National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for medium 15-18 cf

  1. Proceedings of the 2013 Joint Rail Conference April 15-18, 2013, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    and cumulative freight tonnages, coupled with increased development of high speed passenger rail, is placing of further research are track components used in high speed passenger, heavy haul, and shared infrastructureProceedings of the 2013 Joint Rail Conference JRC2013 April 15-18, 2013, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

  2. DOE/CF-0073

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8, 20153 METHODS DERIVATION-2013,3 DOE/CF-0073 Volume 3 Printed

  3. High-Temperature Performance of Cast CF8C-Plus Austenitic Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Covers and casings of small to medium size gas turbines can be made from cast austenitic stainless steels, including grades such as CF8C, CF3M, or CF10M. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Caterpillar have developed a new cast austenitic stainless steel, CF8C-Plus, which is a fully austenitic stainless steel, based on additions of Mn and N to the standard Nb-stabilized CF8C steel grade. The Mn addition improves castability, as well as increases the alloy solubility for N, and both Mn and N synergistically act to boost mechanical properties. CF8C-Plus steel has outstanding creep-resistance at 600-900 C, which compares well with Ni-based superalloys such as alloys X, 625, 617, and 230. CF8C-Plus also has very good fatigue and thermal fatigue resistance. It is used in the as-cast condition, with no additional heat-treatments. While commercial success for CF8C-Plus has been mainly for diesel exhaust components, this steel can also be considered for gas turbine and microturbine casings. The purposes of this paper are to demonstrate some of the mechanical properties, to update the long-term creep-rupture data, and to present new data on the high-temperature oxidation behavior of these materials, particularly in the presence of water vapor.

  4. DOE/CF-0060 Department of Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DOE/CF-0060 Volume 4 Department of Energy FY 2012 Congressional Budget Request Science;#12;Department of Energy/ Science FY 2012 Congressional Budget Volume 4 Table of Contents Page Appropriation .............................................................................................55 Basic Energy Sciences

  5. High performance ²?²Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIntire, Thomas Shane

    1991-01-01

    spectmmeter that was designed around the central idea of an increased acceptance angle for fission fragments emitted by the 'Cf source. Use of the oblique angle fission fragments increased the flux of primary ions through the sample. More importantly... detector eliminated the need for a separate conversion foil and made use of the conversion electrons created as fission fragments passed through the cover foil of the ~'Cf source. This essentially eliminated the effect of the velocity distribution...

  6. Density Functional and ab Initio Investigation of CF2ICF2I and CF2CF2I Radicals in Gas and Solution Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    -18 studies have been made to investigate their electronic structure and photodissociation dynamics. Both calculations of CF2ICF2I and · CF2CF2I, model systems in reaction dynamics, in the gas phase and methanol and potentially their reaction dynamics as well as provides a good model system for quantum chemical calculations

  7. DOE/CF-0057 Department of Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DOE/CF-0057 Volume 1 Department of Energy FY 2012 Congressional Budget Request National Nuclear on recycled paper #12;#12;#12;#12;Department of Energy/ National Nuclear Security Administration FY 2012................................................................................................................................557 The Department of Energy's Congressional Budget justification is available on the Office of Chief

  8. Xe-135 Production from Cf-252

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. A. McGrath; T. P. Houghton; J. K. Pfeiffer; R. K. Hague

    2012-03-01

    135Xe is a good indicator that fission has occurred and is a valuable isotope that helps enforce the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Due to its rather short half life and minimal commercial interest, there are no known sources where 135Xe can be purchased. Readily available standards of this isotope for calibrating collection and analytical techniques would be very useful. 135Xe can be produced in the fissioning of actinide isotopes, or by neutron capture on 134Xe. Since the neutron capture cross section of 134Xe is 3 mB, neutron capture is a low yield, though potentially useful, production route. 135Xe is also produced by spontaneous fission of 252Cf. 252Cf has a spontaneous fission rate of about 6 x 1011 s-1g-1. The cumulative yield from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf is 4.19%; and the competing neutron capture reaction that depletes 135Xe in thermal reactor systems is negligible because the neutron capture cross-section is low for fast fission neutrons. At the INL, scientists have previously transported fission products from an electroplated 252Cf thin source for the measurement of nuclear data of short-lived fission products using a technique called He-Jet collection. We have applied a similar system to the collection of gaseous 135Xe, in order to produce valuable standards of this isotope.

  9. Dating groundwater with trifluoromethyl sulfurpentafluoride (SF5CF3), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), CF3Cl (CFC-13),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dating groundwater with trifluoromethyl sulfurpentafluoride (SF5CF3), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), CF; revised 3 October 2007; accepted 30 October 2007; published 22 February 2008. [1] A new groundwater dating and water samples. SF5CF3 and CFC-13 can be used to date groundwaters in some environments where the CFCs

  10. CF Partners UK LLP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County, California: Energy Resources JumpEmissionCapital PartnersCF Partners

  11. ITALY DAILY, WEDNESDAY, JULY 25, 2001 PAGE 3 temp min c/f max c/f

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frischer, Bernard

    Hunting for Horace's Humble Home Did the Poet Live as Modestly as He Said He Did? An Archaeological TeamDISCOVER ITALY DAILY, WEDNESDAY, JULY 25, 2001 PAGE 3 Weather temp min c/f max c/f SUNNY PARTLY in his writing than many of his contemporaries, he left clues as to where he made his home. He wrote

  12. Correlation Measurements with {sup 252}Cf to Characterize Fissile Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattingly, J.K.

    2000-01-04

    Measurements using {sup 252}Cf as a timed source of neutrons and gammas have in recent years undergone significant maturation. These methods use {sup 252}Cf as an observable source of spontaneous fission neutrons and gammas in conjunction with one or more neutron- and/or gamma-sensitive detectors to measure the time-distribution of correlated detector counts following (a) an observed {sup 252}Cf-fission event and/or (b) a counting event in another detector. Detection of {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission is frequently achieved via use of a small ionization chamber in which the {sup 252}Cf is contained--in this case the timing of source emission events is random. However, one application subsequently described uses a neutron-absorbent ''shutter'' to modulate {sup 252}Cf emissions to produce a neutron source with deterministic timing. Other applications, frequently termed noise-analysis measurements, transform the time-distributions to the frequency domain. Collectively, these correlation methods use {sup 252}Cf to ''excite'' the fissile material and the response of the material is measured by an array of detectors and analyzed using standard time-correlation and/or frequency-analysis techniques. In recent years numerous advances have been made in the application of these methods to in-situ, or field measurements directed at characterizing various configurations of fissile material in operational facilities.

  13. ²?²Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry of RNA nucleosides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piper, Duane Gilbert

    1976-01-01

    . The average energy of the fragments from Cf are 79 MeV for the heavy particle and 104 MeV for the light particle, The plasma de- 22 sorption technique utilizes this energy to ionize the solid target samples. Penetration of the fission fragment... by Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry. Sample molecules are 252 volatilized and ionized by high-energy Cf fission particles. The mass of sample ions is determined by accelerating the volatil- ized tons into a flight tube where the ions separate...

  14. WWU Sustainability Academy 4PM, Wednesday, December 3, CF 125

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    WWU Sustainability Academy 4PM, Wednesday, December 3, CF 125 Agenda 1. WWU Sustainability Academy Sustainability Courses at WWU ­ Gene Myers 4. Existing Sustainability Prototype Programs at WWU ­ Arunas Oslapas faculty member in the Sustainability Academy · 25 Yes · 6 Not sure Anonymous surveyors: · 7 Not sure · 1

  15. WWU Sustainability Academy 4PM, Wednesday, December 3, CF 125

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    WWU Sustainability Academy 4PM, Wednesday, December 3, CF 125 Draft Agenda 1. Welcome ­ Facilitators panel 2. Establishing a WWU Sustainability Academy Responses to Survey Questionnaire What the WWU Sustainability Academy can do Advocating for sustainability studies at WWU 3. The Existing

  16. Etching of Copper Coated Mylar Tubes With CF-4 Gas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ecklund, Karl M.; Hartman, Keith W.; Hebert, Michael J.; Wojcicki, Stanley G.

    1996-04-01

    Using 5 mm diameter copper coated mylar straw tubes at a potential of 2.30 KV relative to a concentric 20 (mu)m diameter gold-plated tungsten anode, it has been observed that with very low flow rates of CF4-based gases the conductive copper cathode material may be removed entirely from the mylar surface.

  17. First detection of CF+ towards a high-mass protostar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fechtenbaum, S; Schneider, N; Csengeri, T; Duarte-Cabral, A; Herpin, F; Lefloch, B

    2015-01-01

    We report the first detection of the J = 1 - 0 (102.6 GHz) rotational lines of CF+ (fluoromethylidynium ion) towards CygX-N63, a young and massive protostar of the Cygnus X region. This detection occurred as part of an unbiased spectral survey of this object in the 0.8-3 mm range, performed with the IRAM 30m telescope. The data were analyzed using a local thermodynamical equilibrium model (LTE model) and a population diagram in order to derive the column density. The line velocity (-4 km s-1) and line width (1.6 km s-1) indicate an origin from the collapsing envelope of the protostar. We obtain a CF+ column density of 4.10e11 cm-2. The CF+ ion is thought to be a good tracer for C+ and assuming a ratio of 10e-6 for CF+/C+, we derive a total number of C+ of 1.2x10e53 within the beam. There is no evidence of carbon ionization caused by an exterior source of UV photons suggesting that the protostar itself is the source of ionization. Ionization from the protostellar photosphere is not efficient enough. In contras...

  18. February 2010 Office of Chief Financial Officer DOE/CF-0046

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    February 2010 Office of Chief Financial Officer DOE/CF-0046 Budget Highlights Department of Energy/CF-0046 Budget Highlights Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Department of Energy FY 2011 ............................................................................................................................................15 Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy

  19. CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components...

  20. Charmonium in Hot Medium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xingbo

    2012-02-14

    We investigate charmonium production in the hot medium created by heavy-ion collisions by setting up a framework in which in-medium charmonium properties are constrained by thermal lattice QCD (lQCD) and subsequently ...

  1. Mechanistic Studies on the Formation of Trifluoromethyl Sulfur Pentafluoride, SF5CF3sa Greenhouse Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistic Studies on the Formation of Trifluoromethyl Sulfur Pentafluoride, SF5CF3sa Greenhouse that a source for this potentially dangerous greenhouse gas might be the recombination of SF5(X2A1) and CF3(X2A1 the strongest greenhouse gas trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3) with a radiative force of 0.59 W m-2

  2. Absolute CF{sub 2} density and gas temperature measurements by absorption spectroscopy in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Yong, E-mail: yongxu@dlut.edu.cn; Peng, Fei; Gong, Fa-Ping; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Laboratory of Plasma Physical Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Yong-Xin; Wang, You-Nian [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Broadband ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the CF{sub 2} radical density in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas, using the CF{sub 2} A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system of absorption spectrum. The rotational temperature of ground state CF{sub 2} and excited state CF was also estimated by using A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system and B{sup 2}??X{sup 2}? system, respectively. The translational gas temperature was deduced from the Doppler width of the Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable atoms absorption line by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The rotational temperatures of the excited state CF are about 100?K higher than those of ground state CF{sub 2}, and about 200?K higher than the translational gas temperatures. The dependences of the radical CF{sub 2} density, electron density, electron temperature, rotational temperature, and gas temperature on the high frequency power and pressure have been analyzed. Furthermore, the production and loss mechanisms of CF{sub 2} radical and the gas heating mechanisms have also been discussed.

  3. Office of Chief Financial Officer DOE/CF-0113

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates3 DOE/CF-0098

  4. PRIVACY IMPACT ASSESSMENT: CF GovTrip PIA Template Version

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidential Permit authorizingAward Fee Contracts:RSSthe water-energyCF

  5. Review of RBE and OER values for Cf-neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kal, H.B.

    1986-01-01

    The isotope californium-252 was first isolated and characterized after the nuclear explosion which took place in the Eniwetok Island complex in November 1952. Californium decays by alpha emission and by spontaneous fission where fission fragments, X and gamma rays and neutrons are emitted. The effective half-life dominated by alpha decay is about 2.66 year. Since the discovery of /sup 252/Cf and its production for biological research in the late sixties, several tens of reports on responses of many biological systems to treatments with Cf-neutrons have been published. The two quantities of practical interest are the relative biological effectiveness, RBE, and the oxygen enhancement ratio, OER. The RBE is a measure for comparison of the doses of californium and radium gamma rays needed for a specific biological endpoint. Laboratory studies of RBE can provide a useful guide to the doses to be applied in clinical practice with californium radiation. The OER is a measure for comparison of the doses required for a specific biological endpoint in the absence and in the presence of oxygen. From numerous experiments it has been established that the OER of fast neutrons is lower than that of gamma rays. It is commonly believed that one of the limitations of radiotherapy is the presence of a hypoxic fraction of cells in tumours. Therefore, the potential advantage of californium rests upon its lower OER. A review of experimental data on these two quantities is provided.

  6. Synthetic laser medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  7. The roles of jets: CF, CCSN, PN, CEE, GEE, ILOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soker, Noam

    2015-01-01

    I review the roles of jet-inflated bubbles in determining the evolution of different astrophysical objects. I discuss astrophysical systems where jets are known to inflate bubbles (cooling flow [CF] clusters; young galaxies; intermediate luminosity optical transients [ILOTs]; bipolar planetary nebulae [PNe]), and systems that are speculated to have jet-inflated bubbles (core collapse supernovae [CCSNe]; common envelope evolution [CEE]; grazing envelope evolution [GEE]). The jets in many of these cases act through a negative jet feedback mechanism (JFM). I discuss the outcomes when the JFM fizzle, or does not work at all. According to this perspective, some very interesting and energetic events owe their existence to the failure of the JFM, including stellar black holes, gamma ray bursts, and type Ia supernovae.

  8. Nuclear charge distribution in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taofeng Wang; Liping Zhu; Liming Wang; Qinghua Men; Hongyin Han; Haihong Xia

    2015-11-29

    The measurement for charge distributions of fragments in 252Cf has been performed by using a unique style of detector setup consisting of a typical grid ionization chamber and a dE-E particle telescope. We found that the fragment mass dependency of the average width of the charge distribution shows a systematic decreased trend with the obvious odd-even effect. The variation of widths of charge distribution with kinetic energies shows an approximate V-shape curve due to the large number of neutron emission for the high excitation energies and cold fragmentation with low excitation energies. As for the behavior of the average nuclear charge with respect to its deviation {\\Delta}Z from the unchanged charge distribution (UCD) as a function of the mass number of primary fragments A*, for asymmetric fission products {\\Delta}Z is negative value, while upon approaching mass symmetry {\\Delta}Z turns positive. Concerning the energy dependence of the most probable charge for given primary mass number A*, the obvious increasing tendencies for with the kinetic energies are observed. The correlation between the average nuclear charge and the primary mass number is given as linear function. The proton and neutron odd-even effects with light fragment kinetic energies are derived.

  9. Theoretical and Experimental Results Regarding LENR/CF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Bass; Wm. Stan Gleeson

    2000-11-12

    We challenge the predominant view that low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) are prohibited by standard quantum mechanics (QM). This view, supposedly based on standard nuclear theory, need not apply in condensed-matter environments. These considerations indicate that seemingly novel experimental evidence of rapid aneutronic bulk-process transmutation, at extraordinarily low-energy levels, in a simple electrochemical reactor, can occur. This explains: (a) induced rapid decay of radioactive thorium into stable nuclides, e.g., Cu and (b) resulting, anomalous distribution of Cu isotopes. We reexamine arguments of Peebles cited as evidence that standard QM 'forbids' cold fusion (CF). We note oversimplifications in those and present an alternative, more sophisticated calculation (see Bass, Refs. 3 through 8) demonstrating that conventional wisdom about impenetrability of the 'Coulomb barrier' fails as a result of periodic-order-induced resonance. We also examine empirical evidence. In three independent tests of an LENR electrolysis cell, using different I-V-T (current/voltage/time) protocols, the percentage of radiation reduction (RR) transmutation achieved {eta}=[23{percent}, 50{percent}, 83{percent}] versus expended energy E=[0.6535, 32.5, 74.6] (Watt-hours), obtained by numerical integration of recorded product I{center_dot}V for processing time T, provides near-perfect straight-line correlation: {eta}={alpha}{center_dot}E + {eta}{sub 0}, {alpha}=0.8105, {eta}{sub 0}=22.888, (0.65 < E < 0.75).

  10. /sup 252/Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 252/Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method has been tested in a wide variety of experiments that have indicated the broad range of applicability of the method. The neutron multiplication factor k/sub eff/ has been satisfactorily detemined for a variety of materials including uranium metal, light water reactor fuel pins, fissile solutions, fuel plates in water, and interacting cylinders. For a uranyl nitrate solution tank which is typical of a fuel processing or reprocessing plant, the k/sub eff/ values were satisfactorily determined for values between 0.92 and 0.5 using a simple point kinetics interpretation of the experimental data. The short measurement times, in several cases as low as 1 min, have shown that the development of this method can lead to a practical subcriticality monitor for many in-plant applications. The further development of the method will require experiments oriented toward particular applications including dynamic experiments and the development of theoretical methods to predict the experimental observables.

  11. Nuclear charge distribution in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Taofeng; Wang, Liming; Men, Qinghua; Han, Hongyin; Xia, Haihong

    2015-01-01

    The measurement for charge distributions of fragments in 252Cf has been performed by using a unique style of detector setup consisting of a typical grid ionization chamber and a dE-E particle telescope. We found that the fragment mass dependency of the average width of the charge distribution shows a systematic decreased trend with the obvious odd-even effect. The variation of widths of charge distribution with kinetic energies shows an approximate V-shape curve due to the large number of neutron emission for the high excitation energies and cold fragmentation with low excitation energies. As for the behavior of the average nuclear charge with respect to its deviation {\\Delta}Z from the unchanged charge distribution (UCD) as a function of the mass number of primary fragments A*, for asymmetric fission products {\\Delta}Z is negative value, while upon approaching mass symmetry {\\Delta}Z turns positive. Concerning the energy dependence of the most probable charge for given primary mass number A*, the obvious inc...

  12. The Local Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redfield, S

    2006-01-01

    The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general interstellar phenomena in great detail and in three dimensions. In particular, high resolution optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy have proven to be powerful tools for addressing fundamental questions concerning the physical conditions and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of this local material. After reviewing our current understanding of the structure of gas in the solar neighborhood, I will discuss the influence that the LISM can have on stellar and planetary systems, including LISM dust deposition onto planetary atmospheres and the modulation of galactic cosmic rays through the astrosphere - the balancing interface between the outward pressure of the magnetized stellar wind and the inward pressure of the surrounding interstellar medium. On Earth, galactic cosmic rays may play a role as contributors to ozone layer chemistry, planetary electrical discharge frequency, biological mutation rates, and cl...

  13. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  14. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  15. March 2014 Office of Chief Financial Officer DOE/CF-0102

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    March 2014 Office of Chief Financial Officer DOE/CF-0102 Budget Highlights Department of Energy FY Budget Highlights Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Department of Energy FY 2015 Congressional............................................................................................................................................20 Science and Energy Science

  16. Improved Dark Energy Constraints From ~ 100 New CfA Supernova...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with samples from the literature to calculate improved constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. The CfA3 sample is added to the Union set of Kowalski et al....

  17. The Local Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth Redfield

    2006-01-06

    The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general interstellar phenomena in great detail and in three dimensions. In particular, high resolution optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy have proven to be powerful tools for addressing fundamental questions concerning the physical conditions and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of this local material. After reviewing our current understanding of the structure of gas in the solar neighborhood, I will discuss the influence that the LISM can have on stellar and planetary systems, including LISM dust deposition onto planetary atmospheres and the modulation of galactic cosmic rays through the astrosphere - the balancing interface between the outward pressure of the magnetized stellar wind and the inward pressure of the surrounding interstellar medium. On Earth, galactic cosmic rays may play a role as contributors to ozone layer chemistry, planetary electrical discharge frequency, biological mutation rates, and climate. Since the LISM shares the same volume as practically all known extrasolar planets, the prototypical debris disks systems, and nearby low-mass star-formation sites, it will be important to understand the structures of the LISM and how they may influence planetary atmospheres.

  18. Revised UV absorption spectra, ozone depletion potentials, and global warming potentials for the ozone-depleting substances CF2Br2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    Revised UV absorption spectra, ozone depletion potentials, and global warming potentials for the ozone-depleting substances CF2Br2, CF2ClBr, and CF2BrCF2Br Dimitrios K. Papanastasiou,1,2,5 Nabilah. [1] The contribution of Halons, bromine-containing haloalkanes, to stratospheric ozone depletion

  19. CfAIR2: Near Infrared Light Curves of 94 Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Andrew S; Marion, G H; Challis, Peter; Mandel, Kaisey S; Bloom, Joshua S; Modjaz, Maryam; Narayan, Gautham; Hicken, Malcolm; Foley, Ryan; Klein, Christopher R; Starr, Dan L; Morgan, Adam; Rest, Armin; Blake, Cullen H; Miller, Adam A; Falco, Emilio E; Wyatt, William F; Mink, Jessica; Skrutskie, Michael F; Kirshner, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    CfAIR2 is a large homogeneously reduced set of near-infrared (NIR) light curves for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) obtained with the 1.3m PAIRITEL (Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope). This data set includes 4607 measurements of 94 SN Ia and 4 additional SN Iax observed from 2005-2011 at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. CfAIR2 includes JHKs photometric measurements for 88 normal and 6 spectroscopically peculiar SN Ia in the nearby universe, with a median redshift of z~0.021 for the normal SN Ia. CfAIR2 data span the range from -13 days to +127 days from maximum in the B-band. More than half of the light curves begin before the time of maximum and the coverage typically contains ~13-18 epochs of observation, depending on the filter. We present extensive tests that verify the fidelity of the CfAIR2 data pipeline, including comparison to the excellent data of the Carnegie Supernova Project. CfAIR2 contributes to a firm local anchor for supernova cosmology studies in the NIR. ...

  20. Mode transition in CF{sub 4} + Ar inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Gao, Fei; Zhao, Shu-Xia; Li, Xue-Chun; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-12-15

    The E to H mode transitions are studied by a hairpin probe and optical emission spectroscopy in inductively coupled CF{sub 4} + Ar plasmas. Electron density, optical emission intensity of Ar, and the voltage and current are measured during the E to H mode transitions. It is found that the electron density and plasma emission intensity increase continuously at low pressure during the E to H mode transition, while they jump up discontinuously at high pressure. Meanwhile, the transition threshold power and ?P (the power interval between E and H mode) increase by increasing the pressure. When the ratio of CF{sub 4} increases, the E to H mode transition happens at higher applied power, and meanwhile, the ?P also significantly increases. Besides, the effects of CF{sub 4} gas ratio on the plasma properties and the circuit electrical properties in both pure E and H modes were also investigated. The electron density and plasma emission intensity both decrease upon increasing the ratio of CF{sub 4} at the two modes, due to the stronger electrons loss scheme. The applied voltages at E and H modes both increase as increasing the CF{sub 4} gas ratio, however the applied current at two modes behave just oppositely with the gas ratio.

  1. Interlayer magnetoresistance peak in -,,BEDTTTF...2SF5CH2CF2SO3 X. Su and F. Zuoa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Fulin

    Interlayer magnetoresistance peak in -,,BEDT­TTF...2SF5CH2CF2SO3 X. Su and F. Zuoa) Department crystals of organic superconductor -(BEDT­TTF 2SF5CH2CF2SO3 . The magnetoresistance is found to display measurement on a highly two-dimensional organic superconductor -(BEDT­TTF 2 SF5CH2CF2SO3 . Similar to other ET

  2. Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel using Cf-252 interrogation with prompt neutron detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jianwei; Tobin, Stephen J; Menlove, Howard O; Croft, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron (CIPN) detection is proposed as one of 14 NDA techniques to determine Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies (FAs). CIPN is a low-cost and portable instrument, and it looks like a modified fork detector combined with an active interrogation source. Fission chamber (FC) is chosen as neutron detector because of its insensitivity to {gamma} radiation. The CIPN assay is comprised of two measurements, a background count and an active count, without and with the {sup 252}Cf source next to the fuel respectively. The net signal above background is primarily due to the multiplication of Cf source neutrons caused by the fissile content. The capability of CIPN to detect diversion and to determine fissile content was quantified using MCNPX simulations. New schemes were proposed (such as burnup and cooling time correction, etc.) and the results show that the fissile content of a target spent fuel assembly can be determined using CIPN signal.

  3. Final Technical Report for grant entitled "New Horizons in C-F Activation by Main Group Electrophiles"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozerov, Oleg V [Texas A& M University; Ozerov, Oleg V.

    2014-01-16

    We became interested in developing new methods for hydrodefluorination (HDF) and other types of C-F bond conversion in polyfluoroalkanes under mild conditions. We were attracted to an approach to C-F activation, where the key C-F cleavage proceeds by a Lewis acid abstraction of fluoride rather than a redox event. The efforts during the previous period were aimed at a) advancing the HDF reactivity with improvement in scope and catalyst longevity; b) extending C-F activation beyond HDF; c) generating insight about the elementary steps of the reaction and potential intermediates.

  4. Cast CF8C-Plus Stainless Steel for Turbocharger Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Shyam, A.; Evans, N.D.; Pattabiraman, K. (Honeywell Turbo Technologies

    2010-06-30

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) project is to provide the critical test data needed to qualify CF8C-Plus cast stainless steel for commercial production and use for turbocharger housings with upgraded performance and durability relative to standard commercial cast irons or stainless steels. The turbocharger technologies include, but are not limited to, heavy-duty highway diesel engines, and passenger vehicle diesel and gasoline engines. This CRADA provides additional critical high-temperature mechanical properties testing and data analysis needed to quality the new CF8C-Plus steels for turbocharger housing applications.

  5. Correction to Electron Plasma Mode Frequency Formula A.A. Kabantsev and C.F. Driscoll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Correction to Electron Plasma Mode Frequency Formula A.A. Kabantsev and C.F. Driscoll Department [submitted]) Abstract A correction to the Prasad-O'Neil formula for non-axisymmetric Trivelpiece-Gould plasma zeros jm /jm-1 . 1 #12;The simple Prasad-O'Neil formula1 for Trivelpiece-Gould plasma wave frequencies

  6. Preprint WIS/16/01-Jul-DPP GEM photomultiplier operation in CF4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Israel b Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia. Abstract The properties of a 3-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) element photomultiplier, with a semitransparent CsI photocathode and CF4 gas filling, are presented. Compared to other gas mixtures, such as CH4, Ar/CH4, Ar/N2 and He/Ar/N2

  7. Mechanism of C-F Reductive Elimination from Palladium(IV) Takeru Furuya,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Mechanism of C-F Reductive Elimination from Palladium(IV) Fluorides Takeru Furuya, Diego Benitez increas- ingly efficient over the past decade, with palladium being one of the most common transition to the strong H-F hydrogen bonding20 and resulting bifluoride formation.21 Protic functional groups

  8. Performance of aluminide coatings applied on alloy CF8C plus at 800 C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Deepak [ORNL] [ORNL; Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL] [ORNL; Shyam, Amit [ORNL] [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL] [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL] [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL] [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The cost effective, austenitic stainless steel CF8C plus is an attractive alloy for massive cast structures such as steam turbine casings. The microstructure stability and creep strength of this alloy are better than commercial high-performance heat-resistant steels such as NF709 and Super 304H, and are comparable to the Ni-based superalloy Inconel 617. The oxidation resistance of the alloy in atmosphere rich in water vapor is however insufficient at T>800 C, and the use of diffusion aluminide coatings is considered for potential high temperature applications. The thermal stability and protectiveness of coatings applied on the CF8C plus substrate by pack cementation and slurry process were investigated in air + 10% H2O environment at 800 C. Further, the coating effect on the fatigue life of the alloy was assessed via low-cycle-fatigue experiments.

  9. 2?52Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry of metal clusters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Janita Muriel

    1991-01-01

    fission fragments. The fission fragments, emiued by the spontaneous fission of the ~'Cf nuclei, impinge on the sample surface and cause desorption to occur, When the source undergoes spontaneous fission it releases two fission fragments which... are colinear to each other. One of these fission fragments is detected and is used to produce a "start" timing mark. The other fission fragment causes the desorption of ions from the sample matrix producing secondary ions. A high voltage is applied...

  10. PROJECT PROFILE: GeoCF LLC (Incubator 10) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyAprilEnergy EEREPlateauFolsom Labs (Incubator 10) PROJECTGeoCF

  11. Chloroform cometabolism by butane-grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and methane-grown Methylosinus trichosporium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    Chloroform cometabolism by butane-grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 63 (9): 3607-3613 SEP 1997 Abstract: Chloroform (CF) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae

  12. Glasma Evolution in Partonic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Nazarenko

    2010-11-23

    We examine a scenario of the abelianized Glasma evolution with accounting for back-reaction of partonic medium in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We announce that such a generalization leads to the instabilities and the presence of negative color conductivity in the system.

  13. GEANT4 and PHITS simulations of the shielding of neutrons from $^{252}$Cf source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Jae Won

    2014-01-01

    Neutron shielding simulations by using GEANT4 and PHITS code are performed. As a neutron source, $^{252}$Cf is considered and the energy distribution of the neutrons emitted from $^{252}$Cf is assumed the Watt fission spectrum. The neutron dose equivalent rates with and without the shield are estimated for shielding materials such as graphite, iron, polyethylene, NS-4-FR and KRAFTON-HB. For the neutron shielding simulations by using GEANT4, high precision (G4HP) model with G4NDL 4.2 based on ENDF-VII data are used. And for PHITS simulations, JENDL-4.0 library are used for the same purpose. It is found that differences between the shielding calculations by using GEANT4 with G4NDL 4.2 and PHITS with JENDL-4.0 library are not significant for all cases considered in this work. We investigate the accuracy of the neutron dose equivalent rates obtained from GEANT4 and PHITS by comparing our simulation results with experimental data and other values calculated earlier. Calculated neutron dose equivalent rates agree w...

  14. Phase diagram of the CF{sub 4} monolayer and bilayer on graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Petros; Hess, George B.

    2014-05-21

    We report an experimental study of physisorbed monolayers and bilayers of CF{sub 4} on graphite using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy supplemented by ellipsometry. The symmetric C–F stretch mode ?{sub 3} near 1283 cm{sup ?1} in the gas is strongly blue shifted in the film by dynamic dipole coupling. This blue shift provides a very sensitive measure of the inter-molecular spacing in the monolayer and, less directly, in the bilayer. We find that important corrections are necessary to the volumetric coverage scales used in previous heat capacity and x-ray diffraction studies of this system. This requires quantitative and some qualitative changes to the previously proposed phase diagram. We find evidence for a new phase transition in the middle of the hexagonal incommensurate region and construct new phase diagrams in both the variables coverage-temperature and chemical potential-temperature. We determine the compressibility and thermal expansion in the low-pressure hexagonal incommensurate phase and values for the entropy change in several phase transitions. Below about 55 K there is evidence of solution of up to 7% of an impurity, most likely CO, in our monolayer but not the bilayer film.

  15. Anisotropic magnetoresistance in the organic superconductor -,,BEDT-TTF...2SF5CH2CF2SO3 X. Su and F. Zuo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Fulin

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance in the organic superconductor -,,BEDT-TTF...2SF5CH2CF2SO3 X. Su and F direction in an all organic superconductor - BEDT-TTF 2SF5CH2CF2SO3. For H I, the isothermal superconductor - BEDT-TTF 2SF5CH2CF2SO3.16,19,20 The structure contains layers of nearly parallel BEDT

  16. Anomalous low-temperature and high-field magnetoresistance in the organic superconductor -,,BEDT-TTF...2SF5CH2CF2SO3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Fulin

    -TTF...2SF5CH2CF2SO3 F. Zuo, X. Su, and P. Zhang Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables superconductor -(BEDT-TTF)2SF5CH2CF2SO3. Unlike other BEDT-TTF based organic superconductors, a nonmetallic discovered all organic supercon- ductor -(BEDT-TTF)2SF5CH2CF2SO3. Resistance mea- surements at low

  17. Apparatus and method for generating continuous wave 16 .mu.m laser radiation using gaseous CF.sub.4

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telle, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for generating continuous wave 16 .mu.m laser radiation using gaseous CF.sub.4. Laser radiation at 16 .mu.m has been observed in a cooled static cell containing low pressure CF.sub.4 optically pumped by an approximately 3 W output power cw CO.sub.2 laser. The laser cavity employed was a multiple-pass off-axis-path two spherical mirror ring resonator. Unidirectional CF.sub.4 laser output power at 615 cm.sup.-1 exceeded 2 mW. Computer calculations indicate that for modest pump powers of about 40 W, approximately 1 W of emitted laser radiation at 16 .mu.m might be obtained.

  18. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of CFC-114a (CF{sub 3}-CFCl{sub 2}) over palladium single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerken, C.A.; Rupprechter, G.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    As the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC`s) are being phased out, their most promising replacements are the hydrofluorocarbons (HFC`s). In particular, CFC-12 (CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}), widely used as a refrigerant, for example, is being replaced by HFC-134a CF{sub 3}-CFH{sub 2}. One possible route to HFC-134a is the hydrodechlorination of CFC-114a (CF{sub 3}CFCl{sub 2}) over palladium catalysts. We report results using single crystal palladium catalysts and compare the reactivity of the low Miller index planes and a polycrystalline foil. We correlate these results with parallel UHV surface science experiments. Deuterium isotope studies (D{sub 2} rather than H{sub 2}) will also be presented and discussed. Of particular interest is an observed sample history-dependent inverse isotope effect.

  19. Actinide production in /sup 136/Xe bombardments of /sup 249/Cf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregorich, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    The production cross sections for the actinide products from /sup 136/Xe bombardments of /sup 249/Cf at energies 1.02, 1.09, and 1.16 times the Coulomb barrier were determined. Fractions of the individual actinide elements were chemically separated from recoil catcher foils. The production cross sections of the actinide products were determined by measuring the radiations emitted from the nuclides within the chemical fractions. The chemical separation techniques used in this work are described in detail, and a description of the data analysis procedure is included. The actinide production cross section distributions from these /sup 136/Xe + /sup 249/Cf bombardments are compared with the production cross section distributions from other heavy ion bombardments of actinide targets, with emphasis on the comparison with the /sup 136/Xe + /sup 248/Cm reaction. A technique for modeling the final actinide cross section distributions has been developed and is presented. In this model, the initial (before deexcitation) cross section distribution with respect to the separation energy of a dinuclear complex and with respect to the Z of the target-like fragment is given by an empirical procedure. It is then assumed that the N/Z equilibration in the dinuclear complex occurs by the transfer of neutrons between the two participants in the dinuclear complex. The neutrons and the excitation energy are statistically distributed between the two fragments using a simple Fermi gas level density formalism. The resulting target-like fragment initial cross section distribution with respect to Z, N, and excitation energy is then allowed to deexcite by emission of neutrons in competition with fission. The result is a final cross section distribution with respect to Z and N for the actinide products. 68 refs., 33 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Sintered composite medium and filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A particulate filter medium is formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers. A preferred composition is about 40 vol. % quartz and about 60 vol. % stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100.degree. C. to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550.degree. C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  1. Switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface of electrospun poly (l-lactide) membranes obtained by CF?microwave plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Mengyao; Zhou, Baoming; Jiao, Kunyan; Qian, Xiaoming; Xu, Zhiwei; Teng, Kunyue; Zhao, Lihuan; Wang, Jiajun; Jiao, Yanan

    2014-11-29

    A switchable surface that promotes either hydrophobic or hydrophilic wettability of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) microfibrous membranes is obtained by CF? microwave plasma treatment in this paper. The results indicated that both etching and grafting process occurred during the CF? plasma treatment and these two factors synergistically affected the final surface wettability of PLLA membranes. When plasma treatment was taken under a relatively low power, the surface wettability of PLLA membranes turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Especially when CF? plasma treatment was taken under 100 W for 10 min and 150 W for 5 min, the water contact angle sharply decreased from 116 ± 3.0° to ~0°. According to Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results, the PLLA fibers were notably etched by CF? plasma treatment. Combined with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, only a few fluorine-containing groups were grafted onto the surface, so the etching effect directly affected the surface wettability of PLLA membranes in low plasma power condition. However, with the plasma power increasing to 200 W, the PLLA membrane surface turned to hydrophobic again. In contrast, the morphology changes of PLLA fiber surfaces were not obvious while a large number of fluorine-containing groups grafted onto the surface. So the grafting effect gradually became the major factor for the final surface wettability.

  2. Accelerating Palladium-Catalyzed C-F Bond Formation: Use of a Microflow Packed-Bed Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maimone, Thomas J.

    A flow process for Pd-catalyzed C-F bond formation is described. A microreactor with a packed-bed design allows for easy handling of large quantities of insoluble CsF with precise control over reaction times, efficient ...

  3. Switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface of electrospun poly (L-lactide) membranes obtained by CF4 microwave plasma treatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Mengyao; Wang, Jiajun; Zhou, Baoming; Jiao, Kunyan; Qian, Xiaoming; Xu, Zhiwei; Teng, Kunyue; Zhao, Lihuan; Jiao, Yanan

    2014-11-29

    A switchable surface that promotes either hydrophobic or hydrophilic wettability of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) microfibrous membranes is obtained by CF? microwave plasma treatment in this paper. The results indicated that both etching and grafting process occurred during the CF? plasma treatment and these two factors synergistically affected the final surface wettability of PLLA membranes. When plasma treatment was taken under a relatively low power, the surface wettability of PLLA membranes turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Especially when CF? plasma treatment was taken under 100 W for 10 min and 150 W for 5 min, the water contact angle sharply decreasedmore »from 116 ± 3.0° to ~0°. According to Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results, the PLLA fibers were notably etched by CF? plasma treatment. Combined with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, only a few fluorine-containing groups were grafted onto the surface, so the etching effect directly affected the surface wettability of PLLA membranes in low plasma power condition. However, with the plasma power increasing to 200 W, the PLLA membrane surface turned to hydrophobic again. In contrast, the morphology changes of PLLA fiber surfaces were not obvious while a large number of fluorine-containing groups grafted onto the surface. So the grafting effect gradually became the major factor for the final surface wettability.« less

  4. INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-02 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (SDHW) (Page 1 of 1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Chart) # of Collectors in System Collector Size Solar Tank Volume (gallons) §150(j)1B: Backup storage tanks for solar. §150(j)4: Solar water-heating system and/or/collectors are certified by the Solar RatingINSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-02 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (SDHW) (Page 1 of 1) Site

  5. P-107 / C.F. Qiu P-107: Very Bright and Efficient Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduction Organic-light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as pixels for flat- panel displays are being hotly pursuedP-107 / C.F. Qiu P-107: Very Bright and Efficient Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diode and Technology Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract The characteristics of an organic light

  6. Switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface of electrospun poly (l-lactide) membranes obtained by CF?microwave plasma treatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Mengyao; Zhou, Baoming; Jiao, Kunyan; Qian, Xiaoming; Xu, Zhiwei; Teng, Kunyue; Zhao, Lihuan; Wang, Jiajun; Jiao, Yanan

    2014-11-29

    A switchable surface that promotes either hydrophobic or hydrophilic wettability of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) microfibrous membranes is obtained by CF? microwave plasma treatment in this paper. The results indicated that both etching and grafting process occurred during the CF? plasma treatment and these two factors synergistically affected the final surface wettability of PLLA membranes. When plasma treatment was taken under a relatively low power, the surface wettability of PLLA membranes turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Especially when CF? plasma treatment was taken under 100 W for 10 min and 150 W for 5 min, the water contact angle sharply decreasedmore »from 116 ± 3.0° to ~0°. According to Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results, the PLLA fibers were notably etched by CF? plasma treatment. Combined with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, only a few fluorine-containing groups were grafted onto the surface, so the etching effect directly affected the surface wettability of PLLA membranes in low plasma power condition. However, with the plasma power increasing to 200 W, the PLLA membrane surface turned to hydrophobic again. In contrast, the morphology changes of PLLA fiber surfaces were not obvious while a large number of fluorine-containing groups grafted onto the surface. So the grafting effect gradually became the major factor for the final surface wettability.« less

  7. Interaction of gravitational waves with an elastic solid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Carter

    2001-02-28

    Contents. 1. Introduction. 2. Kinematics of a Material Medium: Material Representation. 3. Kinematics of a Material Medium: Convected Differentials. 4. Kinematics of a Perfect Elastic Medium. 5. Small Gravitational Perturbations of an Elastic Medium.

  8. Ab initiomultireference in-medium similarity renormalization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on October 23, 2015 Title: Ab initiomultireference in-medium similarity renormalization group calculations...

  9. Enrichment of the Intracluster Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Thomas

    1998-11-25

    The relevance of galaxies of different luminosity and mass for the chemical enrichment of the intracluster medium (ICM) is analysed. For this purpose, I adopt the composite luminosity function of cluster galaxies from Trentham (1998), which exhibits a significant rise at the very faint end. The model - adopting a universal Salpeter IMF - is calibrated on reproducing the M_Fe/L_tot, M_Fe/M_*, and alpha/Fe ratios observed in clusters. Although the contribution to total luminosity and ICM metals peaks around L* galaxies (M* approx -20), faint objects with M_B>-18 still provide at least 30 per cent of the metals present in the ICM. In consistency with the solar alpha/Fe ratios determined by {ASCA}, the model predicts that 60 per cent of the ICM iron comes from Type Ia supernovae. The predicted slope of the relation between intracluster gas mass and cluster luminosity emerges shallower than the observed one, indicating that the fraction of primordial gas increases with cluster richness.

  10. SME Annual Meeting Feb. 15 -18, 2015, Denver, CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -012 A PRELIMINARY EVALUATIONS OF A THROUGH-THE-EARTH (TTE) COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM AT AN UNDERGROUND COAL MINE A commercially available Through-the-Earth (TTE) communications system was evaluated at an underground coal mine between surface and underground personnel after a mine event is essential for both mine evacuation

  11. SME Annual Meeting Feb. 15 -18, 2015, Denver, CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INDUSTRY J. Restrepo, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA K. Luxbacher, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA N. Ripepi, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA S. Schafrik, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA P. Kirsch, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia M. Shi, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia R. Mitra, Univ. of New South

  12. The medium is the medium : the convergence of video, art and television at WGBH (1969)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadeau, James A. (James Andrew)

    2006-01-01

    On March 23rd 1969 Boston's public television station WGBH broadcast a program titled The Medium is the Medium. The program was a half-hour long compilation of short videos by six artists. The six pieces ranged from ...

  13. A renewed look at eta' in medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngshin Kwon; Su Houng Lee; Kenji Morita; Gyuri Wolf

    2012-04-14

    We revisit the question of whether the U_A(1) symmetry is effectively restored in hot and dense medium. In particular, by generalizing the Witten-Veneziano formula to finite temperature, we investigate whether the mass of eta'-meson will change in medium due to the restoration of chiral symmetry.

  14. The sup 252 Cf(sf) neutron spectrum in the 5- to 20-MeV energy range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marten, H.; Richter, D.; Seeliger, D. ); Fromm, W.D. ); Bottger, R.; Klein, H. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on the {sup 252}Cf neutron spectrum measured at high energies with a miniature ionization chamber and two different NE-213 neutron detectors. The gamma-ray background and the main cosmic background caused by muons were suppressed by applying efficient pulse-shape discrimination. On the basis of two-dimensional spectroscopy of the neutron time-of-flight and scintillation pulse height, the sliding bias method is used to minimize experimental uncertainties. The experimental data, corrected for several systematic influences, confirm earlier results that show negative deviations from a reference Maxwellian distribution with a 1.42-MeV spectrum temperature for neutron energies above 6 MeV. Experimental results of this work are compared with various statistical model approaches to the {sup 252}Cf(sf) neutron spectrum.

  15. Calculation of Ambient (H*(10)) and Personal (Hp(10)) Dose Equivalent from a 252Cf Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Traub, Richard J.

    2010-03-26

    The purpose of this calculation is to calculate the neutron dose factors for the Sr-Cf-3000 neutron source that is located in the 318 low scatter room (LSR). The dose factors were based on the dose conversion factors published in ICRP-21 Appendix 6, and the Ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) and Personal dose equivalent (Hp(10)) dose factors published in ICRP Publication 74.

  16. Holographic Nucleons in the Nuclear Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bum-Hoon Lee; Chanyong Park

    2015-03-12

    We investigate the nucleon's rest mass and dispersion relation in the nuclear medium which is holographically described by the thermal charged AdS geometry. On this background, the chiral condensate plays an important role to determine the nucleon's mass in both the vacuum and the nuclear medium. It also significantly modifies the nucleon's dispersion relation. The nucleon's mass in the high density regime increases with density as expected, while in the low density regime it slightly decreases. We further study the splitting of the nucleon's masses caused by the isospin interaction with the nuclear medium.

  17. Incompatibility of Contrast Medium and Trisodium Citrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delcour, Christian Bruninx, Guy

    2013-02-15

    To test the compatibility of trisodium citrate, a catheter lock solution, with iodinated contrast medium. Iohexol, iobitridol, iodixanol, ioxaglate, ioxithalamate, iomeprol, and iopromide were tested. In all tests, 2 ml of contrast medium were mixed with 2 ml of trisodium citrate solution. Iodixanol and ioxaglate provoked a highly viscous gluelike precipitation when mixed with trisodium citrate. A brief transient precipitate was observed with iohexol, iomeprol, and ioxithalamate. Permanent precipitation occurred with iobitridol and iopromide. One must be aware of the potential for precipitation when contrast medium is mixed with trisodium citrate solution. Before trisodium citrate solution is injected, the catheter should be thoroughly flushed with saline if a contrast medium has previously been injected through it.

  18. Snowmass Cosmic Frontiers 6 (CF6) Working Group Summary --The Bright Side of the Cosmic Frontier: Cosmic Probes of Fundamental Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. J. Beatty; A. E. Nelson; A. Olinto; G. Sinnis; A. U. Abeysekara; L. A. Anchordoqui; T. Aramaki; J. Belz; J. H. Buckley; K. Byrum; R. Cameron; M-C. Chen; K. Clark; A. Connolly; D. Cowen; T. DeYoung; P. von Doetinchem J. Dumm; M. Errando; G. Farrar; F. Ferrer; L. Fortson; S. Funk; D. Grant; S. Griffiths; A. Groß; C. Hailey; C. Hogan; J. Holder; B. Humensky; P. Kaaret; S. R. Klein; H. Krawczynski; F. Krennrich; K. Krings; J. Krizmanic; A. Kusenko; J. T. Linnemann; J. H. MacGibbon; J. Matthews; A. McCann; J. Mitchell; R. Mukherjee; D. Nitz; R. A. Ong; M. Orr; N. Otte; T. Paul; E. Resconi; M. A. Sanchez-Conde; P. Sokolsky; F. Stecker; D. Stump; I. Taboada; G. B. Thomson; K. Tollefson; P. von Doetinchem; T. Ukwatta; J. Vandenbroucke; V. Vasileiou; V. V. Vassileiv; T. J. Weiler; D. A. Williams; A. Weinstein; M. Wood; B. Zitzer

    2013-10-25

    Report of the CF6 Working Group at Snowmass 2013. Topics addressed include ultra-high energy cosmic rays, neutrinos, gamma rays, baryogenesis, and experiments probing the fundamental nature of spacetime.

  19. Data:A5e1ccd1-6885-43cf-8185-3b2c8e765008 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ccd1-6885-43cf-8185-3b2c8e765008 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1....

  20. CfLI Office Hours: 10:00 AM 6:00 PM (Academic Year); 9:00 AM 5:00 PM (Summer) ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulte, Mike

    responsibilities: general front desk administration, partner with CfLI staff to complete strategic projects necessary. This involves answering phones, emails, and visitor inquiries in a courteous, professional, phone, and visitor inquiries, while updating information on registration forms. Assist professional

  1. New Designs of Rigid Pincer Complexes with PXP Ligands and Late Transition Metals and sp3 C-F Bond Activation with Silylium and Alumenium Species 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Weixing

    2012-02-14

    In this dissertation, catalytic C-F bond activation mediated by alumenium and silylium species, improved methods for the synthesis of highly chlorinated carboranes and dodecaborates, new type of P2Si= pincer silylene Pt ...

  2. Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)

    2000-01-01

    This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

  3. Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging...

  4. Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling Expansion Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling Expansion 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  5. Experimental Plan to Verify the YPCP Model: "Yukawa Pico Chemistry and Physics" Implications in the CF-Lenr Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dufour, Jacques; Murat, Denis; Foos, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    In the CF-LERN field (Cold Fusion and Low Energy Nuclear reactions) many experimental results are available: unexplained energy production, presence of unusual patterns of classical fusion reaction products, isotopic composition variations, sporadic emission of nuclear radiations. These effects are not always observed, for similar experimental conditions. Should a fundamental reason exist for these effects to occur, funding would be justified, to make them repeatable and more intense (this step being likely to be a trial and error process, might require a substantial amount of money). In this article, a possible fundamental explanation of the phenomenon is described, together with the experimental plan to assess it.

  6. Heating mode transition in a hybrid direct current/dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4} discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Quan-Zhi; Wang, You-Nian; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2014-06-14

    Computer simulations based on the particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision method are performed to study the plasma characteristics and especially the transition in electron heating mechanisms in a hybrid direct current (dc)/dual-frequency (DF) capacitively coupled CF{sub 4} discharge. When applying a superposed dc voltage, the plasma density first increases, then decreases, and finally increases again, which is in good agreement with experiments. This trend can be explained by the transition between the four main heating modes, i.e., DF coupling, dc and DF coupling, dc source dominant heating, and secondary electron dominant heating.

  7. Experimental investigations of electron density and ion energy distributions in dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas for Ar/CF{sub 4} and Ar/O{sub 2}/CF{sub 4} discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian, E-mail: ynwang@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bi, Zhen-Hua [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China)

    2014-01-07

    The electron density and ion energy distribution (IED) are investigated in low-pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled Ar/CF{sub 4} (90%/10%) and Ar/O{sub 2}/CF{sub 4} (80%/10%/10%) plasmas. The relations between controllable parameters, such as high-frequency (HF) power, low-frequency (LF) power and gas pressure, and plasma parameters, such as electron density and IEDs, are studied in detail by utilizing a floating hairpin probe and an energy resolved quadrupole mass spectrometer, respectively. In our experiment, the electron density is mainly determined by the HF power and slightly influenced by the LF power. With increasing gas pressure, the electron density first goes up rapidly to a maximum value and then decreases at various HF and LF powers. The HF power also plays a considerable role in affecting the IEDs under certain conditions and the ion energy independently controlled by the LF source is discussed here. For clarity, some numerical results obtained from a two-dimensional fluid model are presented.

  8. In-Medium Properties of Hadrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Krusche

    2006-08-24

    A diverse experimental program for the study of the photoproduction of mesons off nuclei has been carried out - and is still running - at the Mainz MAMI and Bonn ELSA electron accelerators with the TAPS, Crystal Barrel, and Crystal Ball calorimeters. It is motivated as a detailed study of the in-medium properties of hadrons and the meson - nucleus interactions. Typical examples for the in-medium behavior of vector mesons ($\\omega$), scalar mesons ($\\sigma$), and nucleon resonances (P$_{33}$(1232), S$_{11}$(1535), D$_{15}$(1520)) are discussed. Special attention is paid to meson - nucleus final state interactions.

  9. In-medium properties of nucleon resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Krusche

    2004-12-06

    Recent experimental results for the in-medium properties of nucleon resonances are discussed. The experiments were done with the TAPS detector at the tagged photon beam of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. Measured was the photoproduction of mesons (final states $\\pi^o X$, $\\eta X$, $2\\pi^oX$ and $\\pi^o\\pi^{\\pm}X$) from the nuclei $^{12}$C, $^{40}$Ca, $^{93}$Nb, and $^{208}$Pb up to the second resonance region. The results were analyzed in view of the in-medium properties of the P$_{33}$(1232), the D$_{13}$(1520), and the S$_{11}$(1535) resonances.

  10. {sup 252}Cf-source-correlated transmission measurements for uranyl fluoride deposit in a 24-in.-OD process pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uckan, T.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Valentine, T.E.; Mullens, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Instrumentation and Controls Div.; Wyatt, M.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Hannon, T.F. [Central Engineering Services, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Characterization of a hydrated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O) deposit in a 17-ft-long, 24-in.-OD process pipe at the former Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant was successfully performed by using {sup 252}Cf-source-correlated time-of-flight (TOF) transmission measurements. These measurements of neutrons and gamma rays through the pipe from an external {sup 2521}Cf fission source were used to measure the deposit profile and its distribution along the pipe, the hydration (or H/U), and the total uranium mass. The measurements were performed with a source in an ionization chamber on one side of the pipe and detectors on the other. Scanning the pipe vertically and horizontally produced a spatial and time-dependent radiograph of the deposit in which transmitted gamma rays and neutrons were separated in time. The cross-correlation function between the source and the detector was measured with the Nuclear Weapons Identification System. After correcting for pipe effects, the deposit thickness was determined from the transmitted neutrons and H/U from the gamma rays. Results were consistent with a later intrusive observation of the shape and the color of the deposit; i.e., the deposit was annular and was on the top of the pipe at some locations, demonstrating the usefulness of this method for deposit characterization.

  11. Passive advection in nonlinear medium Michael Chertkov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chertkov, Mikhael

    Passive advection in nonlinear medium Michael Chertkov Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Received 23 September 1998; accepted 15 April 1999 Forced advection of passive on velocity, in com- parison with those of advection and nonlinearity, is called passive. The passiveness does

  12. Numerical simulations of the intergalactic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Theuns

    2002-09-05

    The intergalactic medium at redshifts 2--6 can be studied observationally through the absorption features it produces in the spectra of background quasars. Most of the UV-absorption lines arise in mildly overdense regions, which can be simulated reliably with current hydrodynamical simulations. Comparison of observed and simulated spectra allows one to put contraints on the model's parameters.

  13. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  14. Physical vacuum is a special superfluid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sbitnev, Valeriy I

    2015-01-01

    The Navier-Stokes equation contains two terms which have been subjected to slight modification: (a) the viscosity term depends of time (the viscosity in average on time is zero, but its variance is non-zero); (b) the pressure gradient contains an added term describing the quantum entropy gradient multiplied by the pressure. Owing to these modifications, the Navier-Stokes equation can be reduced to the Schr\\"odinger equation describing behavior of a particle into the vacuum being as a superfluid medium. Vortex structures arising in this medium show infinitely long life owing to zeroth average viscosity. The non-zero variance describes exchange of the vortex energy with zero-point energy of the vacuum. Radius of the vortex trembles around some average value. This observation sheds the light to the Zitterbewegung phenomenon. The long-lived vortex has a non-zero core where the vortex velocity vanishes.

  15. Physical vacuum is a special superfluid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valeriy I. Sbitnev

    2015-02-05

    The Navier-Stokes equation contains two terms which have been subjected to slight modification: (a) the viscosity term depends of time (the viscosity in average on time is zero, but its variance is non-zero); (b) the pressure gradient contains an added term describing the quantum entropy gradient multiplied by the pressure. Owing to these modifications, the Navier-Stokes equation can be reduced to the Schr\\"odinger equation describing behavior of a particle into the vacuum being as a superfluid medium. Vortex structures arising in this medium show infinitely long life owing to zeroth average viscosity. The non-zero variance describes exchange of the vortex energy with zero-point energy of the vacuum. Radius of the vortex trembles around some average value. This observation sheds the light to the Zitterbewegung phenomenon. The long-lived vortex has a non-zero core where the vortex velocity vanishes.

  16. The warm ionized medium in spiral galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haffner, L M; Beckman, J E; Wood, K; Slavin, J D; Giammanco, C; Madsen, G J; Zurita, A; Reynolds, R J

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews observations and models of the diffuse ionized gas that permeates the disk and halo of our Galaxy and others. It was inspired by a series of invited talks presented during an afternoon scientific session of the 65th birthday celebration for Professor Carl Heiles held at Arecibo Observatory in August 2004. This review is in recognition of Carl's long standing interest in and advocacy for studies of the ionized as well as the neutral components of the interstellar medium.

  17. In-Medium Properties of Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuqiang Wang

    2007-07-05

    Modifications of jet-like azimuthal correlations have revealed novel properties of the medium created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Experimental results on jet-like 2- and 3-particle correlations, specificly "punch-through" at high transverse momentum, broadening at low and modest transverse momentum, and particularly the possible experimental evidence for conical flow, are reviewed. Future prospects of jet-like correlations and their physics potential are discussed.

  18. Cosmic Minivoids in the Intergalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avery Meiksin

    1996-11-01

    The Gunn-Peterson effect, absorption of Lya photons by a homogeneous component of the intergalactic medium (IGM), potentially provides a test of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). With a lower limit on the UV radiation field estimated from the contribution due to QSOs, a measurement of the Lya opacity of the intergalactic medium would permit the derivation of a lower bound to the baryonic density of the universe. The effect, however, has continually eluded a convincing detection, both in HI and HeII, despite extensive searches. Recent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of structure formation in the intergalactic medium suggest an explanation for its absence. In a Cold Dark Matter dominated cosmology, the fragmentation of the baryons is nearly complete, leaving a negligible remnant to comprise a smoothly distributed component. The fragmentation extends even into regions that are underdense, where it gives rise to most of the optically thin HI systems and nearly all of the HeII systems, both thin and saturated. The result is a Lya opacity from a smooth IGM that is suppressed by over two orders of magnitude from the BBN value.

  19. One-dimensional hybrid simulation of the dc/RF combined driven capacitively coupled CF{sub 4} plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Shuai [School of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110891 (China); Xu Xiang; Wang Younian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-11-15

    We developed a one-dimensional hybrid model to simulate the dc/RF combined driven capacitively coupled plasma for CF{sub 4} discharges. The numerical results show the influence of the dc source on the plasma density distribution, ion energy distributions (IEDs), and ion angle distributions (IADs) on both RF and dc electrodes. The increase of dc voltage impels more ions with high energy to the electrode applied to the dc source, which makes the IEDs at the dc electrode shift toward higher energy and the peaks in IADs shift toward the small angle region. At the same time, it also decreases ion-energy at the RF electrode and enlarges the ion-angles which strike the RF electrode.

  20. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation vss043barnitt2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field...

  1. Wave scattering by small particles in a medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. Ramm

    2007-02-14

    Wave scattering is considered in a medium in which many small particles are embedded. Equations for the effective field in the medium are derived when the number of particles tends to infinity.

  2. Numerical study of He/CF{sub 3}I pulsed discharge used to produce iodine atom in chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jiao; Wang Yanhui; Wang Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Duo Liping; Li Guofu [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-04-15

    The pulsed discharge for producing iodine atoms from the alkyl and perfluoroalky iodides (CH{sub 3}I, CF{sub 3}I, etc.) is the most efficient method for achieving the pulse operating mode of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model is developed to study the characteristics of pulsed discharge in CF{sub 3}I-He mixture. By solving continuity equation, momentum equation, Poisson equation, Boltzmann equation, and an electric circuit equation, the temporal evolution of discharge current density and various discharge products, especially the atomic iodine, are investigated. The dependence of iodine atom density on discharge parameters is also studied. The results show that iodine atom density increases with the pulsed width and pulsed voltage amplitude. The mixture ratio of CF{sub 3}I and helium plays a more significant role in iodine atom production. For a constant voltage amplitude, there exists an optimal mixture ratio under which the maximum iodine atom concentration is achieved. The bigger the applied voltage amplitude is, the higher partial pressure of CF{sub 3}I is needed to obtain the maximum iodine atom concentration.

  3. K.D. Lawson, M. Groth, P. Belo, S. Brezinsek, G. Corrigan, A. Czarnecka, E. Delabie, P. Drewelow, D. Harting, I. Ksiek, C.F. Maggi, C. Marchetto,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Harting, I. Ksiek, C.F. Maggi, C. Marchetto, A.G. Meigs, S. Menmuir, M.F. Stamp, S. Wiesen and JET , S. Brezinsek 3 , G. Corrigan 1 , A. Czarnecka 4 , E. Delabie5 , P. Drewelow 6 , D. Harting 3 , I, Drewelow P, Harting D, Ksiek I, Maggi C F, Marchetto C, Meigs A G, Menmuir S, Stamp M F, Wiesen S, JET

  4. Photoionization spectra of CH3I and C2H5I perturbed by CF4 and c-C4F8: Electron scattering in halocarbon gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Findley, Gary L.

    -section measurements have been obtained for CF4. An alternative method for determining the zero-kinetic-energy electron the perturber- induced energy shifts of the dopant Rydberg states and ionization energies, the zero-kinetic-energy, respectively. To our best knowledge, these are the first measurements of zero-kinetic-energy electronscattering

  5. Transport of positrons in the interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Gillard; P. Jean; A. Marcowith; K. Ferriere

    2007-02-06

    This work investigates some aspects of the transport of low-energy positrons in the interstellar medium (ISM). We consider resonance interactions with magnetohydrodynamic waves above the resonance threshold. Below the threshold, collisions take over and deflect positrons in their motion parallel to magnetic-field lines. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, we model the propagation and energy losses of positrons in the different phases of the ISM until they annihilate. We suggest that positrons produced in the disk by an old population of stars, with initial kinetic energies below 1 MeV, and propagating in the spiral magnetic field of the disk, can probably not penetrate the Galactic bulge.

  6. Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond G. P. Gilfoyle Physics Physics: Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Program Program Manager: Dr. Gulshan Rai 1 #12;2 #12;Contents 1 Justification 39 3 #12;4 #12;Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond G. P. Gilfoyle

  7. Heat and corrosion resistant cast CF8C stainless steel with improved high temperature strength and ductility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McGreevy, Tim (Washington, IL); Pollard, Michael James (Peoria, IL); Siebenaler, Chad W. (Dunlap, IL); Swindeman, Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-08-17

    A CF8C type stainless steel alloy and articles formed therefrom containing about 18.0 weight percent to about 22.0 weight percent chromium and 11.0 weight percent to about 14.0 weight percent nickel; from about 0.05 weight percent to about 0.15 weight percent carbon; from about 2.0 weight percent to about 10.0 weight percent manganese; and from about 0.3 weight percent to about 1.5 weight percent niobium. The present alloys further include less than 0.15 weight percent sulfur which provides high temperature strength both in the matrix and at the grain boundaries without reducing ductility due to cracking along boundaries with continuous or nearly-continuous carbides. The disclosed alloys also have increased nitrogen solubility thereby enhancing strength at all temperatures because nitride precipitates or nitrogen porosity during casting are not observed. The solubility of nitrogen is dramatically enhanced by the presence of manganese, which also retains or improves the solubility of carbon thereby providing additional solid solution strengthening due to the presence of manganese and nitrogen, and combined carbon.

  8. Heat and corrosion resistant cast CF8C stainless steel with improved high temperature strength and ductility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J.; McGreevy, Tim; Pollard, Michael James; Siebenaler, Chad W.; Swindeman, Robert W.

    2006-12-26

    A CF8C type stainless steel alloy and articles formed therefrom containing about 18.0 weight percent to about 22.0 weight percent chromium and 11.0 weight percent to about 14.0 weight percent nickel; from about 0.05 weight percent to about 0.15 weight percent carbon; from about 2.0 weight percent to about 10.0 weight percent manganese; and from about 0.3 weight percent to about 1.5 weight percent niobium. The present alloys further include less than 0.15 weight percent sulfur which provides high temperature strength both in the matrix and at the grain boundaries without reducing ductility due to cracking along boundaries with continuous or nearly-continuous carbides. The disclosed alloys also have increased nitrogen solubility thereby enhancing strength at all temperatures because nitride precipitates or nitrogen porosity during casting are not observed. The solubility of nitrogen is dramatically enhanced by the presence of manganese, which also retains or improves the solubility of carbon thereby providing additional solid solution strengthening due to the presence of manganese and nitrogen, and combined carbon.

  9. First Dark Matter Search Results from a 4-kg CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber Operated in a Deep Underground Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Conner, A.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Grace, E.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0 kg CF{sub 3}I bubble chamber in the 6800 foot deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. This observation provides world best direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2} and demonstrates significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  10. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackie, Robin J. D.

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  11. Light Vector Mesons in the Nuclear Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Michael; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Weygand, Dennis; Djalali, Chaden; Tur, Clarisse; Mosel, Ulrich; Muehlich, Pascal; Adams, Gary; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asryan, Gegham; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, James; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Burkert, Volker; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Carnahan, Bryan; Casey, Liam; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Crabb, Donald; Crannell, Hall; Crede, Volker; Cummings, John; Dashyan, Natalya; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Denizli, Haluk; Dennis, Lawrence; Deur, Alexandre; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Dickson, Richard; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Feuerbach, Robert; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gordon, Christopher; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hadjidakis, Cynthia; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hakobyan, Rafael; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Hassall, Neil; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Khetarpal, Puneet; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Klimenko, Alexei; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Li, Ji; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacCormick, Marion; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mehrabyan, Surik; Melone, Joseph; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Minehart, Ralph; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Raue, Brian; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinsky, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Williams, Michael; Wolin, Elliott; Yegneswaran, Amrit; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2008-07-01

    The light vector mesons ($\\rho$, $\\omega$, and $\\phi$) were produced in deuterium, carbon, titanium, and iron targets in a search for possible in-medium modifications to the properties of the $\\rho$ meson at normal nuclear densities and zero temperature. The vector mesons were detected with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) via their decays to $e^{+}e^{-}$. The rare leptonic decay was chosen to reduce final-state interactions. A combinatorial background was subtracted from the invariant mass spectra using a well-established event-mixing technique. The $\\rho$ meson mass spectrum was extracted after the $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ signals were removed in a nearly model-independent way. Comparisons were made between the $\\rho$ mass spectra from the heavy targets ($A > 2$) with the mass spectrum extracted from the deuterium target. With respect to the $\\rho$-meson mass, we obtain a small shift compatible with zero. Also, we measure widths consistent with standard nuclear many-body eff

  12. Casimir stress in an inhomogeneous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. G. Philbin; C. Xiong; U. Leonhardt

    2009-09-16

    The Casimir effect in an inhomogeneous dielectric is investigated using Lifshitz's theory of electromagnetic vacuum energy. A permittivity function that depends continuously on one Cartesian coordinate is chosen, bounded on each side by homogeneous dielectrics. The result for the Casimir stress is infinite everywhere inside the inhomogeneous region, a divergence that does not occur for piece-wise homogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries. A Casimir force per unit volume can be extracted from the infinite stress but it diverges on the boundaries between the inhomogeneous medium and the homogeneous dielectrics. An alternative regularization of the vacuum stress is considered that removes the contribution of the inhomogeneity over small distances, where macroscopic electromagnetism is invalid. The alternative regularization yields a finite Casimir stress inside the inhomogeneous region, but the stress and force per unit volume diverge on the boundaries with the homogeneous dielectrics. The case of inhomogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries thus falls outside the current understanding of the Casimir effect.

  13. On the Virial Theorem for Interstellar Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D

    2007-09-24

    An attempt has been made to derive a version of the virial integral that would describe average properties of the interstellar medium (ISM). It is suggested to eliminate the (large) contribution of stellar matter by introducing 'exclusion zones' surrounding stars. Such an approach leads to the appearance of several types of additional surface integrals in the general expression. Their contribution depends on the rate of energy and matter exchange between the stars and ISM. If this exchange is weak, one can obtain a desired virial integral for ISM. However, the presence of intermittent large-scale energetic events significantly constrains the applicability of the virial theorem. If valid, the derived virial integral is dominated by cold molecular/atomic clouds, with only minor contribution of the global magnetic field and low-density warm part.

  14. Characterization of Residual Medium Peptides from Yersinia pestis Cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clowers, Brian H.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2013-04-03

    Using a range of common microbial medium formulations (TSB, BHI, LB, and G-media), two attenuated strains of Y. pestis (KIM D27 (pgm-) and KIMD1 lcr-) were cultivated in triplicate. These cellular suspensions were used to develop a method of extracting residual medium peptides from the final microbial preparation to assess their relative abundance and identity. Across the conditions examined, which included additional cellular washing and different forms of microbial inactivation, residual medium peptides were detected. Despite the range of growth medium sources used and the associated manufacturing processes used in their production, a high degree of peptide similarity was observed for a given medium recipe. These results demonstrate that residual medium peptides are retained using traditional microbial cultivation techniques and may be used to inform forensic investigations with respect to production deduction.

  15. Collecting high-order interactions in an effective pairwise intermolecular potential using the hydrated ion concept: The hydration of Cf{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbis, Elsa; Pappalardo, Rafael R.; Marcos, Enrique Sánchez, E-mail: sanchez@us.es [Departmento de Química Física, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Seville (Spain); Hernández-Cobos, Jorge [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, UNAM, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-06-07

    This work proposes a new methodology to build interaction potentials between a highly charged metal cation and water molecules. These potentials, which can be used in classical computer simulations, have been fitted to reproduce quantum mechanical interaction energies (MP2 and BP86) for a wide range of [M(H{sub 2}O){sub n}]{sup m+}(H{sub 2}O){sub ?} clusters (n going from 6 to 10 and ? from 0 to 18). A flexible and polarizable water shell model (Mobile Charge Density of Harmonic Oscillator) has been coupled to the cation-water potential. The simultaneous consideration of poly-hydrated clusters and the polarizability of the interacting particles allows the inclusion of the most important many-body effects in the new polarizable potential. Applications have been centered on the californium, Cf(III) the heaviest actinoid experimentally studied in solution. Two different strategies to select a set of about 2000 structures which are used for the potential building were checked. Monte Carlo simulations of Cf(III)+500 H{sub 2}O for three of the intermolecular potentials predict an aquaion structure with coordination number close to 8 and average R{sub Cf??O} in the range 2.43–2.48 Å, whereas the fourth one is closer to 9 with R{sub Cf??O} = 2.54 Å. Simulated EXAFS spectra derived from the structural Monte Carlo distribution compares fairly well with the available experimental spectrum for the simulations bearing 8 water molecules. An angular distribution similar to that of a square antiprism is found for the octa-coordination.

  16. Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized Cities in India Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban...

  17. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Meeting vss043gonder2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Battery Pack Requirements and Targets...

  18. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington D.C. vssarravt068miyasato2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Vehicle...

  19. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation arravt068vssmiyasato2011o .pdf More Documents & Publications Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation SCAQMD:Plug-In...

  20. Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials Authors: Sun, Lei ; Li, Zhigang ; Luk, Ting S. ; Yang, Xiaodong ; Gao, Jie Publication Date:...

  1. DOE/CF-0059

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Volume 3 Department of Energy FY 2012 Congressional Budget Request Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Energy Transformation...

  2. DOE/CF-0088

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Research and Development 337,074 494,969 420,575 +83,501 +24.8% Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves 14,909 15,000 20,000 +5,091 +34.1% Strategic Petroleum Reserve 192,704...

  3. DOE/CF-0090

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProvedTravel Travel The Office ofPublicationsDouble ZeroHouse 3.0 by KB4 Volume 18 Volume 590

  4. DOE/CF-0086

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeCommunication &20081-929-200499 DOE-STD-3025-99 March 01,1-20024-99 DOE-TSL-4-993

  5. DOE/CF-0084

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:IAbout Us| Department of EnergyOctoberDOE-Wide NEPA4

  6. DOE/CF-0085

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:IAbout Us| Department of EnergyOctoberDOE-Wide NEPA42

  7. DOE/CF-0086

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:IAbout Us| Department of EnergyOctoberDOE-Wide NEPA42

  8. DOE/CF-0088

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:IAbout Us| Department of EnergyOctoberDOE-Wide

  9. DOE/CF-0089

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:IAbout Us| Department of EnergyOctoberDOE-Wide9

  10. DOE/CF-0090

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:IAbout Us| Department of EnergyOctoberDOE-Wide90

  11. DOE/CF-0059

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicleDepartment ofGraphics » DOE Logo, Seal and WordDOE59

  12. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2004-08-03

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  13. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Franklin, Elizabeth (Rolla, MO); Prickett, Zane T. (Golden, CO); Artau, Alexander (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-05-30

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  14. Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    1 Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond G. P. Gilfoyle Physics Physics: Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Program Program Manager: Dr. Ted Barnes #12;2 #12;3 Contents 1 Project Introduction 5 2 Project Description 7 2.1 Status of Current Projects

  15. Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    1 Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond G. P. Gilfoyle Physics Physics: Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Program Program Manager: Dr. Brad Tippens #12;2 #12;3 Contents 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.4.1 Facilities and Support for Nuclear Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2

  16. Cooperative Decentralized Resource Allocation in Heterogeneous Wireless Access Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Weihua

    1 Cooperative Decentralized Resource Allocation in Heterogeneous Wireless Access Medium Muhammad--In this paper, radio resource allocation in a hetero- geneous wireless access medium is investigated. Mobile the performance tradeoffs of the proposed algorithm. Index Terms--Heterogeneous wireless networks, resource allo

  17. AN ANALYSIS FOR A FORMULATION OF THE POROUS MEDIUM EQUATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fadimba, Koffi B.

    a porous medium, with S the saturation of the invading fluid. In this model, one assumption (the wet phase and the dry phase) occupying entirely the pores of the medium, e.g. water and oil, so , we make the assumption that n = 0, (1..4) where n is the outward unit normal vector to the boundary

  18. Medium energy pitch angle distribution during substorm injected electron clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    Medium energy pitch angle distribution during substorm injected electron clouds A. A° snes,1 J, N. �stgaard, and M. Thomsen (2005), Medium energy pitch angle distribution during substorm injected to obtain pitch angle resolved electron distribution data for measurements at energies 10 eV to 47 keV. [3

  19. Nonlocal effective medium approximation for metallic nanorod metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geng, Tao; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical nonlocal effective medium approximation to describe the optical nonlocal effects in metallic nanorod metamaterials based on Mie scattering theory. It is shown that the developed nonlocal effective medium theory can predict a coexistence state of two modes around the epsilon-near-zero region, where strong optical nonlocal effects lead to the behavior of both positive refraction and negative refraction in the nanorod metamaterials. Outside of the coexistence region, only one mode can be excited and its behavior can be well described using the local effective medium theory.

  20. Electromagnetic field quantization in a linear dielectric medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Kheirandish; M. Amooshahi

    2005-11-13

    By modeling a dielectric medium with two independent reservoirs, i.e., electric and magnetic reservoirs, the electromagnetic field is quantized in a linear dielectric medium consistently. A Hamiltonian is proposed from which using the Heisenberg equations, not only the Maxwell equations but also the structural equations can be obtained. Using the Laplace transformation, the wave equation for the electromagnetic vector potential is solved in the case of a homogeneous dielectric medium. Some examples are considered showing the applicability of the model to both absorptive and nonabsorptive dielectrics.

  1. Lyman alpha Transfer in a thick, dusty, and static medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang-Hyeon Ahn; Hee-Won Lee; Hyung-Mok Lee

    2000-06-13

    We developed a Monte Carlo code that describes the resonant Lyman alpha line transfer in an optically thick, dusty, and static medium. The code was tested against the analytic formula derived by Neufeld (1990). We explain the line transfer mechanism for a wide range of line center optical depths by tracing histories of photons in the medium. We find that photons escape from the medium by a series of wing scatterings, during which polarization may develop. We applied our code to examine the amount of dust extinction around the Lyman alpha in primeval galaxies. Brief discussions on the astrophysical application of our work are presented.

  2. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash...

  3. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis PI: Jeff Gonder (NREL) Team: Laurie Ramroth and Aaron Brooker May 15, 2012 Project ID : VSS043 This...

  4. Medium energy ion implantation of Germanium into heated Silicon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCoy, John Curtis

    1993-01-01

    Medium energy ion implantation of Ge into heated Si was investigated. legh fluence implants of Ge were made at energies of 40 or 60 keV into Si substrates at room temperature or heated to 300'C or higher. ...

  5. Energy Efficiency Programs for Small and Medium Sized Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shipley, A. M.; Elliott, R. N.

    2001-01-01

    Abundant, low-cost energy efficiency opportunities exist in industries with a high representation of small and medium-sized manufacturers. Small industrial facilities with fewer than 250 employees consume 25% of all industrial energy. Designing...

  6. Energy Recovery for Medium- and High-Temperature Industrial Furnaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krumm, E. D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of metallic heat exchangers on medium- and high-temperature industrial furnaces is examined. A thorough technical understanding of all furnace operating conditions and the duties imposed upon heat exchangers is identified as a key...

  7. New IRS Rules for Small and Medium Wind Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Wind Certification Council (SWCC) will host a webinar on how certification is being used to meet the new Internal Revenue Service (IRS) requirements for small and medium wind turbines...

  8. Lyman alpha Absorption Systems and the Intergalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Efstathiou; Joop Schaye; Tom Theuns

    2000-04-10

    The last few years have seen a dramatic improvement in our understanding of the origin of Lyman alpha absorption systems. Hydrodynamic numerical simulations of cold dark matter dominated universes have shown that the many properties of the Lyman alpha absorption systems can be explained by a photoionized, space-filling, intergalactic medium. Lyman alpha lines offer promising probes of the photoionizing background, the amplitude of the mass fluctuations at high redshift and the evolution of the equation of state of the intergalactic medium.

  9. Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term Supply Potential of Domestic Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Andrew; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term SupplyAugust 22, 2007 Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-significant amount of liquid biofuel (equivalent to 30-100%

  10. Towards a consistent description of in-medium parton branching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apolinário, Liliana; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are a window of opportunity to study QCD matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density, such as the quark-gluon plasma. Among the several possibilities, the study of jet quenching - generic name given to in-medium energy loss modifications of the parton branching - is a powerful tool to assess the properties of this new state of matter. The description of the parton shower is very well understood in vacuum (controlled reference) and medium-induced modifications of this process can be experimentally accessed through jet measurements. Current experimental data, however, cannot be entirely described only with energy loss phenomena. Transverse momentum broadening and decoherence effects, both theoretically established by now, and their interplay are essential to build a consistent picture of the medium-modifications of the parton branching and to achieve a correct description of the current experimental data. In this write-up, we will present the latest develop...

  11. Origin of coherent structures in a discrete chaotic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinovich, M.I.; Torres, J.J.; Varona, P.; Huerta, R.; Varona, P.; Huerta, R.; Weidman, P.

    1999-08-01

    Using as an example a large lattice of locally interacting Hindmarsh-Rose chaotic neurons, we disclose the origin of ordered structures in a discrete nonequilibrium medium with fast and slow chaotic oscillations. The origin of the ordering mechanism is related to the appearance of a periodic average dynamics in the group of chaotic neurons whose individual slow activity is significantly synchronized by the group mean field. Introducing the concept of a {open_quotes}coarse grain{close_quotes} as a cluster of neuron elements with periodic averaged behavior allows consideration of the dynamics of a medium composed of these clusters. A study of this medium reveals spatially ordered patterns in the periodic and slow dynamics of the coarse grains that are controlled by the average intensity of the fast chaotic pulsation. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Unified Description of Charmonium Suppression in QGP Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Captain R; Ganesh, S; Mishra, M

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the quarkonia suppression in a thermal QCD medium created at heavy ion collisions is a complex interplay of various physical processes. In this article we put together most of these processes in a unified way to calculate the charmonium survival probability (nuclear modification factor) at energies available at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. We have included shadowing as the dominant cold nuclear matter (CNM) effect. Further, gluo-dissociation and collision damping has been included which provide width to the spectral function of charmonia in a thermal medium and causes the dissociation of charmonium along with usual colour screening. We include the colour screening using our recently proposed modified Chu and Matsui model. Furthermore we incorporate the recombination of uncorrelated charm and anti-charm quark for the regeneration of charmonium over the entire temporal evolution of QGP medium. Finally...

  13. Plane-Wave Propagation in Electromagnetic PQ Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindell, Ismo V

    2015-01-01

    Two basic classes of electromagnetic media, recently defined and labeled as those of P media and Q media, are generalized to define the class of PQ media. Plane wave propagation in the general PQ medium is studied and the quartic dispersion equation is derived in analytic form applying four-dimensional dyadic formalism. The result is verified by considering various special cases of PQ media for which the dispersion equation is known to decompose to two quadratic equations or be identically satisfied (media with no dispersion equation). As a numerical example, the dispersion surface of a PQ medium with non-decomposable dispersion equation is considered.

  14. Fluctuations of the Casimir potential above a disordered medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Cherroret; Romain Guérout; Astrid Lambrecht; Serge Reynaud

    2015-03-03

    We study the statistical fluctuations of the Casimir potential felt by an atom approaching a dielectric disordered medium. Starting from a microscopic model for the disorder, we calculate the variance of potential fluctuations in the limit of a weak density of heterogeneities. We show that fluctuations are essentially governed by scattering of the radiation on a single heterogeneity, and discuss in which limits they become larger than the average value predicted by effective medium theory. Finally, for denser disorder we show that multiple scattering processes become relevant.

  15. Cross section and asymmetry parameter calculations for the C 1s photoionization of CH{sub 4}, CF{sub 4}, and CCl{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natalense, Alexandra P. P.; Brescansin, Luiz M.; Lucchese, Robert R. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, 13083-970 Campinas, Sa(tilde sign)o Paulo, (Brazil); Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255, USA (United States)

    2003-09-01

    We have computed cross sections and asymmetry parameters for the C 1s photoionization of CX{sub 4} (X=H, F, Cl) using the Schwinger variational method with Pade corrections. We present a comparative study that shows the influence of the identity of the X atom on the computed cross sections. Predicted cross sections are in good agreement with available photoionization and photoabsorption experimental data. We conclude that the presence of heavy outer atoms produces resonance structures in the photoionization cross sections and in the asymmetry parameters. We find a single nonvalence resonant state in the photoionization of CF{sub 4} and multiple resonances in CCl{sub 4} that have significant d-orbital character in the vicinity of the Cl atoms.

  16. High harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production in dense medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Andreas

    High harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production in dense medium v.v. Stre1kov1'2', V ABSTRACT We have studied the high harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production in a plasma or gas positions of the particles using the Monte-Carlo method. We observe a change of the harmonic properties due

  17. INVERSE MEDIUM SCATTERING PROBLEMS IN NEAR-FIELD ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-05-08

    verse medium scattering problem that arises in near-field optics, which .... Throughout, by assuming nonmagnetic materials and transverse electric polarization, ..... and J. Schotland, Determination of three-dimensional structure in photon scanning ... method for 3D electromagnetic imaging using adjoint fields, Inverse Probl., ...

  18. Bioremediation of Waste in a Porous Medium Changsheng Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chadam, John

    .g., water and carbon dioxide). Bioremediation was first systematically studied by Borden and BedientBioremediation of Waste in a Porous Medium Changsheng Chen Yahoo! Inc., Sunnyvale, CA 94089 and their co-workers [1, 2]. A discussion of the techological and practical aspects of bioremediation can

  19. WIND OBSERVATIONS OF SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    WIND OBSERVATIONS OF SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM R. P. LIN Space Sciences Particle Instrument on the WIND spacecraft, which provides high sensitivity electron and ion measurements from solar wind thermal plasma up to &MeV energies. These results include: (1) the observation of solar

  20. English-Medium Instruction in Multilingual Universities: The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 English-Medium Instruction in Multilingual Universities: The Case of Finland. Challenges (HEI) in Europe The case of Finland: International Master's Programmes at Jyväskylä University 1 October 2008 The case of Finland Native languages spoken in Finland Finnish: 5 Mio. Swedish (Finland

  1. FLAME SURFACE DENSITIES IN PREMIXED COMBUSTION AT MEDIUM TO HIGH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    FLAME SURFACE DENSITIES IN PREMIXED COMBUSTION AT MEDIUM TO HIGH TURBULENCE INTENSITIES O¨ MER L in turbulent premixed propane= air flames were determined experimentally. The instantaneous flame fronts were combustion regime as defined by the most recent turbulent premixed combustion dia- grams. From 100 to 800

  2. Distributed Medium Access Control for Next Generation CDMA Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Weihua

    Distributed Medium Access Control for Next Generation CDMA Wireless Networks Hai Jiang, Princeton wireless networks are expected to have a simple infrastructure with distributed control. In this article, we consider a generic distributed network model for future wireless multi- media communications

  3. In-medium antikaon interactions and bound states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avraham Gal; Eli Friedman; Nir Barnea; Aleš Cieplý; Ji?í Mareš; Daniel Gazda

    2014-11-05

    Correct treatment of subthreshold Kbar-N dynamics is mandatory in kaonic-atom and Kbar-nuclear bound-state calculations, as demonstrated by using in-medium chirally-based models of Kbar-N interactions. Recent studies of kaonic-atom data reveal appreciable multi-nucleon contributions. Kbar-nuclear widths larger than 50 MeV are anticipated.

  4. The Solar Wind and Its Interaction with the Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    The Solar Wind and Its Interaction with the Interstellar Medium John D. Richardson Abstract The solar wind is a magnetized plasma of ions and electrons which flows outward from the Sun. This chapter begins with a brief history of the discovery of the solar wind. Solar wind properties at 1 AU

  5. Medium Term Planning & Scheduling under Uncertainty for BP Chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Results & Future Research #12;5 By Products Benzene: Used elsewhere by other BP companies. Styrene can1 Medium Term Planning & Scheduling under Uncertainty for BP Chemicals Progress Report Murat Kurt Products & Applications Models Results & Future Research #12;4 Products - PTA Purified Terephthalic Acid

  6. Dynamics of a Supernova Envelope in a Cloudy Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korolev, V V; Kovalenko, I G; Shchekinov, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of a supernova remnant in a cloudy medium as a function of the volume filling factor of the clouds is studied in a three-dimensional axially symmetrical model. The model includes the mixing of heavy elements (metals) ejected by the supernova and their contribution to radiative losses. The interaction of the supernova envelope with the cloudy phase of the interstellar medium leads to nonsimultaneous, and on average earlier, onsets of the radiative phase in different parts of the supernova envelope. Growth in the volume filling factor $f$ leads to a decrease in the time for the transition of the envelope to the radiative phase and a decrease in the envelope's mean radius, due to the increased energy losses by the envelope in the cloudy medium. When the development of hydrodynamical instabilities in the supernova envelope is efficient, the thermal energy falls as $E_t\\sim t^{-2.3}$, for the propagation of the supernova remnant through either a homogeneous or a cloudy medium. When the volume filling...

  7. MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL LAYER FOR UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Min

    sensor networks, energy-efficient reliable MAC protocol, and slotted FAMA MAC protocol and low1 CHAPTER 1 MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL LAYER FOR UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS* Yanping Zhang* , Yang Xiao of Alabama Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0290 USA E-mail: yangxiao@ieee.org + Dept. of Electrical and Computer

  8. Proceedings of the 2013 Joint Rail Conference April 15-18, 2013, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , USA JRC2013-2489 SEISMIC TESTING FOR TRACK SUBSTRUCTURE (BALLAST AND SUBGRADE) ASSESSMENT of the track system due to future train traffic. This information can used to assess track safety of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign on developing and using seismic wave propagation principles to develop

  9. Graduates 15 18 31 27 33 29 28 38 43 40 30 Percent of Graduates with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    *Time to degree represents the time in years from the graduates' first admission to TGS until terms. Placement information is captured in the TGS PhD Placement Database using graduate responses from placements since graduation. This summary presents the placement information TGS has captured on graduate

  10. Proceedings of the 2013 Joint Rail Conference April 15-18, 2013, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    be maintained in good working order. Locomotives and rolling stock regularly move through areas where they can, a maintenance activity selection module, and a scheduling optimization module. By taking into account a wide, all aspects of the system needs to be maintained in good working order. Locomotives and rolling stock

  11. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, ICED11 15 -18 AUGUST 2011, TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF DENMARK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    , the NHTSA New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) didn't emerge until 1987, followed by the Australasian NCAP technologies implemented in practically every car produced today are seat belts, air bags, and energy

  12. Optical Simulation of Top-emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes H. J. Peng, C.F. Qiu, Z. L. Xie, H. Y. Chen, M. Wong and H. S. Kwok

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8.3.3-89 Optical Simulation of Top-emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes H. J. Peng, C.F. Qiu, Z the optical effects for the top-emitting organic light emitting diodes. The optical performance of the devices with experiments Keywords: Top-emitting organic light emitting diode, optical modeling, microcavity INTRODUCTION

  13. Medium-induced jet evolution: wave turbulence and energy loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard Fister; Edmond Iancu

    2014-09-06

    We study the gluon cascade generated via successive medium-induced branchings by an energetic parton propagating through a dense QCD medium. We focus on the high-energy regime where the energy $E$ of the leading particle is much larger than the characteristic medium scale $\\omega_c=\\hat q L^2/2$, with $\\hat q$ the jet quenching parameter and $L$ the distance travelled through the medium. In this regime the leading particle loses only a small fraction $\\sim\\alpha_s(\\omega_c/E)$ of its energy and can be treated as a steady source of radiation for gluons with energies $\\omega\\le\\omega_c$. For this effective problem with a source, we obtain exact analytic solutions for the gluon spectrum and the energy flux. The solutions exhibit wave turbulence: the basic physical process is a continuing fragmentation which is `quasi-democratic' (i.e. quasi-local in energy) and which provides an energy transfer from the source to the medium at a rate (the energy flux $\\mathcal{F}$) which is quasi-independent of $\\omega$. The locality of the branching process implies a spectrum of the Kolmogorov-Obukhov type, i.e. a power-law spectrum which is a fixed point of the branching process and whose strength is proportional to the energy flux: $D(\\omega)\\sim\\mathcal{F}/\\sqrt\\omega$ for $\\omega\\ll\\omega_c$. Via this turbulent flow, the gluon cascade loses towards the medium an energy $\\Delta E\\sim\\alpha_s^2\\omega_c$, which is independent of the initial energy $E$ of the leading particle and of the details of the thermalization mechanism at the low-energy end of the cascade. This energy is carried away by very soft gluons, which propagate at very large angles with respect to the jet axis. Our predictions for the value of $\\Delta E$ and for its angular distribution appear to agree quite well, qualitatively and even semi-quantitatively, with the phenomenology of di-jet asymmetry in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC.

  14. The Baryon Catastrophe and the multiphase intracluster medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. F. Gunn; P. A. Thomas

    1995-10-17

    We review the theories and observations which together have led to the concept of the Baryon Catastrophe: observations of the baryon fraction on the scale of clusters of galaxies appear to be at least three times as high as the universal baryon fraction predicted by the theory of primordial nucleosynthesis in a flat, $\\Omega_0 = 1$, universe. We investigate whether this discrepancy could be eliminated by treating the intracluster gas as a multiphase medium, and find that this treatment both lowers the calculated mass of gas in a cluster and increases the inferred gravitational potential. These combined effects can reduce the calculated baryon fraction by between a quarter and a half: the precise amount depends upon the volume fraction distribution of density phases in the gas but is independent of the temperature profile across the cluster. Thus moving to a multiphase intracluster medium cannot resolve the Baryon Catastrophe by itself; other possible causes and explanations are discussed.

  15. In-Medium Pion Properties from Chiral Perturbation Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchbach, M

    1996-01-01

    Two--point functions related to the pion weak decay constant $f_\\pi$ are calculated from the generating functional of chiral perturbation theory in the mean field approximation and the heavy--baryon limit. The aim is to demonstrate that Lorentz invariance is violated in the presence of background matter. This fact manifests itself in the splitting of both $f_\\pi$ and the pion mass into uncorrelated time-- and space--like parts. We emphasize the different in--medium renormalizations of the correlation functions, show the inequivalence between the in--medium values of $f_\\pi$ deduced from Walecka--type models, on the one hand, and QCD sum rules, on the other hand, and elaborate on the importance for some nuclear physics observables.

  16. Light scattering by radiation fields: the optical medium analogy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donato Bini; Pierluigi Fortini; Andrea Geralico; Maria Haney; Antonello Ortolan

    2014-08-23

    The optical medium analogy of a radiation field generated by either an exact gravitational plane wave or an exact electromagnetic wave in the framework of general relativity is developed. The equivalent medium of the associated background field is inhomogeneous and anisotropic in the former case, whereas it is inhomogeneous but isotropic in the latter. The features of light scattering are investigated by assuming the interaction region to be sandwiched between two flat spacetime regions, where light rays propagate along straight lines. Standard tools of ordinary wave optics are used to study the deflection of photon paths due to the interaction with the radiation fields, allowing for a comparison between the optical properties of the equivalent media associated with the different background fields.

  17. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  18. PASSPORTS TO PRIVILEGE: THE ENGLISH-MEDIUM SCHOOLS IN PAKISTAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, Tariq

    2005-01-01

    IN PAKISTAN TARIQ RAHMAN _____________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT Based on two recent surveys of some selected urban areas of Pakistan, the author draws interesting conclusions in this article about the English... -medium schools in Pakistan. The elites of the country have long realized the power of the English language and have even institutionalized the process of acquiring the same. As seen elsewhere in South Asia, the English-speaking elites of the country profess...

  19. Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Choi, Daiwon; Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, G.; Sun, C.

    2014-12-12

    This is one of the chapters in the book titled “Advances in batteries for large- and medium-scale energy storage: Applications in power systems and electric vehicles” that will be published by the Woodhead Publishing Limited. The chapter discusses the basic electrochemical fundamentals of electrochemical energy storage devices with a focus on the rechargeable batteries. Several practical secondary battery systems are also discussed as examples

  20. Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory: Quantum nonlocal effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-04-15

    We develop the Maxwell-Garnett theory for the effective medium approximation of composite materials with metallic nanoparticles by taking into account the quantum spatial dispersion effects in dielectric response of nanoparticles. We derive a quantum nonlocal generalization of the standard Maxwell-Garnett formula, by means the linearized quantum hydrodynamic theory in conjunction with the Poisson equation as well as the appropriate additional quantum boundary conditions.

  1. Fissible Deposit Characterization at the Former Oak Ridge K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant by {sup 252}CF-Source-Driven Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hannon, T.F.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Uckan, T.; Valentine, T.E.; Wyatt, M.S.

    1998-05-01

    The Deposit Removal Project was undertaken with the support of the U. S. Department of Energy at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) formerly the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The project team performed the safe removal of the hydrated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) deposits from the K-29 Building of the former Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The deposits had developed as a result of air leakage into UF{sub 6} gas process pipes; UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} became hydrated by moisture from the air and deposited inside the pipes. The mass, its distribution, and the hydrogen content [that is, the ratio of H to U (H/U)], were the key parameters that controlled the nuclear criticality safety of the deposits. Earlier gamma-ray spectrometry measurements in K-29 had identified the largest deposits in the building. The first and third largest deposits in the building were measured in this program. The first deposit, found in the Unit 2, Cell 7, B-Line Outlet process pipe (called the ''Hockey Stick'') was about 1,300 kg ({+-} 50% uncertainty) at 3.34 wt% {sup 235}U enrichment ({+-}50% uncertainty) and according to the gamma-ray spectroscopy was uniformly distributed. The second deposit (the third-largest deposit in the building), found in the Unit 2, Cell 6, A-Line Outlet process pipe (called the ''Tee-Pipe''), had a uranium deposit estimated to be about 240 kg ({+-} 50% uncertainty) at 3.4 wt % {sup 235}U enrichment ({+-} 20% uncertainty). Before deposit removal activities began, the Deposit Removal Project team needed to survey the inside of the pipes intrusively to assess the nuclear criticality safety of the deposits. Therefore, the spatial distribution of the deposits, the total uranium deposit mass, and the moderation level resulting from hydration of the deposits, all of which affect nuclear criticality safety were required. To perform the task safely and effectively, the Deposit Removal Project team requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) characterize the two largest deposits with the {sup 252}Cf-source-driven transmission (CFSDT) technique, an active neutron interrogation method developed for use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to identify nuclear weapons components in containers. The active CFSDT measurement technique uses CFSDT time-of-flight measurements of prompt neutrons and gamma rays from an externally introduced {sup 252}Cf source.

  2. Towards a consistent description of in-medium parton branching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liliana Apolinário; Néstor Armesto; Guilherme Milhano; Carlos A. Salgado

    2015-05-25

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are a window of opportunity to study QCD matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density, such as the quark-gluon plasma. Among the several possibilities, the study of jet quenching - generic name given to in-medium energy loss modifications of the parton branching - is a powerful tool to assess the properties of this new state of matter. The description of the parton shower is very well understood in vacuum (controlled reference) and medium-induced modifications of this process can be experimentally accessed through jet measurements. Current experimental data, however, cannot be entirely described only with energy loss phenomena. Transverse momentum broadening and decoherence effects, both theoretically established by now, and their interplay are essential to build a consistent picture of the medium-modifications of the parton branching and to achieve a correct description of the current experimental data. In this write-up, we will present the latest developments that address such unified description.

  3. Unified Description of Charmonium Suppression in QGP Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Captain R. Singh; P. K. Srivastava; S. Ganesh; M. Mishra

    2015-05-21

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the quarkonia suppression in a thermal QCD medium created at heavy ion collisions is a complex interplay of various physical processes. In this article we put together most of these processes in a unified way to calculate the charmonium survival probability (nuclear modification factor) at energies available at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. We have included shadowing as the dominant cold nuclear matter (CNM) effect. Further, gluo-dissociation and collision damping has been included which provide width to the spectral function of charmonia in a thermal medium and causes the dissociation of charmonium along with usual colour screening. We include the colour screening using our recently proposed modified Chu and Matsui model. Furthermore we incorporate the recombination of uncorrelated charm and anti-charm quark for the regeneration of charmonium over the entire temporal evolution of QGP medium. Finally we do the feed-down correction from the excited states to calculate the survival probability of charmonium. We find that our unified model suitably describes the experimental nuclear modification data of $J/\\psi$ at RHIC and LHC simultaneously.

  4. The in-medium few-body problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Sofianos; M. Beyer

    2004-08-31

    We are concerned with few-particle correlations in a fermionic system at finite temperature and density. Within the many-body Green functions formalism the description of correlations is provided by the Dyson equation approach that leads to effective few-body equations. They contain the dominant medium effects, which are self energy corrections and the Pauli blocking. Hence the effective two-body interactions between quasiparticles are momentum/energy-dependent and therefore they can be usesed in the medium modified, momentum space, integral AGS equations for three- and four-body systems. To investigate correlations and clusters beyond four-body, we employ, instead, the configuration space two-variable integro-differential equations (IDEA) for $A$-body bound systems which are based on Hyperspherical Harmonics and the Faddeev decomposition of the wave function in two-body amplitudes. This requires the transformation of the energy dependent two-body interactions to equivalent local, energy independent, ones. To achieve this we use inverse scattering techniques the resulting interactions being, on-- and (to all practical purposes) off--shell equivalent to the energy dependent potentials. In this way we obtain binding energy results for the 2--, 3--, 4--, and 16--particle in a medium at a finite temperature and various densities. Several aspects of the problem are discussed and the behavior of the potential surfaces obtained in the extreme adiabatic approximation, below and above the Mott transition, is investigated.

  5. Optical Anisotropy of Schwarzschild Metric within Equivalent Medium Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sina Khorasani; Bizhan Rashidian

    2009-12-16

    It is has been long known that the curved space in the presence of gravitation can be described as a non-homogeneous anisotropic medium in flat geometry with different constitutive equations. In this article, we show that the eigenpolarizations of such medium can be exactly solved, leading to a pseudo-isotropic description of curved vacuum with two refractive index eigenvalues having opposite signs, which correspond to forward and backward travel in time. We conclude that for a rotating universe, time-reversal symmetry is broken. We also demonstrate the applicability of this method to Schwarzschild metric and derive exact forms of refractive index. We derive the subtle optical anisotropy of space around a spherically symmetric, non-rotating and uncharged blackhole in the form of an elegant closed form expression, and show that the refractive index in such a pseudo-isotropic system would be a function of coordinates as well as the direction of propagation. Corrections arising from such anisotropy in the bending of light are shown and a simplified system of equations for ray-tracing in the equivalent medium of Schwarzschild metric is found.

  6. Challenges using a {sup 252}Cf shuffler instrument in a plant environment to measure mixtures of uranium and plutonium transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurd, J.R.

    1999-08-29

    An active-passive {sup 252}Cf shuffler instrument, installed and certified several years ago at Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility, has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU) waste. Little or no data currently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation can significantly distort the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium in mostly noncombustible matrices, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Calculations used to adjust for differences in uranium enrichment from that of the calibration standards will be shown. Methods used to determine various sources of both random and systematic error will be indicated. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the aforementioned distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be outlined, along with those adopted here.

  7. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The objective of the current...

  8. Exploration of the comics medium developed for use on the internet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piana, Brian James

    2000-01-01

    A new derivative of the comics medium may be created by incorporating computer and internet technology into the design process. Traditionally a printed medium, comics is now finding its way onto the internet; more comic creators are presenting...

  9. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Cosgrove, Jon; Duran, Adam; Konan, Arnaud; Lammert, Mike; Prohaska, Bob

    2015-06-09

    This presentation summarizes medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicle field evaluation test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis.

  10. Newcomers Meet the Intracluster Medium in the Coma Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. M. Poggianti; T. J. Bridges; M. Yagi; Y. Komiyama; D. Carter; B. Mobasher; S. Okamura; N. Kashikawa

    2004-04-24

    A main topic at this meeting is how galaxies are affected when they enter for the first time the cluster environment from the outskirts. Most of the times we are forced to infer the environmental effects indirectly, relying on systematic variations of galaxy properties with environment, but there aren't many examples of direct observations able to unveil ongoing transformations taking place, and the corresponding mechanism producing it. We present a case in which it is possible to identify the cluster environment, and in particular the intracluster medium and the recent infall history of galaxies onto the cluster, as the cause for a recent, abrupt change in the evolutionary history of galaxies.

  11. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vermeulen, Theodore (Berkeley, CA); Grens, II, Edward A. (Danville, CA); Holten, Ronald R. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl.sub.2 catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl.sub.2 and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon, selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  12. A New Cavity Design For Medium Beta Acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feisi [Peking University, Beijing (China); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Heavy duty or cw, superconducting proton and heavy ion accelerators are being proposed and constructed worldwide. The total length of the machine is one of the main drivers in terms of cost. Thus hwr and spoke cavities at medium beta are usually optimized to achieve low surface field and high gradient. A novel accelerating structure at beta=0.5 evolved from spoke cavity is proposed, with lower surface fields but slightly higher heat load. It would be an interesting option for pulsed and cw accelerators with beam energy of more than 200mev/u.

  13. Nuclear medium effects in $?(\\bar?)$-nucleus deep inelastic scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Haider; I. Ruiz Simo; M. Sajjad Athar; M. J. Vicente Vacas

    2011-08-16

    We study the nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $F_3(x,Q^2)$ in the deep inelastic neutrino/antineutrino reactions in nuclei. We use a theoretical model for the nuclear spectral functions which incorporates the conventional nuclear effects, such as Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions calculated from a microscopic model for meson-nucleus self-energies. The calculations have been performed using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations. Our results are compared with the experimental data of NuTeV and CDHSW.

  14. Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safetyof Energy ThisSitesStoragePlanningEnergy UseMedium Base

  15. Ray Theory for a Locally Layered Random Medium K. S lna G. Papanicolaou y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papanicolaou, George C.

    Ray Theory for a Locally Layered Random Medium K. S#28;lna #3; G. Papanicolaou y August 6, 1999 directions relative to the layering. Keywords: Wave propagation, random medium, locally layered medium, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112; solna@math.utah.edu. Supported by the Norwegian Research Council y

  16. Oil displacement through a porous medium with a temperature gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliveira, C L N; Herrmann, H J

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a temperature gradient on oil recovery in a two-dimensional pore-network model. The oil viscosity depends on temperature as, $\\mu_o=exp(B/T)$, where $B$ is a physico-chemical parameter depending on the type of oil, and $T$ is the temperature. A temperature gradient is applied across the medium in the flow direction. Initially, the porous medium is saturated with oil and, then, another fluid is injected. We have considered two cases representing different injection strategies. In the first case, the invading fluid viscosity is constant (finite viscosity ratio) while in the second one, the invading fluid is inviscid (infinite viscosity ratio). Our results show that, for the case of finite viscosity ratio, recovery increases with $\\Delta T$ independently on strength or sign of the gradient. For an infinite viscosity ratio, a positive temperature gradient is necessary to enhance recovery. Moreover, we show that, for $\\Delta T>0$, the percentage of oil recovery generally decreases (inc...

  17. Dynamics of few-body states in a medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Beyer; S. Mattiello; S. Strauss; T. Frederico; H. J. Weber; P. Schuck; S. A. Sofianos

    2004-10-02

    Strongly interacting matter such as nuclear or quark matter leads to few-body bound states and correlations of the constituents. As a consequence quantum chromodynamics has a rich phase structure with spontaneous symmetry breaking, superconductivity, condensates of different kinds. All this appears in many astrophysical scenarios. Among them is the formation of hadrns during the early stage of the Universe, the structure of a neutron star, the formation of nuclei during a supernova explosion. Some of these extreme conditions can be simulated in heavy ion colliders. To treat such a hot and dense system we use the Green function formalism of many-body theory. It turns out that a systematic Dyson expansion of the Green functions leads to modified few-body equations that are capable to describe phase transitions, condensates, cluster formation and more. These equations include self energy corrections and Pauli blocking. We apply this method to nonrelativistic and relativistic matter. The latter one is treated on the light front. Because of the medium and the inevitable truncation of space, the few-body dynamics and states depend on the thermodynamic parameters of the medium.

  18. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Kupitz, Christopher; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; White, Thomas A.; Zhao, Yun; Zook, James; Boutet, Sébastien; Cherezov, Vadim; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Raimund; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, the structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5 Å resolution using 300 µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.

  19. A novel inert crystal delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Conrad, Chelsie E.; Basu, Shibom; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Schaffer, Alexander; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Aquila, Andrew; Coe, Jesse; Gati, Cornelius; et al

    2015-06-30

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has opened a new era in crystallography by permitting nearly damage-free, room-temperature structure determination of challenging proteins such as membrane proteins. In SFX, femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulses produce diffraction snapshots from nanocrystals and microcrystals delivered in a liquid jet, which leads to high protein consumption. A slow-moving stream of agarose has been developed as a new crystal delivery medium for SFX. It has low background scattering, is compatible with both soluble and membrane proteins, and can deliver the protein crystals at a wide range of temperatures down to 4°C. Using this crystal-laden agarose stream, themore »structure of a multi-subunit complex, phycocyanin, was solved to 2.5 Å resolution using 300 µg of microcrystals embedded into the agarose medium post-crystallization. The agarose delivery method reduces protein consumption by at least 100-fold and has the potential to be used for a diverse population of proteins, including membrane protein complexes.« less

  20. Connection Between the Circumgalactic Medium and the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies:Results from the COS-GASS Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Tumlinson, Jason; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Thom, Christopher; Catinella, Barbara; Schiminovich, David; Dave, Romeel; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Moran, Sean M; Saintonge, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    We present a study exploring the nature and properties of the Circum-Galactic Medium (CGM) and its connection to the atomic gas content in the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies as traced by the HI 21 cm line. Our sample includes 45 low-z (0.026-0.049) galaxies from the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey. Their CGM was probed via absorption in the spectra of background Quasi-Stellar Objects at impact parameters of 63 to 231 kpc. The spectra were obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. We detected neutral hydrogen (Ly{\\alpha} absorption-lines) in the CGM of 92% of the galaxies. We find the radial profile of the CGM as traced by the Ly{\\alpha} equivalent width can be fit as an exponential with a scale length of about 0.85 times the virial radius of the dark matter halo. We found no correlation between the orientation of the galaxies and their Ly{\\alpha} equivalent widths. The velocity spread of the circumgalactic gas is consistent with that seen in the atomic gas in the inters...

  1. Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for HydrogenAmmonia As an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogenusing ammonia as an energy storage medium (Preston, 2006).

  2. Wavelength calibration of the JWST-MIRI medium resolution spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez-Galarza, J R; Hernan-Caballero, A; Azzollini, R; Glasse, A; Kendrew, S; Brandl, B; Lahuis, F

    2010-01-01

    We present the wavelength and spectral resolution characterisation of the Integral Field Unit (IFU) Medium Resolution Spectrometer for the Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI), to fly onboard the James Webb Space Telescope in 2014. We use data collected using the Verification Model of the instrument and develop an empirical method to calibrate properties such as wavelength range and resolving power in a portion of the spectrometer's full spectral range (5-28 microns). We test our results against optical models to verify the system requirements and combine them with a study of the fringing pattern in the instrument's detector to provide a more accurate calibration. We show that MIRI's IFU spectrometer will be able to produce spectra with a resolving power above R=2800 in the wavelength range 6.46-7.70 microns, and that the unresolved spectral lines are well fitted by a Gaussian profile.

  3. Heating and Acceleration of Intracluster Medium Electrons by Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahé Petrosian; William E. East

    2008-02-06

    In this paper we investigate the feasibility of bremsstrahlung radiation from `nonthermal' electrons as a source of hard X-rays from the intracluster medium of clusters of galaxies. With an exact treatment of the Coulomb collisions in a Fokker-Planck analysis of the electron distribution we find that the severe difficulties with lifetimes of `nonthermal' particles found earlier by Petrosian (2001) using a cold target model remain problematic. We then address possible acceleration of background electrons into a nonthermal tail. We assume a simplified but generic acceleration rate and determine the expected evolution of an initially Maxwellian distribution of electrons. We find that strong nonthermal components arise only for rapid rate of acceleration which also heats up the entire plasma. These results confirm the conclusion that if the observed `nonthermal' excesses are due to some process accelerating the background thermal electrons this process must be short lived.

  4. Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This project compiles medium-duty (MD) aggregated deployment data and provides the compiled detailed analyses to industry. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles, electrified accessories, and electric charging infrastructure. Over 3.2 million miles of in-service all-electric MD truck data from 560 different vehicles have been collected since 2011, and usage data from over 1,000 truck electrification sites have been collected since 2013. Through the DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office, NREL is working to analyze real-time data from these deployment and demonstration projects to quantify the benefits: results and summary statistics are made available through the NREL website as quarterly and annual reports; 23 aggregated reports have been published on the performance and operation of these vehicles; and detailed data are being extracted to help further understand battery use and performance.

  5. Phase segregation of passive advective particles in an active medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amit Das; Anirban Polley; Madan Rao

    2015-06-23

    Localized contractile configurations or asters spontaneously appear and disappear as emergent structures in the collective stochastic dynamics of active polar actomyosin filaments. Passive parti- cles which (un)bind to the active filaments get advected into the asters, forming transient clusters. We study the phase segregation of such passive advective scalars in a medium of dynamic asters, as a function of the aster density and the ratio of the rates of aster remodeling to particle diffusion. The dynamics of coarsening shows strong violation of Porod behaviour, suggesting diffuse interfaces. The phase segregated steady state shows strongly fluctuations characterized by multiscaling and in- termittency. We expect these unique nonequilibrium features to manifest in the actin-dependent molecular clustering at the cell surface.

  6. Gravity currents in a porous medium at an inclined plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vella, D; Huppert, Herbert E.; Vella, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    We consider the release from a point source of relatively heavy fluid into a porous saturated medium above an impermeable slope. We consider the case where the volume of the resulting gravity current increases with time like $t^\\alpha$ and show that for $\\alpha3$, this situation is reversed with spreading occurring predominantly downslope for short times. The governing equations admit similarity solutions whose scaling behaviour we determine, with the full similarity form being evaluated by numerical computations of the governing partial differential equation. We find that the results of these analyses are in good quantitative agreement with a series of laboratory experiments. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of our work for the sequestration of carbon dioxide in aquifers with a sloping, impermeable cap.

  7. Soot blower using fuel gas as blowing medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A soot blower assembly (10) for use in combination with a coal gasifier (14). The soot blower assembly is adapted for use in the hot combustible product gas generated in the gasifier as the blowing medium. The soot blower lance (20) and the drive means (30) by which it is moved into and out of the gasifier is housed in a gas tight enclosure (40) which completely surrounds the combination. The interior of the enclosure (40) is pressurized by an inert gas to a pressure level higher than that present in the gasifier so that any combustible product gas leaking from the soot blower lance (20) is forced into the gasifier rather than accumulating within the enclosure.

  8. Nuclear structure studies with medium energy probes. [Northwestern Univ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seth, Kamal K.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the continuing program of experimental research in nuclear structure with medium-energy probes during the year 1979-1980 is reviewed, and the research activities planned for the year 1980-1981 are discussed. In the study of pion-induced reactions emphasis is placed on investigation of isovector characteristics of nuclear excitations and on double charge exchange reactions. Pion production studies form the major part of the program of experiments with proton beams of 400 to 800 MeV at LAMPF. Current emphasis is on the bearing of these investigations on di-baryon existence. The study of high-spin states and magnetic scattering constitute the main goals of the electron scattering program at Bates. Representative results are presented; completed work is reported in the usual publications. (RWR)

  9. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative agreements and their completion were problematic for the US and world economies. This resulted in the President and Congress implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, abbreviated ARRA (Pub.L. 111-5), commonly referred to as the Stimulus or The Recovery Act. The stimulus money available for transportation projects encouraged the SCAQMD to seek additional funds. In August of 2009, they eventually were awarded an additional $45.5 M, and the scope of their project was expanded to 378 vehicles. However, as a consequence of the stimulus money and the inundation of DOE with applications for new project under the ARRA, the expected time table for producing and testing vehicles was significantly delayed. As a result, these vehicles were not available for validating the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium. Therefore, in April of 2011, the Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) for the project was revised, and limited to producing the draft protocol for PHEV certification as its deliverable.

  10. Magnetic and electric contributions to the energy loss in a dynamical QCD medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Djordjevic

    2011-05-21

    The computation of radiative energy loss in a finite size QCD medium with dynamical constituents is a key ingredient for obtaining reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. It was previously shown that energy loss in dynamical QCD medium is significantly higher compared to static QCD medium. To understand this difference, we here analyze magnetic and electric contributions to energy loss in dynamical QCD medium. We find that the significantly higher energy loss in the dynamical case is entirely due to appearance of magnetic contribution in the dynamical medium. While for asymptotically high energies, the energy loss in static and dynamical medium approach the same value, we find that the physical origin of the energy loss in these two cases is different.

  11. In-Use Performance Results of Medium Duty Electric Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2012-07-01

    This presentation describes a DOE program to monitor and report on vehicle performance and energy utilization of medium-duty and heavy-duty electric vehicles.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  13. DYNAMMA: A DYNAmic Multi-channel Medium Access Framework for Wireless Ad HocNetworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Estrin. An energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensoradaptive energy- efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensorEnergy-efficient collision-free medium access control for wireless

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about medium...

  17. Clean Cities' Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    Guide describes the alternative fuel and advanced medium- and heavy-duty vehicles available on the market, including buses, vans, refuse haulers, and more.

  18. Modelling credit risk of small and medium sized enterprises using transactional, accounting and market variables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Yigui

    2012-06-26

    This thesis comprehensively explores the credit risk of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) using transactional characteristics, financial variables and market information. It contributes SMEs credit risk modelling ...

  19. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Van Thuc

    2015-01-01

    of conventional solar thermal collectors in California andof conventional solar thermal collectors in California andminichannel-tube solar thermal collectors for low to medium

  20. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governingmore »equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.« less

  1. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  2. Heating and cooling of the intergalactic medium by resonance photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonid Chuzhoy; Paul R. Shapiro

    2007-01-27

    During the epoch of reionization a large number of photons were produced with frequencies below the hydrogen Lyman limit. After redshifting into the closest resonance, these photons underwent multiple scatterings with atoms. We examine the effect of these scatterings on the temperature of the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM). Continuum photons, emitted between the Ly_alpha and Ly_gamma frequencies, heat the gas after being redshifted into the H Ly_alpha or D Ly_beta resonance. By contrast, photons emitted between the Ly_gamma and Ly-limit frequencies, produce effective cooling of the gas. Prior to reionization, the equilibrium temperature of ~100 K for hydrogen and helium atoms is set by these two competing processes. At the same time, Ly_beta resonance photons thermally decouple deuterium from other species, raising its temperature as high as 10^4 K. Our results have important consequences for the cosmic 21-cm background and the entropy floor of the early IGM which can affect star formation and reionization.

  3. Ly? heating of inhomogeneous high-redshift intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oklop?i?, Antonija; Hirata, Christopher M., E-mail: oklopcic@astro.caltech.edu [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) prior to the epoch of reionization consists mostly of neutral hydrogen gas. Lyman-? (Ly?) photons produced by early stars resonantly scatter off hydrogen atoms, causing energy exchange between the radiation field and the gas. This interaction results in moderate heating of the gas due to the recoil of the atoms upon scattering, which is of great interest for future studies of the pre-reionization IGM in the H I 21 cm line. We investigate the effect of this Ly? heating in the IGM with linear density, temperature, and velocity perturbations. Perturbations smaller than the diffusion length of photons could be damped due to heat conduction by Ly? photons. The scale at which damping occurs and the strength of this effect depend on various properties of the gas, the flux of Ly? photons, and the way in which photon frequencies are redistributed upon scattering. To find the relevant length scale and the extent to which Ly? heating affects perturbations, we calculate the gas heating rates by numerically solving linearized Boltzmann equations in which scattering is treated by the Fokker-Planck approximation. We find that (1) perturbations add a small correction to the gas heating rate, and (2) the damping of temperature perturbations occurs at scales with comoving wavenumber k ? 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup –1}, which are much smaller than the Jeans scale and thus unlikely to substantially affect the observed 21 cm signal.

  4. Pipelines and laterally loaded piles in elastoplastic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajani, B. . Inst. for Research in Construction)

    1993-09-01

    The uplift behavior of a shallow pipeline embedded in an elastoplastic medium is examined. An analytical solution for a beam on elastoplastic foundation is developed and a characteristic nondimensional load-displacement and stress-displacement relationship are presented. An approximate three-dimensional (3D) solution is proposed that accounts for embedment and breakaway condition behind the pipeline making use of the load-displacement curves developed for rigid anchors by Rowe and Davis in 1982. A comparison of these results with those obtained by 3D finite-element analysis indicates that the simplified solution of a beam on elastoplastic foundation is a practical alternative for analyzing the uplift behavior of shallow pipelines. The approximate solution is also used to compare the behavior of a laterally loaded pile for which no separation or separation between the surrounding soil and the back of the pile is permitted as the load is monotonically increased. The results are presented in the form of nondimensional charts that permit hand calculations and rapid verification of structural design of the pipeline and piles.

  5. Formation of different isotopomers of chloronium in the interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Liton; Chakrabarti, Sandip K

    2014-01-01

    Main focus of this paper is to explore the possibility of findings two deuterated isotopomers of H2Cl^+ (Chloronium) in and around the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Presence of Chloronium ion has recently been confirmed by Herschel Space Observatory$'$s Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (Neufeld et al., 2012}. It observed para-chloronium towards six sources in the Galaxy. Existence of its deuterated isotopomers (HDCl^+ & D2Cl^+) are till date not discussed in the literature. We find that these deuterated gas phase ions could be destroyed by various ion-molecular reactions, dissociative recombination (DR) and by cosmic rays (CR). We compute all the Ion-molecular (polar) reaction rates by using the parameterized trajectory theory and the Ion-molecular (non-polar) reaction rates by using the Langevin theory. For DR and CR induced reactions, we adopt two well behaved rate formulas. We also include these rate coefficients into our large gas-grain chemical network to study the chemical evolution of these ...

  6. Determination of electromagnetic medium from the Fresnel surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matias F. Dahl

    2011-03-16

    We study Maxwell's equations on a 4-manifold where the electromagnetic medium is described by an antisymmetric $2\\choose 2$-tensor $\\kappa$. In this setting, the Tamm-Rubilar tensor density determines a polynomial surface of fourth order in each cotangent space. This surface is called the Fresnel surface and acts as a generalisation of the light-cone determined by a Lorentz metric; the Fresnel surface parameterises electromagnetic wave-speed as a function of direction. Favaro and Bergamin have recently proven that if $\\kappa$ has only a principal part and if the Fresnel surface of $\\kappa$ coincides with the light cone for a Lorentz metric $g$, then $\\kappa$ is proportional to the Hodge star operator of $g$. That is, under additional assumptions, the Fresnel surface of $\\kappa$ determines the conformal class of $\\kappa$. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we provide a new proof of this result using Gr\\"obner bases. Second, we describe a number of cases where the Fresnel surface does not determine the conformal class of the original $2\\choose 2$-tensor $\\kappa$. For example, if $\\kappa$ is invertible we show that $\\kappa$ and $\\kappa^{-1}$ have the same Fresnel surfaces.

  7. The Impact of Galactic Feedback on the Circumgalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, Joshua; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Torrey, Paul; Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Galactic feedback strongly affects the way galactic environments are enriched. We examine this connection by performing a suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, exploring a range of parameters based on the galaxy formation model developed in Vogelsberger et al. 2013 (henceforth V13). We examine the effects of AGN feedback, wind mass loading, wind specific energy, and wind metal-loading on the properties of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of galaxies with $M_\\text{halo} > 10^{11} M_\\odot$. Note that while the V13 model was tuned to match observations including the stellar mass function, no explicit tuning was done for the CGM. The wind energy per unit outflow mass has the most significant effect on the CGM enrichment. High energy winds launch metals far beyond the virial radius. AGN feedback also has a significant effect, but only at $z < 3$. We compare to high redshift HI and CIV observations. All our simulations produce the observed number of Damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ Absorbers. At lower column densi...

  8. Comparison of the crystal and electronic structures of three 2:1 salts of the organic donor molecule BEDT-TTF with pentafluorothiomethylsulfonate anions SF{sub 5}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3}.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, B. H.; Schlueter, J. A.; Geiser, U.; Wang, H. H.; Morales, E.; Parakka, J.; Thomas, S. T.; Williams, J. M.; Nixon, P. G.; Winter, R. W.; Gard, G. L.; Koo, H.-J.; Whangbo, M.-H.; Chemistry; Portland State Univ.; North Carolina State Univ.

    2000-01-01

    Salts of the donor molecule, bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET), with pentafluorothiomethylsulfonate (SF{sub 5}CX{sub 2}SO{sub 3}{sup -}, X = H or F) anions have been prepared. Three phases, {beta}'-(ET){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}SO{sub 3}, {beta}'-(ET){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3}, and {beta}'-(ET){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CHFSO{sub 3} were obtained by electrocrystallization with the corresponding LiSF{sub 5}CX{sub 2}SO{sub 3} electrolytes. The structures of these salts were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and their physical properties were examined by electrical resistivity measurements as well as by ESR and Raman spectroscopy. The {beta}'-(ET){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}SO{sub 3}, {beta}'-(ET){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CHFSO{sub 3} and {beta}'-(ET){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3} salts are considerably different in their crystal structures, physical properties, and electronic structures despite the similarity in the structures of the SF{sub 5}CX{sub 2}SO{sub 3}{sup -} (X = H, F) anions. The {beta}'-(ET){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}SO{sub 3} salt has two kinds of ET donor molecules with considerably different charge densities. The electronic structure of {beta}'-(ET){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CHFSO{sub 3} has both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) Fermi surfaces which are similar to those found in the organic superconductor {beta}'-(ET){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. The ESR data for the {beta}'-(ET){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3} salt indicate that it opens a spin gap below 45 K. The differences in the physical properties of the three salts were analyzed by calculating the HOMO-HOMO interaction energies between nearest-neighbor ET molecules in their donor molecule layers.

  9. THE IMPACT OF STARBURSTS ON THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Heckman, Timothy; Strickland, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wild, Vivienne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 95S (United Kingdom); Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA) (United Kingdom); Schiminovich, David, E-mail: sanch@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We present a study exploring the impact of a starburst on the properties of the surrounding circumgalactic medium (CGM): gas located beyond the galaxy's stellar body and extending out to the virial radius ({approx}200 kpc). We obtained ultraviolet spectroscopic data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) probing the CGM of 20 low-redshift foreground galaxies using background QSOs. Our sample consists of starburst and control galaxies. The latter comprises normal star-forming and passive galaxies with similar stellar masses and impact parameters as the starbursts. We used optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to estimate the properties of the starbursts, inferring average ages of {approx}200 Myr and burst fractions involving {approx}10% of their stellar mass. The COS data reveal highly ionized gas traced by C IV in 80%(4/5) of the starburst and in 17%(2/12) of the control sample. The two control galaxies with C IV absorbers differed from the four starbursts in showing multiple low-ionization transitions and strong saturated Ly{alpha} lines. They therefore appear to be physically different systems. We show that the C IV absorbers in the starburst CGM represent a significant baryon repository. The high detection rate of this highly ionized material in the starbursts suggests that starburst-driven winds can affect the CGM out to radii as large as 200 kpc. This is plausible given the inferred properties of the starbursts and the known properties of starburst-driven winds. This would represent the first direct observational evidence of local starbursts impacting the bulk of their gaseous halos, and as such provides new evidence of the importance of this kind of feedback in the evolution of galaxies.

  10. TIMESCALES ON WHICH STAR FORMATION AFFECTS THE NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Warren, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, CSS Building, Room 1024, Stadium Drive, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Turbulent neutral hydrogen (H I) line widths are often thought to be driven primarily by star formation (SF), but the timescale for converting SF energy to H I kinetic energy is unclear. As a complication, studies on the connection between H I line widths and SF in external galaxies often use broadband tracers for the SF rate, which must implicitly assume that SF histories (SFHs) have been constant over the timescale of the tracer. In this paper, we compare measures of H I energy to time-resolved SFHs in a number of nearby dwarf galaxies. We find that H I energy surface density is strongly correlated only with SF that occurred 30-40 Myr ago. This timescale corresponds to the approximate lifetime of the lowest mass supernova progenitors ({approx}8 M{sub Sun }). This analysis suggests that the coupling between SF and the neutral interstellar medium is strongest on this timescale, due either to an intrinsic delay between the release of the peak energy from SF or to the coherent effects of many supernova explosions during this interval. At {Sigma}{sub SFR} > 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, we find a mean coupling efficiency between SF energy and H I energy of {epsilon} = 0.11 {+-} 0.04 using the 30-40 Myr timescale. However, unphysical efficiencies are required in lower {Sigma}{sub SFR} systems, implying that SF is not the primary driver of H I kinematics at {Sigma}{sub SFR} < 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}.

  11. Thermal Balance in the Intracluster Medium: Is AGN Feedback Necessary?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charlie Conroy; Jeremiah P. Ostriker

    2008-03-10

    A variety of physical heating mechanisms are combined with radiative cooling to explore, via one dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, the expected thermal properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the context of the cooling flow problem. Energy injection from type Ia supernovae, thermal conduction, and dynamical friction (DF) from orbiting satellite galaxies are considered. The novel feature of this work is the exploration of a wide range of efficiencies of each heating process. While the latter two can provide a substantial amount of energy, neither mechanism operating alone can produce nor maintain an ICM in thermal balance over cosmological timescales, in stark contrast with observations. For simulated clusters with initially isothermal temperature profiles, both mechanisms acting in combination result in long-term thermal balance for a range of ICM temperatures and for central electron densities less than n_e~0.02 cm^-3; at greater densities catastrophic cooling invariably occurs. Furthermore, these heating mechanisms can neither produce nor maintain clusters with a declining temperature profile in the central regions, implying that the observed "cooling-core'' clusters, which have such declining temperature profiles, cannot be maintained with these mechanisms alone. Thus, while there appears to be an abundant supply of energy capable of heating the ICM in clusters, it is extremely difficult for the energy deposition to occur in such a way that the ICM remains in thermal balance over cosmological time-scales. These results strongly suggest that a more dynamic heating process such as feedback from a central black hole is required to generate the properties of observed intracluster media. (ABRIDGED)

  12. Metallicity of the Intergalactic Medium Using Pixel Statistics: I. Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony Aguirre; Joop Schaye; Tom Theuns

    2002-07-04

    Studies of absorption spectra of high-z QSOs have revealed that the intergalactic medium at z ~ 2-3 is enriched to ~ 0.1%-1% solar for gas densities more than a few times the mean cosmic density, but have not yet produced an accurate metallicity estimate, nor constrained variations in the metallicity with density, redshift, or spatial location. This paper discusses the ``pixel optical depth'' (POD) method of QSO spectrum analysis, using realistic simulated spectra from cosmological simulations. In this method, absorption in Ly-alpha is compared to corresponding metal absorption on a pixel-by-pixel basis, yielding for each analyzed spectrum a single statistical correlation encoding metal enrichment information. Our simulations allow testing and optimization of each step of the technique's implementation. Tests show that previous studies have probably been limited by C IV self-contamination and O VI contamination by HI lines; we have developed and tested an effective method of correcting for both contaminants. We summarize these and other findings, and provide a useful recipe for the POD technique's application to observed spectra. Our tests reveal that the POD technique applied to spectra of presently available quality is effective in recovering useful metallicity information even in underdense gas. We present an extension of the POD technique to directly recover the intergalactic metallicity as a function of gas density. For a given ionizing background, both the oxygen and carbon abundance can be measured with errors of at most a factor of a few over at least an order of magnitude in density, using a single high-quality spectrum.

  13. High-harmonic generation in a dense medium V. V. Strelkov,1,2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Andreas

    High-harmonic generation in a dense medium V. V. Strelkov,1,2, * V. T. Platonenko,3 and A. Becker1 2005 The high-harmonic generation in a plasma or gas under conditions when the single-atom response using the Monte Carlo method. Harmonic spectra are calculated for different medium densities and laser

  14. Acceptance of Internet-based Learning Medium: The Role of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Po, Lai-Man

    Acceptance of Internet-based Learning Medium: The Role of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation acceptance of Internet-based learning medium (ILM) Research Model: This model integrates the motivational perspective into the original Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and includes an intrinsic motivator

  15. Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-97 Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium J. C. Moulu'importance relative des forces de viscosité et des forces capillaires. Abstract. 2014 The velocity of oil ganglia residual oil phase by water injection in a porous medium [1, 2]. These studies have demonstrated

  16. Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small-and medium-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small- and medium is a useful complement or alternative to existing methods for high-resolution measurements in small- to medium has led to a dramatic increase in terrain information and opened up new opportunities for hydro- logic

  17. Reduced Models of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Reduced Models of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium and the Solar Wind A and the solar wind. These equations apply to a plasma permeated by a spatially varying mean magnetic field when of turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM) and the solar wind. There is strong observa- tional evidence

  18. Humanoid robots as a passive-social medium -a field experiment at a train station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanda, Takayuki

    Humanoid robots as a passive-social medium - a field experiment at a train station ­ Kotaro Hayashi Ishiguro1&3 , Tsukasa Ogasawara1&2 , Norihiro Hagita1 1 ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Labs. 2-shiomi}@atr.jp, {satoshi, ishiguro}@ams.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp, ogasawar@is.naist.jp ABSTRACT (a) Robots as medium in station (b

  19. CRYSTAL PRECIPITATION AND DISSOLUTION IN A POROUS MEDIUM: EFFECTIVE EQUATIONS AND NUMERICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    CRYSTAL PRECIPITATION AND DISSOLUTION IN A POROUS MEDIUM: EFFECTIVE EQUATIONS AND NUMERICAL expansions to derive a macroscopic law for crystal dissolution and precipitation in a porous medium and precipitation, are of practical importance in many physical, biological and chemical applications. Macroscopic

  20. First Steps Toward a Quality of Climate Finance Scorecard (QUODA-CF): Creating a Comparative Index to Assess International Climate Finance Contributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sierra, Katherine; Roberts, Timmons; de Nevers, Michele; Langley, Claire; Smith, Cory

    2013-06-15

    Are climate finance contributor countries, multilateral aid agencies and specialized funds using widely accepted best practices in foreign assistance? How is it possible to measure and compare international climate finance contributions when there are as yet no established metrics or agreed definitions of the quality of climate finance? As a subjective metric, quality can mean different things to different stakeholders, while of donor countries, recipients and institutional actors may place quality across a broad spectrum of objectives. This subjectivity makes the assessment of the quality of climate finance contributions a useful and necessary exercise, but one that has many challenges. This work seeks to enhance the development of common definitions and metrics of the quality of climate finance, to understand what we can about those areas where climate finance information is available and shine a light on the areas where there is a severe dearth of data. Allowing for comparisons of the use of best practices across funding institutions in the climate sector could begin a process of benchmarking performance, fostering learning across institutions and driving improvements when incorporated in internal evaluation protocols of those institutions. In the medium term, this kind of benchmarking and transparency could support fundraising in contributor countries and help build trust with recipient countries. As a feasibility study, this paper attempts to outline the importance of assessing international climate finance contributions while describing the difficulties in arriving at universally agreed measurements and indicators for assessment. In many cases, data are neither readily available nor complete, and there is no consensus on what should be included. A number of indicators are proposed in this study as a starting point with which to analyze voluntary contributions, but in some cases their methodologies are not complete, and further research is required for a robust measurement tool to be created.

  1. Novel Coherent Optical Medium Based on Buffer-Gas-Cooled Rb Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tao; Patterson, David; Zibrov, Alexander S; Doyle, John M; Lukin, Mikhail D; Prentiss, Mara G

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel coherent optical medium with high optical depth and low Doppler broadening that offers metastable states with low collisional and motional decoherence. In our approach, helium buffer gas cools 87Rb atoms to below 7 K, while at the same time slowing atom diffusion. We demonstrate that electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) allows 50% transmission in a medium with initial OD > 70. Slow pulse propagation experiments in this medium yield delays exceeding initial pulse duration by a factor > 25. Efficient four-wave mixing is observed in the high-OD regime, resulting in a pronounced modification of the atomic optical response.

  2. Study of in-medium mass modification at J-PARC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazuya Aoki; for the J-PARC E16 Collaboration

    2015-02-03

    Study of in-medium mass modification has attracted interest in terms of the restoration of the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, which is responsible for the generation of hadron mass. Many experiments were performed to measure in-medium property of hadrons but there is no consensus yet. J-PARC E16 has been proposed to study in-medium property of vector mesons via dilepton decay channel. The status of spectrometer R \\& D is explained. Other related experiments planned at J-PARC are also introduced.

  3. Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Youngwoon

    Multiple scatterings occurring in a turbid medium attenuate the intensity of propagating waves. Here, we propose a method to efficiently deliver light energy to the desired target depth in a scattering medium. We measure ...

  4. Characterization of a pulsed beam Time-of-Flight system for medium energy He+ and C+ backscattering spectrometry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    Efficiencies of a microchannel plate detector for medium energy helium and carbon ions were determined using a recently developed time of flight technique for near surface analysis by medium energy ion scattering. This technique utilizes a pulsed...

  5. Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Lei; Luk, Ting S; Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The optical nonlocality in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials is theoretically and experimentally investigated with respect to transverse-magnetic-polarized incident light. A nonlocal effective medium theory is derived from the transfer-matrix method to determine the nonlocal effective permittivity depending on both the frequency and wave vector in a symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer stack. In contrast to the local effective medium theory, our proposed nonlocal effective medium theory can accurately predict measured incident angle-dependent reflection spectra from a fabricated multilayer stack and provide nonlocal dispersion relations. Moreover, the bulk plasmon polaritons with large wave vectors supported in the multilayer stack are also investigated with the nonlocal effective medium theory through the analysis of the dispersion relation and eigenmode.

  6. Hard and soft probe - medium interactions in a 3D hydro+micro approach at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bass, S A; Ruppert, J; Nonaka, C

    2007-01-01

    We utilize a 3D hybrid hydro+micro model for a comprehensive and consistent description of soft and hard particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. In the soft sector we focus on the dynamics of (multi-)strange baryons, where a clear strangeness dependence of their collision rates and freeze-out is observed. In the hard sector we study the radiative energy loss of hard partons in a soft medium in the multiple soft scattering approximation. While the nuclear suppression factor $R_{AA}$ does not reflect the high quality of the medium description (except in a reduced systematic uncertainty in extracting the quenching power of the medium), the hydrodynamical model also allows to study different centralities and in particular the angular variation of $R_{AA}$ with respect to the reaction plane, allowing for a controlled variation of the in-medium path-length.

  7. "Shelter within my reach" : medium rise apartment housing for the middle income group in Karachi, Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmood, Saman, 1972-

    1999-01-01

    This thesis identifies the project development processes of medium rise (five storied or less) apartment housing built by the private formal sector, catering to the middle income groups in Karachi, Pakistan. Middle income ...

  8. The shock-excitation of molecular hydrogen in the interstellar medium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Michael Graham

    This dissertation presents a study of shock-excited molecular hydrogen (H2) in the interstellar medium. The aims of this thesis are to understand the shock-excitation process and to understand the global role of shocks in ...

  9. Analysis of asset health : an approach to monitoring and diagnostics for medium voltage circuit breakers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corona, Erick (Erick Gustavo)

    2013-01-01

    The Medium Voltage Electric Industry is a very conservative and risk adverse sector that has undergone very little change in the past 30 years when compared to other technologically dependent activities; this reality is ...

  10. Role of noise operators on two-photon correlations in an extended coherent Raman medium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

    2007-01-01

    An extended medium driven in a double Raman configuration generates Stokes and anti-Stokes fields that are described by coupled parametric oscillator equations with solutions that depend on input boundary operators and quantum noise operators. We...

  11. Future instrumentation for the study of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. B. S. Paerels; J. S. Kaastra; T. Ohashi; P. Richter; A. M. Bykov; J. Nevalainen

    2008-01-07

    We briefly review capabilities and requirements for future instrumentation in UV- and X-ray astronomy that can contribute to advancing our understanding of the diffuse, highly ionised intergalactic medium.

  12. Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide for Small and Medium Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-07-07

    The Guide was developed to provide project management principles and guidelines to small and medium projects that fall outside the scope of DOE O 415.1, Information Technology Project Management, dated 12-3-12.

  13. A Distributed Medium Access Control Scheme for a Large Network of Wireless Routers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Bin; Hua, Yingbo

    2008-01-01

    for a Large Network of Wireless Routers Bin Zhao and Yingboof a large network of wireless routers critically depends onLarge network of wireless routers, medium access control,

  14. Energy Conservation Through Heating/Cooling Retrofits in Small and Medium-Sized Industrial Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saman, N.; Eggebrecht, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses energy conservation projects in the area of industrial environment heating and cooling that have been recommended by the Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) to small and medium-sized industries in Texas...

  15. The design of a compact integral medium size PWR : the CIRIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirvan, Koroush

    2010-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced medium size, modular integral light water reactor design, rated currently at 1000 MWt. IRIS design has been under development by over 20 organizations ...

  16. A Model for Wave Propagation in a Porous Medium Saturated by a ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Let us consider a porous medium saturated by a mixture of oil and water, and. let So = So(x) and Sw = Sw(x) denote the oil and water saturations, respectively.

  17. Energy Conservation Through Improved Industrial Ventilation in Small and Medium-Sized Industrial Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saman, N. F.; Nutter, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE 1994 ESL-PA-94/04-03 REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION ENERGY CONSERVATION THROUGH IMPROVED INDUSTRIAL VENTILATION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED INDUSTRIAL PLANTS Namir Saman, Ph.D., P.E. Visiting Assistant Professor Energy System... Laboratory Texas A&M University ABSTRACT This paper discusses energy conservation projects in the area of industrial ventilation that have been recommended by the Texas A&M University Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADQ to small and medium...

  18. Extension of the Huttner-Barnett model to a magnetodielectric medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fardin Kheirandish; Morteza Soltani

    2008-01-12

    The Huttner$-$Barnett model is extended to a magnetodielectric medium by adding a new matter field to this model. The eigenoperators for the coupled system are calculated and electromagnetic field is written in terms of these operators. The electric and magnetic susceptibility of the medium are explicitly derived and shown to satisfy the Kramers$-$Kronig relations. It is shown that the results obtained in this model are equivalent to the results obtained from the phenomenological methods.

  19. ULTRASONICALLY-ENHANCED DENSE-MEDIUM CYCLONING FOR FINE COAL AND COAL REFUSE IMPOUNDMENT MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mark S. Klima; Dr. Barbara J. Arnold

    2001-08-01

    The Pennsylvania State University, its project team (Typlex, Inc., DAGER, Inc., and PrepTech, Inc.), and advisory committee members have demonstrated the application of ultrasonic energy during dense-medium cyclining and subsequent recovery of fine coal and coal refuse impoundment materials. The results will help to extend the range of conventional dense-medium cyclining to sizes now typically cleaned in relatively inefficient water-only cyclone and spiral concentrators circuits. This technology also provides a potential approach to produce ultra-clean material as would be used for feedstocks for premium carbon products. This report describes Phase I of the project, which involved laboratory testing of dense-medium cyclining and subsequent medium recovery, with and without ultrasonic treatment, along with fundamental dispersion testing. Dense-medium cycloning was conducted with a 76.2-mm (3-in.) diameter cyclone under various conditions including magnetite grade, medium relative density, inlet pressure, cyclone geometry, and feed coal. Dense-medium recovery testing was carried out with a 305-mm (12-in.) diameter x 152-mm (6-in.) wide wet-drum magnetic separator using the cyclone clean coal and refuse products as the feed material. Fundamental testing of dispersion/reagglomeration phenomena was conducted with coal/clay mixtures. In almost all cases, the dense-medium cyclone was capable of achieving separations down to approximately 0.037 mm. Ultrasonic treatment had a slight effect on reducing the ash content of the clean coal. It was also found that ultrasonic treatment improved the purity of the magnetic fraction during wet-drum magnetic separation. The treatment was particularly beneficial for the cyclone overflow material. The fundamental testing indicated that agitation after ultrasonic treatment is necessary to disperse fine particles and to prevent agglomeration.

  20. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  1. CALCIUM-RICH GAP TRANSIENTS: SOLVING THE CALCIUM CONUNDRUM IN THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Kasliwal, Mansi M., E-mail: mulchaey@obs.carnegiescience.edu [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    X-ray measurements suggest that the abundance of calcium in the intracluster medium is higher than can be explained using favored models for core-collapse and Type Ia supernovae alone. We investigate whether the ''calcium conundrum'' in the intracluster medium can be alleviated by including a contribution from the recently discovered subclass of supernovae known as calcium-rich gap transients. Although the calcium-rich gap transients make up only a small fraction of all supernovae events, we find that their high calcium yields are sufficient to reproduce the X-ray measurements found for nearby rich clusters. We find the ?{sup 2} goodness-of-fit metric improves from 84 to 2 by including this new class. Moreover, calcium-rich supernovae preferentially occur in the outskirts of galaxies making it easier for the nucleosynthesis products of these events to be incorporated in the intracluster medium via ram-pressure stripping. The discovery of calcium-rich gap transients in clusters and groups far from any individual galaxy suggests that supernovae associated with intracluster stars may play an important role in enriching the intracluster medium. Calcium-rich gap transients may also help explain anomalous calcium abundances in many other astrophysical systems including individual stars in the Milky Way, the halos of nearby galaxies, and the circumgalactic medium. Our work highlights the importance of considering the diversity of supernovae types and corresponding yields when modeling the abundance of the intracluster medium and other gas reservoirs.

  2. Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

    2007-01-01

    DTIC Review: Energy Supply Alternatives: ADA433359, 2004.Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen2007 Ammonia As an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for

  3. Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

    2007-01-01

    ISO 14687: Hydrogen fuel -- Product Specification, 2007.Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific andStorage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and

  4. 323. 1JYNJ;MI(S AND 00!ANTIM3 CF OOGINIC rouJJI'ANl' lNll'RICITrns (}l GAY MINERAlS. Z.Z. 2'bang. Penchu 2'bang and D.L. Sjmks. l:epart:lrent of Plant and Soil Sciences.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    323. 1JYNJ;MI(S AND 00!ANTIM3 CF OOGINIC rouJJI'ANl' lNll'RICITrns (}l GAY MINERAlS. Z.Z. 2'bangI.ark. IE 19717-lm The interactions of clay minerals with organic pollutants .ere investigated using

  5. System and method for monitoring water content or other dielectric influences in a medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Robert S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Allen A. (Firth, ID)

    2001-01-01

    A sensor system is provided that measures water content or other detectable properties in a medium along the entire length of the sensor at any point in time. The sensor system includes an electromagnetic signal generator and a transmission line disposed in a medium to be monitored. Alternatively, the transmission line can be configured for movement across a medium to be monitored, or the transmission line can be fixed relative to a moving medium being monitored. A signal is transmitted along the transmission line at predetermined frequencies, and the signal is returned back along the transmission line and/or into an optional receive line in proximity to the transmission line. The returned signal is processed to generate a one-dimensional data output profile that is a function of a detectable property of the medium. The data output profile can be mapped onto a physical system to generate a two-dimensional or three-dimensional profile if desired. The sensor system is useful in a variety of different applications such as agriculture, horticulture, biofiltration systems for industrial offgases, leak detection in landfills or drum storage facilities at buried waste sites, and in many other applications.

  6. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Tsouris, Constantinos (Oak Ridge, TN); Feng, James Q. (Fairport, NY)

    1998-01-01

    A method for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway.

  7. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Feng, J.Q.

    1998-06-09

    A method is described for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway. 4 figs.

  8. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant additives in a critical fluid medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2005-05-03

    A process for producing alkyl esters useful in biofuels and lubricants by transesterifying glyceride- or esterifying free fatty acid-containing substances in a single critical phase medium is disclosed. The critical phase medium provides increased reaction rates, decreases the loss of catalyst or catalyst activity and improves the overall yield of desired product. The process involves the steps of dissolving an input glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with an alcohol or water into a critical fluid medium; reacting the glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with the alcohol or water input over either a solid or liquid acidic or basic catalyst and sequentially separating the products from each other and from the critical fluid medium, which critical fluid medium can then be recycled back in the process. The process significantly reduces the cost of producing additives or alternatives to automotive fuels and lubricants utilizing inexpensive glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substances, such as animal fats, vegetable oils, rendered fats, and restaurant grease.

  9. Analysis of ray stability and caustic formation in a layered moving fluid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, David R

    2015-01-01

    Caustic formation occurs within a ray skeleton as optical or acoustic fields propagate in a medium with variable refractive properties and are unphysical, their presence being an artifact of the ray approximation of the field, and methods of correcting the field near a caustic are well known. Differential geometry provides a novel approach to calculating acoustic intensity, assessing ray stability and locating caustics in acoustic ray traces when the properties of medium are completely arbitrary by identifying points on the caustic with conjugate points along various rays. The method of geodesic deviation is applied to the problem of determining ray stability and locating caustics in 2-dimensional acoustic ray traces in a layered moving medium. Specifically, a general treatment of caustic formation in sound ducts and in piecewise continuous media is presented and applied to various idealized and realistic scenarios.

  10. Time Evolution of Tunneling in Thermal Medium -- Environment-driven Excited Tunneling --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sh. Matsumoto; M. Yoshimura

    2003-07-18

    Time evolution of tunneling phenomena proceeding in thermal medium is studied using a standard model of environment interaction. A semiclassical probability formula for the particle motion in a metastable state of one dimensional system put in thermal medium is combined with the formula of quantum penetration factor through a potential barrier, to derive the tunneling rate in medium. Effect of environment, its influence on time evolution in particular, is clarified in a real-time formalism. A nonlinear resonance effect is shown to enhance the tunneling rate at finite times of order $2/\\eta $, with $\\eta $ the friction coefficient. In the linear approximation this effect has relevance to the parametric resonance. This effect enhances the possibility of early termination of the cosmological phase transition much prior to the typical Hubble time.

  11. Formation of bubbly horizon in liquid-saturated porous medium by surface temperature oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2015-01-01

    We study non-isothermal diffusion transport of a weakly-soluble substance in a liquid-saturated porous medium being in contact with the reservoir of this substance. The surface temperature of the porous medium half-space oscillates in time, which results in a decaying solubility wave propagating deep into the porous medium. In such a system, the zones of saturated solution and non-dissolved phase coexist with the zones of undersaturated solution. The effect is firstly considered for the case of annual oscillation of the surface temperature of water-saturated ground being in contact with atmosphere. We reveal the phenomenon of formation of a near-surface bubbly horizon due to the temperature oscillation. An analytical theory of the phenomenon is developed. Further, the treatment is extended to the case of higher frequency oscillations and case of weakly-soluble solids and liquids.

  12. Formation of bubbly horizon in liquid-saturated porous medium by surface temperature oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis S. Goldobin; Pavel V. Krauzin

    2015-10-08

    We study non-isothermal diffusion transport of a weakly-soluble substance in a liquid-saturated porous medium being in contact with the reservoir of this substance. The surface temperature of the porous medium half-space oscillates in time, which results in a decaying solubility wave propagating deep into the porous medium. In such a system, the zones of saturated solution and non-dissolved phase coexist with the zones of undersaturated solution. The effect is firstly considered for the case of annual oscillation of the surface temperature of water-saturated ground being in contact with atmosphere. We reveal the phenomenon of formation of a near-surface bubbly horizon due to the temperature oscillation. An analytical theory of the phenomenon is developed. Further, the treatment is extended to the case of higher frequency oscillations and case of weakly-soluble solids and liquids.

  13. Neutrino propagation in nuclear medium and neutrinoless double-beta decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kovalenko, S; Simkovic, F

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a novel effect in neutrinoless double beta decay related with the fact that its underlying mechanisms take place in the nuclear matter environment. We study a particular case of neutrino exchange mechanism and demonstrate possible impact of nuclear medium via Lepton Number Violating (LNV) 4-fermion neutral current interactions of neutrino with quarks from decaying nucleus. The net effect of these interactions is generation of an effective in-medium Majorana neutrino mass matrix. We calculate the corresponding effective masses and construct the neutrino mixing matrix in nuclear medium for the complete set of the relevant 4-fermion neutrino-quark operators. Using the experimental data on neutrinoless double beta decay in combination with the cosmological and tritium beta decay data we evaluate lower limits on the characteristic scales of the studied 4-fermion operators. For the LNV scale we have > 2.4 TeV.

  14. Quantum vacuum emission in a nonlinear optical medium illuminated by a strong laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Finazzi; Iacopo Carusotto

    2013-02-27

    A strong light pulse propagating in a nonlinear Kerr medium produces a change in the refractive index, which makes light travel at different speeds inside and outside the pulse. By tuning the pulse velocity, an analog black hole horizon can be obtained in a suitable frequency window. In this paper, we develop a quantum theory of light propagation for this system, including the frequency dispersion of the refractive index of the medium by coupling the electromagnetic field to matter polarization fields. In a configuration with a single black hole horizon, the spectrum of spontaneously emitted particles presents some similarities with Hawking radiation. Furthermore, even in horizonless systems spontaneous vacuum emission is still possible due to the dispersive nature of the medium, yet with dramatically different spectral properties.

  15. A Medium Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope Mechanical Design Proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrum, K; Benbow, W; Cameron, R; Criswell, S; Errando, M; Guarino, V; Kaaret, P; Kieda, D; Mukherjee, R; Naumann, D; Nieto, D; Northrop, R; Okumura, A; Roache, E; Rousselle, J; Schlenstedt, S; Sternberger, R; Vassiliev, V; Wakely, S; Zhao, H

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be implemented as southern and northern hemisphere arrays of tens of small, medium and large-sized imaging Cherenkov telescopes with the goal of improving the sensitivity over the current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude. CTA will provide energy coverage from ~20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium size (9.5m) telescopes will feature a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of accommodating a wide field-of-view with significantly improved angular resolution as compared to the traditional Davies-Cotton optical design. A full-scale prototype SC medium size telescope structure has been designed and will be constructed at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona during the fall of 2015. concentrate on the novel features of the design.

  16. Energy dependence of $\\bar{K}N$ interaction in nuclear medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Cieply

    2011-12-05

    When the $\\bar{K}N$ system is submerged in nuclear medium the $\\bar{K}N$ scattering amplitude and the final state branching ratios exhibit a strong energy dependence when going to energies below the $\\bar{K}N$ threshold. A sharp increase of $\\bar{K}N$ attraction below the $\\bar{K}N$ threshold provides a link between shallow $\\bar{K}$-nuclear potentials based on the chiral $\\bar{K}N$ amplitude evaluated at threshold and the deep phenomenological optical potentials obtained in fits to kaonic atoms data. We show the energy dependence of the in-medium $K^{-}p$ amplitude and demonstrate the impact of energy dependent branching ratios on the $\\Lambda$-hypernuclear production rates. \\keywords{kaon-nucleon amplitude \\and nuclear medium \\and hypernuclei

  17. Photon Radiation and Dilepton Production Induced by Rescattering in Strong Interacting Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanzhong Zhang; Zhongbo Kang; Ben-Wei Zhang; Enke Wang

    2008-04-27

    Using the opacity expansion technique we investigate the photon radiation and dilepton production induced by multiple rescattering as energetic parton jet passing through the strong interacting medium. The real photon radiation and dilepton invariant-mass spectrums of the bremsstrahlung contribution from an energetic quark jet are presented. The leading contribution of total energy loss by photon emmision in medium of a higher energy quark jet is found to be proportional to the jet energy and has a linear dependence on the thickness of the nuclear target. The rescattering contribution for the dilepton is important only for small value of the invariant-mass and for the not so fast jet. The contribution fraction of the dilepton induced by rescattering in medium is found to be nearly a constant when the ratio of jet energy to Debye screening mass $E/\\mu$ is large.

  18. Selective coupling of optical energy into the fundamental diffusion mode of a scattering medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojambati, Oluwafemi S; Lagendijk, Ad; Mosk, Allard P; Vos, Willem L

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that optical wavefront shaping selectively couples light into the fundamental diffusion mode of a scattering medium. The total energy density inside a scattering medium of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles was probed by measuring the emitted fluorescent power of spheres that were randomly positioned inside the medium. The fluorescent power of an optimized incident wave front is observed to be enhanced compared to a non-optimized incident front. The observed enhancement increases with sample thickness. Based on diffusion theory, we derive a model wherein the distribution of energy density of wavefront-shaped light is described by the fundamental diffusion mode. The agreement between our model and the data is striking not in the least since there are no adjustable parameters. Enhanced total energy density is crucial to increase the efficiency of white LEDs, solar cells, and of random lasers, as well as to realize controlled illumination in biomedical optics.

  19. Method and apparatus for communicating computer data from one point to another over a communications medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arneson, Michael R. (Chippewa Falls, WI); Bowman, Terrance L. (Sumner, WA); Cornett, Frank N. (Chippewa Falls, WI); DeRyckere, John F. (Eau Claire, WI); Hillert, Brian T. (Chippewa Falls, WI); Jenkins, Philip N. (Eau Claire, WI); Ma, Nan (Chippewa Falls, WI); Placek, Joseph M. (Chippewa Falls, WI); Ruesch, Rodney (Eau Claire, WI); Thorson, Gregory M. (Altoona, WI)

    2007-07-24

    The present invention is directed toward a communications channel comprising a link level protocol, a driver, a receiver, and a canceller/equalizer. The link level protocol provides logic for DC-free signal encoding and recovery as well as supporting many features including CRC error detection and message resend to accommodate infrequent bit errors across the medium. The canceller/equalizer provides equalization for destabilized data signals and also provides simultaneous bi-directional data transfer. The receiver provides bit deskewing by removing synchronization error, or skewing, between data signals. The driver provides impedance controlling by monitoring the characteristics of the communications medium, like voltage or temperature, and providing a matching output impedance in the signal driver so that fewer distortions occur while the data travels across the communications medium.

  20. An effective medium theory for predicting the existence of surface states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Meng; Fang, Anan; Chan, C T

    2015-01-01

    We build an effective medium theory for two-dimensional photonic crystals comprising a rectangular lattice of dielectric cylinders with the incident electric field polarized along the axis of the cylinders. In particular, we discuss the feasibility of constructing an effective medium theory for the case where the Bloch wave vector is far away from the center of Brillouin zone, where the optical response of the photonic crystal is necessarily anisotropic and hence the effective medium description becomes inevitability angle dependent. We employ the scattering theory and treat the two-dimensional system as a stack of one-dimensional arrays. We consider only the zero-order interlayer diffraction and all the higher order diffraction terms of interlayer scattering are ignored. This approximation works well when the higher order diffraction terms are all evanescent waves and the interlayer distance is far enough for them to decay out. Scattering theory enables the calculation of transmission and reflection coeffici...

  1. Experimental Determination of In-Medium Cluster Binding Energies and Mott Points in Nuclear Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hagel; R. Wada; L. Qin; J. B. Natowitz; S. Shlomo; A. Bonasera; G. Röpke; S. Typel; Z. Chen; M. Huang; J. Wang; H. Zheng; S. Kowalski; C. Bottosso; M. Barbui; M. R. D. Rodrigues; K. Schmidt; D. Fabris; M. Lunardon; S. Moretto; G. Nebbia; S. Pesente; V. Rizzi; G. Viesti; M. Cinausero; G. Prete; T. Keutgen; Y. El Masri; Z. Majka

    2012-03-20

    In medium binding energies and Mott points for $d$, $t$, $^3$He and $\\alpha$ clusters in low density nuclear matter have been determined at specific combinations of temperature and density in low density nuclear matter produced in collisions of 47$A$ MeV $^{40}$Ar and $^{64}$Zn projectiles with $^{112}$Sn and $^{124}$Sn target nuclei. The experimentally derived values of the in medium modified binding energies are in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions based upon the implementation of Pauli blocking effects in a quantum statistical approach.

  2. Method for charging and discharging a latent-heat storage medium and heat storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreikenbohm, R.; Reusch, H.

    1982-12-28

    A heat storage unit is disclosed having a vertically cylindrical container accommodating a latent-heat storage medium and a conduit introducing a heat carrier liquid not miscible with the medium at the bottom of the container. The conduit has an exit nozzle which is located outside the axial center of the cylinder and nearly perpendicular to the radius of the cylinder so that the heat carrier liquid enters the cylinder at the bottom in a direction to cause the heat storage melt to be set into a rotary motion.

  3. Method for charging and discharging a latent-heat storage medium and heat storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreikenbohm, R.; Reusch, H.

    1981-10-13

    A heat storage unit is disclosed having a vertically cylindrical container accommodating a latent-heat storage medium and a conduit introducing a heat carrier liquid not miscible with the medium at the bottom of the container. The conduit has an exit nozzle which is located outside the axial center of the cylinder and nearly perpendicular to the radius of the cylinder so that the heat carrier liquid enters the cylinder at the bottom in a direction to cause the heat storage melt to be set into a rotary motion.

  4. Elliptic flow of thermal photons in chemically non-equilibrated QCD medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akihiko Monnai

    2014-10-31

    Heavy-ion experiments have recently revealed that azimuthal momentum anisotropy -- elliptic flow -- of direct photons from a QCD medium is a few times larger than hydrodynamic predictions. I present a possible explanation for the enhancement based on late quark chemical equilibration. The color glass theory indicates that the medium is initially gluon-rich. Thermal photons are then mainly produced after quarks are produced, at which point large flow anisotropy is developed. The numerical estimations indicate that slow chemical equilibration visibly enhances the elliptic flow of thermal photons.

  5. Pion parameters in nuclear medium from chiral perturbation theory and virial expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Mallik; Sourav Sarkar

    2003-09-11

    We consider two methods to find the effective parameters of the pion traversing a nuclear medium. One is the first order chiral perturbation theoretic evaluation of the pion pole contribution to the two-point function of the axial-vector current. The other is the exact, first order virial expansion of the pion self-energy. We find that, although the results of chiral perturbation theory are not valid at normal nuclear density, those from the virial expansion may be reliable at such density. The latter predicts both the mass-shift and the in-medium decay width of the pion to be small, of about a few MeV.

  6. Visco-elastic fluid simulations of coherent structures in strongly coupled dusty plasma medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh Dharodi, Vikram; Kumar Tiwari, Sanat; Das, Amita, E-mail: amita@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-07-15

    A generalized hydrodynamic model depicting the behaviour of visco-elastic fluids has often been invoked to explore the behaviour of a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium below their crystallization limit. The model has been successful in describing the collective normal modes of the strongly coupled dusty plasma medium observed experimentally. The paper focuses on the study of nonlinear dynamical characteristic features of this model. Specifically, the evolution of coherent vorticity patches is being investigated here within the framework of this model. A comparison with Newtonian fluids and molecular dynamics simulations treating the dust species interacting through the Yukawa potential has also been presented.

  7. Recipient luminophoric mediums having narrow spectrum luminescent materials and related semiconductor light emitting devices and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeToquin, Ronan P; Tong, Tao; Glass, Robert C

    2014-12-30

    Light emitting devices include a light emitting diode ("LED") and a recipient luminophoric medium that is configured to down-convert at least some of the light emitted by the LED. In some embodiments, the recipient luminophoric medium includes a first broad-spectrum luminescent material and a narrow-spectrum luminescent material. The broad-spectrum luminescent material may down-convert radiation emitted by the LED to radiation having a peak wavelength in the red color range. The narrow-spectrum luminescent material may also down-convert radiation emitted by the LED into the cyan, green or red color range.

  8. SIDDHARTA impact on $\\bar{K}N$ amplitudes used in in-medium applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ales Cieply; Jaroslav Smejkal

    2013-01-25

    We have performed new fits of our chirally motivated coupled--channels model for meson-baryon interactions and discussed the impact of the SIDDHARTA measurement on the $\\bar{K}N$ amplitudes in the free space and in nuclear medium. The kaon--nucleon amplitudes generated by the model are fully consistent with our earlier studies that used the older kaonic hydrogen data by the DEAR collaboration. The subthreshold energy dependence of the in-medium $\\bar{K}N$ amplitudes plays a crucial role in $\\bar{K}$--nuclear applications.

  9. Medium Corrections to the Nucleon Electroweak Observables in a Light-Front Quark Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araujo, W.R.B. de; Suisso, E.F.; Batista, E.F.; Carlson, B.V.; Frederico, T. [Dep. de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, 12.228-900 Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2004-12-02

    We study the nuclear medium effects on the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio GEp/GMp within a light-front constituent quark model with different quark spin coupling schemes and momentum components of the wave functions. We compute only effects from the quark and nucleon in-medium masses. The effective masses are obtained from a relativistic {sigma} - {omega} self-consistent mean-field approximation of the nuclear matter within a quark-meson coupling model. Our calculation describes qualitatively the recent experimental data.

  10. Generation of unipolar pulses from nonunipolar optical pulses in a nonlinear medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlov, Victor V. [Department of Information Engineering, Universita degli Studi di Brescia, Via Branze 38, I-25123 Brescia (Italy); Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, Petrodvoretz, St. Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation); Rosanov, Nikolay N. [Institute of Laser Physics, Vavilov State Optical Institute, Birzhevaya liniya, 12, St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation); De Angelis, Costantino; Wabnitz, Stefan [Department of Information Engineering, Universita degli Studi di Brescia, Via Branze 38, I-25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    A unipolar electromagnetic pulse is a pulse with nonzero value of the static component of the Fourier spectrum of its real electric field (and not its envelope). We show how to efficiently generate unipolar pulses through propagation of an initially nonunipolar pulse in a nonlinear optical medium. One of the major results is the demonstration that the static component can only be generated in equal portions between the forward- and backward-traveling waves in the presence of nonlinear backscattering in a nonlinear medium.

  11. Effective Diffusion-Medium Thickness for Simplified Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.

    2008-07-30

    In this manuscript, conformal mapping is applied to a rib/channel domain of a polymer-electrolyte-fuel-cell diffusion medium. The analysis leads to the calculation of an effective diffusion-medium thickness, which can subsequently be used in 1-D simulations to account for the average rib/channel 2-D geometric effect. Extensions of the analysis to anisotropic and multilayer diffusion media are also given. Both equations and figures show the impact on a given variable at the catalyst layer of having a combined conducting/nonconducting boundary across from it.

  12. Canonical quantization of electromagnetic field in the presence of nonlinear anisotropic magnetodielectric medium with spatial-temporal dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majid Amooshahi

    2015-10-17

    Modeling a nonlinear anisotropic magnetodielectric medium with spatial-temporal dispersion by two continuum collections of three dimensional harmonic oscillators, a fully canonical quantization of the electromagnetic field is demonstrated in the presence of such a medium. Some coupling tensors of various ranks are introduced that couple the magnetodielectric medium with the electromagnetic field. The polarization and magnetization fields of the medium are defined in terms of the coupling tensors and the oscillators modeling the medium. The electric and magnetic susceptibility tensors of the medium are obtained in terms of the coupling tensors. It is shown that the electric field satisfy an integral equation in frequency domain. The integral equation is solved by an iteration method and the electric field is found up to an arbitrary accuracy.

  13. Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Building Operations and Weather for a Medium-Size Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    by Building Operations and Weather for a Medium-Size OfficeHVAC systems, (3) actual weather, (4) variations in buildingconsumption due to actual weather and building operational

  14. Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low carbon electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon electricity generation: A technical note Robert Gross Ausilio Bauen ICEPT October 2005 #12;Alternative fuels for transport and electricity generation: A technical note on costs and cost projections ................................................................................................................. 3 Current and projected medium-term costs of electricity generating technologies....... 4 Biofuels

  15. NOISE SOURCE LOCALIZATION IN AN ATTENUATING MEDIUM HABIB AMMARI, ELIE BRETIN, JOSSELIN GARNIER, AND ABDUL WAHAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnier, Josselin

    NOISE SOURCE LOCALIZATION IN AN ATTENUATING MEDIUM HABIB AMMARI, ELIE BRETIN, JOSSELIN GARNIER of noise sources from boundary measurements using cross correlation techniques. We consider media where the noise sources are spatially correlated. We present numerical results to show the viability

  16. The electromagneto-acoustic surface wave in a piezoelectric medium: The BleusteinGulyaev mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Shaofan

    The electromagneto-acoustic surface wave in a piezoelectric medium: The Bleustein­Gulyaev mode electromagneto-acoustic surface wave mode in a class of piezoelectric media. As the wave speed is much less than­Gulyaev wave. The Bleustein­Gulyaev BG sur- face wave is an unique result in the repertoire of surface acoustic

  17. One-way wave-equation migration of compressional and converted waves in a VTI medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ursin, Bjørn

    One-way wave-equation migration of compressional and converted waves in a VTI medium Ørjan Pedersen- sure and shear-wave reflections, one can increase the amount of information obtained about the subsur- face than by recording pressure waves alone. Geo- logic structures which are not visible by using con

  18. Supernova Feedback and the Hot Gas Filling Fraction of the Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Miao; Cen, Renyue; Bryan, Greg L; Naab, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Supernovae are the most energetic among stellar feedback processes, and are crucial for regulating the interstellar medium (ISM) and launching galactic winds. We explore how supernova remnants (SNRs) create a multiphase medium by performing high resolution, 3D hydrodynamical simulations at various SN rates, $S$, and ISM average densities, $n$. We find that the evolution of a SNR in a self-consistently generated three-phase ISM is qualitatively different from that in a uniform or a two-phase warm/cold medium. By traveling faster and further in the cooling-inefficient hot phase, the spatial-temporal domain of a SNR is enlarged by $>10^{2.5}$ in a hot-dominated multiphase medium (HDMM) compared to the uniform case. We then examine the resultant ISM as we vary $n$ and $S$, finding that a steady state can only be achieved when the hot gas volume fraction \\fvh $\\lesssim 0.6\\pm 0.1$. Above that, overlapping SNRs render connecting topology of the hot gas, and such a HDMM is subjected to thermal runaway with growing p...

  19. Calculation of higher moments of the neutron multiplication process in a time-varying medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    Available online 20 April 2007 Abstract The zero-power reactor noise theory in a steady neutron multiplying back to the late 1940's. The mathematical method mainly used in the zero-power reactor noise theory such as a power reactor, the nuclear properties of multiplying mediums, in which the transport

  20. Selecting a Green Roof Medium for Water Quality Benefits Brett Long, S. ASCE1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Selecting a Green Roof Medium for Water Quality Benefits Brett Long, S. ASCE1 ; Shirley E. Clark, F: rdb4@psu.edu ABSTRACT Green roofs are a best management practice for urban areas where land roofs that will improve roof runoff quality while maintaining the known water retention benefits

  1. Visualizing Multiphase Flow and Trapped Fluid Configurations in a Model Three-Dimensional Porous Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the Science of Light and Center for Medical Physics and Technology, Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg, Erlangen-scale resolution. Using confocal microscopy, we directly image the drainage of the medium by the nonwetting oil and subsequent imbibition by the wetting fluid. During imbibition, the wetting fluid pinches off threads of oil

  2. USC/ISI TECHNICAL REPORT ISITR567, JANUARY 2003 1 Medium Access Control with Coordinated,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidemann, John

    USC/ISI TECHNICAL REPORT ISI­TR­567, JANUARY 2003 1 Medium Access Control with Coordinated and a grant from the Intel Cor­ poration. W. Ye (weiye@isi.edu) and J. Heidemann (johnh@isi.edu) are with the Information Sciences Institute (ISI), University of Southern California (USC). D. Estrin (destrin

  3. An Experimental Study of Oil Secondary Migration in a Three Dimensional Tilted Porous Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toussaint, Renaud

    . With the buoyancy as a primary driven force, a vertical cylindrical shape of oil migration pathway was observedAn Experimental Study of Oil Secondary Migration in a Three Dimensional Tilted Porous Medium secondary migration under an impermeable inclined cap. Light colored oil was released continuously at a slow

  4. A one-dimensional model of vertical gas plume migration through a heterogeneous porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    A one-dimensional model of vertical gas plume migration through a heterogeneous porous medium Buoyancy Countercurrent flow Plume migration a b s t r a c t This work is motivated by the growing interest or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leakage from primary storage. Even

  5. Axisymmetrical separator for separating particulate matter from a fluid carrying medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linhardt, Hans D. (Newport Beach, CA)

    1984-09-04

    A separator for separating particles carried in a fluid carrying medium is disclosed. The separator includes an elongated duct and associated openings incorporated in a solid body. The duct is axisymmetrical relative to its longitudinal axis, and includes a curved wall portion having a curved cross-section taken along the longitudinal axis. An axisymmetrical opening located downstream of the curved wall portion leads from the duct into an axisymmetrical channel which is substantially radially disposed relative to the longitudinal axis. Continuation of the duct downstream of the opening is a discharge portion which is substantially colinear with the longitudinal axis. In operation, a substantial majority of the fluid carrying medium leaves the duct radially through the opening and channel in a state substantially free of particles. A remaining small portion of the fluid carrying medium and a substantial majority of the particles are channelled into the discharge portion by centrifugal forces arising due to travel of the particles along the curved walls. For industrial scale separation of particles from a fluid carrying medium, such as for the clean-up of stack gases, an array of several hundred to several thousand of the separators is provided.

  6. Real Time Voice Transmission Darshana Shah Real Time Voice transmission over Wireless medium using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Chansu

    to 300+ MHz Receiver #12;Real Time Voice Transmission Darshana Shah - 3 - LFTX -- DC-30 MHz TransmitterReal Time Voice Transmission Darshana Shah - 1 - Real Time Voice transmission over Wireless medium Yu 06/07/2009 #12;Real Time Voice Transmission Darshana Shah - 2 - Abstract My project is to transmit

  7. DOES ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY ENABLE THE UPTAKE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 DOES ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY ENABLE THE UPTAKE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN SOUTH AFRICA? G to electricity. The socio-political benefits of the national electrification programme are documented. Variation in electrification rates among households seems correlated with SMME uptake, but the nature

  8. In-medium effects for nuclear matter in the Fermi energy domain D. Durand,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    In-medium effects for nuclear matter in the Fermi energy domain O. Lopez,1 D. Durand,1 G. Lehaut,1 of nuclear reactions in the Fermi energy domain. I. INTRODUCTION Transport properties in nuclear matter energy domain, transport features should exhibit the in- terplay between mean-field (nuclear degrees

  9. An exact solution for the Casimir force in a spherically symmetric medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulf Leonhardt; William M. R. Simpson

    2011-07-03

    We calculated the force of the quantum vacuum, the Casimir force, in a spherically symmetric medium, Maxwell's fish eye, surrounded by a perfect mirror and derived an exact analytic solution. Our solution questions the idea that the Casimir force of a spherical mirror is repulsive - we found an attractive force that diverges at the mirror.

  10. Physical Channel Characterization for Medium-Range Nano-Networks using Flagellated Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Physical Channel Characterization for Medium-Range Nano-Networks using Flagellated Bacteria Maria-µm): flagellated bacteria. This tech- nique is based on the transport of DNA-encoded information between emit- ters-machines. Keywords: Nano-networks; Molecular Communication; Flagellated Bacteria; DNA Packet; Propagation delay

  11. Supplementation of canine oocyte in vitro maturation medium with progesterone, somatotropin, and epidermal growth factor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willingham-Rocky, Lauri Ann

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess meiotic resumption of canine oocytes in vitro in response to medium supplemented with either progesterone (P?), somatotropin (ST), and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF). A mono-phasic in vitro maturation (IVM...

  12. Method for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations, medium for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wasserman, Stephen R. (Darien, IL); Anderson, Kenneth B. (Lisle, IL); Song, Kang (Woodridge, IL); Yuchs, Steven E. (Naperville, IL); Marshall, Christopher L. (Naperville, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A method for encapsulating hazardous cations is provided comprising supplying a pretreated substrate containing the cations; contacting the substrate with an organo-silane compound to form a coating on the substrate; and allowing the coating to cure. A medium for containing hazardous cations is also provided, comprising a substrate having ion-exchange capacity and a silane-containing coating on the substrate.

  13. PASSIVE SENSOR IMAGING USING CROSS CORRELATIONS OF NOISY SIGNALS IN A SCATTERING MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnier, Josselin

    PASSIVE SENSOR IMAGING USING CROSS CORRELATIONS OF NOISY SIGNALS IN A SCATTERING MEDIUM JOSSELIN's function between two passive sensors can be estimated from the cross correlation of recorded signal source region. We extend this analysis to passive sensor imaging of reflectors with different ambient

  14. Circumferential creeping waves around a fluid-filled cylindrical cavity in an elastic medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    of fluid fuel trapped in these rather small approximately 6­7 mm in diameter holes would strongly affectCircumferential creeping waves around a fluid-filled cylindrical cavity in an elastic medium Waled The dispersion behavior of circumferential creeping waves around a fluid-filled cylindrical cavity in an infinite

  15. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2010-09-28

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  16. Supplemental Grant Request to Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    1 Supplemental Grant Request to Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Research at the University Manager: Dr. Ted Barnes Abstract This is a supplemental grant request to support a joint University) #12;2 1 Plan of Work This is a supplemental grant request to support a joint University of Richmond

  17. Jet Quenching: the medium modification of the single and double fragmentation functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Majumder

    2005-01-11

    The physics of the quenching of hard jets in dense matter is briefly reviewed. This is presented within the framework of the partonic medium modification of the fragmentation functions. Modifications in both deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) off large nuclei and high-energy heavy-ion collisions are presented.

  18. Capillary pressure in a porous medium with distinct pore surface and pore volume fractal dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deinert, Mark

    Capillary pressure in a porous medium with distinct pore surface and pore volume fractal dimensions been substantiated by assuming that capillary pressure is directly related to the pore radius. When capillary pressure and pore volume are directly propor- tional to the pore radius. If a system's pore space

  19. FITTING WEIBULL AND LOGNORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS TO MEDIUM-DENSITY FIBERBOARD FIBER AND WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dimension and morphology on cer- tain mechanical properties (e.g., bending strength and internal bonding strength) of wood fiber-based products such as paper, paper board, insulation board, medium in the pulp and paper industry. Compared with other automated techniques, im- age analyzers have high accuracy

  20. Android as a Telecommunication Medium with a Human-like Presence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanda, Takayuki

    Android as a Telecommunication Medium with a Human-like Presence Daisuke Sakamoto1&2 , Takayuki, we realize human telepresence by developing a remote-controlled android system called Geminoid HI-1 the android than when he appeared on a video monitor in a video conference system. In addition, participants

  1. Medium-Speed Drivetrain Test Report: September 1, 2002 -- December 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walford, C.; Lybarger, K.; Lettenmaier, T.; Roberts, D.

    2012-09-01

    This report describes the tests conducted by researchers at the National Wind Technology Center at NREL on a 1.5-MW integrated drivetrain consisting of a single-stage, epicyclic gearbox and close-coupled medium-speed permanent-magnet generator.

  2. Homogenization in random media and effective medium theory for high frequency waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume

    Homogenization in random media and effective medium theory for high frequency waves Guillaume Bal May 1, 2007 Abstract We consider the homogenization of the wave equation with high frequency initial density of high frequency waves propagating in highly heterogeneous media when the wavelength is much

  3. Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide for Small and Medium Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-12-21

    The guide supports consistent and effective implementation of DOE O 415.1 and assists IT Project Managers in effectively managing and applying sound project management to IT projects of small and medium size. Does not cancel/supersede other directives.

  4. ORNL/TM-2012/240 Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Tim LaClair, Alan Barker, Helmut Knee #12;DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1 Lascurain Oscar Franzese Gary Capps Adam Siekmann Neil Thomas Tim LaClair Alan Barker Helmut Knee DateORNL/TM-2012/240 Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Final

  5. Contention-Free Periodic Message Scheduler Medium Access Control in Wireless Sensor / Actuator Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barua, Rajeev

    , and chemical content to enable precise application of agents such as water, fertilizer, and pesticideContention-Free Periodic Message Scheduler Medium Access Control in Wireless Sensor / Actuator implemented with a contention-free message scheduler. A message scheduler is used to determine which message

  6. PAPER-64 CONSTRAINTS ON REIONIZATION. II. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE z = 8.4 INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pober, Jonathan C.

    We present constraints on both the kinetic temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 8.4, and on models for heating the IGM at high-redshift with X-ray emission from the first collapsed objects. These constraints ...

  7. Resistive transition anisotropy in superconducting granular ceramics: Interplay of effective medium approximation and percolation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strelniker, Yakov M.

    Resistive transition anisotropy in superconducting granular ceramics: Interplay of effective medium directions of the c axis, the current j and the magnetic field H in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 x ceramics. We provided in high-Tc superconduct- ing granular ceramics remain an intriguing subject of inten- sive investigations

  8. Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Regulations while Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Turbines Incorporated is a leading manufacturer of industrial gas turbine packages for the power generation- bility for the introduction of new combustion systems for gas turbine products to enhance fuel

  9. Reconstruction of the Reflection Coefficient and Interface in Homogeneous Medium by Means of Gaussian Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Gaussian Jets A.P.Katchalov 1 , V.V. Zalipaev 2 1 V.A.Steklov Mathematical Institute, St Gaussian jet de- scribed as a high-frequency non-stationary localized asymptotic solution (wave package). The parameters of the medium above the interface are known. Measuring the intensity of the reflected Gaussian jet

  10. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  11. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  12. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  13. Polymeric medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-03-06

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  14. HACK: Hierarchical ACKs for Efficient Wireless Medium Utilization Lynne Salameh, Astrit Zhushi, Mark Handley, Kyle Jamieson, Brad Karp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handley, Mark

    HACK: Hierarchical ACKs for Efficient Wireless Medium Utilization Lynne Salameh, Astrit Zhushi acquisition overhead for TCP ACKs. In this paper, we propose TCP/HACK (Hierarchical AC- Knowledgment in unidirectional TCP flows, TCP/HACK significantly improves medium utilization, and thus significantly in- creases

  15. Transmission Channel Model and Capacity of Overhead Multi-conductor Medium-Voltage Power-lines for Broadband Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavehrad, Mohsen

    Transmission Channel Model and Capacity of Overhead Multi-conductor Medium-Voltage Power-lines signal transmission, power-line has many non-ideal properties as a communications medium. Impedance-voltage power distribution networks for broadband power-line communications applications. Keywords - channel

  16. THE ABUNDANCE OF CARBON DIOXIDE ICE IN THE QUIESCENT INTRACLOUD MEDIUM D. C. B. Whittet,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerakines, Perry

    THE ABUNDANCE OF CARBON DIOXIDE ICE IN THE QUIESCENT INTRACLOUD MEDIUM D. C. B. Whittet,1,2 S. S: ISM: lines and bands -- ISM: molecules 1. INTRODUCTION Carbon dioxide (CO2) has proven to be a common in the cold, quiescent regions of molecular clouds, i.e., in the ``intracloud medium'' (ICM), remote from

  17. The Fracture Toughness of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) Including the Effects of Fiber Bridging and Crack-Plane Interference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    1 The Fracture Toughness of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) Including the Effects of Fiber Bridging University, Corvallis, OR, USA Abstract The fracture toughness of medium density fiberboard (MDF) as a function of crack length (R curve) was measured. Fracture toughness was determined from force

  18. The $E1$ & $M1$ Spontaneous Decay Rates for an Emitter Inside a Cavity Within a Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the $E1$ and $M1$ spontaneous decay rates of the an emitter residing inside of a real cavity carved out of a vast, uniform, homogenous, isotropic, linear, lossless, dispersionless, and continuous medium. The ratio of the medium rate to vacuum rate is given by $\\Gamma_m/\\Gamma_0 = [G(u)]^2 n^3 / u$, where $G(u) = 3u/(2u+1)$ is the local field correction factor, $n = \\sqrt{\\epsilon\\mu/(\\epsilon_0\\mu_0)}$ is the index of refraction of the medium, $\\epsilon(\\epsilon_0)$ is the electric permitivity of the medium (vacuum), $\\mu(\\mu_0)$ is the magnetic permeability of the medium (vacuum), and $u = \\epsilon/\\epsilon_0$ for $E1$ transitions or $u = \\mu_0/\\mu$ for $M1$ transitions.

  19. Calculating alpha Eigenvalues in a Continuous-Energy Infinite Medium with Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betzler, Benjamin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiedrowski, Brian C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-04

    The {alpha} eigenvalue has implications for time-dependent problems where the system is sub- or supercritical. We present methods and results from calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum for a continuous-energy infinite medium with a simplified Monte Carlo transport code. We formulate the {alpha}-eigenvalue problem, detail the Monte Carlo code physics, and provide verification and results. We have a method for calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum in a continuous-energy infinite-medium. The continuous-time Markov process described by the transition rate matrix provides a way of obtaining the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum and kinetic modes. These are useful for the approximation of the time dependence of the system.

  20. Quantum optical effective-medium theory for loss-compensated metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehsan Amooghorban; N. Asger Mortensen; Martijn Wubs

    2013-03-13

    A central aim in metamaterial research is to engineer sub-wavelength unit cells that give rise to desired effective-medium properties and parameters, such as a negative refractive index. Ideally one can disregard the details of the unit cell and employ the effective description instead. A popular strategy to compensate for the inevitable losses in metallic components of metamaterials is to add optical gain material. Here we study the quantum optics of such loss-compensated metamaterials at frequencies for which effective parameters can be unambiguously determined. We demonstrate that the usual effective parameters are insufficient to describe the propagation of quantum states of light. Furthermore, we propose a quantum-optical effective-medium theory instead and show that it correctly predicts the properties of the light emerging from loss-compensated metamaterials.

  1. Navier-Stokes equation describes the movement of a special superfluid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valeriy I. Sbitnev

    2015-04-28

    The Navier-Stokes equation contains two terms which have been subjected to slight modification: (a) the viscosity term depends of time (the viscosity in average on time is zero, but its variance is nonzero); (b) the pressure gradient contains an added term describing the entropy gradient multiplied by the pressure. Owing to these modifications, the Navier-Stokes equation can be reduced to the Schr\\"odinger equation describing behavior of a particle into the vacuum, where the vacuum is a superfluid medium. Vortex structures arising in this medium show infinitely long life owing to zero average viscosity. The nonzero variance describes exchange of the vortex energy with zero-point energy of the vacuum. Radius of the vortex trembles around some average value. This observation sheds the light to the Zitterbewegung phenomenon. The vortex has a non-zero core where the vortex velocity vanishes. Its organization is discussed with the point of view of the Calabi-Yau manifold.

  2. Navier-Stokes equation describes the movement of a special superfluid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sbitnev, Valeriy I

    2015-01-01

    The Navier-Stokes equation contains two terms which have been subjected to slight modification: (a) the viscosity term depends of time (the viscosity in average on time is zero, but its variance is nonzero); (b) the pressure gradient contains an added term describing the entropy gradient multiplied by the pressure. Owing to these modifications, the Navier-Stokes equation can be reduced to the Schr\\"odinger equation describing behavior of a particle into the vacuum, where the vacuum is a superfluid medium. Vortex structures arising in this medium show infinitely long life owing to zero average viscosity. The nonzero variance describes exchange of the vortex energy with zero-point energy of the vacuum. Radius of the vortex trembles around some average value. This observation sheds the light to the Zitterbewegung phenomenon. The vortex has a non-zero core where the vortex velocity vanishes. Its organization is discussed with the point of view of the Calabi-Yau manifold.

  3. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  4. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  5. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  6. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Das, Amita; Patel, Bhavesh G. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Angom, Dilip [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

    2012-07-15

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in the context of strongly coupled dusty plasma medium has been investigated. In particular, the role of transverse shear and the compressional acoustic modes in both the linear and nonlinear regimes of the KH instability has been studied. It is observed that in addition to the conventional nonlocal KH instability, there exists a local instability in the strong coupling case. The interplay of the KH mode with this local instability shows up in the simulations as an interesting phenomenon of recurrence in the nonlinear regime. Thus, a cyclic KH instability process is observed to occur. These cyclic events are associated with bursts of activity in terms of transverse and compressional wave generation in the medium.

  7. In-Medium Chiral Perturbation Theory and Pion Weak Decay in the Presence of Background Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchbach, M; Kirchbach, Mariana; Wirzba, Andreas

    1997-01-01

    Two-point functions related to the pion weak decay constant f_\\pi are calculated from the generating functional of chiral perturbation theory in the mean-field approximation and the heavy-baryon limit. The aim is to demonstrate that Lorentz invariance is violated in the presence of background matter. This fact manifests itself in the splitting of both f_\\pi and the pion mass into uncorrelated time- and spacelike parts. We emphasize the different in-medium renormalizations of the correlation functions, show the inequivalence between the in-medium values of f_\\pi deduced from Walecka-type models, on the one hand, and QCD sum rules, on the other hand, and elaborate on the importance for some nuclear physics observables.

  8. In-Medium Chiral Perturbation Theory and Pion Weak Decay in the Presence of Background Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariana Kirchbach; Andreas Wirzba

    1997-01-07

    Two-point functions related to the pion weak decay constant f_\\pi are calculated from the generating functional of chiral perturbation theory in the mean-field approximation and the heavy-baryon limit. The aim is to demonstrate that Lorentz invariance is violated in the presence of background matter. This fact manifests itself in the splitting of both f_\\pi and the pion mass into uncorrelated time- and spacelike parts. We emphasize the different in-medium renormalizations of the correlation functions, show the inequivalence between the in-medium values of f_\\pi deduced from Walecka-type models, on the one hand, and QCD sum rules, on the other hand, and elaborate on the importance for some nuclear physics observables.

  9. Hot Plasma Modes Across Reissner-Nordstrom de Sitter Horizon in a Veselago Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ifra Noureen; Hafiza Rizwana Kausar

    2015-09-11

    In this manuscript, wave attributes of hot plasma around Reissner- Nordstrom-de Sitter (RN-dS) metric in a Veselago medium are in- vestigated. General relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (GRMHD) equations in planar coordinates for the RN-dS horizon are reformulated by implementation of ADM 3+1 technique. Further, perturba- tion scheme is used to arrive at linearly perturbed GRMHD equations whose component form is used to attain dispersion relations for rotating (non-magnetized and magnetized) plasma. Wave propagation in hot plasma is explained by three dimensional graphical representation of the wave number, refractive index, its change with respect to angular velocity, phase and group velocities. Finally, comparison of wave properties is presented, results reassert the presence of Veselago medium.

  10. Hot Plasma Modes Across Reissner-Nordstrom de Sitter Horizon in a Veselago Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noureen, Ifra

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, wave attributes of hot plasma around Reissner- Nordstrom-de Sitter (RN-dS) metric in a Veselago medium are in- vestigated. General relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (GRMHD) equations in planar coordinates for the RN-dS horizon are reformulated by implementation of ADM 3+1 technique. Further, perturba- tion scheme is used to arrive at linearly perturbed GRMHD equations whose component form is used to attain dispersion relations for rotating (non-magnetized and magnetized) plasma. Wave propagation in hot plasma is explained by three dimensional graphical representation of the wave number, refractive index, its change with respect to angular velocity, phase and group velocities. Finally, comparison of wave properties is presented, results reassert the presence of Veselago medium.

  11. Novel Bose-Einstein Interference in the Passage of a Fast Particle in a Dense Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheuk-Yin Wong

    2012-03-20

    When an energetic particle collides coherently with many medium particles at high energies, the Bose-Einstein symmetry with respect to the interchange of the exchanged virtual bosons leads to a destructive interference of the Feynman amplitudes in most regions of the phase space but a constructive interference in some other regions of the phase space. As a consequence, the recoiling medium particles have a tendency to come out collectively along the direction of the incident fast particle, each carrying a substantial fraction of the incident longitudinal momentum. Such an interference appearing as collective recoils of scatterers along the incident particle direction may have been observed in angular correlations of hadrons associated with a high-$p_T$ trigger in high-energy AuAu collisions at RHIC.

  12. Experimental Demonstration of Effective Medium Approximation Breakdown in Deeply Subwavelength All-Dielectric Multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Malureanu, Radu; Jensen, Flemming; Lavrinenko, Andrei V

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the effect of anomalous breakdown of the effective medium approximation in all-dielectric deeply subwavelength thickness ($d \\sim\\lambda/160-\\lambda/30$) multilayers, as recently predicted theoretically [H.H. Sheinfux et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 243901 (2014)]. Multilayer stacks are composed of alternating alumina and titania layers fabricated using atomic layer deposition. For light incident on such multilayers at angles near the total internal reflection we observe pronounced differences in the reflectance spectra for structures with 10-nm versus 20-nm thick layers, as well as for structures with different layers ordering, contrary to the predictions of the effective medium approximation. The reflectance difference can reach values up to 0.5, owing to the chosen geometrical configuration with an additional resonator layer employed for the enhancement of the effect. Our results are important for the development of new high-precision multilayer ellipsometry methods and schemes,...

  13. Comparative analysis of the secondary electron yield from carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verkhovtsev, Alexey; de Vera, Pablo; Surdutovich, Eugene; Guatelli, Susanna; Korol, Andrei V; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Solov'yov, Andrey V

    2015-01-01

    The production of secondary electrons generated by carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium irradiated by fast protons is studied by means of model approaches and Monte Carlo simulations. It is demonstrated that due to a prominent collective response to an external field, the nanoparticles embedded in the medium enhance the yield of low-energy electrons. The maximal enhancement is observed for electrons in the energy range where plasmons, which are excited in the nanoparticles, play the dominant role. Electron yield from a solid carbon nanoparticle composed of fullerite, a crystalline form of C60 fullerene, is demonstrated to be several times higher than that from liquid water. Decay of plasmon excitations in carbon-based nanosystems thus represents a mechanism of increase of the low-energy electron yield, similar to the case of sensitizing metal nanoparticles. This observation gives a hint for investigation of novel types of sensitizers to be composed of metallic and organic parts.

  14. Method for in situ characterization of a medium of dispersed matter in a continuous phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Eric N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A method for in situ characterization of a medium of a dispersed phase in a continuous phase, including the steps of adding a fluorescent dye to one phase capable of producing fluorescence therein when the fluorescent dye is optically excited, optically exciting the fluorescent dye at a wavelength to produce fluorescence in the one phase, and monitoring the fluorescence to distinguish the continuous phase from the dispersed phase.

  15. The Application of Ultrasonic Energy into Liquid Mediums to Increase Effectiveness 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    could perform such a useful function. High intensity waves perform work through the creation of cavitation. Cavitation is the phenomenon associated with the passage of intense sound waves through a liquid medium. When sound waves pass through... or dust. If the shock waves encounter agglomerates, they will break them up. The energy released by cavitation is in two forms: heat and pressure. Pressures generated by cavitation implosions have been measured to over 15,000 PSI. And temperatures...

  16. Scale effects on velocity dispersion: From ray to effective medium theories in stratified media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, D. (Elf Aquitaine, Pau (France)); Mukerji, T.; Mavko, G. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Rockphysics Lab.)

    1994-10-01

    Wave propagation in stratified media may be explained by ray theory, effective medium theory, or scattering theory depending on the scales of wavelength and layer spacing. To effectively integrate and use seismic data ate different frequencies and widely varying scales, it is essential to understand the domain of applicability of long and short wavelength behavior and the transition between them. A joint experimental and theoretical study was conducted to investigate velocity behavior at the transition from ray theory to effective medium theory in stratified media. Velocity measurements were performed at 50 and 500 kHz on periodic media composed of steel and plastic discs. The ratio of wavelength to layer spacing, [lambda]/d, spanned more than two orders of magnitude between 0.1 and 50, and the volume fraction of steel ranged from 9 to 89 percent by volume. The results confirm that velocities in stratified media depend on composition and are controlled by the ratio of wavelength to layer spacing. Velocities in the short wavelength limit are generally faster than velocities in the long wavelength limit. The authors find that transition from ray to effective medium approximations occurs over a narrow range of [lambda]/d at a value of approximately 10. The amount of velocity change increases with impedance contrast, but the value of [lambda]/d at the transition is generally independent of the composition of the stratified medium. The numerically simulated waveforms are in close agreement with the experimentally observed delayed first arrival in the long wavelength limit and with the reduced amplitudes at the transition from short to long wavelength regime.

  17. Method for in situ characterization of a medium of dispersed matter in a continuous phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, E.N.

    1995-03-07

    A method is described for the in situ characterization of a medium of a dispersed phase in a continuous phase, including the steps of adding a fluorescent dye to one phase capable of producing fluorescence therein when the fluorescent dye is optically excited, optically exciting the fluorescent dye at a wavelength to produce fluorescence in the one phase, and monitoring the fluorescence to distinguish the continuous phase from the dispersed phase. 2 figs.

  18. Method for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations, medium for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wasserman, S.R.; Anderson, K.B.; Song, K.; Yuchs, S.E.; Marshall, C.L.

    1998-04-28

    A method for encapsulating hazardous cations is provided comprising supplying a pretreated substrate containing the cations; contacting the substrate with an organo-silane compound to form a coating on the substrate; and allowing the coating to cure. A medium for containing hazardous cations is also provided, comprising a substrate having ion-exchange capacity and a silane-containing coating on the substrate. 3 figs.

  19. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2011-03-01

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in mixed-sugars medium comprising xylose, and, in particular, in the presence of acetate.

  20. A Collaborative Model for a Sustainable Management System for Energy at Small to Medium Industrial Enterprises 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imel, M.; Gromacki, M.; Magoon, D.

    2009-01-01

    Model for a Sustainable Management System for Energy at Small to Medium Industrial Enterprises Mark Imel Technical Manager ? Energy Services Burns & McDonnell Kansas City, MO Michael Gromacki Vice President ? Engineering and Loss Control Cook.... CCP considers ANSI/MSE 2000:2008 as the framework for a sustainable energy management system to provide triple bottom line economic, environmental and societal benefits. CCP continues to improve their Energy Intensity Index, eco- efficiency...

  1. Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecial ReportProposal to change FacRepMeasuring OFFICEMedium BaseMedium and

  2. Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecial ReportProposal to change FacRepMeasuring OFFICEMedium BaseMedium

  3. www.cf.ecp.fr Guide Executive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bezerianos, Anastasia

    EllEncE opérationEllE lean six sigma systèMes D'inForMation santéR&D e n j e u x D u r a b l e s #12;Excellence'organisations transverses · le Lean World Class Management ­ Changement culturel managérial · le Lean Six Sigma ­ Initiative Six Sigma pour leur activité et pour renforcer leur rôle de leader dans ce contexte, - Design for Lean

  4. cf * * * " " f * * " f

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAboutXu Named| Princeton PlasmaZhihong LinTheCarylcf * * * "

  5. ARM - Campaign Instrument - aeri-cf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016StudyCHAPS:govInstrumentsaatscf Comments? We would

  6. Light pressure on a solid body immersed in a liquid medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Vyacheslav P; Rukhadze, Anri A [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-30

    We have solved the problem about the force with which an electromagnetic pulse in a liquid (or gaseous) medium at rest affects a solid body (also at rest) immersed in it. We have shown that under certain conditions (relating to the characteristics of the medium and the pulse shape), the formula for the force exerted per unit area of a body surface is obtained from the Landau - Lifshitz equations for static fields in the same way as, according to Pitaevskii, the field stress tensor is obtained from the static field stress tensor with the dispersion taken into account. The formula for the force acting on the wall, from which an incident quasi-monochromatic plane wave with a given intensity is reflected, differs from the corresponding formula for the case when the body is in a vacuum by the factor {+-}n{sub 1}, where n{sub 1} is the refractive index, and the upper (lower) sign corresponds to a positive (negative) group velocity of the wave in the medium. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  7. Radio-wave propagation in the non-Gaussian interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanislav Boldyrev; Carl R. Gwinn

    2005-08-02

    Radio waves propagating from distant pulsars in the interstellar medium (ISM), are refracted by electron density inhomogeneities, so that the intensity of observed pulses fluctuates with time. The theory relating the observed pulse time-shapes to the electron-density correlation function has developed for 30 years, however, two puzzles have remained. First, observational scaling of pulse broadening with the pulsar distance is anomalously strong; it is consistent with the standard model only when non-uniform statistics of electron fluctuations along the line of sight are assumed. Second, the observed pulse shapes are consistent with the standard model only when the scattering material is concentrated in a narrow slab between the pulsar and the Earth. We propose that both paradoxes are resolved at once if one assumes stationary and uniform, but non-Gaussian statistics of the electron-density distribution. Such statistics must be of Levy type, and the propagating ray should exhibit a Levy flight. We propose that a natural realization of such statistics may be provided by the interstellar medium with random electron-density discontinuities. We develop a theory of wave propagation in such a non-Gaussian random medium, and demonstrate its good agreement with observations. The qualitative introduction of the approach and the resolution of the anomalous-scaling paradox was presented earlier in [PRL 91, 131101 (2003); ApJ 584, 791 (2003)].

  8. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  9. Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project for Small and Medium Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Janie; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Chiu, Albert K.; Kellow, Bashar; Koch, Ed; Lipkin, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Small and medium commercial customers in California make up about 20-25% of electric peak load in California. With the roll out of smart meters to this customer group, which enable granular measurement of electricity consumption, the investor-owned utilities will offer dynamic prices as default tariffs by the end of 2011. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, which successfully deployed Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) Programs to its large commercial and industrial customers, started investigating the same infrastructures application to the small and medium commercial customers. This project aims to identify available technologies suitable for automating demand response for small-medium commercial buildings; to validate the extent to which that technology does what it claims to be able to do; and determine the extent to which customers find the technology useful for DR purpose. Ten sites, enabled by eight vendors, participated in at least four test AutoDR events per site in the summer of 2010. The results showed that while existing technology can reliably receive OpenADR signals and translate them into pre-programmed response strategies, it is likely that better levels of load sheds could be obtained than what is reported here if better understanding of the building systems were developed and the DR response strategies had been carefully designed and optimized for each site.

  10. Pathological scattering by a defect in a slow-light medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen P. Shipman; Aaron T. Welters

    2014-10-04

    Scattering of electromagnetic fields by a defect layer embedded in a slow-light periodically layered ambient medium exhibits phenomena markedly different from typical scattering problems. In a slow-light medium, constructed by Figotin and Vitebskiy, the energy velocity of a propagating mode in one direction slows to zero, creating a "frozen mode" at a single frequency within a pass band, where the dispersion relation possesses a flat inflection point. The slow-light regime is characterized by a $3\\!\\times\\!3$ Jordan block of the log of the $4\\!\\times\\!4$ monodromy matrix for EM fields in a periodic medium at special frequency and parallel wavevector. The scattering problem breaks down as the 2D rightward and leftward mode spaces intersect in the frozen mode and therefore span only a 3D subspace $\\mathring V$ of the 4D space of EM fields. Analysis of pathological scattering near the slow-light frequency and wavevector is based on the interaction between the flux-unitary transfer matrix $T$ across the defect layer and the projections to the rightward and leftward spaces, which blow up as Laurent-Puiseux series. Two distinct cases emerge: the generic, non-resonant case when $T$ does not map $\\mathring V$ to itself and the quadratically growing mode is excited; and the resonant case, when $\\mathring V$ is invariant under $T$ and a guided frozen mode is resonantly excited.

  11. Possible relevance of softening of sigma meson to $\\eta$ decay into 3$\\pi$ in nuclear medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakai, Shuntaro

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role for the softening of the scalar-isoscalar (sigma) meson in the $\\eta\\rightarrow\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ and $3\\pi^0$ decay widths in the symmetric nuclear medium using a linear sigma model. Our calculation shows that these decay widths in the nuclear medium increase by up to a factor of four to ten compared with those in the free space mainly depending on the mass of the sigma meson in the free space which is an input parameter of the model. The enhancements are considerable even at a half of the normal nuclear density. Thus, the $\\eta$ decay into $3\\pi$ can be a new possible probe for the chiral restoration in the nuclear medium. We find that the density dependence of the $\\eta\\rightarrow3\\pi^0$ decay is moderate in comparison with that of the $\\eta\\rightarrow\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ although the former width is greater than the latter one at a given density: This is because the softening of the sigma meson causes the cancellation of the terms appearing from the Bose symmetry in the $\\eta\\rightarrow3...

  12. Study of in-medium $?^\\prime$ properties in the ($?$, ${?^\\prime}p$) reaction on nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Ya. Paryev

    2015-03-31

    We study the near-threshold photoproduction of $\\eta^\\prime$ mesons from nuclei in coincidence with forward going protons in the kinematical conditions of the Crystal Barrel/TAPS experiment, recently performed at ELSA. The calculations have been performed within a collision model based on the nuclear spectral function. The model accounts for both the primary ${\\gamma}p \\to {\\eta^\\prime}p$ process and the two-step intermediate nucleon rescattering processes as well as the effect of the nuclear $\\eta^\\prime$ mean-field potential. We calculate the exclusive $\\eta^\\prime$ kinetic energy distributions for the $^{12}$C($\\gamma$, ${\\eta^\\prime}p$) reaction for different scenarios of $\\eta^\\prime$ in-medium modification. We find that the considered two-step rescattering mechanism plays an insignificant role in ${\\eta^\\prime}p$ photoproduction off the carbon target. We also demonstrate that the calculated $\\eta^\\prime$ kinetic energy distributions in primary photon--proton ${\\eta^\\prime}p$ production reveal strong sensitivity to the depth of the real ${\\eta^\\prime}$ potential at normal nuclear matter density (or to the ${\\eta^\\prime}$ in-medium mass shift) in the studied incident photon energy regime. Therefore, such observables may be useful to help determine the above ${\\eta^\\prime}$ in-medium renormalization from the comparison of the results of our calculations with the data from the CBELSA/TAPS experiment. In addition, we show that these distributions are also strongly influenced by the momentum-dependent optical potential, which the outgoing participant proton feels inside the carbon nucleus. This potential should be taken into account in the analysis of these data with the aim to obtain information on the ${\\eta^\\prime}$ modification in cold nuclear matter.

  13. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  14. Value of medium range weather forecasts in the improvement of seasonal hydrologic prediction skill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Voisin, Nathalie; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-08-15

    We investigated the contribution of medium range weather forecasts with lead times up to 14 days to seasonal hydrologic prediction skill over the Conterminous United States (CONUS). Three different Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP)-based experiments were performed for the period 1980-2003 using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model to generate forecasts of monthly runoff and soil moisture (SM) at lead-1 (first month of the forecast period) to lead-3. The first experiment (ESP) used a resampling from the retrospective period 1980-2003 and represented full climatological uncertainty for the entire forecast period. In the second and third experiments, the first 14 days of each ESP ensemble member were replaced by either observations (perfect 14-day forecast) or by a deterministic 14-day weather forecast. We used Spearman rank correlations of forecasts and observations as the forecast skill score. We estimated the potential and actual improvement in baseline skill as the difference between the skill of experiments 2 and 3 relative to ESP, respectively. We found that useful runoff and SM forecast skill at lead-1 to -3 months can be obtained by exploiting medium range weather forecast skill in conjunction with the skill derived by the knowledge of initial hydrologic conditions. Potential improvement in baseline skill by using medium range weather forecasts, for runoff (SM) forecasts generally varies from 0 to 0.8 (0 to 0.5) as measured by differences in correlations, with actual improvement generally from 0 to 0.8 of the potential improvement. With some exceptions, most of the improvement in runoff is for lead-1 forecasts, although some improvement in SM was achieved at lead-2.

  15. Draft - DOE G 415.1-2, Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide for Small and Medium Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The Guide was developed to provide project management principles and guidelines to small and medium projects that fall outside the scope of DOE O 415.1, Information Technology Project Management, dated 12-3-12.

  16. Production of Clostridium difficile toxin in a medium totally free of both animal and dairy proteins or digests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demain, Arnold L.

    In the hope of developing a vaccine against Clostridium difficile based on its toxin(s), we have developed a fermentation medium for the bacterium that results in the formation of Toxin A and contains no meat or dairy ...

  17. Effects of transport and precipitation of NaCl on drying characteristics of the porous medium coupled with free flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    of the medium under the influence of atmospheric processes, such as laminar/turbulent free flow and solar radia temperature distribution Outlook Following issues need to be addressed in detail: If given relationships

  18. X-RAY SCATTERING ECHOES AND GHOST HALOS FROM THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM: RELATION TO THE NATURE OF AGN VARIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrales, Lia

    X-ray bright quasars might be used to trace dust in the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium through the phenomenon of X-ray scattering, which is observed around Galactic objects whose light passes through a sufficient ...

  19. Unlocking the potential of small and medium sized enterprises in West Africa : a path for reform and action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiam, Ibrahima

    2007-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have proven their dynamism in West Africa. They are perceived by policy makers as an important reservoir for growth. The African Development Bank considers they represent over 90 ...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by SCAQMD at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about plug-in hybrid medium-duty truck...

  1. Sample-dependent first-passage time distribution in a disordered medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang Luo; Lei-Han Tang

    2015-09-26

    Above two dimensions, diffusion of a particle in a medium with quenched random traps is believed to be well-described by the annealed continuous time random walk (CTRW). We propose an approximate expression for the first-passage-time (FPT) distribution in a given sample that enables detailed comparison of the two problems. For a system of finite size, the number and spatial arrangement of deep traps yield significant sample-to-sample variations in the FPT statistics. Numerical simulations of a quenched trap model with power-law sojourn times confirm the existence of two characteristic time scales and a non-self-averaging FPT distribution, as predicted by theory.

  2. Tuning thermal mismatch between turbine rotor parts with a thermal medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

    2001-01-01

    In a turbine rotor, an aft shaft wheel and the final-stage wheel of the rotor are coupled together, including by a rabbeted joint. During shutdown and startup of the turbine, a thermal mismatch between the aft shaft wheel and final-stage wheel is avoided by respectively heating and cooling the aft shaft wheel to maintain the thermal mismatch within acceptable limits, thereby avoiding opening of the rabbeted joint and the potential for unbalancing the rotor and rotor vibration. The thermal medium may be supplied by piping in the aft bearing cavity into the cavity between the forward closure plate and the aft shaft wheel.

  3. Bushing retention system for thermal medium cooling delivery tubes in a gas turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Bushings are provided in counterbores for wheels and spacers for supporting thermal medium cooling tubes extending axially adjacent the rim of the gas turbine rotor. The retention system includes a retaining ring disposed in a groove adjacent an end face of the bushing and which retaining ring projects radially inwardly to prevent axial movement of the bushing in one direction. The retention ring has a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs along its inner diameter whereby the ring is supported by the lands of the tube maintaining its bushing retention function, notwithstanding operation in high centrifugal fields and rotation of the ring in the groove into other circular orientations.

  4. Calculating infinite-medium {alpha}-eigenvalue spectra with a transition rate matrix method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betzler, B. R.; Kiedrowski, B. C.; Brown, F. B.; Martin, W. R.

    2013-07-01

    The time-dependent behavior of the energy spectrum in neutron transport was investigated with a formulation, based on continuous-time Markov processes, for computing {alpha}-eigenvalues and eigenvectors in an infinite medium. For this, a research Monte Carlo code called TORTE was created and used to estimate elements of a transition rate matrix. TORTE is capable of using both multigroup and continuous-energy nuclear data, and verification was performed. Eigenvalue spectra for infinite homogeneous mixtures were obtained and an eigenfunction expansion was used to investigate transient behavior of the neutron energy spectrum. (authors)

  5. Medium effects on the relaxation of dissipative flows in a hot pion gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukanya Mitra; Utsab Gangopadhyaya; Sourav Sarkar

    2015-05-27

    The relaxation times over which dissipative fluxes restore their steady state values have been evaluated for a pion gas using the 14-moment method. The effect of the medium has been implemented through a temperature dependent pi-pi cross-section in the collision integral which is obtained by including one-loop self-energies in the propagators of the exchanged rho and sigma mesons. To account for chemical freeze out in heavy ion collisions, a temperature dependent pion chemical potential has been introduced in the distribution function. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times for shear and bulk viscous flows as well as the heat flow is significantly affected.

  6. Medium effects on the relaxation of dissipative flows in a hot pion gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitra, Sukanya; Sarkar, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The relaxation times over which dissipative fluxes restore their steady state values have been evaluated for a pion gas using the 14-moment method. The effect of the medium has been implemented through a temperature dependent pi-pi cross-section in the collision integral which is obtained by including one-loop self-energies in the propagators of the exchanged rho and sigma mesons. To account for chemical freeze out in heavy ion collisions, a temperature dependent pion chemical potential has been introduced in the distribution function. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times for shear and bulk viscous flows as well as the heat flow is significantly affected.

  7. Spatial correction factors for YALINA Booster facility loaded with medium and low enriched fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Routkovskaya, C. [Joint Inst. for Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny, 99 Academician A.K.Krasin Str, Minsk 220109 (Belarus)

    2012-07-01

    The Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used in analyses of subcritical assemblies to correct the experimental reactivity as function of the detector position. Besides the detector position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the energy weighting function of the detector, the detector size, the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons, and the reactivity of the subcritical assembly. This work focuses on the dependency of the correction factor on the detector material and it investigates the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly loaded with medium (36%) and low (10%) enriched fuels. (authors)

  8. Effects of Isospin Asymmetry and In-Medium Corrections on Balance Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Daffin; Wolfgang Bauer

    1998-09-09

    The effects of an isospin asymmetry and in-medium corrections to the nucleon collision cross section on the balance energy are explored. The BUU model for intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions is used with isospin-dependent mean fields to calculate the balance energies of 58Fe + 58Fe and 58Ni + 58Ni for a range of impact parameters. We find that we are able to reproduce the impact parameter dependence of the balance energy, and the sign (but not the magnitude) of the shift in balance balance energy as a function of isospin asymmetry.

  9. Calculating infinite-medium ?-eigenvalue spectra with Monte Carlo using a transition rate matrix method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Betzler, Benjamin R.; Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Brown, Forrest B.; Martin, William R.

    2015-08-28

    The time-dependent behavior of the energy spectrum in neutron transport was investigated with a formulation, based on continuous-time Markov processes, for computing ? eigenvalues and eigenvectors in an infinite medium. In this study, a research Monte Carlo code called “TORTE” (To Obtain Real Time Eigenvalues) was created and used to estimate elements of a transition rate matrix. TORTE is capable of using both multigroup and continuous-energy nuclear data, and verification was performed. Eigenvalue spectra for infinite homogeneous mixtures were obtained, and an eigenfunction expansion was used to investigate transient behavior of the neutron energy spectrum.

  10. Slow light of an amplitude modulated Gaussian pulse in electromagnetically induced transparency medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzhuo Tang; Bin Luo; Yu Liu; Hong Guo

    2009-01-20

    The slow light effects of an amplitude modulated Gaussian (AMG) pulse in a cesium atomic vapor are presented. In a single-$\\Lambda$ type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium, more severe distortion is observed for an AMG pulse than a Gaussian one. Using Fourier spectrum analysis, we find that the distortion, as well as the loss, is dominantly caused by linear absorption than dispersion. Accordingly, a compensation method is proposed to reshape the slow light pulse based on the transmission spectrum. In addition, we find a novel way to obtain simultaneous slow and fast light.

  11. Kinetic studies of dry sorent for medium temperature applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Wang, Z.

    1996-07-12

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the fundamental nature of sorbent reactivity and reaction kinetics in the medium temperature range from 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) to 1200{degrees}F (649{degrees}C) available in the convective pass of a boiler upstream of the economizer, where dry sorbents are injected to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. Research focuses on the mechanisms of sorbent- flue gas interaction under economizer and hot baghouse conditions utilizing the experimental setup and the results of the first four years of research.

  12. Small- To Medium-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher iSlide 1 More Documents & PublicationsSmallEnergy Small- To Medium-Scale

  13. Care and Passage of MCF-10A Cells In Monolayer Culture 1) Aspirate the Growth Medium (see Table 1), and rinse with 10.0 mls of Phosphate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . of Resuspension Medium to the plate (Table 1) and pipette to break up cell clumps. 6) Transfer the cells to a 15 ml conical tube and rinse the plate with another 1.0ml of Resuspension Medium. Add an additional 1.0ml of Resuspension Medium to the conical tube. Ultimately the cells are resuspended in 3-4 mls

  14. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  15. Ultraslow Wave Nuclear Burning of Uranium-Plutonium Fissile Medium on Epithermal Neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. D. Rusov; V. A. Tarasov; M. V. Eingorn; S. A. Chernezhenko; A. A. Kakaev; V. M. Vashchenko; M. E. Beglaryan

    2014-09-29

    For a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238, the investigation of fulfillment of the wave burning criterion in a wide range of neutron energies is conducted for the first time, and a possibility of wave nuclear burning not only in the region of fast neutrons, but also for cold, epithermal and resonance ones is discovered for the first time. For the first time the results of the investigation of the Feoktistov criterion fulfillment for a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238 dioxide with enrichments 4.38%, 2.00%, 1.00%, 0.71% and 0.50% with respect to uranium-235, in the region of neutron energies 0.015-10.0eV are presented. These results indicate a possibility of ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning mode realization in the uranium-plutonium media, originally (before the wave initiation by external neutron source) having enrichments with respect to uranium-235, corresponding to the subcritical state, in the regions of cold, thermal, epithermal and resonance neutrons. In order to validate the conclusions, based on the slow wave neutron-nuclear burning criterion fulfillment depending on the neutron energy, the numerical modeling of ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning of a natural uranium in the epithermal region of neutron energies (0.1-7.0eV) was conducted for the first time. The presented simulated results indicate the realization of the ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning of the natural uranium for the epithermal neutrons.

  16. Trajectory of a light ray in Kerr field: A material medium approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saswati Roy; A. K. Sen

    2015-10-16

    The deflection of light ray as it passes around a gravitational mass can be calculated by different methods. Such calculations are generally done by using the null geodesics under both strong field and weak field approximation. However, several authors have studied the gravitational deflection of light ray using material medium approach. For a static, non-rotating spherical mass, one can determine the deflection in Schwarzschild field, by expressing the line element in an isotropic form and calculating the refractive index to determine the trajectory of the light ray. In this paper, we draw our attention to the refractive index of light ray in Kerr field using the material medium approach. The frame dragging effects in Kerr field was considered to calculate the velocity of light ray and finally the refractive index in Kerr field geometry was determined. Hence the deflection of light ray in Kerr field was calculated, assuming far field approximation and compared the results with those calculations done earlier using Null geodesics.

  17. Self-Limiting Trajectories of a Particle Moving Deterministically in a Random Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Webb; E. G. D. Cohen

    2015-07-25

    We study the motion of a particle moving on a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, whose sites are randomly occupied by either right or left rotators, which rotate the particle's velocity to its right or left, according to deterministic rules. In the model we consider, the scatterers are each initially oriented to the right with probability $p\\in[0,1]$. This is done independently, so that the initial configuration of scatterers, which forms the medium through which the particle moves, are both independent and identically distributed. For $p\\in(0,1)$, we show that as the particle moves through the lattice, it creates a number of reflecting structures. These structures ultimately \\emph{limit} the particle's motion, causing it to have a periodic trajectory. As $p$ approaches either 0 or 1, and the medium becomes increasingly homogenous, the particle's dynamics undergoes a discontinuous transition from this self-limiting, periodic motion to a self-avoiding motion, where the particle's trajectory, away from its initial position, is a self-avoiding walk. Additionally, we show that the periodic dynamics observed for $p\\in(0,1)$ can persist, even if the initial configuration of scatterers are not identically distributed. Furthermore, we show that if these orientations are not chosen independently, this can drastically change the particle's motion causing it to have a behavior that is nonperiodic.

  18. Nuclear physics with a medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Accardi; V. Guzey; A. Prokudin; C. Weiss

    2011-10-05

    A polarized ep/eA collider (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with variable center-of-mass energy sqrt(s) ~ 20-70 GeV and a luminosity ~ 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1} would be uniquely suited to address several outstanding questions of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the microscopic structure of hadrons and nuclei: (i) the three-dimensional structure of the nucleon in QCD (sea quark and gluon spatial distributions, orbital motion, polarization, correlations); (ii) the fundamental color fields in nuclei (nuclear parton densities, shadowing, coherence effects, color transparency); (iii) the conversion of color charge to hadrons (fragmentation, parton propagation through matter, in-medium jets). We briefly review the conceptual aspects of these questions and the measurements that would address them, emphasizing the qualitatively new information that could be obtained with the collider. Such a medium-energy EIC could be realized at Jefferson Lab after the 12 GeV Upgrade (MEIC), or at Brookhaven National Lab as the low-energy stage of eRHIC.

  19. Nuclear physics with a medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accardi, A; Prokudin, A; Weiss, C

    2011-01-01

    A polarized ep/eA collider (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with variable center-of-mass energy sqrt(s) ~ 20-70 GeV and a luminosity ~ 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1} would be uniquely suited to address several outstanding questions of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the microscopic structure of hadrons and nuclei: (i) the three-dimensional structure of the nucleon in QCD (sea quark and gluon spatial distributions, orbital motion, polarization, correlations); (ii) the fundamental color fields in nuclei (nuclear parton densities, shadowing, coherence effects, color transparency); (iii) the conversion of color charge to hadrons (fragmentation, parton propagation through matter, in-medium jets). We briefly review the conceptual aspects of these questions and the measurements that would address them, emphasizing the qualitatively new information that could be obtained with the collider. Such a medium-energy EIC could be realized at Jefferson Lab after the 12 GeV Upgrade (MEIC), or at Brookhaven National Lab as the low-ene...

  20. Exploiting Intrinsic Triangular Geometry in Relativistic He3+Au Collisions to Disentangle Medium Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagle, J L; Beckman, S; Koblesky, T; Koop, J Orjuela; McGlinchey, D; Romatschke, P; Carlson, J; Lynn, J; McCumber, M

    2013-01-01

    Recent results in d+Au and p+Pb collisions at RHIC and the LHC provide evidence for collective expansion and flow of the created medium. We propose a control set of experiments to directly compare particle emission patterns from p+Au, d+Au, and He3+Au or t+Au collisions at the same sqrt(sNN). Using Monte Carlo Glauber we find that a He3 or triton projectile, with a realistic wavefunction description, induces a significant intrinsic triangular shape to the initial medium and that, even with viscous damping, this survives into a significant third order flow moment v3. By comparing systems with one, two, and three initial hot spots, one can disentangle the effects from the initial spatial distribution of the deposited energy and viscous damping. These are key tools to answering the question of how small a droplet of matter is necessary to form a quark-gluon plasma described by nearly inviscid hydrodynamics.

  1. Ultraslow Wave Nuclear Burning of Uranium-Plutonium Fissile Medium on Epithermal Neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusov, V D; Eingorn, M V; Chernezhenko, S A; Kakaev, A A

    2014-01-01

    For a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238, the investigation of fulfillment of the wave burning criterion in a wide range of neutron energies is conducted for the first time, and a possibility of wave nuclear burning not only in the region of fast neutrons, but also for cold, epithermal and resonance ones is discovered for the first time. For the first time the results of the investigation of the Feoktistov criterion fulfillment for a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238 dioxide with enrichments 4.38%, 2.00%, 1.00%, 0.71% and 0.50% with respect to uranium-235, in the region of neutron energies 0.015-10.0eV are presented. These results indicate a possibility of ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning mode realization in the uranium-plutonium media, originally (before the wave initiation by external neutron source) having enrichments with respect to uranium-235, corresponding to the subcritical state, in the regions of cold, thermal, epithermal and resonance neutrons. In order to...

  2. The Strikingly Uniform, Highly Turbulent Interstellar Medium of the Most Luminous Galaxy in the Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz-Santos, T; Blain, A W; Tsai, C -W; Aravena, M; Eisenhardt, P; Wu, J; Stern, D; Bridge, C

    2015-01-01

    Observed at z = 4.601 and with L_bol = 3.5 x 10^14 Lsun, W2246-0526 is the most luminous galaxy known in the Universe, and hosts a deeply-buried active galactic nucleus (AGN)/super-massive black hole (SMBH). Discovered using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), W2246-0526 is classified as a Hot Dust Obscured Galaxy (Hot DOG), based on its luminosity and dust temperature. Here we present spatially resolved ALMA [CII]157.7um observations of W2246-0526, providing unique insight into the kinematics of its interstellar medium (ISM). The measured [CII]-to-far-infrared ratio is ~2 x 10^-4, implying ISM conditions that compare only with the most obscured, compact starbursts and AGN in the local Universe today. The spatially resolved [CII] line is strikingly uniform and very broad, 500-600 km/s wide, extending throughout the entire galaxy over about 2.5 kpc, with modest shear. Such a large, homogeneous velocity dispersion indicates a highly turbulent medium. W2246-0526 is unstable in terms of the energy and...

  3. Photoproduction of mesons from nuclei - In-medium properties of hadrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Krusche

    2004-11-18

    Recent experimental results for the in-medium properties of hadrons obtained with photoproduction of mesons from nuclei are discussed. The experiments were done with the TAPS detector at the tagged photon beam of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. Measured were the final states $\\pi^o X$, $\\eta X$, $2\\pi^oX$, and $\\pi^o\\pi^{\\pm}X$ for $^{12}$C, $^{40}$Ca, $^{93}$Nb, and $^{208}$Pb up to the second resonance region. The results were used for an investigation of the in-medium properties of the P$_{33}$(1232), the P$_{11}$(1440), the D$_{13}$(1520), and the S$_{11}$(1535) resonances. It was found that the cross sections can be spilt into a component which originates from the low density surface region of the nuclei and a component which scales like the nuclear volume. The energy dependence of the surface component is strikingly similar to the deuteron, it shows a clear signal for the second resonance peak. The volume component is lacking this peak and shows an enhancement at intermediate energies. Furthermore the measurement of coherent $\\eta$-photoproduction and the final state $p\\pi^o$ from $^3$He is discussed in the context of the search for $\\eta$-mesic nuclei.

  4. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  5. Diverse properties of interstellar medium embedding gamma-ray bursts at the epoch of reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cen, Renyue; Kimm, Taysun

    2014-10-10

    Analysis is performed on ultra-high-resolution large-scale cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to quantify, for the first time, the physical environment of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at the epoch of reionization. We find that, on parsec scales, 13% of GRBs remain in high-density (?10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) low-temperature star-forming regions, whereas 87% of GRBs occur in low-density (?10{sup –2.5} cm{sup –3}) high-temperature regions heated by supernovae. More importantly, the spectral properties of GRB afterglows, such as the neutral hydrogen column density, total hydrogen column density, dust column density, gas temperature, and metallicity of intervening absorbers, vary strongly from sight line to sight line. Although our model explains extant limited observationally inferred values with respect to circumburst density, metallicity, column density, and dust properties, a substantially larger sample of high-z GRB afterglows would be required to facilitate a statistically solid test of the model. Our findings indicate that any attempt to infer the physical properties (such as metallicity) of the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy based on a very small number (usually one) of sight lines would be precarious. Utilizing high-z GRBs to probe the ISM and intergalactic medium should be undertaken properly, taking into consideration the physical diversities of the ISM.

  6. December 18, 2008 Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " · Complete price forecast and assessment of avoided cost · Review project financing assumptions · Review delivery No federal production tax credit for wind Baseload operation (CC - 85%CF) Medium NG price forecast operation (CC - 85%CF, Nuc 87.5% CF, SCPC 85%) Medium NG and coal price forecast (Proposed 6th Plan

  7. Annals of Operations Research 0 (2000) 1--23 1 Stochastic Lagrangian Relaxation applied to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    2000-01-01

    reservoirs or plants, and of fuel or electricity prices (cf. [12,13,15,18,29] for earlier relevant work University Berlin Institute of Mathematics 10099 Berlin, Germany A dynamic (multi­stage) stochastic programming model for the weekly cost­ optimal generation of electric power in a hydro­thermal generation

  8. Complete and Incomplete Fusion of {sup 6}He and {sup 6}Li Projectiles with Medium Mass Targets at Energy {approx}10 AMeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupko, S. A.; Daniel, A. V.; Fomichev, A. S.; Golovkov, M. S.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Popeko, G. S.; Sidorchuk, S. I.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Slepnev, R. S.; Chudoba, V.; Standylo, L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Katrasev, D. E.; Malyshev, O. N.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Yeremin, A. V. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear reactions JINR, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Wolski, R. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear reactions JINR, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS, Cracow (Poland); Briancon, Ch.; Hauschild, K. [CSNSM, IN2P3-CNRS, UMR8609, F-91405 Orsay (France)] (and others)

    2009-03-04

    Complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) reactions were studied with the beams of loosely bound {sup 6}He and {sup 6}Li bombarding {sup 166}Er and {sup 165}Ho targets. Experiments were carried out to test an approach exploiting the measured intensities of {gamma} rays emitted at the transitions between the yrast-band levels of reaction products formed after the termination of neutron evaporation. Partial waves feeding the CF [{sup 165}Ho({sup 6}Li,5n){sup 166}Yb, {sup 166}Er({sup 6}He,6n){sup 166}Yb] and ICF [{sup 165}Ho({sup 6}Li,{alpha}3n){sup 164}Er, and {sup 166}Er({sup 6}He,{alpha}4n){sup 164}Er] reaction channels were revealed from the obtained {gamma}-ray data.

  9. THE ORIGIN OF METALS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z = 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Sijing; Madau, Piero; Aguirre, Anthony; Guedes, Javiera [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Mayer, Lucio [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-9057 Zurich (Switzerland); Wadsley, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Main Street West, Hamilton L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2012-11-20

    We present a detailed study of the metal-enriched circumgalactic medium (CGM) of a massive galaxy at z = 3 using results from 'ErisMC', a new cosmological hydrodynamic 'zoom-in' simulation of a disk galaxy with mass comparable to the Milky Way. The reference run adopts a blast wave scheme for supernova feedback that generates galactic outflows without explicit wind particles, a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold and high-temperature metal cooling. ErisMC's main progenitor at z = 3 resembles a 'Lyman break' galaxy of total mass M {sub vir} = 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M {sub Sun }, virial radius R {sub vir} = 48 kpc, and star formation rate 18 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and its metal-enriched CGM extends as far as 200 (physical) kpc from its center. Approximately 41%, 9%, and 50% of all gas-phase metals at z = 3 are locked in a hot (T > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K), warm (3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K > T > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K), and cold (T < 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K) medium, respectively. We identify three sources of heavy elements: (1) the main host, responsible for 60% of all the metals found within 3 R {sub vir}; (2) its satellite progenitors, which shed their metals before and during infall, and are responsible for 28% of all the metals within 3 R {sub vir}, and for only 5% of those beyond 3 R {sub vir}; and (3) nearby dwarfs, which give origin to 12% of all the metals within 3 R {sub vir} and 95% of those beyond 3 R {sub vir}. Late (z < 5) galactic 'superwinds'-the result of recent star formation in ErisMC-account for only 9% of all the metals observed beyond 2 R {sub vir}, the bulk having been released at redshifts 5 {approx}< z {approx}< 8 by early star formation and outflows. In the CGM, lower overdensities are typically enriched by 'older', colder metals. Heavy elements are accreted onto ErisMC along filaments via low-metallicity cold inflows and are ejected hot via galactic outflows at a few hundred km s{sup -1}. The outflow mass-loading factor is of order unity for the main halo, but can exceed a value of 10 for nearby dwarfs. We stress that our 'zoom-in' simulation focuses on the CGM of a single massive system and cannot describe the enrichment history of the intergalactic medium as a whole by a population of galaxies with different masses and star formation histories.

  10. EARLY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS IN A STRATIFIED MEDIUM WITH A POWER-LAW DENSITY DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-10-20

    A long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) has been widely thought to arise from the collapse of a massive star, and it has been suggested that its ambient medium is a homogenous interstellar medium (ISM) or a stellar wind. There are two shocks when an ultra-relativistic fireball that has been ejected during the prompt gamma-ray emission phase sweeps up the circumburst medium: a reverse shock that propagates into the fireball, and a forward shock that propagates into the ambient medium. In this paper, we investigate the temporal evolution of the dynamics and emission of these two shocks in an environment with a general density distribution of n?R {sup –k} (where R is the radius) by considering thick-shell and thin-shell cases. A GRB afterglow with one smooth onset peak at early times is understood to result from such external shocks. Thus, we can determine the medium density distribution by fitting the onset peak appearing in the light curve of an early optical afterglow. We apply our model to 19 GRBs and find that their k values are in the range of 0.4-1.4, with a typical value of k ? 1, implying that this environment is neither a homogenous ISM with k = 0 nor a typical stellar wind with k = 2. This shows that the progenitors of these GRBs might have undergone a new mass-loss evolution.

  11. Sucrose Solutions as Prospective Medium to Study the Vesicle Structure: SAXS and SANS study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Kiselev; P. Lesieur; A. M. Kisselev; D. Lombardo; M. Killany; S. Lesieur

    2001-10-27

    The possibility to use sucrose solutions as medium for X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering experiments has been explored for dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles and mixed DMPC/C_(12)E_(8) aggregates. The influence of sucrose concentration on phospholipid vesicles size and polydispersity has been investigated by complimentary X-ray and neutron scattering. Sucrose solutions decreased vesicle size and polydispersity and increased a contrast between phospholipid membrane and bulk solvent sufficiently for X-rays. 40% sucrose in H2O increased X-ray contrast by up to 10 times compared to pure H2O. The range of sucrose concentration 30%-40% created the best experimental conditions for the X-ray small-angle experiment with phospholipid vesicles.

  12. Acoustic wave propagation in a macroscopically inhomogeneous porous medium saturated by a fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent De Ryck; Jean-Philippe Groby; Philippe Leclaire; Walter Lauriks; Armand Wirgin; Claude Dépollier; Zine El Abidine Fellah

    2006-06-08

    The equations of motion in a macroscopically inhomogeneous porous medium saturated by a fluid are derived. As a first verification of the validity of these equations, a two-layer rigid frame porous system considered as one single porous layer with a sudden change in physical properties is studied. A simple wave equation is derived and solved for this system. The reflection and transmission coefficients are calculated numerically using a wave splitting-Green's function approach (WS-GF). The reflected and transmitted wave time histories are also simulated. Experimental results obtained for materials saturated by air are compared to the results given by this approach and to those of the classical transfer matrix method (TMM).

  13. A Pair Production Telescope for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter , Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Depaola, Gerardo O.; Dion, Michael P.; DeNolfo, Georgia A.; Hanu, Andrei; Iparraguirre, Marcos; Legere, Jason; Longo, Francesco; McConnell, Mark L.; Nowicki, Suzanne F.; Ryan, James M.; Son, Seunghee; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-08-01

    We describe the science motivation and development of a pair production telescope for medium-13 energy gamma-ray polarimetry. Our instrument concept, the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope 14 (AdEPT), takes advantage of the Three-Dimensional Track Imager, a low-density gaseous time 15 projection chamber, to achieve angular resolution within a factor of two of the pair production 16 kinematics limit (~0.6° at 70 MeV), continuum sensitivity comparable with the Fermi-LAT front 17 detector (<3×10-6 MeV cm-2 s-1 at 70 MeV), and minimum detectable polarization less than 10% 18 for a 10 millicrab source in 106 seconds.

  14. Optimization of Magnetic Refrigerators by Tuning the Heat Transfer Medium and Operating Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghahremani, Mohammadreza; Bennett, Lawrence H; Della Torre, Edward

    2015-01-01

    A new experimental test bed has been designed, built, and tested to evaluate the effect of the systems parameters on a reciprocating Active Magnetic Regenerator (AMR) near room temperature. Bulk gadolinium was used as the refrigerant, silicon oil as the heat transfer medium, and a magnetic field of 1.3 T was cycled. This study focuses on the methodology of single stage AMR operation conditions to get a higher temperature span near room temperature. Herein, the main objective is not to report the absolute maximum attainable temperature span seen in an AMR system, but rather to find the systems optimal operating conditions to reach that maximum span. The results of this research show that there is a optimal operating frequency, heat transfer fluid flow rate, flow duration, and displaced volume ratio in an AMR system. By optimizing these parameters the refrigeration performance increased by 24%. It is expected that such optimization will permit the design of a more efficient magnetic refrigeration system.

  15. MCNP6 simulation of light and medium nuclei fragmentation at intermediate energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stepan G. Mashnik; Leslie M. Kerby

    2015-08-24

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to 4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes

  16. Calculation of the Electroelastic Green's Function of the Hexagonal Infinite Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Michelitsch

    2015-03-10

    The electroelastic 4 $\\times$ 4 Green's function of a piezoelectric hexagonal (transversely isotropic) infinitely extended medium is calculated explicitly in closed compact form (eqs. (73) ff. and (88) ff., respectively) by using residue calculation. The results can also be derived from Fredholm's method [2]. In the case of vanishing piezoelectric coupling the derived Green's function coincides with two well known results: Kr{\\"o}ner 's expressions for the elastic Green's function tensor [4] is reproduced and the electric part then coincides with the electric potential (solution of Poisson equation) which is caused by a unit point charge. The obtained electroelastic Green's function is useful for the calculation of the electroelastic Eshelby tensor [16].

  17. Quantum storage and cloning of light states in EIT-like medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Alodjants; S. M. Arakelian

    2006-09-25

    In the paper we consider a new approach for storage and cloning of quantum information by three level atomic (molecular) systems in the presence of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect. For that, the various schemes of transformation into the bright and dark polaritons for quantum states of optical field in the medium are proposed. Physical conditions of realization of quantum nondemolition (QND) storage of quantum optical state are formulated for the first time. We have shown that the best storage and cloning of can be achieved with the atomic ensemble in the Bose-Einstein condensation state. We discuss stimulated Raman two-color photoassociation for experimental realization of the schemes under consideration.

  18. Darcy Flow in a Wavy Channel Filled with a Porous Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Donald D.; Ogretim, Egemen; Bromhal, Grant S.

    2013-07-01

    Flow in channels bounded by wavy or corrugated walls is of interest in both technological and geological contexts. This paper presents an analytical solution for the steady Darcy flow of an incompressible fluid through a homogeneous, isotropic porous medium filling a channel bounded by symmetric wavy walls. This packed channel may represent an idealized packed fracture, a situation which is of interest as a potential pathway for the leakage of carbon dioxide from a geological sequestration site. The channel walls change from parallel planes, to small amplitude sine waves, to large amplitude nonsinusoidal waves as certain parameters are increased. The direction of gravity is arbitrary. A plot of piezometric head against distance in the direction of mean flow changes from a straight line for parallel planes to a series of steeply sloping sections in the reaches of small aperture alternating with nearly constant sections in the large aperture bulges. Expressions are given for the stream function, specific discharge, piezometric head, and pressure.

  19. ISMabs: A COMPREHENSIVE X-RAY ABSORPTION MODEL FOR THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gatuzz, E.; Mendoza, C.; García, J.; Kallman, T. R.; Gorczyca, T. W. E-mail: claudio@ivic.gob.ve E-mail: timothy.r.kallman@nasa.gov

    2015-02-10

    We present an X-ray absorption model for the interstellar medium, to be referred to as ISMabs, that takes into account both neutral and ionized species of cosmically abundant elements, and includes the most accurate atomic data available. Using high-resolution spectra from eight X-ray binaries obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, we proceed to benchmark the atomic data in the model particularly in the neon K-edge region. Compared with previous photoabsorption models, which solely rely on neutral species, the inclusion of ions leads to improved spectral fits. Fit parameters comprise the column densities of abundant contributors that allow direct estimates of the ionization states. ISMabs is provided in the appropriate format to be implemented in widely used X-ray spectral fitting packages such as XSPEC, ISIS, and SHERPA.

  20. Effective medium theory of elastic waves in random networks of rods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. I. Katz; J. J. Hoffman; M. S. Conradi; J. G. Miller

    2012-06-13

    We formulate an effective medium (mean field) theory of a material consisting of randomly distributed nodes connected by straight slender rods, hinged at the nodes. Defining novel wavelength-dependent effective elastic moduli, we calculate both the static moduli and the dispersion relations of ultrasonic longitudinal and transverse elastic waves. At finite wave vector $k$ the waves are dispersive, with phase and group velocities decreasing with increasing wave vector. These results are directly applicable to networks with empty pore space. They also describe the solid matrix in two-component (Biot) theories of fluid-filled porous media. We suggest the possibility of low density materials with higher ratios of stiffness and strength to density than those of foams, aerogels or trabecular bone.

  1. Description of Medium-Range Order in Amorphous Structures by Persistent Homology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takenobu Nakamura; Yasuaki Hiraoka; Akihiko Hirata; Emerson G. Escolar; Kaname Matsue; Yasumasa Nishiura

    2015-01-15

    The description of amorphous structures has been a long-standing problem, and conventional methods are insufficient for revealing intrinsic structures. In this Letter, we propose a computational homological approach that provides indicators of amorphous structures. We found curves in the persistence diagram (PD), which describes shapes and scales of medium-range order (MRO). The presence of such curves explicitly indicates geometric constraints on amorphous structures, which have not been observed using conventional methods. Furthermore, the PD reproduces the wavelength of the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) observed in the structure factor and clarifies the real space origin of FSDP. These curves are preserved under strain, indicating that PDs also contain information on elastic response.

  2. Enhancement of the visibility of objects located below the surface of a scattering medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos, Stavros

    2013-11-19

    Techniques are provided for enhancing the visibility of objects located below the surface of a scattering medium such as tissue, water and smoke. Examples of such an object include a vein located below the skin, a mine located below the surface of the sea and a human in a location covered by smoke. The enhancement of the image contrast of a subsurface structure is based on the utilization of structured illumination. In the specific application of this invention to image the veins in the arm or other part of the body, the issue of how to control the intensity of the image of a metal object (such as a needle) that must be inserted into the vein is also addressed.

  3. Differential effective medium modeling of rock elastic moduli with critical porosity constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukerji, T.; Mavko, G. [Stanford Univ. CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ. CA (United States); Berryman, J.; Berge, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rocks generally have a percolation porosity at which they lose rigidity and fall apart. Percolation behaviour is a purely geometrical property, independent of any physical properties, and is a powerful constraint on any valid velocity-porosity relation. The authors show how the conventional Differential Effective Medium (DEM) theory can be modified to incorporate percolation of elastic moduli in rocks by taking the material at the critical porosity as one of the constituents of a two-phase composite. Any desired percolation porosity can be specified as an input. In contrast, the conventional DEM model always predicts percolation at a porosity of either 0 or 100 percent. Most sedimentary rocks however have intermediate percolation porosities and are therefore not well represented by the conventional theory. The modified DEM model incorporates percolation behavior, and at the same time is always consistent with the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The predictions compare favorably with laboratory sandstone data. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  4. A study of the propagation of compression waves in porous medium filled with steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutrisno; Djoko Wintolo; Samsul Kamal; Sudarman, S.

    1996-01-24

    A preliminary investigation on the propagation of compression waves through a radial system of porous medium filled with steam has been conducted for the case of uniform and non-uniform basic temperature distributions. When a relatively weak pressure disturbance is introduced as a signal source in a uniform temperature system, it is found that the pressure disturbance decays away and smears out as time progresses. However, for the case of a nonuniform basic temperature distribution, the temperature gradient and fluid viscosity give significant effects on the reduction of pressure signal attenuation. The attenuation of the compression waves depends on the wave frequencies. For higher frequencies the strength of the signal decays rapidly, and for lower frequencies the signal could propagate farther away. It is found also that porosity and permeability distributions gives significant effects on the amplitude and the wave profiles.

  5. Near-resonant propagation of short pulses in a two-level medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Xiangyang; Liu Wei; Li Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We present a numerical method for solving the Maxwell-Bloch equations describing pulse propagation for a two-level medium. The method is accurate, efficient, stable, and well suited for this type of simultaneous equations. By applying the numerical scheme we investigate the evolutions of pulse area, pulse propagation, pulse velocity, and spectral shapes under both homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening conditions. The results show that the area evolution and pulse-reshaping procedure are significantly influenced by detuning and inhomogeneous line shape, which also impact the oscillation tail and pulse peak. In addition, the pulse-peak traces indicated the pulse velocity always increases with greater deviation in pulse-area value from the value 2{pi}. We also demonstrate the pulse velocity increased for a larger detuning or a wider inhomogeneous line shape. Furthermore, the spectral feature shows that pulse spectra evolve into an oscillating shape.

  6. The Magnus expansion and the in-medium similarity renormalization group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. D. Morris; N. Parzuchowski; S. K. Bogner

    2015-08-03

    We present an improved variant of the in-medium similarity renormalization group (IM-SRG) based on the Magnus expansion. In the new formulation, one solves flow equations for the anti-hermitian operator that, upon exponentiation, yields the unitary transformation of the IM-SRG. The resulting flow equations can be solved using a first-order Euler method without any loss of accuracy, resulting in substantial memory savings and modest computational speedups. Since one obtains the unitary transformation directly, the transformation of additional operators beyond the Hamiltonian can be accomplished with little additional cost, in sharp contrast to the standard formulation of the IM-SRG. Ground state calculations of the homogeneous electron gas (HEG) and $^{16}$O nucleus are used as test beds to illustrate the efficacy of the Magnus expansion.

  7. Homogenization of a locally-periodic medium with areas of low and high diffusivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Noorden, T

    2010-01-01

    We aim at understanding transport in porous materials including regions with both high and low diffusivities. For such scenarios, the transport becomes structured (here: {\\em micro-macro}). The geometry we have in mind includes regions of low diffusivity arranged in a locally-periodic fashion. We choose a prototypical advection-diffusion system (of minimal size), discuss its formal homogenization (the heterogenous medium being now assumed to be made of zones with circular areas of low diffusivity of $x$-varying sizes), and prove the weak solvability of the limit two-scale reaction-diffusion model. A special feature of our analysis is that most of the basic estimates (positivity, $L^\\infty$-bounds, uniqueness, energy inequality) are obtained in $x$-dependent Bochner spaces.

  8. Neutral hydrogen structures trace dust polarization angle: Implications for the interstellar medium and CMB foregrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, S E; Peek, J E G; Putman, M E; Babler, B L

    2015-01-01

    Using high-resolution data from the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array HI (GALFA-HI) survey, we show that linear structure in Galactic neutral hydrogen (HI) correlates with the magnetic field orientation implied by Planck 353 GHz polarized dust emission. The structure of the neutral interstellar medium is more tightly coupled to the magnetic field than previously known. At high Galactic latitudes, where the Planck data are noise-dominated, the HI data provide an independent constraint on the Galactic magnetic field orientation, and hence the local dust polarization angle. We detect strong cross-correlations between template maps constructed from estimates of dust intensity combined with either HI-derived angles, starlight polarization angles, or Planck 353 GHz angles. The HI data thus provide a new tool in the search for inflationary gravitational wave B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which is currently limited by dust foreground contamination.

  9. Energy dissipation of energetic electrons in the inhomogeneous intergalactic medium during the epoch of reionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaurov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    We explore a time-dependent energy dissipation of the energetic electrons in the inhomogeneous intergalactic medium (IGM) during the epoch of cosmic reionization. In addition to the atomic processes we take into account the Inverse Compton (IC) scattering of the electrons on the comic microwave background (CMB) photons, which is the dominant channel of energy loss for the electrons with energies above a few MeV. We show that: (1) the effect on the IGM has both local (atomic processes) and non-local (IC radiation) components; (2) the energy distribution between Hydrogen and Helium ionizations depends on the initial electron energy; (3) the local baryon overdensity significantly affects the fractions of energy distributed in each channel; and (4) the relativistic effect of atomic cross section become important during the epoch of cosmic reionization. We release our code as open source for further modification by the community.

  10. MCNP6 simulation of light and medium nuclei fragmentation at intermediate energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mashnik, Stepan G

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to 4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes

  11. Small radii of neutron stars as an indiction of novel in-medium effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Wei-Zhou; Fattoyev, F J

    2015-01-01

    At present, neutron star radii from both observations and model predictions remain very uncertain. Whereas different models can predict a wide range of neutron star radii, it is not possible for most models to predict radii that are smaller than about 10 km, thus if such small radii are established in the future they will be very difficult to reconcile with model estimates. By invoking a new term in the equation of state that enhances the energy density, but leaves the pressure unchanged we simulate the current uncertainty in the neutron star radii. This new term can be possibly due to the exchange of the weakly interacting light U-boson with appropriate in-medium parameters, which does not compromise the success of the conventional nuclear models. The validity of this new scheme will be tested eventually by more precise measurements of neutron star radii.

  12. A Medium-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectral Library of Late Type Stars: I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentin D. Ivanov; Marcia J. Rieke; Charles W. Engelbracht; Almudena Alonso-Herrero; George H. Rieke; Kevin L. Luhman

    2003-11-26

    We present an empirical infrared spectral library of medium resolution (R~2000-3000) H (1.6 micron) and K (2.2 micron) band spectra of 218 red stars, spanning a range of [Fe/H] from ~-2.2 to ~+0.3. The sample includes Galactic disk stars, bulge stars from Baade's window, and red giants from Galactic globular clusters. We report the values of 19 indices covering 12 spectral features measured from the spectra in the library. Finally, we derive calibrations to estimate the effective temperature, and diagnostic relationships to determine the luminosity classes of individual stars from near-infrared spectra. This paper is part of a larger effort aimed at building a near-IR spectral library to be incorporated in population synthesis models, as well as, at testing synthetic stellar spectra.

  13. Feynman Amplitude Approach to study the Passage of a Jet in a Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheuk-Yin Wong

    2012-11-29

    In the Feynman amplitude approach for coherent collisions of a jet with medium partons, the Bose-Einstein symmetry with respect to the interchange of the exchanged bosons leads to a destructive interference of the amplitudes in most regions of the phase space but a constructive interference in some other regions. As a consequence, there is a collective longitudinal momentum transfer to the scatterers along the jet direction, each scatterer carrying a substantial fraction of the incident jet longitudinal momentum. The manifestation of the Bose-Einstein interference may have been observed in angular correlations of hadrons associated with a high-p_T trigger in high-energy collisions at RHIC and LHC.

  14. Enhanced growth medium and method for culturing human mammary epithelial cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stampfer, Martha R. (7290 Sayre Dr., Oakland, CA 94611); Smith, Helene S. (5693 Cabot Dr., Oakland, CA 94611); Hackett, Adeline J. (82 Evergreen Dr., Orinda, CA 94563)

    1983-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for isolating and culturing human mammary epithelial cells of both normal and malignant origin. Tissue samples are digested with a mixture including the enzymes collagenase and hyaluronidase to produce clumps of cells substantially free from stroma and other undesired cellular material. Growing the clumps of cells in mass culture in an enriched medium containing particular growth factors allows for active cell proliferation and subculture. Clonal culture having plating efficiencies of up to 40% or greater may be obtained using individual cells derived from the mass culture by plating the cells on appropriate substrates in the enriched media. The clonal growth of cells so obtained is suitable for a quantitative assessment of the cytotoxicity of particular treatment. An exemplary assay for assessing the cytotoxicity of the drug adriamycin is presented.

  15. Features of collisionless turbulence in the intracluster medium from simulated Faraday Rotation maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakwacki, M S; Santos-Lima, R; Pino, E M de Gouveia Dal; Falceta-Gonçalves, D A

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) in galaxy clusters suggest for the presence of turbulence and the magnetic fields existence has been proved through observations of Faraday Rotation and synchrotron emission. The ICM is also known to be filled by a rarefied weakly collisional plasma. In this work we study the possible signatures left on Faraday Rotation maps by collisionless instabilities. For this purpose we use a numerical approach to investigate the dynamics of the turbulence in collisionless plasmas based on an magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) formalism taking into account different levels of pressure anisotropy. We consider models covering the sub/super-Alfv\\'enic and trans/supersonic regimes, one of them representing the fiducial conditions corresponding to the ICM. From the simulated models we compute Faraday Rotation maps and analyze several statistical indicators in order to characterize the magnetic field structure and compare the results obtained with the collisionless model to those obtaine...

  16. THE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF Ly{alpha} RESONANT PHOTONS EMERGING FROM AN OPTICALLY THICK MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Yang; Shu Chiwang [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Roy, Ishani [Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering Division, St Thomas Hospital, Kings College London, SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Fang Lizhi [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We investigate the angular distribution of Ly{alpha} photons scattering or emerging from an optically thick medium. Since the evolution of specific intensity I in frequency space and angular space are coupled with each other, we first develop the WENO numerical solver to find the time-dependent solutions of the integro-differential equation of I in frequency and angular space simultaneously. We first show that the solutions with the Eddington approximation, which assume that I is linearly dependent on the angular variable {mu}, yield similar frequency profiles of the photon flux as those without the Eddington approximation. However, the solutions of the {mu} distribution evolution are significantly different from those given by the Eddington approximation. First, the angular distribution of I is found to be substantially dependent on the frequency of the photons. For photons with the resonant frequency {nu}{sub 0}, I contains only a linear term of {mu}. For photons with frequencies at the double peaks of the flux, the {mu}-distribution is highly anisotropic; most photons are emitted radially forward. Moreover, either at {nu}{sub 0} or at the double peaks, the {mu} distributions actually are independent of the initial {mu} distribution of photons of the source. This is because the photons with frequencies either at {nu}{sub 0} or the double peaks undergo the process of forgetting their initial conditions due to resonant scattering. We also show that the optically thick medium is a collimator of photons at the double peaks. Photons from the double peaks form a forward beam with a very small opening angle.

  17. GRB 081007 AND GRB 090424: THE SURROUNDING MEDIUM, OUTFLOWS, AND SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin Zhiping; Covino, Stefano; Fugazza, Dino; Melandri, Andrea; Campana, Sergio; D'Avanzo, Paolo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Della Valle, Massimo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello, 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Ferrero, Patrizia [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Malesani, Daniele; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Hjorth, Jens [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Pian, Elena [Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Salvaterra, Ruben [INAF-IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bersier, David [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Cano, Zach [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Gorosabel, Javier [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Gomboc, Andreja [Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska ulica 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Guidorzi, Cristiano [Department of Physics, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Haislip, Joshua B., E-mail: jin@pmo.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); and others

    2013-09-10

    We discuss the results of the analysis of multi-wavelength data for the afterglows of GRB 081007 and GRB 090424, two bursts detected by Swift. One of them, GRB 081007, also shows a spectroscopically confirmed supernova, SN 2008hw, which resembles SN 1998bw in its absorption features, while the maximum magnitude may be fainter, up to 0.7 mag, than observed in SN 1998bw. Bright optical flashes have been detected in both events, which allows us to derive solid constraints on the circumburst-matter density profile. This is particularly interesting in the case of GRB 081007, whose afterglow is found to be propagating into a constant-density medium, yielding yet another example of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) clearly associated with a massive-star progenitor which did not sculpt the surroundings with its stellar wind. There is no supernova component detected in the afterglow of GRB 090424, likely due to the brightness of the host galaxy, comparable to the Milky Way. We show that the afterglow data are consistent with the presence of both forward- and reverse-shock emission powered by relativistic outflows expanding into the interstellar medium. The absence of optical peaks due to the forward shock strongly suggests that the reverse-shock regions should be mildly magnetized. The initial Lorentz factor of outflow of GRB 081007 is estimated to be {Gamma} {approx} 200, while for GRB 090424 a lower limit of {Gamma} > 170 is derived. We also discuss the prompt emission of GRB 081007, which consists of just a single pulse. We argue that neither the external forward-shock model nor the shock-breakout model can account for the prompt emission data and suggest that the single-pulse-like prompt emission may be due to magnetic energy dissipation of a Poynting-flux-dominated outflow or to a dissipative photosphere.

  18. Crossing resonance of wave fields in a medium with an inhomogeneous coupling parameter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignatchenko, V. A., E-mail: vignatch@iph.krasn.ru; Polukhin, D. S., E-mail: polukhin@iph.krasn.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, L. V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The dynamic susceptibilities (Green functions) of the system of two coupled wave fields of different physical natures in a medium with an arbitrary relation between the mean value ? and rms fluctuation ?? of the coupling parameter have been examined. The self-consistent approximation involving all diagrams with noncrossing correlation lines has been developed for the case where the initial Green’s function of the homogeneous medium describes the system of coupled wave fields. The analysis has been performed for spin and elastic waves. Expressions have been obtained for the diagonal elements G{sub mm} and G{sub uu} of the matrix Green’s function, which describe spin and elastic waves in the case of magnetic and elastic excitations, and for the off-diagonal elements G{sub mu} and G{sub um}, which describe these waves in the case of cross excitation. Change in the forms of these elements has been numerically studied for the case of one-dimensional inhomogeneities with an increase in ?? and with a decrease in ? under the condition that the sum of the squares of these quantities is conserved: two peaks in the frequency dependences of imaginary parts of G{sub mm} and G{sub uu} are broadened and then joined into one broad peak; a fine structure appears in the form of narrow resonance at the vertex of the Green’s function of one wave field and narrow antiresonance at the vertex of the Green function of the other field; peaks of the fine structure are broadened and then disappear with an increase in the correlation wavenumber of the inhomogeneities of the coupling parameter; and the amplitudes of the off-diagonal elements vanish in the limit ? ? 0.

  19. GROWTH OF A LOCALIZED SEED MAGNETIC FIELD IN A TURBULENT MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Jungyeon; Yoo, Hyunju

    2012-11-10

    Turbulence dynamo deals with the amplification of a seed magnetic field in a turbulent medium and has been studied mostly for uniform or spatially homogeneous seed magnetic fields. However, some astrophysical processes (e.g., jets from active galaxies, galactic winds, or ram-pressure stripping in galaxy clusters) can provide localized seed magnetic fields. In this paper, we numerically study amplification of localized seed magnetic fields in a turbulent medium. Throughout the paper, we assume that the driving scale of turbulence is comparable to the size of the system. Our findings are as follows. First, turbulence can amplify a localized seed magnetic field very efficiently. The growth rate of magnetic energy density is as high as that for a uniform seed magnetic field. This result implies that magnetic field ejected from an astrophysical object can be a viable source of a magnetic field in a cluster. Second, the localized seed magnetic field disperses and fills the whole system very fast. If turbulence in a system (e.g., a galaxy cluster or a filament) is driven at large scales, we expect that it takes a few large-eddy turnover times for the magnetic field to fill the whole system. Third, growth and turbulence diffusion of a localized seed magnetic field are also fast in high magnetic Prandtl number turbulence. Fourth, even in decaying turbulence, a localized seed magnetic field can ultimately fill the whole system. Although the dispersal rate of the magnetic field is not fast in purely decaying turbulence, it can be enhanced by an additional forcing.

  20. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth; Franzese, Oscar; Capps, Gary J; Siekmann, Adam; Thomas, Neil; LaClair, Tim J; Barker, Alan M; Knee, Helmut E

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for the collection of one year of operational data. The Part-2 FOT involved the towing and recovery and utility vocations for a second year of data collection. The vehicles that participated in the MTDC project did so through gratis partnerships in return for early access to the results of this study. Partnerships such as these are critical to FOTs in which real-world data is being collected. In Part 1 of the project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) established partnerships with the H.T. Hackney Company (HTH), one of the largest wholesale distributors in the country, distributing products to 21 states; and with Knoxville Area Transit (KAT), the city of Knoxville s transit system, which operates across Knoxville and parts of Knox County. These partnerships and agreements provided ORNL access to three Class-7 day-cab tractors that regularly haul 28 ft pup trailers (HTH) and three Class-7 buses for the collection of duty cycle data. In addition, ORNL collaborated with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to determine if there were possible synergies between this duty cycle data collection effort and FMCSA s need to learn more about the operation and duty cycles of medium trucks. FMCSA s primary interest was in collecting safety data relative to the driver, carrier, and vehicle. In Part 2 of the project, ORNL partnered with the Knoxville Utilities Board, which made available three Class-8 trucks. Fountain City Wrecker Service was also a Part 2 partner, providing three Class-6 rollback trucks. In order to collect the duty cycle and safety-related data, ORNL developed a data acquisition system (DAS) that was placed on each test vehicle. Each signal recorded in this FOT was collected by means of one of the instruments incorporated into each DAS. Other signals were obtained directly from the vehicle s J1939 and J1708 data buses. A VBOX II Lite collected information available from a global positioning system (GPS), including speed, acceleration, and spatial location information at a rate of 5 Hz for the Part 1

  1. Linear Boltzmann Transport for Jet Propagation in the Quark-Gluon Plasma I: Elastic Processes and Medium Recoil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Yayun; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A Linear Boltzmann Transport model within the perturbative QCD is developed for the study of parton propagation inside the quark-gluon plasma. Both leading partons and thermal recoil partons are tracked so that one can also study jet-induced medium excitations. In this study, we implement the complete set of elastic parton scattering processes and investigate elastic parton energy loss, transverse momentum broadening and their nontrivial energy and length dependence. We further investigate medium modifications of the jet shape and fragmentation functions of reconstructed jets. Contributions from thermal recoil partons are found to have significant influences on jet shape, fragmentation functions and angular distribution of reconstructed jets.

  2. Linear Boltzmann Transport for Jet Propagation in the Quark-Gluon Plasma: Elastic Processes and Medium Recoil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yayun He; Tan Luo; Xin-Nian Wang; Yan Zhu

    2015-05-21

    A Linear Boltzmann Transport model within perturbative QCD is developed for the study of parton propagation inside the quark-gluon plasma. Both leading partons and thermal recoil partons are tracked so that one can also study jet-induced medium excitations. In this study, we implement the complete set of elastic parton scattering processes and investigate elastic parton energy loss, transverse momentum broadening and their nontrivial energy and length dependence. We further investigate medium modifications of the jet shape and fragmentation functions of reconstructed jets. Contributions from thermal recoil partons are found to have significant influences on jet shape, fragmentation functions and angular distribution of reconstructed jets.

  3. Investigation of NO{sub x} conversion characteristics in a porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afsharvahid, S.; Ashman, P.J.; Dally, B.B. [The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2008-03-15

    The conversion of nitric oxide (using CNG/air as fuel/oxidizer) inside a porous medium is investigated in this study. Unlike freely propagating flames, porous burners provide a solid medium that facilitates heat exchange with the gaseous phase. The heat exchange allows the stabilization of a variety of fuel mixtures from lean to rich and with a variety of calorific values. In addition, it allows the control of the reaction zone temperature and thus the control of pollutant formation while maintaining flame stability. An experimental porous burner was designed and manufactured for this purpose. The effects of equivalence ratio and flow velocity on the flame stabilization, NO{sub x} and TFN (total fixed nitrogen) conversion ratios, and temperature profiles along the burner are investigated. In addition, numerical calculations using the PLUG flow simulator model and the GRI 3.0 kinetic mechanism reveals the key reactions which control the conversion efficiency. It was found that under slightly fuel-rich conditions ({phi}{<=}1.3) NO{sub x} mostly converts to N{sub 2} with a maximum conversion ratio of 65%, while for higher equivalence ratios ({phi}>1.3) a large proportion of NO{sub x} converts to NH{sub 3}. Results from experiments and numerical modeling showed that the temperature profile along the burner has significant effects on the NO{sub x} and TFN conversion ratios. It was also found that temperatures between 1000 and 1500 K are most desirable for NO{sub x} and TFN conversion in the porous burner. Analysis of the chemical paths for the low- and high-equivalence-ratio cases showed that the formation of nitrogen-containing species under very rich conditions ({phi}>1.3) is due to the increased importance of the HCNO path as compared to the HNO path. The latter is the dominant path at low equivalence ratios ({phi}{<=}1.3) and leads to the formation of N{sub 2}. The NO concentration in the initial mixture was found to improve the conversion by up to 20% at low equivalence ratios ({phi}{<=}1.3) and to have negligible effect at higher equivalence ratios. (author)

  4. Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of a Medium-Temperature Hot Water Boiler for the 300 GeV Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1976-01-01

    Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of a Medium-Temperature Hot Water Boiler for the 300 GeV Accelerator

  5. Fuel Sulfur Effects on a Medium-Duty Diesel Pick-Up with a NOx Adsorber, Diesel Particle Filter Emissions Control System: 2000-Hour Aging Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M.; Webb, C. C.; Weber, P. A.; Orban, J.; Slone, E.

    2006-05-01

    Discusses the emission results of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst and a diesel particle filter in a medium-duty, diesel pick-up truck.

  6. Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Cold Helium Injection Into Medium-Pressure (MP) Gas Storage Tanks Following Resistive Transition of a LHC Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorowski, M

    1997-01-01

    Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Cold Helium Injection Into Medium-Pressure (MP) Gas Storage Tanks Following Resistive Transition of a LHC Sector

  7. Lead-iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1984-04-11

    Disclosed are lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste

  8. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jefferson Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Filatov, Yu; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzi?, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, H; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B; Zhang, Y

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a brief summary of the science opportunities and program of a polarized medium energy electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab and a comprehensive description of the conceptual design of such a collider based on the CEBAF electron accelerator facility.

  9. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jefferson Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Abeyratne; A. Accardi; S. Ahmed; D. Barber; J. Bisognano; A. Bogacz; A. Castilla; P. Chevtsov; S. Corneliussen; W. Deconinck; P. Degtiarenko; J. Delayen; Ya. Derbenev; S. DeSilva; D. Douglas; V. Dudnikov; R. Ent; B. Erdelyi; P. Evtushenko; Yu. Filatov; D. Gaskell; R. Geng; V. Guzey; T. Horn; A. Hutton; C. Hyde; R. Johnson; Y. Kim; F. Klein; A. Kondratenko; M. Kondratenko; G. Krafft; R. Li; F. Lin; S. Manikonda; F. Marhauser; R. McKeown; V. Morozov; P. Nadel-Turonski; E. Nissen; P. Ostroumov; M. Pivi; F. Pilat; M. Poelker; A. Prokudin; R. Rimmer; T. Satogata; H. Sayed; M. Spata; M. Sullivan; C. Tennant; B. Terzi?; M. Tiefenback; H. Wang; S. Wang; C. Weiss; B. Yunn; Y. Zhang

    2012-09-05

    This report presents a brief summary of the science opportunities and program of a polarized medium energy electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab and a comprehensive description of the conceptual design of such a collider based on the CEBAF electron accelerator facility.

  10. Quantification of Liquid Water Saturation in a PEM Fuel Cell Diffusion Medium Using X-ray Microtomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , at shutdown, may freeze under subzero tem- peratures and makes cold start of a PEM fuel cell difficultQuantification of Liquid Water Saturation in a PEM Fuel Cell Diffusion Medium Using X understanding of the two-phase flow and flooding occurrence in proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells. We have

  11. LONG & MEDIUM TERM STORAGE NOW AVAILABLE Facilities Management (FAMA) is pleased to announce the availability of dry goods storage at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capogna, Luca

    LONG & MEDIUM TERM STORAGE NOW AVAILABLE Facilities Management (FAMA) is pleased to announce the availability of dry goods storage at our new off-campus storage complex. This storage site consists of a warehouse and limited outside storage that can be arranged by special request on a case by case basis. Our

  12. USC/ISI TECHNICAL REPORT ISI-TR-567, JANUARY 2003 1 Medium Access Control with Coordinated,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidemann, John

    USC/ISI TECHNICAL REPORT ISI-TR-567, JANUARY 2003 1 Medium Access Control with Coordinated and a grant from the Intel Cor- poration. W. Ye (weiye@isi.edu) and J. Heidemann (johnh@isi.edu) are with the Information Sciences Institute (ISI), University of Southern California (USC). D. Estrin (destrin

  13. Decompaction and fluidization of a saturated and confined granular medium by injection of a viscous liquid or gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    in fluidized beds under gravity is perhaps the most studied issue related to this case 26­37 . NeverthelessDecompaction and fluidization of a saturated and confined granular medium by injection of a viscous rely, are rather poorly understood and their study is in its infancy. The case of bubbling instability

  14. Cluster formation in sputtering: A molecular dynamics study using the MD/MC-corrected effective medium potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wucher, Andreas

    medium potential A. Wuchera) Fachbereich Physik, University of Kaiserslautern, 67653 Kaiserslautern may eventually form a cluster on their way from a solid to a gas phase environment far away from-body interaction potentials which, for the case of metals, were constructed by the so- called embedded-atom method

  15. Faster index calculus for the medium prime case Application to 1175-bit and 1425-bit finite fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    the cost of the main phases. In most cases, the designers of index calculus algorithms aim at balancingFaster index calculus for the medium prime case Application to 1175-bit and 1425-bit finite fields avenue des ´Etats-Unis, F-78035 Versailles Cedex, France antoine.joux@m4x.org Abstract. Many index

  16. HIGH SPEED, IN-FLIGHT STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM FOR MEDIUM ALTITUDE LONG ENDURANCE UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HIGH SPEED, IN-FLIGHT STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM FOR MEDIUM ALTITUDE LONG ENDURANCE on Structural Health Monitoring July 8-11, 2014. La Cité, Nantes, France Copyright © Inria (2014) 274 hal Health Monitoring (2014)" #12;substantiation of structural bonded jointsmay be based on: "repeatable

  17. Abstract--A digital ecosystem usually refers to a collection of small and medium enterprise businesses that interacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loke, Seng W. - Loke, Seng W.

    ecosystem is the human user of these appliances. The whole interactions of the information appliances, humanAbstract--A digital ecosystem usually refers to a collection of small and medium enterprise ecosystems. We introduce the idea of creating an eco- system from a number of smart devices. This ecosystem

  18. Four-Field Equations: a New Model for Weakly Compressible MHD Turbulence in the Solar Wind and the Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Four-Field Equations: a New Model for Weakly Compressible MHD Turbulence in the Solar Wind Flight Center Turbulent plasmas in the solar wind and the interstellar medium of- ten contain a large to be in agreement. The scaling of density uctuations with Mach number are compared with solar wind data from Helios

  19. The motion of a viscous filament in a porous medium or Hele-Shaw cell: a physical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howison, Sam

    The motion of a viscous filament in a porous medium or Hele-Shaw cell: a physical realisation of a thin filament of viscous fluid in a Hele- Shaw cell. The appropriate thin film analysis and use the Cauchy problem is well known to be ill-posed. In particular, we show that the motion of a thin filament

  20. On soliton structure of higher order (2+1)-dimensional equations of a relaxing medium beneath high-frequency perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuetche Kamgang Victor; Bouetou Bouetou Thomas; Timoleon Crepin Kofane

    2007-09-27

    We investigate the soliton structure of novel (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear partial differential evolution(NLPDE) equations which may govern the behavior of a barothropic relaxing medium beneath high-frequency perturbations. As a result, we may derive some soliton solutions amongst which three typical pattern formations with loop-, cusp- and hump-like shapes.

  1. April 15, 2004 / Vol. 29, No. 8 / OPTICS LETTERS 887 Optical light bullets in a pure Kerr medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fibich, Gadi

    April 15, 2004 / Vol. 29, No. 8 / OPTICS LETTERS 887 Optical light bullets in a pure Kerr medium 1 1 D optical bullets. Similarly to solitons, these bullets undergo elastic collisions. Since may be used to realize experimentally stable, nondissipative optical bullets. © 2004 Optical Society

  2. New - DOE G 415.1-2, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROJECT EXECUTION MODEL GUIDE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM PROJECTS

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The guide supports consistent and effective implementation of DOE O 415.1 and assists IT Project Managers in effectively managing and applying sound project management to IT projects of small and medium size. Does not cancel/supersede other directives.

  3. Impact of porous medium desiccation during anhydrous CO2 injection in deep saline aquifers: up scaling from experimental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    flow rate and capillary properties on the desiccation mechanisms. Keywords: supercritical CO2, dryingImpact of porous medium desiccation during anhydrous CO2 injection in deep saline aquifers: up - France Abstract Injection of CO2 in geological reservoirs or deep aquifers is nowadays studied

  4. Refraction of electromagnetic energy for wave packets incident on a negative-index medium is always negative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Refraction of electromagnetic energy for wave packets incident on a negative-index medium is always, including the model of Valanju et al., the energy and mo- mentum of the wave refract negatively. Since February 2004 We analyze refraction of electromagnetic wave packets on passing from an isotropic positive

  5. Electromagnetic wave propagation in an active medium and the equivalent Schrdinger equation with an energy-dependent complex potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromagnetic wave propagation in an active medium and the equivalent Schrödinger equation with an energy-dependent complex potential H. Bahlouli,* A. D. Alhaidari, and A. Al Zahrani Physics Department to provide an alternative, but equivalent, representation of plane electromagnetic em wave propagation

  6. Development of a rotary engine powered APU for a medium duty hybrid shuttle bus. Interim report July 1995--July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBroom, S.T.

    1998-07-01

    Under contract to the TARDEC Petroleum and Water Business Area, sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, SwRI has procured and installed a rotary Auxiliary Power Unit on a medium-duty series hybrid electric bus. This report covers the specification and distillation of the APU and the lessons learned from those efforts.

  7. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jujasz, Albert J. (North Olmsted, OH); Burkhart, James A. (Olmsted Falls, OH); Greenberg, Ralph (New York, NY)

    1988-01-01

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  8. Launching Cosmic ray-driven Outflows from the magnetized interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girichidis, Philipp; Walch, Stefanie; Hanasz, Michal; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Ostriker, Jeremiah P; Gatto, Andrea; Peters, Thomas; Wünsch, Richard; Glover, Simon C O; Klessen, Ralf S; Clark, Paul C; Baczynski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We present a hydrodynamical simulation of the turbulent, magnetized, supernova-driven interstellar medium (ISM) in a stratified box that dynamically couples the injection and evolution of cosmic rays (CRs) and a self-consistent evolution of the chemical composition. CRs are treated as a relativistic fluid in the advection-diffusion approximation. The thermodynamic evolution of the gas is computed using a chemical network that follows the abundances of H+, H, H2, CO, C+, and free electrons and includes (self-)shielding of the gas and dust. We find that CRs perceptibly thicken the disk with the heights of 90% (70%) enclosed mass reaching ~1.5 kpc (~0.2 kpc). The simulations indicate that CRs alone can launch and sustain strong outflows of atomic and ionized gas with mass loading factors of order unity, even in solar neighbourhood conditions and with a CR energy injection per supernova (SN) of 10^50 erg, 10% of the fiducial thermal energy of a SN. The CR-driven outflows have moderate launching velocities close t...

  9. Stages of destruction and elastic compression of granular nanoporous carbon medium at high pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; N. B. Bobrova; A. A. Chupikov

    2015-05-14

    The granular nanoporous carbon medium, made of the cylindrical coal granules of the adsorbent of SKT 3, at an influence by the high pressures from 1MPa to 3GPa has been researched. The eight consecutive stages of the materials specific volume change, which is characterized by a certain dependence of the volume change on the pressure change, have been registered. It is shown that there is a linear dependence on the double log log plot of the materials specific volume change on the pressure for an every stage of considered process. The two stages are clearly distinguished such as a stage of materials mechanical destruction, and a stage of elastic compression of material without the disintegration of structure at a nanscale. The hysteresis dependence of the materials specific volume change on the pressure change at the pressure decrease is observed. The small disperse coal dust particles jettisoning between the high pressure cell and the base plate was observed, resulting in the elastic stress reduction in relation to the small disperse coal dust particles volume. The obtained research data can be used to improve the designs of air filters for the radioactive chemical elements absorption at the NPP with the aims to protect the environment.

  10. ROBO: a model and a code for studying the interstellar medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grassi, T [University of Padua, Italy; Krstic, Predrag S [ORNL; Merlin, E [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Buonomo, U [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Piovan, L [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Chiosi, C [University of Padua, Padua, Italy

    2011-01-01

    We present robo, a model and its companion code for the study of the interstellar medium (ISM). The aim is to provide an accurate description of the physical evolution of the ISM and to set the ground for an ancillary tool to be inserted in NBody-Tree-SPH (NB-TSPH) simulations of large-scale structures in the cosmological context or of the formation and evolution of individual galaxies. The ISM model consists of gas and dust. The gas chemical composition is regulated by a network of reactions that includes a large number of species (hydrogen and deuterium-based molecules, helium, and metals). New reaction rates for the charge transfer in H{sup +} and H{sub 2} collisions are presented. The dust contains the standard mixture of carbonaceous grains (graphite grains and PAHs) and silicates. In our model dust are formed and destroyed by several processes. The model accurately treats the cooling process, based on several physical mechanisms, and cooling functions recently reported in the literature. The model is applied to a wide range of the input parameters, and the results for important quantities describing the physical state of the gas and dust are presented. The results are organized in a database suited to the artificial neural networks (ANNs). Once trained, the ANNs yield the same results obtained by ROBO with great accuracy. We plan to develop ANNs suitably tailored for applications to NB-TSPH simulations of cosmological structures and/or galaxies.

  11. Benchmark Evaluation of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiment Program Critical Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2013-02-01

    A series of small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were performed in 1962-1965 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for the Medium-Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) program. The MPRE was a stainless-steel clad, highly enriched uranium (HEU)-O2 fuelled, BeO reflected reactor design to provide electrical power to space vehicles. Cooling and heat transfer were to be achieved by boiling potassium in the reactor core and passing vapor directly through a turbine. Graphite- and beryllium-reflected assemblies were constructed at ORCEF to verify the critical mass, power distribution, and other reactor physics measurements needed to validate reactor calculations and reactor physics methods. The experimental series was broken into three parts, with the third portion of the experiments representing the beryllium-reflected measurements. The latter experiments are of interest for validating current reactor design efforts for a fission surface power reactor. The entire series has been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments and submitted for publication in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  12. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  13. OPTICALLY THICK H I DOMINANT IN THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: AN ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATION TO ''DARK GAS''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukui, Y.; Torii, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Okamoto, R.; Hayakawa, T.; Tachihara, K.; Sano, H. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Onishi, T., E-mail: fukui@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Dark gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) is believed to not be detectable either in CO or H I radio emission, but it is detectable by other means including ? rays, dust emission, and extinction traced outside the Galactic plane at |b| > 5°. In these analyses, the 21 cm H I emission is usually assumed to be completely optically thin. We have reanalyzed the H I emission from the whole sky at |b| > 15° by considering temperature stratification in the ISM inferred from the Planck/IRAS analysis of the dust properties. The results indicate that the H I emission is saturated with an optical depth ranging from 0.5 to 3 for 85% of the local H I gas. This optically thick H I is characterized by spin temperature in the range 10 K-60 K, significantly lower than previously postulated in the literature, whereas such low temperature is consistent with emission/absorption measurements of the cool H I toward radio continuum sources. The distribution and the column density of the H I are consistent with those of the dark gas suggested by ? rays, and it is possible that the dark gas in the Galaxy is dominated by optically thick cold H I gas. This result implies that the average density of H I is 2-2.5 times higher than that derived on the optically thin assumption in the local ISM.

  14. Laser utilizing a gaseous lasing medium and method for operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerr, B.A.

    1983-10-18

    The invention relates to an improvement in gas lasers and a method of operating the same. In one aspect, the invention is an improved method for operating a high-power gas laser. The improvement comprises introducing the gas lasing medium tangentially to the laser tube at a pressure establishing a forced vortex in the tube. The vortex defines an axially extending core region characterized by a low pressure and temperature relative to the gas inlet and the exterior of the vortex. An electrical discharge is established in the core region to initiate lasing of the gas. The gas discharge from the tube is passed through a diffuser. As in conventional gas lasers, firing results in a very abrupt increase in gas temperature and in severe disruption of the gas. However, the gas vortex, almost immediately restores the gas to its prefiring condition. That is, almost all of the waste heat is transferred radially to the laser wall, and the original gas-flow pattern is restored. As a result, the power output of the laser is increased significantly, and the laser firing repetition rate is markedly increased.

  15. The in-medium heavy quark potential from quenched and dynamical lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yannis Burnier; Olaf Kaczmarek; Alexander Rothkopf

    2014-10-27

    We present our latest results for the the complex valued static heavy-quark potential at finite temperature from lattice QCD. The real and imaginary part of the potential are obtained from the position and width of the lowest lying peak in the spectral function of the Wilson line correlator in Coulomb gauge. Spectral information is extracted from Euclidean time data using a novel Bayesian approach different from the Maximum Entropy Method. In order to extract both the real and imaginary part, we generated anisotropic quenched lattices $32^3\\times N_\\tau$ $(\\beta=7.0,\\xi=3.5)$ with $N_\\tau=24,\\ldots,96$, corresponding to $839{\\rm MeV} \\geq T\\geq 210 {\\rm MeV}$. For the case of a realistic QCD medium with light u, d and s quarks we use isotropic $48^3\\times12$ ASQTAD lattices with $m_l=m_s/20$ provided by the HotQCD collaboration, which span $286 {\\rm MeV} \\geq T\\geq 148{\\rm MeV}$. We find a clean transition from a confining to a Debye screened real part and observe that its values lie close to the color singlet free energies in Coulomb gauge. The imaginary part, estimated on quenched lattices, is found to be of the same order of magnitude as in hard-thermal loop (HTL) perturbation theory.

  16. NectarCAM : a camera for the medium size telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch~Bigas, O; Bolmont, J; Bouyjou, F; Brun, P; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ginzov, C Diaz; Durand, D; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Gascon, D; Giebels, B; Henault, F; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Horan, D; Houles, J; Jean, P; Jocou, L; Karkar, S; Knoedlseder, J; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lenain, J-P; Leveque, A; Louis, F; Martinez, G; Moudden, Y; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Pavy, S; Petrucci, P-O; Pierre, E; Prast, J; Punch, M; Ramon, P; Rateau, S; Ravel, T; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Shayduk, M; Sizun, P-Y; Sulanke, K-H; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor~Alvarez, L-A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Wischnewski, R

    2015-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) covering the central energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and a 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes the photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The camera trigger will be flexible so as to minimize the read-out dead-time of the NECTAr chips. NectarCAM is designed to sustain a data rate of more than 4 kHz with less than 5\\% dead time. The camera concept, the design and tests of the various subcomponents and results of thermal and electrical prototypes are presented. The design includes the mechanical structure, cooling of the electro...

  17. High resolution ALMA observations of dense molecular medium in the central regions of active galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohno, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Akio; Izumi, Takuma; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2016-01-01

    In the central regions of active galaxies, dense molecular medium are exposed to various types of radiation and energy injections, such as UV, X-ray, cosmic ray, and shock dissipation. With the rapid progress of chemical models and implementation of new-generation mm/submm interferometry, we are now able to use molecules as powerful diagnostics of the physical and chemical processes in galaxies. Here we give a brief overview on the recent ALMA results to demonstrate how molecules can reveal underlying physical and chemical processes in galaxies. First, new detections of Galactic molecular absorption systems with elevated HCO/H$^{13}$CO$^+$ column density ratios are reported, indicating that these molecular media are irradiated by intense UV fields. Second, we discuss the spatial distributions of various types of shock tracers including HNCO, CH$_3$OH and SiO in NGC 253 and NGC 1068. Lastly, we provide an overview of proposed diagnostic methods of nuclear energy sources using ALMA, with an emphasis on the syne...

  18. Revealing asymmetries in the HD 181327 debris disk: A recent massive collision or interstellar medium warping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Christopher C.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Schneider, Glenn; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Debes, John H.; Grady, Carol A.; Jang-Condell, Hannah

    2014-07-01

    New multi-roll coronagraphic images of the HD 181327 debris disk obtained using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope reveal the debris ring in its entirety at high signal-to-noise ratio and unprecedented spatial resolution. We present and apply a new multi-roll image processing routine to identify and further remove quasi-static point-spread function-subtraction residuals and quantify systematic uncertainties. We also use a new iterative image deprojection technique to constrain the true disk geometry and aggressively remove any surface brightness asymmetries that can be explained without invoking dust density enhancements/deficits. The measured empirical scattering phase function for the disk is more forward scattering than previously thought and is not well-fit by a Henyey-Greenstein function. The empirical scattering phase function varies with stellocentric distance, consistent with the expected radiation pressured-induced size segregation exterior to the belt. Within the belt, the empirical scattering phase function contradicts unperturbed debris ring models, suggesting the presence of an unseen planet. The radial profile of the flux density is degenerate with a radially varying scattering phase function; therefore estimates of the ring's true width and edge slope may be highly uncertain. We detect large scale asymmetries in the disk, consistent with either the recent catastrophic disruption of a body with mass >1% the mass of Pluto, or disk warping due to strong interactions with the interstellar medium.

  19. Progress in the Development of Global Medium-Energy Nucleon-Nucleus Optical Model Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David G. Madland

    1997-02-14

    Two existing global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus phenomenological optical model potentials are described and compared with experiment and with each other. The first of these employs a Dirac approach (second-order reduction) that is global in projectile energy and projectile isospin and applies to the target nucleus 208-Pb. Here the standard S-V (isoscalar-scalar, isoscalar-vector) model has been extended to include the corresponding isovector components by introduction of a relativistic Lane model. The second of these employs a relativistic equivalent to the Schroedinger equation and is global in projectile energy, projectile isospin, and target (Z,A). Here, particular attention is given to predictions for the integrated scattering observables - neutron total cross sections and proton total reaction cross sections - and their sensitivity to the absorptive parts of the potential. Finally, current work is described and the influence of the nuclear bound state problem (treated in relativistic mean field theory) on the Dirac scattering problem is mentioned.

  20. Model-Based Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.

    2010-12-01

    Medium-duty vehicles are used in a broad array of fleet applications, including parcel delivery. These vehicles are excellent candidates for electric drive applications due to their transient-intensive duty cycles, operation in densely populated areas, and relatively high fuel consumption and emissions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a robust assessment of parcel delivery routes and completed a model-based techno-economic analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle configurations. First, NREL characterized parcel delivery vehicle usage patterns, most notably daily distance driven and drive cycle intensity. Second, drive-cycle analysis results framed the selection of drive cycles used to test a parcel delivery HEV on a chassis dynamometer. Next, measured fuel consumption results were used to validate simulated fuel consumption values derived from a dynamic model of the parcel delivery vehicle. Finally, NREL swept a matrix of 120 component size, usage, and cost combinations to assess impacts on fuel consumption and vehicle cost. The results illustrated the dependency of component sizing on drive-cycle intensity and daily distance driven and may allow parcel delivery fleets to match the most appropriate electric drive vehicle to their fleet usage profile.

  1. Development of high productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikejiri, T.; Hamamoto, N.; Hisada, S.; Iwasawa, K.; Kawakami, K.; Kokuryu, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Nogami, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasada, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, T. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., LTD., 575, Kuze-tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto, 601-8205 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    High productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2' is developed. In semiconductor manufacturing field, improvement of the productivity is continuously required. Especially mass production lines recently tend to use low energy beam and 2 pass implant for higher throughput. The 'Evo2' has been developed in an effort to fulfill these requirements. The 'Evo2' increases low energy beam current by 150 to 250% by applying electrostatic einzel lens called 'V-lens' installed at the exit of the Collimator magnet. This lens is also able to control the beam incident angle by adjusting the upper and lower electrode's voltages independently. Besides, mechanical scanning speed is enhanced to minimize process time of 2 pass implant, while also frequency of the fast beam scanning is enhanced to keep dose uniformity. In addition, a vacuum pumping capability at the target chamber is enhanced to reduce a vacuum waiting time during processing photo-resist wafers. This improvement achieved to reduce process time by 40% for a specific recipe. Furthermore, a modified Indirectly Heated Cathode with electron active Reflection 2 (IHC-R2) ion source which has a long life time filament has been installed. These new elements and/or functions have realized typically 25% improvement of productivity compared to standard EXCEED, and also improve a precise implantation capability.

  2. Laser utilizing a gaseous lasing medium and method for operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerr, Bruce A. (Harriman, TN)

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to an improvement in gas lasers and a method of operating the same. In one aspect, the invention is an improved method for operating a high-power gas laser. The improvement comprises introducing the gas lasing medium tangentially to the laser tube at a pressure establishing a forced vortex in the tube. The vortex defines an axially extending core region characterized by a low pressure and temperature relative to the gas inlet and the exterior of the vortex. An electrical discharge is established in the core region to initiate lasing of the gas. The gas discharge from the tube is passed through a diffuser. As in conventional gas lasers, firing results in a very abrupt increase in gas temperature and in severe disruption of the gas. However, the gas vortex almost immediately restores the gas to its pre-firing condition. That is, almost all of the waste heat is transferred radially to the laser wall, and the original gas-flow pattern is restored. As a result, the power output of the laser is increased significantly, and the laser firing repetition rate is markedly increased.

  3. Heat sink design considerations in medium power electronic applications with long power cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)744611; Thiringer, Torbjörn; Bongiorno, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of the heat sink thickness and material, as well as, of the convection coefficient of the water cooling system on the power-electronics module thermal stressing. The heat extraction capability of different thicknesses is tested. It is concluded that the thickest heat sink results in marginally lower temperature variation at the junction level compared to the second thickest one. In the thickest heat sink case, the linear dependence of the thermal resistance on the thickness counteracts the benefit of the increased thermal capacitance. The increase in the cooling medium flow rate, which corresponds to an increase in the convection coefficient between the heat sink bottom surface and the water, can be avoided by increasing the thickness of the heat sink. In this way, the energy consumption of the cooling system is reduced. The increase in the flow rate drastically reduces the thermal stressing in the thinnest heat sink case. The increase of the heat sink thickne...

  4. A medium-energy photoemission and ab-initio investigation of cubic yttria-stabilised zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cousland, G. P.; Cui, X. Y.; Smith, A. E.; Stampfl, C. M.; Wong, L.; Tayebjee, M.; Yu, D.; Triani, G.; Evans, P. J.; Ruppender, H.-J.; Jang, L.-Y.; Stampfl, A. P. J.

    2014-04-14

    Experimental and theoretical investigations into the electronic properties and structure of cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia are presented. Medium-energy x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements have been carried out for material with a concentration of 8-9?mol.?% yttria. Resonant photoemission spectra are obtained for a range of photon energies that traverse the L2 absorption edge for both zirconium and yttrium. Through correlation with results from density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, based on structural models proposed in the literature, we assign photoemission peaks appearing in the spectra to core lines and Auger transitions. An analysis of the core level features enables the identification of shifts in the core level energies due to different local chemical environments of the constituent atoms. In general, each core line feature can be decomposed into three contributions, with associated energy shifts. Their identification with results of DFT calculations carried out for proposed atomic structures, lends support to these structural models. The experimental results indicate a multi-atom resonant photoemission effect between nearest-neighbour oxygen and yttrium atoms. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra for zirconium and yttrium are also presented, which correlate well with calculated Zr- and Y-4d electron partial density-of-states and with Auger electron peak area versus photon energy curve.

  5. The Vermont Biomass Gasifier Project -- Medium heating value gas for electric power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, K.; Overend, R.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gillette, L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The Vermont Biomass Gasifier Project is part of a major DOE initiative to demonstrate indirect gasification of renewable biomass for electricity production. The Vermont Project has been undertaken to demonstrate the integration of the Battelle Columbus Laboratories (Battelle) indirectly-heated gasifier with a high-efficiency gas turbine. The demonstration and validation of this gasification/gas turbine system is being performed at the existing 50 MW wood-fired McNeil Power Generating Station in Burlington, Vermont, thereby significantly reducing the time scale for deployment and the necessary capital investment for DOE and the Vermont project partnership. The development and commercialization of this technology is important for several reasons: (1) it does not require a hot-gas clean-up for gas turbine operation, thus removing this technical hurdle from the commercialization path; (2) it is the only US biomass gasification system that has successfully powered a gas turbine, supporting its near-term viability for commercial deployment; and (3) it produces a medium-heating-value gas without employing an oxygen plant, thus allowing the use of existing unmodified industrial gas turbines. Gasifier construction was completed in late 1997; commissioning and parametric testing was completed during the spring and summer of 1998. This paper discusses the results of this testing and presents plans for both the next phase of testing and prospects for near-term commercialization.

  6. Propagation of vector solitons in a quasi-resonant medium with stark deformation of quantum states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sazonov, S. V., E-mail: sazonov.sergei@gmail.com [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Ustinov, N. V., E-mail: n_ustinov@mail.ru [Moscow State Railway University, Kaliningrad Branch (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of a vector two-component optical pulse propagating in quasi-resonance conditions in a medium of nonsymmetric quantum objects is investigated for Stark splitting of quantum energy levels by an external electric field. We consider the case when the ordinary component of the optical pulse induces {sigma} transitions, while the extraordinary component induces the {pi} transition and shifts the frequencies of the allowed transitions due to the dynamic Stark effect. It is found that under Zakharov-Benney resonance conditions, the propagation of the optical pulse is accompanied by generation of an electromagnetic pulse in the terahertz band and is described by the vector generalization of the nonlinear Yajima-Oikawa system. It is shown that this system (as well as its formal generalization with an arbitrary number of optical components) is integrable by the inverse scattering transformation method. The corresponding Darboux transformations are found for obtaining multisoliton solutions. The influence of transverse effects on the propagation of vector solitons is investigated. The conditions under which transverse dynamics leads to self-focusing (defocusing) of solitons are determined.

  7. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  8. Probing the Magnetized Interstellar Medium Surrounding the Planetary Nebula Sh 2-216

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan Ransom; Bulent Uyaniker; Roland Kothes; Tom Landecker

    2008-06-09

    We present 1420 MHz polarization images of a 2.5 X 2.5 degree region around the planetary nebula (PN) Sh 2-216. The images are taken from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS). An arc of low polarized intensity appears prominently in the north-east portion of the visible disk of Sh 2-216, coincident with the optically identified interaction region between the PN and the interstellar medium (ISM). The arc contains structural variations down to the ~1 arcminute resolution limit in both polarized intensity and polarization angle. Several polarization-angle "knots" appear along the arc. By comparison of the polarization angles at the centers of the knots and the mean polarization angle outside Sh 2-216, we estimate the rotation measure (RM) through the knots to be -43 +/- 10 rad/m^2. Using this estimate for the RM and an estimate of the electron density in the shell of Sh 2-216, we derive a line-of-sight magnetic field in the interaction region of 5.0 +/- 2.0 microG. We believe it more likely the observed magnetic field is interstellar than stellar, though we cannot completely dismiss the latter possibility. We interpret our observations via a simple model which describes the ISM magnetic field around Sh 2-216, and comment on the potential use of old PNe as probes of the magnetized ISM.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Disk Galaxy Formation: the Magnetization of The Cold and Warm Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Wang; Tom Abel

    2007-12-06

    Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we study the formation and early evolution of disk galaxies with a magnetized interstellar medium. For a $10^{10}$ \\msun halo with initial NFW dark matter and gas profiles, we impose a uniform $10^{-9}$ G magnetic field and follow its collapse, disk formation and evolution up to 1 Gyr. Comparing to a purely hydrodynamic simulation with the same initial condition, we find that a protogalactic field of this strength does not significantly influence the global disk properties. At the same time, the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified by the differentially rotating turbulent disk. After the initial rapid amplification lasting $\\sim500$ Myr, subsequent field amplification appears self-regulated. As a result, highly magnetized material begin to form above and below the disk. Interestingly, the field strengths in the self-regulated regime agrees well with the observed fields in the Milky Way galaxy both in the warm and the cold HI phase and do not change appreciably with time. Most of the cold phase shows a dispersion of order ten in the magnetic field strength. The global azimuthal magnetic fields reverse at different radii and the amplitude declines as a function of radius of the disk. By comparing the estimated star formation rate (SFR) in hydrodynamic and MHD simulations, we find that after the magnetic field strength saturates, magnetic forces provide further support in the cold gas and lead to a decline of the SFR.

  10. ORIGIN OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM: PRIMORDIAL OR ASTROPHYSICAL?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Jungyeon

    2014-12-20

    The origin of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters is still an unsolved problem that is largely due to our poor understanding of initial seed magnetic fields. If the seed magnetic fields have primordial origins, it is likely that large-scale pervasive magnetic fields were present before the formation of the large-scale structure. On the other hand, if they were ejected from astrophysical bodies, then they were highly localized in space at the time of injection. In this paper, using turbulence dynamo models for high magnetic Prandtl number fluids, we find constraints on the seed magnetic fields. The hydrodynamic Reynolds number based on the Spitzer viscosity in the intracluster medium (ICM) is believed to be less than O(10{sup 2}), while the magnetic Reynolds number can be much larger. In this case, if the seed magnetic fields have primordial origins, they should be stronger than O(10{sup –11})G, which is very close to the upper limit of O(10{sup –9})G set by the cosmic microwave background observations. On the other hand, if the seed magnetic fields were ejected from astrophysical bodies, any seed magnetic fields stronger than O(10{sup –9})G can safely magnetize the ICM. Therefore, it is less likely that primordial magnetic fields are the direct origin of present-day magnetic fields in the ICM.

  11. MHD SIMULATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS IN A DYNAMIC GALAXY CLUSTER MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendygral, P. J.; Jones, T. W.; Dolag, K.

    2012-05-10

    We present a pair of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of intermittent jets from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a galaxy cluster extracted from a high-resolution cosmological simulation. The selected cluster was chosen as an apparently relatively relaxed system, not having undergone a major merger in almost 7 Gyr. Despite this characterization and history, the intracluster medium (ICM) contains quite active 'weather'. We explore the effects of this ICM weather on the morphological evolution of the AGN jets and lobes. The orientation of the jets is different in the two simulations so that they probe different aspects of the ICM structure and dynamics. We find that even for this cluster, which can be characterized as relaxed by an observational standard, the large-scale, bulk ICM motions can significantly distort the jets and lobes. Synthetic X-ray observations of the simulations show that the jets produce complex cavity systems, while synthetic radio observations reveal bending of the jets and lobes similar to wide-angle tail radio sources. The jets are cycled on and off with a 26 Myr period using a 50% duty cycle. This leads to morphological features similar to those in 'double-double' radio galaxies. While the jet and ICM magnetic fields are generally too weak in the simulations to play a major role in the dynamics, Maxwell stresses can still become locally significant.

  12. Scattering lengths and medium and high energy {pi}{pi} scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Buettiker, P.

    1996-11-01

    Crucial tests of chiral perturbation theory and determinations of chiral coupling constants rely on fine details of dispersion relation analysis of {pi}{pi} scattering data. Whereas a recent Roy equation analysis of low energy {ital S} and {ital P} waves with {ital a}{sup 0}{sub 0} in the range predicted by standard one-loop chiral perturbation theory, yielded sharp determinations of certain {ital S}- and {ital P}-wave threshold parameters only, we now extend the discussion to medium and high energy. This is shown to contribute to the {ital D}-wave scattering lengths {ital a}{sup 0}{sub 2} and {ital a}{sup 2}{sub 2} significantly, roughly 10{percent} and 30{percent} of their central experimental values, remaining consistent with chiral predictions. Results of our Roy equation fits to the {ital F}-wave scattering length {ital a}{sup 1}{sub 3}, a quantity for which two-loop chiral perturbation theory holds important predictions, are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so through gratis partnerships in return for early access to the results of this study. Partnerships such as these are critical to FOTs in which real-world data is being collected. In Part 1 of the project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL) established partnerships with the H.T. Hackney Company, one of the largest wholesale distributors in the country, distributing products to 21 states; and with the Knoxville Area Transit (KAT), the City of Knoxville s transit system, operating services across the city of Knoxville and parts of Knox co. These partnerships and agreements provided ORNL access to three Class-7 2005/2007 International day-cab tractors, model 8600, which regularly haul 28 ft pup trailers (H.T. Hackney Co) and three Class-7 2005 Optima LF-34 buses (KAT), for collection of duty cycle data. In addition, ORNL has collaborated with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to determine if there were possible synergies between this duty cycle data collection effort and FMCSA s need to learn more about the operation and duty cycles of the second-largest fuel consuming commercial vehicle category in the US. FMCSA s primary interest was in collecting safety data relative to the driver, carrier, and vehicle. In order to collect the duty cycle and safety-related data, ORNL developed a data acquisition and wireless communication system that was placed on each test vehicle. Each signal recorded in this FOT was collected by means of one of the instruments incorporated into each data acquisition system (DAS). Native signals were obtained directly from the vehicle s J1939 and J1708 data buses. A VBOX II Lite collected Global Positioning System related information including speed, acceleration, and spatial location information at a rate of 5 Hz, and communicated this data via the CAN (J1939) protocol. The Air-Weigh LoadMaxx, a self-weighing system which determines the vehicle s gross weight by means of pressure transducers and posts the weight to the vehicle s J1939 data bus, was used to collect vehicle payload information. A cellular modem, the Raven X

  14. Preprint of a paper which appeared in the proceedings of "RoboCup International Symposium 2008" (Suzhou, China, July 15-18 2008)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stryk, Oskar von

    , who tries to grab and shoot the ball while being attacked by opponent players. Usually, this leads to a thunderstorm by counting the seconds between lightning and thunder. Note, that the frequencies used in our

  15. Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Slone; Jeffery Birkel

    2007-12-31

    With a variety of hybrid vehicles available in the passenger car market, electric technologies and components of that scale are becoming readily available. Commercial vehicle segments have lagged behind passenger car markets, leaving opportunities for component and system development. Escalating fuel prices impact all markets and provide motivation for OEMs, suppliers, customers, and end-users to seek new techniques and technologies to deliver reduced fuel consumption. The research presented here specifically targets the medium-duty (MD), Class 4-7, truck market with technologies aimed at reducing fuel consumption. These technologies could facilitate not only idle, but also parasitic load reductions. The development efforts here build upon the success of the More Electric Truck (MET) demonstration program at Caterpillar Inc. Employing a variety of electric accessories, the MET demonstrated the improvement seen with such technologies on a Class 8 truck. The Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks (TEPS) team scaled the concepts and successes of MET to a MD chassis. The team designed an integrated starter/generator (ISG) package and energy storage system (ESS), explored ways to replace belt and gear-driven accessory systems, and developed supervisory control algorithms to direct the usage of the generated electricity and system behavior on the vehicle. All of these systems needed to fit within the footprint of a MD vehicle and be compatible with the existing conventional systems to the largest extent possible. The overall goal of this effort was to demonstrate a reduction in fuel consumption across the drive cycle, including during idle periods, through truck electrification. Furthermore, the team sought to evaluate the benefits of charging the energy storage system during vehicle braking. The vehicle features an array of electric accessories facilitating on-demand, variable actuation. Removal of these accessories from the belt or geartrain of the engine yields efficiency improvements for the engine while freeing those accessories to perform at their individual peak efficiencies to meet instantaneous demand. The net result is a systems approach to fuel usage optimization. Unique control algorithms were specifically developed to capitalize on the flexibility afforded by the TEPS architecture. Moreover, the TEPS truck technology mixture exhibits a means to supplant current accessory power sources such as on-board or trailer-mounted gasoline-powered generators or air compressors. Such functionality further enhances the value of the electric systems beyond the fuel savings alone. To demonstrate the fuel economy improvement wrought via the TEPS components, vehicle fuel economy testing was performed on the nearly stock (baseline) truck and the TEPS truck. Table 1 illustrates the fuel economy gains produced by the TEPS truck electrification. While the fuel economy results shown in Table 1 do reflect specific test conditions, they show that electrification of accessory hardware can yield significant fuel savings. In this case, the savings equated to a 15 percent reduction in fuel consumption during controlled on-road testing. Truck electrification allows engine shutdown during idle conditions as well as independent on-demand actuation of accessory systems. In some cases, independent actuation may even include lack of operation, a feature not always present in mechanically driven components. This combination of attributes allows significant improvements in system efficiency and the fuel economy improvements demonstrated by the TEPS team.

  16. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Chapman, Scott; Pak, Soojong; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ?25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  17. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  18. COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS OF INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM EVOLUTION. I. TEST OF THE SUBGRID CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Côté, Benoit; Martel, Hugo; Drissen, Laurent [Département de physique, de Génie Physique et d'Optique, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2013-11-10

    We present a one-zone galactic chemical enrichment model that takes into account the contribution of stellar winds from massive stars under the effect of rotation, Type II supernovae, hypernovae, stellar winds from low- and intermediate-mass stars, and Type Ia supernovae. This enrichment model will be implemented in a galactic model designed to be used as a subgrid treatment for galaxy evolution and outflow generation in large-scale cosmological simulations, in order to study the evolution of the intergalactic medium. We test our enrichment prescription by comparing its predictions with the metallicity distribution function and the abundance patterns of 14 chemical elements observed in the Milky Way stars. To do so, we combine the effect of many stellar populations created from the star formation history of the Galaxy in the solar neighborhood. For each stellar population, we keep track of its specific mass, initial metallicity, and age. We follow the time evolution of every population in order to respect the time delay between the various stellar phases. Our model is able to reproduce the observed abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, S, and Ca. For Si, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn, the fits are still reasonable, but improvements are needed. We marginally reproduce the nitrogen abundance in very low metallicity stars. Overall, our results are consistent with the predicted abundance ratios seen in previous studies of the enrichment history of the Milky Way. We have demonstrated that our semi-analytic one-zone model, which cannot deal with spatial information such as the metallicity gradient, can nevertheless successfully reproduce the global Galactic enrichment evolution obtained by more complex models, at a fraction of the computational cost. This model is therefore suitable for a subgrid treatment of chemical enrichment in large-scale cosmological simulations.

  19. Keck/Deimos Spectroscopy of a GALEX UV Selecte Sample from the Medium Imaging Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan P. Mallery; R. Michael Rich; Samir Salim; Todd Small; Stephane Charlot; Mark Seibert; Ted Wyder; Tom A. Barlow; Karl Forster; Peter G. Friedman; D. Christopher Martin; Patrick Morissey; Susan G. Neff; David Schiminovivich; Luciana Bianchi; Jose Donas; Timothy M. Heckman; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Bruno Milliard; Alex S. Szalay; Barry Y. Welsh; Suk Young Yi

    2007-06-23

    We report results from a pilot program to obtain spectroscopy for objects detected in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Medium Imaging Survey (MIS). Our study examines the properties of galaxies detected by GALEX fainter than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic survey. This is the first study to extend the techinques of Salim et al. 2005 to estimate stellar masses, star formation rates (SFR) and the b (star formation history) parameter for star-forming galaxies out to z~0.7. We obtain redshifts for 50 GALEX MIS sources reaching NUV=23.9 (AB mag), having counterparts in the SDSS Data Release 4 (DR4). Of our sample, 43 are starforming galaxies with z<0.7, 3 have emission line ratios indicative of AGN with z<0.7, and 4 objects with z~1 are QSOs, 3 of which are not previously cataloged. We compare our sample to a much larger sample of ~50,000 matched GALEX/SDSS galaxies with SDSS spectroscopy; while our survey is shallow, the optical counterparts to our sources reach ~3 magnitudes fainter in SDSS r magnitude than the SDSS spectroscopic sample. We use emission line diagnostics for the galaxies to determine that the sample contains mostly star-forming galaxies. The galaxies in the sample populate the blue sequence in the NUV-r vs M_r color-magnitude diagram. Our sample has SFRs, luminosities, and velocity dispersions that are similar to the samples of faint compact blue galaxies studied previously in the same redshift range by Koo et. al 1995, Guzman et. al 1996 & Phillips et. al 1997. However, our sample is ~2 mag fainter in surface brightness than the compact blue galaxies. We find that the star-formation histories for a majority of the galaxies are consistent with a recent starburst within the last 100 Myr.

  20. MAPPING THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM WITH NEAR-INFRARED DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zasowski, G.; Ménard, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bizyaev, D. [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); García-Hernández, D. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Pérez, A. E. García; Majewski, S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Hayden, M. R.; Holtzman, J.; Kinemuchi, K. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Johnson, J. A.; Wilson, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nidever, D. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 (United States); Shetrone, M., E-mail: gail.zasowski@gmail.com [The University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, McDonald Observatory, TX 79734 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We map the distribution and properties of the Milky Way's interstellar medium as traced by diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) detected in near-infrared stellar spectra from the SDSS-III/APOGEE survey. Focusing exclusively on the strongest DIB in the H band, at ? ? 1.527 ?m, we present a projected map of the DIB absorption field in the Galactic plane, using a set of about 60,000 sightlines that reach up to 15 kpc from the Sun and probe up to 30 mag of visual extinction. The strength of this DIB is linearly correlated with dust reddening over three orders of magnitude in both DIB equivalent width (W {sub DIB}) and extinction, with a power law index of 1.01 ± 0.01, a mean relationship of W {sub DIB}/A{sub V} = 0.1 Å mag{sup –1} and a dispersion of ?0.05 Å mag{sup –1} at extinctions characteristic of the Galactic midplane. These properties establish this DIB as a powerful, independent probe of dust extinction over a wide range of A{sub V} values. The subset of about 14,000 robustly detected DIB features have a W {sub DIB} distribution that follows an exponential trend. We empirically determine the intrinsic rest wavelength of this transition to be ?{sub 0} = 15 272.42 Å  and use it to calculate absolute radial velocities of the carrier, which display the kinematical signature of the rotating Galactic disk. We probe the DIB carrier distribution in three dimensions and show that it can be characterized by an exponential disk model with a scale height of about 100 pc and a scale length of about 5 kpc. Finally, we show that the DIB distribution also traces large-scale Galactic structures, including the Galactic long bar and the warp of the outer disk.