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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Spark Spread  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Spark Spread Spark Spread Figure 1 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, based on SNL Energy. The spark spread is a common metric for estimating the profitability of natural gas-fired electric generators. The spark spread is the difference between the price received by a generator for electricity produced and the cost of the natural gas needed to produce that electricity. It is typically calculated using daily spot prices for natural gas and power at various regional trading points. The chart above shows spark spreads during 2012, calculated for four locations around the United States. Spark spreads tend to be fairly volatile, more so than crack spreads in petroleum markets, largely because of the volatility of wholesale electric power prices, which vary widely

2

A visualization study of mixture preparation mechanisms for port fuel injected spark ignition engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental study was carried out that examined qualitatively the mixture preparation process in port fuel injected spark ignition engines. The primary variables in this study were intake valve lift, intake valve timing, ...

Costanzo, Vincent S. (Vincent Stanley), 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Laser Spark Distribution and Ignition System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spark Distribution and Ignition System Spark Distribution and Ignition System Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implement- ing United States Patent Number 7,421,166 entitled "Laser Spark Distribution and Ignition System." Disclosed in this patent is NETL's laser spark distribution and ignition system, which reduces the high-power optical requirements normally needed for such a system by using optical fibers to deliver low-peak-energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. Laser spark generators then produce a high-peak-power laser spark from a single low power pulse. The system has ap- plications in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

4

KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF METAL CATION SORPTION AT THE MINERAL/WATER INTERFACE. 058. D. L. Sparks, A. M. Scheidegger, D. G. Strawn, and K. G. Scheckel, Plant and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF METAL CATION SORPTION AT THE MINERAL/WATER INTERFACE. 058. D. L. Sparks of Delaware, Newark, DE 19717-1303. Metal cation sorption/release on natural materials is often biphasic for days and months. The mechanism for the slow reaction has been ascribed to diffusion phenomena, sorption

Sparks, Donald L.

5

Micro-mechanical logic for field produceable gate arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A paradigm of micro-mechanical gates for field produceable logic is explored. A desktop manufacturing system is sought after which is capable of printing functional logic devices in the field. A logic scheme which induces ...

Prakash, Manu

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Spark and Laser Ignition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the context of nonshock initiation of secondary explosives, electric sparks and lasers represent sources of external power that may stimulate exothermic reaction in energetic materials, and generate enough ...

James E. Kennedy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Reaction Condition Effects on Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in IlliteWater Suspensions E. J. Elzinga* and D. L. Sparks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reaction Condition Effects on Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in Illite­Water Suspensions E. J. Elzinga by ions other than K, presumably leadingNickel sorption in illite suspensions was studied as a function the Ni sorption complexes formed. The formation of The different sites available for metal uptake

Sparks, Donald L.

8

Laser spark distribution and ignition system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser spark distribution and ignition system that reduces the high power optical requirements for use in a laser ignition and distribution system allowing for the use of optical fibers for delivering the low peak energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. An optical distributor distributes and delivers optical pumping energy from an optical pumping source to multiple combustion chambers incorporating laser oscillators or laser amplifiers for inducing a laser spark within a combustion chamber. The optical distributor preferably includes a single rotating mirror or lens which deflects the optical pumping energy from the axis of rotation and into a plurality of distinct optical fibers each connected to a respective laser media or amplifier coupled to an associated combustion chamber. The laser spark generators preferably produce a high peak power laser spark, from a single low power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

Woodruff, Steven (Morgantown, WV); McIntyre, Dustin L. (Morgantown, WV)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

9

Engines - Spark Ignition Engines  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spark Ignition Engines Spark Ignition Engines Thomas Wallner and omni engine Thomas Wallner and the omnivorous engine Background Today the United States import more than 60% of its crude oil and petroleum products. Transportation accounts for a major portion of these imports. Research in this field is focused on reducing the dependency on foreign oil by increasing the engine efficiency on the one hand and blending gasoline with renewable domestic fuels, such as ethanol, on the other. Argonne's Research The main focus of research is on evaluation of advanced combustion concepts and effects of fuel properties on engine efficiency, performance and emissions. The platforms used are a single-cylinder research engine as well as an automotive-size four-cylinder engine with direct fuel injection.

10

Engines - Spark Ignition Engines - Direct Injection - Omnivorous Engine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Injection, Spark-Ignited Engines Direct Injection, Spark-Ignited Engines Omnivorous Engine Omnivorous Engine Setup Omnivorous Engine Setup New engine technology has made possible engines that will operate on a wide variety of fuel inputs, from gasoline to naptha to ethanol to methanol, without driver intervention. Although flexible fuel vehicles have been produced in the millions, their engines have always been optimized for gasoline operation while accepting significant performance and efficiency degradations when using the alternative fuel. This project seeks to combine in-cylinder measurement technology, and advanced controls to optimize spark timing, the quantity and timing of injected fuel, to produce an "omnivorous engine"--one that will be able to run on any liquid spark ignition fuel with optimal efficiency and low

11

SPARK! 2012 | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Magnetic Filtration Process - Sherrill Advanced Credentialing For Trusted Networks - Sims Content Recommendation Solution - Tech Info Consumers - Morris Spark 2012 Request For...

12

A Producer-Consumer Model with Stoichiometric Elimination Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the efficiency of the consumer's conversion of producer biomass to its own biomass. The elimination model we, or equivalently, the stoichiometric ratio of nutrient to biomass, as well as the biomass, is of interest on the flow of a single currency, such as energy stored in carbon compounds or biomass. This point of view

Peckham, Bruce B.

13

Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO); Joshi, Sachin (Fort Collins, CO); Reynolds, Adam (Fort Collins, CO)

2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

14

Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

15

Residence Time Effects on Arsenate Adsorption/Desorption Mechanisms on Goethite S. E. O'Reilly,* D. G. Strawn, and D. L. Sparks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Residence Time Effects on Arsenate Adsorption/Desorption Mechanisms on Goethite S. E. O'Reilly,* D and desorption on goethite, and to combine spectro- Xu et al., 1988). For example, arsenate sorption on scopic x and Glaubig, 1988).showed that arsenate sorption on goethite increased with time. Sorp- Goethite ( ­Fe

Sparks, Donald L.

16

AIR QUALITY REPORT SPARKS CONTROVERSY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AIR QUALITY REPORT SPARKS CONTROVERSY ... The National Commission on Air Quality delivered its eagerly awaited report to Congress today, and reaction from industry and environmental groups is expected to be both swift and sharp. ... Created under the 1977 Clean Air Act, the commission was charged with assessing the effectiveness of the law, and recommending changes where the law falls short of achieving the goal of improving the nation's air quality. ...

1981-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

17

Laser Spark Distribution and Ignition System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

partners interested in implement- ing United States Patent Number 7,421,166 entitled "Laser Spark Distribution and Ignition System." Disclosed in this patent is NETL's laser...

18

produced misleading evidence about the mechanism of action of the enzymes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

produced misleading evidence about the mechanism of action of the enzymes. The reactivity of the d of enzymes. Koehn et al.1 propose that a third component of FDTS reactions, the `FADH2 cofactor enzymes (see Fig. 1c on page 920). The authors found evidence for this theory by introducing hydrogen

19

Multi-scale mechanical improvement produced in carbon nanotube fibers by irradiation cross-linking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review Multi-scale mechanical improvement produced in carbon nanotube fibers by irradiation cross T Fibers and yarns based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) are emerging as a possible improve- ment over more traditional high strength carbon fibers used as reinforcement elements in composite materials. This is driven

Espinosa, Horacio D.

20

A user-friendly computer simulation of a spark ignition engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A USER-FRIENDLY COMPUTER SIMULATION OF A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE A Thesis by IVAN BERRIOS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1993 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering A USER-FRIENDLY COMPUTER SIMULATION OF A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE A Thesis by IVAN BERRIOS Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Berrios, Ivan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Improving the Efficiency of Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines Improving the Efficiency of Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines This work focused on using camless engine technology...

22

Spark Green Energy Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Spark Green Energy Pvt Ltd. Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Zip: 400 050 Sector: Biomass Product: Mumbai-based biomass project developer. References: Spark Green Energy Pvt...

23

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Partnerships Spark Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for Essential Baking Company to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for Essential Baking Company on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for Essential Baking Company on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for Essential Baking Company on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for Essential Baking Company on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for Essential Baking Company on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for Essential Baking Company on

24

Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

1987-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

25

Focused shock spark discharge drill using multiple electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spark discharge focused drill provided with one pulse forming line or a number of pulse forming lines. The pulse forming line is connected to an array of electrodes which would form a spark array. One of the electrodes of each of the array is connected to the high voltage side of the pulse forming line and the other electrodes are at ground potential. When discharged in a liquid, these electrodes produce intense focused shock waves that can pulverize or fracture rock. By delaying the firing of each group of electrodes, the drill can be steered within the earth. Power can be fed to the pulse forming line either downhole or from the surface area. A high voltage source, such as a Marx generator, is suitable for pulse charging the lines.

Moeny, William M. (Albuquerque, NM); Small, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

SPARK! 2013 | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 Technology Forum 3 Technology Forum Nov 19 2013 01:00 PM - 06:30 PM Market focused presentations on Oak Ridge National Lab's most promising inventions. JICS Auditorium, Building 5100, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee CONTACT : Email: Teresa Snow Phone:865.574.0553 Add to Calendar SHARE Real-time automobile weld quality inspection system Spark! Advanced materials for tomorrow's products High-performance plastics from renewable sources Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steel for high temperature and corrosive environments Optically transparent, durable superhydrophobic thin film coatings Low cost fermentation system for production of high value materials Energy storage and electric vehicle technologies '' Low-cost graphite from recycles tires for lithium ion batteries

27

Using SPARK as a Solver for Modelica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Simulation with Modelica 2.1. John Wiley & Sons.Vadim Engelson. 1998. Modelica A Uni?ed Object-OrientedSPARK AS A SOLVER FOR MODELICA Michael Wetter 1 , Philip

Wetter, Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Spark Energy, LP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Redirected from Spark Energy) (Redirected from Spark Energy) Jump to: navigation, search Name Spark Energy, LP Place Texas Utility Id 17710 Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC Location TRE Activity Retail Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates Residential: $0.1460/kWh Commercial: $0.1210/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Spark_Energy,_LP&oldid=411595" Categories: EIA Utility Companies and Aliases Utility Companies

29

Spark-safe low-voltage detonator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe ncludes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4) each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two.

Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Resistance of a water spark.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The later time phase of electrical breakdown in water is investigated for the purpose of improving understanding of the discharge characteristics. One dimensional simulations in addition to a zero dimensional lumped model are used to study the spark discharge. The goal is to provide better electrical models for water switches used in the pulse compression section of pulsed power systems. It is found that temperatures in the discharge channel under representative drive conditions, and assuming small initial radii from earlier phases of development, reach levels that are as much as an order of magnitude larger than those used to model discharges in atmospheric gases. This increased temperature coupled with a more rapidly rising conductivity with temperature than in air result in a decreased resistance characteristic compared to preceding models. A simple modification is proposed for the existing model to enable the approximate calculation of channel temperature and incorporate the resulting conductivity increase into the electrical circuit for the discharge channel. Comparisons are made between the theoretical predictions and recent experiments at Sandia. Although present and past experiments indicated that preceding late time channel models overestimated channel resistance, the calculations in this report seem to underestimate the resistance relative to recent experiments. Some possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Lehr, Jane Marie

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Spark Plasma Sintering of W-UO2 Cermets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About 50 vol.% 3 um depleted uranium dioxide (UO2) powder was encapsulated within a tungsten super alloy matrix produced from sub-micron tungsten powders using the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process. An additive of 25 atom-percent (at.%) rhenium was included within the tungsten matrix to improve the ductility and fracture toughness of the ceramicmetallic (cermet) matrix. Cermet fabrication to 97.9% of the theoretical cermet density was achieved by sintering at 1500 degrees C with 40 MPa of applied pressure for 20 min. The results presented are from the first known trials of WUO2 and nuclear cermet production via SPS.

R. C. O'Brien; N. D. Jerred

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Spark Plasma Sintering of Fuel Cermets for Nuclear Reactor Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of the fabrication of tungsten based nuclear fuel cermets via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is investigated in this work. CeO2 is used to simulate fuel loadings of UO2 or Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuels within tungsten-based cermets due to the similar properties of these materials. This study shows that after a short time sintering, greater than 90 % density can be achieved, which is suitable to possess good strength as well as the ability to contain fission products. The mechanical properties and the densities of the samples are also investigated as functions of the applied pressures during the sintering.

Yang Zhong; Robert C. O'Brien; Steven D. Howe; Nathan D. Jerred; Kristopher Schwinn; Laura Sudderth; Joshua Hundley

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Correlation between Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TiC Films Produced by Vacuum arc Deposition and Reactive Magnetron Sputtering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and mechanical properties of TiC films produced by vacuumstudied the synthesis of TiC films by vacuum arc depositionproduced a broad range of TiC x film compositions. In both

Monteiro, O.R.; Delplancke-Ogletree, M.P.; Winand, R.; Brown, I.G.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Using SPARK as a Solver for Modelica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modelica is an object-oriented acausal modeling language that is well positioned to become a de-facto standard for expressing models of complex physical systems. To simulate a model expressed in Modelica, it needs to be translated into executable code. For generating run-time efficient code, such a translation needs to employ algebraic formula manipulations. As the SPARK solver has been shown to be competitive for generating such code but currently cannot be used with the Modelica language, we report in this paper how SPARK's symbolic and numerical algorithms can be implemented in OpenModelica, an open-source implementation of a Modelica modeling and simulation environment. We also report benchmark results that show that for our air flow network simulation benchmark, the SPARK solver is competitive with Dymola, which is believed to provide the best solver for Modelica.

Wetter, Michael; Wetter, Michael; Haves, Philip; Moshier, Michael A.; Sowell, Edward F.

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

35

Optical diagnostics integrated with laser spark delivery system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO); Joshi, Sachin (Fort Collins, CO); Reynolds, Adam (Fort Collins, CO)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

36

Spark Energy, LP (New York) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Spark Energy, LP (New York) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Spark Energy, LP Place: New York References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File220101 EIA Form 861...

37

A spark chamber for cosmic ray research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11. The triggered 'park gap. f 1 29 ;"'he t" igger elec. :ode i a polished 7-mi turgs ~en wire. I+ i he' d t-ut in a Plex' glas frame ard. Positioncdhs, fway bet- ween the spark g p electrodes. The wir e is thus in the equipoten? tia p ane... 11. The triggered 'park gap. f 1 29 ;"'he t" igger elec. :ode i a polished 7-mi turgs ~en wire. I+ i he' d t-ut in a Plex' glas frame ard. Positioncdhs, fway bet- ween the spark g p electrodes. The wir e is thus in the equipoten? tia p ane...

Jelinek, Al Vincent

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

38

Spark gap device for precise switching  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spark gap device for precise switching of an energy storage capacitor into an exploding bridge wire load is disclosed. Niobium electrodes having a melting point of 2,415 degrees centrigrade are spaced apart by an insulating cylinder to define a spark gap. The electrodes are supported by conductive end caps which, together with the insulating cylinder, form a hermetically sealed chamber filled with an inert, ionizable gas, such as pure xenon. A quantity of solid radioactive carbon-14 within the chamber adjacent the spark gap serves as a radiation stabilizer. The sides of the electrodes and the inner wall of the insulating cylinder are spaced apart a sufficient distance to prevent unwanted breakdown initiation. A conductive sleeve may envelop the outside of the insulating member from the midpoint of the spark gap to the cap adjacent the cathode. The outer metallic surfaces of the device may be coated with a hydrogen-impermeable coating to lengthen the shelf life and operating life of the device. The device breaks down at about 1,700 volts for input voltage rates up to 570 volts/millisecond and allows peak discharge currents of up to 3,000 amperes from a 0.3 microfarad energy storage capacitor for more than 1,000 operations.

Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Spark gap device for precise switching  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spark gap device for precise switching of an energy storage capacitor into an exploding bridge wire load is disclosed. Niobium electrodes having a melting point of 2,415 degrees centigrade are spaced apart by an insulating cylinder to define a spark gap. The electrodes are supported by conductive end caps which, together with the insulating cylinder, form a hermetically sealed chamber filled with an inert, ionizable gas, such as pure xenon. A quantity of solid radioactive carbon-14 within the chamber adjacent the spark gap serves as a radiation stabilizer. The sides of the electrodes and the inner wall of the insulating cylinder are spaced apart a sufficient distance to prevent unwanted breakdown initiation. A conductive sleeve may envelop the outside of the insulating member from the midpoint of the spark gap to the cap adjacent the cathode. The outer metallic surfaces of the device may be coated with a hydrogen-impermeable coating to lengthen the shelf life and operating life of the device. The device breaks down at about 1,700 volts for input voltage rates up to 570 volts/millisecond and allows peak discharge currents of up to 3,000 amperes from a 0.3 microfarad energy storage capacitor for more than 1,000 operations. 3 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1984-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

40

Green Spark Ventures LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Spark Ventures LLC Spark Ventures LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Green Spark Ventures, LLC Place Denver, Colorado Zip 80203 Sector Efficiency, Renewable Energy Product Denver-based venture capital fund prioritizing investing in start-up and early-stage companies in the Rocky Mountain region, operating in the area of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Coordinates 39.74001°, -104.992259° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.74001,"lon":-104.992259,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Simulation of Landfill Gas Performance in a Spark Ignited Engine.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Computer simulations were performed using KIVA-4 code to determine performance of a spark ignited engine fueled by methane diluted with carbon dioxide to approximate (more)

Swain, Daniel P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Tantalumtungsten oxide thermite composites prepared by solgel synthesis and spark plasma sintering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energetic composite powders consisting of solgel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition-tested and the results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High-Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the solgel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The solgel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (TaWO3) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17gcm?3 or 93% relative density. In addition, those samples were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus retaining their stored chemical energy.

Joshua D. Kuntz; Octavio G. Cervantes; Alexander E. Gash; Zuhair A. Munir

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms Inform Discovery: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Amycolatopsis Strain Producing Ristocetin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sequencing facility at the Department of 177 Biochemistry, University of Cambridge using a combined Illumina MiSeq and Roche 454 sequencing 178 approach. Assembly using the 454 GS De Novo Assembler (v.2.8) produced a draft sequence of 9.3 179 Mb in 149... of soil actinomycetes. J. Ferment. Technol. 65:501-509. 439 20. Atlas RM. 2004. Handbook of microbiological media, CRC press. 440 21. Medema MH, Blin K, Cimermancic P, de Jager V, Zakrzewski P, Fischbach MA, Weber 441 T, Takano E, Breitling R. 2011...

Truman, Andrew W.; Kwun, Min Jung; Cheng, Jinhua; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won; Hong, Hee-Jeon

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

44

Mechanical Properties of Bulk Nanocrystalline Austenitic Stainless Steels Produced by Equal Channel Angular Pressing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

304L 2B300 and 316L 2B300 billets via electron discharge machining (EDM) and were further sectioned with a Buehler Isomet 1000 diamond wafer saw. The result was a small, rectangular plate that was then mounted in an acrylic mold with the surface... significant reduction in initial cross section dimensions as a result of the mechanisms invoked in each of these processes and, consequently, lead to a strong stress- strain non-uniformity of the material. To facilitate these processes, powerful machines...

Gonzalez, Jeremy

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

45

Effect of temperature and time on properties of Spark Plasma Sintered NiCuZn: Co ferrite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

behavior and their applications in power electronics devices for from the radio frequency (300 kHz to 3 MHzEffect of temperature and time on properties of Spark Plasma Sintered NiCuZn: Co ferrite K. Zehani Plasma Sintering is a powerfal method to produce fine grain dense ferrite at low temperature. However

46

Contol of integrated mechanical dehumidification and passive cooling systems to produce energy efficient comfort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed computer simulations validated by full scale testing indicate that roof pond type passive cooling systems can provide acceptable residential temperature conditions in all climates of the United States. Passive cooling systems as presently conceived, however, require complementary dehumidification to carry existing latent loads. A study is made of the relative dehumidification efficiencies of conventional air conditioners and an improved mechanical dehumidifier which utilizes sensible cooling recovery. The effects of dew point and dry bulb temperatures, controller set point and humidity band width, infiltration, and climate are evaluated. A simple dehumidifier sizing procedure is presented. Results indicate that the improved dehumidifiers are several times as efficient as conventional air conditioners under desired steady state room conditions. It is also shown that dehumidifier capacities at AHAM test conditions may be misleading if used for design purposes.

Doderer, E.; Marcus, D.; Hoffner, J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Mechanical and microstructural characterizations of ultrafine grained Zircaloy-2 produced by room temperature rolling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of deformation strain at room temperature on the microstructural and mechanical properties of Zircaloy-2 was investigated in the present work. The sample was initially heat treated at 800C in argon environment and quenched in mercury prior to rolling. The deformed alloys were characterized by using EBSD and TEM. It reveals the misorientation of incidental grain boundaries (IDBs) due to large plastic strain induced in the sample. The recovery of deformed alloy upon annealing leads to the formation of ultrafine and nanostructured grains in the alloy. The hardness achieved after 85% room temperature rolling (RTR) is found to be 269HV, while the tensile strength is 679MPa and 697MPa in the rolling and transverse direction, respectively. The improvement in strength is due to generation of high dislocation density and ultrafine grains in the deformed alloy with 85% thickness reduction, during rolling. The deformed alloy subjected to annealing at 400C for 30min sample shows increase in ductility (6% and 7.2%) in rolling and transverse direction, respectively, due to the annihilation of dislocations as evident from the TEM study.

Sunkulp Goel; R. Jayaganthan; I.V. Singh; D. Srivastava; G.K. Dey; N. Saibaba

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Inevitability of Engine-Out Nox Emissions from Spark-Ignition and Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Internal combustion engines, both spark ignition and Diesel, are dominant types of vehicle power sources and also provide power for other important stationary applications. Overall, these engines are a central part of power generation in modern society. However, these engines, burning hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas to gasoline and Diesel fuel, are also responsible for a great deal of pollutant emissions to the environment, especially oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). In recent years, pollutant species emissions from internal combustion engines have been the object of steadily more stringent limitations from various governmental agencies. Engine designers have responded by developing engines that reduce emissions to accommodate these tighter limitations. However, as these limits become ever more stringent, the ability of engine design modifications to meet those limits must be questioned. Production of NO{sub x} in internal combustion engines is primarily due to the high temperature extended Zeldovich reaction mechanism: (1) O + N{sub 2} = NO + N; (2) N + O{sub 2} = NO + O; and (3) N + OH = NO + H. The rates of these reactions become significant when combustion temperatures reach or exceed about 2000K. This large temperature dependence, characterized by large activation energies for the rates of the reactions listed here, is a direct result of the need to break apart the tightly bonded oxygen and nitrogen molecules. The strongest bond is the triple bond in the N {triple_bond} N molecule, resulting in an activation energy of about 75 kcal/mole for Reaction (1), which is the principal cause for the large temperature dependence of the extended Zeldovich NO{sub x} mechanism. In most engines, NO{sub x} is therefore produced primarily in the high temperature combustion product gases. Using a reliable kinetic model for NO{sub x} production such as the GRI Mechanism [1] or the Miller-Bowman model [2] with hydrocarbon products at temperatures from 1500K through 2500K, the amounts of NO{sub x} produced at a given residence time in an engine can easily be computed, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 depicts how temperatures such as those existing in the combustion zones of heavy-duty engines would produce NO{sub x} emissions. This figure was created assuming that a fuel/air equivalence ratio {phi} of 0.65 was used to heat the combustion air. This equivalence ratio would be similar to that of a heavy-duty lean-burn spark-ignition or diesel engine. At temperatures in the neighborhood of 2000K and residence times between 1-5 milliseconds, which are typical of residence times at these temperatures in engines, the production of NO{sub x} increases dramatically. It is evident from Fig. 1 that product temperatures must remain below approximately 2100K to achieve extremely low NO{sub x} production levels in engines. This conclusion led to a combined experimental and modeling study of product gas temperatures in engine combustion and their influence on emission levels.

Flynn, P F; Hunter, G L; Farrell, L A; Durrett, R P; Akinyemi, O C; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J

2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

49

Observations and Modeling of Long Negative Laboratory Discharges: Identifying the Physics Important to an Electrical Spark in Air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are relatively few reports in the literature focusing on negative laboratory leaders. Most of the reports focus exclusively on the simpler positive laboratory leader that is more commonly encountered in high voltage engineering [Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1977; Gallimberti, 1979; Domens et al., 1994; Bazelyan and Raizer 1998]. The physics of the long, negative leader and its positive counterpart are similar; the two differ primarily in their extension mechanisms [Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998]. Long negative sparks extend primarily by an intermittent process termed a 'step' that requires the development of secondary leader channels separated in space from the primary leader channel. Long positive sparks typically extend continuously, although, under proper conditions, their extension can be temporarily halted and begun again, and this is sometimes viewed as a stepping process. However, it is emphasized that the nature of positive leader stepping is not like that of negative leader stepping. There are several key observational studies of the propagation of long, negative-polarity laboratory sparks in air that have aided in the understanding of the stepping mechanisms exhibited by such sparks [e.g., Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1981; Ortega et al., 1994; Reess et al., 1995; Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998; Gallimberti et al., 2002]. These reports are reviewed below in Section 2, with emphasis placed on the stepping mechanism (the space stem, pilot, and space leader). Then, in Section 3, reports pertaining to modeling of long negative leaders are summarized.

Biagi, C J; Uman, M A

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

50

Investigation of the energy dependence of breakdown properties with a DC spark setup  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) study is a site independent feasibility study aiming at the development of a realistic technology at an affordable cost for a future linear electron-positron collider. The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is one of the collaborators for the CLIC study.The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) positioned at CERN provides testing of this technology, including the testing of the proposed radio-frequency (RF) structures in a two-beam concept to produce the necessary accelerating electric field as high as 100 MV/m to reach the goal of a nominal total energy of 3 TeV. One problem at such high accelerating fields is electrical discharges, i.e. sparks, damaging the inside of the RF structures as well as deflecting the trajectories of accelerated particles. A Direct Current (DC) spark test setup is in use at CERN to aid the understanding of electrical discharges under vacuum conditions, also called vacuum arcs. In contrast to the more complex CTF3 setup, the DC spark setup is si...

Hansen, Anita; Calatroni, S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Large discharge-volume, silent discharge spark plug  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A large discharge-volume spark plug for providing self-limiting microdischarges. The apparatus includes a generally spark plug-shaped arrangement of a pair of electrodes, where either of the two coaxial electrodes is substantially shielded by a dielectric barrier from a direct discharge from the other electrode, the unshielded electrode and the dielectric barrier forming an annular volume in which self-terminating microdischarges occur when alternating high voltage is applied to the center electrode. The large area over which the discharges occur, and the large number of possible discharges within the period of an engine cycle, make the present silent discharge plasma spark plug suitable for use as an ignition source for engines. In the situation, where a single discharge is effective in causing ignition of the combustible gases, a conventional single-polarity, single-pulse, spark plug voltage supply may be used.

Kang, Michael (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

NEVADA SPARKS RESIDENTS TO IMPROVE ENERGY FITNESS | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

and Sparks, Nevada. The program's goals included creating the foundation for a self-sustaining program that would help the state meet its goal to upgrade 5% of all...

53

EFFECT OF H2 PRODUCED THROUGH STEAM-METHANE REFORMING ON CHP PLANT EFFICIENCY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 EFFECT OF H2 PRODUCED THROUGH STEAM-METHANE REFORMING ON CHP PLANT EFFICIENCY O. Le Corre1 , C for a CHP plant based on spark ignition engine running under lean conditions. An overall auto combustion engine. The potential benefits of using H2 in spark ignition (SI) engines may be listed as follows

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

A general mechanism for producing scale-invariant perturbations and small non-Gaussianity in ekpyrotic models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore a new type of entropic mechanism for generating density perturbations in a contracting phase in which there are two scalar fields, but only one has a steep negative potential. This first field dominates the energy density and is the source of the ekpyrotic equation of state. The second field has a negligible potential, but its kinetic energy density is coupled to the first field with a non-linear sigma-model type interaction. We show that for any ekpyrotic equation of state it is possible to choose the potential and the kinetic coupling such that exactly scale-invariant (or nearly scale-invariant) entropy perturbations are produced. The corresponding background solutions are stable, and the bispectrum of the entropy perturbations vanishes as no non-Gaussianity is produced during the ekpyrotic phase. Hence, the only contribution to non-Gaussianity comes from the non-linearity of the conversion process during which entropic perturbations are turned into adiabatic ones, resulting in a local non-Gaussianity parameter $f_{NL} \\sim 5$.

Anna Ijjas; Jean-Luc Lehners; Paul J. Steinhardt

2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

55

A comparative study of laser ignition and spark ignition with gasolineair mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The ignition probability and minimum ignition energy (MIE) of premixed gasolineair mixture for different equivalence ratio was experimentally studied using a nanosecond pulse at 532nm and 1064nm from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in a constant-volume combustion chamber (CVCC) The result was compared with the spark ignition. The initial pressure and temperature of the mixture was 0.1MP and 363K, respectively. The research indicates that within the flammable range, the probability increases when the ignition energy increases and the distribution of MIE with the equivalence ratios is U-shape for both laser and spark ignition. For laser ignition with 532nm, when the incident energy is higher than 110mJ or the absorbed energy is high than 31mJ, 100% of ignition could be obtained within equivalence ratios of 0.81.6. For 1064nm it is 235mJ and 30mJ. To get the same ignition probability of mixture with identical equivalence ratio, the incident energy of 1064nm is twice more than the incident energy of 532nm, while the absorbed energy values are virtually the same. It indicates that significant wavelength dependence is expected for the initial free electrons but irrelevant for the process of absorbing energy. The initial free electrons are produced from impurities in gasolineair mixture because the intensity in the focus (1012W/cm2) is too low to ionize gas molecules via the multi-photon ionization process, which requires higher irradiance (?1014W/cm2). The MIE obtained with a laser-spark ignition is greater than that measured by electrical sparks. The MIE for laser ignition was obtained at equivalence ratio of 1.0 both of 532nm and 1064nm, and it was 13.5mJ and 9.5mJ, respectively. But for spark ignition, the MIE is 3.76mJ with equivalence ratio of 1.6. What?s more, laser ignition extends the lean flammability limit from 0.8 to 0.6.

Cangsu Xu; Donghua Fang; Qiyuan Luo; Jian Ma; Yang Xie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The role of neuro-fuzzy modelling as a greening technique, in improving the performance of vehicular spark ignition engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The spark ignition engine, by far, is the largest source of motive power in the world. Therefore, continuous endeavours to improve its performance are needed to save in fuel consumption and reduce cost. The main goal of this paper is to develop a neuro-fuzzy model for fuel Injection Time (IT) in order to design a neuro-fuzzy controller for improving the performance of the spark ignition engine. The obtained results showed that the developed neuro-fuzzy model is capable of predicting the fuel IT with a mean squared error less than 0.0072. Furthermore, the power produced by the neuro-fuzzy controller has higher values of about 15-73% than the power produced by the PID controller used in the basic engine. The BSFC is reduced by about 2-5% compared to the PID controller.

Mashhour M. Bani Amer; Yousef S.H. Najjar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Cladding materials via Spark Plasma Sintering for Ultra High Temperature Reactor Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research will develop an optimized, cost-effective method for producing high-purity tungsten-rhenium alloyed fuel clad forms that are crucial for the development of a very high-temperature nuclear reactor. The study will provide critical insight into the fundamental behavior (processing-microstructure- property correlations) of W-Re alloys made using this new fabrication process comprising high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A broader goal is to re-establish the U.S. lead in the research field of refractory alloys, such as W-Re systems, with potential applications in very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An essential long-term goal for nuclear power is to develop the capability of operating nuclear reactors at temperatures in excess of 1,000K. This capability has applications in space exploration and some special terrestrial uses where high temperatures are needed in certain chemical or reforming processes. Refractory alloys have been identified as being capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 1,000K and are considered critical for the development of ultra hightemperature reactors. Tungsten alloys are known to possess extraordinary properties, such as excellent high-temperature capability, including the ability to resist leakage of fissile materials when used as a fuel clad. However, there are difficulties with the development of refractory alloys: 1) lack of basic experimental data on thermodynamics and mechanical and physical properties, and 2) challenges associated with processing these alloys.

Indrajit Charit; Darryl Butt; Megan Frary; Mark Carroll

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

58

Blue Spark Technologies formerly Thin Battery Technologies Inc | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Spark Technologies formerly Thin Battery Technologies Inc Spark Technologies formerly Thin Battery Technologies Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Blue Spark Technologies (formerly Thin Battery Technologies Inc.) Place Westlake, Ohio Zip 44130 Sector Carbon Product Developer and licensor of carbon-zinc battery technology. Coordinates 32.980007°, -97.168831° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.980007,"lon":-97.168831,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

59

Solar Project to Spark Students' Studies, School's Savings | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Project to Spark Students' Studies, School's Savings Solar Project to Spark Students' Studies, School's Savings Solar Project to Spark Students' Studies, School's Savings April 14, 2010 - 3:26pm Addthis Joshua DeLung What does this project do? Even this small group of initial panels is expected to reduce carbon emissions by 39,631 pounds annually and cut the school's energy costs by a few percentage points. A solar installation on the roof of Drury High School in North Adams, Mass., and an integrated curriculum for students will be the result of $300,000 in Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants, funded by the Recovery Act. North Adams and neighboring Clarksburg, which also sends students to the high school, pooled their $150,000 grants to contribute to the project. "One of the beauties about that building is we have a rough idea of what

60

Solar Project to Spark Students' Studies, School's Savings | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Project to Spark Students' Studies, School's Savings Project to Spark Students' Studies, School's Savings Solar Project to Spark Students' Studies, School's Savings April 14, 2010 - 3:26pm Addthis Joshua DeLung What does this project do? Even this small group of initial panels is expected to reduce carbon emissions by 39,631 pounds annually and cut the school's energy costs by a few percentage points. A solar installation on the roof of Drury High School in North Adams, Mass., and an integrated curriculum for students will be the result of $300,000 in Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants, funded by the Recovery Act. North Adams and neighboring Clarksburg, which also sends students to the high school, pooled their $150,000 grants to contribute to the project. "One of the beauties about that building is we have a rough idea of what

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Kinetics of Adsorption of Selenate and Selonite at the Goethite/Water InterfAce. p.e. ZHANG* and D.L. SPARKS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics of Adsorption of Selenate and Selonite at the Goethite/Water InterfAce. p.e. ZHANG* and D.L. SPARKS. Univ. of Delaware. Mechanisms and kinetics of SeO, and Se~ at the goethite/water interface were

Sparks, Donald L.

62

Large Eddy Simulation of spark ignition in a turbulent methane jet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and propagation and (4) stabilization. In the context of laser and electrical spark ignition (which is the scope applications of laser ignition and comparison with standard spark plug devices. Phuoc et al. [5] presentLarge Eddy Simulation of spark ignition in a turbulent methane jet G. Lacaze a , E. Richardson b

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

Development of an engine fuel and spark controller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this research was to develop an engine control unit (ECU) for a four cylinder engine to be used in a Formula SAE racers. The ECU must provide effective fuel injection and spark ignition control and provide for easy adjustment...

Suter, William Gregory

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

64

Turbulent decay of after-spark channels M. N. Shneider  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the entire evolution of a spark discharge and the subsequent cooling of the postdischarge channel are discussed. The stabilizing effect of the continuous residual electric current on the plasma cooling The pulsed arcs have been traditionally used in high- current and high-voltage commutators1

Miles, Richard

65

A STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear heating rates, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, CP was decomposed at linear heating rates of 1, 3, and 7 C/min and the kinetic triplet calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Fontes, A T

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

66

Mechanism of Excretion of a Bacterial Proteinase: Demonstration of Two Proteolytic Enzymes Produced by a Sarcina Strain (Coccus P)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. 1967. Selective release of enzymes from bacteria. Scienceaction prot6olytique d'un enzyme microbien. Acta Biol. BeIg.of Two Proteolytic Enzymes Produced by a Sarcina Strain (

SARNER, NITZA Z

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

SolarBridge Technologies formerly SmartSpark Energy Systems | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SolarBridge Technologies formerly SmartSpark Energy Systems SolarBridge Technologies formerly SmartSpark Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name SolarBridge Technologies (formerly SmartSpark Energy Systems) Place Austin, Texas Zip 78731 Sector Solar Product Developing a micro-inverter for residential solar panels, and charge equalisers to improve life for battery-powered equipment. References SolarBridge Technologies (formerly SmartSpark Energy Systems)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. SolarBridge Technologies (formerly SmartSpark Energy Systems) is a company located in Austin, Texas . References ↑ "SolarBridge Technologies (formerly SmartSpark Energy Systems)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=SolarBridge_Technologies_formerly_SmartSpark_Energy_Systems&oldid=351355"

68

PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS, AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear and isothermal heating, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, was used to monitor CP decomposition at linear heating rates of 1-7 C min{sup -1} in perforated pans and of 0.1-1.0 C min{sup -1} in sealed pans. The kinetic triplet was calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05, and predictions for 210 and 240 C are compared to isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

Weese, R K; Burnham, A K

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

69

Effect of milling time and CNT concentration on hardness of CNT/Al{sub 2024} composites produced by mechanical alloying  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon nanotube/2024 aluminum alloy (CNT/Al{sub 2024}) composites were fabricated with a combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and powder metallurgy routes. Composites were microstructurally and mechanically evaluated at sintering condition. A homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in the Al matrix was observed by a field emission scanning electron microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed not only the presence of well dispersed CNTs but also needle-like shape aluminum carbide (Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}) crystals in the Al matrix. The formation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was suggested as the interaction between the outer shells of CNTs and the Al matrix during MA process in which crystallization took place after the sintering process. The mechanical behavior of composites was evaluated by Vickers microhardness measurements indicating a significant improvement in hardness as function of the CNT content. This improvement was associated to a homogeneous dispersion of CNTs and the presence of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} in the aluminum alloy matrix. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 2024 aluminum alloy was reinforced by CNTs by mechanical alloying process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composites were microstructural and mechanically evaluated after sintering condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The greater the CNT concentration, the greater the hardness of the composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher hardness in composites is achieved at 20 h of milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} does not present a direct relationship with the milling time.

Perez-Bustamante, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)] [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Perez-Bustamante, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua (UACH), Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito No. 1 Nuevo Campus Universitario, C.P. 31125, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)] [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua (UACH), Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito No. 1 Nuevo Campus Universitario, C.P. 31125, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Estrada-Guel, I. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)] [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Licea-Jimenez, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Unidad Mty, Autopista Monterrey-Aeropuerto Km 10, A. P. 43, C.P. 66600, Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico)] [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Unidad Mty, Autopista Monterrey-Aeropuerto Km 10, A. P. 43, C.P. 66600, Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)] [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Martinez-Sanchez, R., E-mail: roberto.martiez@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

ArcSafe® with Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ArcSafe® ArcSafe® with Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge  2007 R&D 100 Award Entry Form ArcSafe® with Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge  Joint Submitters Submitting Organization Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800, MS 1181 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1181 USA Larry Schneider Phone: (505) 845-7135 Fax: (505) 845-7685 Email: lxschne@sandia.gov AFFIRMATION: I affirm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is a fair and accurate represen- tation of this product. (Signature)______________________________________ Astronics-Advanced Electronic Systems, Inc. 9845 Willows Rd NE City: Redmond State: WA Zip/Postal: 98052-2540 USA Contact Name: Michael Ballas, Program Manager Phone: (425) 895-4304 Fax: (425)702.4930 Email: michael.ballas@astronics.com

71

Spark gap switch system with condensable dielectric gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spark gap switch system is disclosed which is capable of operating at a high pulse rate comprising an insulated switch housing having a purging gas entrance port and a gas exit port, a pair of spaced apart electrodes each having one end thereof within the housing and defining a spark gap therebetween, an easily condensable and preferably low molecular weight insulating gas flowing through the switch housing from the housing, a heat exchanger/condenser for condensing the insulating gas after it exits from the housing, a pump for recirculating the condensed insulating gas as a liquid back to the housing, and a heater exchanger/evaporator to vaporize at least a portion of the condensed insulating gas back into a vapor prior to flowing the insulating gas back into the housing.

Thayer, III, William J. (Kent, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

High Radon Levels in Homes Spark Moves To Combat Pollutant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High Radon Levels in Homes Spark Moves To Combat Pollutant ... Federal, state agencies have initiated programs to monitor levels of this inert radioactive gas in homes in certain areas and work out control strategy ... Health care officials have been concerned about radon for more than 20 years, but public attention reached a new high recently with the discovery of high levels of radon inside homes in the New Jersey- Pennsylvania-New York area. ...

DAVID J. HANSON

1985-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

73

Effect of laser irradiation on failure mechanism of TiCp reinforced titanium composite coating produced by laser cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Laser cladding is an effective technique to coat a metallic substrate with a layer of a different nature. It has been widely reported that the most important combined parameters controlling the quality of the coating are the specific energy (E) and the powder density (?). In the present work, clad deposits of Ti6Al4V+60wt.% TiC were prepared on a Ti6Al4V substrate using an optimum combination of Ec=24J/mm2 and ?c=3mg/mm2. These experiments were performed using a laser power of 400 and 600W, in order to study the effect of laser power on the properties of the clad. The microstructure, phase composition and nanohardness of the coatings were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. During laser processing, TiC can be partially converted to TiCX (X=0.5) due mainly to the TiC dissolution into the laser-generated melting pool and subsequent precipitation during cooling. It was observed that the lower laser power limit reduces primary TiC dissolution but it also promotes secondary carbide alignment at the interface. On the other hand, the damage mechanism induced by high laser power is dominated by primary TiC particle cracking by the high stress concentration at the particlematrix interface followed by ductile failure of the matrix. It is also remarkable that irradiance affects the TiC/TiCx ratio despite Ec and ?c are fixed and it determines hardness distribution inside the coating.

J.J. Candel; J.A. Jimenez; P. Franconetti; V. Amig

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Low-pressure spark gap triggered by an ion diode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Spark gap apparatus for use as an electric switch operating at high voltage, high current and high repetition rate. Mounted inside a housing are an anode, cathode and ion plate. An ionizable fluid is pumped through the chamber of the housing. A pulse of current to the ion plate causes ions to be emitted by the ion plate, which ions move into and ionize the fluid. Electric current supplied to the anode discharges through the ionized fluid and flows to the cathode. Current stops flowing when the current source has been drained. The ionized fluid recombines into its initial dielectric ionizable state. The switch is now open and ready for another cycle.

Prono, D.S.

1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

75

Energetic and exergetic analyses of a variable compression ratio spark ignition gas engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Considering the significance of obtaining higher efficiencies from internal combustion engines (ICE) along with the growing role of natural gas as a fuel, the present work is set to explore the effects of compression ratio (CR hereafter) and air/fuel equivalence ratio (AFER hereafter) on the energy and exergy potentials in a gas-fueled spark ignition internal combustion engine. Experiments are carried out using a single cylinder, port injection, water cooled, variable compression ratio (VCR hereafter), spark ignition engine at a constant engine speed of 2000rpm. The study involves \\{CRs\\} of 12, 14 and 16 and 10 \\{AFERs\\} between 0.8 and 1.25. Pure methane is utilized for the analysis. In addition, a natural gas blend with the minimum methane content among Iranian gas sources is also tested in order to investigate the effect of real natural gas on findings. The energy analysis involves input fuel power, indicated power and losses due to high temperature of exhaust gases and their unburned content, blow-by and heat loss. The exergy analysis is carried out for availability input and piston, exhaust, and losses availabilities along with destructed entropy. The analysis indicates an increase in the ratio of thermo-mechanical exhaust availability to fuel availability by CR with a maximum near stoichiometry, whereas it is shown that chemical exhaust exergy is not dependent on CR and reduces with AFER. In addition, it is indicated that the ratio of actual cycle to Otto cycle thermal efficiencies is about constant (about 0.784) with changing CR, AFER and CNG fuel used.

A. Javaheri; V. Esfahanian; A. Salavati-Zadeh; M. Darzi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

THE CONCEPT OF ISOCHORIC CENTRAL SPARK IGNITION AND ITS FUEL GAIN IN INERTIAL FUSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 THE CONCEPT OF ISOCHORIC CENTRAL SPARK IGNITION AND ITS FUEL GAIN IN INERTIAL FUSION of the best methods in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is the concept of central spark ignition, consisting of two distinct regions named as hot and cold regions and formed by hydro-dynamical implosion of fuel

Boyer, Edmond

77

Air Charge Control for Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines with Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the turbocharger wastegate, and the Variable Valve Timing (VVT) system are three actuators in the air path systemAir Charge Control for Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines with Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation of transient cylin- der charge control, based on a cycle-averaged mean-value model for a turbocharged spark

Stefanopoulou, Anna

78

Laser-induced spark ignition fundamental and applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser ignition has become an active research topic in recent years because it has the potential to replace the conventional electric spark plugs in engines that are required to operate under much higher compression ratios, faster compression rates, and much leaner fuel-to-air ratios than gas engines today. It is anticipated that the igniter in these engines will face with pressures as high as 50MPa and temperatures as high as 4000K. Using the conventional ignition system, the required voltage and energy must be greatly increased (voltages in excess of 40kV) to reliably ignite the air and fuel mixture under these conditions. Increasing the voltage and energy does not always improve ignitability but it does create greater reliability problem. The objective of this paper is to review past work to identify some fundamental issues underlying the physics of the laser spark ignition process and research needs in order to bring the laser ignition concept into the realm of reality.

Tran X. Phuoc

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Use of hollow core fibers, fiber lasers, and photonic crystal fibers for spark delivery and laser ignition in gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fiber-optic delivery of sparks in gases is challenging as the output beam must be refocused to high

Joshi, Sachin; Yalin, Azer P; Galvanauskas, Almantas

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Laser propagation and energy absorption by an argon spark C. V. Bindhu, S. S. Harilal,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser propagation and energy absorption by an argon spark C. V. Bindhu, S. S. Harilal,a) M. S The laser propagation and energy absorption of an argon spark induced by a laser at different pressures is investigated. 8 ns pulses from a frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser are used to create the spark

Tillack, Mark

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Effect of CeO{sub 2} addition on the properties of FeAl based alloy produced by mechanical alloying technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iron aluminides based on FeAl is notable for their low materials cost, ease of fabrication and good corrosion, suffixation and oxidation resistance. However, the application based on these unique properties still require the development of Fe-Al based alloy since it shows some drawbacks such as a lack of high temperature strength and low ductility. To improve the mechanical properties of FeAl based alloy, ceria (CeO{sub 2}) will be added to this compound. FeAl based alloy produced by the mechanical alloying (MA) technique. The developed specimens then assessed with respect to oxidation behaviour in high temperature, scale microstructure and hardness. The surface morphologies of the alloy evaluated and observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The phase structures of oxide scale formed on them were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results found that the FeAl intermetallic compound containing CeO{sub 2} 0.5 wt.% is less pores and CeO{sub 2} 1.0 wt.% is more homogen in powder and solid form, higher hardness and increase in their resistance to oxidation behaviour in high temperature compared with another percentage of CeO{sub 2}.

Khaerudini, Deni S.; Muljadi,; Sardjono, P.; Tetuko, Anggito P.; Sebayang, P.; Ginting, M. [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Gd. 440, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong Tangerang 15314 Banten (Indonesia)] [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Gd. 440, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong Tangerang 15314 Banten (Indonesia)

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

82

Turbocharged spark ignition engine modelling and control strategy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper deals with the non-linear modelling and control of a turbocharged spark ignition engine. In the automotive industry, downsizing-based turbocharging is considered as a powerful technique to improve engine performances as fuel economy, pumping loss reduction to increase engine efficiency or driveability optimisation. This method is largely used for diesel engines. For gasoline engines, it is more complex in terms of control. In this work, a simplified control-oriented model is presented and validated using a Smart MCC three cylinders engine data. Then, based on this model, a fuzzy non-linear control law is calculated to achieve the fuel consumption and pumping losses reduction by setting the engine states to a given profile.

D. Khiar; J. Lauber; T.M. Guerra; T. Floquet; G. Colin; Y. Chamaillard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Manifestation of constrained dynamics in a low pressure spark  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some features of neutron emission from dense plasma focus suggest that the participating deuterons have energy in the range of 105 eV and have a directionality of toroidal motion. Theoretical models of these devices assume that the plasma evolves through a purely irrotational flow and thus fail to predict such solenoidal flow on the scale of the plasma dimensions. Predictions of a relaxation theory are consistent with experimental data [S K H Auluck, Physics of Plasmas,18, 032508 (2011)], but the assumptions upon which it is based are not compatible with known features of these devices. There is thus no satisfactory theoretical construct which provides the necessity for solenoidal flow in these devices. This paper proposes such theoretical construct, namely, the principle of constrained dynamics, and describes an experiment which provides support for this idea. The experiment consisted of low inductance, self-breaking spark discharge in helium at a pressure ~100 hPa between two pointed electrodes separated by...

Auluck, S K H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Determination of trace impurities in zircaloy-2 and tellurium by spark source mass spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Determination of trace impurities in zircaloy-2 and tellurium by Spark Source Mass Spectrometry (SSMS) is reported. The advantage of SSMS lies in the fact that along with metallic trace constituents even the n...

K. L. Ramakumar; V. A. Raman; V. L. Sant

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Laser induced spark ignition of coaxial methane/oxygen/nitrogen diffusion flames  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the laser induced spark ignition (LSI) of coaxial methane/oxygen/nitrogen diffusion flames using the 1064 nm output of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The minimum ignition energy...

Li, Xiaohui; Yu, Yang; Yu, Xin; Liu, Chang; Fan, Rongwei; Chen, Deying

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Ignition of a combustible gas mixture by a laser spark excited in the reactor volume  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ignition of a stoichiometric CH4: O2 mixture by a laser spark excited in the reactor volume is ... which indicates fast (involving branching chain reactions) ignition of the gas mixture. A conclusion is ... regar...

S. Yu. Kazantsev; I. G. Kononov; I. A. Kossyi; N. M. Tarasova

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Combustion behavior of a spark ignition engine fueled with synthetic gases derived from biogas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Combustion results obtained from a spark ignition engine fueled with two synthetic gases obtained from catalytic decomposition of biogas are presented in this paper. These results are compared with those obtained when the engine was fueled with gasoline, methane and with the biogas from which synthetic gases are extracted. Experimental tests were performed under a wide range of speeds and at three equivalence ratios. Results showed that fractions of hydrogen in synthetic gases increased maximum pressures inside cylinder. Moreover, peak pressures were detected closer to top dead center than methane and biogas. Despite the fraction of diluents in the composition of synthetic gases, high speeds and lean conditions resulted in higher indicated efficiencies than those obtained with gasoline. Moreover, combustion speed and heat release rate were strongly influenced by the proportion of diluents and hydrogen in gaseous blends. CO and CO2 content in the composition of synthetic gases contributed to increase the exhaust concentrations of these pollutants compared with the other fuels, while HC decreased because of the small fraction of methane which remained unburned. Although \\{NOx\\} emissions were mitigated by diluents, like CO2 and air excess, high hydrogen fraction in composition of syngas involved elevated \\{NOx\\} emissions due to the increase in flame temperature that hydrogen produces.

J. Arroyo; F. Moreno; M. Muoz; C. Monn; N. Bernal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Saffman-Taylor streamers: Mutual finger interaction in spark formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bunches of streamers form the early stages of sparks and lightning but theory presently concentrates on single streamers or on coarse approximations of whole breakdown trees. Here a periodic array of interacting streamer discharges in a strong homogeneous electric field is studied in density or fluid approximation in two dimensions. If the period of the streamer array is small enough, the streamers do not branch, but approach uniform translation. When the streamers are close to the branching regime, the enhanced field at the tip of the streamer is close to 2E?, where E? is the homogeneous field applied between the electrodes. We discuss a moving boundary approximation to the density model. This moving boundary model turns out to be essentially the same as the one for two-fluid Hele-Shaw flows. In two dimensions, this model possesses a known analytical solution. The shape of the two-dimensional interacting streamers in uniform motion obtained from the PDE simulations is actually well fitted by the analytically known selected Saffman-Taylor finger. This finding helps to understand streamer interactions and raises new questions on the general theory of finger selection in moving boundary problems.

Alejandro Luque, Fabian Brau, and Ute Ebert

2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

89

Comparative experimental evaluation of performance, combustion and emissions of laser ignition with conventional spark plug in a compressed natural gas fuelled single cylinder engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Laser is emerging as a strong concept for alternative ignition in spark ignition engine. Laser ignition has potential advantages over conventional spark plug ignition. Laser ignition system is free from spark electrodes hence there is no loss of spark energy to the electrodes, which are also free from erosion effect. In addition, there is flexibility in choosing spark location and it offers excellent performance under high in-cylinder pressures. In this paper, performances of laser ignition and conventional spark ignition systems are comparatively evaluated in terms of in-cylinder pressure variation, combustion stability, fuel consumption, power output and exhaust emissions at similar operating conditions of the engine.

Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava; Avinash Kumar Agarwal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A Laboratory Method of Producing High Potentials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Details are given of the experimental arrangement by which, using Tesla coils in oil, very high potentials have been produced and measured. Excited at the rate of 120 sparks per second Tesla coils have been operated at 3,000,000 volts in ordinary transformer oil at atmospheric pressure. In oil under a pressure of 500 pounds per square inch, voltages as high as 5,200,000 have been produced with intermittent excitation. These voltages (peak values) are measured by a simple capacity-potentiometer, in which an insulated electrode "picks up" a known fraction of the total voltage, this fractional voltage being measured by means of a sphere gap. Measurements are given of the voltage-distribution along Tesla coils. Calculations and measurements of the efficiency and power-output of such coils show that at 120 sparks per second, a coil operating at 5,000,000 volts provides sufficient power, if used to accelerate helium nuclei in a suitable vacuum-tube, to yield the equivalent of about 2,600 grams of radium.

G. Breit; M. A. Tuve; O. Dahl

1930-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Improved tribo-mechanical behavior of CaP-containing TiO2 layers produced on titanium by shot blasting and micro-arc oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combination of shot blasting (SB) and micro-arc oxidation (or anodic oxidationAO) in titanium surfaces was shown to...2 layers were produced on AO and SB+AO. The latter presented small pore size and inhomo...

Eduardo M. Szesz; Gelson B. de Souza

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

ARPA-E Sparks Connections at the Southwest Energy Innovation Forum |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ARPA-E Sparks Connections at the Southwest Energy Innovation Forum ARPA-E Sparks Connections at the Southwest Energy Innovation Forum ARPA-E Sparks Connections at the Southwest Energy Innovation Forum October 21, 2010 - 11:29am Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs While many of the policy decisions that shape our energy future are made in Washington, almost all of the important work of actually developing and deploying the innovative and advanced technologies we need takes place in labs and at universities across the country. That's why the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) recently partnered with Arizona State University and the Kauffman Foundation to organize the inaugural Southwest Energy Innovation Forum. The event brought together scientific researchers in universities and national labs, executives from industry,

93

FY2001 Progress Report for the Spark Ignition Direct Injection R&D Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SPARK IGNITION, SPARK IGNITION, DIRECT INJECTION ENGINE R&D 2 0 0 1 A N N U A L P R O G R E S S R E P O R T U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation Technologies A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T We would like to express our sincere appreciation to Argonne National Laboratory and Computer Systems Management, Inc., for their artistic and technical contributions in preparing and publishing this report. In addition, we would like to thank all our program participants for their contributions to the programs and all the authors who prepared the project abstracts that comprise this report. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Transportation Technologies 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, DC 20585-0121 FY 2001 Progress Report for the Spark Ignition Direct Injection R&D Program

94

Comparative studies of methane and propane as fuels for spark ignition and compression ignition engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper reviews the combustion characteristics of the two fuels and sets out to consider their respective performance in both spark ignition and compression ignition engines. Results of comparative tests involving spark ignition engines over a wide range of operating conditions are presented and discussed. Some of the performance characteristics considered are those relating to power output, efficiency, tendency to knock, cyclic variations, optimum spark requirements and exhaust emissions. Similarly, some of the performance characteristics in compression ignition engines considered include power output, efficiency, tendency towards knock and autoignition, exhaust emissions and low operational temperature problems. Finally, the relative operational safety aspects of the two fuels are evaluated. It is then suggested that in this regard, methane has some excellent physical, chemical and combustion characteristics that makes it a particularly safe fuel.

Karim, G.A.; Wierzba, I.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Silvia Solano's interest in carbon sequestration was first sparked on a six-month internship  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Silvia Solano's interest in carbon sequestration was first sparked on a six-month internship experiments combining EOR with carbon sequestration. "I thought this was a win-win solution," she said. "You of a research team conduct- ing a large-scale test of carbon sequestration. "I knew I wanted to learn more about

Yang, Zong-Liang

96

Motion planning for experimental air path control of a variable-valve-timing spark ignition engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to driveability problems) and on the fuel/air ratio (FAR) (leading to pollution peaks). To compensateMotion planning for experimental air path control of a variable-valve-timing spark ignition engine Syste´mes, Mines-ParisTech 60, bd St Michel, 75272 Paris, France a r t i c l e i n f o Article history

97

Studies on the effect of turbulence on the performance characteristics of a spark-ignition engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Turbulence in a spark-ignition engine significantly influences the performance and emission characteristics. Furthermore, it has been recognised that the presence of turbulence in the inlet manifold of a spark-ignition engine up to a certain level does improve the fuel economy. Hence, in this article, experimental investigations relating to the effect of turbulence generation in the inlet manifold on the overall performance of a spark-ignition engine are reported. Turbulence generators creating 50 and 75 per cent blockage with delta-wing-type blades were used in the inlet manifold of a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine. Subsequently, blade-type turbulence generation were introduced in the same manifold. A comparison between the two cases was made with reference to the overall performance of the engine by measuring the engine power and the turbulence with the help of a hot-wire anemometer. These investigations have shown that blade-type turbulence generators create a significantly larger amount of turbulence, leading to a loss of engine power compared with the delta-wing-shaped generator. However, it is noticed that there is a slight improvement in the performance of the engine when the delta-wing-type of turbulence generator is used compared with the conventional engine.

M.K. Gajendra Babu; R. Sabharwal; P. Sarcar; J.P. Subrahmanyam

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Explicit-Ready Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Turbocharged Spark-Ignited Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Explicit-Ready Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Turbocharged Spark- Ignited Engines J. El with saturated actuators. In this context, the need for model-based control laws is greater than ever with saturated actuators. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits of a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Laser-induced spark ignition of H2/O2/Ar mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser-induced spark ignition of hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures was experimentally investigated using a Q-swiched Nd:YAG laser to break down the gas at 532 nm. The laser-based high-speed schlieren system was emplo...

ChangJian Wang; ShengLi Xu; GuangMing Jia

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A transformer type fault current limiter with spark gap  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel fault current limiter (FCL) is proposed in this paper. ... of the capacitor. During the short-circuit faults, the FCL resonantly produces a high impedance in the fault circuit after the breakdown of the s...

Zhang Xiaoqing; Ming Li

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Crevice volume effect on spark ignition engine efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A set of experiments and a simulation study are completed to quantify the effect of the piston crevice on engine efficiency. The simulation study breaks down the loss mechanisms on brake efficiency at different displacement ...

Smith, Patrick M. (Patrick Michael)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Experiments with Wind to Produce Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nat EXPERIMENTS WITH WIND TO PRODUCE ENERGY Curriculum: Wind Power (simple machines, weatherclimatology, aerodynamics, leverage, mechanics, atmospheric pressure, and energy...

103

The biogenic content of process streams from mechanicalbiological treatment plants producing solid recovered fuel. Do the manual sorting and selective dissolution determination methods correlate?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbon emissions trading market has created a need for standard methods for the determination of biogenic content (?B) in solid recovered fuels (SRF). We compare the manual sorting (MSM) and selective dissolution methods (SDM), as amended by recent research, for a range of process streams from a mechanicalbiological treatment (MBT) plant. The two methods provide statistically different biogenic content values, as expressed on a dry mass basis, uncorrected for ash content. However, they correlate well (r2>0.9) and the relative difference between them was <5% for ?B between 21% w/wd and 72% w/wd (uncorrected for ash content). This range includes the average SRF biogenic content of ca. 68% w/wd. Methodological improvements are discussed in light of recent studies. The repeatability of the SDM is characterised by relative standard deviations on triplicates of <2.5% for the studied population.

Mlanie Sverin; Costas A. Velis; Phil J. Longhurst; Simon J.T. Pollard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

The Making of Beauty: Aesthetic Spaces in the Fiction of D. H. Lawrence, Muriel Spark, and Virginia Woolf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation rethinks textual images of the others beauty, depicted in works by D. H. Lawrence, Muriel Spark, and Virginia Woolf, whose fascination with the other, called by this dissertation the beloved, urged them to inscribe the beloved...

Lee, Joori

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Mathematical analysis of spark ignition engine operation via the combination of the first and second laws of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cycle simulation of the diesel cycle: exergy as a second...Shapiro, H. N. 2000 Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamic...on a turbo-charged diesel engine performance and exergy...spark ignition engine cycle using first and second...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Laser Spark Ignition of Premixed Methane-Air Mixtures: Parameter Measurements and Determination of Key Factors for Ultimate Ignition Results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we present an experimental investigation of the parameters of the laser spark ignition of premixed methane-air mixtures and the determination of the key factors for the...

Li, Xiaohui; Smith, Benjamin W; Omenetto, Nicol

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

108

Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Cold Fast Idle Conditions for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0 C to 40 C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under ...

Dimou, Iason

109

Potassium-Calcium Exchange in a Multireactive Soil System: II. Thermodynamics1 P. M. JARDINE ANDD. L. SPARKS2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ions and sup- ports the hypothesis of the multireactive natureof the soil. Although K was selectively energy of ex- change, enthalpy of exchange, entropy of exchange. Jardine, P.M., and D.L. Sparks. 1984

Sparks, Donald L.

110

A sonic spark chamber system with on-line computation for studying the reaction $\\pi^{-} + p -> f^{0} + n$ at 3 GeV/c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A sonic spark chamber system with on-line computation for studying the reaction $\\pi^{-} + p -> f^{0} + n$ at 3 GeV/c

Bird, L; West, D; Whitehead, G; Wood, E; Crabb, D G; Hutchinson, G W; McEwen, J G; Ott, R; Aitken, D; Hague, J; Jennings, R; Parsons, A J; Auld, E G

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Conversion of a diesel engine to a spark ignition natural gas engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Requirements for alternatives to diesel-fueled vehicles are developing, particularly in urban centers not in compliance with mandated air quality standards. An operator of fleets of diesel- powered vehicles may be forced to either purchase new vehicles or equip some of the existing fleets with engines designed or modified to run on alternative fuels. In converting existing vehicles, the operator can either replace the existing engine or modify it to burn an alternative fuel. Work described in this report addresses the problem of modifying an existing diesel engine to operate on natural gas. Tecogen has developed a technique for converting turbocharged automotive diesel engines to operate as dedicated spark-ignition engines with natural gas fuel. The engine cycle is converted to a more-complete-expansion cycle in which the expansion ratio of the original engine is unchanged while the effective compression ratio is lowered, so that engine detonation is avoided. The converted natural gas engine, with an expansion ratio higher than in conventional spark- ignition natural gas engines, offers thermal efficiency at wide-open- throttle conditions comparable to its diesel counterpart. This allows field conversion of existing engines. Low exhaust emissions can be achieved when the engine is operated with precise control of the fuel air mixture at stoichiometry with a 3-way catalyst. A Navistar DTA- 466 diesel engine with an expansion ratio of 16.5 to 1 was converted in this way, modifying the cam profiles, increasing the turbocharger boost pressure, incorporating an aftercooler if not already present, and adding a spark-ignition system, natural gas fuel management system, throttle body for load control, and an electronic engine control system. The proof-of-concept engine achieved a power level comparable to that of the diesel engine without detonation. A conversion system was developed for the Navistar DT 466 engine. NOx emissions of 1.5 g/bhp-h have been obtained.

NONE

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Towards the understanding of cyclic variability in a spark ignited engine using multi-cycle LES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) has been used to analyze the occurrence and the causes of cycle-to-cycle combustion variations in a spark ignited four-valve single cylinder engine fueled with a homogeneous propane-air mixture. The combustion modeling combines an Eulerian model derived from the RANS AKTIM model that mimics the spark ignition and the Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM-LES) that describes the flame propagation. The motion of piston and valves is accounted for using an Arbitrary Eulerian Lagrangian (ALE) technique with body-fitted meshes. The computation covers nine consecutive complete four-stroke cycles following an initialization cycle. The obtained LES results are compared with experimental measurements. Although the number of computed cycles is fairly low, LES is shown to be able to reproduce both quantitatively and qualitatively the cyclic variability observed experimentally. The investigation of the possible causes of variability illustrates the unprecedented possibility LES offers for understanding cycle-to-cycle variations. (author)

Vermorel, O.; Richard, S.; Colin, O.; Angelberger, C.; Benkenida, A. [IFP, 1 and 4 Avenue de Bois-Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Veynante, D. [EM2C, CNRS and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Fundamental Studies of Ignition Process in Large Natural Gas Engines Using Laser Spark Ignition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Past research has shown that laser ignition provides a potential means to reduce emissions and improve engine efficiency of gas-fired engines to meet longer-term DOE ARES (Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems) targets. Despite the potential advantages of laser ignition, the technology is not seeing practical or commercial use. A major impediment in this regard has been the 'open-path' beam delivery used in much of the past research. This mode of delivery is not considered industrially practical owing to safety factors, as well as susceptibility to vibrations, thermal effects etc. The overall goal of our project has been to develop technologies and approaches for practical laser ignition systems. To this end, we are pursuing fiber optically coupled laser ignition system and multiplexing methods for multiple cylinder engine operation. This report summarizes our progress in this regard. A partial summary of our progress includes: development of a figure of merit to guide fiber selection, identification of hollow-core fibers as a potential means of fiber delivery, demonstration of bench-top sparking through hollow-core fibers, single-cylinder engine operation with fiber delivered laser ignition, demonstration of bench-top multiplexing, dual-cylinder engine operation via multiplexed fiber delivered laser ignition, and sparking with fiber lasers. To the best of our knowledge, each of these accomplishments was a first.

Azer Yalin; Bryan Willson

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

114

Ethanol Blends and Engine Operating Strategy Effects on Light-Duty Spark-Ignition Engine Particle Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spark ignition (SI) engines with direct injection (DI) fueling can improve fuel economy and vehicle power beyond that of port fuel injection (PFI). Despite this distinct advantage, DI fueling often increases particle emissions such that SI exhaust may be subject to future particle emissions regulations. Challenges in controlling particle emissions arise as engines encounter varied fuel composition such as intermediate ethanol blends. Furthermore, modern engines are operated using unconventional breathing strategies with advanced cam-based variable valve actuation systems. In this study, we investigate particle emissions from a multi-cylinder DI engine operated with three different breathing strategies, fueling strategies and fuels. The breathing strategies are conventional throttled operation, early intake valve closing (EIVC) and late intake valve closing (LIVC); the fueling strategies are single injection DI (sDI), multi-injection DI (mDI), and PFI; and the fuels are emissions certification gasoline, E20 and E85. The results indicate the dominant factor influencing particle number concentration emissions for the sDI and mDI strategies is the fuel injection timing. Overly advanced injection timing results in particle formation due to fuel spray impingement on the piston, and overly retarded injection timing results in particle formation due to poor fuel and air mixing. In addition, fuel type has a significant effect on particle emissions for the DI fueling strategies. Gasoline and E20 fuels generate comparable levels of particle emissions, but E85 produces dramatically lower particle number concentration. The particle emissions for E85 are near the detection limit for the FSN instrument, and particle number emissions are one to two orders of magnitude lower for E85 relative to gasoline and E20. We found PFI fueling produces very low levels of particle emissions under all conditions and is much less sensitive to engine breathing strategy and fuel type than the DI fueling strategies. The particle number-size distributions for PFI fueling are of the same order for all of the breathing strategies and fuel types and are one to two orders lower than for the sDI fuel injection strategy with gasoline and E20. Remarkably, the particle emissions for E85 under the sDI fueling strategy are similar to particle emissions with a PFI fueling strategy. Thus by using E85, the efficiency and power advantages of DI fueling can be gained without generating high particle emissions.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Youngquist, Adam D [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Moore, Wayne [Delphi; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Temperature dependence of magnetic behaviour in very fine grained, spark plasma sintered NiCuZn Ferrites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with wide bandwidth up to 30MHz. In this paper the frequency range of 100 kHz to 5 MHz is investigated the magnetization processes taking place in these nano grained materials, in the frequency interval of 100kHz to 5Temperature dependence of magnetic behaviour in very fine grained, spark plasma sintered Ni

Boyer, Edmond

116

Thermodynamics of Potassium Exchange in Soil Using a Kinetics Approach1 D. L. SPARKS AND P. M. JARDINEZ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermodynamics of Potassium Exchange in Soil Using a Kinetics Approach1 D. L. SPARKS AND P. M. JARDINEZ ABSTRACT Thermodynamics of potassium (K) exchange using a kinetics ap- proach was investigated that more energy was needed to desorb K than to adsorb K. Thermodynamic and pseudother- modynamic parameters

Sparks, Donald L.

117

Sorption and Desorption of Acetonitrile on Montmorillonite from Aqueous Solutions Z. Z. Zhang,* D. L. Sparks, and R. A. Pease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sorption and Desorption of Acetonitrile on Montmorillonite from Aqueous Solutions Z. Z. Zhang,* D. L. Sparks, and R. A. Pease ABSTRACT The sorption and desorption of acetonitrile on K, Na, Ca, and Mg determined by x-ray diffraction. It was found that the sorption and desorption of acetonitrile on the four

Sparks, Donald L.

118

Syngas (H2/CO) in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine. Part 1: Combustion, performance and emissions comparison with CNG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The combustion, performance, and emissions of syngas (H2/CO) in a four-stroke, direct-injection, spark-ignition engine were experimentally investigated. The engine was operated at various speeds, ranging from 1500 to 2400rev/min, with the throttle being held in the wide-open position. The start of fuel injection was fixed at 180 before the top dead center, and the ignition advance was set at the maximal brake torque. The air/fuel ratio was varied from the technically possible lowest excess air ratio (?) to lean operation limits. The results indicated that a wider air/fuel operating ratio is possible with syngas with a very low coefficient of variation. The syngas produced a higher in-cylinder peak pressure and heat-release rate peak and faster combustion than for CNG. However, CNG produced a higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and lower brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). The BTE and BSFC of the syngas were on par to those of CNG at higher speeds. For the syngas, the total hydrocarbon emission was negligible at all load conditions, and the carbon monoxide emission was negligible at higher loads and increased under lower load conditions. However, the emission of nitrogen oxides was higher at higher loads with syngas.

Ftwi Yohaness Hagos; A. Rashid A. Aziz; Shaharin A. Sulaiman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Spark ignition engine control strategies for minimising cold start fuel consumption under cumulative tailpipe emissions constraints  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper proposes a methodology for minimising the fuel consumption of a gasoline fuelled vehicle during cold starting. It first takes a validated dynamic model of an engine and its aftertreatment reported in a previous study (Andrianov, Brear, & Manzie, 2012) to identify optimised engine control strategies using iterative dynamic programming. This is demonstrated on a family of optimisation problems, in which fuel consumption is minimised subject to different tailpipe emissions constraints and exhaust system designs. Potential benefits of using multi-parameter optimisation, involving spark timing, airfuel ratio and cam timing, are quantified. Single switching control policies are then proposed that perform close to the optimised strategies obtained from the dynamic programming but which require far less computational effort.

D.I. Andrianov; C. Manzie; M.J. Brear

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Combustion system development of a two-stroke, spark-assisted DI diesel engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A loop-scavenged, two-stroke, spark-assisted DI diesel engine was developed by modifying an outboard marine gasoline engine to operate on diesel fuel with high fuel efficiency similar to a diesel engine, yet retain the two-stroke engine advantages of low cost, light weight, and high power-to-weight ratio. Engine modification was concentrated in the area of the combustion system, including transfer port design to generate air swirl in the cylinder, and combustion chamber design to generate air squish and turbulence. Bore and stroke (84 x 72 mm) remained the same as those of the base engine. The experimental engine used the production engine's piston, crankshaft, connecting rod, bearings, and cylinder block. The transfer port design was optimized using a flow test bench for best swirl and air flow pattern with a simple flow visualization technique. The best combustion chamber geometry, compression ratio, and fuel injection spray pattern were determined through engine experiments.

Ariga, S.; Matsushita, Y.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Method and apparatus for electrical cable testing by pulse-arrested spark discharge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for electrical cable testing by Pulse-Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) uses the cable response to a short-duration high-voltage incident pulse to determine the location of an electrical breakdown that occurs at a defect site in the cable. The apparatus for cable testing by PASD includes a pulser for generating the short-duration high-voltage incident pulse, at least one diagnostic sensor to detect the incident pulse and the breakdown-induced reflected and/or transmitted pulses propagating from the electrical breakdown at the defect site, and a transient recorder to record the cable response. The method and apparatus are particularly useful to determine the location of defect sites in critical but inaccessible electrical cabling systems in aging aircraft, ships, nuclear power plants, and industrial complexes.

Barnum, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Warne, Larry K. (Albuquerque, NM); Jorgenson, Roy E. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Larry X. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

122

Achievement of stable and clean combustion over a wide operating range in a spark-assisted IDI diesel engine with neat ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spark-assisted diesel engines operated with alcohol fuels usually display misfiring or knocking problems. This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the ignition characteristics of ethanol in a swirl chamber diesel engine with a multi-spark ignitor. In the experiments, cycle-to-cycle combustion variations and the degree of knocking were investigated by changing engine parameters over a wide operating range. The results of the investigations showed that stable ignition and smooth combustion is achieved when a flammable mixture is formed in the vicinity of the spark plug when only a small amount of the injected fuel has evaporated.

Murayama, T.; Ogawa, H.; Miyamoto, N.; Chikahisa, T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Application of pulse spark discharges for scale prevention and continuous filtration methods in coal-fired power plant Oct. 1, 2008 … Sept. 30, 2011  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Drexel University Drexel University Y. Cho, A. Fridman, and A. Starikovskii Oct. 28, 2008 Application of pulse spark discharges for scale prevention and continuous filtration methods in coal-fired power plant U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Energy Technology Laboratory New Scale-Prevention Technology Use electrical pulse spark discharges in water to precipitate dissolved mineral ions. Remove them using a self-cleaning filter from cooling water. Specific objectives of the proposed work 1. Determine whether the spark discharge can promote the precipitation of mineral ions in cooling water. 2. Determine whether the proposed technology can increase the COC through a continuous precipitation of calcium ions

124

Kinetics and Mechanisms of Sulfate Adsorption/Desorption on Goethite Using Pressure-Jump Relaxation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics and Mechanisms of Sulfate Adsorption/Desorption on Goethite Using Pressure-Jump Relaxation Peng Chu Zhang* and Donald L. Sparks ABSTRACT Sulfate adsorption/desorption on goethite (Fe indicated that adsorption decreased with increased pH of the goethite suspension. The triple-layer model fit

Sparks, Donald L.

125

An Inverted Co-Flow Diffusion Flame for Producing Soot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed an inverted, co-flow, methane/air/nitrogen burner that generates a wide range of soot particles sizes and concentrations. By adjusting the flow rates of air, methane, and nitrogen in the fuel, the mean electric mobility diameter and number concentration are varied. Additional dilution downstream of the flame allows us to generate particle concentrations spanning those produced by spark-ignited and diesel engines: particles with mean diameters between 50 and 250 nm and number concentrations from 4.7 {center_dot} 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3}. The range of achievable number concentrations, and therefore volume concentrations, can be increased by a factor of 30 by reducing the dilution ratio. These operating conditions make this burner valuable for developing and calibrating diagnostics as well as for other studies involving soot particles.

Stipe, Christopher B.; Higgins, Brian S.; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

126

The effects of cycle-to-cycle variations on nitric oxide (NO) emissions for a spark-ignition engine: Numerical results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. To carry out the proposed study, an engine simulation model was used. The simulation determines engine performance and NO emissions as functions of engine operating conditions, engine design parameters, and combustion parameters. An automotive, spark-ignition...

Villarroel, Milivoy

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

A photographic study of the combustion of low cetane fuels in a Diesel engine aided with spark assist  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental investigation of the ignition and combustion characteristics of two low cetane fuels in a spark assisted Diesel engine is described. A three cylinder Diesel engine was modified for single cylinder operation and fitted with a spark plug located in the periphery of the spray plume. Optical observations of ignition and combustion were obtained with high speed photography. Optical access was provided by a quartz piston crown and extended head arrangement. The low cetane fuels, a light end, low viscosity fuel and a heavy end, high viscosity fuel which were blended to bracket No. 2 Diesel fuel on the distillation curve, demonstrated extended operation in the modified Diesel engine. Qualitative and quantitative experimental observations of ignition delay, pressure rise, heat release, spray penetration and geometery were compared and evaluated against theoretical predictions. Results indicate that controlled combustion of extended fuel blends in a Diesel engine may be possible without inlet air preconditioning and that engine knock may be avoided when heat release is optimized with proper spark and injection timing.

Abata, D.L.; Fritz, S.G.; Stroia, B.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Application of semi-direct injection for spark-ignition engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper proposes an application of a motorcycle engine lean-burn system for improving engine efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions. This Semi-Direct Injection (SDI) system consists of a high swirl charge, injection during intake-valve opening, and air-assisted fuel injection. The fuel enters the cylinder directly through the intake valve near the middle intake stroke for a richer mixture around the spark plug. A 125 cc, 4-valve, Port-Fuel-Injection (PFI) engine was retrofitted by designing a control plate to enhance the swirl. The swirl ratio was increased to 3.8 and the lean limit was extended to 1.7 of lambda (excess air ratio). The engine was tested at the low-load region, which includes most operation points of the ECE-40 driving cycle. A complete engine performance map was conducted for comparison between SDI and original PFI engines. The results show that Brake-Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) decreased by 11.3%. Brake-specific exhaust emissions of NOx and CO decreased by 32.0% and 92.9%, respectively. The HC emission increased by 47.7%.

Yuh-Yih Wu; Bo-Chiuan Chen; Anh-Trung Tran

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Tribological performance of Al12Si coatings created via Electrospark Deposition and Spark Plasma Sintering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Spark plasma sintering (SPS) and Electrospark deposition (ESD) were used as two manufacturing routes to create Al12Si coatings with refined microstructures. The tribological performance of these coatings was tested using a linear reciprocating tribometer. The SPS and ESD coatings were compared to a conventionally as-cast ingot (AC) of Al12Si to observe the effect of particle refinement and morphology changes. The ESD sample exhibited lower wear rates than the AC and SPS samples. During the wear process, the Al and Si phases on the surface of the AC sample were significantly refined. This refinement led to a microstructure near the surface that was similar to the sample generated by SPS, and therefore showed similar wear rates at the end of testing. Subsurface cracking, which is known to occur in the wear of powder metallurgy alloys, was observed for sample SPS. The refinement of the Al and Si phases achieved for ESD process was much greater than what resulted during the wear of the AC and SPS surfaces and as a result the ESD sample showed lower wear rates throughout the entire test.

J. Milligan; J.M. Shockley; R.R. Chromik; M. Brochu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Ignition study of acetone/air mixtures by using laser-induced spark  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The breakdown and the laser-induced spark ignition of acetoneair mixtures were experimentally studied using a nanosecond pulse at 1064nm from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The breakdown was first characterized for different mixtures with acetone and air. This part of the work highlighted the wide variation in the energy absorbed by the plasma during a breakdown. We also demonstrated that the presence of acetone in air tends to reduce the energy required to obtain a breakdown. Next, the ignition of acetoneair mixtures in the equivalence ratio range 0.92.4 was investigated. The probabilities of ignition were calculated in function to the laser energy. However, according to the variability of energy absorption by the plasma, we preferred to present the result according to the energy absorbed by the plasma. The minimum ignition energies were also provided. The minimum ignition energy was obtained for an equivalence ratio of 1.6 and an absorbed energy of 1.15mJ. Finally the characteristics of the plasma (absorption coefficient and kernel temperature) were calculated for the experiments corresponding to minimum ignition energies.

Virginie Tihay; Philippe Gillard; Denis Blanc

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Part-load performance and emissions of a spark ignition engine fueled with RON95 and RON97 gasoline: Technical viewpoint on Malaysias fuel price debate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Due to world crude oil price hike in the recent years, many countries have experienced increase in gasoline price. In Malaysia, where gasoline are sold in two grades; RON95 and RON97, and fuel price are regulated by the government, gasoline price have been gradually increased since 2009. Price rise for RON97 is more significant. By 2014, its per liter price is 38% more than that of RON95. This has resulted in escalated dissatisfaction among the mass. People argued they were denied from using a better fuel (RON97). In order to evaluate the claim, there is a need to investigate engine response to these two gasoline grades. The effect of gasoline RON95 and RON97 on performance and exhaust emissions in spark ignition engine was investigated on a representative engine: 1.6L, 4-cylinder Mitsubishi 4G92 engine with CR 11:1. The engine was run at constant speed between 1500 and 3500rpm with 500rpm increment at various part-load conditions. The original engine ECU, a hydraulic dynamometer and control, a combustion analyzer and an exhaust gas analyzer were used to determine engine performance, cylinder pressure and emissions. Results showed that RON95 produced higher engine performance for all part-load conditions within the speed range. RON95 produced on average 4.4% higher brake torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure as compared to RON97. The difference in engine performance was more significant at higher engine speed and loads. Cylinder pressure and ROHR were evaluated and correlated with engine output. With RON95, the engine produces 2.3% higher fuel conversion efficiency on average but RON97 was advantageous with 2.3% lower brake specific fuel consumption throughout all load condition. In terms of exhaust emissions, RON95 produced 7.7% lower \\{NOx\\} emission but higher CO2, CO and HC emissions by 7.9%, 36.9% and 20.3% respectively. Higher octane rating of gasoline may not necessarily beneficial on engine power, fuel economy and emissions of polluting gases. Even though there is some advantage using RON97 in terms of emission reduction of CO2, CO and HC, the 38% higher price and higher \\{NOx\\} emission is more expensive in the long run. Therefore using RON95 is economically better and environmentally friendlier. The findings provide some techno-economic evaluation on the fuel price debate that surround the Malaysias population in the recent years. The increased of fuel price may have limited their ability to use higher octane gasoline but it did not negatively affecting the users as they perceive.

Taib Iskandar Mohamad; Heoy Geok How

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Report on Produced Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

September 2009 Produced Water Volumes and Management Practices Page 3 Table of Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................ 7 Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................................................. 11 1.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................... 11 1.2 Background ................................................................................................................... 11 1.3 Overview ....................................................................................................................... 11

133

Report on Produced Water  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

of the pond, as well as the quality of the produced water. In semiarid regions, hot, dry air moving from a land surface will result in high evaporation rates for smaller ponds. As...

134

Achievement of stable and clean combustion over a wide operating range in a spark-assisted IDI diesel engine with neat ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spark-assisted diesel engines operated with alcohol fuels usually display misfiring or knocking problems. This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the ignition characteristics of ethanol in a swirl chamber diesel engine with a multi-spark ignitor. In the experiments, cycle-to-cycle combustion variations and the degree of knocking were investigated by changing engine parameters over a wide operating range. The results of the investigations showed that stable ignition and smooth combustion is achieved when a flammable mixture is formed in the vicinity of the spark plug when only a small amount of the injected fuel has evaporated. By optimizing the design factors, operation with high efficiency and low exhaust emissions was achieved.

Murayama, T.; Chikahisa, T.; Miyamoto, N.; Ogawa, H.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Performance of a spark ignition, lean burn, natural gas internal combustion engine .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Relative to gasoline and diesel, use of natural gas as a transport fuel can produce significantly lower emissions of particulate matter and greenhouse gases. Future (more)

ABBASI ATIBEH, PAYMAN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Physical process Mechanical mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Physical process Generation · Mechanical mechanisms F = m·a · Electric/Magnetic mechanisms F ­ Quadrupoles......shear stress fluctuations ­ High order poles...... phys. interpretation difficult Governing

Berlin,Technische Universität

137

Characterization of cycle-to-cycle variations in a natural gas spark ignition engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work a study of the influence of the fuel/air equivalence ratio and engine rotational speed on the cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion in a natural gas spark ignition engine is presented. The study considers both classic estimators of cyclic dispersion and a new one, based on the burned mass and burning rate. The engine experimental conditions were as follows: Intake pressure 0.5bar, while fuel/air equivalence ratio was changed from 1.0 to 0.63, and engine rotational speed was varied from 1000rpm to 2500rpm. For each equivalence ratio and engine speed, a diagnosis model is used to process the experimentally obtained combustion pressure data in order to provide combustion relevant results such as the mass burning rate at a cycle level. A procedure based on the use of genetic algorithms is used to obtain a very accurate and objective (without human intervention) adjustment of the optimum parameters needed for combustion diagnosis: angular positioning and pressure offset of the pressure register, dynamic compression ratio, and heat transfer coefficients. The model allows making the diagnosis of series of 830 consecutive engine cycles in an automatic way, increasing the objectivity of the combustion diagnosis. The paper focuses on using the values of the mass fraction burned computed from the pressure register and especially on the analysis of the combustion cycle to cycle variation in the natural gas fuelled engine. A new indicator for the study of cycle-to-cycle variations is proposed, i.e. the standard deviation of the mass fraction burning rate. The values of this new indicator are compared with other classic indicators, showing the same general trends. However, a deeper insight is provided on the combustion cyclic variation when the values of the new indicator are plotted as a function of the mass fraction burned, since this allows analyzing the cyclic variation along the combustion development in each cycle from a mass fraction burned of zero to one, with a relevant value at mass fraction burned of 0.5. More important is that the consideration of the dependence of the combustion variables (density, flame front surface, combustion speed) on the mass fraction burned allows ensemble averaging of all registered cycles for each value of mass fraction burned. This permits using the ensemble averaged mass fraction burning rate as an estimator of combustion speed. The analysis of the general trends of cyclic dispersion when engine speed and equivalence ratio are modified (1000, 1750 and 2500rpm; 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0) indicate that cycle-to-cycle variations show, as expected, a strong dependence on the engine rotational speed, increasing the variation with engine rpm. However, when the standard deviation of mass fraction burning rate is plotted as a function of mass fraction burned, there is a linear dependence on engine rpm, but only a very weak dependence on equivalence ratio. This means that the proposed estimator of cyclic dispersion is sensitive to only flow turbulent intensity and not to equivalence ratio.

M. Reyes; F.V. Tinaut; B. Gimnez; A. Prez

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Combustion of Hydrocarbon and Other Types of Chemical Fuels  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Reaction mechanisms have been tested and validated extensively through comparisons between computed results and measured data from laboratory experiments (e.g., shock tubes, laminar flames, rapid compression machines, flow reactors, stirred reactors) and from practical systems (e.g., diesel engines, spark-ignition engines, homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) engines). These kinetic models are used to examine a wide range of combustion systems.[Taken from https://www-pls.llnl.gov/?url=science_and_technology-chemistry-combustion

139

Performance and exhaust emissions of a two-stroke spark-ignition engine with a direct-injection system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A direct fuel-injection system has been adapted to a small two-stroke spark-ignition engine to prevent the charge from flowing through the cylinder during the scavenging process. The injection system consists of a jerk-type pump and a single-hole nozzle which supplies gasoline to the cylinder. Engine tests were carried out for comparison with the carburettor version of the same engine. The results show that the direct-injection version can achieve greatly improved thermal efficiency and lower HC and CO emissions without intake throttling. In addition, NOx can be reduced to a much lower level than that of the ordinary four-stroke engine. Heat release analysis and high-speed photography indicate that stratified charge combustion takes place in the direct-injection engine.

Yasuhiro Daisho; Takeshi Saito; Noriaki Ishibe; Mitsuhiro Tsukada; Masashi Yukawa

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

High Charge State Ions Extracted from Metal Plasmas in the Transition Regime from Vacuum Spark to High Current Vacuum Arc  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal ions were extracted from pulsed discharge plasmas operating in the transition region between vacuum spark (transient high voltage of kV) and vacuum arc (arc voltage ~;; 20 V). At a peak current of about 4 kA, and with a pulse duration of 8 ?s, we observed mean ion charges states of about 6 for several cathode materials. In the case of platinum, the highest average charge state was 6.74 with ions of charge states as high as 10 present. For gold we found traces of charge state 11, with the highest average charge state of 7.25. At currents higher than 5 kA, non-metallic contaminations started to dominate the ion beam, preventing further enhancement of the metal charge states.

Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, A.

2008-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Fe-Cr-Mo based ODS alloys via spark plasma sintering: A combinational characterization study by TEM and APT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanoscale oxides play an important role in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for improved high temperature creep resistance and enhanced radiation damage tolerance. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) were combined to investigate two novel Fe-16Cr-3Mo (wt.%) based ODS alloys. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to consolidate the ODS alloys from powders that were milled with 0.5 wt.% Y2O3 powder only or with Y2O3 powder and 1 wt.% Ti. TEM characterization revealed that both alloys have a bimodal structure of nanometer-size (~ 100 500 nm) and micron-size grains with nanostructured oxide precipitates formed along and close to grain boundaries with diameters ranging from five to tens of nanometers. APT provides further quantitative analyses of the oxide precipitates, and also reveals Mo segregation at grain boundaries next to oxide precipitates. The alloys with and without Ti are compared based on their microstructures.

Y. Q. Wu; K. N. Allahar; J. Burns; B. Jacques; I Charit; D. P. Butt; J. I. Cole

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Near-frictionless carbon coatings for spark-ignited direct-injected fuel systems. Final report, January 2002.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes an investigation by the Tribology Section of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) into the use of near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coatings for spark-ignited, direct-injected (SIDI) engine fuel systems. Direct injection is being pursued in order to improve fuel efficiency and enhance control over, and flexibility of, spark-ignited engines. SIDI technology is being investigated by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) as one route towards meeting both efficiency goals and more stringent emissions standards. Friction and wear of fuel injector and pump parts were identified as issues impeding adoption of SIDI by the OTT workshop on ''Research Needs Related to CIDI and SIDI Fuel Systems'' and the resulting report, Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Argonne's NFC coatings consistently reduced friction and wear in existing and reformulated gasolines. (2) Compared to three commercial DLC coatings, NFC provided the best friction reduction and protection from wear in gasoline and alternative fuels. (3) NFC was successfully deposited on production fuel injectors. (4) Customized wear tests were performed to simulate the operating environment of fuel injectors. (5) Industry standard lubricity test results were consistent with customized wear tests in showing the friction and wear reduction of NFC and the lubricity of fuels. (6) Failure of NFC coatings by tensile crack opening or spallation did not occur, and issues with adhesion to steel substrates were eliminated. (7) This work addressed several of the current research needs of the OAAT SIDI program, as defined by the OTT report Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines.

Hershberger, J.; Ozturk, O.; Ajayi, O. O.; Woodford, J. B.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

2002-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

143

Method for producing superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for producing a V3Al superconductor is disclosed which comprises making a composite composed of a sheath portion of a copper alloy containing 1 to 15 atomic percent of germanium, 1 to 15 atomic percent of silicon or 2 to 25 atomic percent of gallium and surrounded by the sheath portion, at least one core portion of a vanadium-aluminum alloy containing 0.5 to 20 atomic percent of aluminum; elongating the composite; and then heat-treating the elongated composite thereby to form a V3(Al, Ge), V3(Al, Si) or V3(Al, Ga) layer between the sheath portion and the core portion.

Inoue, K.; Tachikawa, K.; Togano, K.

1982-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloy powders produced Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is produced by mechanical alloying of the constituent... , 1980). Therefore, the removal of inhomogeneities is desirable to ... Source: Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit -...

145

Process for producing ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

146

Emissions and fuel economy of a vehicle with a spark-ignition, direct-injection engine : Mitsubishi Legnum GDI{trademark}.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 1997 Mitsubishi Legnum station wagon with a 150-hp, 1.8-L, spark-ignition, direct-injection (SIDI) engine was tested for emissions by using the FTP-75, HWFET, SC03, and US06 test cycles and four different fuels. The purpose of the tests was to obtain fuel-economy and emissions data on SIDI vehicles and to compare the measurements obtained with those of a port-fuel-injection (PFI) vehicle. The PFI vehicle chosen for the comparison was a 1995 Dodge Neon, which meets the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) emissions goals of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) less than 0.125 g/mi, carbon monoxide (CO) less than 1.7 g/mi, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) less than 0.2 g/mi, and particulate matter (PM) less than 0.01 g/mi. The Mitsubishi was manufactured for sale in Japan and was not certified to meet current US emissions regulations. Results show that the SIDI vehicle can provide up to 24% better fuel economy than the PFI vehicle does, with correspondingly lower greenhouse gas emissions. The SIDI vehicle as designed does not meet the PNGV goals for NMHC or NO{sub x} emissions, but it does meet the goal for CO emissions. Meeting the goal for PM emissions appears to be contingent upon using low-sulfur fuel and an oxidation catalyst. One reason for the difficulty in meeting the NMHC and NO{sub x} goals is the slow (200 s) warm-up of the catalyst. Catalyst warm-up time is primarily a matter of design. The SIDI engine produces more NMHC and NO{sub x} than the PFI engine does, which puts a greater burden on the catalyst to meet the emissions goals than is the case with the PFI engine. Oxidation of NMHC is aided by unconsumed oxygen in the exhaust when the SIDI engine operates in stratified-charge mode, but the same unconsumed oxygen inhibits chemical reduction of NO{sub x} . Thus, meeting the NO{sub x} emissions goal is likely to be the greatest challenge for the SIDI engine.

Cole, R. L.; Poola, R. B.; Sekar, R.

1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

147

Page 1 of 7 Modeling and simulation of sparking in fastening assemblies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

current flows, with likely hazardous effects in the fuel tank area (1). The direct effects of lightning of these mechanisms depends on the material used for the assembly (for example, metal rib with carbon composite of understanding on the conditions and the Screw Metallization Skin Insulator (Fiber glass, sealant...) Rib Nut hal

148

Major Energy Producers  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

206(92) 206(92) Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 January 1994 Elk. I nergy Information dministration This publication and other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. All telephone orders should be directed to: U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents McPherson Square Bookstore U.S. Government Printing Office 1510 H Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20402 Washington, DC 20005 (202)783-3238 (202)653-2050 FAX (202)512-2233 FAX (202)376-5055 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., eastern time, M-F 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., eastern time, M-F All mail orders should be directed to: U.S. Government Printing Office P.O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 Complimentary subscriptions and single issues are available to certain groups of subscribers, such as

149

Method for producing superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a method for producing v/sub 3/Ga superconductors which comprises forming a composite of a core portion and a sheath portion surrounding said core portion, said sheath portion being composed of a gallium-containing alloy selected from the group consisting of copper-gallium and copper-silver-gallium alloys, and said core portion being composed of a vanadium metal, elongating said composite, and heat-treating the resulting elongated composite to form a v/sub 3/Ga layer between said sheath and core portions; the improvement wherein the gallium-containing alloy has a gallium content of 0.1 to 30 atomic percent and additionally contains at least one metal selected from the group consisting of 0.05 to 5 atomic percent of magnesium, 0.5 to 10 atomic percent of aluminum , 0.1 to 10 atomic percent of cerium and 0.05 to 10 atomic percent of sodium, and the vanadium metal is a vanadium alloy containing 0.1 to 15 atomic percent of gallium.

Asano, T.; Tachikawa, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Yoshida, Y.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

150

Development of an Innovative High-Thermal Conductivity UO2 Ceramic Composites Fuel Pellets with Carbon Nano-Tubes Using Spark Plasma Sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the most common fuel material in commercial nuclear power reactors. Despite its numerous advantages such as high melting point, good high-temperature stability, good chemical compatibility with cladding and coolant, and resistance to radiation, it suffers from low thermal conductivity that can result in large temperature gradients within the UO2 fuel pellet, causing it to crack and release fission gases. Thermal swelling of the pellets also limits the lifetime of UO2 fuel in the reactor. To mitigate these problems, we propose to develop novel UO2 fuel with uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that can provide high-conductivity thermal pathways and can eliminate fuel cracking and fission gas release due to high temperatures. CNTs have been investigated extensively for the past decade to explore their unique physical properties and many potential applications. CNTs have high thermal conductivity (6600 W/mK for an individual single- walled CNT and >3000 W/mK for an individual multi-walled CNT) and high temperature stability up to 2800C in vacuum and about 750C in air. These properties make them attractive candidates in preparing nano-composites with new functional properties. The objective of the proposed research is to develop high thermal conductivity of UO2CNT composites without affecting the neutronic property of UO2 significantly. The concept of this goal is to utilize a rapid sintering method (515 min) called spark plasma sintering (SPS) in which a mixture of CNTs and UO2 powder are used to make composites with different volume fractions of CNTs. Incorporation of these nanoscale materials plays a fundamentally critical role in controlling the performance and stability of UO2 fuel. We will use a novel in situ growth process to grow CNTs on UO2 particles for rapid sintering and develop UO2-CNT composites. This method is expected to provide a uniform distribution of CNTs at various volume fractions so that a high thermally conductive UO2-CNT composite is obtained with a minimal volume fraction of CNTs. The mixtures are sintered in the SPS facility at a range of temperatures, pressures, and time durations so as to identify the optimal processing conditions to obtain the desired microstructure of sintered UO2-CNT pellets. The second objective of the proposed work is to identify the optimal volume fraction of CNTs in the microstructure of the composites that provides the desired high thermal conductivity yet retaining the mechanical strength required for efficient function as a reactor fuel. We will systematically study the resulting microstructure (grain size, porosity, distribution of CNTs, etc.) obtained at various SPS processing conditions using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). We will conduct indentation hardness measurements and uniaxial strength measurements as a function of volume fraction of CNTs to determine the mechanical strength and compare them to the properties of UO2. The fracture surfaces will be studied to determine the fracture characteristics that may relate to the observed cracking during service. Finally, we will perform thermal conductivity measurements on all the composites up to 1000 C. This study will relate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal properties at various volume fractions of CNTs. The overall intent is to identify optimal processing conditions that will provide a well-consolidated compact with optimal microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. The deliverables include: (1) fully characterized UO2-CNT composite with optimal CNT volume fraction and high thermal conductivity and (2) processing conditions for production of UO2-CNT composite pellets using SPS method.

Subhash, Ghatu; Wu, Kuang-Hsi; Tulenko, James

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

151

Mechanism of the Bactericidal Action Produced by Electrohydraulic Shock  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...volt- age, 10 kv; capacitance, 24 ,uf; electrode gap, 0.125 inch). gap ionization time was in the range of 0 to 300 ,usec for all the experiments. Genetic studies in which samples ofE. coli 451B treated with electrohydraulic shock were replica...

S. E. Gilliland; M. L. Speck

1967-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Analysis of Rapid Intensification Mechanisms in Producing and Altering the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

March 12, 2010 #12;Outline and Purpose · Introduction ­ Motivation ­ Advanced Hurricane WRF model ­ Data in the eyewall, created by advection of elevated eye e, which locally enhance updrafts. · Braun et al. (2006 pressure, decreasing at least 20 hPa. ­ Maximum sustained winds, increasing at least 15 m s1. · How well do

Kuligowski, Bob

153

Investigation on characteristics of ionization current in a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gashydrogen blends with BSS de-noising method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation on ionization current characteristic in a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gas, natural gashydrogen bends and gasoline was conducted. Blind Source Separation (BSS) de-noising method is employed to separate the ionization current signal from the interference of spark tail generated by ignition discharge. Cylinder pressure was recorded, and local temperature at spark plug gap is calculated using AVL-FIRE simulation code. Results show that the simulated cylinder pressures are in good agreement with those of measured and the spark tail and ionization current can be separated using BSS method. Front flame stage and post flame stage in ionization current can be used to analyze the combustion characteristics of natural gashydrogen blends. De-noised current shows that the appearance of front flame stage and post flame stage (including the peaks in the stages) fueled with natural gas is postponed and compared with that fueled with gasoline, and the appearance of front flame stage and post flame stage advance with the increase of hydrogen fraction in natural gashydrogen blends. In addition, the amplitude of ionization currents in both front flame and post flame (including the two peaks) fueled with natural gas gives lower values compared with those fueled with gasoline and hydrogen addition can increase the amplitude. Maximum post flame current shows similar trend to maximum cylinder pressure and it has good correlation between the timing of maximum post flame current and the timing of maximum cylinder pressure. High correlation coefficient between maximum post flame current and maximum pressure is presented.

Zhongquan Gao; Xiaomin Wu; Hui Gao; Bing Liu; Jie Wang; Xiangwen Meng; Zuohua Huang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Efficiency and emissions of a spark ignition engine fueled with synthetic gases obtained from catalytic decomposition of biogas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of the tests developed in a naturally aspirated spark ignition engine, intended for installation in vehicles, fueled with synthetic gases obtained from catalytic decomposition of biogas. The experimental tests were carried out at three equivalence ratios and different speeds and loads. Two synthetic blends were used and the results were compared with those of gasoline and methane. Efficiency and emissions were calculated for the different fuels under the same operation conditions and it was found that at lean equivalence ratios, brake thermal efficiency with synthetic gases approached to the traditional fuels and even improved it at ?=0.7. BSCO2 emissions increased due to the CO2 content of the gaseous blends. While CO increased at stoichiometric conditions, it decreased at lean conditions because the H2 contained in synthetic gases improved combustion at these conditions. BSHC measured were very low with synthetic gases because of the low content of methane in blends. The change in the fraction of H2 and CO2 of the synthetic blends led to quite different results in BSNOx. Syngas 1 \\{BSNOx\\} emissions were the lowest of all fuels, while syngas 2 \\{BSNOx\\} were the highest because of its high H2 fraction.

J. Arroyo; F. Moreno; M. Muoz; C. Monn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Tearing Graphene Sheets From Adhesive Substrates Produces Tapered Nanoribbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thin films Tearing Graphene Sheets From Adhesive Substrates Produces Tapered Nanoribbons Dipanjan Sen, Kostya S. Novoselov, Pedro M. Reis, and Markus J. Buehler* Graphene is a truly two- film materials have been studied extensively, the key mechanical properties of graphene

Entekhabi, Dara

156

Testa Produce | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Testa Produce Testa Produce Jump to: navigation, search Name Testa Produce Facility Testa Produce Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Testa Produce Developer Testa Produce Energy Purchaser Testa Produce Location Chicago IL Coordinates 41.81065982°, -87.65433311° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.81065982,"lon":-87.65433311,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

157

AMEAerospace & Mechanical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AMEAerospace & Mechanical Engineering #12;Aerospace and Mechanical Engineers design complex mechanical, thermal, fluidic, acousti- cal, optical, and electronic systems, with char- acteristic sizes space. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering (AME) students conduct basic and applied research within

Wang, Hai

158

Microalloying of transition metal silicides by mechanical activation and field-activated reaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alloys of transition metal suicides that contain one or more alloying elements are fabricated by a two-stage process involving mechanical activation as the first stage and densification and field-activated reaction as the second stage. Mechanical activation, preferably performed by high-energy planetary milling, results in the incorporation of atoms of the alloying element(s) into the crystal lattice of the transition metal, while the densification and field-activated reaction, preferably performed by spark plasma sintering, result in the formation of the alloyed transition metal silicide. Among the many advantages of the process are its ability to accommodate materials that are incompatible in other alloying methods.

Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA); Woolman, Joseph N. (Davis, CA); Petrovic, John J. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

159

Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

1988-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

160

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal ... Studies of the reactions of coal in electric discharges by two chemists at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Pittsburgh Coal Research Center may lead to improved ways of producing acetylene and other useful chemicals from coal. ... Other workers have produced high yields of acetylene from coal by extremely rapid pyrolysis using energy sources such as plasma jets, laser beams, arc-image reactors, and flash heaters. ...

1968-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Potential benefits of oxygen-enriched intake air in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A production vehicle powered by a spark-ignition engine (3.1-L Chevrolet Lumina, model year 1990) was tested. The test used oxygen-enriched intake air containing 25 and 28% oxygen by volume to determine (1) if the vehicle would run without difficulties and (2) if emissions benefits would result. Standard Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions test cycles were run satisfactorily. Test results of catalytic converter-out emissions (emissions out of the converter) showed that both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were reduced significantly in all three phases of the emissions test cycle. Test results of engine-out emissions (emissions straight out of the engine, with the converter removed) showed that carbon monoxide was significantly reduced in the cold phase. All emission test results were compared with those for normal air (21% oxygen). The catalytic converter also had an improved carbon monoxide conversion efficiency under the oxygen-enriched-air conditions. Detailed results of hydrocarbon speciation indicated large reductions in 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzene from the engine with the oxygen-enriched air. Catalytic converter-out ozone was reduced by 60% with 25%-oxygen-content air. Although NO{sub x} emissions increased significantly, both for engine-out and catalytic converter-out emissions, we anticipate that they can be ameliorated in the near future with new control technologies. The automotive industry currently is developing exhaust-gas control technologies for an oxidizing environment; these technologies should reduce NO{sub x} emissions more efficiently in vehicles that use oxygen-enriched intake air. On the basis of estimates made from current data, several production vehicles that had low NO{sub x} emissions could meet the 2004 Tier II emissions standards with 25%-oxygen-content air.

Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Method for producing a borohydride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing a borohydride is described and which includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material which chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature which substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

163

Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Microorganisms for producing organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

165

Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

Dees, H.C.

1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

166

Producing hydrogen using nuclear energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The earliest means of separating hydrogen from water was by electrolysis using electrical energy that usually had been produced by low-efficiency thermodynamic processes. Substitution of thermal energy for electrical energy in high-temperature electrolysis gives a somewhat higher overall efficiency, but significantly complicates the process. Today, the vast majority of hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming (SMR) followed by a water-shift reaction. A well-designed SMR plant will yield hydrogen having 75??80% of the energy of the methane used. Recent work in Japan has demonstrated the feasibility of substituting high-temperature heat from a gas-cooled nuclear reactor to replace the heat supplied in SMR by the combustion of methane. Using high-temperature heat from nuclear plants to drive thermochemical processes for producing hydrogen has been studied extensively. Bench-scale tests have been carried out in Japan demonstrating the sulphur-iodine (SI) process to produce hydrogen.

Robert E. Uhrig

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Methods of producing transportation fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

168

Gas Surplus Sparks Dispute  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Witness after witness at the Energy & Natural Resources Committee hearing heralded the recent flood of natural gas from fracking as a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity and discussed policy options to encourage development of this resource. ... Jack N. Gerard, head of the American Petroleum Institute, urged minimal government restraints, saying natural gas production from fracking supports some 1.7 million U.S. jobs, with more planned for the future. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

169

Green Standards Spark Controversy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

GSA oversees the leasing and construction of more than 9,600 buildings in the federal governments real estate portfolio. ... Chemistry plays an essential role in advancing energy efficiency and sustainability in the building and construction sector, says Calvin M. Dooley, president and chief executive officer of the American Chemistry Council, a trade association representing major chemical and plastics manufacturers. ...

GLENN HESS

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

170

Diesel exhaust treatment produces cyanide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diesel exhaust treatment produces cyanide ... Studies at the Swiss Federal Technical Institute (ETH), Zurich, have produced results that, if confirmed by further research, could pose problems for the developers of catalytic converters that reduce emissions from diesel and leanburn gasoline engines. ... Use of low molecular weight olefins as reductants for selective removal of nitrogen oxides from exhaust gases, either by bleeding the olefins into the exhaust stream or blending them into the fuel itself, has attracted the interest of engine makers and regulatory agencies. ...

JOSEPH HAGGIN

1994-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

171

Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

Additive manufacturing method of producing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Additive manufacturing method of producing silver or copper tracks on polyimide film Problem/stripping) using an additive process support by a novel bio- degradable photo-initiator package. technology. Building on previous work by Hoyd- Gigg Ng et al. [1,2], Heriot-Watt has developed an additive film

Painter, Kevin

173

Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella Oneidensis Strain MR-1 and Other Microorganisms . Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

174

173. NICKEL SORPTION KINETICS ON THE CLAY FRACTION OF A SOIL. D.R. Roberts and D.L. Sparks, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

173. NICKEL SORPTION KINETICS ON THE CLAY FRACTION OF A SOIL. D.R. Roberts and D.L. Sparks the fate of heavy metal contaminants in the soil environment. Past studies of heavy metal sorption kinetics. This study exannines Ni(II) sorption and desorption kinetics on the clay fraction (

Sparks, Donald L.

175

Radiotracers currently produced at Brookhaven  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiotracers currently produced at Brookhaven. Note that other radiotracers that are described in the literature can Radiotracers currently produced at Brookhaven. Note that other radiotracers that are described in the literature can also be transferred to our laboratory. Molecular Target/use Radiotracer Name Structure Chemical Name Hexokinase/glucose metabolism, cancer, brain function 18 FDG 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose Dopamine D2/D3 receptors/addiction, psychiatric disorders [ 11 C]raclopride 3,5-dichloro-N-{[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin- 2-yl]methyl}-2-hydroxy-6- [ 11 C]methoxybenzamide Dopamine transporters / cocaine pharmacokinetics, addiction, neurological disorders [ 11 C]cocaine methyl (1R,2R,3S,5S)-3-s(benzoyloxy)- 8-[ 11 C]methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1] octane-2-carboxylate Blood flow/nicotine pharmacokinetics [ 11 C]nicotine 3-[(2S)-1-[ 11 C]methylpyrrolidin-2-

176

Experimental study on combustion characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gashydrogen blends combining with EGR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study on the effect of hydrogen fraction and EGR rate on the combustion characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gashydrogen blends was investigated. The results show that flame development duration, rapid combustion duration and total combustion duration are increased with the increase of EGR rate and decreased with the increase of hydrogen fraction in the blends. Hydrogen addition shows larger influence on flame development duration than that on rapid combustion duration. The coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure increases with the increase of EGR rate. And hydrogen addition into natural gas decreases the coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure, and this effectiveness becomes more obviously at high EGR rate. Engine fueled with natural gashydrogen blends combining with proper EGR rate can realize the stable low temperature combustion in gas engine.

Erjiang Hu; Zuohua Huang; Bing Liu; Jianjun Zheng; Xiaolei Gu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

466 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 51, NO. 3, AUGUST 2009 Electromagnetic Pulses Produced by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

km). 5) They do not occur in locations (e.g., Sweden) where cloud tops are relatively low. 6 produce CIDs. 7) They tend to produce less light than other types of light- ning discharges. The mechanism hazardous, type of lightning. According to Willett et al. [15], electromag- netic (EM) pulses produced

Florida, University of

178

Number of Producing Gas Wells  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Producing Gas Wells Producing Gas Wells Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 452,945 476,652 493,100 487,627 514,637 482,822 1989-2012 Alabama 6,591 6,860 6,913 7,026 7,063 6,327 1989-2012 Alaska 239 261 261 269 277 185 1989-2012 Arizona 7 6 6 5 5 5 1989-2012 Arkansas 4,773 5,592 6,314 7,397 8,388 8,538 1989-2012 California 1,540 1,645 1,643 1,580 1,308 1,423 1989-2012 Colorado 22,949 25,716 27,021 28,813 30,101 32,000 1989-2012 Gulf of Mexico 2,552 1,527 1,984 1,852 1,559 1,474 1998-2012 Illinois 43 45 51 50 40 40 1989-2012 Indiana 2,350 525 563 620 914 819 1989-2012 Kansas

179

Continuous Motion Produced by Vibration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A special case of motion of this kind was discussed recently by A. T. Jones. In the present note attention is called to a number of other cases in which the precise mechanism is obscure. A simple form of the phenomenon occurs when a mass is made to slip along a rough inclined plane, without loss of contact, by making the plane oscillate. This is examined mathematically. It is found that the motion may be either upwards or downwards, according to the relation between the direction of oscillation and the inclination of the plane. The results have been roughly verified by experiment.

W. B. Morton and A. McKinstry

1927-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Characterization of uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 . Characterization of uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 . Abstract: The reduction of...

182

Mechanisms of deflagration-to-detonation transition under initiation by high-voltage nanosecond discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study of detonation initiation in a stoichiometric propane-oxygen mixture by a high-voltage nanosecond gas discharge was performed in a detonation tube with a single-cell discharge chamber. The discharge study performed in this geometry showed that three modes of discharge development were realized under the experimental conditions: a spark mode with high-temperature channel formation, a streamer mode with nonuniform gas excitation, and a transient mode. Under spark and transient initiation, simultaneous ignition inside the discharge channel occurred, forming a shock wave and leading to a conventional deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) via an adiabatic explosion. The DDT length and time at 1 bar of initial pressure in the square smooth tube with a 20-mm transverse size amounted to 50 mm and 50{mu}s, respectively. The streamer mode of discharge development at an initial pressure of 1 bar resulted in nonuniform mixture excitation and a successful DDT via a gradient mechanism, which was confirmed by high-speed time resolved ICCD imaging. The gradient mechanism implied a longer DDT time of 150{mu}s, a DDT run-up distance of 50 mm, and an initiation energy of 1 J, which is two orders of magnitude less than the direct initiation energy for a planar detonation under these conditions. (author)

Rakitin, Aleksandr E.; Starikovskii, Andrei Yu. [Physics of Nonequilibrium Systems Lab, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutski Lane, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Mechanical memory  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

184

Mechanical memory  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Alburquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Broadband microwave burst produced by electron beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Theoretical and experimental study of fast electron beams attracts a lot of attention in the astrophysics and laboratory. In the case of solar flares the problem of reliable beam detection and diagnostics is of exceptional importance. This paper explores the fact that the electron beams moving oblique to the magnetic field or along the field with some angular scatter around the beam propagation direction can generate microwave continuum bursts via gyrosynchrotron mechanism. The characteristics of the microwave bursts produced by beams differ from those in case of isotropic or loss-cone distributions, which suggests a new tool for quantitative diagnostics of the beams in the solar corona. To demonstrate the potentiality of this tool, we analyze here a radio burst occurred during an impulsive flare 1B/M6.7 on 10 March 2001 (AR 9368, N27W42). Based on detailed analysis of the spectral, temporal, and spatial relationships, we obtained firm evidence that the microwave continuum burst is produced by electron beams. For the first time we developed and applied a new forward fitting algorithm based on exact gyrosynchrotron formulae and employing both the total power and polarization measurements to solve the inverse problem of the beam diagnostics. We found that the burst is generated by a oblique beam in a region of reasonably strong magnetic field ($\\sim 200-300$ G) and the burst is observed at a quasi-transverse viewing angle. We found that the life time of the emitting electrons in the radio source is relatively short, $\\tau_l \\approx 0.5$ s, consistent with a single reflection of the electrons from a magnetic mirror at the foot point with the stronger magnetic field. We discuss the implications of these findings for the electron acceleration in flares and for beam diagnostics.

A. T. Altyntsev; G. D. Fleishman; G. -L. Huang; V. F. Melnikov

2007-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

186

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Producer Biodiesel Producer Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Producer Requirements Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that is composed of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from plant or animal matter, meets the

187

Computational mechanics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

Goudreau, G.L.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

U  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4, 2008 4, 2008 Dustin McIntyre, a mechanical engineer at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is one of the inventors of a laser spark distribution and ignition system developed at NETL which has recently been issued a patent. f al electrical spark plugs. McIntyre, a resident of Morgantown, WV, received his BS degrees in electrical engineering and computer engineering and MS and PhD in mechanical engineering from West Virginia University in Morgantown, WV. Producing a high peak power laser spark from a single low power pulse, this laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas-fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives, and laser- induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors. The laser spark plug

189

Coke-free dry reforming of model diesel fuel by a pulsed spark plasma at low temperatures using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry reforming of diesel fuel, an endothermic reaction, is an attractive process for on-board hydrogen/syngas production to increase energy efficiency. For operating this dry reforming process in a vehicle, we can use the exhaust gas from an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system as a source of carbon dioxide. Catalytic dry reforming of heavy hydrocarbon is a very difficult reaction due to the high accumulation of carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, we attempted to use a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma for the dry reforming of model diesel fuel without a catalyst. We investigated dry reforming of model diesel fuel (n-dodecane) with a low-energy pulsed spark plasma, which is a kind of non-equilibrium plasma at a low temperature of 523?K. Through the reaction, we were able to obtain syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and a small amount of C2 hydrocarbon without coke formation at a ratio of CO2/Cfuel = 1.5 or higher. The reaction can be conducted at very low temperatures such as 523?K. Therefore, it is anticipated as a novel and effective process for on-board syngas production from diesel fuel using an EGR system.

Yasushi Sekine; Naotsugu Furukawa; Masahiko Matsukata; Eiichi Kikuchi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Electrochemical method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets with an average thickness smaller than 30 nm from a layered graphite material. The method comprises (a) forming a carboxylic acid-intercalated graphite compound by an electrochemical reaction; (b) exposing the intercalated graphite compound to a thermal shock to produce exfoliated graphite; and (c) subjecting the exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce the nano-scaled graphene platelets. Preferred carboxylic acids are formic acid and acetic acid. The exfoliation step in the instant invention does not involve the evolution of undesirable species, such as NO.sub.x and SO.sub.x, which are common by-products of exfoliating conventional sulfuric or nitric acid-intercalated graphite compounds. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Joan; Jang, Bor Z.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

191

Quantifying the parameters of successful agricultural producers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary purpose of the study was to quantify the parameters of successful agricultural producers. Through the use of the Financial and Risk Management (FARM) Assistance database, this study evaluated economic measures for row-crop producers...

Kaase, Gregory Herman

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

192

Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Oregon Department of Energy provides a tax credit for agricultural producers or collectors of biomass. The credit can be used for eligible biomass used to produce biofuel; biomass used in...

193

Mechanical Vibration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE suppression and control of mechanical vibration have assumed great importance in engineering. One consequence of this is that the number ... degree of emphasis is placed on transient oscillation (in addition to steady-State and free vibration). The treatment of this topic is based mainly on phase-plane constructions and it ...

R. E. D. BISHOP

1958-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

194

Mechanics Methodology for Textile Preform Composite Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NASA and its contractors have completed a program to develop a basic mechanics underpinning for textile composites. Three major deliverables were produced by the program: (1.) a set of test methods for measuring material properties and design allowables, ...

Jr Clarence C. Poe

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Definition: Independent Power Producer | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Producer Producer Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Independent Power Producer Any entity that owns or operates an electricity generating facility that is not included in an electric utility's rate base. This term includes, but is not limited to, cogenerators and small power producers and all other nonutility electricity producers, such as exempt wholesale generators, who sell electricity.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition An Independent Power Producer is an entity, which is not a public utility, but which owns facilities to generate electric power for sale to utilities and end users. NUGs may be privately held facilities, corporations, cooperatives such as rural solar or wind energy producers, and non-energy industrial concerns capable of feeding excess energy into

196

Experimental Investigation of Spark-Ignited Combustion with High-Octane Biofuels and EGR. 1. Engine Load Range and Downsize Downspeed Opportunity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in midlevel alcohol gasoline blends with 24% vol/vol isobutanol gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol/vol ethanol gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine was used with an 11.85:1 compression ratio, hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and was capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Experiments were conducted with all fuels to full-load conditions with = 1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. Higher octane number biofuel blends exhibited increased stoichiometric torque capability at this compression ratio, where the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg (indicated mean effective pressure gross) at = 1. EGR provided thermodynamic advantages and was a key enabler for increasing engine efficiency for all fuel types. However, with E30, EGR was less useful for knock mitigation than gasoline or IB24. Torque densities with E30 with 15% EGR at = 1 operation were similar or better than a modern EURO IV calibration turbo-diesel engine. The results of the present study suggest that it could be possible to implement a 40% downsize + downspeed configuration (1.2 L engine) into a representative midsize sedan. For example, for a midsize sedan at a 65 miles/h cruise, an estimated fuel consumption of 43.9 miles per gallon (MPG) (engine out 102 g-CO2/km) could be achieved with similar reserve power to a 2.0 L engine with 87AKI (38.6 MPG, engine out 135 g-CO2/km). Data suggest that, with midlevel alcohol gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol gasoline blends and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Abstract: Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) produce fluctuating output power, which may cause voltage fluctuations and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract: Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) produce fluctuating output power, which may cause, solar energy conversion, virtual test bed simulation. Preprint Order Number: PE-531EC (02- plying its market-clearing mechanism. This mechanism determines the accepted and unaccepted energy bids

Gross, George

198

Ocean Currents Produced by Evaporation and Precipitation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 September 1933 research-article Ocean Currents Produced by Evaporation and Precipitation G. R. Goldsbrough The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve...

1933-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

On Ocean Currents Produced by Winds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 January 1935 research-article On Ocean Currents Produced by Winds G. R. Goldsbrough The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access...

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Lead in Maple Syrup Produced in Connecticut  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lead in Maple Syrup Produced in Connecticut ... Department of Analytical Chemistry, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. ... Box 1106, New Haven, Connecticut 06504 ...

David E. Stilwell; Craig L. Musante

1996-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

area Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep wells, Raft River...

202

California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

that validated the viability of this technology platform for producing cellulosic ethanol from corn stover at reasonable yields. The California Energy Commission has awarded...

203

Hydrogenase mimic produces hydrogen under the light  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Hydrogenase mimic produces hydrogen under the light 24 Jan 2013 Researchers from the laboratory of Giovanna Ghirlanda...

204

Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transparent, light-harvesting material Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3,...

205

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering An experimental methodology is presented for mechanism verification of physics-based prognosis of mechanical damage, such as fatigue. The proposed experimental methodology includes multi-resolution in-situ mechanical testing, advanced imaging analysis, and mechanism

206

PRODUCER -SCROUNGER GAME n-Person Game  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

size, ESS frequency of scrounging Assumptions of Producer-Scrounger Game Fix group (or population size Producer invades Scrounger n-Person Game with ESS q* : 0 ESS ** q P q S dq dW dq dW ESS frequency of scrounger

Caraco, Thomas

207

Producer gas from citrus wood fuels irrigation power unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 90-hp diesel engine operating a citrus irrigation system was converted to run on a dual-fuel mixture utilizing producer gas from citrus wood chips as the main fuel source. A chip feeder mechanism, gasifier, filter system and control unit were designed to meet typical irrigation power requirements. Blighted, unproductive and dead trees removed near the irrigation site were used for chipping. Data on chip moisture content, fuel analysis, drying rate and fuel/tree weight are presented but labour and equipment costs were not determined. 14 references.

Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3) 3) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 ii This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 iii The Financial Reporting System, 1977-1993 diskette is available from the Energy Information Administration.

209

Experimental Investigation of Spark-Ignited Combustion with High-Octane Biofuels and EGR. 2. Fuel and EGR Effects on Knock-Limited Load and Speed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in midlevel alcohol gasoline blends with 24% vol/vol isobutanol gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol/vol ethanol gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with an 11.85:1 compression ratio, hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and was capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Experiments were conducted with all fuels to full-load conditions with = 1, using both 0% and 15% external-cooled EGR. Higher octane number biofuel blends exhibited increased stoichiometric torque capability at this compression ratio, where the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with E30 as compared to that of 87AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg (indicating mean effective pressure gross) at = 1. The results demonstrate that for all fuels, EGR is a key enabler for increasing engine efficiency but is less useful for knock mitigation with E30 than for 87AKI gasoline or IB24. Under knocking conditions, 15% EGR is found to offer 1 CA of CA50 timing advance with E30, whereas up to 5 CA of CA50 advance is possible with knock-limited 87AKI gasoline. Compared to 87AKI, both E30 and IB24 are found to have reduced adiabatic flame temperature and shorter combustion durations, which reduce knocking propensity beyond that indicated by the octane number. However, E30+0% EGR is found to exhibit the better antiknock properties than either 87AKI+15% EGR or IB24+15% EGR, expanding the knock limited operating range and engine stoichiometric torque capability at high compression ratio. Furthermore, the fuel sensitivity (S) of E30 was attributed to reduced speed sensitivity of E30, expanding the low-speed stoichiometric torque capability at high compression ratio. The results illustrate that intermediate alcohol gasoline blends exhibit exceptional antiknock properties and performance beyond that indicated by the octane number tests, particularly E30.

Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Why Sequencea Biogas-Producing Microbial Community?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Biogas-Producing Microbial Community? a Biogas-Producing Microbial Community? The world population is steadily growing, and so is the amount of waste produced by human activity. For example, an estimated 236 million tons of municipal solid waste are produced annually in the U.S., 50% of which is biomass. At the same time, energy sources are rapidly depleting. Converting organic waste to renewable biofuel by anaerobic digestion hence represents one appealing option to mitigate this problem. Biogas is a natural by-product of the decomposition of organic matter in an oxygen-free environment and comprises primarily methane and carbon dioxide. This naturally occurring process has been known for more than a century. More recently, it has been gaining importance as more efficient anaerobic digestion technologies have been developed to treat and recover energy (in

211

California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

Logos Technologies and EERE are partnering with Edeniq of Visalia to build a plant that will produce cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass, wood chips, and corn leaves, stalks, and husks--all plentiful, nonfood feedstock sources in California.

212

Ex Parte Communications- Uranium Producers of America  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On Thursday, February 12, 2015, representatives from the Uranium Producers of America (UPA) met with the Department of Energy (DOE) officials to discuss the management of the federal excess...

213

Producing X-rays at the APS  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

None

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

214

Methods and systems for producing syngas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

Hawkes, Grant L; O'Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

215

Nanocrystallization in spark plasma sintered Fe{sub 48}Cr{sub 15}Mo{sub 14}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6} bulk amorphous alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is evolving as an attractive process for the processing of multi-component Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys and their in-situ nanocomposites with controlled primary nanocrystallization. Extended Q-range small angle neutron scattering (EQ-SANS) analysis, complemented by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, was performed to characterize nanocrystallization behavior of SPS sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys. The SANS experiments show significant scattering for the samples sintered in the supercooled region indicating local structural/compositional changes associated with the profuse nucleation of nanoclusters (?4 nm). For the samples spark plasma sintered near and above crystallization temperature (>653 C), the SANS data show the formation of interference maximum indicating the formation and growth of (Fe,Cr){sub 23}C{sub 6} crystallites. The SANS data also indicate the evolution of bimodal crystallite distribution at higher sintering temperatures (above T{sub x1}). The growth of primary nanocrystallites results in impingement of concentration gradient fields (soft impingement effect), leading to non-random nucleation of crystallites near the primary crystallization.

Singh, Ashish; Harimkar, Sandip P. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)] [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States); Katakam, Shravana; Dahotre, Narendra B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States); Ilavsky, Jan [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

216

Japan election sparks science pledges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Japan's upcoming elections, on 30 August, could see the party that has ruled almost ... on power. As Nature went to press, polls suggested that the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) would take a majority in the lower house of parliament, giving it ...

David Cyranoski

2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

217

Japan budget threat sparks backlash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... science policy has seen a rash of such statements. On 24 November, presidents from Japan's top nine national and private universities issued a declaration saying the government's policies ... president, have released a statement appealing for the maintenance of their budgets. Presidents from Japan's top nine national and private universities and 31 leaders of various Global Centers of ...

David Cyranoski

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering seminar Three Dimensional Traction Force Microscopy with Applications in Cell Mechanics abstract The interactions between biochemical and mechanical signals during-dimensional measurement techniques are needed to investigate the effect of mechanical properties of the substrate

219

Mechanical Engineer Company Description  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineer Company Description Control Solutions Inc. is a small, dynamic, and rapidly. Position Description The Mechanical Engineer is responsible for all aspects associated with the mechanical enclosures, brackets, cabling assemblies among others. Systems include mechanisms, sensors, hydraulics, among

Kostic, Milivoje M.

220

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Ross Schlueter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Ross Schlueter Engineering Deputy For Mechanical Engineering Russ Wells Mechanical Engineering Department Deputy ELECTRONICS, SOFTWARE & INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING Henrik von Der Sen Mechanical Admin. Assist. Joan Wolter Electronics Admin. Assist. Marilyn Wong Division Admin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

John R. Gallagher

2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

222

How is shale gas produced? | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

How is shale gas produced? How is shale gas produced? How is shale gas produced? More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Glossary...

223

Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

224

Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

225

FAQ 7-How is depleted uranium produced?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How is depleted uranium produced? How is depleted uranium produced? How is depleted uranium produced? Depleted uranium is produced during the uranium enrichment process. In the United States, uranium is enriched through the gaseous diffusion process in which the compound uranium hexafluoride (UF6) is heated and converted from a solid to a gas. The gas is then forced through a series of compressors and converters that contain porous barriers. Because uranium-235 has a slightly lighter isotopic mass than uranium-238, UF6 molecules made with uranium-235 diffuse through the barriers at a slightly higher rate than the molecules containing uranium-238. At the end of the process, there are two UF6 streams, with one stream having a higher concentration of uranium-235 than the other. The stream having the greater uranium-235 concentration is referred to as enriched UF6, while the stream that is reduced in its concentration of uranium-235 is referred to as depleted UF6. The depleted UF6 can be converted to other chemical forms, such as depleted uranium oxide or depleted uranium metal.

226

Do hormonal control systems produce evolutionary inertia?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...A2006Neural crest cells and the community of plan for craniofacial development: historical...Rev. Ecol. Evol. 38, 793-817. Review. Do hormonal control systems produce evolutionary...Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. Review | 0 Gonadal Steroid Hormones | Animals...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

6, 1006310086, 2006 Lightning-produced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with lightning flash data from the Canadian Lightning Detection Network and Environment Canada Doppler radar measurements, the pro-15 duction of NO2 molecules per lightning flash is determined. Using these two methodsACPD 6, 10063­10086, 2006 Lightning-produced NO2 observed at Vanscoy, SK A. Fraser et al. Title

228

SOVIETS BUILD MACHINES TO PRODUCE KRILL PASTE'  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EUROPE SOVIETS BUILD MACHINES TO PRODUCE KRILL PASTE' The Soviet Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography ( V N I R 0) has built machines for production of a protein- rich paste from protein paste from Black Sea shrimp. Each machine, operated by 2 people, has a processing capacity of 1

229

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The information and analyses in Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers is intended to provide a critical review, and promote an understanding, of the possible motivations and apparent consequences of investment decisions made by some of the largest corporations in the energy industry.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen species to directly affect antioxidant concentrations in cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiolysis products and internal dose distribution - Calculation of...products and internal distribution of doses Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen...stress is the mechanism for a wide range of negative impacts on biota living...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

Robert A. Liske

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

ENGINEERING MECHANICS SEMINARSENGINEERING MECHANICS SEMINARS THINK COMPOSITE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENGINEERING MECHANICS SEMINARSENGINEERING MECHANICS SEMINARS THINK COMPOSITE "THINK outside the box" for more competitive structural COMPOSITES Dr. Melih Papila Visiting Professor, Aero/Astro Department, Stanford University. Adv. Composites and Polymer Processing Lab., Sabanci University, Istanbul. mpapila

Ponce, V. Miguel

233

Energy Comparison Vacuum Producing Equipment - Mechanical Vacuum Pumps vs. Steam Ejectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vacuum on condensers, process reactors, or equipment and processes requiring subatmospheric conditions, has been to utilize steam ejectors. Due to the inherent operating inefficiency and wastefulness of the steam ejector, coupled with the rapidly...

Foisy, E. C.; Munkittrick, M. T.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Mechanical & Biomedical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical & Biomedical Engineering Department BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COURSE 105 Mechanical Engineering Graphics 3 CHEM 111L College Chemistry Lab (DLN) 1 ENGL 102 English PHYS 211 Mechanics, Waves & Heat (DLN) 4 UF 100 Intellectual Foundations 3 PHYS 211L Mechanics, Waves

Barrash, Warren

235

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1995  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5) 5) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1995 January 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1995 ii To download the Financial Reporting System 1977-1995 data files, access the Energy Information Center's FTP site, at ftp: //ftp.eia.doe.gov or access the Energy Information Administration's Home Page at http://www.eia.doe.gov.

236

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1996  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6) 6) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1996 January 1998 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1996 ii The Financial Reporting System 1977-1996 data files can be downloaded from the Energy Information

237

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1997  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7) 7) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1997 January 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1997 ii The Financial Reporting System 1977-1997 data files can be downloaded from the Energy Information Administration's

238

Method for producing catalysts from coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

239

Method for producing catalysis from coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

BiFeO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} heterostructures deposited on spark plasma sintered LaAlO{sub 3} substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO)/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} heterostructured thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on polished spark plasma sintered LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) polycrystalline substrates. Both polycrystalline LAO substrates and BFO films were locally characterized using electron backscattering diffraction, which confirmed the high-quality local epitaxial growth on each substrate grain. Piezoforce microscopy was used to image and switch the piezo-domains, and the results are consistent with the relative orientation of the ferroelectric variants with the surface normal. This high-throughput synthesis process opens the routes towards wide survey of electronic properties as a function of crystalline orientation in complex oxide thin film synthesis.

Pravarthana, D.; Lacotte, M.; David, A.; Prellier, W., E-mail: wilfrid.prellier@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire CRISMAT, CNRS UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, Normandie Universit, 6 Bd Marchal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex 4 (France); Trassin, M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials, ETH, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Haw Chu, Jiun [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ramesh, R. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Salvador, P. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Strategic bidding for wind power producers in electricity markets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In evolving electricity markets, wind power producers (WPPs) would increase their profit through strategic bidding. However, generated power by \\{WPPs\\} is highly random, which may result into heavy imbalance charges. In markets dominated by wind generators, they would optimize their offered bids, considering rival behavior. In oligopolistic day-ahead electricity markets, this strategic behavior can be represented as a Stochastic Cournot model. Wind uncertainty is represented by scenarios generated using Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. With a consideration of wind power uncertainty and imbalance charges, strategic \\{WPPs\\} can maximize their expected payoff or profit through the proposed Nash equilibrium based bidding strategy. Nash equilibrium is obtained using payoff matrix approach. Proposed approach is evaluated on two realistic case studies considering different technical constraints. Obtained results shows that proposed bidding strategy mechanism offers quantum increase in profit for WPPs, when their behavior is modeled in a game theoretic framework. Flexibility of approach offers opportunities for its extension to associated challenges.

Kailash Chand Sharma; Rohit Bhakar; H.P. Tiwari

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Products Produced in Countries Other Than Iran  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

April 25, 2013 April 25, 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 The eighth in a series of reports required by section 1245 (d) (4) (A) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 April 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products Produced in Countries Other Than Iran 1 Table of Contents March - April 2013 Update ........................................................................................................................... 2 Tables ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 Figures ......................................................................................................................................................... 10

243

Producing and Marketing High-Value Calves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carcasses. Oklahoma State University (Smith et al., 2000) and University of Arkansas (Troxel et al., 2001) researchers conducted livestock market surveys to determine factors that affect value in feeder cattle. Their data indicate that small... cattle that will produce calves with adequate muscling. Body condition. The Oklahoma study found that thin cattle received discounts of $9 to $10 per cwt when compared to cattle of average condition, and that fat cattle received discounts of $6...

Cleere, Jason; Boleman, Larry L.

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

244

Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof is disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers.

Murphy, James T. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, John R. (Penfield, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

Robert A. Liske

2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

247

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Student  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

......................................................................................9 Engineering Career Services ................................................................9 McMechanical Engineering Graduate Student Handbook January 2014 Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison #12;Mechanical Engineering Web Page: http://www.engr.wisc.edu/me Graduate

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

248

Mechanical & Industrial Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 1 Welcome MIE Industrial Advisory Board October 15, 2010 #12;Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 2 MIE Dorothy Adams Undergraduate/Graduate Secretary David Schmidt Associate Professor & Graduate Program Director #12;Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 3 MIE James Rinderle

Mountziaris, T. J.

249

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HANDBOOK FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR Old Dominion University Department of Mechanical Engineering Batten College of Engineering and Technology Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0247 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

250

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar Katia Bertoldi Harvard University Soft materials in response to diverse stimuli. While the mechanical attributes - such as energy absorption, stiffness and switchable functionalities. Katia Bertoldi is an Assistant Professor of Applied Mechanics at Harvard

251

Monroe Thomas, Mechanical Technician  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Monroe Thomas, Mechanical Technician Print The weekend before the ALS was scheduled to start up again after the most recent shutdown, mechanical technician Monroe Thomas kept...

252

Method of producing a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulose-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

Dees, H.C.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

253

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 2001  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1) 1) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 2001 January 2003 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This report was prepared in the Office of Energy Markets and End Use of the Energy Information Administration

254

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

256

Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

Not Available

1991-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

257

Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

Agblevor, F.A.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

Method of producing .beta.-spodumene bodies  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Beta-spodumene bodies and method of preparing the bodies that involves providing a uniform plastic batch of inorganic raw materials, organic binder, and vehicle, wherein the inorganic raw materials are composed of, in percent by weight, about 75% to 95% minerals, and about 5% to 25% glass. The batch is formed into a green body that is fired to produce a body composed substantially of beta-spodumene, and having a thermal expansion coefficient of <10.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C.(0-800.degree. C.), and a strength of .gtoreq.4 Ksi.

Chyung, Kenneth (Painted Post, NY); Day, J. Paul (Big Flats, NY); Holleran, Louis M. (Big Flats, NY); Olszewski, Anthony R. (Bath, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Carbene reactions produced by recoil excitation methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FLUORINE REACTIONS IN THE CH2F2-OLEFIN-02 SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . ~ . ~ . . 44 V-2, RELATIVE YIELDS OF PRODUCTS FROM SCAVENGED AND NON-SCAVENGED CH2C12 SYSTEMS RELATIVE YIELDS OF PRODUCTS FROM SCAVENGED AND NON-SCAVENGED CH3C1 SYSTEMS.... and phosphorus 6 produced by recoil methods. Carbene Chemistry ~Bk d. Carbenes are 'species which have a carbon atom that is directly bonded to only two other atoms by single bonds. This divalent char- acter of carbenes was fi. rst observed by Dumas...

Lowery, Kirby

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

260

Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composties produced thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intenisty acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaciton products comprise a solide particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particles-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Method for producing and treating coal gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of generating a de-sulphurized volatile matter and a relatively low Btu gas includes the initial step of pyrolyzing coal to produce volatile matter and a char. The volatile matter is fed to a first de-sulphurizer containing a de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. At the same time, the char is gasified to produce a relatively low Btu gas. The low Btu gas is fed to a second de-sulphurizer containing the de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. A regenerator is provided for removing sulphur from the de-sulphurizing agent. Portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved among the first de-sulphurizer, the second de-sulphurizer, and the regenerator such that the regenerator regenerates the de-sulphurizing agent. Preferably, the portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved from the second de-sulphurizer to the first de-sulphurizer, from the first de-sulphurizer to the regenerator, and from the regenerator to the second de-sulphurizer.

Calderon, Albert (P.O. Box 126, Bowling Green, OH 43402)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Method for producing small hollow spheres  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing small hollow spheres of glass having an outer diameter ranging from about 100.mu. to about 500.mu. with a substantially uniform wall thickness in the range of about 0.5-20.mu.. The method involves introducing aqueous droplets of a glass-forming solution into a long vertical drop oven or furnace having varying temperature regions. In one embodiment, one of the temperature regions is lower than both the preceeding region and the subsequent region. One region utilizes a temperature of at least 200.degree. C. higher than the melting point of the glass-forming material in the solution and, for example, may be at least 3 times higher than the temperature of the preceeding region. In addition, there is a sharp temperature gradient between these regions. As each droplet of solution passes through a first region it forms into a gel membrane having a spherical shape and encapsulates the rest of the drop retained in the elastic outer surface and the water entrapped within diffuses rapidly through the thin gel membrane which causes more of the glass-forming material to go out of solution and is incorporated into the gel membrane causing it to grow in size and become hollow. thus produced hollow glass sphere has a sphericity, concentricity, and wall uniformity of better than 5%. The sphere is capable of retaining material of up to at least 100 atmospheres therein over long periods of time. In one embodiment.

Rosencwaig, Allen (Danville, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Dressler, John L. (Spring Valley, OH)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Device - Global Overview Tyco Fire Protection Products produces an air maintenance device (AMD-1) for dryPENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Design of a Competitive Air Maintenance products and established team goals to be competitive with these products Generated multiple concepts

Demirel, Melik C.

264

Mechanical & Industrial Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 1 Welcome MIE Industrial Advisory Board May 5th, 2011 #12;Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 2 IAB 2010-2011 · David K. Anderson ­ Alden Research Laboratory, Inc went on for three weeks Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 6 #12;Reza Shahbazian Yassar Mechanical

Mountziaris, T. J.

265

Career Map: Mechanical Engineer  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Wind Program's Career Map provides job description information for Mechanical Engineer positions.

266

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineering Department Undergraduate Advising Manual for Bachelor of Science Degrees in Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Mechanics 2011-2012 - Updated April 15, 2012 #12;Johns Hopkins University ­ Department of Mechanical Engineering 2011-2012 Undergraduate Student Advising Manual Page 2

Ghosh, Somnath

267

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar James Bird Department of Mechanical Engineering Boston ­ are discussed. James Bird is an Assistant Professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Boston completed post-doctoral research at MIT. His research interests include experimental fluid mechanics

268

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineering Department Undergraduate Advising Manual for Bachelor of Science Degrees in Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Mechanics 2012-2013 - Updated July 14, 2013 #12;Johns Hopkins University ­ Department of Mechanical Engineering 2012-2013 Undergraduate Student Advising Manual Page 2

Ghosh, Somnath

269

Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has, and ground- based mechanical systems. Instrument Design Building on decades of design experience that has evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

270

Treating paraffin deposits in producing oil wells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Paraffin deposition has been a problem for operators in many areas since the beginning of petroleum production from wells. An extensive literature search on paraffin problems and methods of control has been carried out, and contact was made with companies which provide chemicals to aid in the treatment of paraffin problems. A discussion of the nature of paraffins and the mechanisms of this deposition is presented. The methods of prevention and treatment of paraffin problems are summarized. Suggested procedures for handling paraffin problems are provided. Suggestions for areas of further research testing are given.

Noll, L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Combined Quantum Mechanical and Molecular Mechanics Studies of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanical and Molecular Mechanics Studies of the Electron-Transfer Reactions Involving Carbon Tetrachloride in Combined Quantum Mechanical and Molecular Mechanics Studies of the...

272

Multi-scale scratching in chemical-mechanical polishing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the fabrication of ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) semiconductor devices, the chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) process is extensively employed. During the CMP process, undesirable scratches are produced on Cu ...

Eusner, Thor

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Kinetics of Ion Removal from an Iron-Rich Industrial Coproduct: I. Chloride Yigal Salingar, Donald L. Sparks,* Masoud Ghodrati, and Gerald J. Hendricks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of the Cl was removed with the first pore volume. Additionally, the salt removal decreased the electrolyteKinetics of Ion Removal from an Iron-Rich Industrial Coproduct: I. Chloride Yigal Salingar, Donald for Cl removal. This study was conducted to determine the mechanism of Cl retention, and to ascertain

Sparks, Donald L.

274

Green method to produce propylene oxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Materials Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials U.S. Department of Energy Search CNM ... Search Argonne Home > Center for Nanoscale Materials > CNM Home About CNM Research Facilities People For Users Publications News & Highlights News Research Highlights Newsletters CNM Images on Flickr Events Jobs CNM Users Organization Contact Us Other DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers Green method to produce propylene oxide conversion of propylene to polyene oxide via silver nanoclusters Simulation of propylene to propylene oxide conversion via silver nanoclusters supported on an alumina surface. Propylene oxide is an important chemical whose current industrial production is energy intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Attempts to solve this problem by using catalysts based on bulk silver surfaces with

275

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4) 4) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 January 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This report was prepared in the Office of Energy Markets and End Use of the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, under the general direction of W. Calvin Kilgore. The project was directed by Mark E. Rodekohr, Director of the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (202) 586-1441, and Mary E. Northup, Chief of

276

Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transparent, light-harvesting material Transparent, light-harvesting material Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Contact James E. Rickman Communications Office (505) 665-9203

277

Integrated structural repair of a producing FPSO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The state of the art in FPSO design is advancing rapidly. The long-term reliability of FPSO systems has improved as maintenance issues, have received greater emphasis in both new-builds and conversions. Despite this new emphasis, problems will still arise and repairs will still be required. Ultimately, the ability of any FPSO to stay on location and on production will depend on the scope of repairs which can be economically performed in-situ. In 1994 and 1995, Marathon Petroleum Indonesia Limited (MPIL) performed an in-situ repair on the FPSO Kakap Natuna. The scope and complexity of this work suggests there are few, if any, limits on in-situ structural repairs which can be successfully performed on a producing FPSO. The use of an integrated execution strategy for the repairs greatly reduced their cost.

Johnson, P.R. [Marathon Oil Co., Houston, TX (United States); Smith, T.A. [Aker Omega Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

The economics of producing biodiesel from algae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process.

Brian J. Gallagher

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

System and method for producing metallic iron  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hearth furnace for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing having a drying/preheat zone, a conversion zone, a fusion zone, and optionally a cooling zone, the conversion zone is between the drying/preheat zone and the fusion zone. A moving hearth is positioned within the furnace housing. A hood or separation barrier within at least a portion of the conversion zone, fusion zone or both separates the fusion zone into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

280

Plasma treatment for producing electron emitters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Plasma treatment for producing carbonaceous field emission electron emitters is disclosed. A plasma of ions is generated in a closed chamber and used to surround the exposed surface of a carbonaceous material. A voltage is applied to an electrode that is in contact with the carbonaceous material. This voltage has a negative potential relative to a second electrode in the chamber and serves to accelerate the ions toward the carbonaceous material and provide an ion energy sufficient to etch the exposed surface of the carbonaceous material but not sufficient to result in the implantation of the ions within the carbonaceous material. Preferably, the ions used are those of an inert gas or an inert gas with a small amount of added nitrogen.

Coates, Don Mayo (Santa Fe, NM); Walter, Kevin Carl (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

Anderson, Norman L. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

E-Print Network 3.0 - arterial wave mechanics Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Introduction The arterial pulse is produced by heart contractions which are mechanical events activated... limitation was the validation of the results. The reported...

284

Sandia National Laboratories: Mechanical Testing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EnergyNuclear Energy Systems Laboratory (NESL) Brayton LabMechanical Testing Mechanical Testing Mechanical Testing Overview Mechanical 1-2 (2008). Standard Test Methods for...

285

Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cancer therapy gets a boost from new isotope Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium A new medical isotope project shows promise for rapidly producing major...

286

Biological pretreatment of produced water for reuse applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry represents a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced water is characterized by high levels of (more)

Kwon, Soondong, 1973-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Jefferson Lab's upgraded Free-Electron Laser produces first ligh...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

upgraded Free-Electron Laser produces first light June 18, 2003 Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility have produced first...

288

Neutrons Reveal New Electrocatalyst Family for Producing Hydrogen...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

systems currently in use. Summary Most renewable energy is produced in the form of electricity, which is expensive to store and transport in large quantities. Producing hydrogen...

289

Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated Nanocrystalline Cubic Zirconia. Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated...

290

ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network Jump to: navigation, search Name: ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network Place: Germany Sector: Renewable Energy Product: A...

291

Investigation on Firing Behavior of the Spark-Ignition Engine Fueled with Methanol, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and Methanol/LPG During Cold Start  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It can be produced from synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen) that is formed by steam reforming of natural gas, by gasification of coal, or from biomass, all of which are available in abundance or renewable. ... Liguang et al.,(16) based on cycle-by-cycle control strategy on an EFI (electronic fuel injection) LPG engine, studied how to control the ignition cycle and performed both single-cycle and multicycle tests. ...

Changming Gong; Baoqing Deng; Shu Wang; Yan Su; Qing Gao; Xunjun Liu

2008-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

292

NSLS Mechanical Tech  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanical Tech Mechanical Tech The Mechanical Technician group is supervised by Robert Scheuerer and consists of Mechanical Technicians with fabrication/machining, assembly, installation, and alignment/surveying skills. This group also serves as an interface to Central Fabrication Services when more complex or larger fabrication efforts are needed. The Mechanical Tech group is responsible for fabricating, installing, aligning, and troubleshooting the mechanical hardware used on NSLS and SDL accelerators, front ends, and User beamlines, often starting solely from Mechanical Design group drawings or CAD files. The Mechanical Tech Group is responsible for the fabrication, assembly and installation of components at the NSLS. These components include all mechanical assemblies and RF cavities. Another part of their job is to

293

Replacing chemicals in recycle mills with mechanical alternatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-intensity spark fired underwater decomposes a small amount of the water into hydroxyl radicals, which are strong oxidants. These are able to oxidize contaminants such as glue and wood pitch that enter paper recycling mills as a part of the incoming furnish and cost the industry several hundred million dollars. The sparking technique is safe, inexpensive, and is capable of treating large volumes of water, which makes it attractive for mill applications. Several mill trials were run. Sparking caused a decrease in the tack of the deposits in one case. Lower bleach use occurred in two other mills; sparking reduced the degree of ink reattachment to fiber. The payback for either application is attractive. Sparking induced deposition of contaminants in another mill, which is a positive development--if it can be controlled. The technique is also able to degas water and to oxidize odor-causing sulfur compounds. Although one unit has been purchased by a mill, second-order effects caused by the technology needs to be defined further before the technology can be broadly applied.

Institute of Paper Science Technology

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Producer Tax Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund A biodiesel producer may apply for a refund of Iowa state sales or use taxes paid on purchases. To qualify, the producer must be registered with

295

Process for producing large grain cadmium telluride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for producing a cadmium telluride polycrystalline film having grain sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m. The process comprises providing a substrate upon which cadmium telluride can be deposited and placing that substrate within a vacuum chamber containing a cadmium telluride effusion cell. A polycrystalline film is then deposited on the substrate through the steps of evacuating the vacuum chamber to a pressure of at least 10{sup {minus}6} torr.; heating the effusion cell to a temperature whereat the cell releases stoichiometric amounts of cadmium telluride usable as a molecular beam source for growth of grains on the substrate; heating the substrate to a temperature whereat a stoichiometric film of cadmium telluride can be deposited; and releasing cadmium telluride from the effusion cell for deposition as a film on the substrate. The substrate then is placed in a furnace having an inert gas atmosphere and heated for a sufficient period of time at an annealing temperature whereat cadmium telluride grains on the substrate grow to sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m.

Hasoon, F.S.; Nelson, A.J.

1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

296

Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Count) Count) Data Series: Wellhead Price Imports Price Price of Imports by Pipeline Price of LNG Imports Exports Price Price of Exports by Pipeline Price of LNG Exports Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Natural Gas Processed NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Underground Storage Injections Underground Storage Withdrawals Underground Storage Net Withdrawals LNG Storage Additions LNG Storage Withdrawals LNG Storage Net Withdrawals Total Consumption Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption Lease Fuel Plant Fuel Pipeline & Distribution Use Delivered to Consumers Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power Period:

297

Compliant mechanism learning toolkit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis concerns a toolkit designed to assist in learning the behavior of complaint mechanisms. In the design of complaint mechanisms, increasingly complicated designs behave in ways that are harder to intuitively ...

Allard, Nicholas (Nicholas A.)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Mechanical Properties of Porous-Matrix Ceramic Composites**  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requirements of high-temperature components for future gas turbine engine technologies becomes realizable). These mechanisms per- mit the development of multiple matrix cracks, which in turn produce inelastic strain during/Mechanical Properties of Porous-Matrix Ceramic Composites REVIEWS The porous matrix concept has been developed primarily

Zok, Frank

299

Programmable Mechanical Metamaterials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We create mechanical metamaterials whose response to uniaxial compression can be programmed by lateral confinement, allowing monotonic, non-monotonic and hysteretic behavior. These functionalities arise from a broken rotational symmetry which causes highly nonlinear coupling of deformations along the two primary axes of these metamaterials. We introduce a soft mechanism model which captures the programmable mechanics, and outline a general design strategy for confined mechanical metamaterials. Finally, we show how inhomogeneous confinement can be explored to create multi stability and giant hysteresis.

Bastiaan Florijn; Corentin Coulais; Martin van Hecke

2014-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

300

Co-Produced Geothermal Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Produced Geothermal Systems Produced Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps Dictionary.png Co-Produced Geothermal System: Co-Produced water is the water that is produced as a by-product during oil and gas production. If there is enough water produced at a high enough temperature co-produced water can be utilized for electricity production. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle General Air Cooled Co-Produced geothermal system demonstration at RMOTC oil site.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Producer Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax Municipalities, counties, or school districts producing biodiesel must file a return documenting their biodiesel production activities and pay $0.03 of

302

Mechanical & Industrial Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Mario A. Rotea Professor and Department Head #12;2Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Outline · Undergraduate Degree Programs · Graduate Degree Programs · The Faculty · The Research · Summary #12;3Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Programs ­ BSME & BSIE 0 20 40 60

Mountziaris, T. J.

303

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar Shuodao Wang Postdoctoral Fellow University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Mechanical Design and Fabrication Techniques for Bio-Electronic Systems 11:00 AM Friday that bridge this gap in mechanics and form will create new opportunities in bio-inspired and bio

Lin, Xi

304

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Abstract Solid materials used in energy conversion and storage that couples the mechanical and chemical (or electrochemical) fields in solids via the use of stress-chemo- mechanical theory, two examples of practical interest will be discussed, namely, solid oxide fuel cells

305

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar Maureen Lynch Postdoctoral Fellow Cornell University Mechanical Loading Decreases Osteolysis and Tumor Formation via Effects on Bone Remodeling 11:00 AM Friday to mechanical stimuli in the skeleton, yet the role of biomechanical loading remains poorly characterized

Lin, Xi

306

Victor Yakhot Mechanical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to flows of strongly non-linear fluids relevant for mechanical engineering, polymers and bio-fluid dynamicsVictor Yakhot Mechanical Engineering UniversalReynoldsNumberofTransition,Renormalizationand Mechanical Engineering 11 AM Friday, October 31st Room 245, 110 Cummington Mall Refreshments served at 10

Lin, Xi

307

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices (Stiff-Davis and Oddo-Thomson) to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (11) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (12) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (13) Cleanup and integration of water quality databases. (14) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (1) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (2) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (3) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

309

Mechanical seal assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (Salt Lake City, UT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Mechanical seal assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (Salt Lake City, UT)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structure Illuminates Mechanism Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Print Wednesday, 31 March 2010 00:00 Polyketide natural products produced by bacteria and fungi are often characterized by the presence of multiple aromatic rings that are responsible for the activity of polyketides as both beneficial antibiotic and anticancer agents and as dangerous toxic compounds, such as the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins that are produced by fungal species from the Aspergillus family of molds. Polyketide ring formation by fungal enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs) is mediated by the enzyme's product template (PT) domain. However, the mechanism for aromatic ring formation from a linear intermediate with high fidelity has remained unclear. To reveal the cyclization mechanism, researchers at the University of California, Irvine, and The Johns Hopkins University solved the structure of the isolated PT domain of the PKS involved in aflatoxin production (PksA) to 1.8 Å using data from ALS Beamline 8.2.2 and SSRL Beamline 9-1. The crystal structure, along with biochemical studies, provides a paradigm for polyketide cyclization by fungal PKSs, an event that is necessary for imparting biological activity to this large class of clinically relevant natural products.

312

A Test of the Producing Power of Some Texas Seed Corn.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6 TEXAS AGRIClnTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. - A BULLETIN NO. 92. Agricultural Seetion-Decem ber 1906. A TEST OF THE PRODUCING POWER OF SOME TEXAS SEED CORN. BY R. L. BENNETT In Charge of Cotton Inve~tigation and Breeding POSTOFFICE... Stenographer STATE SUB-STATIONS. S. A. WASCHKA, Superintendent - Beeville, Bee Countv W. S. HOTCHKISS, Superintendent , - - 'Troupe, Smith Coun NoTE.-The main station is located on the grounds of the Agrieu tzmal and Mechanical College, in Rrazos Coz...

Bennett, R. L. (Robert Love)

1906-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Slaughter and carcass characteristics of Santa Gertrudis steers produced by different management practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T V v r- t?B ?. M ?'i?> SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF SANTA GERTRUDIS STEERS PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES A Dissertation By ROBERT LEE REDDISH"i Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical... theexperimental cattle, Mr. Harold Franke and Mr* H*. V. Reyes for feeding and caring for the experimental cattle, and Dr. M. J* Garber and Mr. R* L . Smith for their help with the statistical analyses. The work of Dr* Sylvia Cover in collection...

Reddish, Robert Lee

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

314

Group certification supports an increase in the diversity of sustainable agriculture networkrainforest alliance certified coffee producers in Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Socioenvironmental certification is a market-based mechanism aimed to foster sustainability of production systems. However, mainstream certification schemes in the agricultural sector have been adopted primarily by larger and more established producers, indicating an unequal distribution of social benefits. Group certification is often promoted as one alternative to increase accessibility for smaller producers, but there has been a lack of studies assessing this hypothesis. We assessed all coffee producers certified under the Sustainable Agriculture NetworkRainforest Alliance Certified system in Brazil in 2011, comprising 55 individual farms and 11 groups of individual producers. We found that group certification has increased access to small and medium size producers compared to certification for individually certified producers. There is diversity in the way producers are organized and in the profile of producers among and inside groups. However, the small producers participating in group certification are those with high productivity, suggesting that the most marginalized producers are still unable to access the certification system. Thus additional policy interventions will be necessary to promote more sustainable practices among the large numbers of marginalized coffee farmers in Brazil.

Lus Fernando Guedes Pinto; Toby Gardner; Constance L. McDermott; Karim Omar Lara Ayub

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Producing and controlling of the pollutant in the coal`s coking process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the process of heating and coke shaping, different pollutants and polluting factors will be produced and lost to the environment due to the different coking methods. The paper analyzes the production mechanism, type, emission, average quantity, and damage to the environment of the major pollutants and polluting factors produced in several kinds of coking processes in China at the present. Then, the paper concludes that an assessment for any coking method should include a comprehensive beneficial assessment of economical benefit, environmental benefit and social benefit. The items in the evaluation should consist of infrastructure investment, which includes production equipment and pollution control equipment, production cost, benefit and profit produced by one ton coal, whether the pollution complies with the environmental requirement, extent of the damage, influence to the social development, and etc.

Li, S. [Shanxi Environmental Protection Bureau (China); Fan, Z. [Shanxi Central Environmental Monitoring Station (China)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

316

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Second Generation Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit

317

ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS by Elliott Paul Barnhart ..................................................................................14 Ability of the Consortium to Produce Methane from Coal and Metabolites ................16.............................................................................................21 Coal and Methane Production

Maxwell, Bruce D.

318

SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's First 3D-Printed Vehicle at IMTS 2014 SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's...

319

EWO Meeting March 2013 Reliable Produc.on Planning of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by regions - ProducIon capacity of each plant and its producIon costs - Availability of key raw material - Inventory holding costs, inventory capacity, and ini - SaIsfy customer demand across all markets - Achieve mass balance across

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

320

Factors Affecting Cotton Producers' Choice of Marketing Outlet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, changes in government policies, supply and demand fundamentals and price patterns in the cotton market have led to several shifts in how producers market their cotton. This thesis examined producer cash marketing choices, including...

Pace, Jason 1979-

2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Functionally gradient titanium-aluminide composites produced by laser cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The laser surface cladding of Ti-Al/TiB2...composites was investigated as a means of producing a functionally gradient material on a commercially pure Ti substrate. Single and double layers were produced. The pro...

J. H. Abboud; D. R. F. West; R. D. Rawlings

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

How Much Energy Does Each State Produce? | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Much Energy Does Each State Produce? How Much Energy Does Each State Produce? Energy Production in Trillion Btu: 2012 Click on each state to learn more about how much energy it...

323

USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Producers Alliance Producers Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Name USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance Place Sacramento, California Sector Biomass Product National trade association of biomass power producers in US. References USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance is a company located in Sacramento, California . References ↑ "USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=USA_Biomass_Power_Producers_Alliance&oldid=352626" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages

324

Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystal Supercrystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Its Impact on Mechanical Properties. MacromoleculesO. L. ; Minor, A. M. , Mechanical annealing and source-Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystal Supercrystals Enrico

Tam, Enrico

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Low-Temperature and Co-Produced Resources Fact Sheet  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Fact sheet on the U.S. Department of Energy's low-temperature and co-produced resources program area.

326

Cracking catalyst and method of producing the same  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This invention relates to exchanged ammoniated cogels having improved catalytic activity and process for producing the same.

Alafandi, H.; Stamires, D.

1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

327

Mechanics of Funding matrix  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FUNDING MECHANISMS FUNDING MECHANISMS Funding Mechanism Advantages Disadvantages Comments 1. From Doe to regional organizations * * Facilitates a broad, regional approach to planning and implementation that enhances consistency and uniformity * * Especially beneficial for new programs where early planning is needed * * Simplifies communication for DOE to have only one point of contact for information and discussion * * Cooperative agreement mechanism has proven relatively simple to administer * * Approach would require modification for Tribes * * Would also require that funding be provided to individual States to enable them to participate in the process, since planning authority and responsibility rests with the individual State * * Differs from OCRWM approach to 180(c) funding * * Introduces another layer of

328

Technology Partnering Mechanisms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

expand a business with INL technologies, or require business support our Technology Transfer team is available to discuss the following contractual mechanisms: Cooperative...

329

Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame. 1 fig.

Salyer, I.O.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

330

Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

331

Method for Producing Flame Retardant Porous Products and Products Produced Thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

332

Neutron producing target for accelerator based neutron source for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

247 Neutron producing target for accelerator based neutron source for NCT V. Belov1 , S. Fadeev1, Russia Summary Neutron producing targets for novel accelerator based neutron source [1, 2] are presented Neutron producing target is one of the main elements of proposed accelerator based facility for neutron

Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

333

ccsd00001732, Development behavior of liquid plasma produced by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water with a melted NaCl is used as a test liquid. The liquid plasma is produced by the fundamental waveccsd­00001732, version 2 ­ 7 Nov 2004 Development behavior of liquid plasma produced by YAG laser the hazardous material called the environment material. Then, the plasma produced in liquid by the laser light

334

Boston University Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 303 Fluid Mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boston University Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 303 ­ Fluid Mechanics Fall 2011 Class: EK301 Engineering Mechanics Course Textbook: Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 6th ed., Munson B. Reference Texts: Fluid Mechanics, Landau and Lifshitz, Vol. 6 Fluid Mechanics, Y. Cengel and J. Cimbala

335

NETL: Releases & Briefs - Producing hydrogen from water, without  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Producing Hydrogen from Water, without Electrolysis Producing Hydrogen from Water, without Electrolysis Electrochemical potential difference drives the reaction Electrochemical potential difference drives the reaction Researchers at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory have patented a "Method of Generating Hydrogen by Catalytic Decomposition of Water." The invention potentially leapfrogs current capital and energy intensive processes that produce hydrogen from fossil fuels or through the electrolysis of water. According to co-inventor Arun Bose, "Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis, but the high voltage requirements are a commercial barrier. The invention provides a new route for producing hydrogen from water by using mixed proton-electron conducting membranes." Water is

336

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and nuclear energy. She is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Fluids EngineeringMechanical & Aerospace Engineering Interfacial flows are multi-material flows comprised of two of the interface between the fluids and the interface physics (like surface tension) needs to be predicted as part

337

Quo Vadis Quantum Mechanics?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantum mechanics is one of the most successful theoretical structures in all of science. Developed between 1925-26 to explain the optical spectrum of atoms, the theory over the succeeding 80 years has been extended, first to quantum field theories, gauge field theories, and now even string theory. It is used every day by thousands of physicists to calculate physical phenomena to exquisite precision, with no ambiguity in the results. To claim that this is a theory which is not understood by those physicists is absurd. And yet, as eminent a physicist as Richard Feynman, who did as much as anyone else to extend quantum theory to field theories and was a master at producing those exquisite calculations, could say that anyone who claimed they understood quantum theory clearly did not understand quantum theory. One hundred years ago Einstein postulated one of the most unsettling features of the theory, the wave-particle duality, with his particulate explanation for light of the photoelectric effect, and an explanation which was in direct conflict with Maxwell's brilliant development of a wave, or field, theory of light. Einstein believed that the particulate nature would ultimately be explainable by some sort of non-linear theory of electromagnetism, and was outraged by the acceptance of the community of the probabilistic quantum theory. His programme was of course dealt a (near?) fatal blow by Bell's discovery that the three desiderata - a theory which agrees with experiment, a theory which is local in its effects, and a theory in which nature, at its heart, is not probabilistic - are incompatible. That discomfort felt by Einstein and by Feynman is felt by numerous other people as well. This discomfort is heightened by the fact that the theory of gravity, another of Einstein's great achievements, has resisted all efforts at reconciliation with quantum mechanics. This book explores that discomfort, and tries to pin down what the locus of that discomfort is. For many, the locus is in the probabilistic nature at the heart of the theory. Nature should surely, at some fundamental level, know what it is doing. The photon, despite our inability to measure it, should know where it is and how fast it is going. The papers by t'Hooft, Hiley, and Smolin fall into this camp. Some suspect that the macroscopic world of our immediate sense experiences, and the microscopic world of quantum phenomena, are genuinely different, that the fundamental conceptual nature of physics changes from one to the other, with some unknown boundary between them. Penrose, in his preface alludes to his speculations on this, as does Leggett to his own speculations in his paper. And a number of articles (e.g., by Hartle, Rovelli, and others) opine that if only everyone looked at quantum mechanics in the right way (their way), it would lose its mystery, and be as natural as Newton's world view. (I myself tend to this position, which is however somewhat tempered by the realization that the clarity and naturalness of my viewpoint is not shared by the others who believe equally firmly in their own natural, clear, but radically different, viewpoint). A number of articles simply examine the counterintuitive nature of quantum theory in general, using it to make sense of time travel (Greenberger and Svozil) and demonstrating the unusual features of induction about the past from present observations within quantum theory (Aharonov and Dolev). The book is not free from rather overblown titles (e.g., 'Liberation and Purification from Classical Prejudice', or 'A Quantum Theory of the Human Person') but those articles nevertheless contain at least amusing speculations. In quantum gravity, the incompatibilities between the two masterstrokes of the twentieth century are highlighted. There is a strong suspicion amongst many in this field that progress in understanding quantum gravity demands a deeper understanding of the great mystery of quantum theory which this book explores. This book is a useful and, at times, fascinating introduction to the flounderings which are taking pla

W G Unruh

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Program of Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Program of Study Correspondence The Department of Mechanical Engineering offers graduate programs in the fields of thermal science and engineering mechanics. Current areas of research activity include Biomedical Engineering, Biomimetics, Composite Materials, Computational Mechanics

Thomas, Andrew

339

Integrated Mechanical & Electrical Engineering (IMEE)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated Mechanical & Electrical Engineering (IMEE) Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering #12;Graduates able to work in both mechanical of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) n Develop essential engineering skills through extensive project work n Enhance

Burton, Geoffrey R.

340

Mechanical code comparator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Dalton, Larry J. (Bernalillo, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Producer Excise Tax and  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuel Renewable Fuel Producer Excise Tax and Inspection Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Producer Excise Tax and Inspection Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Producer Excise Tax and Inspection Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Producer Excise Tax and Inspection Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Producer Excise Tax and Inspection Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Producer Excise Tax and Inspection Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Producer Excise Tax and Inspection Exemption on AddThis.com...

342

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Excise Tax Exemption for Biodiesel Produced  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Excise Tax Exemption Excise Tax Exemption for Biodiesel Produced by Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Excise Tax Exemption for Biodiesel Produced by Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Excise Tax Exemption for Biodiesel Produced by Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Excise Tax Exemption for Biodiesel Produced by Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Excise Tax Exemption for Biodiesel Produced by Schools on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Excise Tax Exemption for Biodiesel Produced by Schools on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Excise Tax Exemption for Biodiesel Produced by Schools on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State

343

Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Print Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Print Polyketide natural products produced by bacteria and fungi are often characterized by the presence of multiple aromatic rings that are responsible for the activity of polyketides as both beneficial antibiotic and anticancer agents and as dangerous toxic compounds, such as the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins that are produced by fungal species from the Aspergillus family of molds. Polyketide ring formation by fungal enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs) is mediated by the enzyme's product template (PT) domain. However, the mechanism for aromatic ring formation from a linear intermediate with high fidelity has remained unclear. To reveal the cyclization mechanism, researchers at the University of California, Irvine, and The Johns Hopkins University solved the structure of the isolated PT domain of the PKS involved in aflatoxin production (PksA) to 1.8 Å using data from ALS Beamline 8.2.2 and SSRL Beamline 9-1. The crystal structure, along with biochemical studies, provides a paradigm for polyketide cyclization by fungal PKSs, an event that is necessary for imparting biological activity to this large class of clinically relevant natural products.

344

Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Print Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Print Polyketide natural products produced by bacteria and fungi are often characterized by the presence of multiple aromatic rings that are responsible for the activity of polyketides as both beneficial antibiotic and anticancer agents and as dangerous toxic compounds, such as the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins that are produced by fungal species from the Aspergillus family of molds. Polyketide ring formation by fungal enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs) is mediated by the enzyme's product template (PT) domain. However, the mechanism for aromatic ring formation from a linear intermediate with high fidelity has remained unclear. To reveal the cyclization mechanism, researchers at the University of California, Irvine, and The Johns Hopkins University solved the structure of the isolated PT domain of the PKS involved in aflatoxin production (PksA) to 1.8 Å using data from ALS Beamline 8.2.2 and SSRL Beamline 9-1. The crystal structure, along with biochemical studies, provides a paradigm for polyketide cyclization by fungal PKSs, an event that is necessary for imparting biological activity to this large class of clinically relevant natural products.

345

Tearing graphene sheets from adhesive substrates produces tapered nanoribbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene is a truly two-dimensional atomic crystal with exceptional electronic and mechanical properties. Whereas conventional bulk and thin-film materials have been studied extensively, the key mechanical properties of ...

Sen, Dipanjan

346

Rotary mechanical latch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A rotary mechanical latch for positive latching and unlatching of a rotary device with a latchable rotating assembly having a latching gear that can be driven to latched and unlatched states by a drive mechanism such as an electric motor. A cam arm affixed to the latching gear interfaces with leading and trailing latch cams affixed to a flange within the drive mechanism. The interaction of the cam arm with leading and trailing latch cams prevents rotation of the rotating assembly by external forces such as those due to vibration or tampering.

Spletzer, Barry L.; Martinez, Michael A.; Marron, Lisa C.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

347

Produced Water R&D | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Shale Gas » Produced Water Shale Gas » Produced Water R&D Produced Water R&D Developed as a result of lessons learned from the NETL funded demonstration project, the Altela 600 water treatment system (shown above) treats about 25,000 gallons per day of produced and flowback water from hydraulic fracturing. [Photo courtesy of Altela Inc.] Developed as a result of lessons learned from the NETL funded demonstration project, the Altela 600 water treatment system (shown above) treats about 25,000 gallons per day of produced and flowback water from hydraulic fracturing. [Photo courtesy of Altela Inc.] Drilling and fracturing wells produce water along with the natural gas. Some of this water is returned fracture fluid and some is natural formation water. The actual water production of a particular well depends on the well

348

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #600: December 7, 2009 China Produced  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0: December 7, 0: December 7, 2009 China Produced More Vehicles than the U.S. in 2008 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #600: December 7, 2009 China Produced More Vehicles than the U.S. in 2008 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #600: December 7, 2009 China Produced More Vehicles than the U.S. in 2008 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #600: December 7, 2009 China Produced More Vehicles than the U.S. in 2008 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #600: December 7, 2009 China Produced More Vehicles than the U.S. in 2008 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #600: December 7, 2009 China Produced More Vehicles than the U.S. in 2008 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #600:

349

Counter Current Multiplier Mechanism  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Counter Current Multiplier Mechanism Counter Current Multiplier Mechanism Name: Stephen Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Can you please explain to me the counter-current multiplier mechanism. I understand that cholride and sodium ions are filtered out of the ascending loop of Henle into the interstial fluid, however, I'm not sure exactly what happens from there and how this effects osmotic pressure gradients in the nephron. Any help would be greatly appriciated. Replies: This mechanism is very complex when it comes to writing a response. You have to have a strong background in osmotic pressure understanding and the anatomy of the kidney. It involves the cortex, outer and inner medula in relationship to the vasa recta, interstitial fluids at two points, the loop of Henle and the collecting duct. The size of the tubes and the position in relations to the cortex and medulla is an essential part. I can suggest some references.

350

Contaminant-Generation Mechanisms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the last chapter, the areas where contaminants are generated were discussed. Knowing the location of contaminant generation is helpful in controlling that contamination, but understanding the mechanisms is ...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering This presentation will address the development and transition of advanced structural health management (SHM) technologies from the perspective of understanding and the importance of understanding this role to increase the likelihood for transition of new technologies

352

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

people trained from both perspectives can result in innovative solutions. At Fraunhofer CMI ­ coMechanical engineering Department Seminar Alexis Sauer-Budge Senior Research Scientist, Fraunhofer CMI Adjunct Research Assistant Professor, BME, Boston University Innovations at the intersection

353

Syngas Oxidation Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A comprehensive analysis of synthesis gas (syngas) oxidation kinetics in wide ranges of temperature ... on the basis of the reaction mechanism of syngas ignition and combustion in air. A vast set of experimental ...

A. M. Starik; N. S. Titova; A. S. Sharipov

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Mechanical Compression Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MECHANICAL COMPRESSION HEAT PUMPS Thomas-L. Apaloo and K. Kawamura Mycom Corporation, Los Angeles, California J. Matsuda, Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Tokyo, Japan ABSTRACT Mechanical compression heat pumping is not new in industrial applications.... In fact, industry history suggests that the theoretical concept was developed before 1825. Heat pump manufacturers gained the support of consultants and end-users when the energy crisis hit this country in 1973. That interest, today, has been...

Apaloo, T. L.; Kawamura, K.; Matsuda, J.

355

Toxic methylmercury-producing microbes more widespread than realized...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

published in Environmental Science and Technology, explains why deadly methylated mercury is produced in areas where the neurotoxin's presence has puzzled researchers for...

356

Sandia National Laboratories: wind turbines produce rated power  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

turbines produce rated power Increasing the Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility's Power Production On April 7, 2014, in Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Partnership,...

357

Organic Agriculture in Oklahoma: Catalysts and Roadblocks for Producers.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study surveyed certified and non-certified Oklahoma organic producers to examine their personal and farm characteristics, the reasons cited for their extent of involvement in (more)

Mitchell, Shelley

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor | National Nuclear...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

359

Treatment of produced water using chemical and biological unit operations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Water generated along with oil and gas during coal bed methane and oil shale operations is commonly known as produced water, formation water, or oilfield (more)

Li, Liang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Producing Beneficial Materials from Biomass and Biodiesel Byproducts...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Producing Beneficial Materials from Biomass and Biodiesel Byproducts Lawrence Berkeley National...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Evaluation of cirrus statistics produced by general circulation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

models for producing climatological cloud statistics by comparing them to the cirrus climatology compiled over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site. This evaluation includes...

362

Scientists propose a solution to a critical barrier to producing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

could provide essential improvements for future tokamaks that will need to produce self-sustaining fusion reactions, or "burning plasmas," to generate electric power. Such machines...

363

Upgrading of Pitch Produced by Mild Gasification of Subbituminous Cal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Upgrading of Pitch Produced by Mild Gasification of Subbituminous Cal ... Structural Characterization of Coal Tar Pitches Obtained by Heat Treatment under Different Conditions ...

Robert L. McCormick; Mahesh C. Jha

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and Geopressured...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and Geopressured Resources (Fact Sheet), Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and Geopressured Resources (Fact Sheet),...

365

Making biomimetic complexes to produce hydrogen fuel | Center...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biomimetic complexes to produce hydrogen fuel 4 Nov 2012 Souvik Roy, graduate student (Subtask 3, laboratory of Anne Jones). "I am involved mostly in mimicking Fe-hydrogenases,...

366

Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

367

RPSEA Final Report Small Producers Program Development Strategies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Final Report Small Producers Program Development Strategies for Maximizing East Texas Oil Field Production Contract No. 08123-16 July 15, 2014 Fred P. Wang Research Scientist...

368

Mechanical Engineering Is Mechanical Engineering right for me?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineering Is Mechanical Engineering right for me? If you are interested in the wide range of principles related to mechanical systems then Mechanical Engineering is well suited to you. A Mechanical Engineering degree programme will focus on aspects such as analysis, design, manufacture

Harman, Neal.A.

369

Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway.

DePaoli, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Tsouris, Constantinos (Oak Ridge, TN); Feng, James Q. (Fairport, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway. 4 figs.

DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Feng, J.Q.

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

371

Transporting Produce SafelyTransporting Produce Safely etting fresh produce from the field to the market is another step where care must be taken to keep the product safe.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

points for microorganisms that cause disease or hasten spoilage. Ice used in the transport of produceTransporting Produce SafelyTransporting Produce Safely G etting fresh produce from the field contamination of the produce with microorganisms that could cause foodborne illness and also to hold the produce

Liskiewicz, Maciej

372

Making Food, Producing Sustainability Many contemporary approaches to environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Making Food, Producing Sustainability Abstract Many contemporary approaches to environmental sustainability focus on the end-consumer. In this panel, we explore lessons from small food producers for future development of HCI as an agency of sustainable ways of being. We argue that attention to the relationship

Parikh, Tapan S.

373

Understanding Corrosion Mechanisms in Oxy-Fired Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Understanding Corrosion Mechanisms Understanding Corrosion Mechanisms in Oxy-Fired Systems Background In Oxy-fired Systems, oxygen is used for combustion of coal rather than air. It produces flue (exhaust) gas with concentrated carbon dioxide (CO2), thus facilitating its capture and sequestration. An added benefit of oxy-firing is that it reduces or eliminates nitrogen oxide (NO X ) emissions. Additional energy is required with oxy-firing and subsequent carbon sequestration

374

SaskPower Small Power Producers Program (Saskatchewan, Canada) | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SaskPower Small Power Producers Program (Saskatchewan, Canada) SaskPower Small Power Producers Program (Saskatchewan, Canada) SaskPower Small Power Producers Program (Saskatchewan, Canada) < Back Eligibility Commercial Agricultural Industrial Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Program Info Funding Source SaskPower State Saskatchewan Program Type Performance-Based Incentive Provider SaskPower The Small Power Producers Program accommodates customers who wish to generate up to 100 kilowatts (kW) of electricity for the purpose of offsetting power that would otherwise be purchased from SaskPower or for selling all of the power generated to SaskPower. At the beginning of the application process, you need to choose between one of two options: Sell all of the power you produce to SaskPower, or sell the

375

Financial News for Major Energy Producers, Third Quarter 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Producers, Third Quarter 2010 Producers, Third Quarter 2010 Release Date: January 5, 2011 Next Release Date: To Be Determined Report Sections: Corporate and Petroleum Net Income Worldwide Oil and Gas Production Operations Worldwide Refining/Marketing Operations Worldwide Petroleum Capital Expenditures Worldwide Downstream Natural Gas and Power, and Chemicals Operations Supplemental Figures Supplemental Tables Download this Report: Full Report in PDF-Format Past Issues in PDF-Format Additional Information FRS Home Financial Terms Glossary Contacts Notes: The "Financial News for Major Energy Producers" is issued quarterly to report recent trends in the financial performance of the major energy producers. "Major energy producers" are respondents to Form EIA-28 (Financial Reporting System). All U.S.-based respondent companies that

376

Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor | National Nuclear Security  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor | National Nuclear Security Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor December 20, 1951 Arco, ID Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor

377

Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops December 9, 2009 - 11:12am Addthis Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? Utilizing sites in Nevada that are currently used as buffers around roads for biofuel production instead could meet up to 22 percent of the state's energy requirements. That's 11 times the energy the state currently produces from biomass. Nebraska is known for its rolling cornfields in America's heartland, and agriculture is so thick in the state that people there can smell the fresh produce in the air. Many more in the U.S. might end up tasting the hearty vegetables as well. But one concern about new technologies that use crops for fuel is that those crops, and the land on which they're grown,

378

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Utility Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Louisiana Department of Natural Resources In order to prevent waste and to avoid the drilling of unnecessary wells and to encourage the development of coal seam natural gas producing areas in Louisiana, the commissioner of conservation is authorized, as provided in this law, to establish a single unit to be served by one or more wells for a coal seam natural gas producing area. Without in any way modifying the authority granted to the commissioner to establish a drilling unit or

379

Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops December 9, 2009 - 11:12am Addthis Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? Utilizing sites in Nevada that are currently used as buffers around roads for biofuel production instead could meet up to 22 percent of the state's energy requirements. That's 11 times the energy the state currently produces from biomass. Nebraska is known for its rolling cornfields in America's heartland, and agriculture is so thick in the state that people there can smell the fresh produce in the air. Many more in the U.S. might end up tasting the hearty vegetables as well. But one concern about new technologies that use crops for fuel is that those crops, and the land on which they're grown,

380

Methods and apparatus for producing and storing positrons and protons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for producing and storing positrons may include a trap that defines an interior chamber therein and that contains an electric field and a magnetic field. The trap may further include a source material that includes atoms that, when activated by photon bombardment, become positron emitters to produce positrons. The trap may also include a moderator positioned adjacent the source material. A photon source is positioned adjacent the trap so that photons produced by the photon source bombard the source material to produce the positron emitters. Positrons from the positron emitters and moderated positrons from the moderator are confined within the interior chamber of the trap by the electric and magnetic fields. Apparatus for producing and storing protons are also disclosed.

Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Low-temperature method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets and their nanocomposites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of exfoliating a layered material to produce separated nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm. The method comprises: (a) providing a graphite intercalation compound comprising a layered graphite containing expandable species residing in an interlayer space of the layered graphite; (b) exposing the graphite intercalation compound to an exfoliation temperature lower than 650.degree. C. for a duration of time sufficient to at least partially exfoliate the layered graphite without incurring a significant level of oxidation; and (c) subjecting the at least partially exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce separated platelets. The method can further include a step of dispersing the platelets in a polymer or monomer solution or suspension as a precursor step to nanocomposite fabrication.

Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Shi, Jinjun (Columbus, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

382

Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use By MFI Zeolite Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desalination of brines produced from oil and gas fields is an attractive option for providing potable water in arid regions. Recent field-testing of subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide for climate management purposes provides new motivation for optimizing efficacy of oilfield brine desalination: as subsurface reservoirs become used for storing CO{sub 2}, the displaced brines must be managed somehow. However, oilfield brine desalination is not economical at this time because of high costs of synthesizing membranes and the need for sophisticated pretreatments to reduce initial high TDS and to prevent serious fouling of membranes. In addition to these barriers, oil/gas field brines typically contain high concentrations of multivalent counter cations (eg. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) that can reduce efficacy of reverse osmosis (RO). Development of inorganic membranes with typical characteristics of high strength and stability provide a valuable option to clean produced water for beneficial uses. Zeolite membranes have a well-defined subnanometer pore structure and extreme chemical and mechanical stability, thus showing promising applicability in produced water purification. For example, the MFI-type zeolite membranes with uniform pore size of {approx}0.56 nm can separate ions from aqueous solution through a mechanism of size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion (Donnan exclusion). Such a combination allows zeolite membranes to be unique in separation of both organics and electrolytes from aqueous solutions by a reverse osmosis process, which is of great interest for difficult separations, such as oil-containing produced water purification. The objectives of the project 'Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use by MFI Zeolite Membranes' are: (1) to conduct extensive fundamental investigations and understand the mechanism of the RO process on zeolite membranes and factors determining the membrane performance, (2) to improve the membranes and optimize operating conditions to enhance water flux and ion rejection, and (3) to perform long-term RO operation on tubular membranes to study membrane stability and to collect experimental data necessary for reliable evaluations of technical and economic feasibilities. Our completed research has resulted in deep understanding of the ion and organic separation mechanism by zeolite membranes. A two-step hydrothermal crystallization process resulted in a highly efficient membrane with good reproducibility. The zeolite membranes synthesized therein has an overall surface area of {approx}0.3 m{sup 2}. Multichannel vessels were designed and machined for holding the tubular zeolite membrane for water purification. A zeolite membrane RO demonstration with zeolite membranes fabricated on commercial alpha-alumina support was established in the laboratory. Good test results were obtained for both actual produced water samples and simulated samples. An overall 96.9% ion rejection and 2.23 kg/m{sup 2}.h water flux was achieved in the demonstration. In addition, a post-synthesis modification method using Al{sup 3+}-oligomers was developed for repairing the undesirable nano-scale intercrystalline pores. Considerable enhancement in ion rejection was achieved. This new method of zeolite membrane modification is particularly useful for enhancing the efficiency of ion separation from aqueous solutions because the modification does not need high temperature operation and may be carried out online during the RO operation. A long-term separation test for actual CBM produced water has indicated that the zeolite membranes show excellent ion separation and extraordinary stability at high pressure and produced water environment.

Robert Lee; Liangxiong Li

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

383

Mechanical Systems Signal Processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a data overload and usually a big amount of these data are wasted. The problem is to compress and Electricity Department, Universite´ Catholique de Louvain, Place du Levant, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium c monitoring 1. Introduction Nowadays, laboratory instruments produce great quantities of data. This creates

Verleysen, Michel

384

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HONORS THESIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, when two bound copies are to be submitted to the Mechanical Engineering Services Office #12;PLEASE Mechanical Engineering Student Services: ¨ Application Approved ¨ Application Denied Signature of UGMECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HONORS THESIS The Department of Mechanical Engineering

Prinz, Friedrich B.

385

STANFORD UNIVERSITY MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

20062007 Mechanical Engineering Student Services Building 530, Room 125 (650) 7257695 FAX (650) 7234882STANFORD UNIVERSITY MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK Academic Year Revised 9/06 #12;MECHANICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK 20062007 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Clickable

Prinz, Friedrich B.

386

When fish die, bacteria or the enzymes they produce invade the flesh of fish. This process produces toxic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT When fish die, bacteria or the enzymes they produce invade the flesh of fish. This process produces toxic compounds in the fish and the fish becomes spoiled. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy neural network (ANN) for the development of an ANN based FT-IR Screening System for fish

Michel, Howard E.

387

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 Indium is a key material in lead-free solder...

388

Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Munsterman, Erwin Henh (Amsterdam, NL); Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus (Amsterdam, NL); Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius (Amsterdam, NL)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

389

The feasibility of producing alcohol fuels from biomass in Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Apart from cost, the net production of energy is the most important factor in evaluating the feasibility of producing renewable fuels from woody biomass. Unlike sugar, the effort required to make woody materials fermentable is considerable, and has been a major barrier to the use of such materials to produce renewable fuels. The Energy Profit Ratio (EPR) of fossil fuels is declining rapidly as conventional oil resources decline, but the EPR of biomass fuels is often not as high as commonly thought. I conclude that producing methanol from wood not only has a much higher yield, but is also cheaper than the more popular ethanol.

Chris Mardon

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Producing a trimethylpentanoic acid using hybrid polyketide synthases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a method of producing the trimethylpentanoic acid, comprising: providing a host cell of the present invention, and culturing said host cell in a suitable culture medium such that the trimethylpentanoic acid is produced, optionally isolating the trimethylpentanoic acid, and optionally, reducing the isolated trimethylpentanoic acid into a trimethylpentanol or an iso-octane.

Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

391

Analysis of magnetic fields produced far from electric power lines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the authors develop a simple and general method for analyzing the magnetic fields produced by power lines at far distances, that is, at distances large in comparison to the spacing between the line's phase conductors. Magnetic fields produced far from conventional power lines have remarkably simple properties. The authors present formulae for the fields produced by various conventional and unconventional power line configurations; included are line designs characterized by reduced magnetic-field levels. Errors in the formulae are less than [plus minus]10% at the edge of a typical transmission right-of-way.

Kaune, W.T. (Enertech Consultants Campbell, CA (United States)); Zaffanella, L.E. (High Voltage Transmission Research Center, Lenox, MA (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Acoustic hemostasis: Underlying mechanisms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cessation of hemorrhage using extrinsic interventional methods is possible with delivery of energy to bleeding tissues i.e. cauterization. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is one such method with significant advantages of delivering high levels of energy to well?defined regions of deep?seated tissues even during profuse bleeding. The physical mechanisms involved in this process include thermal and mechanical effects of HIFU leading to various biological effects. Our results using HIFU devices of 15 MHz and focal derated intensities of 1 00010 000 W/cm2 in solid organs such as liver spleen and kidneys and major and minor blood vessels show that temperature of targeted tissues reaches 70100C within seconds with formation of microbubbles approximately 5??200 ? in size and concentration of 100 bubbles/mm3. It appears that boiling of interstitial fluids and blood and acoustic cavitation are both involved. The biological effects include coagulative necrosis mechanical disruption of tissue structure potentially leading to release of tissue factors enhancing the coagulation coagulum and thrombus formation at a wound site tissue fusion via collagen and elastin remodeling and fibrin plug formation with minimal damage of the surrounding tissues. These mechanisms appear to provide an effective and safe method of hemorrhage control. [Work supported by NIH DoD NSBRI.

Shahram Vaezy; Lawrence Crum; Steve Carter; Grant OKeefe; Vesna Zderic; Roy Martin; Riyad Karmy?Jones

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN this book, Professor Landsberg brings together thermodynamics and statistical mechanics to provide a coherent account of these interrelated branches of physical theory ... side usually result in the essential structures of both becoming obscured. The value of classical thermodynamics lies in what it can do without invoking microscopic models and it is best learnt ...

C.J. Adkins

1979-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

394

Residential Mechanical Precooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

German, A.; Hoeschele, M.

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Department of Mechanical Engineering "From Compliant Mechanisms to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as 3D printing with materials specialized in electro- mechanical sensing and actuation in addition

Militzer, Burkhard

396

Program Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Program Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation with a Survey of Existing Transformation Systems Jonne van Wijngaarden Eelco Visser UU-CS-2003-048 Institute Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation with a Survey of Existing

Utrecht, Universiteit

397

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 121 Department of Mechanical Engineering (MEE)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 121 Department of Mechanical Engineering (MEE) *Available for general education credit. The Department of Mechanical Engineering offers an upper- division curriculum which leads to a B.S. in mechanical engineering. The curriculum is based on a strong foundation of fundamental

Kostic, Milivoje M.

398

Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes, and making products to improve the quality of human life and shape the economy. Mechanical engineers apply the principles of physics, mathematics, computing and practical skills to design mechanical systems and artefacts

Waikato, University of

399

114 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Department of Mechanical Engineering (MEE)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

114 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Department of Mechanical Engineering (MEE) *Available for general education credit. The Department of Mechanical Engineering offers an upper- division curriculum which leads to a B.S. in mechanical engineering. The curriculum is based on a strong foundation of fundamental

Kostic, Milivoje M.

400

Hydrodesulfurization of thiophenic compounds the reaction mechanism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multipoint mechanism is proposed according to which the thiophenic molecule is chemisorbed with the C/sub 1/-C/sub 2/ bond coordinated at an anion vacancy and the adjacent sulfur is interacting with a surface sulfur. The reaction paths possible for this surface species can account for available experimental data on the high yield and initial formation rate of biphenyl from dibenzothiophene, the small steric effect of substituents, preferred positions of hydrogen-deuterium exchange of thiophene, and the amount of butadiene produced in the desulfurization of tetrahydrothiophene.

Kwart, H.; Schuit, G.C.A.; Gates, B.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

DOE Offers Support for Innovative Manufacturing Plant That Will Produce  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Support for Innovative Manufacturing Plant That Will Support for Innovative Manufacturing Plant That Will Produce High Quality Solar Silicon at Low Cost DOE Offers Support for Innovative Manufacturing Plant That Will Produce High Quality Solar Silicon at Low Cost June 16, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis Washington D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the offer of a conditional commitment for a $275 million loan guarantee to Calisolar Inc. to commercialize its innovative solar silicon manufacturing process. Calisolar's innovative process should produce silicon for use in solar cells at less than half the cost of traditional polysilicon purification processes, which will reduce the overall cost of solar modules and panels. At full production, the manufacturing plant is expected to produce 16,000 metric tons (MT) of solar silicon annually, equivalent to

402

Fish Producers Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fish Producers Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Fish Producers Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fish Producers Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Fish Producers Sector Geothermal energy Type Aquaculture Location Niland, California Coordinates 33.2400366°, -115.5188756° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

403

DOE Solar Decathlon: Solar Decathlon Team-Produced Videos  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Video Walkthroughs Video Walkthroughs Animated Walkthroughs Architecture Presentations Engineering Presentations Sales Presentations Consumer Workshops Building Industry Workshops Technical Resources Sponsors Where Are the Houses Now? Quick Links Solar Decathlon Home Solar Decathlon 2011 Solar Decathlon 2009 Solar Decathlon 2007 Solar Decathlon 2005 Solar Decathlon 2002 Solar Decathlon 2011 Solar Decathlon Team-Produced Videos Watch videos produced by the teams themselves for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2011 competition. Solar Decathlon 2011 Team Video Walkthroughs See inside the Solar Decathlon 2011 houses in these team-produced video tours. Solar Decathlon 2011 Team Computer-Animated Walkthroughs Learn about the teams' plans and concepts by watching these team-produced

404

Timken Producing Parts for Wind Turbines | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Timken Producing Parts for Wind Turbines Timken Producing Parts for Wind Turbines Timken Producing Parts for Wind Turbines June 28, 2010 - 3:38pm Addthis Some of Timken’s bearings are so large that a small car could conceivably drive through the center. | Photo courtesy of The Timken Company Some of Timken's bearings are so large that a small car could conceivably drive through the center. | Photo courtesy of The Timken Company Lindsay Gsell The Timken Company - which will be 111-years-old this year - has a long tradition of investing in new technologies. After assessing their business in recent years, the Ohio-based, global manufacturer saw a market opportunity and decided to invest in a new manufacturing capability: producing the massive bearings for large wind turbines. "Timken has the tenacity to continue to invest into the trough of the

405

Association of Renewable Energy Producers Spain | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Producers Spain Producers Spain Jump to: navigation, search Name Association of Renewable Energy Producers (Spain) Place Barcelona, Spain Zip 8008 Sector Renewable Energy Product Spain's Association of renewable energy producers Coordinates 41.385589°, 2.168745° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.385589,"lon":2.168745,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

406

Producing bulk residual stresses in gas turbine blades  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inhomogeneous plastic strain has been used to produce a pattern of bulk compressive stresses that counteract macrodefect formation and growth in machine components, which increases the working life. Studies ha...

V. A. Boguslaev; A. P. Lopatenko; N. B. Makarenko; N. I. Obodan

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Biodiesel-fuel: Content, production, producers, contemporary biotechnology (Review)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The necessity of expanding studies on producing renewable biofuel is reviewed. Special attention is given to biodiesel, the history of its creation, and ... fungi, yeasts, plants, photo- and heterotrophic algae.

E. P. Feofilova; Ya. E. Sergeeva

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Impacts of Biofuel Produc3on on Minnesota Agricultural  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impacts of Biofuel Produc3on on Minnesota Agricultural Transporta3on Jerry of renewable fuels that must be used each year for transportation fuel, home heating or jet fuel. The volumes

Minnesota, University of

409

Efficient steam turbines produced by the Ural Turbine Plant company  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Design features and efficiency of some steam turbines produced at present by a plant formed as a result of division of the Turbine Motor Plant Company into several enterprises are...

G. D. Barinberg; A. E. Valamin

410

Fluorination of Arc-Produced Carbon Material Containing Multiwall Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work we studied the fluorination process of MWNTs produced in an electric arc. ... Carbon material was synthesized by using a setup for arc-discharge graphite evaporation described elsewhere. ...

Nicolai F. Yudanov; Alexander V. Okotrub; Yuri V. Shubin; Lyudmila I. Yudanova; Lyubov G. Bulusheva; Andrew L. Chuvilin; Jean-Marc Bonard

2002-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

411

Method for Detection of Microorganisms That Produce Gaseous Nitrogen Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with 02-free nitrogen; the tubes were...dishes to reduce water evaporation...Detection of gas producers. Culture...conductivity detector; nitrogen was used as the...Low-pressure solubility of gases in liquid water. Chem. Rev...

Gary E. Jenneman; Anne D. Montgomery; Michael J. McInerney

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

An experimental investigation of nitrogen gas produced during...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AD Peacock, M Oostrom, and TW Wietsma.2007."An experimental investigation of nitrogen gas produced during denitrification."Ground Water 45(4):461-467. Authors: JD Istok MM Park AD...

413

Biochar Produced from Anaerobically Digested Fiber Reduces Phosphorus...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

dairy lagoons. The ADF was collected from a plugged flow digester, air-dried to <8% water content, and pelletized. Biochar was produced by slow pyrolysis in a barrel retort....

414

Ethanol as an Energy Producing Substrate in the Liver  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The existence of more than one pathway for ethanol metabolism in the liver is becoming increasingly ... implications of this development for the utilization of ethanol as an energy-producing substance will be dis...

F. Lundquist; H. Thieden; N. Grunnet

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Treatment of produced waters by electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two oil field produced waters and one coal bed methane produced water from Wyoming were treated with electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis. All three produced waters would require treatment to meet the new Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality requirements for effluent discharge into a class III or IV stream. The removal of radium 226 and oil and grease was the primary focus of the study. Radium 226 and oil and grease were removed from the produced waters with electrocoagulation. The best removal of radium 226 (>84%) was achieved with use of a non-sacrificial anode (titanium). The best removal of oil and grease (>93%) was achieved using a sacrificial anode (aluminum). By comparison, reverse osmosis removed up to 87% of the total dissolved solids and up to 95% of the radium 226.

Tuggle, K.; Humenick, M.; Barker, F.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

NONE

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Coalbed methane produced water in China: status and environmental issues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As one of the unconventional natural gas family members, coalbed methane (CBM) receives great attention throughout the world. The major associated problem of CBM production is the management of produced water. In...

Yanjun Meng; Dazhen Tang; Hao Xu; Yong Li

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels June 25, 2010 - 4:00pm Addthis Lindsay Gsell INEOS Bio -- one of the 17 global companies of the chemicals company INEOS -- is on schedule to begin construction this fall on the new Indian River BioEnergy Center near Vero Beach, Florida. The INEOS facility -- which was formerly a grapefruit processing plant for Ocean Spray -- will produce nearly eight million gallons of bioethanol per year from renewable biomass including yard, wood and vegetable waste. As part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the Department of Energy awarded cost-share grants to 19 integrated biorefinery projects throughout the country. INEOS Bio was selected to for a matching grant of up to $50 million, which will fund the construction for the new center.

419

Modern Processes of Producing Two-Layer Filtering Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper describes developments of the Powder Metallurgy Institute (National Academy of Sciences of Belarus) in the field of producing two-layer permeable structures with a filtering layer 0.30.4mm in thick...

P. A. Vityaz; A. F. Ilyushchenko; V. M. Kaptsevich

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Sparks, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

285182°, -97.3597242° 285182°, -97.3597242° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.9285182,"lon":-97.3597242,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Catching sparks from well-forged neutralinos  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we present a new search technique for electroweakinos, the superpartners of electroweak gauge and Higgs bosons, based on final states with missing transverse energy, a photon, and a dilepton pair, ?+??+?+ET. Unlike traditional electroweakino searches, which perform best when m?2,30?m?10,m??m?10>mZ, our search favors nearly degenerate spectra; degenerate electroweakinos typically have a larger branching ratio to photons, and the cut m???mZ effectively removes on shell Z boson backgrounds while retaining the signal. This feature makes our technique optimal for well-tempered scenarios, where the dark matter relic abundance is achieved with interelectroweakino splittings of ?2070??GeV. Additionally, our strategy applies to a wider range of scenarios where the lightest neutralinos are almost degenerate, but only make up a subdominant component of the dark mattera spectrum we dub well forged. Focusing on bino-Higgsino admixtures, we present optimal cuts and expected efficiencies for several benchmark scenarios. We find bino-Higgsino mixtures with m?2,30?190??GeV and m?2,30?m?10?30??GeV can be uncovered after roughly 600??fb?1 of luminosity at the 14TeV LHC. Scenarios with lighter states require less data for discovery, while scenarios with heavier states or larger mass splittings are harder to discriminate from the background and require more data. Unlike many searches for supersymmetry, electroweakino searches are one area where the high luminosity of the next LHC run, rather than the increased energy, is crucial for discovery.

Joseph Bramante; Antonio Delgado; Fatemeh Elahi; Adam Martin; Bryan Ostdiek

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

422

Catching sparks from well-forged neutralinos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we present a new search technique for electroweakinos, the superpartners of electroweak gauge and Higgs bosons, based on final states with missing transverse energy, a photon, and a dilepton pair, $\\ell^+\\,\\ell^- + \\gamma + \\displaystyle{\

Joseph Bramante; Antonio Delgado; Fatemeh Elahi; Adam Martin; Bryan Ostdiek

2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

423

Salmon study sparks row over dams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... see some of the dams removed against federal agencies charged with maintaining the dams, providing power and protecting salmon. Thirty-one federal dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries ... River and its tributaries collectively provide some 60% of the region's electricity. The Bonneville ...

Jeff Tollefson

2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

424

Microwave scattering from laser spark in air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, microwave Mie scattering from a laser-induced plasma in atmospheric air is computed. It shows that the scattered microwave transitions from coherent Rayleigh scattering to Mie scattering based on the relative transparency of the laser-induced plasma at the microwave frequency. The microwave penetration in the plasma alters from total transparency to partial shielding due to the sharp increase of the electron number density within the avalanche ionization phase. The transition from Rayleigh scattering to Mie scattering is verified by both the temporal evolution of the scattered microwave and the homogeneity of polar scattering plots.

Sawyer, Jordan; Zhang Zhili [Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Shneider, Mikhail N. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

NEVADA SPARKS RESIDENTS TO IMPROVE ENERGY FITNESS  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Following significant population growth and economic prosperity in the last decade, Nevada was hit by the economic downturn with some of the highest rates of foreclosure and unemployment in the...

426

Gas plants, new fields spark production rise  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas plant construction is welcomed by operators in the Williston Basin, North Dakota. Petroleum and gas production has increased. The Montana portion of the Williston Basin shows new discoveries. Some secondary recovery efforts are in operation. Industrial officials share the same enthusiasm and optimism for rising production as they do for exploration potential in the basin. 5 tables.

Lenzini, D.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Ionosphere Research Lab Sparks Fears in Alaska  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Angeles, 325 kilometers down the road from HAARP in Chena Hot Springs, Alaska. The HAARP facility...Angeles, 325 kilometers down the road from HAARP in Chena Hot Springs, Alaska. The HAARP facility, with three times the...

Lisa Busch

1997-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

428

Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate.

Strongin, Myron (Center Moriches, NY); Ruckman, Mark (Middle Island, NY); Strongin, Daniel (Port Jefferson, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate. 4 figures.

Strongin, M.; Ruckman, M.; Strongin, D.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

430

Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ``produced water.`` Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called produced water.'' Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Laser plasma focus produced in a ring target  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new geometry for generating a laser?produced plasma is presented. A toroidalmirror is used to focus a CO2laser beam on the inside wall of a copper ring target. The plasma produced converges at the center of the ring where an axial plasma focus is formed. High?speed photography shows details of a plasma generated at a distance from the target surface. This new geometry could have important applications in the field of x?ray lasers.

G. Saint?Hilaire; Z. Szili

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Table 4.3 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 3 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," ","RSE" "Economic",,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Coke and"," ","Row" "Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","Breeze","Other(f)","Factors"

434

Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Behind the Scenes at Berkeley Lab - The Mechanical Fabrication Facility  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Part of the Behind the Scenes series at Berkeley Lab, this video highlights the lab's mechanical fabrication facility and its exceptional ability to produce unique tools essential to the lab's scientific mission. Through a combination of skilled craftsmanship and precision equipment, machinists and engineers work with scientists to create exactly what's needed - whether it's measured in microns or meters.

Wells, Russell; Chavez, Pete; Davis, Curtis; Bentley, Brian

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Behind the Scenes at Berkeley Lab - The Mechanical Fabrication Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Part of the Behind the Scenes series at Berkeley Lab, this video highlights the lab's mechanical fabrication facility and its exceptional ability to produce unique tools essential to the lab's scientific mission. Through a combination of skilled craftsmanship and precision equipment, machinists and engineers work with scientists to create exactly what's needed - whether it's measured in microns or meters.

Wells, Russell; Chavez, Pete; Davis, Curtis; Bentley, Brian

2013-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

438

Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 Split Cycle Engine Concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 Split Cycle Engine Concept Overview: Volvo Powertrain has been one of the main developers and producers of heavy engines that fulfill fuel economy. The goal is to look at the current 13L US10 engine line and improve the engine's fuel

Demirel, Melik C.

439

Mechanical Engineering Department Seminar Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineering Department Seminar Series Rational Mechanics of Viral Shells: Is Continuum Theory a Stretch? William S. Klug Associate Professor, Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University-assembly. The capacity of these shells to respond structurally and mechanically to physical and chemical stimuli also

Eustice, Ryan

440

07SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, mechanical with nuclear engineering, and medical engineering. Engineers qualified in all these areas play MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL WITH NUCLEAR ENGINEERING MEDICAL ENGINEERING OTHER COURSES TO CONSIDER Entryrequirementsandhowtoapply Modules MedicalEngineering(MEng,BEng) MechanicalwithNuclearEngineering(MEng,BEng) MechanicalEngineering

Dimitrova, Vania

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The Post-Shock Chemical Lifetimes of Outflow Tracers and a Possible New Mechanism to Produce Water Ice Mantles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used a coupled time-dependent chemical and dynamical model to investigate the lifetime of the chemical legacy left in the wake of C-type shocks. We concentrate this study on the chemistry of H2O and O2, two molecules which are predicted to have abundances that are significantly affected in shock-heated gas. Two models are presented: (1) a three-stage model of pre-shock, shocked, and post-shock gas; and (2) a Monte-Carlo cloud simulation where we explore the effects of stochastic shock activity on molecular gas over a cloud lifetime. In agreement with previous studies, we find that shock velocities in excess of 10 km s^-1 are required to convert all of the oxygen not locked in CO into H2O before the gas has an opportunity to cool. For pure gas-phase models the lifetime of the high water abundances, or ``H2O legacy'', in the post-shock gas is 4 - 7 x 10^5 years. Through the Monte Carlo cloud simulation we demonstrate that the time-average abundance of H2O is a sensitive function of the frequency of shocks. Thus we predict that the abundance of H2O and other known outflow tracers can be used to trace the history of shock activity in molecular gas. For gas-grain models we find that the abundance of water-ice on grain surfaces can be quite large and is comparable to that observed in molecular clouds. This offers a possible alternative method to create water mantles without resorting to grain surface chemistry: gas heating and chemical modification due to a C-type shock and subsequent depletion of the gas-phase species onto grain mantles.

Edwin A. Bergin; Gary J. Melnick; David A. Neufeld

1998-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

442

PROCESSING, MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY CORRELATION IN Al-B4C SURFACE COMPOSITE PRODUCED VIA FRICTION STIR PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to prepare surface composites (SC) composed of B4C particles in 5024 Al matrix. The processing parameters, such as hole pattern and geometry,and the number of FSP passes, were optimized to obtain uniform powder distribution. The micrographs revealed a homogeneous distribution of the particles with good interfacial bonding. The hardness of the composite was uniform across the processed region which again indicates the uniformity of powder distribution. The modulus of the surface composite was measured using strain gage and showed a significant improvement. This improvement in modulus lies in the load sharing capability from the soft matrix to the hard particles.

Komarasamy, Mageshwari; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Baumann, John A.; Grant, Glenn J.; Hovanski, Yuri

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

443

The Post-Shock Chemical Lifetimes of Outflow Tracers and a Possible New Mechanism to Produce Water Ice Mantles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used a coupled time-dependent chemical and dynamical model to investigate the lifetime of the chemical legacy left in the wake of C-type shocks. We concentrate this study on the chemistry of H2O and O2, two molecules which are predicted to have abundances that are significantly affected in shock-heated gas. Two models are presented: (1) a three-stage model of pre-shock, shocked, and post-shock gas; and (2) a Monte-Carlo cloud simulation where we explore the effects of stochastic shock activity on molecular gas over a cloud lifetime. In agreement with previous studies, we find that shock velocities in excess of 10 km s^-1 are required to convert all of the oxygen not locked in CO into H2O before the gas has an opportunity to cool. For pure gas-phase models the lifetime of the high water abundances, or ``H2O legacy'', in the post-shock gas is 4 - 7 x 10^5 years. Through the Monte Carlo cloud simulation we demonstrate that the time-average abundance of H2O is a sensitive function of the frequency of shoc...

Bergin, E A; Neufeld, D A; Bergin, Edwin A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Neufeld, David A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Lagooning microbial fuel cells: A first approach by coupling electricity-producing microorganisms and algae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The paper focused on the start-up and performance characterisation of a new type of microbial fuel cell (MFC), in which an algae culture was seeded in the cathodic chamber to produce the oxygen required to complete the electrochemical reactions of the MFC, thus circumventing the need for a mechanical aerator. The system did not use mediators or high cost catalysts and it can be started-up easily using a straightforward three-stage procedure. The start-up consists of the separate production of the electricity-producing microorganisms and the algae cultures (stage I), replacement of the mechanical aeration system by the algae culture (stage II) and a change in the light dosage from a continuous input to a dynamic day/night profile. The MFC was operated under a regime of 12h light and 12h dark and was also operated in batch and continuous substrate-feeding modes. The same cell voltage was achieved when the cathode compartment was operated with air supplied by aerators, which means that this configuration can perform as well as the traditional one. The results also show the influence of both the organic load and light irradiation on electricity production and demonstrate that this type MFC is a robust and promising technology that can be considered as a first approach to perform a lagooning wastewater treatment with microbial fuel cells.

Justo Lobato; Araceli Gonzlez del Campo; Francisco J. Fernndez; Pablo Caizares; Manuel A. Rodrigo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Mechanical Operations and Maintenance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Holiday Work Status Holiday Work Status Mechanical Operations & Maintenance Group APS Storage Ring Magnets The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory is a national synchrotron-radiation research facility funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Using high-brilliance x-ray beams from the APS, an international community of scientists conducts forefront basic and applied research in the fields of material science, biological science, physics, chemistry, environmental, geophysical and planetary science. The 1.1-km circumference APS facility consists of several major subsystems including magnets, vacuum chambers, radio-frequency cavities, diagnostics instrumentation, x-ray absorbers and apertures, and cooling water subsystems. Each of these subsystems contains hundreds of mechanical

446

Mechanics of collective unfolding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanically induced unfolding of passive crosslinkers is a fundamental biological phenomenon encountered across the scales from individual macro-molecules to cytoskeletal actin networks. In this paper we study a conceptual model of athermal load-induced unfolding and use a minimalistic setting allowing one to emphasize the role of long-range interactions while maintaining full analytical transparency. Our model can be viewed as a description of a parallel bundle of N bistable units confined between two shared rigid backbones that are loaded through a series spring. We show that the ground states in this model correspond to synchronized, single phase configurations where all individual units are either folded or unfolded. We then study the fine structure of the wiggly energy landscape along the reaction coordinate linking the two coherent states and describing the optimal mechanism of cooperative unfolding. Quite remarkably, our study shows the fundamental difference in the size and structure of the folding-u...

Caruel, M; Truskinovsky, L

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Measurement of Nitric Oxide Production from Lymphatic Entothelial Cells Under Mechanical Stimuli  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mechanisms to pump lymph. Intrinsic pumping involves the active contraction of vessels, a phenomenon that is regulated in part by nitric oxide (NO) produced by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). NO production by arterial endothelial cells has been shown...

Jafarnejad, Mohammad 1987-

2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

448

Design of an actuation mechanism for compliant-body biomimetic robots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I designed and simulated an actuator mechanism for generating a moment within a compliant (soft) body system. The moment produces vibrational waves throughout a compliant material, and these vibrations are ...

Mellott, Sean Andrew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Time in quantum mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION II. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT A. Classical Mechanics B. Quantum Theory . C. The Problem 3 4 6 III. TIME ATOMS AND DISCRETE TIME A. The Earliest Applications of Atomistic and Discrete Time . . . . . B. The Radiating Electron... . C. Quantum Field Theory 8 10 l2 IV. TIME OPERATOR FORMULATIONS 16 A. Advocates Against a Time Operator . B. The Possibility of a Time Operator C, Advocates in Favor of a Time Operator D. A Restricted Time Delay Operator: Scattering Theory...

Chapin, Kimberly R.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

450

Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

Effect of substrate temperature on the electrospark deposition, structure, and mechanical properties of coatings. II. Coating deposition features  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relationship between deposition temperature, coating inhomogeneity, and temperature of cathode spots is studied. It is shown that the spark deposition of coatings proceeds in the area of cathode spots; the...

V. D. Belik; R. V. Litvin; M. S. Kovalchenko

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated in oil and gas industries. It is a mixture of different organic and inorganic compounds. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging produced water on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concern. Produced water is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological methods. In offshore platforms because of space constraints, compact physical and chemical systems are used. However, current technologies cannot remove small-suspended oil particles and dissolved elements. Besides, many chemical treatments, whose initial and/or running cost are high and produce hazardous sludge. In onshore facilities, biological pretreatment of oily wastewater can be a cost-effective and environmental friendly method. As high salt concentration and variations of influent characteristics have direct influence on the turbidity of the effluent, it is appropriate to incorporate a physical treatment, e.g., membrane to refine the final effluent. For these reasons, major research efforts in the future could focus on the optimization of current technologies and use of combined physico-chemical and/or biological treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits.

Ahmadun Fakhrul-Razi; Alireza Pendashteh; Luqman Chuah Abdullah; Dayang Radiah Awang Biak; Sayed Siavash Madaeni; Zurina Zainal Abidin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Ship-produced cloud line of 13 July 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steaming ships can produce long linear cloud lines in regions of fog and broken stratus as well as in marine stratus layers. The lines are not always detected in 0.63 {mu}m satellite images, but are often detected in the corresponding 3.7 {mu}m images because the lines contain smaller and more numerous droplets than the stratus in which they are embedded as deduced by Coakley, et al. and measured by Radke, et al. They postulate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from steaming ships produced the more numerous and, hence, smaller cloud droplets. The ship-produced clouds are not always detected in 0.63 {mu}m images because this wavelength is not as sensitive to changes in droplet size as is 3.7 {mu}m. On 13 July 1991 a dramatic, ship-produced cloud line formed offshore of Baja California. The authors present satellite images of the line and corresponding photographs from the R/V EGABRAG III which passed under the line. The images and photos reveal the structure of the line. The EGABRAG was a source of CCN but did not produce a cloud line; they attempt to explain this important finding.

Hindman, E.E. [City Coll. of New York, NY (US); Porch, W.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Hudson, J.G. [Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (US); Durkee, P.A. [Navel Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (US)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

454

Ship-produced cloud line of 13 July 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steaming ships can produce long linear cloud lines in regions of fog and broken stratus as well as in marine stratus layers. The lines are not always detected in 0.63 [mu]m satellite images, but are often detected in the corresponding 3.7 [mu]m images because the lines contain smaller and more numerous droplets than the stratus in which they are embedded as deduced by Coakley, et al. and measured by Radke, et al. They postulate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from steaming ships produced the more numerous and, hence, smaller cloud droplets. The ship-produced clouds are not always detected in 0.63 [mu]m images because this wavelength is not as sensitive to changes in droplet size as is 3.7 [mu]m. On 13 July 1991 a dramatic, ship-produced cloud line formed offshore of Baja California. The authors present satellite images of the line and corresponding photographs from the R/V EGABRAG III which passed under the line. The images and photos reveal the structure of the line. The EGABRAG was a source of CCN but did not produce a cloud line; they attempt to explain this important finding.

Hindman, E.E. (City Coll. of New York, NY (United States)); Porch, W.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Hudson, J.G. (Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (United States)); Durkee, P.A. (Navel Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Adenosine Triphosphate Hydrolysis Mechanism in Kinesin Studied by Combined Quantum-Mechanical/Molecular-Mechanical Metadynamics Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adenosine Triphosphate Hydrolysis Mechanism in Kinesin Studied by Combined Quantum-Mechanical/Molecular-Mechanical Metadynamics Simulations ... Future extensive molecular mechanical MD simulations exploring the stability of the various states would be very beneficial, although they are outside the scope of the present work. ... Here, we discuss the functions and mechanisms of action of three such crosslinkers: the motors kinesin-5 and kinesin-14, and the non-motor MAPs of the Ase1p family. ...

Matthew J. McGrath; I.-F. Will Kuo; Shigehiko Hayashi; Shoji Takada

2013-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

456

Notes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the cat increases the sparking, and ruffling its fur the reverse way produces a miniature pyrotechnic display quite remarkable. The cat itself does not seem to mind the sparking, but ...

1892-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

457

Union Helps Produce Women Workers | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Union Helps Produce Women Workers Union Helps Produce Women Workers Union Helps Produce Women Workers January 21, 2010 - 3:15pm Addthis Joshua DeLung At the Community Environmental Center in Long Island City, N.Y. - and across the country - you don't always see a lot of women in the construction business. Locating experienced female weatherization technicians to recruit had proven difficult for CEC, but 30-year-old Tahlia Williams is the beginning of a new era in the clean energy economy. "Construction is something I had wanted to do for a long time," Tahlia says. "I had no way of knowing how to get into this field because I always heard it was a man's world. I wanted in." When the Recovery Act passed, providing more funding than ever to weatherize an unprecedented number of homes, CEC needed to train and hire

458

Capacity and Energy Payments to Small Power Producers and Cogenerators  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Capacity and Energy Payments to Small Power Producers and Capacity and Energy Payments to Small Power Producers and Cogenerators Under PURPA Docket (Georgia) Capacity and Energy Payments to Small Power Producers and Cogenerators Under PURPA Docket (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Commercial Developer Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Georgia Program Type Green Power Purchasing Renewables Portfolio Standards and Goals Docket No. 4822 was enacted by the Georgia Public Service Commission in accordance with The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA)

459

Midwest Ethanol Producers Inc MEPI | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethanol Producers Inc MEPI Ethanol Producers Inc MEPI Jump to: navigation, search Name Midwest Ethanol Producers Inc (MEPI) Place O'Neill, Nebraska Zip 68763 Product Focused on ethanol production. Coordinates 34.82186°, -97.513329° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.82186,"lon":-97.513329,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

460

Calpine: America's largest geothermal energy producer | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Calpine: America's largest geothermal energy producer Calpine: America's largest geothermal energy producer Calpine: America's largest geothermal energy producer October 6, 2010 - 12:37pm Addthis Calpine operates 15 plants at The Geysers in northwest California, which generate enough clean energy daily to power a city the size of San Francisco.| Photo Courtesy of Calpine Calpine operates 15 plants at The Geysers in northwest California, which generate enough clean energy daily to power a city the size of San Francisco.| Photo Courtesy of Calpine Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Amid the Mayacamas Mountains in northwest California sits the world's largest geothermal field: The Geysers. Since 1960, steam from the 45 square mile field spanning Lake and Sonoma

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Chelan County PUD - Sustainable Natural Alternative Power Producers Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sustainable Natural Alternative Power Producers Sustainable Natural Alternative Power Producers Program Chelan County PUD - Sustainable Natural Alternative Power Producers Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Water Wind Maximum Rebate $1.50/kWh Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Performance-Based Incentive Rebate Amount Varies; 2012 payment was $0.16/kWh Provider Chelan County Public Utility District The Sustainable Natural Alternative Power (SNAP) program encourages customers to install alternative power generators such as solar panels and wind turbines and connect them to the District's electrical distribution system by offering an incentive payment based on the system's production.

462

LANL researchers improve path to producing uranium compounds, candidates  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Researchers improve path to producing uranium compounds Researchers improve path to producing uranium compounds LANL researchers improve path to producing uranium compounds, candidates for advanced nuclear fuels Enhance the ability to develop advanced nuclear fuels in a safer, simpler manner. April 7, 2011 This illustration shows the structures of UI4(1,4-dioxane)2 (left) and the UI3(1,4-dioxane)1.5 complexes. This illustration shows the structures of UI4(1,4-dioxane)2 (left) and the UI3(1,4-dioxane)1.5 complexes. Contact Kevin Roark Communicatons Office (505) 665-9202 Email LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, April 7, 2010- Advances made by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory could enhance the ability of scientists to develop advanced nuclear fuels in a safer, simpler manner. Uranium chemistry research relies heavily on a variety of uranium "starting

463

Union Helps Produce Women Workers | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Union Helps Produce Women Workers Union Helps Produce Women Workers Union Helps Produce Women Workers January 21, 2010 - 3:15pm Addthis Joshua DeLung At the Community Environmental Center in Long Island City, N.Y. - and across the country - you don't always see a lot of women in the construction business. Locating experienced female weatherization technicians to recruit had proven difficult for CEC, but 30-year-old Tahlia Williams is the beginning of a new era in the clean energy economy. "Construction is something I had wanted to do for a long time," Tahlia says. "I had no way of knowing how to get into this field because I always heard it was a man's world. I wanted in." When the Recovery Act passed, providing more funding than ever to weatherize an unprecedented number of homes, CEC needed to train and hire

464

Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Commercial-Scale Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Commercial-Scale July 31, 2013 - 1:37pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department today recognized the nation's first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol production at INEOS Bio's Indian River BioEnergy Center in Vero Beach, Florida. Developed through a joint venture between INEOS Bio and New Planet Energy, the project uses a unique hybrid of gasification and fermentation technology - originally developed with Energy Department support starting in the 1990's - to convert wood scraps, grass clippings and other waste materials into transportation fuels as well as energy for heat and power.

465

Producing Clean, Renewable Diesel from Biomass | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Producing Clean, Renewable Diesel from Biomass Producing Clean, Renewable Diesel from Biomass Producing Clean, Renewable Diesel from Biomass November 30, 2011 - 12:08pm Addthis ThermoChem Recovery International's process demonstration unit -- where wood waste and forest residue is converted into renewable fuel. | Courtesy of TRI. ThermoChem Recovery International's process demonstration unit -- where wood waste and forest residue is converted into renewable fuel. | Courtesy of TRI. Paul Bryan Biomass Program Manager, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy After a rigorous testing process, Energy Department project partners at ThermoChem Recovery International (TRI) have validated a process that converts wood waste and forest residue into clean, renewable fuel. Pilot validation is a key milestone for biofuels companies like TRI. With

466

Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2006-Dec 12/29 841 2007-Jan 01/05 823 01/12 806 01/19 755 01/26 716 2007-Feb 02/02 666 02/09 613 02/16 564 02/23 538 2007-Mar 03/02 527 03/09 506 03/16 519 03/23 528 03/30 550 2007-Apr 04/06 560 04/13 556 04/20 568 04/27 590 2007-May 05/04 610 05/11 629 05/18 648 05/25 670

467

Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Commercial-Scale Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Commercial-Scale July 31, 2013 - 1:37pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department today recognized the nation's first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol production at INEOS Bio's Indian River BioEnergy Center in Vero Beach, Florida. Developed through a joint venture between INEOS Bio and New Planet Energy, the project uses a unique hybrid of gasification and fermentation technology - originally developed with Energy Department support starting in the 1990's - to convert wood scraps, grass clippings and other waste materials into transportation fuels as well as energy for heat and power.

468

Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 570 1994-Jan 01/07 532 01/14 504 01/21 440 01/28 414 1994-Feb 02/04 365 02/11 330 02/18 310 02/25 309 1994-Mar 03/04 281 03/11 271 03/18 284 03/25 303 1994-Apr 04/01 287 04/08 293 04/15 308 04/22 334 04/29 353 1994-May 05/06 376 05/13 399 05/20 429 05/27 443

469

Electrical Energy Producer's License Tax (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Producer's License Tax (Montana) Energy Producer&#039;s License Tax (Montana) Electrical Energy Producer's License Tax (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Montana Program Type Fees Provider Montana Department of Revenue Each person or other organization engaged in the generation, manufacture, or production of electricity and electrical energy in the state of Montana,

470

Producing Natural Gas From Shale | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Producing Natural Gas From Shale Producing Natural Gas From Shale Producing Natural Gas From Shale January 26, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis The Office of Fossil Energy sponsored early research that refined more cost-effective and innovative production technologies for U.S. shale gas production -- such as directional drilling. By 2035, EIA projects that shale gas production will rise to 13.6 trillion cubic feet, representing nearly half of all U.S. natural gas production. | Image courtesy of the Office of Fossil Energy. The Office of Fossil Energy sponsored early research that refined more cost-effective and innovative production technologies for U.S. shale gas production -- such as directional drilling. By 2035, EIA projects that shale gas production will rise to 13.6 trillion cubic feet, representing

471

DOE Seeks Industry Proposals for Feasibility Study to Produce Greenhouse  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Industry Proposals for Feasibility Study to Produce Industry Proposals for Feasibility Study to Produce Greenhouse Gas-Free Hydrogen at Existing Nuclear Power Plants DOE Seeks Industry Proposals for Feasibility Study to Produce Greenhouse Gas-Free Hydrogen at Existing Nuclear Power Plants April 13, 2006 - 10:19am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - In support of President Bush's Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI), Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will allocate up to $1.6 million this year to fund industry studies on the best ways to utilize energy from existing commercial nuclear reactors for production of hydrogen in a safe and environmentally-sound manner. DOE is seeking industry proposals for these Federal Financial Assistance Awards, worth up to 80 percent of the total

472

Mechanical Systems Qualification Standard  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

61-2008 61-2008 June 2008 DOE STANDARD MECHANICAL SYSTEMS QUALIFICATION STANDARD DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1161-2008 ii This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ DOE-STD-1161-2008 iv INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1161-2008 v TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENT................................................................................................................ vii PURPOSE ....................................................................................................................................1

473

Fields and Quantum Mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum field theories (QFT) constructed in [1,2] include phenomenology of interest. The constructions approximate: scattering by $1/r$ and Yukawa potentials in non-relativistic approximations; and the first contributing order of the Feynman series for Compton scattering. To have a semi-norm, photon states are constrained to transverse polarizations and for Compton scattering, the constructed cross section deviates at large momentum exchanges from the cross section prediction of the Feynman rules. Discussion includes the incompatibility of canonical quantization with the constructed interacting fields, and the role of interpretations of quantum mechanics in realizing QFT.

Glenn Eric Johnson

2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

474

Low-cost method for producing extreme ultraviolet lithography optics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Spherical and non-spherical optical elements produced by standard optical figuring and polishing techniques are extremely expensive. Such surfaces can be cheaply produced by diamond turning; however, the roughness in the diamond turned surface prevent their use for EUV lithography. These ripples are smoothed with a coating of polyimide before applying a 60 period Mo/Si multilayer to reflect a wavelength of 134 .ANG. and have obtained peak reflectivities close to 63%. The savings in cost are about a factor of 100.

Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA); Montcalm, Claude (Fort Collins, CO); Taylor, John S. (Livermore, CA); Spiller, Eberhard A. (Mt. Kisco, NY)

2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

475

Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

Dunning, John S. (Corvallis, OR); Alman, David E. (Salem, OR)

2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

476

Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

Buelter, Thomas (Denver, CO); Meinhold, Peter (Denver, CO); Feldman, Reid M. Renny (San Francisco, CA); Hawkins, Andrew C. (Parker, CO); Urano, Jun (Irvine, CA); Bastian, Sabine (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Frances (La Canada, CA)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

477

Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

478

Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid electrolytic capacitor having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects.

Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Armstrong, Pamela S. (Abingdon, MD); Panitz, Janda Kirk G. (Edgewood, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid electrolytic capacitor is described having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects. 2 figs.

Sharp, D.J.; Armstrong, P.S.; Panitz, J.K.G.

1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

480

Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mechanically produced spark" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Process for producing amorphous and crystalline silicon nitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing amorphous or crystalline silicon nitride is disclosed which comprises reacting silicon disulfide ammonia gas at elevated temperature. In a preferred embodiment silicon disulfide in the form of "whiskers" or needles is heated at temperature ranging from about 900.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to produce silicon nitride which retains the whisker or needle morphological characteristics of the silicon disulfide. Silicon carbide, e.g. in the form of whiskers, also can be prepared by reacting substituted ammonia, e.g. methylamine, or a hydrocarbon containing active hydrogen-containing groups, such as ethylene, with silicon disulfide, at elevated temperature, e.g. 900.degree. C.

Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Pugar, Eloise A. (Newbury Park, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Method of producing nano-scaled inorganic platelets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites.

Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

483

Fundamental Mechanisms of Interface Roughness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Publication quality results were obtained for several experiments and materials systems including: (i) Patterning and smoothening of sapphire surfaces by energetic Ar+ ions. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) experiments were performed in the system at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) X21 beamline. Ar+ ions in the energy range from 300 eV to 1000 eV were used to produce ripples on the surfaces of single-crystal sapphire. It was found that the ripple wavelength varies strongly with the angle of incidence of the ions, which increase significantly as the angle from normal is varied from 55 to 35. A smooth region was found for ion incidence less than 35 away from normal incidence. In this region a strong smoothening mechanism with strength proportional to the second derivative of the height of the surface was found to be responsible for the effect. The discovery of this phase transition between stable and unstable regimes as the angle of incidence is varied has also stimulated new work by other groups in the field. (ii) Growth of Ge quantum dots on Si(100) and (111). We discovered the formation of quantum wires on 4 misoriented Si(111) using real-time GISAXS during the deposition of Ge. The results represent the first time-resolved GISAXS study of Ge quantum dot formation. (iii) Sputter deposition of amorphous thin films and multilayers composed of WSi2 and Si. Our in-situ GISAXS experiments reveal fundamental roughening and smoothing phenomena on surfaces during film deposition. The main results of this work is that the WSi2 layers actually become smoother during deposition due to the smoothening effect of energetic particles in the sputter deposition process.

Randall L. Headrick

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

484

RULES FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTIC-PRODUCING ACTINOMYCETES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...antibiotic-producing actino- mycetes have been described recently. Investi- gators often give new species names without a strict taxonomic analysis...applied in revealing leading species criteria? Each investi- gator solves the proposed questions in his own way, in conformity...

N. A. Krasil'Nikov

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

A New Approach to Tracing Particulates from Produced Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in comparison with three suggest that the heavy metals in produced water may be more toxic than originally of buoyant particles com- prised of heavy metal precipitates sequestered onto oil droplets that were is diluted with seawater. These precipitates are more toxic than the dissolved fraction, can flocculate

Taggart, Christopher

486

Laser-produced plasma-wall interaction O. RENNER,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser-produced plasma-wall interaction O. RENNER,1 R. LISKA,2 AND F.B. ROSMEJ3,4 1 Institute, France (RECEIVED 30 August 2009; ACCEPTED 21 September 2009) Abstract Jets of laser­generated plasma surfaces (walls). The pilot experiments carried out on the iodine laser system (5­200 J, 0.44 mm, 0

Liska, Richard

487

Optimal Bidding Strategies for Wind Power Producers with Meteorological Forecasts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Bidding Strategies for Wind Power Producers with Meteorological Forecasts Antonio that the inherent variability in wind power generation and the related difficulty in predicting future generation profiles, raise major challenges to wind power integration into the electricity grid. In this work we study

Giannitrapani, Antonello

488

Nuclear interactions produced by high-energy muons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Penetrating showers produced in iron plates of a multiplate cloud chamber by muons at 148 m w.e. underground are ... and Kessler. The observed cross-sections for energy transfers in the range (1?8)...?28 cm2 per ...

N. Chaudhuri; M. S. Sinha

1968-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

489

Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

Russo, Anthony (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Process for producing astatine-211 for radiopharmaceutical use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for reliably and consistently producing astatine-211 in small controlled volumes of a solution, which is selected from a choice of solvents that are useful in selected radiopharmaceutical procedures in which the At-211 activities are to be applied.

Mirzadeh, Saed (East Setauket, NY); Lambrecht, Richard M. (Quogue, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Searches for supersymmetric particles produced in Z-boson decay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have searched for supersymmetric particles in 528 Z decays with the Mark II detector at the SLAC Linear Collider. We place 95%-confidence-level lower mass limits on degenerate squarks, nondegenerate up-type squarks, nondegenerate down-type squarks, charginos, pair-produced unstable neutralinos, and neutralinos from associated production.

T. Barklow et al.

1990-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

492

Two Techniques to Produce Cold Antihydrogen A thesis presented  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The second H production method utilizes a two step laser- controlled charge exchange to produce antihydrogen.2 Cold Antihydrogen Production Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2.1 Three-Body Recombination to the spectroscopic comparison of antihydrogen and hydrogen -- a comparison that will require atoms both cold enough

Gabrielse, Gerald

493

GrowingProduce.com | 27 Tree Fruit Expert  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GrowingProduce.com | 27 Tree Fruit Expert Moving WestClemson University tree fruit specialist-time tree fruit specialist at Clemson University (and "Stone Fruit" columnist for American/Western Fruit at Washington State University (WSU) as a new endowed chair created by funding from the state's tree fruit

Duchowski, Andrew T.

494

Producer Gas Engines in Villages of Less-Developed Countries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...farmers use high-quality...petroleum and natural gas, whereas virtually...of synthesis gas. So far...950-watt, low-pressure, hot-air...fluidized-bed combustors to yield combustion...exceedingly high, $4,000...producer gas, and Stirling...

Rathin Datta; Gautam S. Dutt

1981-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

495

EVOLVING LEG CYCLES TO PRODUCE HEXAPOD GAITS GARY B. PARKER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

movement by the servos. The best means of combining these leg cycles into a gait cycle is learnedEVOLVING LEG CYCLES TO PRODUCE HEXAPOD GAITS GARY B. PARKER Computer Science, Connecticut College by dividing the prob- lem into two parts: leg cycle learning and gait cycle learning. Servo pulses required

Parker, Gary B.

496

The Challenge of Producing Oil and Gas in Deep Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...institutions (Joides). The oil industry has drilled controlled...major unexplored frontier for oil and gas. The paper emphasizes...engineering geology natural gas offshore petroleum production 1977 06...1981 The challenge of producing oil and gas in deep water van Eek...

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

OPTICAL EMISSION DIAGNOSTICS OF LASER PRODUCED PLASMA FROM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPTICAL EMISSION DIAGNOSTICS OF LASER PRODUCED PLASMA FROM GRAPHITE AND YBa2Cu30 7 HARILAL. s irradiances, ionization occurs which leads to the plasma formation. Spectroscopic studies of optical emission and the resulting plasma. Optical emission spectroscopy is a technique which analyzes the light emitted from

Harilal, S. S.

498

Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

499

Management of produced water in oil and gas operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of adsorption for oil removal from produced water............... 13 2.3 Adsorption terminologies ...................................................................... 17 2.4 Evaluation of new organoclay adsorbent for oil removal...................... 19 2... to the experimental data of percentage of oil adsorbed with time.................................................................................................53 5.4 A straight line fit to the experimental data of oil adsorption vs. oil inflow...

Patel, Chirag V.

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

500

Method for producing labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe.

Dunn, John J. (Bellport, NY); Quesada, Mark A. (Middle Island, NY); Randesi, Matthew (Upton, NY)

1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z