy composition. We have proposed an icosahedral supercluster MRO structure model in Al-TM (transition metal)-RE (rare earth metal) system, which consists of 12 RE(TM)-centered clusters on the vertex of icosahedral supercluster, one RE(TM)-centered clusters in the center, and TM(RE) atoms located at RE(TM)-centered cluster tetrahedral interstices in the icosahedral supercluster. It was indicated that the MRO structural stability mainly depends on the interaction of efficient dense packing and electrochemical potential equalization principle. The Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 9}Y(La){sub 5} alloys present good GFA due to the combination of the two structural factors.

  2. X-RAY SEARCHES FOR EMISSION FROM THE WHIM IN THE GALACTIC HALO AND THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Otte, Birgit; Irwin, Jimmy A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Putman, Mary E. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, Mail Code 5246, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lloyd-Davies, Edward J. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, School of Science and Technology (SciTech), Pevensey II Building, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH, England (United Kingdom); Bruens, Christian [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: jbregman@umich.edu, E-mail: otteb@umich.edu, E-mail: jairwin@umich.edu, E-mail: mputman@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: E.Lloyd-Davies@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: cbruens@astro.uni-bonn.de

    2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    At least 50% of the baryons in the local universe are undetected and predicted to be in a hot dilute phase (10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K) in low and moderate overdensity environments. We searched for the predicted diffuse faint emission through shadowing observations whereby cool foreground gas absorbs more distant diffuse emission. Observations were obtained with Chandra and XMM-Newton. Using the cold gas in two galaxies, NGC 891 and NGC 5907, shadows were not detected and a newer observation of NGC 891 fails to confirm a previously reported X-ray shadow. Our upper limits lie above model predictions. For Local Group studies, we used a cloud in the Magellanic Stream and a compact high-velocity cloud to search for a shadow. Instead of a shadow, the X-ray emission was brighter toward the Magellanic Stream cloud and there is a less significant brightness enhancement toward the other cloud also. The brightness enhancement toward the Magellanic Stream cloud is probably due to an interaction with a hot ambient medium that surrounds the Milky Way. We suggest that this interaction drives a shock into the cloud, heating the gas to X-ray emitting temperatures.

  3. Soft switched high frequency ac-link converter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Anand Kumar

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    topology for medium and high power ac-ac, ac-dc and dc-ac applications. An ac-link formed by an inductor-capacitor pair replaces the conventional dc-link. Each leg of the converter is formed by two bidirectional switches. Power transfer from input to output...

  4. Type IIn supernovae as sources of high energy neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zirakashvili, V N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that high-energy astrophysical neutrinos observed in the IceCube experiment can be produced by protons accelerated in extragalactic Type IIn supernova remnants by shocks propagating in the dense circumstellar medium. The nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration model is used for description of particle acceleration.

  5. Device for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser. As the laser medium flows past the optical excitation source and the fluid warms its index of refraction changes creating an optical wedge. A system is provided for correcting the thermally induced optical phase errors.

  6. DRIVING OUTFLOWS WITH RELATIVISTIC JETS AND THE DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK EFFICIENCY ON INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM INHOMOGENEITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M. [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Bicknell, G. V., E-mail: ayw@ccs.tsukuba.ac.jp [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the detailed physics of the feedback mechanism by relativistic active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets interacting with a two-phase fractal interstellar medium (ISM) in the kpc-scale core of galaxies using 29 three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations. The feedback efficiency, as measured by the amount of cloud dispersal generated by the jet-ISM interactions, is sensitive to the maximum size of clouds in the fractal cloud distribution but not to their volume filling factor. Feedback ceases to be efficient for Eddington ratios P{sub jet}/L{sub edd} {approx}< 10{sup -4}, although systems with large cloud complexes {approx}> 50 pc require jets of Eddington ratio in excess of 10{sup -2} to disperse the clouds appreciably. Based on measurements of the bubble expansion rates in our simulations, we argue that sub-grid AGN prescriptions resulting in negative feedback in cosmological simulations without a multi-phase treatment of the ISM are good approximations if the volume filling factor of warm-phase material is less than 0.1 and the cloud complexes are smaller than {approx}25 pc. We find that the acceleration of the dense embedded clouds is provided by the ram pressure of the high-velocity flow through the porous channels of the warm phase, flow that has fully entrained the shocked hot-phase gas it has swept up, and is additionally mass loaded by ablated cloud material. This mechanism transfers 10% to 40% of the jet energy to the cold and warm gas, accelerating it within a few 10 to 100 Myr to velocities that match those observed in a range of high- and low-redshift radio galaxies hosting powerful radio jets.

  7. 2009 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Highly Distinguished Bowers Michelle Diane Highly Distinguished Bowling Joseph David Highly Distinguished Ashley Highly Distinguished Bryant Catherine Clancy Highly Distinguished Buckheister Elaine A Highly

  8. Charmonium Transverse Momentum Distribution in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zebo Tang; Nu Xu; Kai Zhou; Pengfei Zhuang

    2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Charmonium transverse momentum distribution is more sensitive to the nature of the hot QCD matter created in high energy nuclear collisions, in comparison with the yield. Taking a detailed transport approach for charmonium motion together with a hydrodynamic description for the medium evolution, the cancelation between the two hot nuclear matter effects, the dissociation and the regeneration, controls the charmonium transverse momentum distribution. Especially, the second moment of the distribution can be used to differentiate between the hot mediums produced at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.

  9. High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.

  10. Production of Clostridium difficile toxin in a medium totally free of both animal and dairy proteins or digests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demain, Arnold L.

    In the hope of developing a vaccine against Clostridium difficile based on its toxin(s), we have developed a fermentation medium for the bacterium that results in the formation of Toxin A and contains no meat or dairy ...

  11. Unlocking the potential of small and medium sized enterprises in West Africa : a path for reform and action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiam, Ibrahima

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have proven their dynamism in West Africa. They are perceived by policy makers as an important reservoir for growth. The African Development Bank considers they represent over 90 ...

  12. Performance Characterization of a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine with Bio-Diesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquivel, Jason

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    characterizes the performance of a medium-duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel and conventional diesel. The objective is accomplished by taking measurements of manifold pressure and temperature, fuel flow, air flow, and torque. The study first characterizes...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by SCAQMD at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about plug-in hybrid medium-duty truck...

  14. Convection induced by radiative cooling of a layer of participating medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasanna, Swaminathan, E-mail: prasannaswam@gmail.com [Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS UPR 288 92295, Chatenay-Malabry, France and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes 92295, Chatenay-Malabry (France)] [Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS UPR 288 92295, Chatenay-Malabry, France and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes 92295, Chatenay-Malabry (France); Venkateshan, S. P., E-mail: spv@iitm.ac.in [HTTP Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering IIT Madras, Chennai (India)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations and experiments have been conducted to study the effect of radiative cooling on natural convection in a horizontal layer of a participating medium enclosed between isothermal opaque wall and radiatively transparent wall and exposed to a cold background. The study is of relevance to a nocturnal boundary layer under clear and calm conditions. The focus of the study is to capture the onset of convection caused by radiative cooling. The experiments have been designed to mimic the atmospheric radiative boundary conditions, and hence decoupling convection and radiation boundary conditions. Planck number Pl and optical thickness of the layer ?{sub H} are the two important parameters that govern the interaction between radiation and convection. The radiation-convection coupling is a strong function of length scale. Convection sets up within first few seconds for all the experiments. Strong plume like convection is observed for the experimental conditions used in the present study. Both simulations and experiments confirm that radiative cooling increases substantially with decrease in emissivity of the bottom wall. Radiative cooling is strongly influenced by the nongray nature of the participating medium, especially when strong emission from the medium escapes to space, in the window region of the atmosphere. Accurate representation of radiative properties is critical. Linear stability analysis of onset of convection indicates that radiation stabilizes convection as Pl decreases. The observations are similar to the case of Rayleigh Bénard convection in a radiating gas. However, for both experimental and numerical conditions, the observed Rayleigh numbers are much greater than the critical Rayleigh number. To conclude, the role of radiation is to drive and sustain convection in the unstable layer.

  15. Study of in-medium $?^\\prime$ properties in the ($?$, ${?^\\prime}p$) reaction on nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Ya. Paryev

    2015-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the near-threshold photoproduction of $\\eta^\\prime$ mesons from nuclei in coincidence with forward going protons in the kinematical conditions of the Crystal Barrel/TAPS experiment, recently performed at ELSA. The calculations have been performed within a collision model based on the nuclear spectral function. The model accounts for both the primary ${\\gamma}p \\to {\\eta^\\prime}p$ process and the two-step intermediate nucleon rescattering processes as well as the effect of the nuclear $\\eta^\\prime$ mean-field potential. We calculate the exclusive $\\eta^\\prime$ kinetic energy distributions for the $^{12}$C($\\gamma$, ${\\eta^\\prime}p$) reaction for different scenarios of $\\eta^\\prime$ in-medium modification. We find that the considered two-step rescattering mechanism plays an insignificant role in ${\\eta^\\prime}p$ photoproduction off the carbon target. We also demonstrate that the calculated $\\eta^\\prime$ kinetic energy distributions in primary photon--proton ${\\eta^\\prime}p$ production reveal strong sensitivity to the depth of the real ${\\eta^\\prime}$ potential at normal nuclear matter density (or to the ${\\eta^\\prime}$ in-medium mass shift) in the studied incident photon energy regime. Therefore, such observables may be useful to help determine the above ${\\eta^\\prime}$ in-medium renormalization from the comparison of the results of our calculations with the data from the CBELSA/TAPS experiment. In addition, we show that these distributions are also strongly influenced by the momentum-dependent optical potential, which the outgoing participant proton feels inside the carbon nucleus. This potential should be taken into account in the analysis of these data with the aim to obtain information on the ${\\eta^\\prime}$ modification in cold nuclear matter.

  16. Value of medium range weather forecasts in the improvement of seasonal hydrologic prediction skill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Voisin, Nathalie; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the contribution of medium range weather forecasts with lead times up to 14 days to seasonal hydrologic prediction skill over the Conterminous United States (CONUS). Three different Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP)-based experiments were performed for the period 1980-2003 using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model to generate forecasts of monthly runoff and soil moisture (SM) at lead-1 (first month of the forecast period) to lead-3. The first experiment (ESP) used a resampling from the retrospective period 1980-2003 and represented full climatological uncertainty for the entire forecast period. In the second and third experiments, the first 14 days of each ESP ensemble member were replaced by either observations (perfect 14-day forecast) or by a deterministic 14-day weather forecast. We used Spearman rank correlations of forecasts and observations as the forecast skill score. We estimated the potential and actual improvement in baseline skill as the difference between the skill of experiments 2 and 3 relative to ESP, respectively. We found that useful runoff and SM forecast skill at lead-1 to -3 months can be obtained by exploiting medium range weather forecast skill in conjunction with the skill derived by the knowledge of initial hydrologic conditions. Potential improvement in baseline skill by using medium range weather forecasts, for runoff (SM) forecasts generally varies from 0 to 0.8 (0 to 0.5) as measured by differences in correlations, with actual improvement generally from 0 to 0.8 of the potential improvement. With some exceptions, most of the improvement in runoff is for lead-1 forecasts, although some improvement in SM was achieved at lead-2.

  17. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  18. Care and Passage of MCF-10A Cells In Monolayer Culture 1) Aspirate the Growth Medium (see Table 1), and rinse with 10.0 mls of Phosphate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . of Resuspension Medium to the plate (Table 1) and pipette to break up cell clumps. 6) Transfer the cells to a 15 ml conical tube and rinse the plate with another 1.0ml of Resuspension Medium. Add an additional 1.0ml of Resuspension Medium to the conical tube. Ultimately the cells are resuspended in 3-4 mls

  19. Spatial correction factors for YALINA Booster facility loaded with medium and low enriched fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Routkovskaya, C. [Joint Inst. for Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny, 99 Academician A.K.Krasin Str, Minsk 220109 (Belarus)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used in analyses of subcritical assemblies to correct the experimental reactivity as function of the detector position. Besides the detector position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the energy weighting function of the detector, the detector size, the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons, and the reactivity of the subcritical assembly. This work focuses on the dependency of the correction factor on the detector material and it investigates the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly loaded with medium (36%) and low (10%) enriched fuels. (authors)

  20. Effects of Isospin Asymmetry and In-Medium Corrections on Balance Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Daffin; Wolfgang Bauer

    1998-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of an isospin asymmetry and in-medium corrections to the nucleon collision cross section on the balance energy are explored. The BUU model for intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions is used with isospin-dependent mean fields to calculate the balance energies of 58Fe + 58Fe and 58Ni + 58Ni for a range of impact parameters. We find that we are able to reproduce the impact parameter dependence of the balance energy, and the sign (but not the magnitude) of the shift in balance balance energy as a function of isospin asymmetry.

  1. Tuning thermal mismatch between turbine rotor parts with a thermal medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a turbine rotor, an aft shaft wheel and the final-stage wheel of the rotor are coupled together, including by a rabbeted joint. During shutdown and startup of the turbine, a thermal mismatch between the aft shaft wheel and final-stage wheel is avoided by respectively heating and cooling the aft shaft wheel to maintain the thermal mismatch within acceptable limits, thereby avoiding opening of the rabbeted joint and the potential for unbalancing the rotor and rotor vibration. The thermal medium may be supplied by piping in the aft bearing cavity into the cavity between the forward closure plate and the aft shaft wheel.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of the nuclear medium: Fermi gases, nuclei and the role of Pauli potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Perez-Garcia

    2007-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of Pauli potentials in the semiclassical simulation of Fermi gases at low temperatures is investigated. An alternative Pauli potential to the usual bivariate Gaussian form by Dorso et al. is proposed. This new Pauli potential allows for a simultaneous good reproduction of not only the kinetic energy per particle but also the momentum distribution and the two-body correlation function. The reproduction of the binding energies in finite nuclei in the low and medium mass range is also analyzed. What is found is that given a reasonable short-range atractive nuclear interaction one can include correlation effects in a suitable chosen density dependent Pauli potential.

  3. Integrating 3D and 2D computer generated imagery for the comics medium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuna, Ruben

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    medium, while still taking advantage of the new technology. iv DEDICATION For my grandmother, Maria Reyes Torres March 10, 1927 ? August 6, 2002 who taught me that a few sheets of paper folded in half can be a comic book v TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................ 52 viii FIGURE 21 Example panels from Max Comic?s U.S. War Machine 2.0...................... 54 22 Comparison of an initial storyboard to the finished page.......................... 58 23 Initial designs for Maria, her teacher, and the snow...

  4. Integrating 3D and 2D computer generated imagery for the comics medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuna, Ruben

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    medium, while still taking advantage of the new technology. iv DEDICATION For my grandmother, Maria Reyes Torres March 10, 1927 ? August 6, 2002 who taught me that a few sheets of paper folded in half can be a comic book v TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................ 52 viii FIGURE 21 Example panels from Max Comic?s U.S. War Machine 2.0...................... 54 22 Comparison of an initial storyboard to the finished page.......................... 58 23 Initial designs for Maria, her teacher, and the snow...

  5. Analytical Green's function of the radiative transfer radiance for the infinite medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liemert, Andre; Kienle, Alwin [Institut fuer Lasertechnologien in der Medizin und Messtechnik, Helmholtzstrasse12, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for the radiance caused by an isotropic source which is located in an infinitely extended medium was derived using the P{sub N} method. The results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations and excellent agreement was found. In addition, the radiance of the SP{sub N} approximation for the same geometry was derived. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulations showed that the SP{sub N} radiance, although being more exact than the radiance derived from diffusion theory, has relatively large errors in many relevant cases.

  6. Slow light of an amplitude modulated Gaussian pulse in electromagnetically induced transparency medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzhuo Tang; Bin Luo; Yu Liu; Hong Guo

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The slow light effects of an amplitude modulated Gaussian (AMG) pulse in a cesium atomic vapor are presented. In a single-$\\Lambda$ type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium, more severe distortion is observed for an AMG pulse than a Gaussian one. Using Fourier spectrum analysis, we find that the distortion, as well as the loss, is dominantly caused by linear absorption than dispersion. Accordingly, a compensation method is proposed to reshape the slow light pulse based on the transmission spectrum. In addition, we find a novel way to obtain simultaneous slow and fast light.

  7. Tests of Lorentz and CPT Violation in the Medium Baseline Reactor Antineutrino Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Feng Li; Zhen-hua Zhao

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests of Lorentz and CPT violation in the medium baseline reactor antineutrino experiment are presented in the framework of the Standard Model Extension (SME). Both the spectral distortion and sidereal variation are employed to derive the limits of Lorentz violation (LV) coefficients. We do the numerical analysis of the sensitivity of LV coefficients by taking the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) as an illustration, which can improve the sensitivity by more than two orders of magnitude compared with the current limits from reactor antineutrino experiments.

  8. Sphere penetration by impact in a granular medium: A collisional process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antoine Seguin; Yann Bertho; Philippe Gondret; Jerome Crassous

    2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The penetration by a gravity driven impact of a solid sphere into a granular medium is studied by two-dimensional simulations. The scaling laws observed experimentally for both the final penetration depth and the stopping time with the relevant physical parameters are here recovered numerically without the consideration of any solid friction. Collisional processes are thus found as essential in explaining the physics of the qualitatively observed phenomena whereas frictional processes can only be considered as secondary effects in the granular penetration by impact.

  9. Ridge, Bulk, and Medium Response: How to Kill Models and Learn Something in the Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. Nagle

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In these proceedings, we highlight experimental data (published and preliminary) related to jet quenching and the response of the medium to this deposited energy. Signatures in two- and three- particle hadron correlations indicate interesting structures near the trigger particle in azimuth and over a broad range in pseudo-rapidity, often termed "the ridge", and conical-like structures separated in azimuth opposite to the trigger particle. We review numerous theoretical interpretations of the ridge in particular with a critical eye for the key properties that allow one to discriminate between, or rule out, certain physical pictures and models (and hopefully learn something in the process).

  10. Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122Technologies61-2008 JuneMedicationMedium

  11. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122Technologies61-2008Medium- and Heavy-Duty

  12. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122Technologies61-2008Medium- and

  13. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

    1990-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  14. Subluminal and superluminal parametric doppler effects in the case of light reflection from a moving smooth medium inhomogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozanov, N. N., E-mail: nrosanov@yahoo.com [Vavilov State Optical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection of test radiation from a smooth inhomogeneity of medium characteristics propagating with a subluminal or superluminal velocity is analyzed. The equations describing the propagation of the forward- and counter-propagating waves in such an inhomogeneous medium are derived. Quasi-phase conjugation is demonstrated in the case of superluminal inhomogeneities. The Bragg resonance conditions are formulated and the conditions for increasing the reflection coefficient of radiation from an inhomogeneity are discussed.

  15. 2011 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Elizabeth Campbell Highly Distinguished Bowker Ripley Eden Highly Distinguished Brandfass Lara Rose Highly Distinguished Brotherton Cara Price Highly Distinguished Brown Anna Laughlin Highly Distinguished Brown Chloe Alix Highly Distinguished Brown Kelsey Michelle Highly Distinguished Brown Kyle Truman Highly

  16. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  17. The effect of magnetic field on copper in various corrosive medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ang, L. Y.; Othman, N. K.; Jalar, A. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ismail, I. [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of applied magnetic field on the corrosion behaviour of copper within various corrosive medium is investigated. The copper coupon is immersed in 0.5 M HCl, 0.5 M NaCl and 0.5 M NaOH with or without applying up to 40 mT magnetic fields for 24 hours. The weight loss of copper coupon in HCl increased up to 96.56% with applied magnetic fields. However, in NaOH medium, only 33.33% more weight loss was observed and no difference were observed for coupons in NaCl when magnetic field is applied. This observation indicates that corrosion behaviour in HCl and NaOH is controlled by mass transport that can be influenced by the induced magneto hydrodynamics effect when magnetic field is applied. There was no change in weight loss of copper in NaCl when magnetic field is applied because the corrosion mechanism of copper in NaCl is governed by electron charge transfer.

  18. Photoproduction of mesons from nuclei - In-medium properties of hadrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Krusche

    2004-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental results for the in-medium properties of hadrons obtained with photoproduction of mesons from nuclei are discussed. The experiments were done with the TAPS detector at the tagged photon beam of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. Measured were the final states $\\pi^o X$, $\\eta X$, $2\\pi^oX$, and $\\pi^o\\pi^{\\pm}X$ for $^{12}$C, $^{40}$Ca, $^{93}$Nb, and $^{208}$Pb up to the second resonance region. The results were used for an investigation of the in-medium properties of the P$_{33}$(1232), the P$_{11}$(1440), the D$_{13}$(1520), and the S$_{11}$(1535) resonances. It was found that the cross sections can be spilt into a component which originates from the low density surface region of the nuclei and a component which scales like the nuclear volume. The energy dependence of the surface component is strikingly similar to the deuteron, it shows a clear signal for the second resonance peak. The volume component is lacking this peak and shows an enhancement at intermediate energies. Furthermore the measurement of coherent $\\eta$-photoproduction and the final state $p\\pi^o$ from $^3$He is discussed in the context of the search for $\\eta$-mesic nuclei.

  19. Ultraslow Wave Nuclear Burning of Uranium-Plutonium Fissile Medium on Epithermal Neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. D. Rusov; V. A. Tarasov; M. V. Eingorn; S. A. Chernezhenko; A. A. Kakaev; V. M. Vashchenko; M. E. Beglaryan

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    For a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238, the investigation of fulfillment of the wave burning criterion in a wide range of neutron energies is conducted for the first time, and a possibility of wave nuclear burning not only in the region of fast neutrons, but also for cold, epithermal and resonance ones is discovered for the first time. For the first time the results of the investigation of the Feoktistov criterion fulfillment for a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238 dioxide with enrichments 4.38%, 2.00%, 1.00%, 0.71% and 0.50% with respect to uranium-235, in the region of neutron energies 0.015-10.0eV are presented. These results indicate a possibility of ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning mode realization in the uranium-plutonium media, originally (before the wave initiation by external neutron source) having enrichments with respect to uranium-235, corresponding to the subcritical state, in the regions of cold, thermal, epithermal and resonance neutrons. In order to validate the conclusions, based on the slow wave neutron-nuclear burning criterion fulfillment depending on the neutron energy, the numerical modeling of ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning of a natural uranium in the epithermal region of neutron energies (0.1-7.0eV) was conducted for the first time. The presented simulated results indicate the realization of the ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning of the natural uranium for the epithermal neutrons.

  20. THE SIGNATURE OF THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM IN WMAP AND THE FORTHCOMING PLANCK DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suarez-Velasquez, I.; Kitaura, F.-S.; Muecket, J. P. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Atrio-Barandela, F., E-mail: isuarez@aip.de, E-mail: kitaura@aip.de, E-mail: jpmuecket@aip.de, E-mail: atrio@usal.es [Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the cross-correlation between the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium and maps of cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies using a log-normal probability density function to describe the weakly nonlinear matter density field. We search for this contribution in the data measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. We use a template of projected matter density reconstructed from the Two-Micron All-Sky Redshift Survey as a tracer of the electron distribution. The spatial distribution of filaments is modeled using the recently developed Augmented Lagrangian Perturbation Theory. On the scales considered here, the reconstructed density field is very well described by the assumed log-normal distribution function. We predict that the cross-correlation will have an amplitude of 0.03-0.3 {mu}K. The measured value is close to 1.5 {mu}K, compatible with random alignments between structure in the template and in the temperature anisotropy data. Using the W1 Differencing Assembly to remove this systematic gives a residual correlation dominated by Galactic foregrounds. Planck could detect the Warm-Hot Medium if it is well traced by the density field reconstructed from galaxy surveys. The 217 GHz channel will allow to eliminate spurious contributions and its large frequency coverage can show the sign change from the Rayleigh-Jeans to the Wien part of the spectrum, characteristic of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect.