National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for medium base compact

  1. Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards.

  2. THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AND FEEDBACK IN THE PROGENITORS OF THE COMPACT PASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Bomee; Tundo, Elena; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman; Trump, Jonathan R.; Cassata, Paolo; Dekel, Avishai; Guo, Yicheng; Pentericci, Laura; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea; Bell, Eric F.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; and others

    2015-02-10

    Quenched galaxies at z > 2 are nearly all very compact relative to z ∼ 0, suggesting a physical connection between high stellar density and efficient, rapid cessation of star-formation. We present rest-frame UV spectra of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ∼ 3 selected to be candidate progenitors of the quenched galaxies at z ∼ 2 based on their compact rest-frame-optical sizes and high Σ{sub SFR}. We compare their UV properties to those of more extended LBGs of similar mass and star-formation rate (non-candidates). We find that candidate progenitors have faster bulk interstellar medium (ISM) gas velocities and higher equivalent widths of interstellar absorption lines, implying larger velocity spread among absorbing clouds. Candidates deviate from the relationship between equivalent widths of Lyα and interstellar absorption lines in that their Lyα emission remains strong despite high interstellar absorption, possibly indicating that the neutral H I fraction is patchy, such that Lyα photons can escape. We detect stronger C IV P-Cygni features (emission and absorption) and He II emission in candidates, indicative of larger populations of metal-rich Wolf-Rayet stars compared to non-candidates. The faster bulk motions, broader spread of gas velocity, and Lyα properties of candidates are consistent with their ISM being subject to more energetic feedback than non-candidates. Together with their larger metallicity (implying more evolved star-formation activity) this leads us to propose, if speculatively, that they are likely to quench sooner than non-candidates, supporting the validity of selection criteria used to identify them as progenitors of z ∼ 2 passive galaxies. We propose that massive, compact galaxies undergo more rapid growth of their stellar mass content, perhaps because the gas accretion mechanisms are different, and quench sooner than normally sized LBGs at these (early) epochs.

  3. FODO-Supercell Based Compact Ring Design with Tunable Momentum Compaction and Optimized Dynamic Aperture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

    2012-05-11

    A storage ring with tunable momentum compaction has the advantage in achieving different RMS bunch length with similar RF capacity, which is potentially useful for many applications, such as linear collider damping ring and pre-damping ring where injected beam has a large energy spread and a large transverse emittance. A tunable bunch length also makes the commissioning and fine tuning easier in manipulating the single bunch instabilities. In this paper, a compact ring design based on a supercell is presented, which achieves a tunable momentum compaction while maintaining a large dynamic aperture.

  4. Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2000-01-01

    This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

  5. Compact

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compact soft x-ray multichord camera: Design and initial operation P. Franz Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA sulla fusione, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Unita ` di Ricerca di Padova, Italy G. Gadani Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA sulla fusione, Italy R. Pasqualotto Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA sulla fusione, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Unita ` di Ricerca di Padova, Italy L. Marrelli Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM

  6. Compact ion chamber based neutron detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derzon, Mark S.; Galambos, Paul C.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2015-10-27

    A directional neutron detector has an ion chamber formed in a dielectric material; a signal electrode and a ground electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the signal and ground electrodes; and a signal processor electrically coupled to the readout circuitry. The ion chamber has a pair of substantially planar electrode surfaces. The chamber pressure of the neutron absorbing material is selected such that the reaction particle ion trail length for neutrons absorbed by the neutron absorbing material is equal to or less than the distance between the electrode surfaces. The signal processor is adapted to determine a path angle for each absorbed neutron based on the rise time of the corresponding pulse in a time-varying detector signal.

  7. Compact ion chamber based neutron detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2015-11-05

    A directional neutron detector has an ion chamber formed in a dielectric material; a signal electrode and a ground electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the signal and ground electrodes; and a signal processor electrically coupled to the readout circuitry. The ion chamber has a pair of substantially planar electrode surfaces. The chamber pressure of the neutron absorbing material is selected such that the reaction particle ion trail length for neutrons absorbed by the neutron absorbing material is equal to or less than the distance between the electrode surfaces. The signal processor is adapted to determine a path angle for each absorbed neutron based on the rise time of the corresponding pulse in a time-varying detector signal.

  8. Encoding technique for high data compaction in data bases of fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vega, J.; Cremy, C.; Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.

    1996-12-01

    At present, data requirements of hundreds of Mbytes/discharge are typical in devices such as JET, TFTR, DIII-D, etc., and these requirements continue to increase. With these rates, the amount of storage required to maintain discharge information is enormous. Compaction techniques are now essential to reduce storage. However, general compression techniques may distort signals, but this is undesirable for fusion diagnostics. We have developed a general technique for data compression which is described here. The technique, which is based on delta compression, does not require an examination of the data as in delayed methods. Delta values are compacted according to general encoding forms which satisfy a prefix code property and which are defined prior to data capture. Several prefix codes, which are bit oriented and which have variable code lengths, have been developed. These encoding methods are independent of the signal analog characteristics and enable one to store undistorted signals. The technique has been applied to databases of the TJ-I tokamak and the TJ-IU torsatron. Compaction rates of over 80{percent} with negligible computational effort were achieved. Computer programs were written in ANSI C, thus ensuring portability and easy maintenance. We also present an interpretation, based on information theory, of the high compression rates achieved without signal distortion. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. ROSE-based compact simulator for fossil fuel-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, H.; Burelle, R.

    1996-11-01

    Nuclear simulators specifications typically ask for {open_quotes}high fidelity full scope replica simulator{close_quotes}. This request is not only the norm but also mandatory due to the strict regulations and safety concerns in that industry. It is an unquestionable fact that these types of simulators do provide the most realistic and effective environment to train control room operators in normal, abnormal operations, and especially in emergency conditions which would be difficult to rehearse otherwise. Utilities in the fossil industry who could afford the price that these top of the line simulators demand would not hesitate long to acquire one. Fortunately for the others, this industry has the luxury to be more flexible in its simulator`s needs which permits utilities to select a simulator within their specific budget. They may chose from a wide range of different types of simulators, including full scope or partial scope, high fidelity or generic, hardware control rooms replicas or CRT-based graphical emulations. In all cases, a simulator must be economically beneficial to plant operations to justify its cost. Taking into account the distinctive requirements of the fossil industry, including their budget constraints, CAE used its vast experience in nuclear simulators to produce a user-friendly, CRT-based compact fossil simulator, using ROSE (Real-time Object-oriented Software Environment). This paper describes the specifics and characteristics of the ROSE-base compact simulator.

  10. Low-cost, compact, robust laser-based ultrasound sensors using photo-EMF detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pepper, D.M.; Dunning, G.J.; Chiao, M.P.; O`Meara, T.R.; Mitchell, P.V.

    1996-12-31

    There is a great need in the manufacturing, aerospace, commercial, energy, automotive, microelectronics and DoD communities for diagnostic systems that can improve the efficiency, yield and performance of various materials processes--while reducing cost, labor, scrap, and machine downtime. Laser-based ultrasound (LBU) represents a noncontact, reconfigurable, high-bandwidth ultrasonic inspection and process control technology. LBU enables remote ultrasonic sensing by replacing conventional PZT transducers, squirters, and immersion systems with laser beams. One laser beam generates the ultrasound in an opaque workpiece, while a second laser beam probes the sample to sense minute surface displacements, induced by the ultrasound or via other acoustic emission mechanisms. LBU systems have yet to be fielded commercially, owing primarily to the cost, size, and complexity of the system components. The authors have developed a low-cost, compact sensor which can potentially enable LBU systems to become a reality. The sensor employs a semiconductor crystal (GaAs) using a mechanism called nonsteady-state photo-induced emf. When combined with a laser diode as an optical source, the result is a very compact, low-cost robust sensor, which can function under in-factory conditions, including inspection of rough-cut workpieces which undergo rapid platform motion, such as high-speed, scanning laser welders. Experimental results will be discussed, including the potential for optical fiber delivery.

  11. Intense combined source of neutrons and photons for interrogation based on compact deuteron RF accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kurennoy, S. S.; Garnett, R. W.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    2015-06-18

    Interrogation of special nuclear materials can benefit from mobile sources providing significant fluxes of neutrons (108/s at 2.5 MeV, 1010/s at 14.1 MeV) and of photons (>1012/s at 1-3 MeV). We propose a source that satisfies these requirements simultaneously plus also provides, via the reaction 11B(d,n)12C(γ15.1), a significant flux of 15-MeV photons, which are highly penetrating and optimal for inducing photo-fission in actinides. The source is based on a compact (< 5 m) deuteron RF accelerator that delivers an average current of a few mA of deuterons at 3-4 MeV to a boron target. The accelerator consists of a shortmore » RFQ followed by efficient inter-digital H-mode structures with permanent-magnet-quadrupole beam focusing [Kurennoy et al. (2012)], which suit perfectly for deuteron acceleration at low energies. Our estimates, based on recent measurements, indicate that the required fluxes of both neutrons and photons can be achieved at ~1 mA of 4-MeV deuterons. The goal of the proposed study is to confirm feasibility of the approach and develop requirements for future full system implementation.« less

  12. Intense combined source of neutrons and photons for interrogation based on compact deuteron RF accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurennoy, S. S.; Garnett, R. W.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    2015-06-18

    Interrogation of special nuclear materials can benefit from mobile sources providing significant fluxes of neutrons (108/s at 2.5 MeV, 1010/s at 14.1 MeV) and of photons (>1012/s at 1-3 MeV). We propose a source that satisfies these requirements simultaneously plus also provides, via the reaction 11B(d,n)12C(γ15.1), a significant flux of 15-MeV photons, which are highly penetrating and optimal for inducing photo-fission in actinides. The source is based on a compact (< 5 m) deuteron RF accelerator that delivers an average current of a few mA of deuterons at 3-4 MeV to a boron target. The accelerator consists of a short RFQ followed by efficient inter-digital H-mode structures with permanent-magnet-quadrupole beam focusing [Kurennoy et al. (2012)], which suit perfectly for deuteron acceleration at low energies. Our estimates, based on recent measurements, indicate that the required fluxes of both neutrons and photons can be achieved at ~1 mA of 4-MeV deuterons. The goal of the proposed study is to confirm feasibility of the approach and develop requirements for future full system implementation.

  13. High-stability compact atomic clock based on isotropic laser cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esnault, Francois-Xavier; Holleville, David; Rossetto, Nicolas; Guerandel, Stephane; Dimarcq, Noel

    2010-09-15

    We present a compact cold-atom clock configuration where isotropic laser cooling, microwave interrogation, and clock signal detection are successively performed inside a spherical microwave cavity. For ground operation, a typical Ramsey fringe width of 20 Hz has been demonstrated, limited by the atom cloud's free fall in the cavity. The isotropic cooling light's disordered properties provide a large and stable number of cold atoms, leading to a high signal-to-noise ratio limited by atomic shot noise. A relative frequency stability of 2.2x10{sup -13{tau}-1/2} has been achieved, averaged down to 4x10{sup -15} after 5x10{sup 3} s of integration. Development of such a high-performance compact clock is of major relevance for on-board applications, such as satellite-positioning systems. As a cesium clock, it opens the door to a new generation of compact primary standards and timekeeping devices.

  14. Evaluation of a CdTe semiconductor based compact gamma camera for sentinel lymph node imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Paolo; Curion, Assunta S.; Mettivier, Giovanni; Esposito, Michela; Aurilio, Michela; Caraco, Corradina; Aloj, Luigi; Lastoria, Secondo

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The authors assembled a prototype compact gamma-ray imaging probe (MediPROBE) for sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization. This probe is based on a semiconductor pixel detector. Its basic performance was assessed in the laboratory and clinically in comparison with a conventional gamma camera. Methods: The room-temperature CdTe pixel detector (1 mm thick) has 256x256 square pixels arranged with a 55 {mu}m pitch (sensitive area 14.08x14.08 mm{sup 2}), coupled pixel-by-pixel via bump-bonding to the Medipix2 photon-counting readout CMOS integrated circuit. The imaging probe is equipped with a set of three interchangeable knife-edge pinhole collimators (0.94, 1.2, or 2.1 mm effective diameter at 140 keV) and its focal distance can be regulated in order to set a given field of view (FOV). A typical FOV of 70 mm at 50 mm skin-to-collimator distance corresponds to a minification factor 1:5. The detector is operated at a single low-energy threshold of about 20 keV. Results: For {sup 99m}Tc, at 50 mm distance, a background-subtracted sensitivity of 6.5x10{sup -3} cps/kBq and a system spatial resolution of 5.5 mm FWHM were obtained for the 0.94 mm pinhole; corresponding values for the 2.1 mm pinhole were 3.3x10{sup -2} cps/kBq and 12.6 mm. The dark count rate was 0.71 cps. Clinical images in three patients with melanoma indicate detection of the SLNs with acquisition times between 60 and 410 s with an injected activity of 26 MBq {sup 99m}Tc and prior localization with standard gamma camera lymphoscintigraphy. Conclusions: The laboratory performance of this imaging probe is limited by the pinhole collimator performance and the necessity of working in minification due to the limited detector size. However, in clinical operative conditions, the CdTe imaging probe was effective in detecting SLNs with adequate resolution and an acceptable sensitivity. Sensitivity is expected to improve with the future availability of a larger CdTe detector permitting operation at shorter

  15. A compact broadband ion beam focusing device based on laser-driven megagauss thermoelectric magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albertazzi, B.; D'Humières, E.; Lancia, L.; Antici, P.; Dervieux, V.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Romagnani, L.; Fuchs, J.; Böcker, J.; Swantusch, M.; Willi, O.; Bonlie, J.; Cauble, B.; Shepherd, R.; Breil, J.; Feugeas, J. L.; Nicolaï, P.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Chen, S. N.; Sentoku, Y.; and others

    2015-04-15

    Ultra-intense lasers can nowadays routinely accelerate kiloampere ion beams. These unique sources of particle beams could impact many societal (e.g., proton-therapy or fuel recycling) and fundamental (e.g., neutron probing) domains. However, this requires overcoming the beam angular divergence at the source. This has been attempted, either with large-scale conventional setups or with compact plasma techniques that however have the restriction of short (<1 mm) focusing distances or a chromatic behavior. Here, we show that exploiting laser-triggered, long-lasting (>50 ps), thermoelectric multi-megagauss surface magnetic (B)-fields, compact capturing, and focusing of a diverging laser-driven multi-MeV ion beam can be achieved over a wide range of ion energies in the limit of a 5° acceptance angle.

  16. Compact microchannel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Stewart

    2003-09-30

    The present invention provides compact geometries for the layout of microchannel columns through the use of turns and straight channel segments. These compact geometries permit the use of long separation or reaction columns on a small microchannel substrate or, equivalently, permit columns of a fixed length to occupy a smaller substrate area. The new geometries are based in part on mathematical analyses that provide the minimum turn radius for which column performance in not degraded. In particular, we find that straight channel segments of sufficient length reduce the required minimum turn radius, enabling compact channel layout when turns and straight segments are combined. The compact geometries are obtained by using turns and straight segments in overlapped or nested arrangements to form pleated or coiled columns.

  17. Ultra-broadband and compact polarization splitter based on gold filled dual-core photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khaleque, Abdul Hattori, Haroldo T.

    2015-10-14

    A polarization splitter based on gold filled dual-core photonic crystal fiber (DC-PCF) that can work from 1420 nm to 1980 nm (560 nm bandwidth) is proposed in this work. The splitter has an extinction ratio lower than −20 dB over a large bandwidth with a total length of 254.6 μm. The key principle of operation of the splitter is the induced change in the refractive index of the y-odd mode when it is coupled to the second order plasmonic mode, while other supermodes are weakly affected by the plasmonic mode. The proposed broadband and compact polarization splitter may find applications in communications and sensing, being capable of working in the infrared and mid-infrared wavelength ranges.

  18. Compact accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  19. Model-Based Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.

    2010-12-01

    Medium-duty vehicles are used in a broad array of fleet applications, including parcel delivery. These vehicles are excellent candidates for electric drive applications due to their transient-intensive duty cycles, operation in densely populated areas, and relatively high fuel consumption and emissions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a robust assessment of parcel delivery routes and completed a model-based techno-economic analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle configurations. First, NREL characterized parcel delivery vehicle usage patterns, most notably daily distance driven and drive cycle intensity. Second, drive-cycle analysis results framed the selection of drive cycles used to test a parcel delivery HEV on a chassis dynamometer. Next, measured fuel consumption results were used to validate simulated fuel consumption values derived from a dynamic model of the parcel delivery vehicle. Finally, NREL swept a matrix of 120 component size, usage, and cost combinations to assess impacts on fuel consumption and vehicle cost. The results illustrated the dependency of component sizing on drive-cycle intensity and daily distance driven and may allow parcel delivery fleets to match the most appropriate electric drive vehicle to their fleet usage profile.

  20. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  1. Tank farms compacted low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hetzer, D.C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the process of Low-Level Waste (LLW) volume reduction by compaction. Also included is the data used for characterization of LLW destined for compaction. Scaling factors (ratios) are formed based on data contained in this report.

  2. Tank farms compacted low level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the process of Low Level Waste (LLW) volume reduction by compaction. Also included is the data used for characterization of LLW destined for compaction. Scaling factors (ratios) are formed based on data contained in this report.

  3. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

  4. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  5. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  6. A Compact Ring Design with Tunable Momentum Compaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Y.; ,

    2012-05-17

    A storage ring with tunable momentum compaction has the advantage in achieving different RMS bunch length with similar RF capacity, which is potentially useful for many applications, such as linear collider damping ring and predamping ring where injected beam has a large energy spread and a large transverse emittance. A tunable bunch length also makes the commissioning and fine tuning easier in manipulating the single bunch instabilities. In this paper, a compact ring design based on a supercell is presented, which achieves a tunable momentum compaction while maintaining a large dynamic aperture.

  7. Compact Spreader Schemes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  8. Compact cyclone filter train for radiological and hazardous environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bench, T.R.

    1998-04-28

    A compact cyclone filter train is disclosed for the removal of hazardous and radiological particles from a gaseous fluid medium. This filter train permits a small cyclone separator to be used in a very small space envelope due to the arrangement of the filter housing adjacent to the separator with the cyclone separator and the filters mounted on a plate. The entire unit will have a hoist connection at the center of gravity so that the entire unit including the separator, the filters, and the base can be lifted and repositioned as desired. 3 figs.

  9. Compact cyclone filter train for radiological and hazardous environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bench, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    A compact cyclone filter train for the removal of hazardous and radiologi particles from a gaseous fluid medium which permits a small cyclone separator to be used in a very small space envelope due to the arrangement of the filter housing adjacent to the separator with the cyclone separator and the filters mounted on a plate. The entire unit will have a hoist connection at the center of gravity so that the entire unit including the separator, the filters, and the base can be lifted and repositioned as desired.

  10. Quality indexes based on water measurements for low and medium energy x-ray beams: A theoretical study with PENELOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chica, U.; Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M.; Vilches, M.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose : To study the use of quality indexes based on ratios of absorbed doses in water at two different depths to characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies. Methods : A total of 55 x-ray beam spectra were generated with the codes XCOMP5R and SPEKCALC and used as input of a series of Monte Carlo simulations performed with PENELOPE, in which the percentage depth doses in water and thek{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} factors, defined in the TRS-398 protocol, were determined for each beam. Some of these calculations were performed by simulating the ionization chamber PTW 30010. Results : The authors found that the relation betweenk{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} and the ratios of absorbed doses at two depths is almost linear. A set of ratios statistically compatible with that showing the best fit has been determined. Conclusions : The results of this study point out which of these ratios of absorbed doses in water could be used to better characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies.

  11. Synchrotron based infrared imaging and spectroscopy via focal plane array on live fibroblasts in D2O enriched medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaroni, Luca; Zlateva, Theodora; Sarafimov, Blagoj; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Wehbe, Katia; Hegg, Eric L.; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2014-03-26

    We tested the viability of using synchrotron based infrared imaging to study biochemical processes inside living cells. As a model system, we studied fibroblast cells exposed to a medium highly enriched with D2O. We could show that the experimental technique allows us to reproduce at the cellular level measurements that are normally performed on purified biological molecules. We can obtain information about lipid conformation and distribution, kinetics of hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and the formation of concentration gradients of H and O isotopes in water that are associated with cell metabolism. The implementation of the full field technique in a sequential imaging format gives a description of cellular biochemistry and biophysics that contains both spatial and temporal information.

  12. Accelerated Stress Testing of Hydrocarbon-Based Encapsulants for Medium-Concentration CPV Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Moricone, T. J.; Kilkenny, M.; Zhang, J. Z.

    2011-02-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems have great potential to reduce photovoltaic (PV) electricity costs because of the relatively low cost of optical components as compared to PV cells. A transparent polymeric material is used to optically couple the PV cell to optical components and is thus exposed to the concentrated light source at elevated temperatures. In this work polymeric encapsulant materials are positioned close to a Xenon arc lamp to expose them to ultraviolet radiation (UV) that is about 42 times as intense as sunlight. Furthermore, different glass types are used as filters to modify the spectral distribution of light in the UV range. A strong sensitivity of non-silicone-based encapsulants to light below ~350 nm is demonstrated. Of all the materials examined in this study, the polydimethyl silicone samples performed the best. The next best material was an ionomer which maintained optical transmission but became photo-oxidized where exposed to the atmosphere.

  13. Compact electrostatic comb actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Burg, Michael S.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    A compact electrostatic comb actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator is based upon a plurality of meshed electrostatic combs, some of which are stationary and others of which are moveable. One or more restoring springs are fabricated within an outline of the electrostatic combs (i.e. superposed with the moveable electrostatic combs) to considerably reduce the space required for the actuator. Additionally, a truss structure is provided to support the moveable electrostatic combs and prevent bending or distortion of these combs due to unbalanced electrostatic forces or external loading. The truss structure formed about the moveable electrostatic combs allows the spacing between the interdigitated fingers of the combs to be reduced to about one micron or less, thereby substantially increasing the number of active fingers which can be provided in a given area. Finally, electrostatic shields can be used in the actuator to substantially reduce unwanted electrostatic fields to further improve performance of the device. As a result, the compact electrostatic comb actuator of the present invention occupies only a fraction of the space required for conventional electrostatic comb actuators, while providing a substantial increase in the available drive force (up to one-hundred times).

  14. Study on the activation of styrene-based shape memory polymer by medium-infrared laser light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng Jinsong; Yu Kai; Lan Xin; Zhang Dawei; Liu Yanju

    2010-03-15

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of shape memory polymer (SMP) activation by medium-infrared laser light. Medium-infrared light is transmitted by an optical fiber embedded in the SMP matrix, and the shape recovery process and temperature distribution are recorded by an infrared camera. Light-induced SMP exhibits potential applications in biomedicines and flexible displays.

  15. Physics-Based Compact Model for CIGS and CdTe Solar Cells: From Voltage-Dependent Carrier Collection to Light-Enhanced Reverse Breakdown: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xingshu; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Raguse, John; Garris, Rebekah; Deline, Chris; Silverman, Timothy

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we develop a physics-based compact model for copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) heterojunction solar cells that attributes the failure of superposition to voltage-dependent carrier collection in the absorber layer, and interprets light-enhanced reverse breakdown as a consequence of tunneling-assisted Poole-Frenkel conduction. The temperature dependence of the model is validated against both simulation and experimental data for the entire range of bias conditions. The model can be used to characterize device parameters, optimize new designs, and most importantly, predict performance and reliability of solar panels including the effects of self-heating and reverse breakdown due to partial-shading degradation.

  16. Hybrid radiosity-SP{sub 3} equation based bioluminescence tomography reconstruction for turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xueli E-mail: jimleung@mail.xidian.edu.cn; Zhang, Qitan; Yang, Defu; Liang, Jimin E-mail: jimleung@mail.xidian.edu.cn

    2014-01-14

    To provide an ideal solution for a specific problem of gastric cancer detection in which low-scattering regions simultaneously existed with both the non- and high-scattering regions, a novel hybrid radiosity-SP{sub 3} equation based reconstruction algorithm for bioluminescence tomography was proposed in this paper. In the algorithm, the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP{sub 3}) was combined with the radiosity equation to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues, which provided acceptable accuracy for the turbid medium with both low- and non-scattering regions. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated with digital mouse based simulations and a gastric cancer-bearing mouse based in situ experiment. Primary results demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of the proposed algorithm for the turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions.

  17. Generation of circularly polarized radiation from a compact plasma-based extreme ultraviolet light source for tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Daniel; Rudolf, Denis Juschkin, Larissa; Weier, Christian; Adam, Roman; Schneider, Claus M.; Winkler, Gerrit; Frmter, Robert; Danylyuk, Serhiy; Bergmann, Klaus; Grtzmacher, Detlev

    2014-10-15

    Generation of circularly polarized light in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (about 25 eV250 eV) is highly desirable for applications in spectroscopy and microscopy but very challenging to achieve in a small-scale laboratory. We present a compact apparatus for generation of linearly and circularly polarized EUV radiation from a gas-discharge plasma light source between 50 eV and 70 eV photon energy. In this spectral range, the 3p absorption edges of Fe (54 eV), Co (60 eV), and Ni (67 eV) offer a high magnetic contrast often employed for magneto-optical and electron spectroscopy as well as for magnetic imaging. We simulated and designed an instrument for generation of linearly and circularly polarized EUV radiation and performed polarimetric measurements of the degree of linear and circular polarization. Furthermore, we demonstrate first measurements of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Co 3p absorption edge with a plasma-based EUV light source. Our approach opens the door for laboratory-based, element-selective spectroscopy of magnetic materials and spectro-microscopy of ferromagnetic domains.

  18. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  19. Compact optical transconductance varistor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen

    2015-09-22

    A compact radiation-modulated transconductance varistor device having both a radiation source and a photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductor material (PWBSM) integrally formed on a substrate so that a single interface is formed between the radiation source and PWBSM for transmitting PWBSM activation radiation directly from the radiation source to the PWBSM.

  20. Dynamic compaction of tungsten carbide powder.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluth, Jeffrey Weston; Hall, Clint Allen; Vogler, Tracy John; Grady, Dennis Edward

    2005-04-01

    The shock compaction behavior of a tungsten carbide powder was investigated using a new experimental design for gas-gun experiments. This design allows the Hugoniot properties to be measured with reasonably good accuracy despite the inherent difficulties involved with distended powders. The experiments also provide the first reshock state for the compacted powder. Experiments were conducted at impact velocities of 245, 500, and 711 m/s. A steady shock wave was observed for some of the sample thicknesses, but the remainder were attenuated due to release from the back of the impactor or the edge of the sample. The shock velocity for the powder was found to be quite low, and the propagating shock waves were seen to be very dispersive. The Hugoniot density for the 711 m/s experiment was close to ambient crystal density for tungsten carbide, indicating nearly complete compaction. When compared with quasi-static compaction results for the same material, the dynamic compaction data is seen to be significantly stiffer for the regime over which they overlap. Based on these initial results, recommendations are made for improving the experimental technique and for future work to improve our understanding of powder compaction.

  1. Compact power reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wetch, Joseph R.; Dieckamp, Herman M.; Wilson, Lewis A.

    1978-01-01

    There is disclosed a small compact nuclear reactor operating in the epithermal neutron energy range for supplying power at remote locations, as for a satellite. The core contains fuel moderator elements of Zr hydride with 7 w/o of 93% enriched uranium alloy. The core has a radial beryllium reflector and is cooled by liquid metal coolant such as NaK. The reactor is controlled and shut down by moving portions of the reflector.

  2. COMPACT ACCELERATOR CONCEPT FOR PROTON THERAPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2006-08-18

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is being developed as a compact flash x-ray radiography source. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be presented.

  3. Settlement of footing on compacted ash bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, G.; Pusadkar, S.S.

    2007-11-15

    Compacted coal ash fills exhibit capillary stress due to contact moisture and preconsolidation stress due to the compaction process. As such, the conventional methods of estimating settlement of footing on cohesionless soils based on penetration tests become inapplicable in the case of footings on coal ash fills, although coal ash is also a cohesionless material. Therefore, a method of estimating load-settlement behavior of footings resting on coal ash fills accounting for the effect of capillary and preconsolidation stresses is presented here. The proposed method has been validated by conducting plate load tests on laboratory prepared compacted ash beds and comparing the observed and predicted load-settlement behavior. Overestimation of settlement greater than 100% occurs when capillary and preconsolidation stresses are not accounted for, as is the case in conventional methods.

  4. COMPACT CASCADE IMPACTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lippmann, M.

    1964-04-01

    A cascade particle impactor capable of collecting particles and distributing them according to size is described. In addition the device is capable of collecting on a pair of slides a series of different samples so that less time is required for the changing of slides. Other features of the device are its compactness and its ruggedness making it useful under field conditions. Essentially the unit consists of a main body with a series of transverse jets discharging on a pair of parallel, spaced glass plates. The plates are capable of being moved incremental in steps to obtain the multiple samples. (AEC)

  5. Compact laser amplifier system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, R.B.

    1974-02-26

    A compact laser amplifier system is described in which a plurality of face-pumped annular disks, aligned along a common axis, independently radially amplify a stimulating light pulse. Partially reflective or lasing means, coaxially positioned at the center of each annualar disk, radially deflects a stimulating light directed down the common axis uniformly into each disk for amplification, such that the light is amplified by the disks in a parallel manner. Circumferential reflecting means coaxially disposed around each disk directs amplified light emission, either toward a common point or in a common direction. (Official Gazette)

  6. Compact gate valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bobo, Gerald E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a double-disc gate valve which is compact, comparatively simple to construct, and capable of maintaining high closing pressures on the valve discs with low frictional forces. The valve casing includes axially aligned ports. Mounted in the casing is a sealed chamber which is pivotable transversely of the axis of the ports. The chamber contains the levers for moving the valve discs axially, and an actuator for the levers. When an external drive means pivots the chamber to a position where the discs are between the ports and axially aligned therewith, the actuator for the levers is energized to move the discs into sealing engagement with the ports.

  7. Realisation of a compact methane optical clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gubin, M A; Kireev, A N; Konyashchenko, A V; Kryukov, P G; Tausenev, A V; Tyurikov, D A; Shelkovnikov, A S

    2008-07-31

    A compact optical clock based on a double-mode He-Ne/CH{sub 4} optical frequency standard and a femtosecond Er{sup 3+} fibre laser is realised and its stability against a commercial hydrogen frequency standard is measured. (letters)

  8. METHOD OF FORMING ELONGATED COMPACTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, H.F.

    1959-05-01

    A powder compacting procedure and apparatus which produces elongated compacts of Be is described. The powdered metal is placed in a thin metal tube which is chemically compatible to lubricant, powder, atmosphere, and die material and will undergo a high degree of plastic deformation and have intermediate hardness. The tube is capped and placed in the die, and punches are applied to the ends. During the compacting stroke the powder seizes the tube and a thickening and shortening of the tube occurs. The tube is easily removed from the die, split, and peeled from the compact. (T.R.H.)

  9. Compact cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, R.E.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a compact heat exchanger for heating water with, and cleaning, the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine of a cogeneration system. It comprises an outer shell having gas inlet means for entry of exhaust gas from the engine, gas outlet means for outflow of exhaust gas, water inlet means for entry of water to be heated, and water outlet means for outflow of water; a housing positioned within and spaced from the outer shell to form a flow channel therebetween; a coil in communication with the water inlet means and the water outlet means and positioned in the flow channel between the housing and the outer shell; catalytic converter material within the housing; wherein the housing is connected to the gas inlet means to receive exhaust gas from the engine and to direct the exhaust gas through the catalytic converter material.

  10. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  11. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  12. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  13. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  14. Compact neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  15. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  16. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

  17. Compaction managed mirror bend achromat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David

    2005-10-18

    A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.

  18. Synthetic laser medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  19. Synthetic laser medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  20. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-12-28

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  1. Compact Beta Particle/Positron Imager for Plant Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisenberger, Andrew; Lee, Seung Joon; McKisson, John; Xi, Wenze; Zorn, Carl; Stolin, Alexander; Majewski, Stan; Majewski, Stanislaw; Howell, Calvin; Crowell, Alec

    2011-06-01

    The 11CO2 tracer is used to facilitate plant biology research towards optimization of plant productivity, biofuel development and carbon sequestration in biomass. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using 11CO2. Plants typically have very thin leaves resulting in little medium for the emitted positrons to undergo an annihilation event. For the emitted positron from 11C decay approximately 1mm of water equivalent material is needed for positron annihilation. Thus most of the positrons do not annihilate inside the leaf, resulting in limited sensitivity for PET imaging. To address this problem we have developed a compact beta-positive beta-minus particle (BPBM) imager for 11CO2 leaf imaging. The detector is based on a Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tube optically coupled via optical grease and a 3mm thick glass plate to a 0.5mm thick Eljin EJ-212 plastic scintillator. The detector is equipped with a flexible arm to allow its placement and orientation on the leaf of the plant of interest while maintaining the leaf's original orientation. We are planning to utilize the imaging device at the Duke University Phytotron to investigate dynamic carbon transport differences between invasive and native species.

  2. Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potentiometric NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation pm023_singh_2011_p.pdf (1.09 MB) More Documents & Publications Compact Potentiometric O2/NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx

  3. Compact orthogonal NMR field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2009-02-03

    A Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor for emitting two orthogonal electro-magnetic fields in a common space. More particularly, a replacement inductor for existing NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) sensors to allow for NMR imaging. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor has a conductive coil and a central conductor electrically connected in series. The central conductor is at least partially surrounded by the coil. The coil and central conductor are electrically or electro-magnetically connected to a device having a means for producing or inducing a current through the coil and central conductor. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor can be used in NMR imaging applications to determine the position and the associated NMR spectrum of a sample within the electro-magnetic field of the central conductor.

  4. JC3 Medium Impact Assessment Bulletins | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medium Impact Assessment Bulletins JC3 Medium

  5. Compact accelerator for medical therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hawkins, Steven A.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Paul, Arthur C.

    2010-05-04

    A compact accelerator system having an integrated particle generator-linear accelerator with a compact, small-scale construction capable of producing an energetic (.about.70-250 MeV) proton beam or other nuclei and transporting the beam direction to a medical therapy patient without the need for bending magnets or other hardware often required for remote beam transport. The integrated particle generator-accelerator is actuable as a unitary body on a support structure to enable scanning of a particle beam by direction actuation of the particle generator-accelerator.

  6. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Vernon, George E.; Hoke, Darren A.; De Marquis, Virginia K.; Harris, Steven M.

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  7. Compact intermediates in RNA folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodson, S.A. (JHU)

    2011-12-14

    Large noncoding RNAs fold into their biologically functional structures via compact yet disordered intermediates, which couple the stable secondary structure of the RNA with the emerging tertiary fold. The specificity of the collapse transition, which coincides with the assembly of helical domains, depends on RNA sequence and counterions. It determines the specificity of the folding pathways and the magnitude of the free energy barriers to the ensuing search for the native conformation. By coupling helix assembly with nascent tertiary interactions, compact folding intermediates in RNA also play a crucial role in ligand binding and RNA-protein recognition.

  8. Mesoscale Simulations of Power Compaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomov, I; Fujino, D; Antoun, T; Liu, B

    2009-08-06

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line also observed in experiments. They found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations.

  9. Laser driven compact ion accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2005-03-15

    A laser driven compact ion source including a light source that produces an energy pulse, a light source guide that guides the energy pulse to a target and produces an ion beam. The ion beam is transported to a desired destination.

  10. DIVERSITY OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS FROM COMPACT BINARY MERGERS HOSTING PULSARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Cole; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Montes, Gabriela [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    Short-duration gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) are widely believed to result from the mergers of compact binaries. This model predicts an afterglow that bears the characteristic signatures of a constant, low-density medium, including a smooth prompt-afterglow transition, and a simple temporal evolution. However, these expectations are in conflict with observations for a non-negligible fraction of sGRB afterglows. In particular, the onset of the afterglow phase for some of these events appears to be delayed and, in addition, a few of them exhibit late-time rapid fading in their light curves. We show that these peculiar observations can be explained independently of ongoing central engine activity if some sGRB progenitors are compact binaries hosting at least one pulsar. The Poynting flux emanating from the pulsar companion can excavate a bow-shock cavity surrounding the binary. If this cavity is larger than the shock deceleration length scale in the undisturbed interstellar medium, then the onset of the afterglow will be delayed. Should the deceleration occur entirely within the swept-up thin shell, a rapid fade in the light curve will ensue. We identify two types of pulsar that can achieve the conditions necessary for altering the afterglow: low-field, long-lived pulsars, and high-field pulsars. We find that a sizable fraction (?20%-50%) of low-field pulsars are likely to reside in neutron star binaries based on observations, while their high-field counterparts are not. Hydrodynamical calculations motivated by this model are shown to be in good agreement with observations of sGRB afterglow light curves.

  11. Invariant distributions on compact homogeneous spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbatsevich, V V

    2013-12-31

    In this paper, we study distributions on compact homogeneous spaces, including invariant distributions and also distributions admitting asub-Riemannian structure. We first consider distributions of dimension 1 and 2 on compact homogeneous spaces. After this, we study the cases of compact homogeneous spaces of dimension 2, 3, and 4 in detail. Invariant distributions on simply connected compact homogeneous spaces are also treated. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  12. Compact Thermoelastic Cooling System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact Thermoelastic Cooling System Compact Thermoelastic Cooling System Latest prototype being constructed of a compact Thermoelastic Cooling System. Image courtesy of Maryland Energy and Sensor Technologies and BTO Peer Review. Latest prototype being constructed of a compact Thermoelastic Cooling System. Image courtesy of Maryland Energy and Sensor Technologies and BTO Peer Review. Lead Performer: Maryland Energy and Sensor Technologies, LLC - College Park, MD DOE Total Funding: $614,592 Cost

  13. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  14. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  15. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module.

  16. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-12-20

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module. 4 figures.

  17. Compact portable diffraction moire interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1988-05-23

    A compact and portable moire interferometer used to determine surface deformations of an object. The improved interferometer is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent wave splitters, and collimating lenses directing the split beam at one or more specimen gratings. Observations means including film and video cameras may be used to view and record the resultant fringe patterns. 7 figs.

  18. Compact portable diffraction moire interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1989-01-01

    A compact and portable moire interferometer used to determine surface deformations of an object. The improved interferometer is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent wave splitters, and collimating lenses directing the split beam at one or more specimen gratings. Observation means including film and video cameras may be used to view and record the resultant fringe patterns.

  19. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other integral

  20. Compact high resolution isobar separator for study of exotic decays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compact high resolution isobar separator for study of exotic decays A. Piechaczek 1 , V. Shchepunov 1 , H. K. Carter 1 J. C. Batchelder 1 , E. F. Zganjar 2 1 UNIRIB, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 2 Department of Physics & Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 A compact isobar separator, based on the Multi-Pass-Time-of-Flight (MTOF) principle, is developed [1]. A mass resolving power (MRP) as spectrometer of 110,000 (FWHM) is achieved in

  1. Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1997-10-14

    This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counter electrode. 10 figs.

  2. Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, Ronald Alfred; Lewis, Irwin Charles

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (i) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (ii) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (iii) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (i) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (ii) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (iii) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counterelectrode.

  3. Compact submanifolds supporting singular interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaynak, Burak Tevfik Teoman Turgut, O.

    2013-12-15

    A quantum particle moving under the influence of singular interactions on embedded surfaces furnish an interesting example from the spectral point of view. In these problems, the possible occurrence of a bound-state is perhaps the most important aspect. Such systems can be introduced as quadratic forms and generically they do not require renormalization. Yet an alternative path through the resolvent is also beneficial to study various properties. In the present work, we address these issues for compact surfaces embedded in a class of ambient manifolds. We discover that there is an exact bound state solution written in terms of the heat kernel of the ambient manifold for a range of coupling strengths. Moreover, we develop techniques to estimate bounds on the ground state energy when several surfaces, each of which admits a bound state solution, coexist. -- Highlights: Schrdinger operator with singular interactions supported on compact submanifolds. Exact bound-state solution in terms of the heat kernel of the ambient manifold. Generalization of the variational approach to a collection of submanifolds. Existence of a lower bound for a unique ground state energy.

  4. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, Moshe; Gruen, Dieter M.; Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Sheft, Irving

    1981-01-01

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  5. Compact Absorption Chiller - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Compact Absorption Chiller Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This...

  6. Compact Power Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Place: Bristol, England, United Kingdom Zip: BS11 9HZ Product: Builds gasification plants for municipal, industrial and clinical waste. References: Compact Power Ltd1 This...

  7. Compact Low Frequency Radio Antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Punnoose, Ratish J.

    2008-11-11

    An antenna is disclosed that comprises a pair of conductive, orthogonal arches and a pair of conductive annular sector plates, wherein adjacent legs of each arch are fastened to one of the annular sector plates and the opposite adjacent pair of legs is fastened to the remaining annular sector plate. The entire antenna structure is spaced apart from a conductive ground plane by a thin dielectric medium. The antenna is driven by a feed conduit passing through the conductive ground plane and dielectric medium and attached to one of the annular sector plates, wherein the two orthogonal arched act as a pair of crossed dipole elements. This arrangement of elements provides a radiation pattern that is largely omni-directional above the horizon.

  8. General Relativity&Compact Stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    2005-08-16

    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10{sup 14} times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed.

  9. Applications of compact accelerator-driven neutron sources: An updated assessment from the perspective of materials research in Italy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Andreani, C.; Anderson, I. S.; Carpenter, J. M.; Festa, G.; Gorini, G.; Loong, C. -K.; Senesi, R.

    2014-12-24

    In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna published a report [1] on ‘Development Opportunities of Small and Medium Scale Accelerator Driven Neutron Sources’ which summarized the prospect of smaller sources in supporting the large spallation neutron sources for materials characterization and instrumentation, a theme advocated by Bauer, Clausen, Mank, and Mulhauser in previous publications [2-4]. In 2010 the Union for Compact Accelerator-driven Neutron Sources (UCANS) was established [5], galvanizing cross-disciplinary collaborations on new source and neutronics development and expanded applications based on both slow-neutron scattering and other neutron-matter interactions of neutron energies ranging from 10⁻⁶ to 10²more » MeV [6]. Here, we first cover the recent development of ongoing and prospective projects of compact accelerator-driven neutron sources (CANS) but concentrate on prospective accelerators currently proposed in Italy. Two active R&D topics, irradiation effects on electronics and cultural heritage studies, are chosen to illustrate the impact of state-of-the-art CANS on these programs with respect to the characteristics and complementarity of the accelerator and neutronics systems as well as instrumentation development.« less

  10. Applications of compact accelerator-driven neutron sources: An updated assessment from the perspective of materials research in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreani, C.; Anderson, I. S.; Carpenter, J. M.; Festa, G.; Gorini, G.; Loong, C. -K.; Senesi, R.

    2014-12-24

    In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna published a report [1] on ‘Development Opportunities of Small and Medium Scale Accelerator Driven Neutron Sources’ which summarized the prospect of smaller sources in supporting the large spallation neutron sources for materials characterization and instrumentation, a theme advocated by Bauer, Clausen, Mank, and Mulhauser in previous publications [2-4]. In 2010 the Union for Compact Accelerator-driven Neutron Sources (UCANS) was established [5], galvanizing cross-disciplinary collaborations on new source and neutronics development and expanded applications based on both slow-neutron scattering and other neutron-matter interactions of neutron energies ranging from 10⁻⁶ to 10² MeV [6]. Here, we first cover the recent development of ongoing and prospective projects of compact accelerator-driven neutron sources (CANS) but concentrate on prospective accelerators currently proposed in Italy. Two active R&D topics, irradiation effects on electronics and cultural heritage studies, are chosen to illustrate the impact of state-of-the-art CANS on these programs with respect to the characteristics and complementarity of the accelerator and neutronics systems as well as instrumentation development.

  11. Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips

    2012-03-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

  12. Physics of compact ignition tokamak designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, C.E.; Ku, L.P.; Bateman, G.; Seidl, F.; Sugihara, M.

    1986-03-01

    Models for predicting plasma performance in compact ignition experiments are constructed on the basis of theoretical and empirical constraints and data from tokamak experiments. Emphasis is placed on finding transport and confinement models which reproduce results of both ohmically and auxiliary heated tokamak data. Illustrations of the application of the models to compact ignition designs are given.

  13. Density variations and anomalies in palladium compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, D.; Jones, T.; Ransick, M.; Walburg, T.; Werkmeister, D.

    1992-05-14

    Low-density compacts of palladium powder have relative densities of about 30{plus minus}10% TD. The variations in density are of concern for operations such as chemical/hydrogen pump systems because heat, mass, and momentum transport properties can be affected. Variations in density result from the inherent nature and interacting forces of UASA compaction of powder in cylinders. In addition to these expected variations, discontinuous density anomalies, such as cracks or high density ridges, are also found. An anomaly of particular concern was found to resemble a steer's head.'' it is a symmetrical region of low density located at or near the center of a compact. Typically, this region is surrounded by a band of high density, compacted palladium that sometimes exceeds the density of the surrounding compact matrix by a factor of three. This report examines these density variations and anomalies both theoretically and empirically.

  14. Density variations and anomalies in palladium compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, D.; Jones, T.; Ransick, M.; Walburg, T.; Werkmeister, D.

    1992-05-14

    Low-density compacts of palladium powder have relative densities of about 30{plus_minus}10% TD. The variations in density are of concern for operations such as chemical/hydrogen pump systems because heat, mass, and momentum transport properties can be affected. Variations in density result from the inherent nature and interacting forces of UASA compaction of powder in cylinders. In addition to these expected variations, discontinuous density anomalies, such as cracks or high density ridges, are also found. An anomaly of particular concern was found to resemble a ``steer`s head.`` it is a symmetrical region of low density located at or near the center of a compact. Typically, this region is surrounded by a band of high density, compacted palladium that sometimes exceeds the density of the surrounding compact matrix by a factor of three. This report examines these density variations and anomalies both theoretically and empirically.

  15. Compact, high energy gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D.; Stapleton, Robert E.; Stratton, Thomas F.

    1976-08-03

    An electrically pumped gas laser amplifier unit having a disc-like configuration in which light propagation is radially outward from the axis rather than along the axis. The input optical energy is distributed over a much smaller area than the output optical energy, i.e., the amplified beam, while still preserving the simplicity of parallel electrodes for pumping the laser medium. The system may thus be driven by a comparatively low optical energy input, while at the same time, owing to the large output area, large energies may be extracted while maintaining the energy per unit area below the threshold of gas breakdown.

  16. Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Olinger

    2005-04-15

    Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

  17. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  18. Plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators Plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators A transformative breakthrough in controlling ion beams ...

  19. Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing variable lift, timing and duration to enable high efficiency engine combustion control Compact, electro-hydrau...

  20. Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring ...

  1. Formation of Compact Clusters from High Resolution Hybrid Cosmological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Formation of Compact Clusters from High Resolution Hybrid Cosmological Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Formation of Compact Clusters from High Resolution ...

  2. COLLOQUIUM: The Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COLLOQUIUM: The Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor Dr. Thomas McGuire Lockheed Martin Lockheed Martin Skunkworks is developing a compact fusion reactor concept, CFR. The novel ...

  3. Charlton Compact Power Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    England, United Kingdom Zip: BA11 2RH Sector: Biomass Product: A joint venture between A. J. Charlton & Sons and Compact Power to develop a 3.6MW to 4.5MW biomass plant in...

  4. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  5. System studies of compact ignition tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galambos, J.D.; Blackfield, D.T.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Reid, R.L.; Strickler, D.J.; Selcow, E.

    1987-08-01

    The new Tokamak Systems Code, used to investigate Compact Ignition Tokamaks (CITs), can simultaneously vary many parameters, satisfy many constraints, and minimize or maximize a figure of merit. It is useful in comparing different CIT design configurations over wide regions of parameter space and determining a desired design point for more detailed physics and engineering analysis, as well as for performing sensitivity studies for physics or engineering issues. Operational windows in major radius (R) and toroidal field (B) space for fixed ignition margin are calculated for the Ignifed and Inconel candidate CITs. The minimum R bounds are predominantly physics limited, and the maximum R portions of the windows are engineering limited. For a modified Kaye-Goldston plasma-energy-confinement scaling, the minimum size is 1.15 m for the Ignifed device and 1.25 m for the Inconel device. With the Ignition Technical Oversight Committee (ITOC) physics guidance of B/sup 2/a/q and I/sub p/ >10 MA, the Ignifed and Base-line Inconel devices have a minimum size of 1.2 and 1.25 m and a toroidal field of 11 and 10.4 T, respectively. Sensitivity studies show Ignifed to be more sensitive to coil temperature changes than the Inconel device, whereas the Inconel device is more sensitive to stress perturbations.

  6. Mass radius relation of compact stars in the braneworld

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, Luis B.; Menezes, Dbora P.; Alloy, Marcelo D. E-mail: alloy@uffs.edu.br

    2014-08-01

    The braneworld scenario, based on the fact that the four dimension space-time is a hyper-surface of a five dimensional manifold, was shown to deal in a satisfactory way with the hierarchy problem. In this work we study macroscopic stellar properties of compact stars from the braneworld point of view. Using neutron star equations of state, we test the possibility of extra dimensions by solving the brane Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations obtained for three kinds of possible compact objects: hadronic, hybrid and quark stars. By comparing the macroscopic solutions with observational constraints, we establish a brane tension lower limit and the value for which the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations in the braneworld converge to the usual Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations.

  7. Cost benefit analysis of waste compaction alternatives at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report presents a cost benefit analysis of the potential procurement and operation of various solid waste compactors, or, of the use of commercial compaction services, for compaction of solid transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. The cost benefit analysis was conducted to determine if increased compaction capacity at HWM might afford the potential for significant waste volume reduction and annual savings in material, shipping, labor, and disposal costs. In the following cost benefit analysis, capital costs and recurring costs of increased HWM compaction capabilities are considered. Recurring costs such as operating and maintenance costs are estimated based upon detailed knowledge of system parameters. When analyzing the economic benefits of enhancing compaction capabilities, continued use of the existing HWM compaction units is included for comparative purposes. In addition, the benefits of using commercial compaction services instead of procuring a new compactor system are evaluated. 31 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  8. Fluid Assisted Compaction and Deformation of Reservoir Lithologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronenberg, A.K.; Chester, F.M.; Chester, J.S.; Hajash, A.; He, W.; Karner, S.; Lenz, S.

    2002-02-13

    The compaction and diagenesis of sandstones that form reservoirs to hydrocarbons depend on mechanical compaction processes, fluid flow at local and regional scales, and chemical processes of dissolution, precipitation and diffusional solution transport. The compaction and distortional deformation of quartz aggregates exposed to reactive aqueous fluids have been investigated experimentally at varying critical and subcritical stress states and time scales. Pore fluid compositions and reaction rates during deformation have been measured and compared with creep rates. Relative contributions of mechanical and chemical processes to deformation and pore structure evolution have been evaluated using acoustic emission (AE) measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. At the subcritical conditions investigated, creep rates and acoustic emission rates fit transient logarithmic creep laws. Based on AE and SEM observations, we conclude that intragranular cracking and grain rearrangement are the dominant strain mechanisms. Specimens show little evidence of stress-enhanced solution transfer. At long times under wet conditions, the dominant strain mechanism gradually shifts from critical cracking at grain contacts with high stress concentrations to fluid-assisted sub-critical cracking.

  9. Ultra-Compact High-Efficiency Luminaire for General Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Lowes

    2012-04-08

    Cree has developed a new ultra-compact light emitting diode (LED) luminaire capable of providing high efficacy with excellent color quality that can lead to significant energy savings in today??s commercial and retail applications. This success was based on an integrated development effort tailoring the LED component characteristics, optics, thermal management and driver design for the small footprint to achieve an overall system efficiency of ? 70%. A new LED component was designed to provide high brightness and efficacy in a form factor that allowed for a small directional beam with a luminaire housing design able to dissipate the heat effectively using a small physical envelope. A very compact, 90% efficient driver was developed to meet the system performance while not taking away any thermal mass from the heat sink. A 91% efficient secondary optics was designed to maximize efficiency while providing a smooth beam. The reliability of the new LED component was robust under accelerated testing conditions. Luminaires were assembled integrating the novel LED component, secondary optics, heat sink and driver technology to demonstrate the system improvement. Cree has successfully completed this project by developing an ultra-compact LED luminaire that provided 380 lumens at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2822 K and color rendering index (CRI) of 94 with an efficacy of 94 lumens per watt (LPW) when operating at 4 W input power (steady state) with an overall system efficiency of 81%. At a higher input power of 9 Watts, the lamp provided 658 lumens at 71 LPW.

  10. Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coyne, M.J.; Fiscus, G.M.; Sammel, A.G.

    1998-10-06

    A system is described for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut. 8 figs.

  11. Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coyne, Martin J.; Fiscus, Gregory M.; Sammel, Alfred G.

    1998-01-01

    A system for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut.

  12. Maximal Cherenkov ?-radiation on Fermi-surface of compact stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-05-15

    The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model is employed in this paper to study the extraordinary (XO) elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave dispersion in quantum plasmas with spin-1/2 magnetization and relativistic degeneracy effects, considering also the electron-exchange and quantum diffraction of electrons. From the lower and upper calculated XO-modes, it is observed that, for electrons on the surface of the Fermi-sphere, the lower XO-mode can excite the Cherenkov radiation by crossing the Fermi-line, with some proper conditions depending on the values of independent plasma parameters, such as the relativistic-degeneracy, the atomic-number of constituent ions, and the magnetic field strength. Particularly, a lower electron number-density and Cherenkov radiation frequency limits are found to exist, for instance, for given values of the plasma ions atomic-number and the magnetic field strength below which the radiation can not be excited by the electrons on the Fermi-surface. This lower density limit increases by decrease in the atomic-number but decreases with decrease in the strength of the ambient magnetic field. It is remarkable that in this research it is discovered that the maximal Cherenkov-radiation per unit-length (the energy radiated by superluminal electrons traveling through the dielectric medium) coincides with the plasma number-densities, which is present in compact stars with the maximal radiation frequency lying in the gamma-ray spectrum. Current study can provide an important plasma diagnostic tool for a wide plasma density range, be it the solid density, the warm dense matter, the inertial confined or the astrophysical compact plasmas and may reveal an important cooling mechanism for white dwarfs. Current findings may also answer the fundamental astrophysical question on the mysterious origin of intense cosmic gamma-ray emissions.

  13. Compaction Scale Up and Optimization of Cylindrical Fuel Compacts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey J. Einerson; Jeffrey A. Phillips; Eric L. Shaber; Scott E. Niedzialek; W. Clay Richardson; Scott G. Nagley

    2012-10-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of designed experiments have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel. Results from these experiments are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operational using nuclear fuel materials. The process is being certified for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts for the AGR-5/6/7 experiment at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  14. Compact electron beam focusing column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  15. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2005-12-20

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, lens means for receiving the light, refracting the light, and focusing the light; an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the lens means and defracts the light, the immersed diffraction grating directing the detracted light back to the lens means; and a detector that receives the light from the lens means.

  16. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnside, Walter D.; Rudduck, Roger C.; Yu, Jiunn S.

    1988-01-01

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector.

  17. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnside, W.D.; Rudduck, R.C.; Yu, J.S.

    1987-02-27

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector. 2 figs.

  18. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnside, Walter D.; Rudduck, Roger C.; Yu, Jiunn S.

    1988-08-02

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector.

  19. EXAMINING THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENT IN A COMPREHENSIVE SAMPLE OF COMPACT GROUPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Charlton, Jane C.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Hibbard, John E.

    2012-03-15

    Compact groups, with their high number densities, small velocity dispersions, and an interstellar medium that has not been fully processed, provide a local analog to conditions of galaxy interactions in the earlier universe. The frequent and prolonged gravitational encounters that occur in compact groups affect the evolution of the constituent galaxies in a myriad of ways, for example, gas processing and star formation. Recently, a statistically significant 'gap' has been discovered in the mid-infrared (MIR: 3.6-8 {mu}m) IRAC color space of compact group galaxies. This gap is not seen in field samples and is a new example of how the compact group environment may affect the evolution of member galaxies. In order to investigate the origin and nature of this gap, we have compiled a larger sample of 37 compact groups in addition to the original 12 groups studied by Johnson et al. (yielding 174 individual galaxies with reliable MIR photometry). We find that a statistically significant deficit of galaxies in this gap region of IRAC color space is persistent in the full sample, lending support to the hypothesis that the compact group environment inhibits moderate specific star formation rates. Using this expanded sample, we have more fully characterized the distribution of galaxies in this color space and quantified the low-density region more fully with respect to MIR bluer and MIR redder colors. We note a curvature in the color-space distribution, which is fully consistent with increasing dust temperature as the activity in a galaxy increases. This full sample of 49 compact groups allows us to subdivide the data according to physical properties of the groups. An analysis of these subsamples indicates that neither projected physical diameter nor density shows a trend in color space within the values represented by this sample. We hypothesize that the apparent lack of a trend is due to the relatively small range of properties in this sample, whose groups have already been

  20. AGR-1 Fuel Compact 6-3-2 Post-Irradiation Examination Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul demkowicz; jason Harp; Scott Ploger

    2012-12-01

    particle equivalent inventory. Burnup measurements based on gamma spectrometry of individual particles and mass spectrometry of dissolved fuel kernels were in very good agreement (11.0% and 10.9% FIMA, respectively), and were also in good agreement with measurements based on previous gamma spectrometry measurements of the whole compact (11.0% FIMA) and the predicted burnup based on physics simulations of the AGR-1 irradiation (11.3% FIMA).

  1. Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments | Department of Energy Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments Compact sensors have been developed to allow for real-time monitoring of O2 and NOx during combustion. deer08_singh.pdf (396.99 KB) More Documents & Publications Compact Electrochemical Bi-functional

  2. Compact Potentiometric O2/NOx Sensor | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    12 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting pm043_singh_2012_o.pdf (1.97 MB) More Documents & Publications Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx

  3. Compact fast analyzer of rotary cuvette type

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1976-01-01

    A compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type is provided for simultaneously determining concentrations in a multiplicity of discrete samples using either absorbance or fluorescence measurement techniques. A rigid, generally rectangular frame defines optical passageways for the absorbance and fluorescence measurement systems. The frame also serves as a mounting structure for various optical components as well as for the cuvette rotor mount and drive system. A single light source and photodetector are used in making both absorbance and fluorescence measurements. Rotor removal and insertion are facilitated by a swing-out drive motor and rotor mount. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates generally to concentration measuring instruments and more specifically to a compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type which is suitable for making either absorbance or fluorescence measurements. It was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  4. A nonlinear compaction model for sandstone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahrenthold, E.P.; Gray, K.E.

    1986-06-01

    Constitutive relations for the compaction behavior of porous sandstone have been formulated to describe the results of uniaxial and triaxial tests under reservoir pressure and temperature conditions. An expression for loading behavior in uniaxial compression is derived by treating the loading modulus as an independent variable. Similar relations are derived for uniaxial and triaxial compaction tests. Elastic unloading takes a quadratic form when described by incremental stresses and strains. The constitutive equations relate the values of the incremental stress and strain on loading and unloading using parameters that are a function of the state of prestress in the material. Published data on samples cored from three different wells at various depths exhibited a similar dependence of rock properties on mechanical and pore pressure loads.

  5. Compact simulators can improve fossil plant operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fray, R.; Divakaruni, S.M. )

    1995-01-01

    This article examines new and affordable technology that can simulate operations in real time and is finding application across a broad spectrum of power plant designs. A significant breakthrough for utilities, compact simulator technology, has reduced the cost of replica simulators by a factor of five to 10. This affordable technology, combined with innovative software developments, can realistically simulate the operation of fossil power plants in real time on low-cost PC or workstation platforms.

  6. Compact quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi

    2014-12-01

    From several searches of the area common to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, we have selected 22 luminous galaxies between z ? 0.4 and z ? 0.9 that have colors and sizes similar to those of the compact quiescent galaxies at z > 2. By exploring structural parameters and stellar populations, we found that most of these galaxies actually formed most of their stars at z < 2 and are generally less compact than those found at z > 2. Several of these young objects are disk-like or possibly prolate. This lines up with several previous studies that found that massive quiescent galaxies at high redshifts often have disk-like morphologies. If these galaxies were to be confirmed to be disk-like, their formation mechanism must be able to account for both compactness and disks. On the other hand, if these galaxies were to be confirmed to be prolate, the fact that prolate galaxies do not exist in the local universe would indicate that galaxy formation mechanisms have evolved over cosmic time. We also found five galaxies forming over 80% of their stellar masses at z > 2. Three of these galaxies appear to have been modified to have spheroid-like morphologies, in agreement with the scenario of 'inside-out' buildup of massive galaxies. The remaining galaxies, SDSS J014355.21+133451.4 and SDSS J115836.93+021535.1, have truly old stellar populations and disk-like morphologies. These two objects would be good candidates for nearly unmodified compact quiescent galaxies from high redshifts that are worth future study.

  7. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayon, Stephen E.

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  8. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackie, Robin J. D.

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  9. Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S. Tsupko, O. Yu.

    2015-07-15

    The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.

  10. Theory and technology of the molding process: Study and algorithmization of calculation for the stressed-strained state of a powdered medium under compression by slanted plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leshchinskii, V.M.; Blokhin, A.G.; Stoyanov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the effect of the technological parameters on the molding process during shear compression of powder composites. An algorithm has been developed for the design of the technological processes. The correspondence between the continuum model of the uniform shear of a layer of powder and the actual behavior of the medium is analyzed and the physical sense of the compaction rate, which characterizes the sensitivity of the given medium to hydrostatic pressure, is determined.

  11. Sintered composite medium and filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner

    1987-01-01

    A particulate filter medium is formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers. A preferred composition is about 40 vol. % quartz and about 60 vol. % stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100.degree. C. to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550.degree. C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  12. Investigation of conductor swinging by wind and its application for design of compact transmission line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Fujii, K.; Kubokawa, H.; Okomura, T.; Simojima, K.; Yoshioka, V.

    1982-11-01

    In Japan it has recently become necessary to shorten the interphase spacing in overhead transmission lines because of land limitations and economical considerations. In this connection, the authors have attempted to analyze, in-depth, the possibilities of shortened interphase spacing via conductor swinging caused by wind effects: one of the important factors in the design of more compact overhead lines. This paper describes not only the investigative results of conductor swinging that were obtained both through computer simulation and in 3 years of full scale field line testing, but also design methodology for compact overhead lines based on these results.

  13. Impact compaction of a granular material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Dalton, Devon

    2015-05-19

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Structural seismic coupling, planetary science, and earth penetration mechanics, are just a few of the application areas. Although the mechanical behavior of granular materials of various types have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of such materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This study will describe how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure pressure-density relationships for model materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequently used for computational modeling.

  14. Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2006-03-21

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

  15. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2014-01-29

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  16. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A novel design for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment.

  17. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  18. Compact solid source of hydrogen gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Hecht, Andrew M.; Sylwester, Alan P.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2004-06-08

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  19. Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium Nucleon properties are modified in the nuclear medium. To understand these ...

  20. A compact x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barletta, W.A. . Center for Advanced Accelerators Physics Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Atac, M.; Cline, D.B.; Kolonko, J. . Center for Advanced Accelerators Physics); Bhowmik, A.; Bobbs, B.; Cover, R.A.; Dixon, F.P.; Rakowsky, G. . Rocketdyne Div.); Gallardo

    1988-01-01

    We present a design concept and simulation of the performance of a compact x-ray, free electron laser driven by ultra-high gradient rf-linacs. The accelerator design is based on recent advances in high gradient technology by a LLNL/SLAC/LBL collaboration and on the development of bright, high current electron sources by BNL and LANL. The GeV electron beams generated with such accelerators can be converted to soft x-rays in the range from 2--10 nm by passage through short period, high field strength wigglers as are being designed at Rocketdyne Linear light sources of this type can produce trains of picosecond (or shorter) pulses of extremely high spectral brilliance suitablee for flash holography of biological specimens in vivo and for studies of fast chemical reactions. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Radiography to measure the longitudinal density gradients of Pd compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, D.D.

    1992-05-14

    This study used radiography to detect and quantify density gradients in green compacts of Palladium powder. Ultrasonic velocity measurements had been tried previously, but they were affected by material properties, in addition to the density, so that an alternative was sought. The alternative technique used radiographic exposures of a series of standard compacts whose density is known and correlated with the radiographic film density. These correlations are used to predict the density in subsequent compacts.

  2. Lighting the Way with Compact Fluorescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting the Way with Compact Fluorescent Lighting Lighting the Way with Compact Fluorescent Lighting April 28, 2009 - 5:00am Addthis John Lippert There is a major push today to get homeowners to adopt compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light bulbs. They have been on the market for nearly three decades, and many homeowners still do not use them widely. But the tide is definitely turning. Their availability and the percentage of homeowners familiar with the technology and purchasing them for their

  3. Passive and active plasma deceleration for the compact disposal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Passive and active plasma deceleration for the compact disposal of electron beams Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on August 11, 2016...

  4. Compact Cross-Dipole Sonic (CXD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sonic (CXD) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Compact Cross-Dipole Sonic (CXD) Author Weatherford Published Publisher Not...

  5. Development, Test and Demonstration of a Cost-Effective, Compact...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Test and Demonstration of a Cost-Effective, Compact, Light-Weight, and Scalable High Temperature Inverter for HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs High Temperature Inverter Development, Test ...

  6. Development, Test and Demonstration of a Cost-Effective, Compact...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development, Test and Demonstration of a Cost-Effective, Compact, Light-Weight, and Scalable High Temperature Inverter for HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs Development, Test and Demonstration ...

  7. Cape Light Compact- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cape Light Compact (CLC) offers a variety of financial incentives to customers for purchasing energy efficient residential equipment. Residential customers can take advantage of incentives on...

  8. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling ...

  9. SN1987A Constraints on Large Compact Dimensions (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    scale. The observed weakness of gravitational interactions is then explained by the existence of extra compact dimensions of space, which are accessible to gravity but not to...

  10. Green strength of zirconium sponge and uranium dioxide powder compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishna, Palanki Murty, B. Narasimha; Sahoo, P.K.; Gopalakrishna, T.

    2008-07-15

    Zirconium metal sponge is compacted into rectangular or cylindrical shapes using hydraulic presses. These shapes are stacked and electron beam welded to form a long electrode suitable for vacuum arc melting and casting into solid ingots. The compact electrodes should be sufficiently strong to prevent breakage in handling as well as during vacuum arc melting. Usually, the welds are strong and the electrode strength is limited by the green strength of the compacts, which constitute the electrode. Green strength is also required in uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder compacts, to withstand stresses during de-tensioning after compaction as well as during ejection from the die and for subsequent handling by man and machine. The strengths of zirconium sponge and UO{sub 2} powder compacts have been determined by bending and crushing respectively, and Weibul moduli evaluated. The green density of coarse sponge compact was found to be larger than that from finer sponge. The green density of compacts from lightly attrited UO{sub 2} powder was higher than that from unattrited category, accompanied by an improvement in UO{sub 2} green crushing strength. The factors governing green strength have been examined in the light of published literature and experimental evidence. The methodology and results provide a basis for quality control in metal sponge and ceramic powder compaction in the manufacture of nuclear fuel.

  11. EVIDENCE FOR (AND AGAINST) PROGENITOR BIAS IN THE SIZE GROWTH OF COMPACT RED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keating, Stephanie K.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Schiavon, Ricardo; Graves, Genevieve; Damjanov, Ivana; Yan, Renbin; Newman, Jeffrey; Simard, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Most massive, passive galaxies are compact at high redshifts, but similarly compact massive galaxies are rare in the local universe. The most common interpretation of this phenomenon is that massive galaxies have grown in size by a factor of about five since redshift z = 2. An alternative explanation is that recently quenched massive galaxies are larger (a {sup p}rogenitor bias{sup )}. In this paper, we explore the importance of progenitor bias by looking for systematic differences in the stellar populations of compact early-type galaxies in the DEEP2 survey as a function of size. Our analysis is based on applying the statistical technique of bootstrap resampling to constrain differences in the median ages of our samples and to begin to characterize the distribution of stellar populations in our co-added spectra. The light-weighted ages of compact early-type galaxies at redshifts 0.5 < z < 1.4 are compared to those of a control sample of larger galaxies at similar redshifts. We find that massive compact early-type galaxies selected on the basis of red color and high bulge-to-total ratio are younger than similarly selected larger galaxies, suggesting that size growth in these objects is not driven mainly by progenitor bias, and that individual galaxies grow as their stellar populations age. However, compact early-type galaxies selected on the basis of image smoothness and high bulge-to-total ratio are older than a control sample of larger galaxies. Progenitor bias will play a significant role in defining the apparent size changes of early-type galaxies if they are selected on the basis of the smoothness of their light distributions.

  12. Compact high voltage solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.

    2003-09-23

    A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

  13. Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok

    2012-02-15

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

  14. Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.; Scime, Earl E.

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

  15. Apparatus for the compact cooling of modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-07

    An apparatus for the compact cooling of modules. The apparatus includes a clip, a first cover plate coupled to a first side of the clip, a second cover plate coupled to a second side of the clip opposite to the first side of the clip, a first frame thermally coupled to the first cover plate, and a second frame thermally coupled to the second cover plate. Each of the first frame and the second frame may include a plurality of channels for passing coolant through the first frame and the second frame, respectively. Additionally, the apparatus may further include a filler for directing coolant through the plurality of channels, and for blocking coolant from flowing along the first side of the clip and the second side of the clip.

  16. Impact compaction of a granular material

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Dalton, Devon

    2015-05-19

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Structural seismic coupling, planetary science, and earth penetration mechanics, are just a few of the application areas. Although the mechanical behavior of granular materials of various types have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of such materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This study will describe how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure pressure-density relationships for model materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequentlymore » used for computational modeling.« less

  17. Quantum chaos in compact lattice QED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, B.A. [Department of Physics, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States)] [Department of Physics, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); [Supercomputer Computations Research Institute, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Markum, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)] [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Pullirsch, R. [Department of Physics, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States)] [Department of Physics, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    1999-05-01

    Complete eigenvalue spectra of the staggered Dirac operator in quenched 4D compact QED are studied on 8{sup 3}{times}4 and 8{sup 3}{times}6 lattices. We investigate the behavior of the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution P(s) as a measure of the fluctuation properties of the eigenvalues in the strong coupling and the Coulomb phase. In both phases we find agreement with the Wigner surmise of the unitary ensemble of random-matrix theory indicating quantum chaos. Combining this with previous results on QCD, we conjecture that quite generally the non-linear couplings of quantum field theories lead to a chaotic behavior of the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-07-03

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

  19. Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schyler, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois; Volkow, Nora

    2006-10-24

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

  20. Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.; Bass, Isaac L.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1999-01-01

    A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

  1. Universal Monitor (UM) for OTEC compact heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1981-09-01

    Universal Monitor (UM), is a device-independent concept to measure, with precision, the initiation and progression of fouling in any given OTEC Compact Heat Exchanger model with or without the application of countermeasures. Design description and supporting analyses for the Universal Monitor for OTEC Compact Heat Exchangers are presented.

  2. COMPACTION OF FIBERBOARD OVERPACK MATERIALS IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Estochen, E.; Murphy, J.

    2010-05-27

    Compaction of lower layers in the 9975 fiberboard overpack has been observed in packages that contain excess moisture. Dynamic loading of the package during transportation may also contribute to compaction of the fiberboard. This condition is being tested and analyzed to better understand these compaction mechanisms and provide a basis from which to evaluate their impact to the safety basis for transportation (Safety Analysis Report for Packaging) and storage (facility Design Safety Analysis) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A test program has been developed and is being implemented to identify the extent of the compaction as a function of fiberboard moisture and typical transport dynamic loadings. Test conditions will be compared to regulatory requirements for dynamic loading. Characterization of the recovery of short-term compaction following the application of dynamic loading is also being evaluated. Interim results from this test program will be summarized.

  3. First elevated-temperature performance testing of coated particle fuel compacts from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles A. Baldwin; John D. Hunn; Robert N. Morris; Fred C. Montgomery; Chinthaka M. Silva; Paul A. Demkowicz

    2014-05-01

    In the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, 72 coated-particle fuel compacts were taken to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures. This paper discusses the first post-irradiation test of these mixed uranium oxide/uranium carbide fuel compacts at elevated temperature to examine the fuel performance under a simulated depressurized conduction cooldown event. A compact was heated for 400 h at 1600 degrees C. Release of 85Kr was monitored throughout the furnace test as an indicator of coating failure, while other fission product releases from the compact were periodically measured by capturing them on exchangeable, water-cooled deposition cups. No coating failure was detected during the furnace test, and this result was verified by subsequent electrolytic deconsolidation and acid leaching of the compact, which showed that all SiC layers were still intact. However, the deposition cups recovered significant quantities of silver, europium, and strontium. Based on comparison of calculated compact inventories at the end of irradiation versus analysis of these fission products released to the deposition cups and furnace internals, the minimum estimated fractional losses from the compact during the furnace test were 1.9 x 10-2 for silver, 1.4 x 10-3 for europium, and 1.1 x 10-5 for strontium. Other post-irradiation examination of AGR-1 compacts indicates that similar fractions of europium and silver may have already been released by the intact coated particles during irradiation, and it is therefore likely that the detected fission products released from the compact in this 1600 degrees C furnace test were from residual fission products in the matrix. Gamma analysis of coated particles deconsolidated from the compact after the heating test revealed that silver content within each particle varied considerably; a result that is probably not related to the furnace test, because it has also been observed in other as-irradiated AGR-1 compacts. X

  4. A tandem-based compact dual-energy gamma generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persaud, A.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.N.; Ludewigt, B.; Tanaka, N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Antolak, A.J.; Morse, D.H.; Raber, T.

    2009-11-11

    A dual-energy tandem-type gamma generator has been developed at E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. The tandem accelerator geometry allows higher energy nuclear reactions to be reached, thereby allowing more flexible generation of MeV-energy gammas for active interrogation applications.

  5. Compact Dielectric Wall Accelerator Development For Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy And Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y -; Caporaso, G J; Guethlein, G; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Gower, E; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Stanley, J; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-06-17

    Compact dielectric wall (DWA) accelerator technology is being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The DWA accelerator uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. Its high electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The DWA concept can be applied to accelerate charge particle beams with any charge to mass ratio and energy. Based on the DWA system, a novel compact proton therapy accelerator is being developed. This proton therapy system will produce individual pulses that can be varied in intensity, energy and spot width. The system will be capable of being sited in a conventional linac vault and provide intensity modulated rotational therapy. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, SiC photoconductive switches and compact proton sources. Applications of the DWA accelerator to problems in homeland security will also be discussed.

  6. Method to prepare nanoparticles on porous mediums

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vieth, Gabriel M [Knoxville, TN; Dudney, Nancy J [Oak Ridge, TN; Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-10

    A method to prepare porous medium decorated with nanoparticles involves contacting a suspension of nanoparticles in an ionic liquid with a porous medium such that the particles diffuse into the pores of the medium followed by heating the resulting composition to a temperature equal to or greater than the thermal decomposition temperature of the ionic liquid resulting in the removal of the liquid portion of the suspension. The nanoparticles can be a metal, an alloy, or a metal compound. The resulting compositions can be used as catalysts, sensors, or separators.

  7. MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects) Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The primary aim of the MACHO Project is to test the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way is made up of objects like brown dwarfs or planets: these objects have come to be known as MACHOs, for MAssive Compact Halo Objects. The signature of these objects is the occasional amplification of the light from extragalactic stars by the gravitational lens effect. The amplification can be large, but events are extremely rare: it is necessary to monitor photometrically several million stars for a period of years in order to obtain a useful detection rate. For this purpose MACHO has a two channel system that employs eight CCDs, mounted on the 50 inch telescope at Mt. Stromlo. The high data rate (several GBytes per night) is accommodated by custom electronics and on-line data reduction. The Project has taken more than 27,000 images with this system since June 1992. Analysis of a subset of these data has yielded databases containing light curves in two colors for 8 million stars in the LMC and 10 million in the bulge of the Milky Way. A search for microlensing has turned up four candidates toward the Large Magellanic Cloud and 45 toward the Galactic Bulge. The web page for data provides links to MACHO Project data portals and various specialized interfaces for viewing or searching the data. (Specialized Interface)

  8. Polyacrylamide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madabhushi, Ramakrishna S.; Gammon, Stuart A.

    2003-11-11

    A polyacryalmide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The polyacryalmide medium comprises high molecular weight polyacrylamides (PAAm) having a viscosity average molecular weight (M.sub.v) of about 675-725 kDa were synthesized by conventional red-ox polymerization technique. Using this separation medium, capillary electrophoresis of BigDye DNA sequencing standard was performed. A single base resolution of .about.725 bases was achieved in .about.60 minute in a non-covalently coated capillary of 50 .mu.m i.d., 40 cm effective length, and a filed of 160 V/cm at 40.degree. C. The resolution achieved with this formulation to separate DNA under identical conditions is much superior (725 bases vs. 625 bases) and faster (60 min. vs. 75 min.) to the commercially available PAAm, such as supplied by Amersham. The formulation method employed here to synthesize PAAm is straight-forward, simple and does not require cumbersome methods such as emulsion polymerizaiton in order to achieve very high molecular weights. Also, the formulation here does not require separation of PAAm from the reaction mixture prior to reconstituting the polymer to a final concentration. Furthermore, the formulation here is prepared from a single average mol. wt. PAAm as opposed to the mixture of two different average mo. wt. PAAm previously required to achieve high resolution.

  9. Process for forming coal compacts and product thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunnink, Brett; Kanunar, Jayanth; Liang, Zhuoxiong

    2002-01-01

    A process for forming durable, mechanically strong compacts from coal particulates without use of a binder is disclosed. The process involves applying a compressive stress to a particulate feed comprising substantially water-saturated coal particles while the feed is heated to a final compaction temperature in excess of about 100.degree. C. The water present in the feed remains substantially in the liquid phase throughout the compact forming process. This is achieved by heating and compressing the particulate feed and cooling the formed compact at a pressure sufficient to prevent water present in the feed from boiling. The compacts produced by the process have a moisture content near their water saturation point. As a result, these compacts absorb little water and retain exceptional mechanical strength when immersed in high pressure water. The process can be used to form large, cylindrically-shaped compacts from coal particles (i.e., "coal logs") so that the coal can be transported in a hydraulic coal log pipeline.

  10. Incompatibility of Contrast Medium and Trisodium Citrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delcour, Christian Bruninx, Guy

    2013-02-15

    To test the compatibility of trisodium citrate, a catheter lock solution, with iodinated contrast medium. Iohexol, iobitridol, iodixanol, ioxaglate, ioxithalamate, iomeprol, and iopromide were tested. In all tests, 2 ml of contrast medium were mixed with 2 ml of trisodium citrate solution. Iodixanol and ioxaglate provoked a highly viscous gluelike precipitation when mixed with trisodium citrate. A brief transient precipitate was observed with iohexol, iomeprol, and ioxithalamate. Permanent precipitation occurred with iobitridol and iopromide. One must be aware of the potential for precipitation when contrast medium is mixed with trisodium citrate solution. Before trisodium citrate solution is injected, the catheter should be thoroughly flushed with saline if a contrast medium has previously been injected through it.

  11. VLA neutral hydrogen imaging of compact groups of galaxies. II - HCG 31, 44, and 79

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, B.A.; Mcmahon, P.M.; Van gorkom, J.H. Columbia University, New York )

    1991-06-01

    Neutral hydrogen images of three compact groups of galaxies are presented: HCG 31, 44, and 79. The images were obtained with the very large array (VLA), an on-line Hanning smoothing was applied to the data, and the H I spectral channel was isolated. The images were made on the Pipeline, and were produced by means of a method described by Gorkon and Ekers (1988). The images of HCG 44 are compared with earlier Arecibo observations. The H I emission in HCG 44 is discovered within the galaxies, whereas the emission in 31 and 79 can be found throughout the group in clouds that are larger than the galaxies. Evidence of a relationship between the compact groups is found in the H I data, and the groups are considered to be merging into a single object. Some of the groups are theorized to be young amorphous galaxies where the H I is still bound to individual galaxies, and which have just begun to condense from the intergalactic medium. The kinematics of the gas are shown to vary, and a common gaseous envelope contains the dwarf galaxies. 42 refs.

  12. MEDIUM VOLTAGE INTEGRATED DRIVE AND MOTOR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Calnetix Technologies – Cerritos, CA This project will focus on integrating a high voltage SiC device with advanced high-speed machine technology, medium voltage stators, high efficiency magnetic bearings and sensor high frequency drive technology that can work directly with high voltages, switch at high frequencies for low machine losses, and do so very efficiently. The new medium voltage motors are expected to achieve up to eight times the power density of similar traditional systems. Fact sheet coming soon.

  13. Iron-carbon compacts and process for making them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes iron-carbon compacts and a process for making them. The process includes preparing a slurry comprising iron powder, furfuryl alcohol, and a polymerization catalyst for initiating the polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol into a resin, and heating the slurry to convert the alcohol into the resin. The resulting mixture is pressed into a green body and heated to form the iron-carbon compact. The compact can be used as, or machined into, a magnetic flux concentrator for an induction heating apparatus.

  14. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING URANIUM-HYDRIDE COMPACTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wellborn, W.; Armstrong, J.R.

    1959-03-10

    A method and apparatus are presented for making compacts of pyrophoric hydrides in a continuous operation out of contact with air. It is particularly useful for the preparation of a canned compact of uranium hydride possessing high density and purity. The metallic uranium is enclosed in a container, positioned in a die body evacuated and nvert the uranium to the hydride is admitted and the container sealed. Heat is applied to bring about the formation of the hydride, following which compression is used to form the compact sealed in a container ready for use.

  15. Compact Electrochemical Bi-functional NOx/O2 Sensors with an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor ...

  16. Title 10 Chapter 45 Connecticut River Flood Control Compact ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 Connecticut River Flood Control Compact Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Title 10 Chapter 45 Connecticut River...

  17. Cape Light Compact- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through a multi-member partnership, Cape Light Compact (CLC) and Mass Save offer a variety of financial incentives for commercial and industrial facilities. Custom rebate options are available for...

  18. Compact Ignition Tokamak Program: status of FEDC studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Compact Ignition Tokamak Program comprise the report. The technical areas discussed are the mechanical configuration status, magnet analysis, stress analysis, cooling between burns, TF coil joint, and facility/device layout options. (WRF)

  19. Preparation of bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yusheng; He, Duanwei

    2011-05-10

    Bulk, superhard, B--C--N nanocomposite compacts were prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture at a pressure in a range of from about 15 GPa to about 25 GPa, and sintering the pressurized encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a temperature in a range of from about 1800-2500 K. The product bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compacts were well sintered compacts with nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B--C--N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compacts had a measured Vicker's hardness in a range of from about 41 GPa to about 68 GPa.

  20. Compact AC susceptometer for fast sample characterization down...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Compact AC susceptometer for fast sample characterization down to 0.1 K Citation Details ... down to 0.1 K is demonstrated using several superconducting and magnetic materials. ...

  1. Energy Cost Calculator for Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact Fluorescent Lamps Energy Cost Calculator for Compact Fluorescent Lamps This tool calculates the payback period for your calc retrofit project. Modify the default values to suit your project requirements. Existing incandescent lamp wattage Watts Incandescent lamp cost dollars Incandescent lamp life 1000 hours calc wattage Watts calc cost dollars calc life (6000 hours for moderate use, 10000 hours for high use) 8000 hours Number of lamps in retrofit project Hours operating per week hours

  2. Plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators Plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators A transformative breakthrough in controlling ion beams allows small-scale laser-plasma accelerators to deliver unprecedented power densities. December 21, 2015 The team in front of the Trident Target Chamber. Back, from left: Tom Shimada, Sha-Marie Reid, Adam Sefkow, Miguel Santiago, and Chris Hamilton. Front, from left: Russ Mortensen, Chengkun Huang, Sasi Palaniyappan,

  3. Compaction measurements on the Sweet Lake test well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jogi, P.N.; Kalra, S.; Gray, K.E.; Thompson, T.W.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of compressibilities, moduli, compaction coefficients, porosities, and permeabilities have been conducted on cores from Magma Gulf-Technadril/Department of Energy Amoco Fee No. 1 in the Sweet Lake Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. All rock parameters show nonlinear behavior with changing reservoir pressure. Compressibilities and uniaxial compaction coefficients decline rapidly with pore pressure reduction. Porosity reduction was generally less than 10%; permeability reduction was 30 to 40%. Additional tests are in progress.

  4. Compact portable electric power sources (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Connect Compact portable electric power sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compact portable electric power sources × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the

  5. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, D.

    2016-01-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  6. Compact, energy EFFICIENT neutron source: enabling technology for various applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Roser, T.

    2009-12-01

    A novel neutron source comprising of a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 KeV) injected into a tube filled with tritium gas and/or tritium plasma that generates D-T fusion reactions, whose products are 14.06 MeV neutrons and 3.52 MeV alpha particles, is described. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that did not interact is recovered. Beryllium walls of proper thickness can be utilized to absorb 14 MeV neutrons and release 2-3 low energy neutrons. Each ion source and tube forms a module. Larger systems can be formed from multiple units. Unlike currently proposed methods, where accelerator-based neutron sources are very expensive, large, and require large amounts of power for operation, this neutron source is compact, inexpensive, easy to test and to scale up. Among possible applications for this neutron source concept are sub-critical nuclear breeder reactors and transmutation of radioactive waste.

  7. Compact, Low-power and Precision Timing Photodetector Readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varner, Gary S.; Ruckman, Larry L.; Schwiening, Jochen; Vavra, Jaroslav; /SLAC

    2011-06-14

    Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and single-photon detection requires a digitizer capable of integrated recording of dense arrays of sensor elements with high analog bandwidth (precision timing) and large record depth, in a cost-effective, compact and low-power way. Simply stated, one cannot do better than having a high-fidelity 'oscilloscope on a chip' for every sensor channel. A firs version of the Buffered Large Analog Bandwidth (BLAB1) ASIC has been designed based upon the lessons learned from the development of the Large Analog Bandwidth Recorder and Digitizer with Ordered Readout (LABRADOR) ASIC. While this LABRADOR ASIC has been very successful and forms the readout basis of a generation of new, large-scale radio neutrino detectors, its limited sampling depth is a major drawback. To address this shortcoming, a prototype intended for photodetector readout has been designed and fabricated with 64k deep sampling at multi-GSa/s operation. An evaluation system has been constructed for instrumentation of Time-Of-Propagation (TOP) and focusing DIRC prototypes and test results will be reported.

  8. ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Tully, R. Brent; Marzke, R. O.; Phillipps, S.; Price, J.; Peng, Eric W.; Trentham, Neil; Carter, David; Hammer, Derek E-mail: tully@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: S.Phillipps@bristol.ac.uk E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn E-mail: dxc@astro.livjm.ac.uk

    2011-08-20

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic search for ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the dense core of the dynamically evolved, massive Coma cluster as part of the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) Coma Cluster Treasury Survey. UCD candidates were initially chosen based on color, magnitude, degree of resolution within the ACS images, and the known properties of Fornax and Virgo UCDs. Follow-up spectroscopy with Keck/Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer confirmed 27 candidates as members of the Coma cluster, a success rate >60% for targeted objects brighter than M{sub R} = -12. Another 14 candidates may also prove to be Coma members, but low signal-to-noise spectra prevent definitive conclusions. An investigation of the properties and distribution of the Coma UCDs finds these objects to be very similar to UCDs discovered in other environments. The Coma UCDs tend to be clustered around giant galaxies in the cluster core and have colors/metallicity that correlate with the host galaxy. With properties and a distribution similar to that of the Coma cluster globular cluster population, we find strong support for a star cluster origin for the majority of the Coma UCDs. However, a few UCDs appear to have stellar population or structural properties which differentiate them from the old star cluster populations found in the Coma cluster, perhaps indicating that UCDs may form through multiple formation channels.

  9. Compactness of the {sup 48}Ca induced hot fusion reactions and the magnitudes of quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Raj K.; Manhas, Monika; Greiner, Walter

    2006-05-15

    Based on fragmentation theory extended to include the orientation degrees of freedom and higher multipole deformations up to hexadecapole deformations, the compactness of {sup 48}Ca induced reactions on various actinides is studied for Ds (Z=110) to 118 nuclei. It is shown that the reactions leading to Z{>=}114 nuclei are 'compact' hot fusion reactions at {theta}=90 deg. orientation angles (equatorial compact or ec; collisions that are in the direction of the minor axis of the deformed reaction partner), but the ones for Z<114 nuclei are compact at {theta}<90 deg. (not-equatorial compact or nec). The phenomenon of 'barrier distribution in orientation degrees of freedom' is observed for the first time to be related to the magnitudes of both the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations of the deformed reaction partner. The ec configurations are obtained for the cases of quadrupole deformation alone and with small (including negative values) hexadecapole deformations. The presence of large (positive) hexadecapole deformations result in the nec configurations. These results are found to be quite general, applicable also to other lighter targets such as W and Ra with the {sup 48}Ca beam and to Pb based reactions. Furthermore, for compact hot fusion reactions, in addition to the {sup 48}Ca reaction valley, a number of other new reaction valleys (target-projectile combinations) are obtained, the most important one (next to {sup 48}Ca) being the {sup 54}Ti nucleus used previously in Pb based cold fusion reaction studies but now proposed with deformed actinide nuclei such as {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, and {sup 242}Pu.

  10. A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for ion source characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, L. Wan, X.; Jin, D. Z.; Tan, X. H.; Huang, Z. X.; Tan, G. B.

    2015-03-15

    A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer with overall dimension of about 413 × 250 × 414 mm based on orthogonal injection and angle reflection has been developed for ion source characterization. Configuration and principle of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer are introduced in this paper. The mass resolution is optimized to be about 1690 (FWHM), and the ion energy detection range is tested to be between about 3 and 163 eV with the help of electron impact ion source. High mass resolution and compact configuration make this spectrometer useful to provide a valuable diagnostic for ion spectra fundamental research and study the mass to charge composition of plasma with wide range of parameters.

  11. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jianfu Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun

    2015-12-15

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10{sup −7} at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons.

  12. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  13. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations ...

  14. CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review ...

  15. Energy Assessments: What are the Benefits to Small and Medium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    November 6, 2008 Energy Assessments: What are the Benefits to Small and Medium Facilities? 2 Energy Assessments: What are the Benefits to Small and Medium Facilities? Webcast ...

  16. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation SCAQMD:Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium-Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Vehicle ...

  17. Effects of Compaction and Temperature on Sorption and Diffusion of Cs and HTO in Compacted Bentonite Saturated with Saline Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoru Suzuki; Masashi Haginuma; Kazunori Suzuki

    2007-07-01

    The sorption and diffusion of Cs and tritiated water (HTO) in compacted bentonite was investigated at temperatures from 30 to 60 deg. C. The apparent (D{sub a}) and effective (D{sub e}) diffusion coefficients were determined by in-diffusion and through-diffusion experiments with a constant boundary concentration maintained. The temperature dependence of De and Da obeyed an Arrhenius-type equation, allowing determination of the activation energy for diffusion of Cs and HTO. The D{sub e} value of Cs was three times the D{sub e} of HTO, which is considered to be a result of surface-excess diffusion. Cs may be concentrated near the surface of the negatively charged clay, thus giving a large diffusive flux. The activation energies for Cs diffusion were 21.4{+-}2.8 kJ/mol and 37.3{+-}1.5 kJ/mol as determined based on D{sub e} and D{sub a}, respectively. This difference was due to the temperature dependence of the distribution coefficient K{sub d} of Cs. (authors)

  18. Solar collector having a solid transmission medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schertz, William W.; Zwerdling, Solomon

    1977-06-14

    There is provided a radiant energy transmission device capable of operation in a concentrative mode in which energy incident on an entrance area is directed toward and concentrated on an exit area of smaller area than the entrance area. The device includes a solid radiant energy transmission medium having surfaces coincident with the entrance and exit areas and particularly contoured reflective side walls. The surface coinciding with the entrance area is coupled to a cover plate formed of a radiant energy transmissive material. An energy transducer is coupled to the surface of the medium coinciding with the exit area.

  19. Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): preliminary engineering considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.; Schnurr, N.M.; Battat, M.E.; LaBauve, R.J.; Davidson, J.W.

    1984-08-01

    The unique confinement physics of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) projects to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor that promises a significant reduction in the cost of electricity. The compact reactor also promises a factor-of-two reduction in the fraction of total cost devoted to the reactor plant equipment (i.e., fusion power core (FPC) plus support systems). In addition to operational and developmental benefits, these physically smaller systems can operate economically over a range of total power output. After giving an extended background and rationale for the compact fusion approaches, key FPC subsystems for the Compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR) are developed, designed, and integrated for a minimum-cost, 1000-MWe(net) system. Both the problems and promise of the compact, high-power-density fusion reactor are quantitatively evaluated on the basis of this conceptual design. The material presented in this report both forms a framework for a broader, more expanded conceptual design as well as suggests directions and emphases for related research and development.

  20. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  1. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prohaska, Robert; Duran, Adam; Ragatz, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-05-03

    In an effort to help commercialize technologies for electric vehicles (EVs) through deployment and demonstration projects, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) provided funding to participating U.S. companies to cover part of the cost of purchasing new EVs. Within the medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle segment, both Smith Electric Newton and and Navistar eStar vehicles qualified for such funding opportunities. In an effort to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new technologies deployed in these vehicles operating under real world conditions, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium-duty EVs were collected, compiled, and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Fleet Test and Evaluation team over a period of 3 years. More than 430 Smith Newton EVs have provided data representing more than 150,000 days of operation. Similarly, data have been collected from more than 100 Navistar eStar EVs, resulting in a comparative total of more than 16,000 operating days. Combined, NREL has analyzed more than 6 million kilometers of driving and 4 million hours of charging data collected from commercially operating medium-duty electric vehicles in various configurations. In this paper, extensive duty-cycle statistical analyses are performed to examine and characterize common vehicle dynamics trends and relationships based on in-use field data. The results of these analyses statistically define the vehicle dynamic and kinematic requirements for each vehicle, aiding in the selection of representative chassis dynamometer test cycles and the development of custom drive cycles that emulate daily operation. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented and discussed. Results are presented in both graphical and tabular formats illustrating a number of key relationships between parameters observed within the data set that relate to

  2. High lumen compact fluorescents boost light output in new fixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    Some compact fluorescent lamps aren`t so compact. General Electric (GE), OSRAM, and Philips have been expanding offerings in longer, more powerful, hard wired CFLs that generate enough light to serve applications once limited to conventional fluorescents and metal halide systems. All three of these manufacturers have for some time offered 18- to 40-watt high-output CFLs, which use a fluorescent tube doubled back on itself to produce a lot of light in a compact source. Now GE has introduced an even larger, more powerful 50-watt unit, and OSRAM is soon to follow suit with a 55-watt lamp. These new entries to the field of turbocharged CFLs can provide general lighting at ceiling heights of 12 feet or more as well as indirect lighting, floodlighting, and wall washing. They are such a concentrated source of light that they can provide the desired illumination using fewer lamps and fixtures than would be needed with competing sources.

  3. Compact multiwavelength transmitter module for multimode fiber optic ribbon cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deri, Robert J.; Pocha, Michael D.; Larson, Michael C.; Garrett, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    A compact multiwavelength transmitter module for multimode fiber optic ribbon cable, which couples light from an M.times.N array of emitters onto N fibers, where the M wavelength may be distributed across two or more vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) chips, and combining emitters and multiplexer into a compact package that is compatible with placement on a printed circuit board. A key feature is bringing together two emitter arrays fabricated on different substrates--each array designed for a different wavelength--into close physical proximity. Another key feature is to compactly and efficiently combine the light from two or more clusters of optical emitters, each in a different wavelength band, into a fiber ribbon.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Strategies Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  5. Compact two-beam push-pull free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutton, Andrew (Yorktown, VA)

    2009-03-03

    An ultra-compact free electron laser comprising a pair of opposed superconducting cavities that produce identical electron beams moving in opposite directions such that each set of superconducting cavities accelerates one electron beam and decelerates the other electron beam. Such an arrangement, allows the energy used to accelerate one beam to be recovered and used again to accelerate the second beam, thus, each electron beam is decelerated by a different structure than that which accelerated it so that energy exchange rather than recovery is achieved resulting in a more compact and highly efficient apparatus.

  6. Rapid-cycling synchrotron with variable momentum compaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexahin, Y.; Summers, D.J.; /Mississippi U.

    2010-05-01

    There are conflicting requirements on the value of the momentum compaction factor during energy ramping in a synchrotron: at low energies it should be positive and sufficiently large to make the slippage factor small so that it is possible to work closer to the RF voltage crest and ensure sufficient RF bucket area, whereas at higher energies it should be small or negative to avoid transition crossing. In the present report we propose a lattice with a variable momentum compaction factor and consider the possibility of using it in a high repetition rate proton driver for a muon collider and neutrino factory.

  7. Effect of suspension property on granule morphology and compaction behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hae-Weon Lee, Guesup Song, In-Sik Suk

    1995-12-31

    Granule morphology is an important factor during dry pressing, since it has great influences on die flowability, compaction ratio, and resulting green microstructure. Granule morphology and packing structure of ultrafine Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles in the granule were optimized during spray drying by adjusting the suspension structure. The particle packing structure of spray-dried granule was investigated with suspension structure. The effects of granule morphology and its particle packing structure on compaction and resultant sintering behavior were evaluated.

  8. A coupled THMC model of a heating and hydration laboratory experiment in unsaturated compacted FEBEX bentonite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Fernandez, A.M.

    2010-05-01

    Unsaturated compacted bentonite is foreseen by several countries as a backfill and sealing material in high-level radioactive waste repositories. The strong interplays between thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes during the hydration stage of a repository call for fully coupled THMC models. Validation of such THMC models is prevented by the lack of comprehensive THMC experiments and the difficulties of experimental methods to measure accurately the chemical composition of bentonite porewater. We present here a non-isothermal multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive solute transport model for a deformable medium of a heating and hydration experiment performed on a sample of compacted FEBEX bentonite. Besides standard solute transport and geochemical processes, the model accounts for solute cross diffusion and thermal and chemical osmosis. Bentonite swelling is solved with a state-surface approach. The THM model is calibrated with transient temperature, water content and porosity data measured at the end of the experiment. The reactive transport model is calibrated with porewater chemical data derived from aqueous extract data. Model results confirm that thermal osmosis is relevant for the hydration of FEBEX bentonite while chemical osmosis can be safely neglected. Dilution and evaporation are the main processes controlling the concentration of conservative species. Dissolved cations are mostly affected by calcite dissolution-precipitation and cation exchange reactions. Dissolved sulphate is controlled by gypsum/anhydrite dissolution-precipitation. pH is mostly buffered by protonation/deprotonation via surface complexation. Computed concentrations agree well with inferred aqueous extract data at all sections except near the hydration boundary where cation data are affected by a sampling artifact. The fit of Cl{sup -} data is excellent except for the data near the heater. The largest deviations of the model from inferred aqueous

  9. Gluon Vortices and Induced Magnetic Field in Compact Stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrer, Efrain J.

    2007-10-26

    The natural candidates for the realization of color superconductivity are the extremely dense cores of compact stars, many of which have very large magnetic fields, especially the so called magnetars. In this paper we discuss how a color superconducting core can serve to generate and enhance the stellar magnetic field without appealing to a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo mechanism.

  10. Compact anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an inexpensive and compact apparatus adapted for use with a .sup.196 Hg isotope separation process and the conversion of anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl without the use of air flow to carry the HCl vapor into the converter system.

  11. Compact anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.

    1993-06-01

    The present invention is directed to an inexpensive and compact apparatus adapted for use with a [sup 196]Hg isotope separation process and the conversion of anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl without the use of air flow to carry the HCl vapor into the converter system.

  12. Recent progress on the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignat, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes work done on the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), both at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and at other fusion laboratories in the United States. The goal of CIT is to reach ignition in a tokamak fusion device in the mid-1990's. Scientific and engineering features of the design are described, as well as projected cost and schedule.

  13. Ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goerz, David A.; Wilson, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    An ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator includes individual high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. In one embodiment, a repetitively-switched, ultra-compact Marx generator includes low-profile, annular-shaped, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors with contoured edges and coplanar extended electrodes used for primary energy storage; low-profile, low-inductance, high-voltage, pressurized gas switches with compact gas envelopes suitably designed to be integrated with the annular capacitors; feed-forward, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors attached across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to couple the necessary energy forward to sufficiently overvoltage the spark gap of the next in-line switch; optimally shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces to reduce electric field stresses in the weakest regions where dissimilar materials meet, and to spread the fields more evenly throughout the dielectric materials, allowing them to operate closer to their intrinsic breakdown levels; and uses manufacturing and assembly methods to integrate the capacitors and switches into stages that can be arranged into a low-profile Marx generator.

  14. A Compact Wireless Charging System for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ning, Puqi; Miller, John M; Onar, Omer C; White, Cliff P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a compact high efficiency wireless power transfer system has been designed and developed. The detailed gate drive design, cooling system design, power stage development, and system assembling are presented. The successful tests verified the feasibility of wireless power transfer system to achieve over-all 90% efficiency.

  15. Fouling characteristics of compact heat exchangers and enhanced tubes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C. B.; Rabas, T. J.

    1999-07-15

    Fouling is a complex phenomenon that (1) encompasses formation and transportation of precursors, and (2) attachment and possible removal of foulants. A basic understanding of fouling mechanisms should guide the development of effective mitigation techniques. The literature on fouling in complex flow passages of compact heat exchangers is limited; however, significant progress has been made with enhanced tubes.

  16. ULTRA-COMPACT ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR APPLICATION IN NUCLEAR TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Carazo, V; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Guse, S; Harris, J R; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Paul, A C; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Schmidt, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sitaraman, S; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2009-06-11

    We report on compact accelerator technology development for potential use as a pulsed neutron source quantitative post verifier. The technology is derived from our on-going compact accelerator technology development program for radiography under the US Department of Energy and for a clinic sized compact proton therapy systems under an industry sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. The accelerator technique relies on the synchronous discharge of a prompt pulse generating stacked transmission line structure with the beam transit. The goal of this technology is to achieve {approx}10 MV/m gradients for 10s of nanoseconds pulses and to {approx}100 MV/m gradients for {approx}1 ns systems. As a post verifier for supplementing existing x-ray equipment, this system can remain in a charged, stand-by state with little or no energy consumption. We detail the progress of our overall component development effort with the multilayer dielectric wall insulators (i.e., the accelerator wall), compact power supply technology, kHz repetition-rate surface flashover ion sources, and the prompt pulse generation system consisting of wide-bandgap switches and high performance dielectric materials.

  17. Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

    2012-12-01

    This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

  18. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren

    2012-05-15

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath (''plasma shield'') that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  19. A compact design for the Josephson mixer: The lumped element circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pillet, J.-D.; Flurin, E.; Mallet, F. Huard, B.

    2015-06-01

    We present a compact and efficient design in terms of gain, bandwidth, and dynamical range for the Josephson mixer, the superconducting circuit performing three-wave mixing at microwave frequencies. In an all lumped-element based circuit with galvanically coupled ports, we demonstrate nondegenerate amplification for microwave signals over a bandwidth up to 50?MHz for a power gain of 20?dB. The quantum efficiency of the mixer is shown to be about 70%, and its saturation power reaches ?112 dBm.

  20. DESIGN OF A COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGER FOR HEAT RECUPERATION FROM A HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. K. Housley; J.E. O'Brien; G.L. Hawkes

    2008-11-01

    Design details of a compact heat exchanger and supporting hardware for heat recuperation in a high-temperature electrolysis application are presented. The recuperative heat exchanger uses a vacuum-brazed plate-fin design and operates between 300 and 800C. It includes corrugated inserts for enhancement of heat transfer coefficients and extended heat transfer surface area. Two recuperative heat exchangers are required per each four-stack electrolysis module. The heat exchangers are mated to a base manifold unit that distributes the inlet and outlet flows to and from the four electrolysis stacks. Results of heat exchanger design calculations and assembly details are also presented.

  1. Ceramographic Examinations of Irradiated AGR-1 Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Demkowicz; Scott Ploger; John Hunn; Jay S. Kehn

    2012-09-01

    The AGR 1 experiment involved irradiating 72 cylindrical fuel compacts containing tri-structural isotropic (TRISO)-coated particles to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures observed out of almost 300,000 particles. Six irradiated AGR 1 fuel compacts were selected for microscopy that span a range of irradiation conditions (temperature, burnup, and fast fluence). These six compacts also included all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR experiment. The six compacts were cross-sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, mounted, ground, and polished after development of careful techniques for preserving particle structures against preparation damage. From 36 to 79 particles within each cross section were exposed near enough to midplane for optical microscopy of kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. The microstructural analysis focused on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracture, debonding between the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layers, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Three basic particle morphologies were established according to the extent of bonding between the buffer and IPyC layers: complete debonding along the interface (Type A), no debonding along the interface (Type B), and partial debonding (Type AB). These basic morphologies were subdivided according to whether the buffer stayed intact or fractured. The resulting six characteristic morphologies were used to classify particles within each cross section, but no spatial patterns were clearly observed in any of the cross-sectional morphology maps. Although positions of particle types appeared random within compacts, examining a total of 931 classified particles allowed other relationships among morphological types to be established.

  2. Chiral Restoration in the Nuclear Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djalali, C; Nasseripour, R; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H

    2007-10-01

    The photoproduction of vector mesons on various nuclei has been studied using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The vector mesons, rho, omega, and [cursive phi], are observed via their decay to e+e-, in order to reduce the effects of final state interactions in the nucleus. Of particular interest are possible in-medium effects on the properties of the rho meson. The rho mass spectrum is extracted from the data on various nuclei, D2, C, Fe, and Ti. We observe no significant mass shift and some broadening consistent with expected collisional broadening for the rho meson.

  3. Chiral Restoration in the Nuclear Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djalali, C.; Nasseripour, R.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.

    2007-10-26

    The photoproduction of vector mesons on various nuclei has been studied using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The vector mesons, {rho}, {omega}, and {phi}, are observed via their decay to e{sup +}e{sup -}, in order to reduce the effects of final state interactions in the nucleus. Of particular interest are possible in-medium effects on the properties of the {rho} meson. The {rho} mass spectrum is extracted from the data on various nuclei, D{sub 2}, C, Fe, and Ti. We observe no significant mass shift and some broadening consistent with expected collisional broadening for the {rho} meson.

  4. LATTICE WITH SMALLER MOMENTUM COMPACTION FACTOR FOR PEP-II HIGH...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LATTICE WITH SMALLER MOMENTUM COMPACTION FACTOR FOR PEP-II HIGH ENERGY RING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LATTICE WITH SMALLER MOMENTUM COMPACTION FACTOR FOR PEP-II ...

  5. Safe and compact ammonia storage/delivery systems for SCR-DeNOX...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Presentation ...

  6. Compact wire array sources: power scaling and implosion physics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Chuvatin, Alexander S.; Jones, M. C.; Vesey, Roger Alan; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Ivanov, V. V.; Esaulov, Andrey A.; Ampleford, David J.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Rudakov, L. I.; Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S.; Vigil, Marcelino Patricio

    2008-09-01

    A series of ten shots were performed on the Saturn generator in short pulse mode in order to study planar and small-diameter cylindrical tungsten wire arrays at {approx}5 MA current levels and 50-60 ns implosion times as candidates for compact z-pinch radiation sources. A new vacuum hohlraum configuration has been proposed in which multiple z pinches are driven in parallel by a pulsed power generator. Each pinch resides in a separate return current cage, serving also as a primary hohlraum. A collection of such radiation sources surround a compact secondary hohlraum, which may potentially provide an attractive Planckian radiation source or house an inertial confinement fusion fuel capsule. Prior to studying this concept experimentally or numerically, advanced compact wire array loads must be developed and their scaling behavior understood. The 2008 Saturn planar array experiments extend the data set presented in Ref. [1], which studied planar arrays at {approx}3 MA, 100 ns in Saturn long pulse mode. Planar wire array power and yield scaling studies now include current levels directly applicable to multi-pinch experiments that could be performed on the 25 MA Z machine. A maximum total x-ray power of 15 TW (250 kJ in the main pulse, 330 kJ total yield) was observed with a 12-mm-wide planar array at 5.3 MA, 52 ns. The full data set indicates power scaling that is sub-quadratic with load current, while total and main pulse yields are closer to quadratic; these trends are similar to observations of compact cylindrical tungsten arrays on Z. We continue the investigation of energy coupling in these short pulse Saturn experiments using zero-dimensional-type implosion modeling and pinhole imaging, indicating 16 cm/?s implosion velocity in a 12-mm-wide array. The same phenomena of significant trailing mass and evidence for resistive heating are observed at 5 MA as at 3 MA. 17 kJ of Al K-shell radiation was obtained in one Al planar array fielded at 5.5 MA, 57 ns and we

  7. METHOD OF REMOVING IODINE FROM GASES AND FILTER MEDIUM THEREFOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silverman, L.

    1961-08-01

    A method for the removal of iodine from large gas volumes is described. The gaseous medium is heated to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C. Water vapor is then added to the medium in approximate amounts of 1 lb/cu ft of the medium. The medium is then passed through a porous copper fibrous pad having deposited thereon a coating of silver, the silver coating being treated with hydrogen sulfide forming a layer of silver sulfide. (AEC)

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Results | Department of Energy Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Data and Results Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Data and Results The Vehicle Technologies Office supports work to collect extensive data on light-duty, medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles through the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Idaho National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) test and evaluate medium and heavy-duty fleet vehicles that use hybrid

  9. Photocopia-A Unibody Mono-material Compact and Scalable Photomultiplier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulhollan, Gregory

    2014-12-01

    The Photocopia photomultiplier tube (PMT) takes advantage of two of the many unique properties of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium (a-SiGe) photoemitter material: its mechanical flexibility and mostly substrate-independent properties. The a-SiGe photoemitter has high secondary electron (SE) yield. It can be used both as the photocathode and as the gain medium. The active material can be grown on a flat, thin unibody substrate, formed and then “rolled up” ex situ. The completed structure would then be activated and sealed within a tube. The Ge component can be increased to enhance red-sensitivity. Compact sizes are possible, minimizing magnetic field effects. The Photocopia PMT will be a low cost alternative to MCPs for TOF detectors and provide better timing discrimination for Cherenkov detectors. Retention of the ability to activate to a normal photoyield state upon flexing (bending) the substrate of the a-SiGe material after growth, but prior to activation has been shown. The SE coefficient of the activated material has been characterized over the voltage range suitable for utilization as the gain material. The time response of the material is suited to PMT use.

  10. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  11. Intensity limitations in compact H{sup minus} cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baartman, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    At TRIUMF, we have demonstrated 2.5 mA in a compact H{sup -} cyclotron. It is worthwhile to explore possibility of going to even higher intensity. In small cyclotrons, vertical focusing vanishes at the center. The space charge tune shift further reduces vertical focusing, thus determining an upper limit on instantaneous current. Limit on average current is of course also dependent upon phase acceptance, but this can be made quite large in an H{sup -} cyclotron. Longitudinal space charge on the first turn can reduce the phase acceptance as well. For finite ion source brightness, another limit comes from bunching efficiency in presence of space charge forces. We present methods of calculating and optimizing these limits. In particular, we show that it is possible to achieve 10mA in a 50 MeV compact H{sup -} cyclotron.

  12. Compaction measurements on cores from the Pleasant Bayou wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jogi, P.N.; Gray, K.E.; Ashman, T.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Additional measurements of compressibility, compaction coefficients, porosities, permeabilities, and resistivities have been conducted on cores from Pleasant Bayou wells No. 1 and No. 2. All rock parameters show non-linear behavior with changing reservoir or pore pressure, which is of interest in modelling reservoir performance and subsidence. Compressibilities and uniaxial compaction coefficients decline by a factor of 2 to 3 as reservoir pressure declines from geopressured to normal hydrostatic conditions. Porosity reductions are 6 to 8% while permeability reductions are on the order of 10 to 30% over that reservoir pressure range. Measured formation factors were 2 to 4 times log derived values for F. Matrix compressibilities were not insignificant relative to bulk compressibilities.

  13. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott A. Ploger; Paul A. Demkowicz; John D. Hunn; Jay S. Kehn

    2014-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak compact-average burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3 x 105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Six compacts have been examined, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose from 36 to 79 individual particles near midplane on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer–IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, 981 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel protrusion into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer–IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only four classified particles, all in conjunction with IPyC–SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures and IPyC–SiC debonds.

  14. Compact Refractive Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lerner, Scott A.; Bennett, Charles L.; Bixler, Jay V.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Lewis, Isabella T.

    2005-07-26

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first means for receiving the light and focusing the light, an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the first means and defracts the light, a second means for receiving the light from the immersed diffraction grating and focusing the light, and an image plane that receives the light from the second means

  15. Los Alamos plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Los Alamos plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators Tuesday, January 12, 2016 - 12:00am NNSA Blog The team in front of Los Alamos' Trident Laser Target Chamber. Back, from left: Tom Shimada, Sha-Marie Reid, Adam Sefkow, Miguel Santiago, and Chris Hamilton. Front, from left: Russ Mortensen, Chengkun Huang, Sasi Palaniyappan, Juan Fernandez, Cort Gautier and Randy Johnson. A transformative breakthrough in controlling ion

  16. Compact gas-insulated transformer. Fourteenth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Objective is to develop a compact, more efficient, quieter transformer which does not rely on mineral oil insulation. Compressed SF/sub 6/ is used as the external insulation and polymer film as the insulation between turns. A separate liquid cooling system is also provided. This document reports progress made in design, mechanical, dielectric, short circuit, thermal, materials, prototype, accessories, commercialization, and system studies. (DLC)

  17. Sensitivity in X-ray grating interferometry on compact systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuering, Thomas; Modregger, Peter; Haemmerle, Stefan; Weiss, Stephan; Nueesch, Joachim; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-31

    The optimization of compact X-ray grating interferometry systems is crucial for the progress of this technique in industrial devices. Here, an analytical formulation for the sensitivity of the phase contrast image acquisition is derived using previous results from noise analyses. Furthermore, experimental measurements of the sensitivity for different configurations are compared, providing further insight into the dependence on polychromatic radiation. Finally, strategies for the geometrical optimization are given.

  18. Compact Orthogonal NMR Field Sensor - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compact Orthogonal NMR Field Sensor DOE Grant Recipients Argonne National Laboratory Contact GRANT About This Technology Example NMR Image Example NMR Image Example Enhanced Sensor Example Enhanced Sensor Technology Marketing Summary Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has created an enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) sensor that serves as a drop-in replacement sensor for existing NMR systems. Existing sensors receive only information that can be used to determine the composition of a

  19. Tracer diffusion in compacted, water-saturated bentonite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourg, Ian C.; Sposito, Garrison; Bourg, Alain C.M.

    2005-08-04

    Compacted Na-bentonite clay barriers, widely used in theisolation of solid-waste landfills and other contaminated sites, havebeen proposed for a similar use in the disposal of high-level radioactivewaste. Molecular diffusion through the pore space in these barriers playsa key role in their performance, thus motivating recent measurements ofthe apparent diffusion coefficient tensor of water tracers in compacted,water-saturated Na-bentonites. In the present study, we introduce aconceptual model in which the pore space of water-saturated bentonite isdivided into 'macropore' and 'interlayer nanopore' compartments. Withthis model we determine quantitatively the relative contributions ofpore-network geometry (expressed as a geometric factor) and of thediffusive behavior of water molecules near montmorillonite basal surfaces(expressed as a contristivity factor) to the apparent diffusioncoefficient tensor. Our model predicts, in agreement with experiment,that the mean principal value of the apparent diffusion coefficienttensor follows a single relationship when plotted against the partialmontmorillonite dry density (mass of montmorillonite per combined volumeof montmorillonite and pore space). Using a single fitted parameter, themean principal geometric factor, our model successfully describes thisrelationship for a broad range of bentonite-water system, from dilute gelto highly-compacted bentonite with 80 percent of its pore water ininterlayer nanopores.

  20. On the Virial Theorem for Interstellar Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D

    2007-09-24

    An attempt has been made to derive a version of the virial integral that would describe average properties of the interstellar medium (ISM). It is suggested to eliminate the (large) contribution of stellar matter by introducing 'exclusion zones' surrounding stars. Such an approach leads to the appearance of several types of additional surface integrals in the general expression. Their contribution depends on the rate of energy and matter exchange between the stars and ISM. If this exchange is weak, one can obtain a desired virial integral for ISM. However, the presence of intermittent large-scale energetic events significantly constrains the applicability of the virial theorem. If valid, the derived virial integral is dominated by cold molecular/atomic clouds, with only minor contribution of the global magnetic field and low-density warm part.

  1. GALAXY INTERACTIONS IN COMPACT GROUPS. I. THE GALACTIC WINDS OF HCG16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, Frederic P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J.

    2013-05-10

    Using the WiFeS integral field spectrograph, we have undertaken a series of observations of star-forming galaxies in compact groups. In this first paper dedicated to the project, we present the analysis of the spiral galaxy NGC 838, a member of the Hickson Compact Group 16, and of its galactic wind. Our observations reveal that the wind forms an asymmetric, bipolar, rotating structure, powered by a nuclear starburst. Emission line ratio diagnostics indicate that photoionization is the dominant excitation mechanism at the base of the wind. Mixing from slow shocks (up to 20%) increases further out along the outflow axis. The asymmetry of the wind is most likely caused by one of the two lobes of the wind bubble bursting out of its H I envelope, as indicated by line ratios and radial velocity maps. The characteristics of this galactic wind suggest that it is caught early (a few Myr) in the wind evolution sequence. The wind is also quite different from the galactic wind in the partner galaxy NGC 839 which contains a symmetric, shock-excited wind. Assuming that both galaxies have similar interaction histories, the two different winds must be a consequence of the intrinsic properties of NGC 838 and NGC 839 and their starbursts.

  2. Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghezzehei, T.A.

    2008-05-29

    Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

  3. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongen, W. van

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  4. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2004-08-03

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  5. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2006-05-30

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  6. Submillimeter galaxies as progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toft, S.; Zirm, A.; Krogager, J.-K.; Man, A. W. S.; Smol?i?, V.; Krpan, J.; Magnelli, B.; Karim, A.; Michalowski, M.; Capak, P.; Sheth, K.; Schawinski, K.; Wuyts, S.; Lutz, D.; Staguhn, J.; Berta, S.; Sanders, D.; Mccracken, H.; Riechers, D.

    2014-02-20

    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts. With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42{sub ?29}{sup +40} Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  7. Compaction localization and constitutive behavior of weak porous sandstone.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, David Joseph; Dewers, Thomas A.; Issen, Kathleen

    2009-06-01

    A combined experimental and constitutive modeling program for weak porous sandstone deformation is described. A series of axisymmetric compression tests were performed over a range of mean stresses to study dilatational, compactional and transitional regimes. Experimental results were used both to derive constitutive parameters for testing localization theory and to parameterize a poroelastic-plastic model. Observed strain localization, imaged syn-deformationally using acoustic emissions, includes high- and low-angle shear and low angle compactional features or 'bands'. Isotropic elastic moduli measured via unloading loops show a progressive degradation pre-failure as decreasing functions of work-conjugate plastic strains and increasing functions of stress magnitude. The degradation pathway is unique for samples which underwent localization versus those that underwent spatially pervasive pore collapse. Total shear and volume strains are partitioned into elastic and plastic portions including the ''coupling'' strain associated with modulus degradation. Plastic strain calculated with and without the coupling term is compared with regard to localization predictions. Both coupled and uncoupled cases predict high angle shear bands for uniaxial and low mean stress conditions on the dilatational side of the yield surface. Uncoupled predictions show progressively lower angle shear bands approaching the transitional regime (stress conditions approaching the 'cap' surface). When elastic-plastic coupling is accounted for, compaction bands are predicted for the transitional regime, as are observed in the experiments. Finite element modeling efforts are described using a 3-invariant, mixed-hardening, continuous yield surface, elasto-plasticity model that includes several features important for porous sandstone constitutive behavior and observed experimentally, including non-associativity, nonlinear elasticity, elastic-plastic coupling, and kinematic hardening. Modeled

  8. COMPACT BINARY PROGENITORS OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Perna, Rosalba; Rezzolla, Luciano; Troja, Eleonora; Lazzati, Davide

    2013-01-10

    In recent years, detailed observations and accurate numerical simulations have provided support to the idea that mergers of compact binaries containing either two neutron stars (NSs) or an NS and a black hole (BH) may constitute the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The merger of such compact binaries is expected to lead to the production of a spinning BH surrounded by an accreting torus. Several mechanisms can extract energy from this system and power the SGRBs. Here we connect observations and numerical simulations of compact binary mergers, and use the current sample of SGRBs with measured energies to constrain the mass of their powering tori. By comparing the masses of the tori with the results of fully general-relativistic simulations, we are able to infer the properties of the binary progenitors that yield SGRBs. By assuming a constant efficiency in converting torus mass into jet energy, {epsilon}{sub jet} = 10%, we find that most of the tori have masses smaller than 0.01 M{sub Sun }, favoring 'high-mass' binary NSs mergers, i.e., binaries with total masses {approx}> 1.5 the maximum mass of an isolated NS. This has important consequences for the gravitational wave signals that may be detected in association with SGRBs, since 'high-mass' systems do not form a long-lived hypermassive NS after the merger. While NS-BH systems cannot be excluded to be the engine of at least some of the SGRBs, the BH would need to have an initial spin of {approx}0.9 or higher.

  9. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Ploger; Paul Demkowicz; John Hunn; Robert Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Five compacts have been examined so far, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose between approximately 40-80 individual particles on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer-IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, over 800 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in approximately 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel swelling into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer-IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only three particles, all in conjunction with IPyC-SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures, IPyC-SiC debonds, and SiC fractures.

  10. Characterization of Residual Medium Peptides from Yersinia pestis Cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clowers, Brian H.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2013-04-03

    Using a range of common microbial medium formulations (TSB, BHI, LB, and G-media), two attenuated strains of Y. pestis (KIM D27 (pgm-) and KIMD1 lcr-) were cultivated in triplicate. These cellular suspensions were used to develop a method of extracting residual medium peptides from the final microbial preparation to assess their relative abundance and identity. Across the conditions examined, which included additional cellular washing and different forms of microbial inactivation, residual medium peptides were detected. Despite the range of growth medium sources used and the associated manufacturing processes used in their production, a high degree of peptide similarity was observed for a given medium recipe. These results demonstrate that residual medium peptides are retained using traditional microbial cultivation techniques and may be used to inform forensic investigations with respect to production deduction.