National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for medical isotope production

  1. EIS-0249: Medical Isotopes Production Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to establish a production capability for molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related medical isotopes.

  2. Isotope production agreement benefits medical patients | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Francis Tsang of Global Medical Isotope Systems (GMIS), Dr. Chris Deeney of National Security Technologies (NSTec), and Zane Wilson, Chief Executive Officer of GMIS, observe the ...

  3. Medical Isotope Production Analyses In KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-01-01

    Medical isotope production analyses in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) neutron source facility were performed to include the details of the irradiation cassette and the self-shielding effect. An updated detailed model of the facility was used for the analyses. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), which has a subcritical assembly using low-enriched uranium fuel elements with a beryllium-graphite reflector. The beryllium assemblies of the reflector have the same outer geometry as the fuel elements, which permits loading the subcritical assembly with different number of fuel elements without impacting the reflector performance. The subcritical assembly is driven by an external neutron source generated from the interaction of 100-kW electron beam with a tungsten target. The facility construction was completed at the end of 2015, and it is planned to start the operation during the year of 2016. It is the first ADS in the world, which has a coolant system for removing the generated fission power. Argonne National Laboratory has developed the design concept and performed extensive design analyses for the facility including its utilization for the production of different radioactive medical isotopes. 99Mo is the parent isotope of 99mTc, which is the most commonly used medical radioactive isotope. Detailed analyses were performed to define the optimal sample irradiation location and the generated activity, for several radioactive medical isotopes, as a function of the irradiation time.

  4. Small-Scale Reactor for the Production of Medical Isotopes -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shortage of medical isotopes-specifically Molybdenum 99 (Mo-99) which is essential in cancer treatment, diagnostics, and medical imaging. The US is completely dependent on foreign...

  5. Scoping assessment on medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, S.W.

    1997-08-29

    The Scoping Assessment addresses the need for medical isotope production and the capability of the Fast Flux Test Facility to provide such isotopes. Included in the discussion are types of isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals, which types of cancers are targets, and in what way isotopes provide treatment and/or pain relief for patients.

  6. Feasibility study of medical isotope production at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massey, C.D.; Miller, D.L.; Carson, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    In late 1994, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, (SNL/NM), was instructed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (IPDP) to examine the feasibility of producing medically useful radioisotopes using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and the Hot Cell Facility (HCF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) would be expected to supply the targets to be irradiated in the ACRR. The intent of DOE would be to provide a capability to satisfy the North American health care system demand for {sup 99}Mo, the parent of {sup 99m}Tc, in the event of an interruption in the current Canadian supply. {sup 99m}Tc is used in 70 to 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures in the US. The goal of the SNL/NM study effort is to determine the physical plant capability, infrastructure, and staffing necessary to meet the North American need for {sup 99}Mo and to identify and examine all issues with potential for environmental impact.

  7. Evaluation of medical isotope production with the accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin, R.W.; Frey, G.D.; McLean, D.C., Jr; Spicer, K.M.; Davis, S.E.; Baron, S.; Frysinger, J.R.; Blanpied, G.; Adcock, D.

    1997-07-10

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility, with its high beam current and high beam energy, would be an ideal supplier of radioisotopes for medical research, imaging, and therapy. By-product radioisotopes will be produced in the APT window and target cooling systems and in the tungsten target through spallation, neutron, and proton interactions. High intensity proton fluxes are potentially available at three different energies for the production of proton- rich radioisotopes. Isotope production targets can be inserted into the blanket for production of neutron-rich isotopes. Currently, the major production sources of radioisotopes are either aging or abroad, or both. The use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine is growing and changing, both in terms of the number of nuclear medicine procedures being performed and in the rapidly expanding range of procedures and radioisotopes used. A large and varied demand is forecast, and the APT would be an ideal facility to satisfy that demand.

  8. Transportation of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  9. EA-1929: NorthStar Medical Technologies LLC, Commercial Domestic Production of the Medical Isotope Molybdenum-99

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to use federal funds to support and accelerate Northstar Medical Radioisotopes' project to develop domestic, commercial production capability for the medical isotope Molybdenum-99 without the use of highly enriched uranium.

  10. Boosting Production of Radioisotopes for Diagnostics and Therapeutics: Upgrades to Brookhaven Lab's isotope production and research facility increase the yield of key medical isotopes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Office of Science’s Nuclear Physics Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications program (DOE Isotope Program) seeks to make critical isotopes more readily available for energy, medical, and national security applications and for basic research. Under this program, scientists, engineers, and technicians at DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory recently completed the installation of a beam raster (or scanning) system designed to increase the yield of critical isotopes produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP), the Lab’s radioisotope production and research facility, in operation since 1972.

  11. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotopes Products Isotopes Products Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Products stress and rest Stress and rest Rb-82 PET images in a patient with dipyridamole stress-inducible lateral wall and apical ischemia. (http://www.fac.org.ar/scvc/llave/image/machac/machaci.htm#f2,3,4) Strontium-82 is supplied to our customers for use in Sr-82/Rb-82 generator technologies. The generators in turn are supplied to

  12. Abatement of Xenon and Iodine Emissions from Medical Isotope Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doll, Charles G.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Emma L.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes.

  13. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.81014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.21016 to 2.51016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.11013 to 3.61014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  14. Laser separation of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eerkens, J.W.; Puglishi, D.A.; Miller, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    There is an increasing demand for different separated isotopes as feed material for reactor and cyclotron-produced radioisotopes used by a fast-growing radiopharmaceutical industry. One new technology that may meet future demands for medical isotopes is molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS). This method was investigated for the enrichment of uranium in the 1970`s and 1980s by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Isotope Technologies, and others around the world. While South Africa and Japan have continued the development of MLIS for uranium and are testing pilot units, around 1985 the United States dropped the LANL MLIS program in favor of AVLIS (atomic vapor LIS), which uses electron-beam-heated uranium metal vapor. AVLIS appears difficult and expensive to apply to most isotopes of medical interest, however, whereas MLIS technology, which is based on cooled hexafluorides or other gaseous molecules, can be adapted more readily. The attraction of MLIS for radiopharmaceutical firms is that it allows them to operate their own dedicated separators for small-quantity productions of critical medical isotopes, rather than having to depend on large enrichment complexes run by governments, which are only optimal for large-quantity productions. At the University of Missouri, the authors are investigating LIS of molybdenum isotopes using MoF{sub 6}, which behaves in a way similar to UF{sub 6}, studied in the past.

  15. A CYCLOTRON CONCEPT TO SUPPORT ISOTOPE PRODUCTION FOR SCIENCE AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian; Mirzadeh, Saed; Tatum, B Alan; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Bradley, Eric Craig; Burgess, Thomas W; Aaron, W Scott; Binder, Jeffrey L; Beene, James R; Saltmarsh, Michael John

    2013-01-01

    In August of 2009, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) recommended a variable-energy, high-current multi-particle accelerator for the production of medical radioisotopes. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a technical concept for a 70 MeV dual-extraction multi-particle cyclotron that will meet the needs identified in the NSAC report. The cyclotron, which will be located at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), will operate on a 24/7 basis and will provide approximately 6000 hours per year of quality beam time for both the production R&D and production of medical and industrial radioisotopes. The proposed cyclotron will be capable of accelerating dual beams of 30 to 70 MeV H at up to 750 A, and up to 50 A of 15-35 MeV D , 35 MeV H2, and 70 MeV -particles. In dual-extraction H mode, a total of 750 A of 70 MeV protons will be provided simultaneously to both HRIBF and Isotope Production Facility. The isotope facility will consist of two target stations: a 2 water-cooled station and a 4 water-cooled high-energy-beam research station. The multi-particle capability and high beam power will enable research into new regimes of accelerator-produced radioisotopes, such as 225Ac, 211At, 68Ge, and 7B. The capabilities of the accelerator will enable the measurement of excitation functions, thick target yield measurements, research in high-power-target design, and will support fundamental research in nuclear and radiochemistry.

  16. AVLIS enrichment of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynam, C.A.; Scheibner, K.F.; Stern, R.C.; Worden, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Under the Sponsorship of the United states Enrichment Corporation (USEC), we are currently investigating the large scale separation of several isotopes of medical interest using atomic vapor isotope separation (AVLIS). This work includes analysis and experiments in the enrichment of thallium 203 as a precursor to the production of thallium 201 used in cardiac imaging following heart attacks, on the stripping of strontium 84 from natural strontium as precursor to the production of strontium 89, and on the stripping of lead 210 from lead used in integrated circuits to reduce the number of alpha particle induced logic errors.

  17. Evaluation of selected ex-reactor accidents related to the tritium and medical isotope production mission at the FFTF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himes, D.A.

    1997-11-17

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been proposed as a production facility for tritium and medical isotopes. A range of postulated accidents related to ex-reactor irradiated fuel and target handling were identified and evaluated using new source terms for the higher fuel enrichment and for the tritium and medical isotope targets. In addition, two in-containment sodium spill accidents were re-evaluated to estimate effects of increased fuel enrichment and the presence of the Rapid Retrieval System. Radiological and toxicological consequences of the analyzed accidents were found to be well within applicable risk guidelines.

  18. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  19. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Products stress and rest Stress and rest Rb-82 PET images in a patient with dipyridamole...

  20. Domestic production of medical isotope Mo-99 moves a step closer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    partners, including Morgridge Institute for Research-SHINE Medical Technologies (MIR-SHINE), which proposes to use a particle accelerator to produce Mo-99 from a mildly...

  1. WOSMIP II- Workshop on Signatures of Medical and Industrial Isotope Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Murray; Achim, Pascal; Auer, M.; Bell, Randy; Bowyer, Ted W.; Braekers, Damien; Bradley, Ed; Briyatmoko, Budi; Berglund, Helena; Camps, Johan; Carranza, Eduardo C.; Carty, Fitz; DeCaire, Richard; Deconninck, Benoit; DeGeer, Lars E.; Druce, Michael; Friese, Judah I.; Hague, Robert; Hoffman, Ian; Khrustalev, Kirill; Lucas, John C.; Mattassi, G.; Mattila, Aleski; Nava, Elisabetta; Nikkinin, Mika; Papastefanou, Constantin; Piefer, Gregory R.; Quintana, Eduardo; Ross, Ole; Rotty, Michel; Sabzian, Mohammad; Saey, Paul R.; Sameh, A. A.; Safari, M.; Schoppner, Michael; Siebert, Petra; Unger, Klaus K.; Vargas, Albert

    2011-11-01

    Medical and industrial fadioisotopes are fundamental tools used in science, medicine and industry with an ever expanding usage in medical practice where their availability is vital. Very sensitive environmental radionuclide monitoring networks have been developed for nuclear-security-related monitoring [particularly Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) compliance verification] and are now operational.

  2. Dry phase reactor for generating medical isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackie, Thomas Rockwell; Heltemes, Thad Alexander

    2016-05-03

    An apparatus for generating medical isotopes provides for the irradiation of dry-phase, granular uranium compounds which are then dissolved in a solvent for separation of the medical isotope from the irradiated compound. Once the medical isotope is removed, the dissolved compound may be reconstituted in dry granular form for repeated irradiation.

  3. Domestic production of medical isotope Mo-99 moves a step closer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Domestic Uranium Production Report - Annual With Data for 2015 | Release Date: May 5, 2016 | Next Release Date: May 2017 | full report Previous domestic uranium production reports Year: 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Go Drilling Total uranium drilling was 1,518 holes covering 0.9 million feet, 13% fewer holes than in 2015. Expenditures for uranium drilling in the United States were $29 million in 2015, an increase of 2% compared with 2014. Figure 1. U.S. Uranium drilling

  4. DOE/EA-1488: Environmental Assessment for the U-233 Disposition, Medical Isotope Production, and Building 3019 Complex Shutdown at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (12/04)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    488 FINAL Environmental Assessment for the U-233 Disposition, Medical Isotope Production, and Building 3019 Complex Shutdown at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee December 2004 U. S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations 04-049(doc)/120204 04-049(doc)/120204 SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION contributed to the preparation of this document and should not be considered an eligible contractor for its review. Environmental Assessment for the U-233 Disposition,

  5. Isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of Science » Nuclear Physics » Isotopes Isotopes Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Get Expertise Eva Birnbaum (505) 665-7167 Email Wolfgang Runde (505) 667-3350 Email Isotope Production and Applications isotopes Isotopes produced at IPF are critical for medical diagnosis and disease treatment. These positron emission tomography images were made possible using isotopes produced at LANL.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor concept.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coats, Richard Lee; Dahl, James J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor and hot cell facility concepts. The reactor proposed is designed to be capable of producing 100% of the U.S. demand for the medical isotope {sup 99}Mo. The concept is novel in that the fuel for the reactor and the targets for the {sup 99}Mo production are the same. There is no driver core required. The fuel pins that are in the reactor core are processed on a 7 to 21 day irradiation cycle. The fuel is low enriched uranium oxide enriched to less than 20% {sup 235}U. The fuel pins are approximately 1 cm in diameter and 30 to 40 cm in height, clad with Zircaloy (zirconium alloy). Approximately 90 to 150 fuel pins are arranged in the core in a water pool {approx}30 ft deep. The reactor power level is 1 to 2 MW. The reactor concept is a simple design that is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days. The fuel fabrication, reactor design and operation, and {sup 99}Mo production processing use well-developed technologies that minimize the technological and licensing risks. There are no impediments that prevent this type of reactor, along with its collocated hot cell facility, from being designed, fabricated, and licensed today.

  7. Cancer-fighting treatment gets boost from Isotope Production...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medical Isotope Work Moves Cancer Treatment Agent Forward - Los Alamos scientist Meiring Nortier holds a thorium foil test target for the proof-of-concept production experiments. ...

  8. Production of Medical Radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for Cancer Treatment and Arterial Restenosis Therapy after PTCA

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Knapp, F. F. Jr.; Beets, A. L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C. W.; Hobbs, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  9. Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Administration Isotope production agreement benefits medical patients Thursday, March 19, 2015 - 12:24pm Medical patients, both locally and potentially nationwide, should be the beneficiaries of the first-ever public-private partnership agreement between National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), and Henderson, Nevada-based Global Medical Isotope Systems, LLC (GMIS). The agreement on research and development aims to enable production of an essential radioactive isotope used in

  10. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation repression. In this scheme a gas, of the selected isotopes for enrichment, is irradiated with a laser at a particular wavelength that would excite only one of the isotopes. The entire gas is subject to low temperatures sufficient to cause condensation on a cold surface. Those molecules in the gas that the laser excited are not as likely to condense as are the unexcited molecules. Hence the gas drawn out of the system will be enriched in the isotope that was excited by the laser. We have evaluated the relative energy required in this process if applied on a commercial scale. We estimate the energy required for laser isotope enrichment is about 20% of that required in centrifuge separations, and 2% of that required by use of "calutrons".

  11. Online Catalog of Isotope Products from DOE's National Isotope Development Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of isotope production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of isotopes. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The Isotope subprogram supports the production, and the development of production techniques of radioactive and stable isotopes that are in short supply for research and applications. Isotopes are high-priority commodities of strategic importance for the Nation and are essential for energy, medical, and national security applications and for basic research; a goal of the program is to make critical isotopes more readily available to meet domestic U.S. needs. This subprogram is steward of the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) facility at BNL, and hot cell facilities for processing isotopes at ORNL, BNL and LANL. The subprogram also coordinates and supports isotope production at a suite of university, national laboratory, and commercial accelerator and reactor facilities throughout the Nation to promote a reliable supply of domestic isotopes. The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) at ORNL coordinates isotope production across the many facilities and manages the business operations of the sale and distribution of isotopes.

  12. Isotopic Trends in Production of Superheavies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonenko, N.V.; Adamian, G.G.; Zubov, A.S.; Scheid, W.

    2005-11-21

    The isotopic trends are discussed for cold and hot fusion reactions leading to superheavies. The possibilities of production of new isotopes in incomplete fusion reactions are treated.

  13. Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes The Expert Panel has concluded that the Department of Energy and National Institutes of Health must develop the capability to produce a diverse supply of radioisotopes for medical use in quantities sufficient to support research and clinical activities. Such a capability would prevent shortages of isotopes, reduce American dependence on foreign radionuclide sources and

  14. Robust Medical Isotope Production System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Steven Karl; Kimpland, Robert Herbert

    2015-06-15

    The success of this theoretical undertaking provided confidence that the behavior of new and evolving designs of fissile solution systems may be accurately estimated. Scaled up versions of SUPO, subcritical acceleratordriven systems, and other evolutionary designs have been examined.

  15. Research and Medical Isotope Reactor Supply | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research and Medical ... Research and Medical Isotope Reactor Supply Our goal is to fuel research and test reactors with low-enriched uranium. Y-12 tops the short list of the...

  16. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahle, L E

    2007-09-17

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R&D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  17. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-10-26

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R and D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  18. Research and Medical Isotope Reactor Supply | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Research and Medical ... Research and Medical Isotope Reactor Supply Our goal is to fuel research and test reactors with low-enriched uranium. Y-12 tops the short list of the world's most secure, reliable uranium feedstock suppliers for dozens of research and test reactors on six continents. These reactors can be used to test materials, irradiate new reactor fuel designs and produce medical isotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, as examples. The LEU is used to fabricate

  19. HEU Minimization and the Reliable Supply of Medical Isotopes Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Summit: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Administration HEU Minimization and the Reliable Supply of Medical Isotopes Nuclear Security Summit: Fact Sheet March 26, 2012 Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) is used to produce technetium-99m (Tc-99m), a medical isotope that is used in about 100,000 diagnostic medical procedures globally every day. Today, Mo-99 is produced at aging facilities in Europe, Canada and South Africa primarily using highly-enriched uranium (HEU) - a weapons-usable

  20. Electron Linac Offers Safe, Affordable Production Method for Medical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotopes (IN 10-001, IN 04-039, IN 05-107) - Energy Innovation Portal Electron Linac Offers Safe, Affordable Production Method for Medical Isotopes (IN 10-001, IN 04-039, IN 05-107) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <em>Schematic of a dual beam ERL for isotope production</em> Schematic of a dual beam ERL for isotope production Technology Marketing Summary Scientists at Argonne National Laboratory have devised a safe, affordable way to ensure a reliable

  1. Isotope Production at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammoniums

    1999-06-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request from the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) subcommittee on ''Long-Term Isotope Research and Production Plans.'' The NERAC subcommittee has asked for a reply to a number of questions regarding (1) ''How well does the Department of Energy (DOE) infrastructure sme the need for commercial and medical isotopes?'' and (2) ''What should be the long-term role of the federal government in providing commercial and medical isotopes?' Our report addresses the questions raised by the NERAC subcommittee, and especially the 10 issues that were raised under the first of the above questions (see Appendix). These issues are related to the isotope products offered by the DOE Isotope Production Sites, the capabilities and condition of the facilities used to produce these products, the management of the isotope production programs at DOE laboratories, and the customer service record of the DOE Isotope Production sites. An important component of our report is a description of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor at the Hbford Site and the future plans for its utilization as a source of radioisotopes needed by nuclear medicine physicians, by researchers, and by customers in the commercial sector. In response to the second question raised by the NERAC subcommittee, it is our firm belief that the supply of isotopes provided by DOE for medical, industrial, and research applications must be strengthened in the near future. Many of the radioisotopes currently used for medical diagnosis and therapy of cancer and other diseases are imported from Canada, Europe, and Asia. This situation places the control of isotope availability, quality, and pricing in the hands of non-U.S. suppliers. It is our opinion that the needs of the U.S. customers for isotopes and isotope products are not being adequately served, and that the DOE infrastructure and facilities devoted to the supply of these products must be improved This perception forms one of the fundamental bases for our proposal that the FFTF, which is currently in a standby condition, be reactivated to supply nuclear services and products such as radioisotopes needed by the U.S. medical, industrial, and research communities.

  2. Final Report, NEAC Subcommittee for Isotope Research & Production Planning

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Final Report, NEAC Subcommittee for Isotope Research & Production Planning Final Report, NEAC Subcommittee for Isotope Research & Production Planning Isotopes, including both radioactive and stable isotopes, make important contributions to research, medicine, and industry in the United States and throughout the world. For nearly fifty years, the Department of Energy (DOE) has actively promoted the use of isotopes by funding (a) production of isotopes at a

  3. Medical ice slurry production device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kasza, Kenneth E.; Oras, John; Son, HyunJin

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  4. Methods for separating medical isotopes using ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, Huimin; Boll, Rose Ann; Bell, Jason Richard; Dai, Sheng

    2014-10-21

    A method for extracting a radioisotope from an aqueous solution, the method comprising: a) intimately mixing a non-chelating ionic liquid with the aqueous solution to transfer at least a portion of said radioisotope to said non-chelating ionic liquid; and b) separating the non-chelating ionic liquid from the aqueous solution. In preferred embodiments, the method achieves an extraction efficiency of at least 80%, or a separation factor of at least 1.times.10.sup.4 when more than one radioisotope is included in the aqueous solution. In particular embodiments, the method is applied to the separation of medical isotopes pairs, such as Th from Ac (Th-229/Ac-225, Ac-227/Th-227), or Ra from Ac (Ac-225 and Ra-225, Ac-227 and Ra-223), or Ra from Th (Th-227 and Ra-223, Th-229 and Ra-225).

  5. Selective Gaseous Extraction: Research, Development and Training for Isotope Production, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertch, Timothy C,

    2014-03-31

    General Atomics and the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) completed research and development of selective gaseous extraction of fission products from irradiated fuel, which included training and education of MURR students. The process used porous fuel and after irradiation flowed product gases through the fuel to selectively removed desired fission products with the primary goal of demonstrating the removal of rhodium 105. High removal rates for the ruthenium/rhodium (Ru/Rh), tellurium/iodine (Te/I) and molybdenum/technetium (Mo/Tc) series were demonstrated. The success of this research provides for the reuse of the target for further production, significantly reducing the production of actinide wastes relative to processes that dissolve the target. This effort was conducted under DOE funding (DE-SC0007772). General Atomics objective of the project was to conduct R&D on alternative methods to produce a number of radioactive isotopes currently needed for medical and industry applications to include rhodium-105 and other useful isotopes. Selective gaseous extraction was shown to be effective at removing radioisotopes of the ruthenium/rhodium, tellurium/iodine and molybdenum/technetium decay chains while having trace to no quantities of other fission products or actinides. This adds a new, credible method to the area of certain commercial isotope production beyond current techniques, while providing significant potential reduction of process wastes. Waste reduction, along with reduced processing time/cost provides for superior economic feasibility which may allow domestic production under full cost recovery practices. This provides the potential for improved access to domestically produced isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment at reduced cost, providing for the public good.

  6. Isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of Science Nuclear Physics Isotopes Isotopes Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. ...

  7. Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ISOTOPE DEVELOPMENT AND ... Program Overview The primary goal of the Isotope ... sources of research isotopes at more affordable prices. ...

  8. Ionic Liquids as New Solvents for Improved Separation of Medical Isotopes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Ionic Liquids as New Solvents for Improved Separation of Medical Isotopes Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00234_ID2580 (2).pdf (942 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryA series of ionic liquids (ILs) have recently been applied as new solvents for potentially effective separation of different

  9. Isotope Development & Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Research » Isotope Development & Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information »

  10. Fast flux test facility radioisotope production and medical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenter, R.E.; Smith, S.G.; Tenforde, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400-MW, sodium-cooled reactor that operated successfully from 1982 to 1992, conducting work in support of the liquid-metal reactor industry by developing and testing fuel assemblies, control rods, and other core reactor components. Upon termination of this program, the primary mission of FFTF ended, and it was placed in a standby mode in 1993. However, in January 1997 the U.S. Secretary of Energy requested that FFTF be evaluated for a future mission that would consist of a primary goal of producing tritium for nuclear defense applications and a secondary goal of supplying medical isotopes for research and clinical applications. Production by FFTF of tritium for U.S. nuclear weapons would augment the dual-track strategy now under consideration for providing a long-term tritium supply in the United States (consisting of a light water reactor option and an accelerator option). A decision by the Secretary of Energy on proceeding with steps leading toward the possible reactivation of FFTF will be made before the end of 1998.

  11. Isotope Production and Distribution Program`s Fiscal Year 1997 financial statement audit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-27

    The Department of Energy Isotope Production and Distribution Program mission is to serve the national need for a reliable supply of isotope products and services for medicine, industry and research. The program produces and sells hundreds of stable and radioactive isotopes that are widely utilized by domestic and international customers. Isotopes are produced only where there is no U.S. private sector capability or other production capacity is insufficient to meet U.S. needs. The Department encourages private sector investment in new isotope production ventures and will sell or lease its existing facilities and inventories for commercial purposes. The Isotope Program reports to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. The Isotope Program operates under a revolving fund established by the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 Energy and Water Appropriations Act and maintains financial viability by earning revenues from the sale of isotopes and services and through annual appropriations. The FY 1995 Energy and Water Appropriations Act modified predecessor acts to allow prices charged for Isotope Program products and services to be based on production costs, market value, the needs of the research community, and other factors. Although the Isotope Program functions as a business, prices set for small-volume, high-cost isotopes that are needed for research purposes may not achieve full-cost recovery. As a result, isotopes produced by the Isotope Program for research and development are priced to provide a reasonable return to the U.S. Government without discouraging their use. Commercial isotopes are sold on a cost-recovery basis. Because of its pricing structure, when selecting isotopes for production, the Isotope Program must constantly balance current isotope demand, market conditions, and societal benefits with its determination to operate at the lowest possible cost to U.S. taxpayers. Thus, this report provides a financial analysis of this situation.

  12. PPPL inventors win award for device that creates medical isotope vital for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diagnosing diseases | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab inventors win award for device that creates medical isotope vital for diagnosing diseases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe February 29, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Gentile, right, and George Ascione, one of the co-inventors, show off their third-place award at the 11th Annual Innovation Forum at the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment on Feb. 24. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications ) Gentile,

  13. Method for production of an isotopically enriched compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watrous, Matthew G.

    2012-12-11

    A method is presented for producing and isolating an isotopically enriched compound of a desired isotope from a parent radionuclide. The method includes forming, or placing, a precipitate containing a parent radionuclide of the desired daughter isotope in a first reaction zone and allowing sufficient time for the parent to decay into the desired gaseous daughter radioisotope. The method further contemplates collecting the desired daughter isotope as a solid in a second reaction zone through the application of temperatures below the freezing point of the desired isotope to a second reaction zone that is connected to the first reaction zone. Specifically, a method is presented for producing isotopically enriched compounds of xenon, including the radioactive isotope Xe-131m and the stable isotope Xe-131.

  14. NorthStar Medical Technologies LLC

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Environmental Assessment for NorthStar Medical Technologies LLC Commercial Domestic Production of the Medical Isotope Molybdenum-99 (DOE/EA-1929) Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation/ Global Threat Reduction Initiative August 2012 EA for NorthStar Medical Technologies LLC Commercial Domestic Production of the Medical Isotope Mo-99 i COVER SHEET ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR NORTHSTAR MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES LLC COMMERCIAL

  15. Isotope Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science and Production 35 years of experience in isotope production, processing, and applications. Llllll Committed to the safe and reliable production of radioisotopes, products, and services. Contact: Kevin John LANL Isotope Program Manager kjohn@lanl.gov 505-667-3602 Sponsored by the Department of Energy National Isotope Program http://www.nuclear.energy.gov/isotopes/nelsotopes2a.html Isotopes for Environmental Science Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are used as

  16. Isotope production and distribution Programs Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 Financial Statement Audit (ER-FC-96-01)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-12

    The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (Isotope Program) covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials such as lithium and deuterium, and related isotope services. Services provided include, but are not limited to, irradiation services, target preparation and processing, source encapsulation and other special preparations, analyses, chemical separations, and leasing of stable isotopes for research purposes. Isotope Program products and services are sold worldwide for use in a wide variety of research, development, biomedical, and industrial applications. The Isotope Program reports to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. The Isotope Program operates under a revolving fund, as established by the Fiscal Year 1990 Energy and Water Appropriations Act (Public Law 101-101). The Fiscal Year 1995 Appropriations Act (Public Law 103-316) modified predecessor acts to allow prices charged for Isotope Program products and services to be based on production costs, market value, the needs of the research community, and other factors. Prices set for small-volume, high-cost isotopes that are needed for research may not achieve full-cost recovery. Isotope Program costs are financed by revenues from the sale of isotopes and associated services and through payments from the isotope support decision unit, which was established in the DOE fiscal year 1995 Energy, Supply, Research, and Development appropriation. The isotope decision unit finances the production and processing of unprofitable isotopes that are vital to the national interest.

  17. Isotope Production and Distribution Program. Financial statements, September 30, 1994 and 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marwick, P.

    1994-11-30

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Isotope Production and Distribution (IP&D) Program`s financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on IP&D`s 1994 statements. Their reports on IP&D`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws,and regulations are also provided. The charter of the Isotope Program covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, byproducts, and related isotope services. Prior to October 1, 1989, the Program was subsidized by the Department of Energy through a combination of appropriated funds and isotope sales revenue. The Fiscal Year 1990 Appropriations Act, Public Law 101-101, authorized a separate Isotope Revolving Fund account for the Program, which was to support itself solely from the proceeds of isotope sales. The initial capitalization was about $16 million plus the value of the isotope assets in inventory or on loan for research and the unexpended appropriation available at the close of FY 1989. During late FY 1994, Public Law 103--316 restructured the Program to provide for supplemental appropriations to cover costs which are impractical to incorporate into the selling price of isotopes. Additional information about the Program is provided in the notes to the financial statements.

  18. Niowave Develops Production Route for Medical Radioisotopes with a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconducting Electron Accelerator | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Niowave Develops Production Route for Medical Radioisotopes with a Superconducting Electron Accelerator Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) SBIR/STTR Home About Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) Applicant and Awardee Resources Commercialization Assistance Other Resources Awards SBIR/STTR Highlights Reporting Fraud Contact Information Small Business Innovation

  19. EA-1488: Environmental Assessment for the U-233 Disposition, Medical

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Isotope Production, and Building 3019 Complex Shutdown at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee | Department of Energy 88: Environmental Assessment for the U-233 Disposition, Medical Isotope Production, and Building 3019 Complex Shutdown at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee EA-1488: Environmental Assessment for the U-233 Disposition, Medical Isotope Production, and Building 3019 Complex Shutdown at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge,

  20. Homogeneous fast-flux isotope-production reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19

    A method is described for producing tritium in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Lithium target material is dissolved in the liquid metal coolant in order to facilitate the production and removal of tritium.

  1. Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meiring Nortier holds a thorium foil test target for the proof-of-concept production experiments. Los Alamos scientist Meiring Nortier holds a thorium foil test target for the ...

  2. Strontium Isotope Study of Coal Untilization By-products Interacting with Environmental Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2011-09-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elementsincluding alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zincduring sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-{sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUBwater interaction.

  3. Production of radioactive isotopes through cosmic muon spallation in KamLAND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abe, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Terashima, A.; Watanabe, H.

    2010-02-15

    Radioactive isotopes produced through cosmic muon spallation are a background for rare-event detection in nu detectors, double-beta-decay experiments, and dark-matter searches. Understanding the nature of cosmogenic backgrounds is particularly important for future experiments aiming to determine the pep and CNO solar neutrino fluxes, for which the background is dominated by the spallation production of {sup 11}C. Data from the Kamioka liquid-scintillator antineutrino detector (KamLAND) provides valuable information for better understanding these backgrounds, especially in liquid scintillators, and for checking estimates from current simulations based upon MUSIC, FLUKA, and GEANT4. Using the time correlation between detected muons and neutron captures, the neutron production yield in the KamLAND liquid scintillator is measured to be Y{sub n}=(2.8+-0.3)x10{sup -4} mu{sup -1} g{sup -1} cm{sup 2}. For other isotopes, the production yield is determined from the observed time correlation related to known isotope lifetimes. We find some yields are inconsistent with extrapolations based on an accelerator muon beam experiment.

  4. Study of the Production of Radioactive Isotopes through Cosmic Muon Spallation in KamLAND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KamLAND Collaboration; Abe, S.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Terashima, A.; Watanabe, H.; Yonezawa, E.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; Leonard, D. S.; McKee, D.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gray, F.; Guardincerri, E.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Lendvai, C.; Luk, K.-B.; O'Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D. A.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Vogel, P.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K. M.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2009-06-30

    Radioactive isotopes produced through cosmic muon spallation are a background for rare event detection in {nu} detectors, double-beta-decay experiments, and dark-matter searches. Understanding the nature of cosmogenic backgrounds is particularly important for future experiments aiming to determine the pep and CNO solar neutrino fluxes, for which the background is dominated by the spallation production of {sup 11}C. Data from the Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) provides valuable information for better understanding these backgrounds, especially in liquid scintillator, and for checking estimates from current simulations based upon MUSIC, FLUKA, and Geant4. Using the time correlation between detected muons and neutron captures, the neutron production yield in the KamLAND liquid scintillator is measured to be (2.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -4} n/({mu} {center_dot} (g/cm{sup 2})). For other isotopes, the production yield is determined from the observed time correlation related to known isotope lifetimes. We find some yields are inconsistent with extrapolations based on an accelerator muon beam experiment.

  5. Study of components and statistical reaction mechanism in simulation of nuclear process for optimized production of {sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Ga medical radioisotopes using TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ nuclear reaction and evaporation codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasrabadi, M. N. Sepiani, M.

    2015-03-30

    Production of medical radioisotopes is one of the most important tasks in the field of nuclear technology. These radioactive isotopes are mainly produced through variety nuclear process. In this research, excitation functions and nuclear reaction mechanisms are studied for simulation of production of these radioisotopes in the TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ reaction codes, then parameters and different models of nuclear level density as one of the most important components in statistical reaction models are adjusted for optimum production of desired radioactive yields.

  6. United States Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Isotope Production and Distribution Program financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (Isotope Program) covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials such as lithium, and related isotope services. Service provided include, but are not limited to, irradiation services, target preparation and processing, source encapsulation and other special preparations, analyses, chemical separations, and leasing of stable isotopes for research purposes. Isotope Program products and services are sold worldwide for use in a wide variety of research, development, biomedical, and industrial applications. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Isotope Production and Distribution Program`s (Isotope) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

  7. Continuous production of tritium in an isotope-production reactor with a separate circulation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19

    A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium is allowed to flow through the reactor in separate loops in order to facilitate the production and removal of tritium.

  8. Stable Isotope Enrichment Capabilities at ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian; Aaron, W Scott; Hart, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Department of Energy Nuclear Physics Program have built a high-resolution Electromagnetic Isotope Separator (EMIS) as a prototype for reestablishing a US based enrichment capability for stable isotopes. ORNL has over 60 years of experience providing enriched stable isotopes and related technical services to the international accelerator target community, as well as medical, research, industrial, national security, and other communities. ORNL is investigating the combined use of electromagnetic and gas centrifuge isotope separation technologies to provide research quantities (milligram to several kilograms) of enriched stable isotopes. In preparation for implementing a larger scale production facility, a 10 mA high-resolution EMIS prototype has been built and tested. Initial testing of the device has simultaneously collected greater than 98% enriched samples of all the molybdenum isotopes from natural abundance feedstock.

  9. METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF LIGHT ISOTOPE PRODUCT FROM LIQUID THERMAL DIFFUSION UNITS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, J.D.; Ballou, J.K.

    1957-11-19

    A method and apparatus are described for removing the lighter isotope of a gaseous-liquid product from a number of diffusion columns of a liquid thermal diffusion system in two stages by the use of freeze valves. The subject liquid flows from the diffusion columns into a heated sloping capsule where the liquid is vaporized by the action of steam in a heated jacket surrounding the capsule. When the capsule is filled the gas flows into a collector. Flow between the various stages is controlled by freeze valves which are opened and closed by the passage of gas and cool water respectively through coils surrounding portions of the pipes through which the process liquid is passed. The use of the dual stage remover-collector and the freeze valves is an improvement on the thermal diffusion separation process whereby the fraction containing the lighter isotope many be removed from the tops of the diffusion columns without intercolumn flow, or prior stage flow while the contents of the capsule is removed to the final receiver.

  10. Site evaluations for the uranium-atomic vapor laser isotope separation (U-AVLIS) production plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolsko, T.; Absil, M.; Cirillo, R.; Folga, S.; Gillette, J.; Habegger, L.; Whitfield, R.

    1991-07-01

    This report describes a uranium-atomic vapor laser isotope separation (U-AVLIS) production plant siting study conducted during 1990 to identify alternative plant sites for examination in later environmental impact studies. A siting study methodology was developed in early 1990 and was implemented between June and December. This methodology had two parts. The first part -- a series of screening analyses that included exclusionary and other criteria -- was conducted to identify a reasonable number of candidates sites. This slate of candidate sites was then subjected to more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. To fully appreciate the siting study methodology, it is important to understand the U-AVLIS program and site requirements. 16 refs., 29 figs., 54 tabs.

  11. Studies of Plutonium-238 Production at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lastres, Oscar; Chandler, David; Jarrell, Joshua J; Maldonado, G. Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a versatile 85 MW{sub th}, pressurized, light water-cooled and -moderated research reactor. The core consists of two fuel elements, an inner fuel element (IFE) and an outer fuel element (OFE), each constructed of involute fuel plates containing high-enriched-uranium (HEU) fuel ({approx}93 wt% {sup 235}U/U) in the form of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in an Al matrix and encapsulated in Al-6061 clad. An over-moderated flux trap is located in the center of the core, a large beryllium reflector is located on the outside of the core, and two control elements (CE) are located between the fuel and the reflector. The flux trap and reflector house numerous experimental facilities which are used for isotope production, material irradiation, and cold/thermal neutron scattering. Over the past five decades, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its agencies have been producing radioisotope power systems used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for unmanned, long-term space exploration missions. Plutonium-238 is used to power Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) because it has a very long half-life (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 89 yr.) and it generates about 0.5 watts/gram when it decays via alpha emission. Due to the recent shortage and uncertainty of future production, the DOE has proposed a plan to the US Congress to produce {sup 238}Pu by irradiating {sup 237}Np as early as in fiscal year 2011. An annual production rate of 1.5 to 2.0 kg of {sup 238}Pu is expected to satisfy these needs and could be produced in existing national nuclear facilities like HFIR and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Reactors at the Savannah River Site were used in the past for {sup 238}Pu production but were shut down after the last production in 1988. The nation's {sup 237}Np inventory is currently stored at INL. A plan for producing {sup 238}Pu at US research reactor facilities such as the High Flux Isotope Reactor at ORNL has been initiated by the US DOE and NASA for space exploration needs. Two Monte Carlo-based depletion codes, TRITON (ORNL) and VESTA (IRSN), were used to study the {sup 238}Pu production rates with varying target configurations in a typical HFIR fuel cycle. Preliminary studies have shown that approximately 11 grams and within 15 to 17 grams of {sup 238}Pu could be produced in the first irradiation cycle in one small and one large VXF facility, respectively, when irradiating fresh target arrays as those herein described. Important to note is that in this study we discovered that small differences in assumptions could affect the production rates of Pu-238 observed. The exact flux at a specific target location can have a significant impact upon production, so any differences in how the control elements are modeled as a function of exposure, will also cause differences in production rates. In fact, the surface plot of the large VXF target Pu-238 production shown in Figure 3 illustrates that the pins closest to the core can potentially have production rates as high as 3 times those of pins away from the core, thus implying that a cycle-to-cycle rotation of the targets may be well advised. A methodology for generating spatially-dependent, multi-group self-shielded cross sections and flux files with the KENO and CENTRM codes has been created so that standalone ORIGEN-S inputs can be quickly constructed to perform a variety of {sup 238}Pu production scenarios, i.e. combinations of the number of arrays loaded and the number of irradiation cycles. The studies herein shown with VESTA and TRITON/KENO will be used to benchmark the standalone ORIGEN.

  12. MECHANICAL ALLOYING AND THERMAL TREATMENT FOR PRODUCTION OF ZIRCONIUM IRON HYDROGEN ISOTOPE GETTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.

    2008-02-20

    The objective of this task was to demonstrate that metal hydrides could be produced by mechanical alloying in the quantities needed to support production-scale hydrogen isotope separations. Three starting compositions (ratios of elemental Zr and Fe powders) were selected and attritor milled under argon for times of 8 to 60 hours. In general, milling times of at least 24 hours were required to form the desired Zr{sub 2}Fe and Zr{sub 3}Fe phases, although a considerable amount of unalloyed Zr and Fe remained. Milling in liquid nitrogen does not appear to provide any advantages over milling in hexane, particularly due to the formation of ZrN after longer milling times. Carbides of Zr formed during some of the milling experiments in hexane. Elemental Zr was present in the as-milled material but not detected after annealing for milling times of 48 and 60 hours. It may be that after intimate mixing of the powders in the attritor mill the annealing temperature was sufficient to allow for the formation of a Zr-Fe alloy. Further investigation of this conversion is necessary, and could provide an opportunity for reducing the amount of unreacted metal powder after milling.

  13. Computer analyses for the design, operation and safety of new isotope production reactors: A technology status review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wulff, W.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented on the currently available technologies for nuclear reactor analyses by computer. The important distinction is made between traditional computer calculation and advanced computer simulation. Simulation needs are defined to support the design, operation, maintenance and safety of isotope production reactors. Existing methods of computer analyses are categorized in accordance with the type of computer involved in their execution: micro, mini, mainframe and supercomputers. Both general and special-purpose computers are discussed. Major computer codes are described, with regard for their use in analyzing isotope production reactors. It has been determined in this review that conventional systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5, RETRAN, etc.) cannot meet four essential conditions for viable reactor simulation: simulation fidelity, on-line interactive operation with convenient graphics, high simulation speed, and at low cost. These conditions can be met by special-purpose computers (such as the AD100 of ADI), which are specifically designed for high-speed simulation of complex systems. The greatest shortcoming of existing systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5) is their mismatch between very high computational efforts and low simulation fidelity. The drift flux formulation (HIPA) is the viable alternative to the complicated two-fluid model. No existing computer code has the capability of accommodating all important processes in the core geometry of isotope production reactors. Experiments are needed (heat transfer measurements) to provide necessary correlations. It is important for the nuclear community, both in government, industry and universities, to begin to take advantage of modern simulation technologies and equipment. 41 refs.

  14. Conceptual design of a new homogeneous reactor for medical radioisotope Mo-99/Tc-99m production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liem, Peng Hong [Nippon Advanced Information Service (NAIS Co., Inc.) Scientific Computational Division, 416 Muramatsu, Tokaimura, Ibaraki (Japan); Tran, Hoai Nam [Chalmers University of Technology, Dept. of Applied Physics, Div. of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sembiring, Tagor Malem [National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety, Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten (Indonesia); Arbie, Bakri [PT MOTAB Technology, Kedoya Elok Plaza Blok DA 12, Jl. Panjang, Kebun Jeruk, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    To partly solve the global and regional shortages of Mo-99 supply, a conceptual design of a nitrate-fuel-solution based homogeneous reactor dedicated for Mo-99/Tc-99m medical radioisotope production is proposed. The modified LEU Cintichem process for Mo-99 extraction which has been licensed and demonstrated commercially for decades by BATAN is taken into account as a key design consideration. The design characteristics and main parameters are identified and the advantageous aspects are shown by comparing with the BATAN's existing Mo-99 supply chain which uses a heterogeneous reactor (RSG GAS multipurpose reactor)

  15. Development of Innovative Radioactive Isotope Production Techniques at the Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnsen, Amanda M.; Heidrich, Brenden; Durrant, Chad; Bascom, Andrew; Unlu, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    The Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor (PSBR) at the Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC) has produced radioisotopes for research and commercial purposes since 1956. With the rebirth of the radiochemistry education and research program at the RSEC, the Center stands poised to produce a variety of radioisotopes for research and industrial work that is in line with the mission of the DOE Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, Isotope Development and Production Research and Application Program. The RSEC received funding from the Office of Science in 2010 to improve production techniques and develop new capabilities. Under this program, we improved our existing techniques to provide four radioisotopes (Mn-56, Br-82, Na-24, and Ar-41) to researchers and industry in a safe and efficient manner. The RSEC is also working to develop new innovative techniques to provide isotopes in short supply to researchers and others in the scientific community, specifically Cu-64 and Cu-67. Improving our existing radioisotopes production techniques and investigating new and innovative methods are two of the main initiatives of the radiochemistry research program at the RSEC.

  16. Medical Leaves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medical Leaves

  17. Production of Astatine-211 at the Duke University Medical Center for its regional distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zalutsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Systemic targeted radiation therapy and radioimmunotherapy continue to be important tools in the treatment of certain cancers. Because of their high energy and short path length, alpha particle emitters such as 211At are more effective than either external beam x- ray or in vivo beta radiation in delivering potentially curative doses of radiation. The limited clinical trials that have been conducted to date have yielded encouraging responses in some patients, e.g., malignant brain tumors. In order to escalate the additional necessary research and development in radiochemistry, radiobiology and efficacy evaluation of alpha particle radiotherapeutics, it is universally agreed that access to an affordable, reliable supply of 211At is warranted. In conjunction with the Department of Energy's intent to enhance stable and radioactive isotope availability for research applications, it is the primary objective of this project to improve 211At production and purification capabilities at Duke so that this radionuclide can be supplied to researchers at other institutions throughout the US.The most widely used 211At production method involves the α,2n reaction on Bismuth using a cyclotron with beams ≤ 28 MeV. Yields can be enhanced with use of an internal target that allows for a higher alpha fluence plus efficient heat dissipation in the target. Both of these items are in place at Duke; however, in order to support production for multi-institutional use, irradiation campaigns in excess of 50 µAp and four hours duration will be needed. Further, post-irradiation processing equipment is lacking that will enable the distribution process. Financial support is sought for i) a shielded, ventilated processing/containment hood; ii) development of a post-irradiation target retrieval system; iii) fabrication of a 211At distillation and recovery module and iv) a performance review and, where needed, an enhancement of seven major subsystems that comprise the CS-30 Cyclotron. With these modifications in place, routine production of ≥200 mCi of At-211 should be readily achievable, given our methodological development of At-211 target preparation, internal target irradiation and dry distillation to recover the radionuclide.

  18. Fuel pins with both target and fuel pellets in an isotope-production reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19

    A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target pellets are placed in close contact with fissile fuel pellets in order to increase the tritium production rate.

  19. Assemblies with both target and fuel pins in an isotope-production reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19

    A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target material is placed in pins adjacent to fuel pins in order to increase the tritium production rate.

  20. Method for separating boron isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating boron isotopes .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BCl.sub.3 molecules containing a particular boron isotope. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BCl.sub.3, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

  1. Audit Report - Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program's Fiscal Year 2010 Balance Sheet Audit, OAS-FS-13-09

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program's Fiscal Year 2010 Balance Sheet Audit OAS-FS-13-09 January 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF SCIENCE FROM: Daniel M. Weeber Assistant Inspector General for Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION Production for Research and Applications Program's Fiscal Year 2010 Balance Sheet Audit The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants' audit of

  2. Automated product recovery in a Hg-196 photochemical isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.

    1992-07-21

    A method of removing deposited product from a photochemical reactor used in the enrichment of [sup 196]Hg has been developed and shown to be effective for rapid re-cycling of the reactor system. Unlike previous methods relatively low temperatures are used in a gas and vapor phase process of removal. Importantly, the recovery process is understood in a quantitative manner so that scaling design to larger capacity systems can be easily carried out. 2 figs.

  3. Automated product recovery in a HG-196 photochemical isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A method of removing deposited product from a photochemical reactor used in the enrichment of .sup.196 Hg has been developed and shown to be effective for rapid re-cycling of the reactor system. Unlike previous methods relatively low temperatures are used in a gas and vapor phase process of removal. Importantly, the recovery process is understood in a quantitative manner so that scaling design to larger capacity systems can be easily carried out.

  4. Radio-isotope production scale-up at the University of Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickles, Robert Jerome

    2014-06-19

    Our intent has been to scale up our production capacity for a subset of the NSAC-I list of radioisotopes in jeopardy, so as to make a significant impact on the projected national needs for Cu-64, Zr-89, Y-86, Ga-66, Br-76, I-124 and other radioisotopes that offer promise as PET synthons. The work-flow and milestones in this project have been compressed into a single year (Aug 1, 2012- July 31, 2013). The grant budget was virtually dominated by the purchase of a pair of dual-mini-cells that have made the scale-up possible, now permitting the Curie-level processing of Cu-64 and Zr-89 with greatly reduced radiation exposure. Mile stones: 1. We doubled our production of Cu-64 and Zr-89 during the grant period, both for local use and out-bound distribution to ≈ 30 labs nationwide. This involved the dove-tailing of beam schedules of both our PETtrace and legacy RDS cyclotron. 2. Implemented improved chemical separation of Zr-89, Ga-66, Y-86 and Sc-44, with remote, semi-automated dissolution, trap-and-release separation under LabView control in the two dual-mini-cells provided by this DOE grant. A key advance was to fit the chemical stream with miniature radiation detectors to confirm the transfer operations. 3. Implemented improved shipping of radioisotopes (Cu-64, Zr-89, Tc-95m, and Ho-163) with approved DOT 7A boxes, with a much-improved FedEx shipping success compared to our previous steel drums. 4. Implemented broad range quantitative trace metal analysis, employing a new microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (Agilent 4200) capable of ppb sensitivity across the periodic table. This new instrument will prove essential in bringing our radiometals into FDA compliance needing CoA’s for translational research in clinical trials. 5. Expanded our capabilities in target fabrication, with the purchase of a programmable 1600 oC inert gas tube furnace for the smelting of binary alloy target materials. A similar effort makes use of our RF induction furnace, allowing small scale metallurgy with greater control. This alloy feedstock was then used to electroplate cyclotron targets with elevated melting temperatures capable of withstanding higher beam currents. 6. Finished the beam-line developments needed for the irradiation of low-melting target materials (Se and Ga) now being used for the production of Br-76, and radioactive germanium (68, 69, 71Ge). Our planned development of I-124 production has been deferred, given the wide access from commercial suppliers. The passing of these milestones has been the subject of the previous quarterly reports. These signature accomplishments were made possible by the DOE support, and have strengthened the infrastructure at the University of Wisconsin, provided the training ground for a very talented graduate research assistant (Mr. Valdovinos) and more than doubled our out-shipments of Cu-64 and Zr-89.

  5. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.

    2015-03-17

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determinemore » 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.« less

  6. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.

    2015-03-17

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.

  7. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.J. Horkley; K.P E.M. Gantz; J.E. Davis; R.R. Lewis; J.P. Crow; C.A. Poole; T.S. Grimes; J.J. Giglio

    2015-03-01

    t Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure spike solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for age determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution,

  8. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.

    2015-03-17

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure spike solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for age determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.

  9. PRINCIPAL ISOTOPE SELECTION REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. D. Wright

    1998-08-28

    Utilizing nuclear fuel to produce power in commercial reactors results in the production of hundreds of fission product and transuranic isotopes in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). When the SNF is disposed of in a repository, the criticality analyses could consider all of the isotopes, some principal isotopes affecting criticality, or none of the isotopes, other than the initial loading. The selected set of principal isotopes will be the ones used in criticality analyses of the SNF to evaluate the reactivity of the fuel/waste package composition and configuration. This technical document discusses the process used to select the principal isotopes and the possible affect that these isotopes could have on criticality in the SNF. The objective of this technical document is to discuss the process used to select the principal isotopes for disposal criticality evaluations with commercial SNF. The principal isotopes will be used as supporting information in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' which will be presented to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) when approved by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM).

  10. Management Letter on the Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program's Fiscal Year 2009 Balance Sheet Audit, OAS-FS-12-09

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    09 Balance Sheet Audit OAS-FS-12-09 June 2012 January 30, 2012 Mr. Gregory Friedman, Inspector General Dr. Jehanne Gillo, Director, Facilities and Project Management Division, Office of Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Dear Mr. Friedman and Dr. Gillo: We have audited the balance sheet of the United States Department of Energy's (Department or DOE) Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program (the Program) (a component of the Department)

  11. Isotope Cancer Treatment Research at LANL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Weidner, John; Nortier, Meiring

    2014-06-02

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced medical isotopes for diagnostic and imaging purposes for more than 30 years. Now LANL researchers have branched out into isotope cancer treatment studies. New results show that an accelerator-based approach can produce clinical trial quantities of actinium-225, an isotope that has promise as a way to kill tumors without damaging surrounding healthy cells.

  12. Design and Nuclear-Safety Related Simulations of Bare-Pellet Test Irradiations for the Production of Pu-238 in the High Flux Isotope Reactor using COMSOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freels, James D; Jain, Prashant K; Hobbs, Randy W

    2012-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)is developing technology to produce plutonium-238 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a power source material for powering vehicles while in deep-space[1]. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of ORNL has been utilized to perform test irradiations of incapsulated neptunium oxide (NpO2) and aluminum powder bare pellets for purposes of understanding the performance of the pellets during irradiation[2]. Post irradiation examinations (PIE) are currently underway to assess the effect of temperature, thermal expansion, swelling due to gas production, fission products, and other phenomena

  13. Plasma isotope separation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, M.W. ); Shepp, T.A. )

    1991-12-01

    Isotope separation has many important industrial, medical, and research applications. Large-scale processes have typically utilized complex cascade systems; for example, the gas centrifuge. Alternatively, high single-stage enrichment processes (as in the case of the calutron) are very energy intensive. Plasma-based methods being developed for the past 15 to 20 years have attempted to overcome these two drawbacks. In this review, six major types of isotope separation methods which involve plasma phenomena are discussed. These methods are: plasma centrifuge, AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotope separation), ion wave, ICR (ion-cyclotron resonance), calutron, and gas discharge. The emphasis of this paper is to describe the plasma phenomena in these major categories. An attempt was made to include enough references so that more detailed study or evaluation of a particular method could readily be pursued. A brief discussion of isotope separation using mass balance concepts is also carried out.

  14. Medical Radioisotopes & Applications| U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Research » Isotope Development & Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) » Isotope Related Reports » Medical Radioisotopes & Applications Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301)

  15. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotope Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carty, J.

    2004-10-05

    This presentation provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotopes Program. The charter of the Isotope Programs covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials, and related isotope services.

  16. Isotope Related Reports | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    of the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee, April 2004. Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes, .pdf file (109KB)March 1999. Medical ...

  17. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  18. Accelerator Production Options for 99MO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertsche, Kirk; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    Shortages of {sup 99}Mo, the most commonly used diagnostic medical isotope, have caused great concern and have prompted numerous suggestions for alternate production methods. A wide variety of accelerator-based approaches have been suggested. In this paper we survey and compare the various accelerator-based approaches.

  19. Isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.

  20. Isotope geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, D.R.; Curtis, D.B.; DePaolo, D.J.; Gerlach, T.M.; Laul, J.C.; Shaw, H.; Smith, B.M.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1990-09-01

    This document represents the consensus of members of the ad hoc Committee on Isotope Geochemistry in the US Department of Energy; the committee is composed of researchers in isotope geochemistry from seven of the national laboratories. Information included in this document was presented at workshops at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (April 1989) and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (August 1989).

  1. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  2. The plasma centrifuge: A compact, low cost, stable isotope separator. Phase 2 final technical report, September 15, 1991--September 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, W.

    1996-09-05

    Enriched stable isotopes are required for production of radionuclides as well as for research and diagnostic uses. Science Research Laboratory (SRL) has developed a plasma centrifuge for moderate throughput of enriched stable isotopes, such as {sup 13}C, {sup 17}O, {sup 18}O, and {sup 203}Tl, for medical as well as other applications. Dwindling isotope stocks have restricted the use of enriched isotopes and their associated labeled organic molecules in medical imaging to very few research facilities because of high costs of isotope separation. With the introduction of the plasma centrifuge separator, the cost per separated gram of even rarely occurring isotopes ({le} 1% natural abundance) is potentially many times lower than with other separation technologies (cryogenic distillation and calutrons). The centrifuge is a simple, robust, pulsed electrical discharge device that has successfully demonstrated isotope separation of small (mg) quantities of {sup 26}Mg. Based on the results of the Phase 2 program, modest enhancements to the power supplies and cooling systems, a centrifuge separator will have high repetition rate (60 pps) and high duty cycle (60%) to produce in one month kilogram quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes. The centrifuge may be used in stand-alone operation or could be used as a high-throughput pre-separation stage with calutrons providing the final separation.

  3. Constraining the role of iron in environmental nitrogen transformations. Dual stable isotope systematics of abiotic NO2- reduction by Fe(II) and its production of N2O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, David; Wankel, Scott David; Buchwald, Carolyn; Hansel, Colleen

    2015-09-16

    Redox reactions involving nitrogen and iron have been shown to have important implications for mobilization of priority contaminants. Thus, an understanding of the linkages between their biogeochemical cycling is critical for predicting subsurface mobilization of radionuclides such as uranium. Despite mounting evidence for biogeochemical interactions between iron and nitrogen, our understanding of their environmental importance remains limited. Here we present an investigation of abiotic nitrite (NO2-) reduction by Fe(II) or chemodenitrification, and its relevance to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O), specifically focusing on dual (N and O) isotope systematics under a variety of environmentally relevant conditions. We observe a range of kinetic isotope effects that are regulated by reaction rates, with faster rates at higher pH (~8), higher concentrations of Fe(II) and in the presence of mineral surfaces. A clear non-linear relationship between rate constant and kinetic isotope effects of NO2- reduction was evident (with larger isotope effects at slower rates) and is interpreted as reflecting the dynamics of Fe(II)-N reaction intermediates. N and O isotopic composition of product N2O also suggests a complex network of parallel and/or competing pathways. Our findings suggest that NO2- reduction by Fe(II) may represent an important abiotic source of environmental N2O, especially in iron-rich environments experiencing dynamic redox variations. This study provides a multi-compound, multi-isotope framework for evaluating the environmental occurrence of abiotic NO2- reduction and N2O formation, helping future studies constrain the relative roles of abiotic and biological N2O production pathways.

  4. Progress in the Use of Isotopes: The Atomic Triad - Reactors, Radioisotopes and Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Libby, W. F.

    1958-08-04

    Recent years have seen a substantial growth in the use of isotopes in medicine, agriculture, and industry: up to the minute information on the production and use of isotopes in the U.S. is presented. The application of radioisotopes to industrial processes and manufacturing operations has expanded more rapidly than any one except its most ardent advocates expected. New uses and new users are numerous. The adoption by industry of low level counting techniques which make possible the use of carbon-14 and tritium in the control of industrial processes and in certain exploratory and research problems is perhaps most promising of current developments. The latest information on savings to industry will be presented. The medical application of isotopes has continued to develop at a rapid pace. The current trend appears to be in the direction of improvements in technique and the substitution of more effective isotopes for those presently in use. Potential and actual benefits accruing from the use of isotopes in agriculture are reviewed. The various methods of production of radioisotopes are discussed. Not only the present methods but also interesting new possibilities are covered. Although isotopes are but one of the many peaceful uses of the atom, it is the first to pay its way. (auth)

  5. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine, pharmaceuticals, and biology, (2) physical sciences and engineering, and (3) national security and other applications. In each area, compelling research opportunities were considered and the subcommittee as a whole determined the final priorities for research opportunities as the foundations for the recommendations. While it was challenging to prioritize across disciplines, our order of recommendations reflect the compelling research prioritization along with consideration of time urgency for action as well as various geopolitical market issues. Common observations to all areas of research include the needs for domestic availability of crucial stable and radioactive isotopes and the education of the skilled workforce that will develop new advances using isotopes in the future. The six recommendations of NSACI reflect these concerns and the compelling research opportunities for potential new discoveries. The science case for each of the recommendations is elaborated in the respective chapters.

  6. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacon, C.G.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  7. Manus Water Isotope Investigation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Manus Water Isotope Investigation Field Campaign Report JL Conroy D Noone KM Cobb March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not

  8. Method for isotope enrichment by photoinduced chemiionization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dubrin, James W.

    1985-01-01

    Isotope enrichment, particularly .sup.235 U enrichment, is achieved by irradiating an isotopically mixed vapor feed with radiant energy at a wavelength or wavelengths chosen to selectively excite the species containing a desired isotope to a predetermined energy level. The vapor feed if simultaneously reacted with an atomic or molecular reactant species capable of preferentially transforming the excited species into an ionic product by a chemiionization reaction. The ionic product, enriched in the desired isotope, is electrostatically or electromagnetically extracted from the reaction system.

  9. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  11. Efficient palladium isotope chromatograph for hydrogen (EPIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Embury, M.C.; Ellefson, R.E.; Melke, H.B. )

    1992-03-01

    The Efficient Palladium Isotope Chromatograph (EPIC) is a rapid cycling, computer-operated displacement chromatograph for the separation of hydrogen isotopes. EPIC incorporates several features that optimize product throughput and purity. This paper describes this palladium displacement chromatograph, the operations with protium and deuterium, and the design modifications for operation with tritium.

  12. Isotope separation by selective photodissociation of glyoxal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marling, John B.

    1976-01-01

    Dissociation products, mainly formaldehyde and carbon monoxide, enriched in a desired isotope of carbon, oxygen, or hydrogen are obtained by the selective photodissociation of glyoxal wherein glyoxal is subjected to electromagnetic radiation of a predetermined wavelength such that photon absorption excites and induces dissociation of only those molecules of glyoxal containing the desired isotope.

  13. Recent Advances in SRS on Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Xin; Sessions, Henry T.; Heung, L. Kit

    2015-02-01

    The recent Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) advances at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compressor-free concept for heating/cooling, push and pull separation using an active inverse column, and compact column design. The new developments allow significantly higher throughput and better reliability from 1/10th of the current production systems footprint while consuming 60% less energy. Various versions are derived in the meantime for external customers to be used in fusion energy projects and medical isotope production.

  14. Recent Advances in SRS on Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Xin; Sessions, Henry T.; Heung, L. Kit

    2015-02-01

    The recent Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) advances at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compressor-free concept for heating/cooling, push and pull separation using an active inverse column, and compact column design. The new developments allow significantly higher throughput and better reliability from 1/10th of the current production system’s footprint while consuming 60% less energy. Various versions are derived in the meantime for external customers to be used in fusion energy projects and medical isotope production.

  15. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathawa, J.; Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M., E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.edu

    2013-01-15

    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  16. Medical Plans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medical Plans Medical Plans A comprehensive benefits package with plan options for health care and retirement to take care of our employees today and tomorrow. Contact Benefits Office (505) 667-1806 Email Medical Plans The Lab offers employees the choice between two medical plans through Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Mexico (BCBS). Both medical plans offer free preventive care and in and out of network coverage from the same network of BCBS providers. High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP) - A more

  17. Method for separating isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-10-21

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether.

  18. Stable isotope studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs.

  19. Hanford isotope project strategic business analysis yttrium-90 (Y-90)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to address the short-term direction for the Hanford yttrium-90 (Y-90) project. Hanford is the sole DOE producer of Y-90, and is the largest repository for its source in this country. The production of Y-90 is part of the DOE Isotope Production and Distribution (IP and D) mission. The Y-90 is ``milked`` from strontium-90 (Sr-90), a byproduct of the previous Hanford missions. The use of Sr-90 to produce Y-90 could help reduce the amount of waste material processed and the related costs incurred by the clean-up mission, while providing medical and economic benefits. The cost of producing Y-90 is being subsidized by DOE-IP and D due to its use for research, and resultant low production level. It is possible that the sales of Y-90 could produce full cost recovery within two to three years, at two curies per week. Preliminary projections place the demand at between 20,000 and 50,000 curies per year within the next ten years, assuming FDA approval of one or more of the current therapies now in clinical trials. This level of production would incentivize private firms to commercialize the operation, and allow the government to recover some of its sunk costs. There are a number of potential barriers to the success of the Y-90 project, outside the control of the Hanford Site. The key issues include: efficacy, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and medical community acceptance. There are at least three other sources for Y-90 available to the US users, but they appear to have limited resources to produce the isotope. Several companies have communicated interest in entering into agreements with Hanford for the processing and distribution of Y-90, including some of the major pharmaceutical firms in this country.

  20. Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Charles G. [Pleasanton, CA

    1978-08-29

    A method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, .sup.235 UF.sub.6 is separated from a UF.sub.6 mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into .sup.235 UF.sub.5 - and F.

  1. Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, C.G.

    1978-08-29

    Disclosed is a method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, [sup 235]UF[sub 6] is separated from a UF[sub 6] mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into [sup 235]UF[sub 5]- and F. 2 figs.

  2. ARM - Measurement - Isotope ratio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Isotope ratio Ratio of stable isotope concentrations. Categories Atmospheric...

  3. U.S. Department of Energy Isotope Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-23

    The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of isotope production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of isotopes. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. PNNL’s Isotope Program operates in a multi-program category-2 nuclear facility, the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL), that contains 16 hot cells and 20 gloveboxes. As part of the DOE Isotope Program, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory dispenses strontium-90, neptunium-237, radium-223, and thorium-227. PNNL’s Isotope Program uses a dedicated hot-cell for strontium-90 dispensing and a dedicated glovebox for radium-223 and thorium-227 dispensing. PNNL’s Isotope Program has access to state of the art analytical equipment in the RPL to support their research and production activities. DOE Isotope Program funded research at PNNL has advanced the application of automated radiochemistry for isotope such as zirconium-89 and astatine-211 in partnership with the University of Washington.

  4. TRIFID (TRansuranic Isotopic Fraction Interrogation Device): A second generation plutonium isotopic analysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleissner, J G; Coressel, T W; Freier, D A; Macklin, L L

    1989-01-01

    The TRIFID (Transuranic Isotopic Fraction Interrogation Device) system is a second generation plutonium isotopic analysis system which incorporates many new and unique features in the area of isotopic data acquisition and isotopic analysis instrument consisting of a Canberra Series 95-MCA interfaced to a Compaq 386 computer. The entire TRIFID software package, including MCA communications and isotopic analysis routines, was developed using the C programming language. Extensive use has been made of user friendly screens and menus for ease of operation and training and to facilitate use by technical level operators. Automated TRIFID features provide for MCA/ADC setup and acquisition, spectral storage, isotopic analysis, and report generation. One unique feature of the TRIFID system design allows it to be pre-programed for an entire day's counting. The isotopic analysis module (EPICS) contains an expert system formalism which is used to detect and assay for spectral interferences, and to automatically adjust peak fitting constraints based on spectral intensity variations. A TRIFID system has been in operation in a production laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant since September 1988. Marked decreases in training and hands-on operation time have been achieved in comparison to the older, preceding isotopic systems. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  5. HYDROGEN ISOTOPE TARGETS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, R.W.

    1958-08-12

    The design of targets for use in the investigation of nuclear reactions of hydrogen isotopes by bombardment with accelerated particles is described. The target con struction eomprises a backing disc of a metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenunn and tungsten, a eoating of condensed titaniunn on the dise, and a hydrogen isotope selected from the group consisting of deuterium and tritium absorbed in the coatiag. The proeess for preparing these hydrogen isotope targets is described.

  6. Hybrid isotope separation scheme

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    A method of yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus.

  7. Hybrid isotope separation scheme

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, J.

    1991-06-18

    A method is described for yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus. 2 figures.

  8. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of...

  9. Stable isotope enrichment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian

    2014-07-15

    Brian Egle is working to increase the nation's capacity to produce stable isotopes for use including medicine, industry and national security.

  10. Stable isotope enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian

    2014-07-14

    Brian Egle is working to increase the nation's capacity to produce stable isotopes for use including medicine, industry and national security.

  11. Laser Isotope Separation Employing Condensation Repression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eerkens, Jeff W.; Miller, William H.

    2004-09-15

    Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) techniques using condensation repression (CR) harvesting are reviewed and compared with atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), gaseous diffusion (DIF), ultracentrifuges (UCF), and electromagnetic separations (EMS). Two different CR-MLIS or CRISLA (Condensation Repression Isotope Separation by Laser Activation) approaches have been under investigation at the University of Missouri (MU), one involving supersonic super-cooled free jets and dimer formation, and the other subsonic cold-wall condensation. Both employ mixtures of an isotopomer (e.g. {sup i}QF{sub 6}) and a carrier gas, operated at low temperatures and pressures. Present theories of VT relaxation, dimerization, and condensation are found to be unsatisfactory to explain/predict experimental CRISLA results. They were replaced by fundamentally new models that allow ab-initio calculation of isotope enrichments and predictions of condensation parameters for laser-excited and non-excited vapors which are in good agreement with experiment. Because of supersonic speeds, throughputs for free-jet CRISLA are a thousand times higher than cold-wall CRISLA schemes, and thus preferred for large-quantity Uranium enrichments. For small-quantity separations of (radioactive) medical isotopes, the simpler coldwall CRISLA method may be adequate.

  12. Special isotope separation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, P.D.

    1989-02-03

    The SIS facilities will include a Plutonium Processing Facility (PPF), a Laser Support Facility (LSF), and all associated equipment required for isotope separation. The SIS Plant will process fuel-grade plutonium into weapons-grade plutonium using Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) and supporting chemical processes. The AVLIS process uses precisely tuned visible laser light to selectively ionize or excite specific plutonium isotopes in a vapor stream. The ionized plutonium isotopes (Pu 240, Pu 238 and Pu 241) are then separated from the plutonium isotope of interest (Pu 239). Chemical processes are required to (1) prepare the AVLIS plutonium feed for processing, remove americium-241, and cast plutonium metal into forms that meet AVLIS processing requirements; (2) recover and, if required, purify the AVLIS plutonium product; and (3) recover and process the AVLIS separated by-products. This presentation describes the production facility and some of the plutonium processes.

  13. Process for recovery of daughter isotopes from a source material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J.; Todd, Terry A.; Lewis, Leroy C.; Henscheid, Joseph P.

    2005-10-04

    The invention includes a method of separating isotopes from a mixture containing at least two isotopes in a solution. A first isotope is precipitated and is collected from the solution. A daughter isotope is generated and collected from the first isotope. The invention includes a method of producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product from a material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232. A solution is formed containing nitric acid and the material and iodate is added to form a thorium iodate precipitate. A supernatant is separated from the thorium iodate precipitate and a second volume of nitric acid is added to the precipitate. The precipitate is stored and a decay product comprising actinium-225 and bismuth-213 is generated in the second volume of nitric acid which is then separated from the thorium iodate precipitate, filtered, and treated using at least one chromatographic procedure. The invention also includes a system for producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product.

  14. Price Quotes and Isotope Ordering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ordering Price Quotes and Isotope Ordering Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Isotope...

  15. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  16. Photochemical isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Cotter, T.P.; Greiner, N.R.; Boyer, K.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium. 8 figs.

  17. Photochemical isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C. Paul; Jensen, Reed J.; Cotter, Theodore P.; Greiner, Norman R.; Boyer, Keith

    1987-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium.

  18. Laser isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C.P.; Reed, J.J.; Cotter, T.P.; Boyer, K.; Greiner, N.R.

    1975-11-26

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light is described. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  19. Laser isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C. Paul; Jensen, Reed J.; Cotter, Theodore P.; Boyer, Keith; Greiner, Norman R.

    1988-01-01

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  20. Medical Messages

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    11 Medical Facilities With Experience Evaluating Chronic Beryllium Disease Cleveland Clinic Foundation Raid Dweik, M.D., FACP, F.C.C.P. Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine 9500 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44195 Contact: Jessica Phone: 216-445-5763 East Tennessee Pulmonary Associates R. Hal Hughes, M.D. East Tennessee Pulmonary Associates 800 Oak Ridge Turnpike Oak Ridge, TN 37830-9657 Phone: 865-483-3594 Philip Harber, M.D. 7230 Medical Center Drive, Ste 300 West Hills, CA 91307 Contact:

  1. Environmental assessment: special isotope separation process selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the differences in potential environmental impacts between two plutonium Special Isotope Separation (SIS) technologies: Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) and Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS). Both SIS technologies use PuO/sub 2/ as feed; AVLIS converts feed to plutonium metal and MLIS converts feed to PuF/sub 6/. The AVLIS process uses laser energy to selectively photoionize and electrostatically separate plutonium isotopes from an atomic vapor stream. The MLIS process uses laser energy to selectively disassociate specific isotopes of plutonium in the form of PuF/sub 6/ molecules to create PuF/sub 5/ for collection and further processing. Both processes produce plutonium metal as their product. An evaluation of differences in potential environmental impacts attributed to the construction of an SIS facility, based on either technology, included a comparison of construction materials, land areas required, and the size of the design and construction workforce. The differences in potential environmental impacts from operating an SIS facility were also compared. No large differences in potential environmental impacts would be expected from the use of process chemicals. An AVLIS or an MLIS facility would produce operating effluents that would meet all applicable radiation, chemical, and hazardous waste standards and would be constructed to protect workers, the public and the environment. This EA has not revealed any significant differences in the potential environmental impacts that could occur as a result of deploying either the AVLIS or the MLIS Special Isotope Separation technology.

  2. A New Bench-Top Approach to Isotopic Purification of 244Pu

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liezers, Martin; Farmer, Orville T.; Thomas, Linda MP; Hager, George J.; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to isotopic purification has been developed and applied to the production of a small quantity of 244Pu with an isotopic purity >99.996 %, as compared against the standard 244Pu available that displays an isotopic purity of 97.87 %. The presence of Pu isotopes 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu have been greatly reduced, allowing for higher spiking levels of the isotopically purified 244Pu tracer. Details of the isotopic purification process will be described along with the effect this improved Pu tracer could have on analytical Pu mass spectrometry measurements.

  3. Isotope hydrology of catchment basins: lithogenic and cosmogenic isotopic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimz, G. J., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water. Many solutes in natural waters are derived from the interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system - these are termed `lithogenic` solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both within and outside of the catchment - i.e., in addition to being derived from catchment rock and soil, they are solutes that are also transported into the catchment. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing `cosmogenic` nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing `thermonuclear` nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, principally {sup 238}U (producing `in-situ` lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading `cosmogenic nuclides`, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage here, although always indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute concentrations in catchment waters, and how the isotopic compositions of the solutes can be used in integrative ways to identify these processes, thereby revealing the physical history of the water within a catchment system. The concept of a `system` is important in catchment hydrology. A catchment is the smallest landscape unit that can both participate in all of the aspects of the hydrologic cycle and also be treated as a mostly closed system for mass balance considerations. It is the near closure of the system that permits well- constrained chemical mass balance calculations to be made. These calculations generally focus of lithogenic solutes, and therefore in our discussions of lithogenic nuclides in the paper, the concept of chemical mass balance in a nearly dosed system will play an important role. Examination of the isotopic compositions of solutes provides a better understanding of the variety of processes controlling mass balance. It is with this approach that we examined the variety of processes occurring within the catchment system, such as weathering and soil production, generation of stormflow and streamflow (hydrograph separation), movement of soil pore water, groundwater flow, and the overall processes involved with basinal water balance. In this paper, the term `nuclide` will be used when referring to a nuclear species that contains a particular number of protons and neutrons. The term is not specific to any element. The term `isotope` will be used to distinguish nuclear species of a given element (atoms with the same number of protons). That is to say, there are many nuclides in nature - for example, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 238}U; the element has four naturally-occurring isotopes - {sup 87}Sr, and {sup 88}Sr. This paper will first discuss the general principles that underlie the study of lithogenic and cosmogenic nuclides in hydrology, and provide references to some of the more important studies applying these principles and nuclides. We then turn in the second section to a discussion of their specific applications in catchment- scale systems. The final section of this paper discusses new directions in the application of lithogenic and cosmogenic nuclides to catchment hydrology, with some thoughts concerning possible applications that still remain unexplored.

  4. EA-1929: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NorthStar Medical Technologies LLC, Commercial Domestic Production of the Medical Isotope Molybdenum-99

  5. EA-1929: Draft Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NorthStar Medical Technologies LLC, Commercial Domestic Production of the Medical Isotope Molybdenum-99

  6. EA-1929: Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NorthStar Medical Technologies LLC, Commercial Domestic Production of the Medical Isotope Molybdenum-99

  7. DOE Isotope Program Announces Availability of Radionuclide Generators for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medical Research | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) DOE Isotope Program Announces Availability of Radionuclide Generators for Medical Research Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email

  8. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1986-08-15

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process for the enrichment of uranium is evaluated. (AIP)

  9. Method for enriching a middle isotope using vibration-vibration pumping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rich, Joseph W.; Homicz, Gregory F.; Bergman, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    Method for producing isotopically enriched material by vibration-vibration excitation of gaseous molecules wherein a middle mass isotope of an isotopic mixture including lighter and heavier mass isotopes preferentially populates a higher vibrational mode and chemically reacts to provide a product in which it is enriched. The method can be used for vibration-vibration enrichment of .sup.17 O in a CO reactant mixture.

  10. Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2012-01-18

    The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

  11. Medical Records Checklist

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medical records check list: Information that should be requested by SOMD of receiving facility Medical records: Problem list: list of all past and current medical diagnosis and ...

  12. Separation of sulfur isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeWitt, Robert; Jepson, Bernhart E.; Schwind, Roger A.

    1976-06-22

    Sulfur isotopes are continuously separated and enriched using a closed loop reflux system wherein sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) is reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or the like to form sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO.sub.3). Heavier sulfur isotopes are preferentially attracted to the NaHSO.sub.3, and subsequently reacted with sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4) forming sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO.sub.4) and SO.sub.2 gas which contains increased concentrations of the heavier sulfur isotopes. This heavy isotope enriched SO.sub.2 gas is subsequently separated and the NaHSO.sub.4 is reacted with NaOH to form sodium sulfate (Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4) which is subsequently decomposed in an electrodialysis unit to form the NaOH and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 components which are used in the aforesaid reactions thereby effecting sulfur isotope separation and enrichment without objectionable loss of feed materials.

  13. Isotope separation by photodissociation of Van der Waal's molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yuan T.

    1977-01-01

    A method of separating isotopes based on the dissociation of a Van der Waal's complex. A beam of molecules of a Van der Waal's complex containing, as one partner of the complex, a molecular species in which an element is present in a plurality of isotopes is subjected to radiation from a source tuned to a frequency which will selectively excite vibrational motion by a vibrational transition or through electronic transition of those complexed molecules of the molecular species which contain a desired isotope. Since the Van der Waal's binding energy is much smaller than the excitational energy of vibrational motion, the thus excited Van der Waal's complex dissociate into molecular components enriched in the desired isotope. The recoil velocity associated with vibrational to translational and rotational relaxation will send the separated molecules away from the beam whereupon the product enriched in the desired isotope can be separated from the constituents of the beam.

  14. Isotope separation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnush, Donald (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); MacKenzie, Kenneth R. (Pacific Palisades, CA); Wuerker, Ralph F. (Palos Verdes Estates, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation apparatus consisting of a plurality of cells disposed adjacent to each other in an evacuated container. A common magnetic field is established extending through all of the cells. A source of energetic electrons at one end of the container generates electrons which pass through the cells along the magnetic field lines. Each cell includes an array of collector plates arranged in parallel or in tandem within a common magnetic field. Sets of collector plates are disposed adjacent to each other in each cell. Means are provided for differentially energizing ions of a desired isotope by applying energy at the cyclotron resonant frequency of the desired isotope. As a result, the energized desired ions are preferentially collected by the collector plates.

  15. HEU Minimization and the Reliable Supply of Medical Isotopes...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    This Site Budget IG Web Policy Privacy No Fear Act Accessibility FOIA Sitemap Federal Government The White House DOE.gov USA.gov Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA...

  16. Scientists develop affordable way to generate medical isotopes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paul Betten at (630) 252-4962 or betten@anl.gov. Connect Find an Argonne expert by subject. Follow Argonne on Twitter, Facebook, Google+ and LinkedIn. For inquiries on...

  17. Picture of the Week: Hot cells for medical isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the diagnosis of cardiac disease, calibration of PET scanners which in turn diagnose cancer, neurological disease, inflammatory diseases, trauma, and other circulatory diseases,...

  18. Argonne confirms new commercial method for producing medical isotope |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Scientific associate James Byrnes performs maintenance on a remote system that is used to recover molybdenum-99 from an irradiated target in a process recently demonstrated by Argonne. The operation is performed remotely due to high radiation fields in the target. (Photo by Wes Agresta; click to view larger). Scientific associate James Byrnes performs maintenance on a remote system that is used to recover molybdenum-99 from an irradiated target in a process

  19. Laser-induced separation of hydrogen isotopes in the liquid phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, Samuel M.; Maier, II, William B.; Beattie, Willard H.; Holland, Redus F.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope separation is achieved by either (a) dissolving a hydrogen-bearing feedstock compound in a liquid solvent, or (b) liquefying a hydrogen-bearing feedstock compound, the liquid phase thus resulting being kept at a temperature at which spectral features of the feedstock relating to a particular hydrogen isotope are resolved, i.e., a clear-cut isotope shift is delineated, irradiating the liquid phase with monochromatic radiation of a wavelength which at least preferentially excites those molecules of the feedstock containing a first hydrogen isotope, inducing photochemical reaction in the excited molecules, and separating the reaction product containing the first isotope from the liquid phase.

  20. Integration of Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemistry on Reservoir Sustainability Integration of Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into ... Chemistry on Reservoir Sustainability Integration of Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into ...

  1. DEEP WATER ISOTOPIC CURRENT ANALYZER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, W.H.

    1964-04-21

    A deepwater isotopic current analyzer, which employs radioactive isotopes for measurement of ocean currents at various levels beneath the sea, is described. The apparatus, which can determine the direction and velocity of liquid currents, comprises a shaft having a plurality of radiation detectors extending equidistant radially therefrom, means for releasing radioactive isotopes from the shaft, and means for determining the time required for the isotope to reach a particular detector. (AEC)

  2. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, J.H.; Lindberg, H.A.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1983 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced analytical techniques; development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes.

  3. NNSA Awards Agreement to Establish Non-HEU-Based Production of...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    reliable supply of the critical medical isotope Mo-99, produced without the use of proliferation-sensitive HEU. Today's announcement marks a significant step in these efforts. ...

  4. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-11-08

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

  5. Isotopic Generation and Confirmation of the PWR Application Model 

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.B. Wimmer

    2003-11-10

    The objective of this calculation is to establish an isotopic database to represent commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) from pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in criticality analyses performed for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Confirmation of the conservatism with respect to criticality in the isotopic concentration values represented by this isotopic database is performed as described in Section 3.5.3.1.2 of the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2000). The isotopic database consists of the set of 14 actinides and 15 fission products presented in Section 3.5.2.1.1 of YMP 2000 for use in CSNF burnup credit. This set of 29 isotopes is referred to as the principal isotopes. The oxygen isotope from the UO{sub 2} fuel is also included in the database. The isotopic database covers enrichments of {sup 235}U ranging from 1.5 to 5.5 weight percent (wt%) and burnups ranging from approximately zero to 75 GWd per metric ton of uranium (mtU). The choice of fuel assembly and operating history values used in generating the isotopic database are provided is Section 5. Tables of isotopic concentrations for the 29 principal isotopes (plus oxygen) as a function of enrichment and burnup are provided in Section 6.1. Results of the confirmation of the conservatism with respect to criticality in the isotopic concentration values are provided in Section 6.2.

  6. Manus Water Isotope Investigation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ENERGY Office of Science DOE/SC-ARM-15-079 Manus Water Isotope Investigation Field Campaign Report JL Conroy D Noone KM Cobb March 2016 CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus,

  7. ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS CONTROL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-08-25

    An improved isotope separating apparatus of the electromagnetic type, commonly referred to as a calutron, is described. Improvements in detecting and maintaining optimum position and focus of the ion beam are given. The calutron collector is provided with an additional electrode insulated from and positioned between the collecting pockets. The ion beams are properly positioned and focused until the deionizing current which flows from ground to this additional electrode ts a minimum.

  8. Laser-assisted isotope separation of tritium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herman, Irving P. (Castro Valley, CA); Marling, Jack B. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Methods for laser-assisted isotope separation of tritium, using infrared multiple photon dissociation of tritium-bearing products in the gas phase. One such process involves the steps of (1) catalytic exchange of a deuterium-bearing molecule XYD with tritiated water DTO from sources such as a heavy water fission reactor, to produce the tritium-bearing working molecules XYT and (2) photoselective dissociation of XYT to form a tritium-rich product. By an analogous procedure, tritium is separated from tritium-bearing materials that contain predominately hydrogen such as a light water coolant from fission or fusion reactors.

  9. Medical Aspects of Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-05

    This presentation covers the medical evaluation as part of a human reliability program, particularly the various medical qualifications and potential disqualifiers.

  10. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynam, Christopher A.; Worden, Earl F.

    1995-01-01

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of .sup.167 Er. The hyperfine structure of .sup.167 Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level.

  11. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1995-08-22

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of {sup 167}Er. The hyperfine structure of {sup 167}Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level. 3 figs.

  12. Molecule Nanoweaver Creates High-Tech Medical Patches and Multilayered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capsules | Argonne National Laboratory Molecule Nanoweaver Creates High-Tech Medical Patches and Multilayered Capsules Technology available for licensing: Molecule Nanoweaver, a unique tool that can be used as both a detector and a fabricator of high-tech patches, multilayered capsules, and other medical products. May increase the market for medical patches Allows creation of medical patches that are more efficient at delivering medication and treatment, speeding up the healing process PDF

  13. Uranium accountancy in Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carver, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The AVLIS program pioneers the large scale industrial application of lasers to produce low cost enriched uranium fuel for light water reactors. In the process developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, normal uranium is vaporized by an electron beam, and a precisely tuned laser beam selectively photo-ionizes the uranium-235 isotopes. These ions are moved in an electromagnetic field to be condensed on the product collector. All other uranium isotopes remain uncharged and pass through the collector section to condense as tails. Tracking the three types of uranium through the process presents special problems in accountancy. After demonstration runs, the uranium on the collector was analyzed for isotopic content by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Their results were checked at LLNL by analysis of parallel samples. The differences in isotopic composition as reported by the two laboratories were not significant.

  14. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high-abundance, naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56.

  15. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for nondestructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Material Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56.

  16. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56.

  17. Isotopically labeled compositions and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Jurgen G.; Kimball, David B.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Williams, Robert F.; Martinez, Rudolfo A.

    2011-07-12

    Compounds having stable isotopes .sup.13C and/or .sup.2H were synthesized from precursor compositions having solid phase supports or affinity tags.

  18. Advanced isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-04

    The Study Group briefly reviewed the technical status of the three Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) processes. It also reviewed the evaluation work that has been carried out by DOE's Process Evaluation Board (PEB) and the Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCCND). The Study Group briefly reviewed a recent draft assessment made for DOE staff of the nonproliferation implications of the AIS technologies. The staff also very briefly summarized the status of GCEP and Advanced Centrifuge development. The Study Group concluded that: (1) there has not been sufficient progress to provide a firm scientific, technical or economic basis on which to select one of the three competing AIS processes for full-scale engineering development at this time; and (2) however, should budgetary restraints or other factors force such a selection, we believe that the evaluation process that is being carried out by the PEB provides the best basis available for making a decision. The Study Group recommended that: (1) any decisions on AIS processes should include a comparison with gas centrifuge processes, and should not be made independently from the plutonium isotope program; (2) in evaluating the various enrichment processes, all applicable costs (including R and D and sales overhead) and an appropriate discounting approach should be included in order to make comparisons on a private industry basis; (3) if the three AIS programs continue with limited resources, the work should be reoriented to focus only on the most pressing technical problems; and (4) if a decision is made to develop the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation process, the solid collector option should be pursued in parallel to alleviate the potential program impact of liquid collector thermal control problems.

  19. ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clewett, G.H.; Lee, DeW.A.

    1958-05-20

    A new method is described for isotopic enrichment of uranium. It has been found that when an aqueous acidic solution of ionic tetravalent uraniunn is contacted with chelate complexed tetravalent uranium, the U/sup 238/ preferentially concentrates in the complexed phase while U/sup 235/ concentrates in the ionic phase. The effect is enhanced when the chelate compound is water insoluble and is dissolved in a water-immiscible organic solvent. Cupferron is one of a number of sultable complexing agents, and chloroform is a suitable organic solvent.

  20. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldridge, F.T.

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu/sub 5/ type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo/sub 4/ and CaNi/sub 5/, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen cn produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  1. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldridge, Frederick T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  2. System for recovery of daughter isotopes from a source material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A. [Aberdeen, ID; Lewis, Leroy C. [Idaho Falls, ID; Henscheid, Joseph P. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-04

    A method of separating isotopes from a mixture containing at least two isotopes in a solution is disclosed. A first isotope is precipitated and is collected from the solution. A daughter isotope is generated and collected from the first isotope. The invention includes a method of producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product from a material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232. A solution is formed containing nitric acid and the material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232, and iodate is added to form a thorium iodate precipitate. A supernatant is separated from the thorium iodate precipitate and a second volume of nitric acid is added to the thorium iodate precipitate. The thorium iodate precipitate is stored and a decay product comprising actinium-225 and bismuth-213 is generated in the second volume of nitric acid, which is then separated from the thorium iodate precipitate, filtered, and treated using at least one chromatographic procedure. A system for producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product is also disclosed.

  3. High Specific Activity Sn-117m by Post Irradiation Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DAuria, John

    2015-04-16

    ElectroMagnetic Isotope Separation (EMIS) is used in the production of enriched stable isotopes. We demonstrated the feasibility of using EMIS to produce medium Specific Activity 117mSm using high purity 116Sn target material irradiated in a high flux reactor.

  4. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing.

  5. Method of separating boron isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Reed J.; Thorne, James M.; Cluff, Coran L.; Hayes, John K.

    1984-01-01

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

  6. Method of separating boron isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Thorne, J.M.; Cluff, C.L.

    1981-01-23

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)-dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily by achieved with CO/sub 2/ laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl/sub 3/.

  7. Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Update Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Update ...

  8. Isotope separation by laser means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C. Paul; Jensen, Reed J.; Cotter, Theodore P.; Greiner, Norman R.; Boyer, Keith

    1982-06-15

    A process for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium.

  9. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solomon, David E.

    1977-01-01

    A container for the storage, shipping and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same which has compactness, which is safe against fracture or accident, and which is reusable. The container consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example, of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and will be retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  10. The use of carbon stable isotope ratios in drugs characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdas, D. A. Cristea, G. Bot, A. Mirel, V.

    2013-11-13

    Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is an effective toll to be used for drug product authentication. The isotopic composition could be used to assist in the differentiation between batches of drugs and assist in the identification of counterfeit materials on the market. Only two factors affect the isotopic ratios in pharmaceutical components: the isotopic composition of the raw materials and the synthetic processes performed upon them. Counterfeiting of pharmaceutical drugs threatens consumer confidence in drug products companies' economical well-being. In this preliminary study, the analyzed samples consist in two types of commercially available analgesics, which were purchases from Romanian pharmacies. Differences in δ{sup 13}C between batches from −29.7 to −31.6% were observed, demonstrating that this method can be used to differentiate among individual drug batches and subsequently identify counterfeits on the market. On the other hand, carbon isotopic ratios differences among producers were recorded, the variations being between −31.3 to −34.9% for the same type of analgesic, but from different manufactures.

  11. Emergency Medical Support

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21

    This volume defines coordination between emergency planners and emergency medical support. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-4.

  12. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56.

  13. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56.

  14. Method for laser induced isotope enrichment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pronko, Peter P.; Vanrompay, Paul A.; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2004-09-07

    Methods for separating isotopes or chemical species of an element and causing enrichment of a desired isotope or chemical species of an element utilizing laser ablation plasmas to modify or fabricate a material containing such isotopes or chemical species are provided. This invention may be used for a wide variety of materials which contain elements having different isotopes or chemical species.

  15. Apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K; Sessions, Henry T; Xiao, Xin

    2013-06-25

    The apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes is provided using dual columns, each column having an opposite hydrogen isotopic effect such that when a hydrogen isotope mixture feedstock is cycled between the two respective columns, two different hydrogen isotopes are separated from the feedstock.

  16. Raman scattering method and apparatus for measuring isotope ratios and isotopic abundances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harney, Robert C.; Bloom, Stewart D.

    1978-01-01

    Raman scattering is used to measure isotope ratios and/or isotopic abundances. A beam of quasi-monochromatic photons is directed onto the sample to be analyzed, and the resulting Raman-scattered photons are detected and counted for each isotopic species of interest. These photon counts are treated mathematically to yield the desired isotope ratios or isotopic abundances.

  17. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for non-destructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, /sup 40/Ca and /sup 56/Fe. All request for the loan of samples should be submitted with a summary of the purpose of the loan to: Isotope Distribution Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Requests from non-DOE contractors and from foreign institutions require DOE approval.

  18. Novel hybrid isotope separation scheme and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, J.

    1991-06-18

    A method is described for yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which the specific isotope is to be isolated, radiating the gas with frequencies characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photoionization reaction of the desired isotope, and collecting the specific isotope ion by suitable ion collection means. 3 figures.

  19. Novel hybrid isotope separation scheme and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    A method of yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which the specific isotope is to be isolated, radiating the gas with frequencies characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photoionization reaction of the desired isotope, and collecting the specific isotope ion by suitable ion collection means.

  20. Integrated safeguards and security for the INEL Special Isotope Separation Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, G.F.; Zack, N.R.

    1990-06-12

    This paper describes the approach that was taken in developing safeguards and security design criteria to be used for the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) Production Plant. The US Department of Energy has postponed the construction of the SIS Production Plant that was to be built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site located near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The SIS Plant planned to isotopically enrich plutonium utilizing the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc. as a prime contractor to the DOE Idaho Operations Office, was to operate the Plant.

  1. Isotope separation apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feldman, Barry J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferably substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. Because the molecules in the beam occupy various degenerate energy levels, if the laser beam comprises chirped pulses comprising selected wavelengths, the laser beam will very efficiently excite substantially all unexcited molecules and will cause stimulated emission of substantially all excited molecules of a selected one of the isotopes in the beam which such pulses encounter. Excitation caused by first direction chirped pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning chirped pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement of essentially all the molecules containing the one isotope is accomplished by a large number of chirped pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam.

  2. Simple, rapid method for the preparation of isotopically labeled formaldehyde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooker, Jacob Matthew; Schonberger, Matthias; Schieferstein, Hanno; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-10-04

    Isotopically labeled formaldehyde (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O) is prepared from labeled methyl iodide (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.3I) by reaction with an oxygen nucleophile having a pendant leaving group. The mild and efficient reaction conditions result in good yields of *C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O with little or no *C isotopic dilution. The simple, efficient production of .sup.11CH.sub.2O is described. The use of the .sup.11CH.sub.2O for the formation of positron emission tomography tracer compounds is described. The reaction can be incorporated into automated equipment available to radiochemistry laboratories. The isotopically labeled formaldehyde can be used in a variety of reactions to provide radiotracer compounds for imaging studies as well as for scintillation counting and autoradiography.

  3. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes (Patent)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes Title: Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure ...

  4. Principal physical problems in laser separation of weighable amounts of a rare ytterbium isotope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlenko, Sergei I

    1998-11-30

    A review is provided of the work on laser separation of Yb isotopes, carried out at the Institute of General Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and at the 'Lad' Scientific - Production Enterprise during the last 4 - 5 years. The processes of Yb isotope separation by the AVLIS (atomic vapour laser isotope separation) method were investigated both theoretically (by computer simulation) and experimentally. The main topics considered in the review are the ionisation selectivity, the formation of laser beams and of vapour flow in the cavity, and the extraction of ions from a plasma. A facility for producing highly enriched {sup 168}Yb on an industrial scale is described. The rate of production of the enriched ytterbium is now 5 - 10 mg h{sup -1} (over 1 g per month). Commercially viable production of the enriched {sup 168}Yb isotope by the AVLIS method was achieved for the first time anywhere in the world. (review)

  5. Application of the Isotope Ratio Method to a Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, Douglas P.; Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.; Meriwether, George H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.

    2010-08-11

    The isotope ratio method is a technique for estimating the energy or plutonium production in a fission reactor by measuring isotope ratios in non-fuel reactor components. The isotope ratios in these components can then be directly related to the cumulative energy production with standard reactor modeling methods. All reactor materials contain trace elemental impurities at parts per million levels, and the isotopes of these elements are transmuted by neutron irradiation in a predictable manner. While measuring the change in a particular isotopes concentration is possible, it is difficult to correlate to energy production because the initial concentration of that element may not be accurately known. However, if the ratio of two isotopes of the same element can be measured, the energy production can then be determined without knowing the absolute concentration of that impurity since the initial natural ratio is known. This is the fundamental principle underlying the isotope ratio method. Extremely sensitive mass-spectrometric methods are currently available that allow accurate measurements of the impurity isotope ratios in samples. Additionally, indicator elements with stable activation products have been identified so that their post-irradiation isotope ratios remain constant. This method has been successfully demonstrated on graphite-moderated reactors. Graphite reactors are particularly well-suited to such analyses since the graphite moderator is resident in the fueled region of the core for the entire period of operation. Applying this method to other reactor types is more difficult since the resident portions of the reactor available for sampling are either outside the fueled region of the core or structural components of individual fuel assemblies. The goal of this research is to show that the isotope ratio method can produce meaningful results for light water-moderated power reactors. In this work, we use the isotope ratio method to estimate the energy production in a boiling water reactor fuel bundle based on measurements taken from the corresponding fuel assembly channel. Our preliminary results are in good agreement with the actual operating history of the reactor during the cycle that the fuel bundle was resident in the core.

  6. Isotope separation apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cotter, Theodore P.

    1982-12-28

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferable substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. The laser beam comprises .pi.-pulses of a selected wavelength which excite unexcited molecules, or cause stimulated emission of excited molecules of one of the isotopes. Excitation caused by first direction .pi.-pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning .pi.-pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement is accomplished by a large number of .pi.-pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam.

  7. Hydrogen isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartlit, John R.; Denton, William H.; Sherman, Robert H.

    1982-01-01

    A system of four cryogenic fractional distillation columns interlinked with two equilibrators for separating a DT and hydrogen feed stream into four product streams, consisting of a stream of high purity D.sub.2, DT, T.sub.2, and a tritium-free stream of HD for waste disposal.

  8. Hydrogen isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartlit, J.R.; Denton, W.H.; Sherman, R.H.

    Disclosed is a system of four cryogenic fractional distillation columns interlinked with two equilibrators for separating a DT and hydrogen feed stream into four product streams, consisting of a stream of high purity D/sub 2/, DT, T/sub 2/, and a tritium-free stream of HD for waste disposal.

  9. Alternative applications of atomic vapor laser isotope separation technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Secretary of Energy. It summarizes the main features of atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) technology and subsystems; evaluates applications, beyond those of uranium enrichment, suggested by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and a wide range of US industries and individuals; recommends further work on several applications; recommends the provision of facilities for evaluating potential new applications; and recommends the full involvement of end users from the very beginning in the development of any application. Specifically excluded from this report is an evaluation of the main AVLIS missions, uranium enrichment and purification of plutonium for weapons. In evaluating many of the alternative applications, it became clear that industry should play a greater and earlier role in the definition and development of technologies with the Department of Energy (DOE) if the nation is to derive significant commercial benefit. Applications of AVLIS to the separation of alternate (nonuranium) isotopes were considered. The use of {sup 157}Gd as burnable poison in the nuclear fuel cycle, the use {sup 12}C for isotopically pure diamond, and the use of plutonium isotopes for several nonweapons applications are examples of commercially useful products that might be produced at a cost less than the product value. Separations of other isotopes such as the elemental constituents of semiconductors were suggested; it is recommended that proposed applications be tested by using existing supplies to establish their value before more efficient enrichment processes are developed. Some applications are clear, but their production costs are too high, the window of opportunity in the market has passed, or societal constraints (e.g., on reprocessing of reactor fuel) discourage implementation.

  10. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  11. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high-abundance, naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56. All requests for the loan of samples should be submitted with a summary of the purpose of the loan to: Iotope Distribution Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Requests from non-DOE contractors and from foreign institutions require DOE approval.

  12. Conventional Medical Screening Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Medical screening is a strategy used to identify diseases or conditions in a select population at an early stage, often before signs and symptoms develop, and to refer individuals with suspicious findings to their personal physician or a specialist for further testing, diagnosis, and treatment. The program is not intended to serve as a substitute for routine medical exams through an individual's personal physician.

  13. Isotope geochronology of metamorphic processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovchinnikov, L.N.; Voronovskiy, S.N.; Ovchinnikova, L.V.

    1986-05-01

    The long history of the earth and its crust is a history of uninterrupted and continuing transformation, making metamorphism the most common and most extensive geological process on this planet. Metamorphism has occurred in all epochs and is a factor in all endogenic processes: geodynamics, magmatism, and the action of intratelluric fluids. But it varies in scale, type, and mechanism, and is always combined with metasomatism - the chemical and mineral transformation of material. This paper discusses methodological principles of isotope dating, laws characterizing changes in indicator minerals, internal stability of isotopic systems, and interesting geological problems. 13 references.

  14. Isotope separation by photochromatography (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen isotopes. Authors: ... particularly; applicable; separation; hydrogen; isotopes; excited molecules; hydrogen ...

  15. Isotopes for cancer and cardiac care

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotopes for cancer Isotopes for cancer and cardiac care Eva Birnbaum is interviewed on KSFR radio on the Lab's Isotope Program February 4, 2016 hot cell facility A worker uses remote manipulator arms to handle a highly radioactive target inside the Lab's radiochemistry hot cell facility. Isotopes from Los Alamos are used for the diagnosis of cardiac disease, for the calibration of PET scanners which in turn diagnose cancer, neurological disease, inflammatory diseases, trauma, and other

  16. Science with Beams of Radioactive Isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pacifichem 2015 Pacifichem 2015 The International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies Science with Beams of Radioactive Isotopes (# 340) Honolulu, Hawaii, USA December 15-20, 2015 Science with Beams of Radioactive Isotopes (# 340) All of the elements that make up the periodic chart have been created from nuclear reactions. Many of the stable nuclei in the universe are daughters of unstable isotopes, and their true origin lies in the stellar reactions of these radioactive isotopes. Thus

  17. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sy, Amy; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Johnson, Rolland; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  18. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lugmair, G.W. ); Galer, S.J.G. Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz )

    1992-04-01

    Results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.

  19. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY 1986, October 1985-September 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1986 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. The report includes articles on radiochemical diagnostics and weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production and separation; chemical biology and nuclear medicine; element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced concepts and technology; and atmospheric chemistry.

  20. Penning trap mass measurements on nobelium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dworschak, M.; Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Vorobyev, G. K.; Audi, G.; Blaum, K.; Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Eliseev, S.; Ketter, J.; Fleckenstein, T.; Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Ketelaer, J.; Kluge, H.-J.

    2010-06-15

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt allows accurate mass measurements of radionuclides, produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and separated by the velocity filter SHIP from the primary beam. Recently, the masses of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No were determined. These are the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements, which provide new anchor points in this region. The heavy nuclides were produced in cold-fusion reactions by irradiating a PbS target with a {sup 48}Ca beam, resulting in production rates of the nuclei of interest of about one atom per second. In combination with data from decay spectroscopy our results are used to perform a new atomic-mass evaluation in this region.

  1. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  2. Stable Isotope Characterization of TICs/TIMs: Analytical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volpe, A M; Singleton, M J

    2009-06-05

    We measured twelve alkali cyanide samples that were also sent to ORNL and PNNL collaborators. While results indicate distinct {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N values that would be useful to signature studies, the alkali cyanides, especially NaCN, show chemical breakdown during storage that will influence forensic analysis. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic compositions of raw materials used to synthesis TETS were measured. Results indicate wide ranges in {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N values. Using these raw materials, LLNL scientists synthesized three batches of TETS following published procedures. Stable isotopic measurements of TETS synthesis products indicates nitrogen ({var_epsilon} {sup 15}N = -1.7 to -0.8) and carbon ({var_epsilon} {sup 13}C = -1.0 to -0.1) fractionation during production.

  3. Reactor Fuel Isotopics and Code Validation for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, Matthew W.; Weber, Charles F.; Pigni, Marco T.; Gauld, Ian C.

    2015-02-01

    Experimentally measured isotopic concentrations of well characterized spent nuclear fuel (SNF) samples have been collected and analyzed by previous researchers. These sets of experimental data have been used extensively to validate the accuracy of depletion code predictions for given sets of burnups, initial enrichments, and varying power histories for different reactor types. The purpose of this report is to present the diversity of data in a concise manner and summarize the current accuracy of depletion modeling. All calculations performed for this report were done using the Oak Ridge Isotope GENeration (ORIGEN) code, an internationally used irradiation and decay code solver within the SCALE comprehensive modeling and simulation code. The diversity of data given in this report includes key actinides, stable fission products, and radioactive fission products. In general, when using the current ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data libraries in SCALE, the major actinides are predicted to within 5% of the measured values. Large improvements were seen for several of the curium isotopes when using improved cross section data found in evaluated nuclear data file ENDF/B-VII.0 as compared to ENDF/B-V-based results. The impact of the flux spectrum on the plutonium isotope concentrations as a function of burnup was also shown. The general accuracy noted for the actinide samples for reactor types with burnups greater than 5,000 MWd/MTU was not observed for the low-burnup Hanford B samples. More work is needed in understanding these large discrepancies. The stable neodymium and samarium isotopes were predicted to within a few percent of the measured values. Large improvements were seen in prediction for a few of the samarium isotopes when using the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries compared to results obtained with ENDF/B-V libraries. Very accurate predictions were obtained for 133Cs and 153Eu. However, the predicted values for the stable ruthenium and rhodium isotopes varied as much as 10% of the measured values, and 109Ag was consistently over-predicted by as much as 170%. In general, there is a larger uncertainty for modeling radioactive fission products when compared to either the actinides or the stable fission products in SNF. The relative C/E ratios ranged from a few percent for 137Cs up to 60% and 100% for 106Ru and 125Sb, respectively. Limited or no radioactive fission products data exist in the current data sets for reactor types other than PWRs and BWRs. More work is needed in obtaining a greater diversity of radioactive fission product data. While performing this survey, issues leading to inconsistencies in nuclear fission yield data were discovered that specifically impacted the fission product noble gases. Emphasis was given to this legacy data, and corrective actions were taken as described in this report. After the fission yield data were corrected, the stable xenon and krypton fission products were predicted to within 5% of their measurements. However, preliminary results not explicitly given in this report indicate that the relative C/E ratio for the radioactive isotope 85Kr varied as much as 10%. Due to the complex migration and the difficulty in measuring noble gases in the fuel, a more thorough investigation is needed to understand how accurately depletion codes can calculate these gas concentrations.

  4. Modeling and Simulations for the High Flux Isotope Reactor Cycle 400

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Modeling and Simulations for the High Flux Isotope Reactor Cycle 400 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling and Simulations for the High Flux Isotope Reactor Cycle 400 × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information

  5. Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes (FLASK) Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes (FLASK) Handbook S Biraud March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not

  6. Occupational Medical Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-12-08

    The Occupational Medical Program (OMP) oversees all Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) health care, and provides services to all managing and operating (M&O) contractors at the INEL and for the Department of Energy Idaho Office (DOE-ID). The evolution of the automated OMP at the INEL is guided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) directives and regulations. The OMP is developing a multiyear plan for the computerization of patient and demographics, epidemiology, medical records, andmore » surveillance. This plan will require the following six development phases: Employee Demographic Phase, Patient Surveillance Certification and Restrictions Phase, Electronic Notification Phase, Epidemiology-Industrial Hygiene/Radiation Exposure/OMP Integration Phase, Medical Scheduling Phase, and Medical Records Phase.« less

  7. Medical Information | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medical Information Occupational Medicine provides a range of health services and can work with your personal physician on your health needs. A D D I T I O N A L L I N K S:...

  8. Development of the laser isotope separation method (AVLIS) for obtaining weight amounts of highly enriched {sup 150}Nd isotope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babichev, A P; Grigoriev, Igor' S; Grigoriev, A I; Dorovskii, A P; D'yachkov, Aleksei B; Kovalevich, S K; Kochetov, V A; Kuznetsov, V A; Labozin, Valerii P; Matrakhov, A V; Mironov, Sergei M; Nikulin, Sergei A; Pesnya, A V; Timofeev, N I; Firsov, Valerii A; Tsvetkov, G O; Shatalova, G G

    2005-10-31

    Results obtained at the first stage of development of the experimental technique for obtaining weight amounts of the highly enriched {sup 150}Nd isotope by laser photoionisation are presented. The vaporiser and the laser are designed, and various methods of irradiation of neodymium vapour and extraction of photoions are tested. The product yield {approx}40 mg h{sup -1} for the {approx}60% enrichment and 25 mg h{sup -1} for the {approx}65% enrichment is achieved for a vaporiser of length 27 cm. The cost of constructing the facility for preparing 50 kg of the {sup 150}Nd isotope, intended for determining the neutrino mass, is estimated. This estimate shows that the cost of production can be lowered by a factor of 5-7 compared to the electromagnetic method. (invited paper)

  9. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michaels, Edward D.

    1982-01-01

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content which includes: (a) A chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; (b) the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; (c) the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; (d) the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products.

  10. Medical Screening | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Medical Screening Medical Screening Medical Screening: Provide medical screening exams that are designed to check for health conditions related to occupational exposures to former workers who choose to participate in the program, including a re-screen exam every three years. Conventional Medical Screening Program Medical screening is a strategy used to identify diseases or conditions in a select population at an early stage, often before signs and symptoms develop, and to refer individuals with

  11. Measuring SNM Isotopic Distributions using FRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-02

    The first group of slides provides background information on the isotopic composition of plutonium. It is shown that 240Pu is the critical isotope in neutron coincidence/multiplicity counting. Next, response function analysis to determine isotopic composition is discussed. The isotopic composition can be determined by measuring the net peak counts from each isotope and then taking the ratio of the counts for each isotope relative to the total counts for the element. Then FRAM (Fixed energy Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) is explained. FRAM can control data acquisition, automatically analyze newly acquired data, analyze previously acquired data, provide information on the quality of the analysis, and facilitate analysis in unusual situations (non-standard energy calibrations, gamma rays from non-SNM isotopes, poor spectra (within limits)).

  12. Medical and biofuel advances possible with new gene regulation tool

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medical and biofuel advances possible with new gene regulation tool Medical and biofuel advances possible with new gene regulation tool The key is a tunable switch made from a small non-coding RNA molecule that could have value for medical and even biofuel production purposes. August 20, 2015 Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have manufactured molecular "dimmer" switches to control cellular metabolism with exquisite precision. The research has potential widespread

  13. medical | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home medical medical NNSA's work aids in fight against cancer World Cancer Day encourages citizens worldwide to take action, raise awareness, and...

  14. Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry of carbon isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Jain, Jinesh; Russo, Richard E.; McIntyre, Dustin; Mao, Xianglei

    2015-08-28

    Quantitative determination of carbon isotopes using Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS) is described. Optical emission of diatomic molecules CN and C2 is used in these measurements. Two quantification approaches are presented:empirical calibration of spectra using a set of reference standards and numerical fitting of a simulated spectrum to the experimental one. Formation mechanisms of C2 and CN in laser ablation plasma are briefly reviewed to provide insights for implementation of LAMIS measurements. A simulated spectrum of the 12C2 Swan system was synthesized using four constituents within 473.5–476.5 nm. Simulation included three branches of 12C2 (1-0), branches R(0-0) and R(1-1), and branch P(9-8) of 12C2. Spectral positions of the tail lines in R(0-0) and R(1-1) were experimentally measured, since they were not accurately known before. The Swan band (1-0) of the isotopologue 13C12C was also simulated. Fitting to the experimental spectrumyielded the ratio 13C/12C = 1.08% in a good agreement with measurements by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. LAMIS promises to be useful in coal, oil and shale exploration, carbon sequestration monitoring, and agronomy studies

  15. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Takaro

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment. (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997. After excluding current workers, construction workers, and deceased workers, the total estimated number of former workers eligible for screening was 72,611. By September, 2006, 53,010 workers had been contacted, 20,298 responded, 2,835 were eligible and authorized, and 2,773 workers were ultimately screened. The cohort was 80% male, 85% white, and had a mean age of 63 years (range 24-96 years) at the time of first exam. Participants completed an occupational health history survey prior to the medical exam. Former Hanford workers were considered eligible for an exam if they reported exposure to asbestos, beryllium, or noise, or if a review of their Hanford work history indicated possible or probable exposure to one of these three hazards. We also invited any former Hanford worker who requested an exam to participate, regardless of documentation of exposure. The screening exam included a problem-focused physical exam, along with screening tests for one or more of three specific medical conditions: asbestosis (chest X-ray and spirometry), berylliosis (chest X-ray, spirometry, and beryllium-induced lymphocyte proliferation test), and NIHL (audiometry). We assisted ill workers in filing appropriate workers compensation claims, and facilitated appropriate follow-up medical care. This program has made an important contribution to the health of former DOE contractor workers at the Hanford defense nuclear site.

  16. Management of hazardous medical waste in Croatia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinkovic, Natalija Vitale, Ksenija; Holcer, Natasa Janev; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Pavic, Tomo

    2008-07-01

    This article provides a review of hazardous medical waste production and its management in Croatia. Even though Croatian regulations define all steps in the waste management chain, implementation of those steps is one of the country's greatest issues. Improper practice is evident from the point of waste production to final disposal. The biggest producers of hazardous medical waste are hospitals that do not implement existing legislation, due to the lack of education and funds. Information on quantities, type and flow of medical waste are inadequate, as is sanitary control. We propose an integrated approach to medical waste management based on a hierarchical structure from the point of generation to its disposal. Priority is given to the reduction of the amounts and potential for harm. Where this is not possible, management includes reduction by sorting and separating, pretreatment on site, safe transportation, final treatment and sanitary disposal. Preferred methods should be the least harmful for human health and the environment. Integrated medical waste management could greatly reduce quantities and consequently financial strains. Landfilling is the predominant route of disposal in Croatia, although the authors believe that incineration is the most appropriate method. In a country such as Croatia, a number of small incinerators would be the most economical solution.

  17. Generalized Modeling of Enrichment Cascades That Include Minor Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Charles F

    2012-01-01

    The monitoring of enrichment operations may require innovative analysis to allow for imperfect or missing data. The presence of minor isotopes may help or hurt - they can complicate a calculation or provide additional data to corroborate a calculation. However, they must be considered in a rigorous analysis, especially in cases involving reuse. This study considers matched-abundanceratio cascades that involve at least three isotopes and allows generalized input that does not require all feed assays or the enrichment factor to be specified. Calculations are based on the equations developed for the MSTAR code but are generalized to allow input of various combinations of assays, flows, and other cascade properties. Traditional cascade models have required specification of the enrichment factor, all feed assays, and the product and waste assays of the primary enriched component. The calculation would then produce the numbers of stages in the enriching and stripping sections and the remaining assays in waste and product streams. In cases where the enrichment factor or feed assays were not known, analysis was difficult or impossible. However, if other quantities are known (e.g., additional assays in waste or product streams), a reliable calculation is still possible with the new code, but such nonstandard input may introduce additional numerical difficulties into the calculation. Thus, the minimum input requirements for a stable solution are discussed, and a sample problem with a non-unique solution is described. Both heuristic and mathematically required guidelines are given to assist the application of cascade modeling to situations involving such non-standard input. As a result, this work provides both a calculational tool and specific guidance for evaluation of enrichment cascades in which traditional input data are either flawed or unknown. It is useful for cases involving minor isotopes, especially if the minor isotope assays are desired (or required) to be important contributors to the overall analysis.

  18. Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

  19. METHOD FOR PRODUCING ISOTOPIC METHANES FROM LITHIUM CARBONATE AND LITHIUM HYDRIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frazer, J.W.

    1959-10-27

    A process is descrlbed for the production of methane and for the production of methane containing isotopes of hydrogen and/or carbon. Finely divided lithium hydrlde and litldum carbonate reactants are mixed in intimate contact and subsequently compacted under pressures of from 5000 to 60,000 psl. The compacted lithium hydride and lithium carbenate reactunts are dispised in a gas collecting apparatus. Subsequently, the compact is heated to a temperature in the range 350 to 400 deg C whereupon a solid-solid reaction takes place and gaseous methane is evolved. The evolved methane is contaminated with gaseous hydrogen and a very small amount of CO/sub 2/; however, the desired methane product is separated from sald impurities by well known chemical processes, e.g., condensation in a cold trap. The product methane contalns isotopes of carbon and hydrogen, the Isotopic composition being determined by the carbon isotopes originally present In the lithium carbonate and the hydrogen isotopes originally present in the lithium hydride.

  20. Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Davis, Ryan; Ahmed, Musahid; Jackson, Teresa L.; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2012-01-03

    Several absorption bands exist in the VUV region of Carbon monoxide (CO). Emission spectra indicate that these bands are all predissociative. An experimental investigation of CO photodissociation by vacuum ultraviolet photons (90 to 108 nm; ~13 to 11 eV) from the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron and direct measurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition of the products are presented here. A wavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in the photodissociation product was observed. Slope values (δ'{sup 18}O/ δ'{sup 17}O) ranging from 0.76 to 1.32 were observed in oxygen three-isotope space (δ'{sup 18}O vs. δ'{sup 17}O) which correlated with increasing synchrotron photon energy, and indicate a dependency of the upper electronic state specific dissociation dynamics (e.g., perturbation and coupling associated with a particular state). An unprecedented magnitude in isotope separation was observed for photodissociation at the 105 and 107 nm synchrotron bands and are found to be associated with accidental predissociation of the vibrational states ({nu} = 0 and 1) of the upper electronic state E{sup 1}Π. For each synchrotron band, a large (few hundred per mil) extent of isotopic fractionation was observed and the range of fractionation is a combination of column density and exposure time. A significant temperature dependency in oxygen isotopic fractionation was observed, indicating a rotational level dependency in the predissociation process.

  1. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR COLLECTING ISOTOPES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leyshon, W.E.

    1957-08-01

    A method and apparatus for collecting isotopes having a high vapor pressure, such as isotopes of mercury, in a calutron are described. Heretofore, the collected material would vaporize and escape from the ion receiver as fast as it was received. By making the receiver of pure silver, the mercury isotopes form a nonvolatile amalgam with the silver at the water cooled temperature of the receiver, and the mercury is thus retained.

  2. Improving medical waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, L.

    1994-05-01

    This article describes the use of electron-beam irradiation, steam detoxification, and microwave disinfection systems rather than incineration to rid the waste stream of medical scraps. The topics of the article include biological waste stream sources and amounts, pyrolysis and oxidation, exhaust gas cleanup, superheated steam sterilization and detoxification.

  3. Medical imaging systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  4. Categorical Exclusion 4577: Lithium Isotope Separation & Enrichment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Isotope Separation & Enrichment Technologies (4577) Program or Field Office: Y-12 Site Office Location(s) (CityCountyState): Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee...

  5. Nitrogen concentration and isotope dataset for environmental...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BER) Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences ngee; ngee-arctic; nitrate concentrations; nitrate isotopes; ...

  6. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U),more » i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.« less

  7. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U), i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.

  8. Spatial periphery of lithium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galanina, L. I. Zelenskaja, N. S.

    2013-12-15

    The spatial structure of lithium isotopes is studied with the aid of the charge-exchange and (t, p) reactions on lithium nuclei. It is shown that an excited isobaric-analog state of {sup 6}Li (0{sup +}, 3.56MeV) has a halo structure formed by a proton and a neutron, that, in the {sup 9}Li nucleus, there is virtually no neutron halo, and that {sup 11}Li is a Borromean nucleus formed by a {sup 9}Li core and a two-neutron halo manifesting itself in cigar-like and dineutron configurations.

  9. Uranium molecular laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, R.J.; Sullivan, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Molecular Laser Isotope Separation program is moving into the engineering phase, and it is possible to determine in some detail the plant cost terms involved in the process economics. A brief description of the MLIS process physics is given as a motivation to the engineering and economics discussion. Much of the plant cost arises from lasers and the overall optical system. In the paper, the authors discuss lasers as operating units and systems, along with temporal multiplexing and Raman shifting. Estimates of plant laser costs are given.

  10. Hydrogen-isotope permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A.; Van Deventer, Erven H.

    1977-01-01

    A composite including a plurality of metal layers has a Cu-Al-Fe bronze layer and at least one outer layer of a heat and corrosion resistant metal alloy. The bronze layer is ordinarily intermediate two outer layers of metal such as austenitic stainless steel, nickel alloys or alloys of the refractory metals. The composite provides a barrier to hydrogen isotopes, particularly tritium that can reduce permeation by at least about 30 fold and possibly more below permeation through equal thicknesses of the outer layer material.

  11. ORISE: The Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident Preparedness: Medical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Management (Published by REAC/TS) The Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident Preparedness: Medical Management Proceedings of the Fifth International REAC/TS Symposium on the Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident Preparedness and the Biodosimetry Workshop As part of its mission to provide continuing education for personnel responsible for treating radiation injuries, REAC/TS hosted the Fifth International REAC/TS Symposium on the Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident Preparedness symposium and

  12. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chastagner, P.

    2001-08-01

    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  13. Manus Water Isotope Investigation Field Campaign Report (Program...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Program Document: Manus Water Isotope Investigation Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Manus Water Isotope ...

  14. Plutonium Isotopes in the Terrestrial Environment at the Savannah...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plutonium Isotopes in the Terrestrial Environment at the Savannah River Site, USA. A Long-Term Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plutonium Isotopes in the ...

  15. Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface- and Diffusion-Limited Regimes Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface- and...

  16. Isotopic Analysis At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Goff, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al., 1981) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal...

  17. Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Presentation...

  18. Selected Isotopes for Optimized Fuel Assembly Tags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlach, David C.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.

    2008-10-01

    In support of our ongoing signatures project we present information on 3 isotopes selected for possible application in optimized tags that could be applied to fuel assemblies to provide an objective measure of burnup. 1. Important factors for an optimized tag are compatibility with the reactor environment (corrosion resistance), low radioactive activation, at least 2 stable isotopes, moderate neutron absorption cross-section, which gives significant changes in isotope ratios over typical fuel assembly irradiation levels, and ease of measurement in the SIMS machine 2. From the candidate isotopes presented in the 3rd FY 08 Quarterly Report, the most promising appear to be Titanium, Hafnium, and Platinum. The other candidate isotopes (Iron, Tungsten, exhibited inadequate corrosion resistance and/or had neutron capture cross-sections either too high or too low for the burnup range of interest.

  19. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D.; Sander, Robert K.

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  20. Isotopic generator for bismuth-212 and lead-212 from radium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcher, Robert W.; Friedman, Arnold M.; Hines, John

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing radionuclides of bismuth-212 and lead-212. Thorium-228 and carrier solution starting material is input to a radiologically contained portion of an isotopic generator system, and radium-224 is separated from thorium-228 which is retained by a strongly basic anion exchange column. The separated radium-224 is transferred to an accessible, strongly acidic cationic exchange column. The cationic column retains the radium-224, and natural radioactive decay generates bismuth-212 and lead-212. The cationic exchange column can also be separated from the contained portion of the system and utilized without the extraordinary safety measures necessary in the contained portion. Furthermore, the cationic exchange column provides over a relatively long time period the short lived lead-212 and bismuth-212 radionuclides which are useful for a variety of medical therapies.

  1. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation of lead-210 isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheibner, K.F.; Haynam, C.A.; Johnson, M.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1999-08-31

    An isotopically selective laser process and apparatus for removal of Pb-210 from natural lead that involves a one-photon near-resonant, two-photon resonant excitation of one or more Rydberg levels, followed by field ionization and then electrostatic extraction. The wavelength to the near-resonant intermediate state is counter propagated with respect to the second wavelength required to populate the final Rydberg state. This scheme takes advantage of the large first excited state cross section, and only modest laser fluences are required. The non-resonant process helps to avoid two problems: first, stimulated Raman Gain due to the nearby F=3/2 hyperfine component of Pb-207 and, second, direct absorption of the first transition process light by Pb-207. 5 figs.

  2. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation of lead-210 isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheibner, Karl F.; Haynam, Christopher A.; Johnson, Michael A.; Worden, Earl F.

    1999-01-01

    An isotopically selective laser process and apparatus for removal of Pb-210 from natural lead that involves a one-photon near-resonant, two-photon resonant excitation of one or more Rydberg levels, followed by field ionization and then electrostatic extraction. The wavelength to the near-resonant intermediate state is counter propagated with respect to the second wavelength required to populate the final Rydberg state. This scheme takes advantage of the large first excited state cross section, and only modest laser fluences are required. The non-resonant process helps to avoid two problems: first, stimulated Raman Gain due to the nearby F=3/2 hyperfine component of Pb-207 and, second, direct absorption of the first transition process light by Pb-207.

  3. Isotope separation and advanced manufacturing technology. Volume 2, No. 2, Semiannual report, April--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kan, Tehmanu; Carpenter, J.

    1993-12-31

    This is the second issue of a semiannual report for the Isotope Separation and Advanced Manufacturing (ISAM) Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Primary objectives of the ISAM Program include: the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) process, and advanced manufacturing technologies which include industrial laser materials processing and new manufacturing technologies for uranium, plutonium, and other strategically important materials in support of DOE and other national applications. Topics included in this issue are: production plant product system conceptual design, development and operation of a solid-state switch for thyratron replacement, high-performance optical components for high average power laser systems, use of diode laser absorption spectroscopy for control of uranium vaporization rates, a two-dimensional time dependent hydrodynamical ion extraction model, and design of a formaldehyde photodissociation process for carbon and oxygen isotope separation.

  4. Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and Accounting Matters (09-ISO-INV-05) A.1 Property, Plant, & Equipment Finding 2: Incorrect System Ion Beam Accumulated Depreciation (10-ISO-PPE-01) A.1 Acronyms Exhibit B ...

  5. Features of MCNP6 Relevant to Medical Radiation Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, H. Grady III; Goorley, John T.

    2012-08-29

    MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo code for simulating the transport of neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons, and more recently other fundamental particles and heavy ions. Over many years MCNP has found a wide range of applications in many different fields, including medical radiation physics. In this presentation we will describe and illustrate a number of significant recently-developed features in the current version of the code, MCNP6, having particular utility for medical physics. Among these are major extensions of the ability to simulate large, complex geometries, improvement in memory requirements and speed for large lattices, introduction of mesh-based isotopic reaction tallies, advances in radiography simulation, expanded variance-reduction capabilities, especially for pulse-height tallies, and a large number of enhancements in photon/electron transport.

  6. Fission properties and production mechanisms for the heaviest known elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Mass yields of the spontaneous fission of Fm isotopes, Cf isotopes, and /sup 259/Md are discussed. Actinide yields were measured for bombardments of /sup 248/Cm with /sup 16/O, /sup 18/O, /sup 20/Ne, and /sup 22/Ne. A superheavy product might be produced by bombarding /sup 248/Cm with /sup 48/Ca ions. 12 figures. (DLC)

  7. Apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMullen, John W.; Wheeler, Michael G.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Sherman, Robert H.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas(es) is (are) stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forming at a significantly lower temperature).

  8. Providence Newberg Medical Center

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Newberg, Oregon In 2002, Providence Health & Services began planning a new 188,000 square foot medical center in Newberg, Oregon to respond to the growing community's need for accessible health care. Since this was Providence's first new hospital in almost thirty years, its leaders decided to approach the project through innovative planning, design, and construction, including the achievement of lifecycle energy savings and a potential LEED certification. The hospital is comprised of 40 inpatient beds with views out to the surrounding rural landscape or into lushly planted internal courtyards.

  9. Implantable medical sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darrow, Christopher B.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Lane, Stephen M.; Lee, Abraham P.; Wang, Amy W.

    2001-01-01

    An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  10. Production of unknown transactinides in asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.

    2005-03-01

    Possibilities of production of new isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers 104-108 in asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions are studied for the first time. The optimal conditions for the synthesis are suggested in this type of reaction. The products of suggested reactions can fill a gap of unknown isotopes between the isotopes of heaviest nuclei obtained in cold and hot complete fusion reactions.

  11. Isotope effects on desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into stainless steel by glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuyama, M.; Kondo, M.; Noda, N.; Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K.

    2015-03-15

    In a fusion device the control of fuel particles implies to know the desorption rate of hydrogen isotopes by the plasma-facing materials. In this paper desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into type 316L stainless steel by glow discharge have been studied by experiment and numerical calculation. The temperature of a maximum desorption rate depends on glow discharge time and heating rate. Desorption spectra observed under various experimental conditions have been successfully reproduced by numerical simulations that are based on a diffusion-limited process. It is suggested, therefore, that desorption rate of a hydrogen isotope implanted into the stainless steel is limited by a diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms in bulk. Furthermore, small isotope effects were observed for the diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms. (authors)

  12. Rapid Cycling Medical Synchrotron (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rapid Cycling Medical Synchrotron Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid Cycling Medical Synchrotron × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National

  13. Y-12 begins to separate lithium isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    begins to separate lithium isotopes During the years from 1946 through the early 1950s, Y-12 continued to expand as needed to meet the demand for a growing primary mission of...

  14. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  15. Photonuclear reactions on mercury isotopes in the region of the giant-dipole-resonance energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.; Troschiev, S. Yu.

    2011-05-15

    The induced-activity method is used to measure yields of photonuclear reactions induced in stable mercury isotopes by beams of bremsstrahlung photons whose spectra have the endpoint energies of 19.5 and 29.1 MeV. On the basis of a collective model, the partial cross sections and yields are calculated for photoproton and photoneutron reactions on these isotopes. The yields calculated theoretically are compared with their measured counterparts. The possibility for the production in photonuclear reactions of the bypassed nucleus {sup 196}Hg, which cannot be formed in astrophysical r and s processes, is analyzed.

  16. Isotope separation by photochromatography (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Isotope separation by photochromatography Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Isotope separation by photochromatography An isotope separation method which comprises physically adsorbing an isotopically mixed molecular species on an adsorptive surface and irradiating the adsorbed molecules with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite a desired isotopic species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface

  17. Retiree Medical Transition | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retiree Medical Transition Retiree Medical Transition Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to announce some exciting changes to the current health care benefits provided through Jefferson Science Associates at Jefferson Lab (Jefferson Lab) to our retiree population. During the next 2 months, our priority will be to work with our retirees and their eligible dependents to transition to a new retiree medical plan. To receive more information and a broad overview of this benefit change, click here. Late

  18. Medical and Biohazardous Waste Generator's Guide (Revision2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waste Management Group

    2006-11-29

    These guidelines describe procedures to comply with all Federal and State laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) policy applicable to State-regulated medical and unregulated, but biohazardous, waste (medical/biohazardous waste). These guidelines apply to all LBNL personnel who: (1) generate and/or store medical/biohazardous waste, (2) supervise personnel who generate medical/biohazardous waste, or (3) manage a medical/biohazardous waste pickup location. Personnel generating biohazardous waste at the Joint Genome Institute/Production Genomics Facility (JGI/PGF) are referred to the guidelines contained in Section 9. Section 9 is the only part of these guidelines that apply to JGI/PGF. Medical/biohazardous waste referred to in this Web site includes biohazardous, sharps, pathological and liquid waste. Procedures for proper storage and disposal are summarized in the Solid Medical/Biohazardous Waste Disposal Procedures Chart. Contact the Waste Management Group at 486-7663 if you have any questions regarding medical/biohazardous waste management.

  19. An efficient palladium isotope chromatograph (EPIC) for hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutherford, W.M.

    1989-06-20

    The efficient palladium isotope chromatography (EPIC) system is based on a palladium displacement chromatograph developed and tested for the preparative scale separation of the isotopes of hydrogen. Rapid cycling and high efficiency are obtained by use of high-performance packing operating at an elevated temperature (80/degree/C) and elevated pressure (1.5 atm). The process, which was tested with a 50/50 mixture of hydrogen and deuterium, depends on the exploitation of thermally driven pressure differences to recover and recycle the mixed transition zone between the bands of the pure components and also to recover and recycle the hydrogen gas used as the displacing agent. The purity of the product is significantly enhanced by partially backfilling the column with pure deuterium at the beginning of each displacement cycle. The computer-controlled system operates continuously, and it is capable of separating 2.2 std L/hr of feed at product assays of 99.86 at. % hydrogen and 99.992 at. % deuterium. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in milk samples from a farm placed in the mountains of Transylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdas, D. A. Cristea, G. Bot, A.; Puscas, R.; Radu, S.; Mirel, V.; Cordea, D. V.; Mihaiu, M.

    2013-11-13

    Product origin is of great importance for consumers especially because its association in consumer's perception with food quality, freedom from disease or pollution. Stable isotope ratio analysis is a powerful technique in food authenticity and traceability control which has been introduced within the European wine industry to ensure authenticity of wine provenance and to detect adulteration. Isotopic ratios measurements have also been successfully to other food commodities like: fruit juices, honey and dairy foods. The δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H content in milk water reflects the isotope composition of the ground water drunk by animals. Seasonal effects are also very important: in summer, milk water contains higher δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H values due to the fresh plants that are ate by animals. Relative carbon stable isotope abundances in total milk reflect the isotopic composition of the diet fed to the dairy cows. In this study the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of 15 milk samples coming from a unit placed in the mountains of Transylvania was investigated. The distribution of the obtained isotopic values was than discussed taking into account that all the animals were feed with the same type of forage and consumed water was taken from the same source.

  1. Converting Energy to Medical Progress

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Mukherjee, Wright State University, Kettering Medical Center, Ohio Marit Nilsen- Hamilton, Iowa State University, Iowa William M. Pardridge, University of California, Los ...

  2. Medication List- September 14, 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This scale is created to provide a guide for the physician determination of ability to work for HRP certified persons with certain conditions and while taking certain medications.

  3. Implications of Plutonium isotopic separation on closed fuel cycles and repository design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.

    2013-07-01

    Advances in laser enrichment may enable relatively low-cost plutonium isotopic separation. This would have large impacts on LWR closed fuel cycles and waste management. If Pu-240 is removed before recycling plutonium as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, it would dramatically reduce the buildup of higher plutonium isotopes, Americium, and Curium. Pu-240 is a fertile material and thus can be replaced by U-238. Eliminating the higher plutonium isotopes in MOX fuel increases the Doppler feedback, simplifies reactor control, and allows infinite recycle of MOX plutonium in LWRs. Eliminating fertile Pu-240 and Pu-242 reduces the plutonium content in MOX fuel and simplifies fabrication. Reducing production of Pu-241 reduces production of Am-241 - the primary heat generator in spent nuclear fuels after several decades. Reducing heat generating Am-241 would reduce repository cost and waste toxicity. Avoiding Am- 241 avoids its decay product Np-237, a nuclide that partly controls long-term oxidizing repository performance. Most of these benefits also apply to LWR plutonium recycled into fast reactors. There are benefits for plutonium isotopic separation in fast reactor fuel cycles (particularly removal of Pu-242) but the benefits are less. (author)

  4. Stable isotope signatures for characterising the biological stability of landfilled municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimmer, Bernhard; Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion; Watzinger, Andrea; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ? The isotopic signature of ?{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates is linked to the reactivity of MSW. ? Isotopic signatures of leachates depend on aerobic/anaerobic conditions in landfills. ? In situ aeration of landfills can be monitored by isotope analysis in leachate. ? The isotopic analysis of leachates can be used for assessing the stability of MSW. ? ?{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates helps to define the duration of landfill aftercare. - Abstract: Stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates are influenced by processes within municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills mainly depending on the aerobic/anaerobic phase of the landfill. We investigated the isotopic signatures of ?{sup 13}C, ?{sup 2}H and ?{sup 18}O of different leachates from lab-scale experiments, lysimeter experiments and a landfill under in situ aeration. In the laboratory, columns filled with MSW of different age and reactivity were percolated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In landfill simulation reactors, waste of a 25 year old landfill was kept under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The lysimeter facility was filled with mechanically shredded fresh waste. After starting of the methane production the waste in the lysimeter containments was aerated in situ. Leachate and gas composition were monitored continuously. In addition the seepage water of an old landfill was collected and analysed periodically before and during an in situ aeration. We found significant differences in the ?{sup 13}C-value of the dissolved inorganic carbon (?{sup 13}C-DIC) of the leachate between aerobic and anaerobic waste material. During aerobic degradation, the signature of ?{sup 13}C-DIC was mainly dependent on the isotopic composition of the organic matter in the waste, resulting in a ?{sup 13}C-DIC of ?20 to ?25. The production of methane under anaerobic conditions caused an increase in ?{sup 13}C-DIC up to values of +10 and higher depending on the actual reactivity of the MSW. During aeration of a landfill the aerobic degradation of the remaining organic matter caused a decrease to a ?{sup 13}C-DIC of about ?20. Therefore carbon isotope analysis in leachates and groundwater can be used for tracing the oxidationreduction status of MSW landfills. Our results indicate that monitoring of stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates over a longer time period (e.g. during in situ aeration) is a powerful and cost-effective tool for characterising the biodegradability and stability of the organic matter in landfilled municipal solid waste and can be used for monitoring the progress of in situ aeration.

  5. Isotope Enrichment Detection by Laser Ablation - Dual Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2009-07-01

    The rapid global expansion of nuclear energy is motivating the expedited development of new safeguards technology to mitigate potential proliferation threats arising from monitoring gaps within the uranium enrichment process. Current onsite enrichment level monitoring methods are limited by poor sensitivity and accuracy performance. Offsite analysis has better performance, but this approach requires onsite hand sampling followed by time-consuming and costly post analysis. These limitations make it extremely difficult to implement comprehensive safeguards accounting measures that can effectively counter enrichment facility misuse. In addition, uranium enrichment by modern centrifugation leads to a significant proliferation threat, since the centrifuge cascades can quickly produce a significant quantity of highly enriched uranium (HEU). The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an engineered safeguards approach having continuous aerosol particulate collection and uranium isotope analysis to provide timely detection of HEU production in a low enriched uranium facility. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulate samples, followed by wavelength tuned laser diode spectroscopy, to characterize the 235U/238U isotopic ratio by subtle differences in atomic absorption wavelengths arising from differences in each isotopes nuclear mass, volume, and spin (hyperfine structure for 235U). Environmental sampling media is introduced into a small, reduced pressure chamber, where a focused pulsed laser vaporizes a 10 to 20-m sample diameter. The ejected plasma forms a plume of atomic vapor. A plume for a sample containing uranium has atoms of the 235U and 238U isotopes present. Tunable diode lasers are directed through the plume to selectively excite each isotope and their presence is detected by monitoring absorbance signals on a shot-to-shot basis. Single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and abundance uncertainty less than 10% have been demonstrated with measurements on surrogate materials. In this paper we present measurement results on samples containing background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils) laced with micron-sized target particles having isotopic ratios ranging from 1 to 50%.

  6. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raeder, Sebastian Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjs, Anders; Heggen, Henning; Institute of Applied Physics, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 7, 64289 Darmstadt ; Lassen, Jens Teigelhfer, Andrea; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2

    2014-03-15

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

  7. Isotopic Studies of O-O Bond Formation During Water Oxidation (SISGR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roth, Justine P.

    2015-03-03

    Isotopic Studies of O-O Bond Formation During Water Oxidation (SISGR) Research during the project period focused primarily on mechanisms of water oxidation by structurally defined transition metal complexes. Competitive oxygen isotope fractionation of water, mediated by oxidized precursors or reduced catalysts together with ceric, Ce(IV), ammonium nitrate in aqueous media, afforded oxygen-18 kinetic isotope effects (O-18 KIEs). Measurement, calculation, and interpretation of O-18 KIEs, described in the accompanying report has important ramifications for the production of electricity and solar hydrogen (as fuel). The catalysis division of BES has acknowledged that understanding mechanisms of transition metal catalyzed water oxidation has major ramifications, potentially leading to transformation of the global economy and natural environment in years to come. Yet, because of program restructuring and decreased availability of funds, it was recommended that the Solar Photochemistry sub-division of BES would be a more appropriate parent program for support of continued research.

  8. Hydrogen isotope separation from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.

    1975-09-01

    A process for separating tritium from tritium-containing water or deuterium enrichment from water is described. The process involves selective, laser-induced two-photon excitation and photodissociation of those water molecules containing deuterium or tritium followed by immediate reaction of the photodissociation products with a scavenger gas which does not substantially absorb the laser light. The reaction products are then separated from the undissociated water. (auth)

  9. Medical imaging systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frangioni, John V.

    2012-07-24

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remains in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may also employ dyes or other fluorescent substances associated with antibodies, antibody fragments, or ligands that accumulate within a region of diagnostic significance. In one embodiment, the system provides an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide that is used to capture images. In another embodiment, the system is configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. More broadly, the systems described herein may be used in imaging applications where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by an image formed from fluorescent emissions from a fluorescent substance that marks areas of functional interest.

  10. DOE and NNSA labs work with CTBTO to reduce medical isotope emissions...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    monitoring. IRE is a major worldwide producer of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and its emissions - while safe from a health perspective - contribute to regional...

  11. Compton Backscattering Concept for the Production of Molybdenum-99

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Merminga, G.A. Krafft

    2009-05-01

    The medical isotope Molybdenum-99 is presently used for 80-85% of all nuclear medicine procedures and is produced by irradiating highly enriched uranium U-235 targets in NRU reactors. It was recently proposed that an electron linac be used for the production of 99Mo via photo-fission of a natural uranium target coming from the excitation of the giant dipole resonance around 15 MeV. The photons can be produced using the braking radiation (bremsstrahlung) spectrum of an electron beam impinged on a high Z material. In this paper we present an alternate concept for the production of 99Mo which is also based on photo-fission of U-238, but where the ~15 MeV gamma-rays are produced by Compton backscattering of laser photons from relativistic electrons. We assume a laser wavelength of 330 nm, resulting in 485 MeV electron beam energy, and 10 mA of average current. Because the induced energy spread on the electron beam is a few percent, one may recover most of the electron beam energy, which substantially increases the efficiency of the system. The accelerator concept, based on a three-pass recirculation system with energy recovery, is described and efficiency estimates are presented.

  12. Electronic Medical Business Operations System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-04-16

    Electronic Management of medical records has taken a back seat both in private industry and in the government. Record volumes continue to rise every day and management of these paper records is inefficient and very expensive. In 2005, the White House announced support for the development of electronic medical records across the federal government. In 2006, the DOE issued 10 CFR 851 requiring all medical records be electronically available by 2015. The Y-12 National Securitymore » Complex is currently investing funds to develop a comprehensive EMR to incorporate the requirements of an occupational health facility which are common across the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). Scheduling, workflow, and data capture from medical surveillance, certification, and qualification examinations are core pieces of the system. The Electronic Medical Business Operations System (EMBOS) will provide a comprehensive health tool solution to 10 CFR 851 for Y-12 and can be leveraged to the Nuclear Weapon Complex (NWC); all site in the NWC must meet the requirements of 10 CFR 851 which states that all medical records must be electronically available by 2015. There is also potential to leverage EMBOS to the private4 sector. EMBOS is being developed and deployed in phases. When fully deployed the EMBOS will be a state-of-the-art web-enabled integrated electronic solution providing a complete electronic medical record (EMR). EMBOS has been deployed and provides a dynamic electronic medical history and surveillance program (e.g., Asbestos, Hearing Conservation, and Respirator Wearer) questionnaire. Table 1 below lists EMBOS capabilities and data to be tracked. Data to be tracked: Patient Demographics – Current/Historical; Physical Examination Data; Employee Medical Health History; Medical Surveillance Programs; Patient and Provider Schedules; Medical Qualification/Certifications; Laboratory Data; Standardized Abnormal Lab Notifications; Prescription Medication Tracking and Dispensing; Allergies; Non-Occupational Illness and Injury Visits; Occupational Recommendations/Restrictions; Diagnosis/Vital Signs/Blood Pressures; Immunizations; Return to Work Visits Capabilities: Targeted Health Assessments; Patient Input Capabilities for Questionnaires; Medical Health History; Surveillance Programs; Human Reliability Program; Scheduling; Automated Patient Check-in/Check-out; Provider & Patient Workflow; Laboratory Interface & Device Integration; Human Reliability Program Processing; Interoperability with SAP, IH, IS, RADCON; Coding: ICED-9/10; Desktop Integration; Interface/Storage of Digital X-Rays (PACS)« less

  13. EA-1488: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U-233 Disposition, Medical Isotope Production, and Building 3019 Complex Shutdown at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  14. Data Sharing Report Characterization of Isotope Row Facilities Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Phyllis C

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a survey approach, focused on characterizing the Isotope Row Facilities located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for future determination of an appropriate disposition pathway for building debris and systems, should the buildings be demolished. The characterization effort was designed to identify and quantify radiological and chemical contamination associated with building structures and process systems. The Isotope Row Facilities discussed in this report include Bldgs. 3030, 3031, 3032, 3033, 3033A, 3034, 3036, 3093, and 3118, and are located in the northeast quadrant of the main ORNL campus area, between Hillside and Central Avenues. Construction of the isotope production facilities was initiated in the late 1940s, with the exception of Bldgs. 3033A and 3118, which were enclosed in the early 1960s. The Isotope Row facilities were intended for the purpose of light industrial use for the processing, assemblage, and storage of radionuclides used for a variety of applications (ORNL 1952 and ORAU 2013). The Isotope Row Facilities provided laboratory and support services as part of the Isotopes Production and Distribution Program until 1989 when DOE mandated their shutdown (ORNL 1990). These facilities performed diverse research and developmental experiments in support of isotopes production. As a result of the many years of operations, various projects, and final cessation of operations, production was followed by inclusion into the surveillance and maintenance (S&M) project for eventual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The process for D&D and final dismantlement of facilities requires that the known contaminants of concern (COCs) be evaluated and quantified and to identify and quantify any additional contaminants in order to satisfy the waste acceptance criteria requirements for the desired disposal pathway. Known facility contaminants include, but are not limited to, asbestos-containing material (ACM), radiological contaminants, and chemical contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals.

  15. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland

    2004-05-14

    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and {sup 28}Si enriched layers, enables the observation of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly positively charged P species. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of Si in Ge was measured over the temperature range of 550 C to 900 C using a buried Si layer in an epitaxially grown Ge layer.

  16. Interaction of palladium/hydrogen and palladium/deuterium to measure the excess energy per atom for each isotope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dufour, J.; Foos, J.; Millot, J.P.; Dufour, X.

    1997-03-01

    A search for the products of fusion reactions that could be triggered by sparking in hydrogen isotopes produced a negative result with no signatures above background being found. Very significant excess energy production in both hydrogen/palladium and deuterium/palladium systems is reported. The conditions of occurrence for this excess energy production are discussed, and the formation of a tightly bound state of the hydrogen (deuterium) atom is put forward to explain the results. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-03-30

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

  18. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

  19. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using, a metal hydride.

  20. Apparatus for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering hydrogen and separating its isotopes. The apparatus includes a housing bearing at least a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. A baffle is disposed within the housing, attached thereto by a bracket. A hollow conduit is coiled about the baffle, in spaced relation to the baffle and the housing. The coiled conduit is at least partially filled with a hydride. The hydride can be heated to a high temperature and cooled to a low temperature quickly by circulating a heat transfer fluid in the housing. The spacing between the baffle and the housing maximizes the heat exchange rate between the fluid in the housing and the hydride in the conduit. The apparatus can be used to recover hydrogen isotopes (protium, deuterium and tritium) from gaseous mixtures, or to separate hydrogen isotopes from each other.

  1. Transfer-type products accompanying cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.

    2005-12-15

    Production of nuclei heavier than the target is treated for projectile-target combinations used in cold fusion reactions leading to superheavy nuclei. These products are related to transfer-type or to asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions. The production of isotopes in the transfer-type reactions emitting of {alpha} particles with large energies is discussed.

  2. Isotope-enriched protein standards for computational amide I spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reppert, Mike; Roy, Anish R.; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2015-03-28

    We present a systematic isotope labeling study of the protein G mutant NuG2b as a step toward the production of reliable, structurally stable, experimental standards for amide I infrared spectroscopic simulations. By introducing isotope enriched amino acids into a minimal growth medium during bacterial expression, we induce uniform labeling of the amide bonds following specific amino acids, avoiding the need for chemical peptide synthesis. We use experimental data to test several common amide I frequency maps and explore the influence of various factors on map performance. Comparison of the predicted absorption frequencies for the four maps tested with empirical assignments to our experimental spectra yields a root-mean-square error of 6-12 cm{sup −1}, with outliers of at least 12 cm{sup −1} in all models. This means that the predictions may be useful for predicting general trends such as changes in hydrogen bonding configuration; however, for finer structural constraints or absolute frequency assignments, the models are unreliable. The results indicate the need for careful testing of existing literature maps and shed light on possible next steps for the development of quantitative spectral maps.

  3. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C.P.; Rockwood, S.D.; Jensen, R.J.; Lyman, J.L.; Aldridge, J.P. III.

    1987-04-07

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO[sub 2] laser light may be used to highly enrich [sup 34]S in natural SF[sub 6] and [sup 11]B in natural BCl[sub 3]. 8 figs.

  4. Principles of isotope geology. Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faure, G.

    1986-01-01

    This is a text in isotope geology/geoscience that integrates material taught in various courses into a unified picture of the earth sciences. It presents an exposition of the principles used in the interpretation of isotopic data and shows how such interpretations apply to the solution of geological problems. References up to 1985 are included with chapters in this edition. New chapters on Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf Re-Os, and K-Ca decay schemes and cosmogenic radionuclides have been added. Data summaries and references have been expanded.

  5. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  6. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C. Paul; Rockwood, Stephen D.; Jensen, Reed J.; Lyman, John L.; Aldridge, III, Jack P.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO.sub.2 laser light may be used to highly enrich .sup.34 S in natural SF.sub.6 and .sup.11 B in natural BCl.sub.3.

  7. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C. Paul; Rockwood, Stephen D.; Jensen, Reed J.; Lyman, John L.; Aldridge, III, Jack P.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, in the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO.sub.2 laser light may be used to highly enrich .sup.34 S in natural SF.sub.6 and .sup.11 B in natural BCl.sub.3.

  8. Ion laser isotope enrichment by photo-predissociation of formaldehyde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marling, John B.

    1977-06-17

    Enrichment of carbon, hydrogen and/or oxygen isotopes by means of isotopically selective photo-predissociation of formaldehyde is achieved by irradiation with a fixed frequency ion laser, specifically, a neon, cadmium, or xenon ion laser.

  9. Report of Survey of Oak Ridge Isotope Enrichment (Calutron) Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Report of Survey of Oak Ridge Isotope Enrichment (Calutron) Facility Building 9204-3 Report of Survey of Oak Ridge Isotope Enrichment (Calutron) Facility Building 9204-3 The ...

  10. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content. [nitrogen 15-enriched nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michaels, E.D.

    1981-02-25

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content includes: a chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products. A particular embodiment of the process in the production of nitrogen-15-enriched nitric acid.

  11. Medical Surveillance | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medical Surveillance Medical surveillance examinations help to identify and monitor Ames Laboratory and ISU employees who work under conditions and with materials that have a potential health risk. Some of these hazards include carcinogens, toxic chemicals, noise, lasers, and biological agents. Examinations are done in order to prevent occupational related problems. The history, review of exposures, physical examination, and associated laboratory tests provide an assessment of overall health

  12. Achromatic and uncoupled medical gantry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Kayran, Dmitry; Litvinenko, Vladimir; MacKay, William W.

    2011-11-22

    A medical gantry that focus the beam from the beginning of the gantry to the exit of the gantry independent of the rotation angle of the gantry by keeping the beam achromatic and uncoupled, thus, avoiding the use of collimators or rotators, or additional equipment to control the beam divergence, which may cause beam intensity loss or additional time in irradiation of the patient, or disadvantageously increase the overall gantry size inapplicable for the use in the medical treatment facility.

  13. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Coso Geothermal Area (1984) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Coso Geothermal Area (1984) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique...

  14. Mapping quadrupole collectivity in the Cd isotopes: The breakdown...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... LIFETIME; MEV RANGE; NUCLEAR POTENTIAL; SILVER 112; SPHERICAL CONFIGURATION; SPIN; ... PROPERTIES; POTENTIALS; RADIOISOTOPES; SILVER ISOTOPES; SPECTROSCOPY Word Cloud More ...

  15. Former Workers Medical Facilities with Experience Evaluating...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Former Workers Medical Facilities with Experience Evaluating Chronic Beryllium Disease Former Workers Medical Facilities with Experience Evaluating Chronic Beryllium Disease April...

  16. Medical Plans for Non-Medicare Retirees

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shield of New Mexico (BCBSNM) is the provider of medical benefits. Contact Retiree Insurance Providers The Laboratory offers the following two medical plans to non-Medicare...

  17. TEPP-Medical Messages | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Messages Medical Messages Index PDF icon Medical Messages More Documents & Publications TEPP - Exercise Evaluation Forms Transuranic Waste Tabletop Soil DensityMoisture Gauge...

  18. Shape memory polymer medical device (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shape memory polymer medical device Title: Shape memory polymer medical device A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport ...

  19. Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez

    2010-03-31

    Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work. The new green building houses the hospital's Family Medicine Residency Program and Specialty Medical Offices. The residency program has been vital in attracting new, young physicians to this medically underserved area. The new outpatient center will also help to allure needed medical providers to the community. The facility also has areas designated to women's health and community education. The Community Education Conference Room will provide learning opportunities to area residents. Emphasis will be placed on conserving resources and protecting our environment, as well as providing information on healthcare access and preventive medicine. The new Medical Office Building was constructed with numerous energy saving features. The exterior cladding of the building is an innovative, locally-manufactured precast concrete panel system with integral insulation that achieves an R-value in excess of building code requirements. The roof is a 'green roof' covered by native plantings, lessening the impact solar heat gain on the building, and reducing air conditioning requirements. The windows are low-E, tinted, and insulated to reduce cooling requirements in summer and heating requirements in winter. The main entrance has an air lock to prevent unconditioned air from entering the building and impacting interior air temperatures. Since much of the traffic in and out of the office building comes from the adjacent Jackson Park Hospital, a pedestrian bridge connects the two buildings, further decreasing the amount of unconditioned air that enters the office building. The HVAC system has an Energy Efficiency Rating 29% greater than required. No CFC based refrigerants were used in the HVAC system, thus reducing the emission of compounds that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. In addition, interior light fixtures employ the latest energy-efficient lamp and ballast technology. Interior lighting throughout the building is operated by sensors that will automatically turn off lights inside a room when the room is unoccupied. The electrical traction elevators use less energy than typical elevators, and they are made of 95% recycled material. Further, locally manufactured products were used throughout, minimizing the amount of energy required to construct this building. The primary objective was to construct a 30,000 square foot medical office building on the Jackson Park Hospital campus that would comply with newly adopted City of Chicago green building codes focusing on protecting the environment and conserving energy and resources. The energy saving systems demonstrate a state of the-art whole-building approach to energy efficient design and construction. The energy efficiency and green aspects of the building contribute to the community by emphasizing the environmental and economic benefits of conserving resources. The building highlights the integration of Chicago's new green building codes into a poor, inner city neighborhood project and it is designed to attract medical providers and physicians to a medically underserved area.

  20. Chemical and isotopic kinetics of sulfate reduction by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of nonbacterial sulfate reduction by organic matter in geologic environments. Sulfate is reduced by dextrose under acidic conditions at temperatures of 230-270 C. Reaction products include sulfide and organic-sulfur compounds; sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were not detected. The rate law for the initial one- or two-electron reduction of sulfate at 250C is first-order in bisulfate and about one-half-order in initial dextrose concentration, and shows a very strong dependence on pH. The kinetics of sulfate reduction by fructose at 250C are virtually the same. The lack of sulfate reduction by formaldehyde, methanol, ethanol and acetic acid at 250 C indicates that the reducing power of dextrose and fructose cannot be attributed to carbonyl, carboxyl or hydroxyl functional groups. The form of the rate law for sulfate reduction by dextrose and the presence of an induction period rather suggest that the initial reduction of sulfate occurs with free radicals derived from the thermal decomposition of the hexoses or their alteration products. The inferred sulfate-reduction reaction mechanism suggest that aqueous sulfate may be reduced to sulfide in geologic environments such as deep sedimentary basins. The observed acid-catalysis of the reaction in the laboratory may be supplanted by clay-mineral catalysis in geologic environments. Sulfur isotopes are fractionated during the reduction of sulfate by dextrose under hydrothermal conditions. Computer simulations of the isotopic evolution of the experiments suggest that sulfate-sulfide isotopic exchange largely controls the isotopic composition of sulfate and sulfide. The extent of isotopic fractionation due solely to sulfate reduction thus cannot be determined from the experiments

  1. QER Public Meeting in New Orleans, LA: Petroleum Product Transmission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Product Transmission & Distribution Meeting Date and Location: May 27, 2014 - 9:00 AM Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans Lecture Room, Medical ...

  2. Strontium-isotope stratigraphy of Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, K.R.; Halley, R.B.; Simmons, K.R.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1988-02-01

    /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios determined for samples from a 350 m core of Neogene lagoonal, shallow-water limestones from Enewetak Atoll display a remarkably informative trend. Like the recently published data for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) carbonates, /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr at Enewetak increases monotonically but not smoothly from the early Miocene to the Pleistocene. The data show intervals of little or no change in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, punctuated by sharp transitions to lower values toward greater core depths. The sharp transitions correlate with observed solution disconformities caused by periods of subaerial erosion, whereas the intervals of little or no change in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr correspond to intervals of rapid accumulation of shallow-water carbonate sediments. When converted to numerical ages using the published DSDP 590B trend, the best-resolved time breaks are at 282 m (12.3 to 18.2 Ma missing) and 121.6 m (3.0 to 5.3 Ma missing) below the lagoon floor. At Enewetak, Sr isotopes offer a stratigraphic resolution for these shallow-marine Neogene carbonates comparable to that of nannofossil zonation in deep-sea carbonates (0.3-3 m.y.). In addition, the correlation of times of Sr-isotope breaks at Enewetak with times of rapid Sr-isotope change in the DSDP 590B samples confirms the importance of sea-level changes in the evolution of global-marine Sr isotopes and shows that the Sr-isotope response to sea-level falls is rapid.

  3. Method of enhancing selective isotope desorption from metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Plainsboro, NJ); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    A method of enhancing the thermal desorption of a first isotope of a diatomic gas from a metal comprises the steps of (a) establishing a partial pressure of a second isotope of the diatomic gas in vicinity of the metal; heating the metal to a temperature such that the first isotope is desorbed from the metal; and reducing the partial pressure of the desorbed first isotope while maintaining the partial pressure of the second isotope substantially constant. The method is especially useful for enhancing the desorption of tritium from the Zr-Al getter in a plasma confinement device.

  4. Enriching stable isotopes: Alternative use for Urenco technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhorst, H.; de Jong, P.G.T.; Dawson, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    The International Urenco Group utilizes a technologically advanced centrifuge process to enrich uranium in the fissionable isotope {sup 235}U. The group operates plants in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Germany and currently holds a 10% share of the multibillion dollar world enrichment market. In the early 1990s, Urenco embarked on a strategy of building on the company`s uniquely advanced centrifuge process and laser isotope separation (LIS) experience to enrich nonradioactive isotopes colloquially known as stable isotopes. This paper summarizes the present status of Urenco`s stable isotopes business.

  5. SOURCE OF PRODUCTS OF NUCLEAR FISSION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, P.; Dondes, S.

    1960-03-15

    A source of fission product recoil energy suitable for use in radiation chemistry is reported. The source consists of thermal neutron irradiated glass wool having a diameter of 1 to 5 microns and containing an isotope fissionable by thermal neutrons, such as U/sup 235/.

  6. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor Project: FY13 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, David E.; Coble, Jamie B.; Jordan, David V.; Mcdonald, Luther W.; Forrester, Joel B.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Unlu, Kenan; Landsberger, Sheldon; Bender, Sarah; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Reilly, Dallas D.

    2013-09-01

    The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor provides an efficient approach to monitoring the process conditions in reprocessing facilities in support of the goal of (minimization of) the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The MIP Monitor measures the distribution of the radioactive isotopes in product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. These isotopes are monitored online by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to spectral patterns representing normal process conditions using multivariate analysis and pattern recognition algorithms. The combination of multivariate analysis and gamma spectroscopy allows us to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. By targeting multiple gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, relatively high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. The automated multivariate analysis can provide a level of data obscurity, giving a built-in information barrier to protect sensitive or proprietary operational data. Proof-of-concept simulations and experiments have been performed in previous years to demonstrate the validity of this tool in a laboratory setting for systems representing aqueous reprocessing facilities. However, pyroprocessing is emerging as an alternative to aqueous reprocessing techniques.

  7. Method of preparing mercury with an arbitrary isotopic distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides for a process for preparing mercury with a predetermined, arbitrary, isotopic distribution. In one embodiment, different isotopic types of Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2, corresponding to the predetermined isotopic distribution of Hg desired, are placed in an electrolyte solution of HCl and H.sub.2 O. The resulting mercurous ions are then electrolytically plated onto a cathode wire producing mercury containing the predetermined isotopic distribution. In a similar fashion, Hg with a predetermined isotopic distribution is obtained from different isotopic types of HgO. In this embodiment, the HgO is dissolved in an electrolytic solution of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. The isotopic specific Hg is then electrolytically plated onto a cathode and then recovered.

  8. Method of preparing mercury with an arbitrary isotopic distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1986-12-16

    This invention provides for a process for preparing mercury with a predetermined, arbitrary, isotopic distribution. In one embodiment, different isotopic types of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2], corresponding to the predetermined isotopic distribution of Hg desired, are placed in an electrolyte solution of HCl and H[sub 2]O. The resulting mercurous ions are then electrolytically plated onto a cathode wire producing mercury containing the predetermined isotopic distribution. In a similar fashion, Hg with a predetermined isotopic distribution is obtained from different isotopic types of HgO. In this embodiment, the HgO is dissolved in an electrolytic solution of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The isotopic specific Hg is then electrolytically plated onto a cathode and then recovered. 1 fig.

  9. Improving Anti-Influenza Medications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving Anti-Influenza Medications Improving Anti-Influenza Medications Print Monday, 07 March 2016 16:16 The annual flu epidemics caused by influenza viruses, especially the influenza A virus, affect about 10-20% of the world's population each season. This highly contagious illness can trigger serious complications and can still lead at times to death, even today. Scientists have been working for a while with the M2 proton channel from the influenza A virus, which is one of nature's smallest

  10. Hydrogen isotopic exchange over palladium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carstens, D.H.W.; Encinias, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently developed the laser-Raman technique as a means of unambiguously measuring the partial pressures of all possible hydrogen isotopes in the gas phase. Using this technique we have investigated the hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a number of metals. This report presents detailed data for isotopic exchange in the palladium hydride system over the temperature range 26{degree}C to -100{degree}C at a pressure of 7 atm. First order kinetic rate constants and activation energies are summarized for the forward (hydride to deuteride) and reverse (deuteride to hydride) exchange processes. In addition, we have found that small amounts (100 ppm) of impurities in the exchange gases considerably slow the exchange kinetics with the effect increasing down the series CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CO. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Regioselective synthesis using the deuterium isotope effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyano, M.

    1981-04-24

    Dehydration of 1a by various procedures invariably produced more exo olefin 2a than endo olefin 3a. This could be reversed by introduction of deuterium in the Me-21 group of the starting material. Thus, dehydration of 1b could afford more endo olefin 3b than exo olefin 2b due to the deuterium isotope effect. A regioselective synthesis of 18-oxoprogesterone (15a) from 3..beta..-hydroxypregn-5-en-20-one (5a) was carried out taking advantage of the deuterium isotope effect as depicted in Scheme I. The key steps were dehydration of 7b to predominantly endo olefin 9b and removal of the deuteriums from 18-oxoprogesterone-17..cap alpha..,21,21,21-d/sub 4/ (15b) to give 15a.

  12. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods testedmore » are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions.« less

  13. Optically pumped isotopic ammonia laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchwald, Melvin I.; Jones, Claude R.; Nelson, Leonard Y.

    1982-01-01

    An optically pumped isotopic ammonia laser system which is capable of producing a plurality of frequencies in the middle infrared spectral region. Two optical pumping mechanisms are disclosed, i.e., pumping on R(J) and lasing on P(J) in response to enhancement of rotational cascade lasing including stimulated Raman effects, and, pumping on R(J) and lasing on P(J+2). The disclosed apparatus for optical pumping include a hole coupled cavity and a grating coupled cavity.

  14. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (?15N and ?18O) but all methods tested are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions.

  15. Separation of uranium isotopes by chemical exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ogle, P.R. Jr.

    1974-02-26

    A chemical exchange method is provided for separating /sup 235/U from / sup 238/U comprising contacting a first phase containing UF/sub 6/ with a second phase containing a compound selected from the group consisting of NOUF/sub 6/, NOUF/sub 7/, and NO/sub 2/UF/sub 7/ until the U Fsub 6/ in the first phase becomes enriched in the /sup 235/U isotope. (Official Gazette)

  16. Concerning the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Symons, James

    2013-05-29

    James Symons, Nuclear Science Division Director at Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and Daniela Leitner, head of operations at Berkeley Lab's 88-Inch Cyclotron, discuss major contributions to the new Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University, including ion source, which will based on the VENUS source built for the 88-Inch Cyclotron, and the GRETA gamma-ray detector now under construction there.

  17. FILTR: Flash Isotope Library and Training Resource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, D; Trombino, D

    2007-07-26

    The subject of radiation detection is replete with complex concepts and challenging nomenclature. Furthermore, a daunting variety of radioactive isotopes may be encountered during the routine operation of a radiation detector. Individuals tasked with searching for illicit sources of radiation must remain vigilant while navigating through more frequently encountered mundane and legitimate radioactive sources. The Flash Isotope Library and Training Resource (FILTR) is being developed as an easily accessible and intuitive reference tool to manage the high volume of complex information required for this task. FILTR is an extended version of the Primary Utility for Nuclear Terminology (PUNT) software developed by the Counter Measures Test Beds group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the United States Secret Service. Authored in the Flash multimedia development environment, FILTR contains detailed information on potentially encountered isotopes as well as training on radiation and operational procedures. Reference material is organized to present critical information quickly while facilitating more in-depth investigation through an intuitive interface and engaging content. FILTR is being developed for a diverse audience of law enforcement organizations and government agencies and a wide range of skill sets from expert analysts to officers whose primary role is not radiation detection. Additionally, the wide compatibility of Flash content will allow FILTR to be readily accessible through the growing number of multi-media enabled electronic devices, including PDAs and cellular phones.

  18. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1991-08-20

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen. 4 figures.

  19. First AID (Atom counting for Isotopic Determination).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, J. L. (Jeffrey L.); Israel, K. M. (Kimberly M.); Steiner, R. E. (Robert E.); Duffy, C. J. (Clarence J.); Roench, F. R. (Fred R.)

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established an in vitro bioassay monitoring program in compliance with the requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. One aspect of this program involves monitoring plutonium levels in at-risk workers. High-risk workers are monitored using the ultra-sensitive Therrnal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) technique to ensure compliance with DOE standards. TIMS is used to measure atom ratios of 239Pua nd 240Puw ith respect to a tracer isotope ('Pu). These ratios are then used to calculate the amount of 239Pu and 240Pup resent. This low-level atom counting technique allows the calculation of the concentration levels of 239Pu and 240Pu in urine for at risk workers. From these concentration levels, dose assessments can be made and worker exposure levels can be monitored. Detection limits for TIMS analysis are on the order of millions of atoms, which translates to activity levels of 150 aCi 239Pua nd 500 aCi for 240Pu. pCi for Our poster presentation will discuss the ultra-sensitive, low-level analytical technique used to measure plutonium isotopes and the data verification methods used for validating isotopic measurements.

  20. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  1. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1991-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  2. Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

    2011-04-01

    This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

  3. Xe-135 Production from Cf-252

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. A. McGrath; T. P. Houghton; J. K. Pfeiffer; R. K. Hague

    2012-03-01

    135Xe is a good indicator that fission has occurred and is a valuable isotope that helps enforce the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Due to its rather short half life and minimal commercial interest, there are no known sources where 135Xe can be purchased. Readily available standards of this isotope for calibrating collection and analytical techniques would be very useful. 135Xe can be produced in the fissioning of actinide isotopes, or by neutron capture on 134Xe. Since the neutron capture cross section of 134Xe is 3 mB, neutron capture is a low yield, though potentially useful, production route. 135Xe is also produced by spontaneous fission of 252Cf. 252Cf has a spontaneous fission rate of about 6 x 1011 s-1g-1. The cumulative yield from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf is 4.19%; and the competing neutron capture reaction that depletes 135Xe in thermal reactor systems is negligible because the neutron capture cross-section is low for fast fission neutrons. At the INL, scientists have previously transported fission products from an electroplated 252Cf thin source for the measurement of nuclear data of short-lived fission products using a technique called He-Jet collection. We have applied a similar system to the collection of gaseous 135Xe, in order to produce valuable standards of this isotope.

  4. Isotope shifts in francium isotopes Fr 206 - 213 and Fr 221

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; FrPNC Collaboration

    2014-11-07

    We present the isotope shifts of the 7s1/2 to 7p1/2 transition for francium isotopes ²⁰⁶⁻²¹³Fr with reference to ²²¹Fr collected from two experimental periods. The shifts are measured on a sample of atoms prepared within a magneto-optical trap by a fast sweep of radio-frequency sidebands applied to a carrier laser. King plot analysis, which includes literature values for 7s1/2 to 7p3/2 isotope shifts, provides a field shift constant ratio of 1.0520(10) and a difference between the specific mass shift constants of 170(100) GHz amu between the D₁ and D₂ transitions, of sufficient precision to differentiate between ab initio calculations.

  5. Medical implants and methods of making medical implants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaw, Wendy J; Yonker, Clement R; Fulton, John L; Tarasevich, Barbara J; McClain, James B; Taylor, Doug

    2014-09-16

    A medical implant device having a substrate with an oxidized surface and a silane derivative coating covalently bonded to the oxidized surface. A bioactive agent is covalently bonded to the silane derivative coating. An implantable stent device including a stent core having an oxidized surface with a layer of silane derivative covalently bonded thereto. A spacer layer comprising polyethylene glycol (PEG) is covalently bonded to the layer of silane derivative and a protein is covalently bonded to the PEG. A method of making a medical implant device including providing a substrate having a surface, oxidizing the surface and reacting with derivitized silane to form a silane coating covalently bonded to the surface. A bioactive agent is then covalently bonded to the silane coating. In particular instances, an additional coating of bio-absorbable polymer and/or pharmaceutical agent is deposited over the bioactive agent.

  6. Isotopic hydrogen analysis via conventional and surface-enhanced fiber optic Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LASCOLA, ROBERT

    2004-09-23

    This report describes laboratory development and process plant applications of Raman spectroscopy for detection of hydrogen isotopes in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a U.S. Department of Energy complex. Raman spectroscopy provides a lower-cost, in situ alternative to mass spectrometry techniques currently employed at SRS. Using conventional Raman and fiber optics, we have measured, in the production facility glove boxes, process mixtures of protium and deuterium at various compositions and total pressures ranging from 1000-4000 torr, with detection limits ranging from 1-2 percent for as low as 3-second integration times. We are currently investigating fabrication techniques for SERS surfaces in order to measure trace (0.01-0.1 percent) amounts of one isotope in the presence of the other. These efforts have concentrated on surfaces containing palladium, which promotes hydrogen dissociation and forms metal hydride bonds, essentially providing a chemical enhancement mechanism.

  7. Mapping quadrupole collectivity in the Cd isotopes: The breakdown of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    harmonic vibrational motion (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Mapping quadrupole collectivity in the Cd isotopes: The breakdown of harmonic vibrational motion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mapping quadrupole collectivity in the Cd isotopes: The breakdown of harmonic vibrational motion The stable Cd isotopes have long been used as paradigms for spherical vibrational motion. Extensive investigations with in-beam {gamma} spectroscopy have resulted in very-well-established level

  8. Fact Sheet: Facility For Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) Applicant Selection |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Facility For Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) Applicant Selection Fact Sheet: Facility For Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) Applicant Selection December 11, 2008 - 8:51am Addthis Based on the analyses and recommendations over the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science determined that the establishment of a Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a high priority for the future of U.S. nuclear science research. This determination and supporting rationale

  9. Nitrogen concentration and isotope dataset for environmental samples from

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2012 and 2013, Barrow, Alaska (Dataset) | Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results Nitrogen concentration and isotope dataset for environmental samples from 2012 and 2013, Barrow, Alaska Title: Nitrogen concentration and isotope dataset for environmental samples from 2012 and 2013, Barrow, Alaska Dataset includes nitrate concentrations for polygonal active layer samples, snowmelt; ammonium concentrations for active layer samples; nitrate isotopes for active layer samples, snowmelt,

  10. Physicist wins early-career award for isotope work

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May » Physicist wins early-career award for isotope work Physicist wins early-career award for isotope work Jonathan Ward Engle, is among 49 winners, of the US Department of Energy's Early Career Research Program awards for 2016. May 12, 2016 Jonathan Ward Engle Jonathan Ward Engle Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email "Jonathan's work brings distinctive mission and science together, connecting the strong history of Los Alamos research in isotopes with

  11. COLLOQUIUM: Facility for Rare Isotope Beams - Scientific Opportunities and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Challenges | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab February 4, 2015, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Facility for Rare Isotope Beams - Scientific Opportunities and Technical Challenges Dr. Georg Bollen Michigan State University - The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams Wednesday Colloquium, February 4, 2015, "Facility for Rare Isotope Beams - Scientific Opportunities and Technial Chanllenges", Dr. Georg Bollen Colloquium Committee: The Princeton Plasma Physics

  12. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  13. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Exploration Basis Faulder 1991 Conceptual Geological Model compilation and literature review of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area. Notes Stable isotope analysis...

  14. Isotopic Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Evans...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Evans, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  15. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    western United States. Limited analyses of spring and borehole fluids and existing experimental rate studies suggest that dissolved sulfate and water are probably in isotopic...

  16. Isotopic Analysis At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Lassen Volcanic National Park Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness...

  17. Method of isotope separation by chemi-ionization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wexler, Sol; Young, Charles E.

    1977-05-17

    A method for separating specific isotopes present in an isotopic mixture by aerodynamically accelerating a gaseous compound to form a jet of molecules, and passing the jet through a stream of electron donor atoms whereby an electron transfer takes place, thus forming negative ions of the molecules. The molecular ions are then passed through a radiofrequency quadrupole mass filter to separate the specific isotopes. This method may be used for any compounds having a sufficiently high electron affinity to permit negative ion formation, and is especially useful for the separation of plutonium and uranium isotopes.

  18. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell & Garside...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell & Garside, 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 2002 -...

  19. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Rose Valley Geothermal Area (1990...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rose Valley Geothermal Area (1990) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Rose Valley Geothermal Area (1990)...

  20. Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Estimate deep reservoir temperature Notes The oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes have been tested. Methods are...

  1. Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Estimate deep reservoir temperature Notes The oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes have been tested. Methods are...

  2. Isotopic Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Phillips, 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

  3. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phillips, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area...

  4. Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Raft River Geothermal Area (1982)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Raft River Geothermal Area (1982) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River...

  5. Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Raft River Geothermal Area (1977)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis-Fluid At Raft River Geothermal Area (1977) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River...

  6. Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Helium...

  7. Establishment of the Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Establishment of the Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) ...

  8. Isotopic Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  9. Isotopic Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  10. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Coso Geothermal Area (1990) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1990 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown...

  11. Isotopic Analysis At Clear Lake Area (Thompson, Et Al., 1992...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity Details Location Clear Lake Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Deuterium and...

  12. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Indian Valley Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Details Location Indian Valley Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1990 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown...

  13. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Details Location Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References...

  14. Isotopic Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  15. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Sierra Valley Geothermal Area (1990...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Sierra Valley Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1990 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown...

  16. Isotopic Analysis At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Laney,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  17. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Taylor & Gerlach, 1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Long...

  18. Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date 2007 - 2007 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory sampling and analysis of He isotopes from Chena Hot Springs....

  19. Temperature effects on the behavior of liquid hydrogen isotopes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    liquid hydrogen isotopes inside a spherical-shell directly driven inertial confinement fusion target Kim, K.; Mok, L.S. 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; LASER TARGETS;...

  20. Isotopic Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date...

  1. Isotopic Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 2000...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 2000) Exploration Activity Details Location Mt St Helens Area Exploration Technique...

  2. Isotopic Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Goff, Et Al., 1982) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al.,...

  3. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WoldeGabriel & Goff, 1992) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal...

  4. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Rao...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analyzed for their hydrogen and oxygen isotope contents as a part of previous studies (Goff & Grigsby, 1982; Vuataz & Goff, 1986). The present study focuses on the interpretation...

  5. Isotopic Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Goff & Janik, 2002)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration...

  6. Isotopic Analysis At Jemez Springs Area (Rao, Et Al., 1996) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analyzed for their hydrogen and oxygen isotope contents as a part of previous studies (Goff & Grigsby, 1982; Vuataz & Goff, 1986). The present study focuses on the interpretation...

  7. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analyzed for their hydrogen and oxygen isotope contents as a part of previous studies (Goff & Grigsby, 1982; Vuataz & Goff, 1986). The present study focuses on the interpretation...

  8. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analyzed for their hydrogen and oxygen isotope contents as a part of previous studies (Goff & Grigsby, 1982; Vuataz & Goff, 1986). The present study focuses on the interpretation...

  9. Isotopic Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995) Exploration Activity Details Location Mt St Helens Area Exploration Technique...

  10. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al., 1982) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

  11. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al., 1985) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

  12. Isotopic Analysis At Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration...

  13. Isotopic Analysis At San Juan Volcanic Field Area (Larson & Jr...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Juan Volcanic Field Area (Larson & Jr, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At San Juan Volcanic Field...

  14. Isotopic Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Sturchio, Et Al., 1990...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  15. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Coso Geothermal Area (1982) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1982 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis...

  16. Isotopic Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Smith...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Smith & Suemnicht, 1991) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Smith &...

  17. Strontium Isotopes Test Long-Term Zonal Isolation of Injected...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water after Hydraulic Fracturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Strontium Isotopes Test Long-Term Zonal Isolation of Injected and Marcellus Formation Water after ...

  18. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  19. Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Through 30 September Activity T. Winnett, Cathy J. Janik (1986) Isotopic Composition of Carbon in Fluids from the Long Valley Geothermal System, California, In- Proceedings of...

  20. Isotopic Analysis At Newberry Caldera Area (Goles & Lambert,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References Gordon G. Goles, Richard St J. Lambert (1990) A Strontium Isotopic Study Of Newberry Volcano,...

  1. Unusual superconducting isotope effect in the presence of a quantum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Unusual superconducting isotope effect in the presence of a quantum criticality Authors: Kedem, Yaron ; Zhu, Jian-Xin ; Balatsky, Alexander V. Publication Date: 2016-05-23 ...

  2. Isotopic Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Cole, 1983...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cole, 1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Cole, 1983) Exploration Activity...

  3. John De Laeter Centre For Isotope Research | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for John De Laeter Centre For Isotope Research Citation Curtin University. John...

  4. Hydrogeological And Isotopic Survey Of Geothermal Fields In The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogeological And Isotopic Survey Of Geothermal Fields In The Buyuk Menderes Graben, Turkey Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  5. Hydrogen Isotope Separation From Noble Gasses in Plasma Exhausts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Isotope Separation From Noble Gasses in Plasma Exhausts and Other Gas Streams --- Inventors Thomas A. Kozub, William R. Blanchard and Charles A. Gentile The objective of...

  6. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Marcucci, Rudolph V.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  7. Measurement of Plutonium Isotopic Composition - MGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vo, Duc Ta

    2015-08-21

    In this module, we will use the Canberra InSpector-2000 Multichannel Analyzer with a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and the MGA isotopic anlysis software to assay a variety of plutonium samples. The module provides an understanding of the MGA method, its attributes and limitations. You will assess the system performance by measuring a range of materials similar to those you may assay in your work. During the final verification exercise, the results from MGA will be combined with the 240Pueff results from neutron coincidence or multiplicity counters so that measurements of the plutonium mass can be compared with the operator-declared (certified) values.

  8. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, S.W.

    1960-01-26

    A method is described for controlling the position of the ion beams in a calutron used for isotope separation. The U/sup 238/ beams is centered over the U/sup 235/ receiving pocket, the operator monitoring the beam until a maximum reading is achieved on the meter connected to that pocket. Then both beams are simultaneously shifted by a preselected amount to move the U/sup 235/ beam over the U/sup 235/ pocket. A slotted door is placed over the entrance to that pocket during the U/sup 238/ beam centering to reduce the contamination to the pocket, while allowing enough beam to pass for monitoring purposes.

  9. JLab Registration/International Services - Medical Insurance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medical Insurance A visitor and student medical insurance plan is available for purchase. A copy of each insurance applicant's valid visa/immigration documentation (if a foreign national) or driver's license (if US citizen) is required to process insurance documentation. This insurance option is offered to insure the availability of quality medical care to all of our visiting researchers and their dependents while at Jefferson Lab. Medical plans include prescription cards to all enrollees. This

  10. ORISE: Worker Health Studies - Medical Data Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medical Data Management Medical Data Management The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) provides the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other government agencies with health and medical data management and related information technology services. Through partnership development and in-house expertise, ORISE develops and manages electronic medical recordkeeping for health surveillance programs for active and former worker populations. ORISE has extensive experience working with

  11. Plutonium Isotopic Gamma-Ray Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-01-08

    The MGA8 (Multiple Group Analysis) program determines the relative abundances of plutonium and other actinide isotopes in different materials. The program analyzes spectra taken of such samples using a 4096-channel germanium (Ge) gamma-ray spectrometer. The code can be run in a one or two detector mode. The first spectrum, which is required and must be taken at a gain of 0.075 Kev/channel with a high resolution planar detector, contains the 0-300 Kev energy region. Themore » second spectrum, which is optional, must be taken at a gain of 0.25 Kev/channel; it becomes important when analyzing high burnup samples (concentration of Pu241 greater than one percent). Isotopic analysis precisions of one percent or better can be obtained, and no calibrations are required. The system also measures the abundances of U235, U238, Np237, and Am241. A special calibration option is available to perform a one-time peak-shape characterization when first using a new detector system.« less

  12. Plutonium Isotopic Gamma-Ray Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-01-08

    The MGA8 (Multiple Group Analysis) program determines the relative abundances of plutonium and other actinide isotopes in different materials. The program analyzes spectra taken of such samples using a 4096-channel germanium (Ge) gamma-ray spectrometer. The code can be run in a one or two detector mode. The first spectrum, which is required and must be taken at a gain of 0.075 Kev/channel with a high resolution planar detector, contains the 0-300 Kev energy region. Themore »second spectrum, which is optional, must be taken at a gain of 0.25 Kev/channel; it becomes important when analyzing high burnup samples (concentration of Pu241 greater than one percent). Isotopic analysis precisions of one percent or better can be obtained, and no calibrations are required. The system also measures the abundances of U235, U238, Np237, and Am241. A special calibration option is available to perform a one-time peak-shape characterization when first using a new detector system.« less

  13. Supported palladium materials for isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutherford, W.M.; Ellis, R.E.; Abell, G.C.

    1988-01-21

    Several palladium packing materials were investigated for their suitability for use in the separation of hydrogen isotopes by displacement chromatography. The materials included palladium on Chromosorb and several formulations of palladium on commercially available alpha-alumina-based catalyst supports. All materials showed some degradation upon being subjected to repeated hydriding-dehydriding cycles; however, the degradation did not lead to unacceptably low permeability to gas flow. Dynamic performance of the packings was evaluated by displacement of deuterium with protium at several temperatures and flow rates. Isotopic exchange was generally rapid. However, high surface area packings (greater than 4 m/sup 2//g) yielded transition zones that were initially sharp, but had long ''tails'' at deuterium concentrations below 5%. Best results were obtained with a packing containing 48.2% palladium on Norton catalyst support No. SA5*21 (surface area = 0.33 m/sup 2//g). Improved performance was observed as the displacement temperature was increased to 80/sup 0/C from 22/sup 0/C. The slight decrease in equilibrium separation was more than offset by improved kinetics at the higher temperature. 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Compact accelerator for medical therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hawkins, Steven A.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Paul, Arthur C.

    2010-05-04

    A compact accelerator system having an integrated particle generator-linear accelerator with a compact, small-scale construction capable of producing an energetic (.about.70-250 MeV) proton beam or other nuclei and transporting the beam direction to a medical therapy patient without the need for bending magnets or other hardware often required for remote beam transport. The integrated particle generator-accelerator is actuable as a unitary body on a support structure to enable scanning of a particle beam by direction actuation of the particle generator-accelerator.

  15. Medical Records Checklist - September 14, 2010 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information that should be requested by SOMD of receiving facility Medical records: Problem list: list of all past and current medical diagnosis and surgical procedures. Medication ...

  16. ORISE: The Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident Preparedness...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident Preparedness: Medical Management Proceedings of the Fifth International REACTS Symposium on the Medical Basis for Radiation-Accident ...

  17. Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Medical...

  18. Isoscalar and neutron modes in the E 1 spectra of Ni isotopes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ni isotopes and the relevance of shell effects and the continuum Citation Details ... Ni isotopes and the relevance of shell effects and the continuum Authors: ...

  19. Isotopic fractionation associated with [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-hydrogenases...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Isotopic fractionation associated with NiFe- and FeFe-hydrogenases Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Isotopic fractionation associated with NiFe- and ...

  20. Design, Development and Operational Experience of Demonstration Facility for Cs-137 Source Pencil Production at Trombay - 13283

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, S.B.; Srivastava, P.; Mishra, S.K.; Khan, S.S.; Nair, K.N.S.

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive waste management is a vital aspect of any nuclear program. The commercial feasibility of the nuclear program largely depends on the efficiency of the waste management techniques. One of such techniques is the separation of high yield radio-nuclides from the waste and making it suitable for medical and industrial applications. This will give societal benefit in addition to revenue generation. Co-60, the isotope presently being used for medical applications, needs frequent replacement because of its short half life. Cs-137, the major constituent of the nuclear waste, is a suitable substitute for Co-60 as a radioactive source because of its longer half life (28 years). Indian nuclear waste management program has given special emphasis on utilization of Cs-137 for such applications. In view of this a demonstration facility has been designed for vitrification of Cs-137 in borosilicate glass, cast in stainless steel pencils, to be used as source pencils of 300 Ci strength for blood irradiation. An induction heated metallic melter of suitable capacity has been custom designed for the application and employed for the Cs-137 pencil fabrication facility. This article describes various systems, design features, experiments and resulting modifications, observations and remote handling features necessary for the actual operation of such facility. The layout of the facility has been planned in such a way that the same can be adopted in a hot cell for commercial production of source pencils. (authors)

  1. Propagation of Isotopic Bias and Uncertainty to Criticality Safety Analyses of PWR Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radulescu, Georgeta

    2010-06-01

    Burnup credit methodology is economically advantageous because significantly higher loading capacity may be achieved for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks based on this methodology as compared to the loading capacity based on a fresh fuel assumption. However, the criticality safety analysis for establishing the loading curve based on burnup credit becomes increasingly complex as more parameters accounting for spent fuel isotopic compositions are introduced to the safety analysis. The safety analysis requires validation of both depletion and criticality calculation methods. Validation of a neutronic-depletion code consists of quantifying the bias and the uncertainty associated with the bias in predicted SNF compositions caused by cross-section data uncertainty and by approximations in the calculational method. The validation is based on comparison between radiochemical assay (RCA) data and calculated isotopic concentrations for fuel samples representative of SNF inventory. The criticality analysis methodology for commercial SNF disposal allows burnup credit for 14 actinides and 15 fission product isotopes in SNF compositions. The neutronic-depletion method for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is the two-dimensional (2-D) depletion sequence TRITON (Transport Rigor Implemented with Time-dependent Operation for Neutronic depletion)/NEWT (New ESC-based Weighting Transport code) and the 44GROUPNDF5 crosssection library in the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE 5.1) code system. The SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 cross section library is based on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version V (ENDF/B-V) library. The criticality calculation code for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is General Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Transport Code. The purpose of this calculation report is to determine the bias on the calculated effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, due to the bias and bias uncertainty associated with predicted spent fuel compositions (i.e., determine the penalty in reactivity due to isotopic composition bias and uncertainty) for use in disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit. The method used in this calculation to propagate the isotopic bias and bias-uncertainty values to k{sub eff} is the Monte Carlo uncertainty sampling method. The development of this report is consistent with 'Test Plan for: Isotopic Validation for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel'. This calculation report has been developed in support of burnup credit activities for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and provides a methodology that can be applied to other criticality safety applications employing burnup credit.

  2. Isotopic generator for bismuth-212 and lead-212 based on radium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hines, J.J.; Atcher, R.W.; Friedman, A.M.

    1985-01-30

    Disclosed are method and apparatus for providing radionuclides of bismuth-212 and lead-212. Thorium-228 and carrier solution starting material is input to a radiologically contained portion of an isotopic generator system, and radium-224 is separated from thorium-228 which is retained by a strongly basic anion exchange column. The separated radium-224 is transferred to an accessible, strongly acidic cationic exchange column. The cationic column retains the radium-224, and natural radioactive decay generates bismuth-212 and lead-212. The cationic exchange column can also be separated from the contained portion of the system and utilized without the extraordinary safety measures necessary in the contained portion. Furthermore, the cationic exchange column provides over a relatively long time period the short lived lead-212 and bismuth-212 radionuclides which are useful for a variety of medical therapies.

  3. Production Pathways and Separation Procedures for High-Diagnostic-Value Activation Species, Fission Products, and Actinides Required for Preparation of Realistic Synthetic Post-Detonation Nuclear Debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faye, S A; Shaughnessy, D A

    2015-08-19

    The objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive study on the production routes and chemical separation requirements for activation products, fission products, and actinides required for the creation of realistic post-detonation surrogate debris. Isotopes that have been prioritized by debris diagnosticians will be examined for their ability to be produced at existing irradiation sources, production rates, and availability of target materials, and chemical separation procedures required to rapidly remove the products from the bulk target matrix for subsequent addition into synthetic debris samples. The characteristics and implications of the irradiation facilities on the isotopes of interest will be addressed in addition to a summary of the isotopes that are already regularly produced.

  4. Test results of a new detector system for gamma ray isotopic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcom, J.E.; Bonner, C.A.; Hurd, J.R.; Fleissner,

    1993-08-01

    A new type of gamma-ray detector system for isotopic measurements has been developed. This new system, a ``Duo detector`` array, consists of two intrinsic germanium detectors, a planar followed by a coaxial mounted on the same axis within a single cryostat assembly. This configuration allows the isotopic analysis system to take advantage of spectral data results that are collected simultaneously from different gamma-ray energy regimes. Princeton Gamma Tech (PGT) produced several prototypes of this Duo detector array which were then tested by Rocky Flats personnel until the design was optimized. An application for this detector design is in automated, roboticized NDA systems such as those being developed at the Los Alamos TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The Duo detector design reduces the space necessary for the isotopic instrument by a factor of two (only one liquid nitrogen dewar is needed), and also reduces the complexity of the mechanical systems and controlling software. Data will be presented on measurements of nuclear material with a Duo detector for a wide variety of matrices. Results indicate that the maximum count rate can be increased up to 100,000 counts per second yet maintaining excellent resolution and energy rate product.

  5. Design of a formaldehyde photodissociation process for carbon and oxygen isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Scheibner, K.F.

    1993-01-20

    The current shortage of {sup 18}O has revived interest in using one step UV photodissociation of formaldehyde to enrich {sup 13}C, {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O. The frequency doubled output of the copper laser pumped dye laser system currently in operation at LLNL can be used to drive this dissociation. The authors use a simple kinetics model and their experience with Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process design to examine the relative merits of different designs for a formaldehyde photodissociation process. Given values for the molecular photoabsorption cross section, partition function, spectroscopic selectivity, collisional exchange and quenching cross sections (all as parameters), they perform a partial optimization in the space of illuminated area, formaldehyde pressure in each stage, and formaldehyde residence time in each stage. They examine the effect of cascade design (heads and tails staging) on molecule and photon utilization for each of the three isotope separation missions, and look in one case at the system`s response to different ratios of laser to formaldehyde costs. Finally, they examine the relative cost of enrichment as a function of isotope and product assay. Emphasis is as much on the process design methodology, which is general, as on the specific application to formaldehyde.

  6. Remote Handling and Maintenance in the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, Thomas W; Aaron, Adam M; Carroll, Adam J; DeVore, Joe R; Giuliano, Dominic R; Graves, Van B; Bennett, Richard P; Bollen, Georg; Cole, Daniel F.; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Schein, Mike E; Zeller, Albert F

    2011-01-01

    Michigan State University (MSU) in East Lansing, MI was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to design and establish a Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), a cutting-edge research facility to advance the understanding of rare nuclear isotopes and the evolution of the cosmos. The research conducted at the FRIB will involve experimentation with intense beams of rare isotopes within a well-shielded target cell that will result in activation and contamination of components. The target cell is initially hands-on accessible after shutdown and a brief cool-down period. Personnel are expected to have hands-on access to the tops of shielded component modules with the activated in-beam sections suspended underneath. The modules are carefully designed to include steel shielding for protecting personnel during these hand-on operations. However, as the facility has greater levels of activation and contamination, a bridge mounted servomaniputor may be added to the cell, to perform the disconnecting of services to the component assemblies. Dexterous remote handling and exchange of the modularized activated components is completed at a shielded window workstation with a pair of master-slave manipulators. The primary components requiring exchange or maintenance are the production target, the beam wedge filter, the beam dump, and the beam focusing and bending magnets. This paper provides an overview of the FRIB Target Facility remote handling and maintenance design requirements, concepts, and techniques.

  7. Multi-purpose hydrogen isotopes separation plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boniface, H.A.; Gnanapragasam, N.V.; Ryland, D.K.; Suppiah, S.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    There is a potential interest at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories to remove tritium from moderately tritiated light water and to reclaim tritiated, downgraded heavy water. With only a few limitations, a single CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process configuration can be designed to remove tritium from heavy water or light water and upgrade heavy water. Such a design would have some restrictions on the nature of the feed-stock and tritium product, but could produce essentially tritium-free light or heavy water that is chemically pure. The extracted tritium is produced as a small quantity of tritiated heavy water. The overall plant capacity is fixed by the total amount of electrolysis and volume of catalyst. In this proposal, with 60 kA of electrolysis a throughput of 15 kg*h{sup -1} light water for detritiation, about 4 kg*h{sup -1} of heavy water for detritiation and about 27 kg*h{sup -1} of 98% heavy water for upgrading can be processed. Such a plant requires about 1,000 liters of AECL isotope exchange catalyst. The general design features and details of this multi-purpose CECE process are described in this paper, based on some practical choices of design criteria. In addition, we outline the small differences that must be accommodated and some compromises that must be made to make the plant capable of such flexible operation. (authors)

  8. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Raparia, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  9. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor Project: FY12 Progress and Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Orton, Christopher R.; Jordan, David V.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Bender, Sarah; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Unlu, Kenan; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2012-09-27

    The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), provides an efficient approach to monitoring the process conditions in reprocessing facilities in support of the goal of "...(minimization of) the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism." The MIP Monitor measures distributions of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. These indicator isotopes are monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to spectral patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. The monitor utilizes this multivariate analysis and gamma spectroscopy of reprocessing streams to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. Multivariate analysis methods common in chemometrics, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS), act as pattern recognition techniques, which can detect small deviations from the expected, nominal condition. By targeting multiple gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, relatively high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. The automated multivariate analysis can provide a level of data obscurity, giving a built-in information barrier to protect sensitive or proprietary operational data. Proof-of-concept simulations and experiments have been performed in previous years to demonstrate the validity of this tool in a laboratory setting. Development of the MIP Monitor approach continues to evaluate the efficacy of the monitor for automated, real-time or near-real-time application. This report details follow-on research and development efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development related to the MIP Monitor for fiscal year 2012 (FY12).

  10. Laser isotope purification of lead for use in semiconductor chip interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibner, K.; Haynam, C.; Worden, E.; Esser, B.

    1996-03-19

    Lead, used throughout the electronics industries, typically contains small amounts of radioactive {sup 210}Pb (a daughter product of the planets ubiquitous {sup 238}U) whose {sup 210}Po daughter emits an {alpha}-particle that is known to cause soft errors in electronic circuits. The {sup 210}Pb is not separable by chemical means. This paper describes the generic Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) over the last 20 years, with particular emphasis on recent efforts to develop the process physics and component technologies required to remove the offending {sup 210}Pb using lasers. We have constructed a developmental facility that includes a process laser development area and a test bed for the vaporizer and ion and product collectors. We will be testing much of the equipment and demonstrating pilot scale AVLIS on a surrogate material later this year. Detection of the very low alpha emission even from commercially available low-alpha lead is challenging. LLNL`s detection capabilities will be described. The goal of the development of lead purification technology is to demonstrate the capability in FY97, and to deploy a production machine capable of up to several MT/y of isotopically purified material, possible beginning in FY98.

  11. Photolytic separation of isotopes in cryogenic solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, Samuel M.; Maier, II, William B.; Holland, Redus F.; Beattie, Willard H.

    1985-01-01

    Separation of carbon isotopes by photolysis of CS.sub.2 in cryogenic solutions of nitrogen, krypton and argon with 206 nm light from an iodine resonance lamp is reported. The spectral distribution of the ultraviolet absorption depends on solvent. Thus, in liquid nitrogen the photolytic decomposition rate of .sup.13 CS.sub.2 is greater than that of .sup.12 CS.sub.2 (because the absorption of 206 nm radiation is greater for .sup.13 CS.sub.2), whereas in liquid krypton and liquid argon the reverse is true. The shift in ultraviolet spectrum is a general phenomenon readily characterized as a function of solvent polarizability, and exhibits behavior similar to that for vibrational transitions occurring in the infrared.

  12. Photolytic separation of isotopes in cryogenic solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Battie, W.H.

    Separation of carbon isotopes by photolysis of CS/sub 2/ in cryogenic solutions of nitrogen, krypton and argon with 206 nm light from an iodine resonance lamp is reported. The spectral distributionn of the ultraviolet absorption depends on solvent. Thus, in liquid nitrogen the photolytic decomposition rate of /sup 13/CS/sub 2/ is greater than that of /sup 12/CS/sub 2/ (because the absorption of 206 nm radiation is greater for /sup 13/CS/sub 2/), whereas in liquid krypton and liquid argon the reverse is true. The shift in ultraviolet spectrum is a general phenomenon readily characterized as a function of solvent polarizability, and exhibits behavior similar to that for vibrational transitions occurring in the infrared.

  13. Laser-isotope-separation technology. [Review; economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, R.J.; Blair, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS) process currently under development is discussed as an operative example of the use of lasers for material processing. The MLIS process, which uses infrared and ultraviolet lasers to process uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) resulting in enriched uranium fuel to be used in electrical-power-producing nuclear reactor, is reviewed. The economics of the MLIS enrichment process is compared with conventional enrichment technique, and the projected availability of MLIS enrichment capability is related to estimated demands for U.S. enrichment service. The lasers required in the Los Alamos MLIS program are discussed in detail, and their performance and operational characteristics are summarized. Finally, the timely development of low-cost, highly efficient ultraviolet and infrared lasers is shownd to be the critical element controlling the ultimate deployment of MLIS uranium enrichment. 8 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  15. Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.; Scime, Earl E.

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

  16. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  17. Mechanistic study of the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Outka, D.A.; Foltz, G.W. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))

    1991-07-01

    A detailed mechanism for the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and solid palladium hydride is developed which extends previous model for this reaction by specifically including surface reactions. The modeling indicates that there are two surface-related processes that contribute to the overall rate of exchange: the desorption of hydrogen from the surface and the exchange between surface hydrogen and bulk hydrogen. This conclusion is based upon measurements examining the effect of small concentrations of carbon monoxide were helpful in elucidating the mechanism. Carbon monoxide reversibly inhibits certain steps in the exchange; this slows the overall rate of exchange and changes the distribution of products from the reactor.

  18. Nuclear Proliferation Using Laser Isotope Separation -- Verification Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, S A

    2001-10-15

    Two levels of nonproliferation verification exist. Signatories of the basic agreements under the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) agree to open their nuclear sites to inspection by the IAEA. A more detailed and intrusive level was developed following the determination that Iraq had begun a nuclear weapons development program that was not detected by the original level of verification methods. This level, referred to as 93+2 and detailed in model protocol INFCIRC/540, allows the IAEA to do environmental monitoring of non-declared facilities that are suspected of containing proliferation activity, and possibly further inspections, as well as allowing more detailed inspections of declared sites. 56 countries have signed a Strengthened Safeguards Systems Additional Protocol as of 16 July 2001. These additional inspections can be done on the instigation of the IAEA itself, or after requests by other parties to the NPT, based on information that they have collected. Since information able to cause suspicion of proliferation could arrive at any country, it is important that countries have procedures in place that will assist them in making decisions related to these inspections. Furthermore, IAEA inspection resources are limited, and therefore care needs to be taken to make best use of these resources. Most of the nonproliferation verification inspections may be concentrated on establishing that diversion of nuclear materials is not occurring, but some fraction will be related to determining if undeclared sites have nuclear materials production taking place within them. Of these, most suspicions will likely be related to the major existing technologies for uranium enrichment and reprocessing for plutonium extraction, as it would seem most likely that nations attempting proliferation would use tested means of producing nuclear materials. However, as technology continues to advance and new methods of enrichment and reprocessing are developed, inspection-related procedures will need to be adapted to keep up with them. In order to make 93+2 inspections more useful, a systematic way of finding clues to nuclear proliferation would be useful. Also, to cope with the possible use of newer technology for proliferation, the list of clues might need to be expanded. This paper discusses the development and recognition of such clues. It concentrates on laser isotope separation (LIS) as a new proliferation technology, and uses Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) as an example of LIS that is well known.

  19. A workshop on developing risk assessment methods for medical use of radioactive material. Volume 1: Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tortorelli, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    A workshop was held at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, August 16--18, 1994 on the topic of risk assessment on medical devices that use radioactive isotopes. Its purpose was to review past efforts to develop a risk assessment methodology to evaluate these devices, and to develop a program plan and a scoping document for future methodology development. This report contains a summary of that workshop. Participants included experts in the fields of radiation oncology, medical physics, risk assessment, human-error analysis, and human factors. Staff from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) associated with the regulation of medical uses of radioactive materials and with research into risk-assessment methods participated in the workshop. The workshop participants concurred in NRC`s intended use of risk assessment as an important technology in the development of regulations for the medical use of radioactive material and encouraged the NRC to proceed rapidly with a pilot study. Specific recommendations are included in the executive summary and the body of this report. An appendix contains the 8 papers presented at the conference: NRC proposed policy statement on the use of probabilistic risk assessment methods in nuclear regulatory activities; NRC proposed agency-wide implementation plan for probabilistic risk assessment; Risk evaluation of high dose rate remote afterloading brachytherapy at a large research/teaching institution; The pros and cons of using human reliability analysis techniques to analyze misadministration events; Review of medical misadministration event summaries and comparison of human error modeling; Preliminary examples of the development of error influences and effects diagrams to analyze medical misadministration events; Brachytherapy risk assessment program plan; and Principles of brachytherapy quality assurance.

  20. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  1. Converting Energy to Medical Progress

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Converting to April 2001 An introduction to the unique research funded by the Medical Sciences Division Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Medicine E v e r y w h e r e i n He a l t h c a r e A n d s o do e s B E R N u c l e a r M e d i c i n e H e lps P a t i e n t s the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical

  2. Hydrogen Isotope Exchange Properties of Porous Solids Containing Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HEUNG, LEUNGK.

    2004-08-18

    Porous solids such as activated alumina, silica and molecular sieves generally contain significant amounts of hydrogen atoms in the form of H2O or OH even at high temperature and low humidity environment. A significant amount of this hydrogen is available for reversible isotopic exchange. This exchange reaction is slow under normal conditions and does not render itself to practical applications. But if the exchange kinetics is improved this reaction has the potential to be used for tritium removal from gas streams or for hydrogen isotopic separation.The use of catalysts to improve the exchange kinetics between hydrogen isotope in the gas phase and that in the solid phase was investigated. Granules of alumina, silica and molecular sieve were coated with platinum or palladium as the catalyst. The granules were packed in a 2-cm diameter column for isotope exchange tests. Gas streams containing different concentrations of deuterium in nitrogen or argon were fed through the protium saturated column. Isotope concentration in column effluent was monitored to generate isotope break-through curves. The curves were analyzed to produce information on the kinetics and capacity of the material. The results showed that all materials tested provided some extent of isotope exchange but some were superior both in kinetics and capacity. This paper will present the test results.

  3. Optimal evaluation of infectious medical waste disposal companies using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Chao Chung

    2011-07-15

    Ever since Taiwan's National Health Insurance implemented the diagnosis-related groups payment system in January 2010, hospital income has declined. Therefore, to meet their medical waste disposal needs, hospitals seek suppliers that provide high-quality services at a low cost. The enactment of the Waste Disposal Act in 1974 had facilitated some improvement in the management of waste disposal. However, since the implementation of the National Health Insurance program, the amount of medical waste from disposable medical products has been increasing. Further, of all the hazardous waste types, the amount of infectious medical waste has increased at the fastest rate. This is because of the increase in the number of items considered as infectious waste by the Environmental Protection Administration. The present study used two important findings from previous studies to determine the critical evaluation criteria for selecting infectious medical waste disposal firms. It employed the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to set the objective weights of the evaluation criteria and select the optimal infectious medical waste disposal firm through calculation and sorting. The aim was to propose a method of evaluation with which medical and health care institutions could objectively and systematically choose appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firms.

  4. Method for isotopic analysis of chlorinated organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, B.D.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1999-08-24

    The present invention provides a method for preparing a VOC sample for carbon and chlorine isotope ratio analysis by mass spectrometer. A VOC sample is placed in a combustion tube and reacted with CuO to form CO{sub 2} and CuCl. The CO{sub 2} is then extracted and analyzed for the carbon isotope ratio. The CuCl is separated from the excess CuO and reacted with CH{sub 3}I to form CH{sub 3}Cl, extracted and analyzed for chlorine isotope ratio. 9 figs.

  5. Shape coexistence and phase transitions in the platinum isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morales, Irving O.; Frank, Alejandro; Vargas, Carlos E.; Isacker, P. Van

    2008-08-15

    The matrix coherent-state approach of the interacting boson model with configuration mixing is used to study the geometry of the platinum isotopes. With a parameter set determined in previous studies, it is found that the absolute minimum of the potential for the Pt isotopes evolves from spherical to oblate and finally to prolate shapes when the neutron number decreases from N=126 (semi-magic) to N=104 (mid-shell). Shape coexistence is found in the isotopes {sup 182,184,186,188}Pt. A phase diagram is constructed that shows the coexistence region as a function of the number of bosons and the strength of the mixing parameter.

  6. Isotopic mass-dependence of noble gas diffusion coefficients inwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2007-06-25

    Noble gas isotopes are used extensively as tracers inhydrologic and paleoclimatic studies. These applications requireknowledge of the isotopic mass (m) dependence of noble gas diffusioncoefficients in water (D), which has not been measured but is estimatedusing experimental D-values for the major isotopes along with an untestedrelationship from kinetic theory, D prop m-0.5. We applied moleculardynamics methods to determine the mass dependence of D for four noblegases at 298 K, finding that D prop m-beta with beta<0.2, whichrefutes the kinetic theory model underlying all currentapplications.

  7. Cost Estimate for Laser Isotope Separation for RIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibner, K

    2004-11-01

    Isotope enrichment of some elements is required in support of the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) in order to obtain the beam intensities, source efficiencies and/or source lifetime required by RIA. The economics of using Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology as well as ElectroMagnetic (EM) separation technology has been evaluated. It is concluded that such an AVLIS would be about 10 times less expensive than a facility based on electromagnetic separation - $17 M versus $170 M. In addition, the AVLIS facility footprint would be about 10 times smaller, and operations would require about 4 years (including 2 years of startup) versus about 11 years for an EM facility.

  8. Direct analysis of air filter samples for alpha emitting isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohagheghi, A.H.; Ghanbari, F.; Ebara, S.B.; Enghauser, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bakhtiar, S.N. [Westinghouse WIPP, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The traditional method for determination of alpha emitting isotopes on air filters has been to process the samples by radiochemical methods. However, this method is too slow for cases of incidents involving radioactive materials where the determination of personnel received dose is urgent. A method is developed to directly analyze the air filters taken from personal and area air monitors. The site knowledge is used in combination with alpha spectral information to identify isotopes. A mathematical function is developed to estimate the activity for each isotope. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are discussed.

  9. VELOCITY SELECTOR METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF ISOTOPES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britten, R.J.

    1957-12-31

    A velocity selector apparatus is described for separating and collecting an enriched fraction of the isotope of a particular element. The invention has the advantage over conventional mass spectrometers in that a magnetic field is not used, doing away with the attendant problems of magnetic field variation. The apparatus separates the isotopes by selectively accelerating the ionized constituents present in a beam of the polyisotopic substance that are of uniform kinetic energy, the acceleration being applied intermittently and at spaced points along the beam and in a direction normal to the direction of the propagation of the uniform energy beam whereby a transverse displacement of the isotopic constituents of different mass is obtained.

  10. Plutonium isotopic assay from alpha spectroscopy: A progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baran, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    The Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) group at New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) continues to develop and refine a computer program ALPHAFIT, a sophisticated peak-fitting routine for use in determining the isotopic abundances of Pu and U samples. The program uses up to seven parameters per peak fit and up to 12 peaks per region of interest to de-convolute typical complicated Pu a spectra. Preliminary results show decent fits for major peaks in the spectrum and calculated isotopic abundances of the major isotopes to {+-} 4%.

  11. Report of Survey of Oak Ridge Isotope Enrichment (Calutron) Facility

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building 9204-3 | Department of Energy Report of Survey of Oak Ridge Isotope Enrichment (Calutron) Facility Building 9204-3 Report of Survey of Oak Ridge Isotope Enrichment (Calutron) Facility Building 9204-3 The purpose of this document is to report the results of a survey conducted at the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF, Calutron, Building 9204-3) on the Y-12 Plant property at the Oak Ridge Site. The survey was conducted during the week of November 29, 1999. The primary purpose of the

  12. Medical Plans for Medicare-Eligible Retirees

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shield of New Mexico (BCBSNM) is the provider of medical benefits. Contact Retiree Insurance Providers Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Mexico (BCBSNM) is the provider of the...

  13. Implementation Guide of Medical Standards for Firefighters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These guidelines were prepared to assist the DOE contractor site occupational medical programs in developing NFPA-based firefighter standards that comply with the ADA.

  14. ORISE Resources: Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism: Medical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to mass casualties that may involve radiological injuries. The interactive, two-hour training, titled Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism: Medical Response to Mass Casualties...

  15. Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice Slurry Technology available for licensing: Proprietary method and equipment for making an ice slurry coolant to induce...

  16. New Medical Technology | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Healthcare We're making healthcare accessible for people around the globe, increasing quality of care and expanding medical treatment boundaries. Home > Innovation > Healthcare How...

  17. General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benefits Pursuant to 10 CFR Part 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal Protection Benefits ...

  18. Stable isotope studies. Final report, March 1, 1972--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-10-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs.

  19. Stable isotopic investigations of in-situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturchio, N.C.

    1998-06-01

    'Contamination of soils and groundwaters with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) is one of the most serious environmental problems in the DOE system and in the nation at large. These compounds are designated as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and are known or suspected to be carcinogenic or mutagenic in humans. These compounds are readily transported by groundwater and are not reduced to acceptable concentrations for human consumption by most municipal water supply treatments; thus the compounds represent a significant hazard to a large portion of the human population. In situ bioremediation is an emerging technology that shows great promise for mitigation of CAH contamination at many sites. One of the most severe limitations of in-situ bioremediation is the difficulty of proving when it is working at a given site. The concentrations of CAHs and their degradation products in plumes may be difficult to relate to the efficiency of the remediation process because of dilution effects, but this problem is mitigated to a large extent by measuring isotope ratios. If there is a significant isotopic fractionation between CAHs and derivative chlorine-bearing products, then the fraction of CAH that is dechlorinated can be inferred from the {sup 37}Cl/{sup 35}Cl and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotope ratios of the residual CAH. It is important to point out that there is currently no published information available on the magnitude of chlorine and carbon isotopic fractionation associated with biological degradation of CAHs. The authors plan to help eliminate this important gap in the knowledge with the work being performed here. This work is relevant to EMSP goals because it will provide a new and cost-effective means of evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of in-situ bioremediation. It will employ newly developed techniques to characterize isotopic fractionation (of chlorine and carbon) associated with biotic and abiotic degradation of CAHs in laboratory microcosms. These techniques and the data acquired by using them in laboratory studies will form the fundamental basis for quantitative assessment of the mechanisms, rates, and efficiencies of various in-situ bioremediation schemes for CAHs. This report summarizes work as of 21 months into a 36-month project. First, the author has developed methods for precise measurement of stable carbon and chlorine isotope ratios of micromolar amounts of CAHs. He has also developed methods for quantitative extraction of CAHs from water and air. He has applied these methods in laboratory experiments, to investigate isotopic fractionation caused by microbial degradation and by abiotic processes such as evaporation and chemical reduction. He has also applied these methods to field investigations of contaminated groundwater aquifers at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky and at several manufacturing plants in the Chicago and Kansas City metropolitan areas. Results of much of this work have already been incorporated into four manuscripts that have been published, accepted for publication, or are in review.'

  20. GADRAS isotope ID users manual for analysis of gamma-ray measurements and API for Linux and Android .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Dean J; Harding, Lee T.

    2014-05-01

    Isotope identification algorithms that are contained in the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) can be used for real-time stationary measurement and search applications on platforms operating under Linux or Android operating sys-tems. Since the background radiation can vary considerably due to variations in natu-rally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM), spectral algorithms can be substantial-ly more sensitive to threat materials than search algorithms based strictly on count rate. Specific isotopes or interest can be designated for the search algorithm, which permits suppression of alarms for non-threatening sources, such as such as medical radionuclides. The same isotope identification algorithms that are used for search ap-plications can also be used to process static measurements. The isotope identification algorithms follow the same protocols as those used by the Windows version of GADRAS, so files that are created under the Windows interface can be copied direct-ly to processors on fielded sensors. The analysis algorithms contain provisions for gain adjustment and energy lineariza-tion, which enables direct processing of spectra as they are recorded by multichannel analyzers. Gain compensation is performed by utilizing photopeaks in background spectra. Incorporation of this energy calibration tasks into the analysis algorithm also eliminates one of the more difficult challenges associated with development of radia-tion detection equipment.

  1. Isotopic Analysis At Separation Creek Area (Van Soest, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References M. C. van Soest, B. M. Kennedy, W. C. Evans, R. H. Mariner (2002) Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek...

  2. FY09 PROGRESS: MULTI-ISOTOPE PROCESS (MIP) MONITOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Laspe, Amy R.; Ward, Rebecca M.

    2009-10-18

    Model and experimental estimates of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor performance for determining burnup after dissolution and acid concentration during solvent extraction steps during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are presented.

  3. An isotopic study of the Coso, California, geothermal area |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and vicinity and were analyzed for major chemical constituents and deltaD and delta18O. Non-thermal ground waters from the Coso Range were found to be isotopically heavier...

  4. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hindin, Saul G.; Roberts, George W.

    1980-08-12

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  5. A Method to Distill Hydrogen Isotopes from Lithium | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Distill Hydrogen Isotopes from Lithium This white paper outlines a method for the removal of tritium and deuterium from liquid lithium. The method is based on rapid or flash ...

  6. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    suggest that helium isotopes are the best and possibly the only indication of deep permeability where high temperature fluids are masked beneath a cold reservoir. Notes 3He4He...

  7. An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal Field, Italy Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The...

  8. Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft river geothermal area and environs, Cassia County, Idaho, Box Elder county, Utah Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  9. Y-12 plant prepares to separate lithium isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant prepares to separate lithium isotopes The Y-12 National Security Complex is one of three major Manhattan Project sites in Oak Ridge. Y-12 is the nation's sole storage...

  10. COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF sup 26Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR ...

  11. Isotope Transport and Exchange within the Coso Geothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and the nearby Coso Hot Springs using finite element models of single-phase, variable-density fluid flow, conductive- convective heat transfer, fluid-rock isotope exchange, and...

  12. Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    isotope ratios in gases of thirty hot springs and geothermal wells and of five natural gas wells in the western United States show no relationship to regional conductive heat...

  13. Isotopic Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of 36Cl- as a tracer isotope in geothermal systems. References F.M. Phillips, Fraser E. Goff, Francois D. Vuataz, H.W. Bentley, H.E. Gove (1984) 36Cl as a tracer in geothermal...

  14. RESOLUTION OF URANIUM ISOTOPES WITH KINETIC PHOSPHORESCENCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, Sarah M.; Hylden, Anne T.; Friese, Judah I.

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to test the ability of the Chemchek Kinetic Phosphorescence Analyzer Model KPA-11 with an auto-sampler to resolve the difference in phosphorescent decay rates of several different uranium isotopes, and therefore identify the uranium isotope ratios present in a sample. Kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA) is a technique that provides rapid, accurate, and precise determination of uranium concentration in aqueous solutions. Utilizing a pulsed-laser source to excite an aqueous solution of uranium, this technique measures the phosphorescent emission intensity over time to determine the phosphorescence decay profile. The phosphorescence intensity at the onset of decay is proportional to the uranium concentration in the sample. Calibration with uranium standards results in the accurate determination of actual concentration of the sample. Different isotopes of uranium, however, have unique properties which should result in different phosphorescence decay rates seen via KPA. Results show that a KPA is capable of resolving uranium isotopes.

  15. Enforcement Letter, International Isotopes Idaho Inc- August 20, 1999

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Issued to International Isotopes Idaho, Inc. related to the Relocation of an Irradiated Pellet at the Test Reactor Area Hot Cell Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

  16. Isotopic evidence for a martian regolith component in martian meteorites.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Isotopic evidence for a martian regolith component in martian meteorites. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Isotopic evidence for a martian regolith component in martian meteorites. No abstract prepared. Authors: Rao, M.N. ; Nyquist, L.E. ; Bogard, D.D. ; Garrison, D.H. ; Sutton, S. [1] ; UC) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (NASA JSC) ( Publication Date: 2009-03-23 OSTI Identifier: 1009059 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Lunar

  17. Ab Initio Calculations of Even Oxygen Isotopes with Chiral

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Two-Plus-Three-Nucleon Interactions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Initio Calculations of Even Oxygen Isotopes with Chiral Two-Plus-Three-Nucleon Interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ab Initio Calculations of Even Oxygen Isotopes with Chiral Two-Plus-Three-Nucleon Interactions Authors: Hergert, H. ; Binder, S. ; Calci, A. ; Langhammer, J. ; Roth, R. Publication Date: 2013-06-10 OSTI Identifier: 1102833 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical

  18. Separation of the isotopes of boron by chemical exchange reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCandless, F.P.; Herbst, R.S.

    1995-05-30

    The isotopes of boron, {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B, are separated by means of a gas-liquid chemical exchange reaction involving the isotopic equilibrium between gaseous BF{sub 3} and a liquid BF{sub 3} donor molecular addition complex formed between BF{sub 3} gas and a donor chosen from the group consisting of: nitromethane, acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or diisobutyl ketone. 1 Fig.

  19. Heavy neodymium isotopes in the interacting boson (IBA-2) model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giannatiempo, A.

    2011-08-15

    The N>82 even neodymium isotopes were studied in the framework of the IBA-2 model. The analysis was performed by using a very schematic Hamiltonian, particularly suited to investigate the U(5) {yields} SU(3) transition. The evolution of the excitation energy patterns and of the spectroscopic properties along the isotopic chain can be correctly reproduced when the role played by states of mixed symmetry character is also taken into account.

  20. Establishment of the Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (LMMO) (Conference) | SciTech Connect Establishment of the Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Establishment of the Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Authors: Patton, Bradley D [1] ; Robinson, Sharon M [1] ; Sherman, Steven R [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL [ORNL Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1110926 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Conference Resource

  1. Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Update

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Update Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Update Authors: Patton, Bradley D [1] ; Robinson, Sharon M [1] ; Sherman, Steven R [1] ; Bone, Sherri [2] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL U.S. Department of Energy, NA Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1156744

  2. GUM Analysis for TIMS and SIMS Isotopic Ratios in Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Gerlach, David C.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Steven L.

    2007-04-01

    This report describes GUM calculations for TIMS and SIMS isotopic ratio measurements of reactor graphite samples. These isotopic ratios are used to estimate reactor burn-up, and currently consist of various ratios of U, Pu, and Boron impurities in the graphite samples. The GUM calculation is a propagation of error methodology that assigns uncertainties (in the form of standard error and confidence bound) to the final estimates.

  3. Unusual superconducting isotope effect in the presence of a quantum

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    criticality (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Unusual superconducting isotope effect in the presence of a quantum criticality Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on May 23, 2017 Title: Unusual superconducting isotope effect in the presence of a quantum criticality Authors: Kedem, Yaron ; Zhu, Jian-Xin ; Balatsky, Alexander V. Publication Date: 2016-05-23 OSTI Identifier: 1254211 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review

  4. Separation of the isotopes of boron by chemical exchange reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCandless, Frank P.; Herbst, Ronald S.

    1995-01-01

    The isotopes of boron, .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B, are separated by means of a gas-liquid chemical exchange reaction involving the isotopic equilibrium between gaseous BF.sub.3 and a liquid BF.sub.3 . donor molecular addition complex formed between BF.sub.3 gas and a donor chosen from the group consisting of: nitromethane, acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or diisobutyl ketone.

  5. US Army Medical Materiel development activity, 1987 annual report. Progress report, 1 January-31 December 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedersen, C.E.

    1988-05-06

    Information relating to accomplishments in military medicine in three areas is presented. The Project Management Support Division (PMSD) provides centralized administrative, financial management, contracting, and logistical support to the Project Managers and staff. The Biological Systems Project Management Division manages the development and acquisition of biological products to prevent casualties or loss of soldier effectiveness due to disease. These diseases may be naturally acquired (close contact, unsanitary conditions, contaminated environment, biting insects), or delivered deliberately (aerosols). Product Officers exploit domestic and foreign medical technology to remedy deficiencies identified by the Combat Developer and monitor research projects for their application to disease protective measures. The Pharmaceutical Systems Project Management Division centrally manages the development and the initial production of pharmaceutical products (antidotes and drugs), related drug delivery systems (autoinjectors and transdermal patches), and decontamination products. These products are fielded as preventive, protective, and therapeutic modalities for use against chemical and biological warfare threats, certain endemic diseases, and the treatment of combat casualties. The Applied Medical Systems Project Management Division is a multidisciplinary team with broad mission responsibilities to centrally manage the development and initial production of applied medical products, related diagnostic equipment, optical corrective devices for protective masks, and pesticide delivery systems.

  6. Isotopic discontinuities in ground water beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuckless, J.S.; Whelan, J.F.; Steinkampf, W.C.

    1991-05-01

    Analytical data for stable isotopes in ground water from beneath Yucca Mountain, when examined in map view, show areal patterns of heterogeneity that can be interpreted in terms of mixing of at least three end members. One end member must be isotopically heavy in terms of hydrogen and oxygen and have a young apparent {sup 14}C age such as water found at the north end of Yucca Mountain beneath Fortymile Wash. A second end member must contain isotopically heavy carbon and have an old apparent {sup 14}C age such as water from the Paleozoic aquifer. The third end member cannot be tightly defined. It must be isotopically lighter than the first with respect of hydrogen and oxygen and be intermediate to the first and second end members with respect to both apparent {sup 14}C age and {delta}{sup 13}C. The variable isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen indicate that two of the end members are waters, but the variable carbon isotopic composition could represent either a third water end member or reaction of water with a carbon-bearing solids such as calcite. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Laser isotope purification of lead for use in semiconductor chip interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibner, K.; Haynam, C.; Worden, E.; Esser, B.

    1996-02-01

    Lead, used throughout the electronics industries, typically contains small amounts of radioactive {sup 210}Pb (a daughter product of the planet`s ubiquitous {sup 210}U) whose {sup 210}Po daughter emits and {alpha}-particle that is known to cause soft errors in electronic circuits. The {sup 210}Pb is not easily separable by chemical means. This paper describes the generic Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) over the last 20 years, with particular emphasis on recent efforts to develop the process physics and component technologies required to remove the offending {sup 210}Pb using lasers. We have constructed a developmental facility that includes a process laser development area and a test bed for the vaporizer and ion and product collectors. We will be testing much of the equipment and demonstrating pilot-scale AVLIS on a surrogate material later this year. Detection of the very low alpha emission even from commercially available low-alpha lead is challenging. LLNL`s detection capabilities will be described. The goal of the development of lead purification technology is to demonstrate the capability in FY97, and to begin filling orders of up to several MT/y of isotopically purified material in FY98.

  8. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management`s position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted.

  9. Improvement in Thermal-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) using Total Flash Evaporation (TFE) method for lanthanides isotope ratio measurements in transmutation targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mialle, S.; Gourgiotis, A.; Aubert, M.; Stadelmann, G.; Gautier, C.; Isnard, H.

    2011-07-01

    The experiments involved in the PHENIX french nuclear reactor to obtain precise and accurate data on the total capture cross sections of the heavy isotopes and fission products require isotopic ratios measurements with uncertainty of a few per mil. These accurate isotopic ratio measurements are performed with mass spectrometer equipped with multi-collector system. The major difficulty for the analyses of these actinides and fission products is the low quantity of the initial powder enclosed in steel container (3 to 5 mg) and the very low quantities of products formed (several {mu}g) after irradiation. Specific analytical developments are performed by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) to be able to analyse several nanograms of elements with this technique. A specific method of acquisition named Total Flash Evaporation was adapted in this study in the case of lanthanide measurements for quantity deposited on the filament in the order of 2 ng and applied on irradiated fuel. To validate the analytical approach and discuss about the accuracy of the data, the isotopic ratios obtained by TIMS are compared with other mass spectrometric techniques such as Multiple-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). (authors)

  10. Metabolomics of Clostridial Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Aristilde, Ludmilla; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2015-09-08

    Members of the genus Clostridium collectively have the ideal set of the metabolic capabilities for fermentative biofuel production: cellulose degradation, hydrogen production, and solvent excretion. No single organism, however, can effectively convert cellulose into biofuels. Here we developed, using metabolomics and isotope tracers, basic science knowledge of Clostridial metabolism of utility for future efforts to engineer such an organism. In glucose fermentation carried out by the biofuel producer Clostridium acetobutylicum, we observed a remarkably ordered series of metabolite concentration changes as the fermentation progressed from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. In general, high-energy compounds decreased while low-energy species increased during solventogenesis. These changes in metabolite concentrations were accompanied by large changes in intracellular metabolic fluxes, with pyruvate directed towards acetyl-CoA and solvents instead of oxaloacetate and amino acids. Thus, the solventogenic transition involves global remodeling of metabolism to redirect resources from biomass production into solvent production. In contrast to C. acetobutylicum, which is an avid fermenter, C. cellulolyticum metabolizes glucose only slowly. We find that glycolytic intermediate concentrations are radically different from fast fermenting organisms. Associated thermodynamic and isotope tracer analysis revealed that the full glycolytic pathway in C. cellulolyticum is reversible. This arises from changes in cofactor utilization for phosphofructokinase and an alternative pathway from phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. The net effect is to increase the high-energy phosphate bond yield of glycolysis by 150% (from 2 to 5) at the expense of lower net flux. Thus, C. cellulolyticum prioritizes glycolytic energy efficiency over speed. Degradation of cellulose results in other sugars in addition to glucose. Simultaneous feeding of stable isotope-labeled glucose and unlabeled pentose sugars (xylose or arabinose) to C. acetobutylicum revealed that, as expected, glucose was preferred, with the pentose sugar selectively assimilated into the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Simultaneous feeding of xylose and arabinose revealed an unexpected hierarchy among these pentose sugars, with arabinose utilized preferentially over xylose. Pentose catabolism occurred via the phosphoketolase pathway (PKP), an alternative route of pentose catabolism that directly converts xylulose-5-phosphate into acetyl-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Taken collectively, these findings reveal two hierarchies in Clostridial pentose metabolism: xylose is subordinate to arabinose, and the PPP is used less than the PKP. Thus, in addition to massively expanding the available data on Clostridial metabolism, we identified three key regulatory points suitable for targeting in future bioengineering efforts: phosphofructokinase for enhancing fermentation, the pyruvate-oxaloacetate node for controlling solventogenesis, and the phosphoketolase reaction for driving pentose catabolism.

  11. Laser separation of uranium chosen for scaleup. [Atomic vapor laser isotope separation, molecular laser isotope separation, and plasma separation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, R.L.

    1982-05-17

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) has been selected by the Department of Energy to go into large-scale engineering development and demonstration over two other advanced technologies, molecular laser isotope separation and plasma separation. DOE will continue to support development of another uranium enrichment technology, gas centrifugation. By or around 1990, the most promising gas centrifuge technique will be compared to the further developed AVLIS process, and a selection will be made between the two to replace the current technology, gaseous diffusion. The AVLIS process, plasma separation, and molecular laser isotope separation use the elective absorption of radiation of a particular energy level by the /sup 235/U isotope. The plasma separation process selectively energizes /sup 235/U by ion cyclotron resonance. The AVLIS and molecular laser isotope separation processes both use a carefully tuned laser to excite /sup 235/U isotope selectively. In the AVLIS process, uranium metal feed material is melted and vaporized to form an atomic uranium vapor stream. When this vapor stream passes through the beam of copper vapor lasers, the /sup 235/U atoms absorb the light and become ionized. These ionized atoms are collected by electromagnetic fields while the neutral /sup 238/U atoms pass through the magnetic field and are collected as tailings. The AVLIS process has the potential for significantly reducing the cost of enriching uranium. The status of dvelopment, cost, advantages and drawbacks of the five processes, (gaseous diffusion, gas centrifugation, AVLIS, molecular laser separation, plasma separation) are discussed. (ATT)

  12. Laser separation of uranium chosen for scaleup. [Atomic vapor laser isotope separation, molecular laser isotope separation plasma separation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, R.L.

    1982-05-17

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) has been selected by the Department of Energy to go into large-scale engineering development and demonstration over two other advanced technologies, molecular laser isotope separation and plasma separation. DOE will continue to support development of another uranium enrichment technology, gas centrifugation. By or around 1990, the most promising gas centrifuge technique will be compared to the further developed AVLIS process, and a selection will be made between the two to replace the current technology, gaseous diffusion. The AVLIS process, plasma separation, and molecular laser isotope separation use the selective absorption of radiation of a particular energy level by the /sup 235/U isotope. The plasma separation process selectively energizes /sup 235/U by ion cyclotron resonance. The AVLIS and molecular laser isotope separation processes both use a carefully tuned laser to excite /sup 235/U isotope selectively. In the AVLIS process, uranium metal feed material is melted and vaporized to from an atomic uranium vapor stream. When this vapor stream passes through the beam of copper vapor lasers, the /sup 235/U atoms absorb the light and become ionized. These ionized atoms are collected by electromagnetic fields while the neutral /sup 238/U atoms pass through the magnetic field and are collected as tailings. The AVLIS process has the potential for significantly reducing the cost of enriching uranium. The status of development, cost, advantages and drawbacks of the five processes (gaseous diffusion, gas centrifugation, AVLIS, molecular laser separation, plasma separation) are discussed. (ATT)

  13. Isotope Enrichment Detection by Laser Ablation - Laser Absorption Spectrometry: Automated Environmental Sampling and Laser-Based Analysis for HEU Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear power, and consequently the uranium enrichment industry, requires the development of new safeguards technology to mitigate proliferation risks. Current enrichment monitoring instruments exist that provide only yes/no detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) production. More accurate accountancy measurements are typically restricted to gamma-ray and weight measurements taken in cylinder storage yards. Analysis of environmental and cylinder content samples have much higher effectiveness, but this approach requires onsite sampling, shipping, and time-consuming laboratory analysis and reporting. Given that large modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) can quickly produce a significant quantity (SQ ) of HEU, these limitations in verification suggest the need for more timely detection of potential facility misuse. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing an unattended safeguards instrument concept, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely analysis of enrichment levels within low enriched uranium facilities. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulate samples, followed by wavelength tuned laser diode spectroscopy to characterize the uranium isotopic ratio through subtle differences in atomic absorption wavelengths. Environmental sampling (ES) media from an integrated aerosol collector is introduced into a small, reduced pressure chamber, where a focused pulsed laser vaporizes material from a 10 to 20-m diameter spot of the surface of the sampling media. The plume of ejected material begins as high-temperature plasma that yields ions and atoms, as well as molecules and molecular ions. We concentrate on the plume of atomic vapor that remains after the plasma has expanded and then cooled by the surrounding cover gas. Tunable diode lasers are directed through this plume and each isotope is detected by monitoring absorbance signals on a shot-to-shot basis. The media is translated by a micron resolution scanning system, allowing the isotope analysis to cover the entire sample surface. We also report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of laser-based isotopic measurements on individual micron-sized particles that are minor target components in a much larger heterogeneous mix of background particles. This composition is consistent with swipe and environmental aerosol samples typically collected for safeguards ES purposes. Single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope abundance uncertainty better than 10% has been demonstrated using gadolinium isotopes as surrogate materials.

  14. Impact of oil shortage on plastic medical supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, G.B.; Kline, B.

    1981-03-01

    There is good evidence that production of plastic medical equipment may be a minuscule fraction of the overall petrochemical industry; yet, it is not immune to serious supply shortfall in an oil shortage crisis of either economic or military nature. In support of this allegation, researchers have introduced documented evidence that the US health care industry experienced plastic supply shortfall in the form of increased lead time and cost as a direct result of the 1973-1974 embargo. The industry was fortunate in that there was some cushion effect from residual inventories and that the embargo did not last longer. As a further example, it has been shown that the British industry was not so fortunate; it experienced definite signs of medical plastic shortfall and reaction by the medical profession. The US industry, from manufacturer to consumer, lacks contingency planning in spite of lessons learned from the last embargo. Contrary to the apparent consensus of popular opinion, plan is more than a four-lettered word. More planning and implementation is required if the US health care industry is to be ready to cope with the next oil shortage crisis.

  15. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

  16. IUPAC Periodic Table of Isotopes for the Educational Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden N. E.; Holden,N.E.; Coplen,T.B.

    2012-07-15

    John Dalton first proposed the concept of atomic weights of the elements in the first decade of the nineteenth century. These atomic weights of the chemical elements were thought of as constants of nature, similar to the speed of light. Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the atomic weights of the elements in ascending order of value and used the systematic variation of their chemical properties to produce his Periodic Table of the Elements in 1869. Measurement of atomic weight values became an important chemical activity for a century and a half. Theodore Richards received a Noble Prize for his work in this area. In 1913, Fredrick Soddy found a species of radium, which had an atomic weight value of 228, compared to the familiar radium gas value of 226. Soddy coined the term 'isotope' (Greek for 'in the same place') to account for this second atomic weight value in the radium position of the Periodic Table. Both of these isotopes of radium are radioactive. Radioactive isotopes are energetically unstable and will decay (disintegrate) over time. The time it takes for one half of a sample of a given radioactive isotope to decay is the half-life of that isotope. In addition to having different atomic weight values, radium-226 and radium-228 also have different half-life values. Around the same time as Soddy's work, J.J. Thomson (discoverer of the electron) identified two stable (non-radioactive) isotopes of the same element, neon. Over the next 40 years, the majority of the known chemical elements were found to have two or more stable (or long-lived radioactive isotopes that contribute significantly to the determination of the atomic weights of the elements).

  17. Kit for providing a technetium medical radioimaging agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wildung, Raymond E.; Garland, Thomas R.; Li, Shu-Mei W.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward a kit for microbial reduction of a technetium compound to form other compounds of value in medical imaging. The technetium compound is combined in a mixture with non-growing microbial cells which contain a technetium-reducing enzyme system, a stabilizing agent and an electron donor in a saline solution under anaerobic conditions. The mixture is substantially free of an inorganic technetium reducing agent and its reduction products. The resulting product is Tc of lower oxidation states, the form of which can be partially controlled by the stabilizing agent. It has been discovered that the microorganisms Shewanella alga, strain Bry and Shewanella putrifacians, strain CN-32 contain the necessary enzyme systems for technetium reduction and can form both mono nuclear and polynuclear reduced Tc species depending on the stabilizing agent.

  18. Kinetic Isotopic Fractionation During Diffusion of Ionic Speciesin Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, Frank M.; Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Christensen, John; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Williams, Ross W.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Beloso Jr.,Abelardo D.

    2005-06-09

    Experiments specifically designed to measure the ratio of the diffusivities of ions dissolved in water were used to determine D{sub Li}/D{sub K}, D{sub 7{sub Li}}/D{sub 6{sub Li}}, D{sub 25{sub Mg}}/D{sub 24{sub Mg}}, D{sub 26{sub Mg}}/D{sub 25{sub Mg}}, and D{sub 37{sub Cl}}/D{sub 35{sub Cl}}. The measured ratio of the diffusion coefficients for Li and K in water (D{sub Li}/D{sub K} = 0.6) is in good agreement with published data, providing evidence that the experimental design being used resolves the relative mobility of ions with adequate precision to also be used for determining the fractionation of isotopes by diffusion in water. In the case of Li we found measurable isotopic fractionation associated with the diffusion of dissolved LiCl (D{sub 7{sub Li}}/D{sub 6{sub Li}} = 0.99772 {+-} 0.00026). This difference in the diffusion coefficient of {sup 7}Li compared to {sup 6}Li is significantly less than reported in an earlier study, a difference we attribute to the fact that in the earlier study Li diffused through a membrane separating the water reservoirs. Our experiments involving Mg diffusing in water found no measurable isotopic fractionation (D{sub 25{sub Mg}}/D{sub 24{sub Mg}} = 1.00003 {+-} 0.00006). Cl isotopes were fractionated during diffusion in water (D{sub 37{sub Cl}}/D{sub 35{sub Cl}} = 0.99857 {+-} 0.00080) whether or not the co-diffuser (Li or Mg) was isotopically fractionated. The isotopic fractionation associated with the diffusion of ions in water is much smaller than values we found previously for the isotopic fractionation of Li and Ca isotopes by diffusion in molten silicate liquids. A major distinction between water and silicate liquids is that water, being a polar liquid, surrounds dissolved ions with hydration shells, which very likely play an important but still poorly understood role in reducing isotopic fractionation associated with diffusion.

  19. Isotopic tracer studies of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Ru/TiO sub 2 catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a process in which CO and H{sub 2} react to give predominantly liquid hydrocarbons. The reaction can be considered a special type of polymerization in which the monomer is produced in situ, and chain growth occurs by a sequence of independently repeated additions of the monomer to the growing chain. A investigation has been conducted to study the CO hydrogenation reaction in order to better understand catalyst deactivation and the elementary surface processes involved in chain growth. Isotopic tracers are used in conjunction with transient-response techniques in this study of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Experiments are conducted at a total pressure of 1 atmosphere, reaction temperatures of 453--498 K and D{sub 2}/CO (or H{sub 2}/CO) ratios of 2--5. Synthesis products are analyzed by gas chromatography or isotope-ratio gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rate constants for chain initiation, propagation and termination are evaluated under steady-state reaction conditions by using transients in isotopic composition. The activation energy for chain termination is much higher than that for propagation, accounting for the observed decrease in the chain growth parameter are also estimated. Coverages by reaction intermediates are also estimated. When small amounts of {sup 12}C-labelled ethylene are added to {sup 13}CO/H{sub 2} synthesis gas, ethylene acts as the sole chain initiator. Ethylene-derived carbon also accounts for 45% of the C{sub 1} monomer pool. 102 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Isotopic tracer studies of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a process in which CO and H{sub 2} react to give predominantly liquid hydrocarbons. The reaction can be considered a special type of polymerization in which the monomer is produced in situ, and chain growth occurs by a sequence of independently repeated additions of the monomer to the growing chain. A investigation has been conducted to study the CO hydrogenation reaction in order to better understand catalyst deactivation and the elementary surface processes involved in chain growth. Isotopic tracers are used in conjunction with transient-response techniques in this study of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Experiments are conducted at a total pressure of 1 atmosphere, reaction temperatures of 453--498 K and D{sub 2}/CO (or H{sub 2}/CO) ratios of 2--5. Synthesis products are analyzed by gas chromatography or isotope-ratio gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rate constants for chain initiation, propagation and termination are evaluated under steady-state reaction conditions by using transients in isotopic composition. The activation energy for chain termination is much higher than that for propagation, accounting for the observed decrease in the chain growth parameter are also estimated. Coverages by reaction intermediates are also estimated. When small amounts of {sup 12}C-labelled ethylene are added to {sup 13}CO/H{sub 2} synthesis gas, ethylene acts as the sole chain initiator. Ethylene-derived carbon also accounts for 45% of the C{sub 1} monomer pool. 102 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.