Sample records for mechanically produced spark

  1. fine-grained microcrystalline Si3N4 product produced after an additional short period of spark-discharge milling. Silicon can be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stepanov, Misha

    -density nanocrystalline titanium nitride compacts by plasma-activated sintering of mechanically reacted powder. Met. Materfine-grained microcrystalline Si3N4 product produced after an additional short period of spark and because there is no requirement to remove hydrogen. Spark-discharge milling was successfully employed

  2. Mechanical Behavior of Cryomilled Ni Superalloy by Spark Plasma Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni Superalloy by Spark Plasma Sintering Z. ZHANG, B.Q. HAN,cryomilling and spark plasma sintering (SPS) was studied.prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. To

  3. Characterisation of Mechanically Alloyed Ti-Al-B Nanocomposite Consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Young Hwan

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consolidated by spark plasma sintering H. B. Lee, S. H. Kim,consolidated by spark plasma sintering of mechanicallyfollowed by SPS (spark plasma sintering) is well suited for

  4. Magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets produced by spark plasma sintering method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Tetsuji, E-mail: tetsuji.saito@it-chiba.ac.jp; Akiyama, Tomoya [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnets of Co-Zr-B, one of the permanent magnetic compounds without rare-earth elements, were successfully produced by the spark plasma sintering method. The resultant Co-Zr-B magnets had high densities of 92%–96% and consisted mainly of the Co{sub x}Zr (x ? 5) phase. The coercivity of the Co-Zr-B magnets was highly dependent on the consolidation temperature and the boron content. The highest maximum energy product of 6.0 MGOe, with a remanence of 6.4 kG and the coercivity of 4.0 kOe, was achieved by the Co{sub 80}Zr{sub 18}B{sub 2} magnets consolidated at 873?K.

  5. Mechanisms of Nickel on A. M. SCHEIDEGGER*, D. L. SPARKS, Univ. of Delaware, M. FENDORF,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Mechanisms of Nickel on A. M. SCHEIDEGGER*, D. L. SPARKS, Univ. of Delaware, M. FENDORF, Univ. of Berkeley, and G. M. LAMBLE, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Nickel adsorption on the edge swfaces be divided into two pH regions. In the lower pH region (pH nickel adsorption increased

  6. Mechanical Study of Copper Bonded at Low Temperature using Spark Plasma Sintering Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is approximatively 6.47 MPa [7]. J. W. Elmer & al [8] have presented a diffusion bonding of high purity copper using a conventional furnace. A series of diffusion bonds was done to determine the relationship between bond strengthMechanical Study of Copper Bonded at Low Temperature using Spark Plasma Sintering Process Bassem

  7. Tailored net-shape powder composites by spark plasma sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khaleghi, Evan Aryan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    produced by spark plasma sintering”, Powder Metall. , 51, 59nanoparticles in spark plasma sintering. Mater. Sci. Eng. ,Evolution During Spark Plasma Sintering,” Ceram. Int. , 35,

  8. Magnetic enhancement of thermal conductivity in coppercarbon nanotube composites produced by electroless plating, freeze drying, and spark plasma sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Marc A.

    by electroless plating, freeze drying, and spark plasma sintering Evan Khaleghi a, , Milton Torikachvili b , Marc Available online 9 April 2012 Keywords: Magnetic Carbon nanotube Spark plasma sintering Thermal conductivity and freeze-drying for green processing, and spark plasma sintering for densification. A magnetic field of 1

  9. A visualization study of mixture preparation mechanisms for port fuel injected spark ignition engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costanzo, Vincent S. (Vincent Stanley), 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was carried out that examined qualitatively the mixture preparation process in port fuel injected spark ignition engines. The primary variables in this study were intake valve lift, intake valve timing, ...

  10. Nitrogen spark denoxer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ng, Henry K. (Naperville, IL); Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A NO.sub.X control system for an internal combustion engine includes an oxygen enrichment device that produces oxygen and nitrogen enriched air. The nitrogen enriched air contains molecular nitrogen that is provided to a spark plug that is mounted in an exhaust outlet of an internal combustion engine. As the nitrogen enriched air is expelled at the spark gap of the spark plug, the nitrogen enriched air is exposed to a pulsating spark that is generated across the spark gap of the spark plug. The spark gap is elongated so that a sufficient amount of atomic nitrogen is produced and is injected into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. The injection of the atomic nitrogen into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine causes the oxides of nitrogen to be reduced into nitrogen and oxygen such that the emissions from the engine will have acceptable levels of NO.sub.X. The oxygen enrichment device that produces both the oxygen and nitrogen enriched air can include a selectively permeable membrane.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of thermoelectric nanostructured n-type silicon-germanium alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bathula, Sivaiah [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India); Gahtori, Bhasker; Tripathy, S. K.; Tyagi, Kriti; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay, E-mail: adhar@nplindia.org [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Jayasimhadri, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to their high thermoelectric (TE) figure-of-merit, nanostructured Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys are evolving as a potential replacement for their bulk counterparts in designing efficient radio-isotope TE generators. However, as the mechanical properties of these alloys are equally important in order to avoid in-service catastrophic failure of their TE modules, we report the strength, hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal shock resistance of nanostructured n-type Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering of mechanically alloyed nanopowders of its constituent elements. These mechanical properties show a significant enhancement, which has been correlated with the microstructural features at nano-scale, delineated by transmission electron microscopy.

  12. Investigation of deformation micro-mechanisms in nickel consolidated from a bimodal powder by spark plasma sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    11 November 2014 Available online 20 November 2014 Keywords: Nickel Spark plasma sintering Bimodal,4]. Recently, much attention has been paid to the novel spark plasma sintering (SPS) consolidation technique [6 plasma sintering D. Tingaud a , P. Jenei b , A. Krawczynska c , F. Mompiou c , J. Gubicza b , G. Dirras a

  13. The Verwey transition in nanostructured magnetite produced by a combination of chimie douce and spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaudisson, T.; Nowak, S.; Ammar, S. [ITODYS, Université Paris Diderot, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS-UMR 7086, 75205 Paris Cedex (France); Vázquez-Victorio, G.; Valenzuela, R., E-mail: raulvale@yahoo.com [Depto Materiales Metálicos y Cerámicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Bañobre-López, M.; Rivas, J. [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, 4715-310 Braga (Portugal); Mazaleyrat, F. [SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, UniverSud, F-94230 Cachan (France)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetite nanoparticles about 10?nm sized were synthesized by the polyol method. Zero-field-cooled (ZFC)-FC measurements showed a blocking temperature ?170?K and the absence of the Verwey transition. They were subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering at 750?°C for 15?min, leading to a high density (92% of the theoretical density), solid body, with grains in the 150?nm range. X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a spinel single phase with cell parameters corresponding to the magnetite structure. Magnetic measurements showed a decrease of coercivity from 685?Oe (54.5?kA/m) at 118?K to 90?Oe (7.2?kA/m) at 139?K. ZFC measurements at 25?Oe presented a three-fold magnetization increase as temperature increased; a small transition between 116 and 117.5?K, followed by a larger one from 117.6 to 124?K. The first transition can be associated with a complex crystallographic transition and delocalization of Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 3+}, while the second one can be attributed to spin reorientation due to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K{sub 1}) change of sign as previously observed only in magnetite single crystals.

  14. Spark Spread

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights ï‚·2008Deutsche Bank|P. WeyantSpark

  15. Giant coercivity of dense nanostructured spark plasma sintered barium hexaferrite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giant coercivity of dense nanostructured spark plasma sintered barium hexaferrite F. Mazaleyrat and dense material together. In this paper, it is shown that the spark plasma sintering method (SPS) is able, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) allows to produce nonos- tructured Ba-ferrite with a density close to 90

  16. Rotating arc spark plug

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

    2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  17. Micro-mechanical logic for field produceable gate arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prakash, Manu

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A paradigm of micro-mechanical gates for field produceable logic is explored. A desktop manufacturing system is sought after which is capable of printing functional logic devices in the field. A logic scheme which induces ...

  18. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Primary Reference Fuels for Diesel Cetane Number and Spark-Ignition Octane Number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Curran, H J

    2010-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    For the first time, a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is developed for primary reference fuel mixtures of n-hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane for diesel cetane ratings. The mechanisms are constructed using existing rules for reaction pathways and rate expressions developed previously for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, n-heptane and iso-octane. These reaction mechanisms are validated by comparisons between computed and experimental results for shock tube ignition and for oxidation under jet-stirred reactor conditions. The combined kinetic reaction mechanism contains the submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for diesel cetane ratings and submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, all in one integrated large kinetic reaction mechanism. Representative applications of this mechanism to two test problems are presented, one describing fuel/air autoignition variations with changes in fuel cetane numbers, and the other describing fuel combustion in a jet-stirred reactor environment with the fuel varying from pure 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane (Cetane number of 15) to pure n-hexadecane (Cetane number of 100). The final reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels for diesel fuel and gasoline is available on the web.

  19. Peter Sparks Ninety Eight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Stephen

    Peter Sparks Ninety Eight A Ural ice-blast flattens Suffolk reed No gloves, coat flapping, creeping, the Girton Poetry Group website, at http://poetry.girton.cam.ac.uk #12;

  20. Peter Sparks Compass Reading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Stephen

    Peter Sparks Compass Reading You could I never love. Built of a bulk beyond my comprehension compass with its swinging fleur-de-lys watched by the crystal prism's sharp-cut eye? It represented

  1. Mechanical properties of ZrB2- and HfB2-based ultra-high temperature ceramics fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapata-Solvas, E. [Imperial College, London; Jayaseelan, D. [Imperial College, London; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Brown, P. [DSTL, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK; Lee, W.E. [Imperial College, London

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexural strengths at room temperature, at 1400 C in air and at room temperature after 1 h oxidation at 1400 C were determined for ZrB2- and HfB2-based ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs). Defects caused by electrical discharge machining (EDM) lowered measured strengths significantly and were used to calculate fracture toughness via a fracture mechanics approach. ZrB2 with 20 vol.% SiC had room temperature strength of 700 90 MPa, fracture toughness of 6.4 0.6 MPa, Vickers hardness at 9.8 N load of 21.1 0.6 GPa, 1400 C strength of 400 30 MPa and room temperature strength after 1 h oxidation at 1400 C of 678 15 MPa with an oxide layer thickness of 45 5 m. HfB2 with 20 vol.% SiC showed room temperature strength of 620 50 MPa, fracture toughness of 5.0 0.4 MPa, Vickers hardness at 9.8 N load of 27.0 0.6 GPa, 1400 C strength of 590 150 MPa and room temperature strength after 1 h oxidation at 1400 C of 660 25 MPa with an oxide layer thickness of 12 1 m. 2 wt.% La2O3 addition to UHTCs slightly reduced mechanical performance while increasing tolerance to property degradation after oxidation and effectively aided internal stress relaxation during spark plasma sintering (SPS) cooling, as quantified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Slow crack growth was suggested as the failure mechanism at high temperatures as a consequence of sharp cracks formation during oxidation.

  2. Reaction Condition Effects on Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in IlliteWater Suspensions E. J. Elzinga* and D. L. Sparks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Reaction Condition Effects on Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in Illite­Water Suspensions E. J. Elzinga by ions other than K, presumably leadingNickel sorption in illite suspensions was studied as a function

  3. Laser spark distribution and ignition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Steven (Morgantown, WV); McIntyre, Dustin L. (Morgantown, WV)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser spark distribution and ignition system that reduces the high power optical requirements for use in a laser ignition and distribution system allowing for the use of optical fibers for delivering the low peak energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. An optical distributor distributes and delivers optical pumping energy from an optical pumping source to multiple combustion chambers incorporating laser oscillators or laser amplifiers for inducing a laser spark within a combustion chamber. The optical distributor preferably includes a single rotating mirror or lens which deflects the optical pumping energy from the axis of rotation and into a plurality of distinct optical fibers each connected to a respective laser media or amplifier coupled to an associated combustion chamber. The laser spark generators preferably produce a high peak power laser spark, from a single low power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

  4. Oceanic ventilation and biogeochemical cycling: Understanding the physical mechanisms that produce realistic distributions of tracers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsumoto, Katsumi

    Oceanic ventilation and biogeochemical cycling: Understanding the physical mechanisms that produce circulation support different rates of ventilation, which in turn produce different distributions. Matsumoto, J. L. Sarmiento, R. D. Slater, and P. S. Swathi (2004), Oceanic ventilation and biogeochemical

  5. SPARK Version 1. 1 user manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissenburger, D.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual describes the input required to use Version 1.1 of the SPARK computer code. SPARK 1.1 is a library of FORTRAN main programs and subprograms designed to calculate eddy currents on conducting surfaces where current flow is assumed zero in the direction normal to the surface. Surfaces are modeled with triangular and/or quadrilateral elements. Lorentz forces produced by the interaction of eddy currents with background magnetic fields can be output at element nodes in a form compatible with most structural analysis codes. In addition, magnetic fields due to eddy currents can be determined at points off the surface. Version 1.1 features eddy current streamline plotting with optional hidden-surface-removal graphics and topological enhancements that allow essentially any orientable surface to be modeled. SPARK also has extensive symmetry specification options. In order to make the manual as self-contained as possible, six appendices are included that present summaries of the symmetry options, topological options, coil options and code algorithms, with input and output examples. An edition of SPARK 1.1 is available on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center at Livermore, California. Another more generic edition is operational on the VAX computers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and is available on magnetic tape by request. The generic edition requires either the GKS or PLOT10 graphics package and the IMSL or NAG mathematical package. Requests from outside the United States will be subject to applicable federal regulations regarding dissemination of computer programs. 22 refs.

  6. The Absence of Plasma in "Spark Plasma Sintering"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hulbert, Dustin M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    investigations on the spark plasma sintering/synthesisinvestigations on the spark plasma sintering/synthesisenhancement in spark-plasma sintering: Impact of high

  7. Energy Comparison Vacuum Producing Equipment - Mechanical Vacuum Pumps vs. Steam Ejectors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foisy, E. C.; Munkittrick, M. T.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increasing cost of fuel to produce steam, it has become apparent that considerable savings in operating costs and reduction in thermal or water pollution can be achieved by replacing steam ejectors with mechanical vacuum pumps. The liquid ring (sometimes...

  8. Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO); Joshi, Sachin (Fort Collins, CO); Reynolds, Adam (Fort Collins, CO)

    2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  9. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, Gerald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed.

  10. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.

    1996-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed. 13 figs.

  11. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO)

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  12. Residence Time Effects on Arsenate Adsorption/Desorption Mechanisms on Goethite S. E. O'Reilly,* D. G. Strawn, and D. L. Sparks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Residence Time Effects on Arsenate Adsorption/Desorption Mechanisms on Goethite S. E. O'Reilly,* D and desorption on goethite, and to combine spectro- Xu et al., 1988). For example, arsenate sorption on scopic x and Glaubig, 1988).showed that arsenate sorption on goethite increased with time. Sorp- Goethite ( ­Fe

  13. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 0.85}(Na{sub 1?x}K{sub x}){sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} ceramics produced by reactive spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regaieg, Y., E-mail: yassine.regaieg@yahoo.fr [ITODYS, Université Paris Diderot, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS-UMR 7086, 75205 Paris (France); LPM, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Sicard, L.; Ammar-Merah, S. [ITODYS, Université Paris Diderot, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS-UMR 7086, 75205 Paris (France); Monnier, J. [ICMPE, Université Paris-Est, CNRS UMR-7182, 94320 Thiais (France); Koubaa, M.; Cheikhrouhou, A. [LPM, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    La{sub 0.85}(Na{sub 1?x}K{sub x}){sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} (0???x???1) ceramics were synthesized from the raw La(OH){sub 3}, NaOH, KOH, and MnO{sub 2} powders using Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering. All the compounds were obtained as pure, dense, and ultrafine grained pellets. The Rietveld refinement of the X-Ray powder diffraction shows that all our synthesized samples are single phase and crystallize in the distorted rhombohedral system with R-3c space group. The thermal variation of their magnetization under a magnetic applied field of 50?mT shows a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition at a Curie temperature very close to room temperature. The magnetic entropy change, deduced from magnetization measurements versus magnetic applied field up to 5?T at several temperatures exhibits a maximum |?S{sub M}|{sub max} which slightly increases with increasing K content. The relative cooling power values, inferred from the |?S{sub M}| vs T peak broadening, vary slightly with the potassium content, reaching, values between 316 and 289?Jkg{sup ?1}, in an applied magnetic field of 5?T, when x increases from 0 to 1. Technically, these large values make the prepared materials very promising for domestic magnetic refrigeration.

  14. CHEVROLET | ELECTRIC | GREEN | SPARK EV | TECHNOLOGY. INNOVATION...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CHEVROLET | ELECTRIC | GREEN | SPARK EV | TECHNOLOGY. INNOVATION & SOLUTIONS | GREENER VEHICLES Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate content...

  15. Laser Spark Distribution and Ignition System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    laser spark from a single low power pulse. The system has ap- plications in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives, and laser induced...

  16. New inverse quasifission mechanism to produce neutron-rich transfermium nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kedziora, David J. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Simenel, Cedric [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/Service de Physique Nucleaire, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory, a new inverse quasifission mechanism is proposed to produce neutron-rich transfermium nuclei in the collision of prolate deformed actinides. Calculations show that the collision of the tip of one nucleus with the side of the other results in a nucleon flux toward the latter. The roles of nucleon evaporation and impact parameter, as well as collision time, are discussed.

  17. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine 2004 Diesel...

  18. Improving the Efficiency of Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines Improving the Efficiency of Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines This work focused on using camless engine technology...

  19. Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Presentation given at...

  20. Focused shock spark discharge drill using multiple electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moeny, William M. (Albuquerque, NM); Small, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A spark discharge focused drill provided with one pulse forming line or a number of pulse forming lines. The pulse forming line is connected to an array of electrodes which would form a spark array. One of the electrodes of each of the array is connected to the high voltage side of the pulse forming line and the other electrodes are at ground potential. When discharged in a liquid, these electrodes produce intense focused shock waves that can pulverize or fracture rock. By delaying the firing of each group of electrodes, the drill can be steered within the earth. Power can be fed to the pulse forming line either downhole or from the surface area. A high voltage source, such as a Marx generator, is suitable for pulse charging the lines.

  1. Using SPARK as a Solver for Modelica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Simulation with Modelica 2.1. John Wiley & Sons.Vadim Engelson. 1998. “Modelica – A Uni?ed Object-OrientedSPARK AS A SOLVER FOR MODELICA Michael Wetter 1 , Philip

  2. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe ncludes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4) each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two.

  3. Metastable alloy materials produced by solid state reaction of compacted, mechanically deformed mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atzmon, M.; Johnson, W.L.; Verhoeven, J.D.

    1987-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk metastable, amorphous or fine crystalline alloy materials are produced by reacting cold-worked, mechanically deformed filamentary precursors such as metal powder mixtures or intercalated metal foils. Cold-working consolidates the metals, increases the interfacial area, lowers the free energy for reaction, and reduces at least one characteristic dimension of the metals. For example, the grains of powder or the sheets of foil are clad in a container to form a disc. The disc is cold-rolled between the nip of rollers to form a flattened disc. The grains are further elongated by further rolling to form a very thin sheet of a lamellar filamentary structure containing filaments having a thickness of less than 0.01 microns. Thus, diffusion distance and time for reaction are substantially reduced when the flattened foil is thermally treated in oven to form a composite sheet containing metastable material dispersed in unreacted polycrystalline material. 4 figs.

  4. Spark Plasma Sintering of W-UO2 Cermets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. C. O'Brien; N. D. Jerred

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About 50 vol.% 3 um depleted uranium dioxide (UO2) powder was encapsulated within a tungsten super alloy matrix produced from sub-micron tungsten powders using the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process. An additive of 25 atom-percent (at.%) rhenium was included within the tungsten matrix to improve the ductility and fracture toughness of the ceramic–metallic (cermet) matrix. Cermet fabrication to 97.9% of the theoretical cermet density was achieved by sintering at 1500 degrees C with 40 MPa of applied pressure for 20 min. The results presented are from the first known trials of W–UO2 and nuclear cermet production via SPS.

  5. Spark Plasma Sintering of Fuel Cermets for Nuclear Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Zhong; Robert C. O'Brien; Steven D. Howe; Nathan D. Jerred; Kristopher Schwinn; Laura Sudderth; Joshua Hundley

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of the fabrication of tungsten based nuclear fuel cermets via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is investigated in this work. CeO2 is used to simulate fuel loadings of UO2 or Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuels within tungsten-based cermets due to the similar properties of these materials. This study shows that after a short time sintering, greater than 90 % density can be achieved, which is suitable to possess good strength as well as the ability to contain fission products. The mechanical properties and the densities of the samples are also investigated as functions of the applied pressures during the sintering.

  6. Metastable alloy materials produced by solid state reaction of compacted, mechanically deformed mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atzmon, Michael (Herzlia, IL); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA); Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk metastable, amorphous or fine crystalline alloy materials are produced by reacting cold-worked, mechanically deformed filamentary precursors such as metal powder mixtures or intercalated metal foils. Cold-working consolidates the metals, increases the interfacial area, lowers the free energy for reaction, and reduces at least one characteristic dimension of the metals. For example, the grains (13) of powder or the sheets of foil are clad in a container (14) to form a disc (10). The disc (10) is cold-rolled between the nip (16) of rollers (18,20) to form a flattened disc (22). The grains (13) are further elongated by further rolling to form a very thin sheet (26) of a lamellar filamentary structure (FIG. 4) containing filaments having a thickness of less than 0.01 microns. Thus, diffusion distance and time for reaction are substantially reduced when the flattened foil (28) is thermally treated in oven (32) to form a composite sheet (33) containing metastable material (34) dispersed in unreacted polycrystalline material (36).

  7. Low current extended duration spark ignition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waters, Stephen Howard; Chan, Anthony Kok-Fai

    2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for firing a spark plug is disclosed. The system includes a timing controller configured to send a first timing signal and a second timing signal. The system also includes an ignition transformer having a primary winding and a secondary winding and a spark-plug that is operably associated with the secondary winding. A first switching element is disposed between the timing controller and the primary winding of the ignition transformer. The first switching element controls a supply of power to the primary winding based on the first timing signal. Also, a second switching element is disposed between the timing controller and the primary winding of the ignition transformer. The second switching element controls the supply of power to the primary winding based on the second timing signal. A method for firing a spark plug is also disclosed.

  8. Using SPARK as a Solver for Modelica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael; Wetter, Michael; Haves, Philip; Moshier, Michael A.; Sowell, Edward F.

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Modelica is an object-oriented acausal modeling language that is well positioned to become a de-facto standard for expressing models of complex physical systems. To simulate a model expressed in Modelica, it needs to be translated into executable code. For generating run-time efficient code, such a translation needs to employ algebraic formula manipulations. As the SPARK solver has been shown to be competitive for generating such code but currently cannot be used with the Modelica language, we report in this paper how SPARK's symbolic and numerical algorithms can be implemented in OpenModelica, an open-source implementation of a Modelica modeling and simulation environment. We also report benchmark results that show that for our air flow network simulation benchmark, the SPARK solver is competitive with Dymola, which is believed to provide the best solver for Modelica.

  9. Optical diagnostics integrated with laser spark delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO); Joshi, Sachin (Fort Collins, CO); Reynolds, Adam (Fort Collins, CO)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  10. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe includes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4), each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two. 2 figs.

  11. Page 1 of 7 Modeling and simulation of sparking in fastening assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of these mechanisms depends on the material used for the assembly (for example, metal rib with carbon composite of the bolt and a possible sparking occurrence. INTRODUCTION The massive use of composite materials in modern the electric conductivity of metallic fasteners and the conductivity of composite materials increases

  12. Elaboration of architectured materials by spark plasma sintering FABREGUE Damien1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    has been used to realize diffusion bonding. In that case again, bonding can be realized at low the same mechanical strength as pure copper even for diffusion time of a few minutes. Secondly, bonding has veronique.massardier@insa-lyon.fr Keywords: architectured materials, spark plasma sintering, bonding, porous

  13. Chaotic Combustion in Spark Ignition Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wendeker; J. Czarnigowski; G. Litak; K. Szabelski

    2002-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyse the combustion process in a spark ignition engine using the experimental data of an internal pressure during the combustion process and show that the system can be driven to chaotic behaviour. Our conclusion is based on the observation of unperiodicity in the time series, suitable stroboscopic maps and a complex structure of a reconstructed strange attractor. This analysis can explain that in some circumstances the level of noise in spark ignition engines increases considerably due to nonlinear dynamics of a combustion process.

  14. A spark chamber for cosmic ray research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jelinek, Al Vincent

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are Elkonite 10W$ high-conductivity hard tungsten-copper alloy. They were chosen for the spark gap because they resist surface erosion in heavy electrical discharges. Six 20-KV, 500-picofarad "door knob capacitors" form the discharge capacitor bank. Figure... formed by the incident particle in each gap (typically 60 ion pairs) are sufficient to initiate a spark. This critical value + of the clearing is 45-5volts for the Geiger detection system and a pure argon gas filling. D. The Time Delay The total time...

  15. A spark chamber for cosmic ray research 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jelinek, Al Vincent

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chambez *re r- -e evenis, anc to obtain good sta- s s ical data with the prese. . i sysiezz wou'8 require t! e exarina- iion o" severs' '. '. ous" no. pictures. ne effic ency zoz two simu ianeous particles in argon oius alcohol vspour is e timasec.... to be 75I15~ji. The effic ency of the . con-he' ium and the helium-alcohol vapour zillings are 1 igner about 85- 5(i. 3. Spurious Sparking Spurious sparks in the chamber can be attributed to a num- ber of factors. The most probable cause is ions left...

  16. Investigation of spark discharge processes and ignition systems for spark-ignited internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khare, Yogesh Jayant

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    includes an evaluation of the various types of conventional as well as high-energy ignition systems for lean burn engines. An experimental ignition system was constructed to determine the effect of ignition energy, spark plug electrode geometry and gas...

  17. Transforming the Museum SPARK | THINK | MAKE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    Transforming the Museum SPARK | THINK | MAKE #12;WILLIAMS COLLEGE MUSEUM OF ART 1 Museums. Because of its varied collections and its breadth and nimbleness of forms, the college museum of the museum's 9th decade of history. As we developed the vision for its future we sought to both leverage its

  18. MnBi particles with high energy density made by spark erosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Phi-Khanh, E-mail: phi@ucsd.edu; Jin, Sungho [Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Berkowitz, Ami E. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the properties of low-temperature phase (LTP)-MnBi particles produced by the rapid-quenching technique of spark-erosion. The as-prepared powder consists of amorphous, crystalline, and superparamagnetic particles, mostly as porous aggregates. The major fraction of the powder consists of 20–30?nm particles. A short anneal crystallizes the amorphous particles producing a high moment, >90% of theoretical M{sub S}, albeit with H{sub C} of a few kOe. If lightly milled, the agglomerates are broken up to yield H{sub C} of 1?T. These findings are supported by the x-ray diffraction pattern showing broadened peaks of the predominant LTP-MnBi phase. The combination of spark erosion, milling, and annealing has produced randomly oriented particles with (BH){sub MAX}???3.0 MGOe. The particles are expected to show record energy product when aligned along their crystallographic easy axes.

  19. High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Spitzig, William A. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA)

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

  20. High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Bulk Nanocrystalline Austenitic Stainless Steels Produced by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Jeremy

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk nanocrystalline 304L and 316L austenitic stainless steels (SS) were produced by equal channel angular pressing(ECAP) at elevated temperature. The average grain size achieved in 316L and 304 L SS is ~ 100 nm, and grain refinement occurs more...

  2. Focal mechanisms produced by shear faulting in weakly transversely isotropic crustal rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    . The formulas for percentages of the ISO and CLVD are simplified under the assumption of weak transverse mechanisms can be determined for microearthquakes in- duced in reservoirs during gas or oil production computed and inter- preted under the assumption of an isotropic medium. The geologic structures

  3. Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composite Prepared by Sol-Gel Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO{sub 3}) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g.cm{sup -3} or 93% relative density. In addition those parts were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus the sample retained its stored chemical energy.

  4. Laser spark distribution and ignition system - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced...

  5. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    COMBUSTION, EFFICIENCY, AND FUEL EFFECTS IN A SPARK- ASSISTED HCCI GASOLINE ENGINE Bruce G. Bunting Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  6. Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms Inform Discovery: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Amycolatopsis Strain Producing Ristocetin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truman, Andrew W.; Kwun, Min Jung; Cheng, Jinhua; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won; Hong, Hee-Jeon

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    bacteria, creating an urgent need for new and improved antibiotics (1). Unfortunately, traditional 51 antibiotic research and development has decreased during this period leading to a reduction in the 52 antibiotic discovery pipeline and a developing... three genes, vanHAX. Transcription of vanHAX is usually 83 regulated by VanS and VanR two-component system regulatory proteins and genes encoding these 84 proteins are often found adjacent to vanHAX. 85 Research into the mechanism of glycopeptide...

  7. Method for producing a secondary lithium cell comprising a heat-sensitive protective mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ullrich, Matthias (Kelkheim, DE); Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Rabenstein, Heinrich (Frankfurt, DE); Brohm, Thomas (Kelkheim, DE)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a secondary lithium cell which has at least one lithium-cycling negative electrode, at least one lithium-intercalating positive electrode, at least one separator disposed between the positive and the negative electrode, and a nonaqueous lithium ion-conducting electrolyte. The method is carried out by the electrodes and/or the separator being coated, by means of electrostatic powder coating, with wax particles which are insoluble in the electrolyte and have a melting temperature of from about 50 to about 150 .degree. C. and a mean particle size of from about 6 to about 20 .mu.m, the amount of wax being between about 0.5 and about 2.5 mg/cm.sup.2 of electrode area.

  8. Temperature dependence of magnetic behaviour in very fine grained, spark plasma sintered NiCuZn Ferrites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    CuZn Ferrites Behzad Ahmadi,1, a) Karim Zehani,1 Martino LoBue,1 Vincent Loyau,1 and Frederic Mazaleyrat1 SATIE spark plasma sintering technique, a family of very fine grained, fully dense NiCuZn ferrites have been produced which show constant permeability up to several 10 MHz. These Ferrites can be used for filtering

  9. SUPERNOVAE IN THE CENTRAL PARSEC: A MECHANISM FOR PRODUCING SPATIALLY ANISOTROPIC HYPERVELOCITY STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zubovas, Kastytis; Wynn, Graham A.; Gualandris, Alessia, E-mail: kastytis.zubovas@ftmc.lt [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Several tens of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) have been discovered escaping our Galaxy. These stars share a common origin in the Galactic center and are distributed anisotropically in Galactic longitude and latitude. We examine the possibility that HVSs may be created as the result of supernovae (SNe) occurring within binary systems in a disk of stars around Sgr A* over the last 100 Myr. Monte Carlo simulations show that the rate of binary disruption is {approx}10{sup -4} yr{sup -1}, comparable to that of tidal disruption models. The SN-induced HVS production rate ({Gamma}{sub HVS}) is significantly increased if the binaries are hardened via migration through a gaseous disk. Moderate hardening gives {Gamma}{sub HVS} {approx_equal} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} yr{sup -1} and an estimated population of {approx}20 HVSs in the last 100 Myr. SN-induced HVS production requires the internal and external orbital velocity vectors of the secondary binary component to be aligned when the binary is disrupted. This leaves an imprint of the disk geometry on the spatial distribution of the HVSs, producing a distinct anisotropy.

  10. Green Spark Ventures LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI ReferenceJump to: navigation,II WindAirplaneGreenEnergySpark

  11. Spark Energy, LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,Southeast Colorado PowerSouthwesternCompanies | Open EnergySpark

  12. Spark Energy, LP (Connecticut) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern IL Elec Coop, IncSouthwestern ElectricSpain:Fork,Spark

  13. Spark Energy, LP (Massachusetts) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern IL Elec Coop, IncSouthwesternSpark Energy, LP

  14. Spark Energy, LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern IL Elec Coop, IncSouthwesternSpark Energy, LPSpark

  15. Microstructure and Strengthening Mechanisms in an Ultrafine Grained Al-Mg-Sc Alloy Produced by Powder Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tammy J. Harrell; Troy D. Topping; Haiming Wen; Tao Hu; JULIE M. SCHOENUNG; ENRIQUE J. LAVERNIA

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Additions of Sc to an Al-Mg matrix were investigated, paying particular attention to the influence of Al3Sc precipitates and other dispersoids, as well as grain size, on mechanical behavior. Prior studies have shown that Sc significantly increases the strength of coarse-grained Al-Mg alloys. Prompted by these findings, we hypothesized that it would be of fundamental and technological interest to study the behavior of Sc additions to an ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructure (e.g., 100’s nm). Accordingly, we investigated the microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of a cryomilled ultrafine grained Al-5Mg-0.4Sc (wt pct) and compared the results to those of an equivalent fine-grained material (FG) produced by powder metallurgy. Experimental materials were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP’ing) followed by extrusion or dual mode dynamic forging. Under identical processing conditions, UFG materials generate large Al3Sc precipitates with an average diameter of 154 nm and spaced approximately 1 to 3 µm apart, while precipitates in the FG materials have a diameter of 24 nm and are spaced 50 to 200 nm apart. The strengthening mechanisms are calculated for all materials and it is determined that the greatest strengthening contributions for the UFG and FG materials are Mg-O/N dispersion strengthening and precipitate strengthening, respectively.

  16. Observations and Modeling of Long Negative Laboratory Discharges: Identifying the Physics Important to an Electrical Spark in Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biagi, C J; Uman, M A

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    There are relatively few reports in the literature focusing on negative laboratory leaders. Most of the reports focus exclusively on the simpler positive laboratory leader that is more commonly encountered in high voltage engineering [Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1977; Gallimberti, 1979; Domens et al., 1994; Bazelyan and Raizer 1998]. The physics of the long, negative leader and its positive counterpart are similar; the two differ primarily in their extension mechanisms [Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998]. Long negative sparks extend primarily by an intermittent process termed a 'step' that requires the development of secondary leader channels separated in space from the primary leader channel. Long positive sparks typically extend continuously, although, under proper conditions, their extension can be temporarily halted and begun again, and this is sometimes viewed as a stepping process. However, it is emphasized that the nature of positive leader stepping is not like that of negative leader stepping. There are several key observational studies of the propagation of long, negative-polarity laboratory sparks in air that have aided in the understanding of the stepping mechanisms exhibited by such sparks [e.g., Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1981; Ortega et al., 1994; Reess et al., 1995; Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998; Gallimberti et al., 2002]. These reports are reviewed below in Section 2, with emphasis placed on the stepping mechanism (the space stem, pilot, and space leader). Then, in Section 3, reports pertaining to modeling of long negative leaders are summarized.

  17. Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A spark-assist homogeneous charge compression ignition (SA-HCCI) operating strategy is presented here that allows for stoichiometric combustion from 1000-3000 rpm, and at loads as high as 750 kPa net IMEP. A single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with direct fuel injection and fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is used for this experimental study. The HVA system enables negative valve overlap (NVO) valve timing for hot internal EGR. Spark-assist stabilizes combustion over a wide range of engine speeds and loads, and allows for stoichiometric operation at all conditions. Characteristics of both spark-ignited combustion and HCCI are present, with combustion analysis showing a distinctive spark ignited phase of combustion, followed by a much more rapid HCCI combustion phase. At high load, the maximum pressure rise rate is controlled by a combination of spark timing and retarding the intake valve closing angle. The latter reduces the effective compression ratio, and therefore the compressive temperatures, allowing the high load limit of the operating range to be expanded. The SA-HCCI operating strategy exhibits improved thermal efficiency at most operating conditions, with fuel consumption improvements up to 9% realized at light engine loads. The SA-HCCI operating strategy presented here does not provide an efficiency advantage at all operating points compared to SI combustion; a decrease was observed at the highest speed and at loads above 500 kPa net IMEP. At light engine loads the majority of the heat release takes place during the HCCI phase of the heat release, and as such the NOx emissions are very low and are similar to levels observed in pure HCCI. At higher loads, a larger portion of the heat release takes place during the spark ignited phase of combustion, which produces NOx emissions that are much higher than is typically associated with HCCI, but still represent a decrease from conventional SI combustion. By limiting the fuel/air mixture to stoichiometric conditions, the higher NOx emissions do not represent an implementation barrier to this strategy because compatibility is maintained with very effective conventional 3-way catalysts.

  18. Korean oxygenates rule sparks MTBE capacity plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin

    1994-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Korean government`s strict standard for gasoline sold domestically is expected to have a significant impact on the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. The mandate-requiring gasoline oxygen content of 0.5% this year, 0.75% by 1996, and 1.0% by 1998-has sparked a rush by Korean refineries to build new MTBE plants. If expansion plans are carried out, Korea`s MTBE capacity will increase from 280,000 m.t./year to 650,000 m.t./year by 1996, far surpassing predicted demand. Honam Oil, part of the Lucky Group, plans startup of a 100,000-m.t./year unit at Yeochon by early 1996. In addition, by the end of 1996 Ssangyong Oil will bring a 100,000-m.t./year unit onstream.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of aluminium–alumina micro- and nano-composites by spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dash, K., E-mail: khushbudash@gmail.com; Chaira, D.; Ray, B.C.

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The evolution of microstructure by varying the particle size of reinforcement in the matrix employing spark plasma sintering has been demonstrated here in Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. An emphasis has been laid on varying the reinforcement particle size and evaluating the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size < 50 nm) reinforced in aluminium matrix were fabricated by powder metallurgy route using spark plasma sintering technique technique at a temperature of 773 K and pressure of 50 MPa. Another set of specimens having composition 1, 5, 20 vol.% of alumina (average size ? 10 ?m) had been fabricated to compare the physical as well as mechanical attributes of the microcomposite as well as the nanocomposites. These micro- and nano-composites have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy followed by density, microhardness and nanoindentation measurements. The alumina nanoparticles revealed an interface showing appreciable physical intimacy with the aluminium matrix compared to that of the alumina microparticles. The interfacial integrity in case of nanocomposites is better than in the microcomposite which has been studied using microscopic techniques. Spark plasma sintering imparts enhanced densification as well as matrix-reinforcement proximity which has been corroborated with the experimental results. - Highlights: • The Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} micro- and nano-composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering. • Better matrix-reinforcement integrity in nanocomposites than microcomposites. • Spark plasma sintering method results in higher density and hardness values. • High density and hardness values of nanocomposites than microcomposites. • High dislocation density in spark plasma sintered Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites. - Abstract: In the present study, an emphasis has been laid on evaluation of the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites by varying the reinforcement particle size. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size < 50 nm) and microcomposites of 1, 5, 20 volume % of alumina (average size ? 10 ?m) reinforced in aluminium matrix were fabricated by spark plasma sintering technique at a temperature of 773 K and pressure of 50 MPa. These micro- and nano-composites have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy followed by density, microhardness and nanoindentation hardness measurements. The alumina nanoparticles revealed appreciable physical intimacy with the aluminium matrix than that of alumina microparticles. The highest nanohardness recorded 0.85 GPa and 99% densification for 7 and 1 vol.% Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nancomposites respectively. Spark plasma sintering imparts enhanced densification and matrix-reinforcement proximity which have been corroborated with the experimental results.

  20. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF THERMAL-ELECTRICAL PHENOMENA IN SPARK PLASMA SINTERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    NUMERICAL MODELLING OF THERMAL-ELECTRICAL PHENOMENA IN SPARK PLASMA SINTERING P. Mondaleka , L'Etudes Structurales), France c Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France Abstract. Spark Plasma Sintering belongs: Finite element method, Spark plasma sintering, powder compaction. INTRODUCTION Spark Plasma Sintering

  1. An Experimental Study of Microfabricated Nickel Spark Plug Georgia Institute of technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electrodeposition through polymer molds. The nickel spark plugs are tested at 20 Hz using spark energies of 5 mAn Experimental Study of Microfabricated Nickel Spark Plug Georgia Institute of technology Atlanta presents experimental. results of the erosion and wear characteristics of micromachined nickel spark plugs

  2. Phenomena that determine knock onset in spark-ignited engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revier, Bridget M. (Bridget Mary)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were carried out to collect in-cylinder pressure data and microphone signals from a single-cylinder test engine using spark timings before, at, and after knock onset for four different octane-rated toluene ...

  3. Eutectic Al2O3-GdAlO3 composite consolidated by combined rapid quenching and spark plasma sintering technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Young Hwan; Nagata, M; Uekawa, N; Kakegawa, K

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rapid quenching and spark plasma sintering technique Y. H.conventional and spark plasma sintering (SPS). Conventionalstructure, Rapid quenching, Spark plasma sintering. Dr Han (

  4. Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Cladding materials via Spark Plasma Sintering for Ultra High Temperature Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charit, Indrajit; Butt, Darryl; Frary, Megan; Carroll, Mark

    2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This research will develop an optimized, cost-effective method for producing high-purity tungsten-rhenium alloyed fuel clad forms that are crucial for the development of a very high-temperature nuclear reactor. The study will provide critical insight into the fundamental behavior (processing-microstructure- property correlations) of W-Re alloys made using this new fabrication process comprising high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A broader goal is to re-establish the U.S. lead in the research field of refractory alloys, such as W-Re systems, with potential applications in very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An essential long-term goal for nuclear power is to develop the capability of operating nuclear reactors at temperatures in excess of 1,000K. This capability has applications in space exploration and some special terrestrial uses where high temperatures are needed in certain chemical or reforming processes. Refractory alloys have been identified as being capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 1,000K and are considered critical for the development of ultra hightemperature reactors. Tungsten alloys are known to possess extraordinary properties, such as excellent high-temperature capability, including the ability to resist leakage of fissile materials when used as a fuel clad. However, there are difficulties with the development of refractory alloys: 1) lack of basic experimental data on thermodynamics and mechanical and physical properties, and 2) challenges associated with processing these alloys.

  5. A laser triggered vacuum spark x-ray lithography source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keating, Richard Allen

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ionized state or the physical processes occurring 15 in a high temperature plasma. There are many advantages to the use of the vacuum spark as an x-ray source; the simplicity of the machine is one. The x-ray output is within the range usable for x-ray... spark apparatus ha- been studied here to determine its applicability to x-ray lithography. A capacitor which stored approximately 3 KJ supplied most of the energy for the plasma. A Nd-YAG laser was used to supply electrons and metallic atoms...

  6. Spark Solar Australia Proprietary Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern IL Elec Coop, IncSouthwesternSpark Energy, LPSparkSpark

  7. Spark Plasma Sintering of Nanocrystalline Cu and Cu-10 Wt Pct Pb Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    Spark Plasma Sintering of Nanocrystalline Cu and Cu-10 Wt Pct Pb Alloy AMIT S. SHARMA, KRISHANU temperature of 623 K (350 °C) using spark plasma sintering (SPS) in argon atmosphere at a pressure of 100 MPa to synthesize the bulk nanostructured Cu-10 wt pct Pb hypo-monotectic alloy by a novel technique, spark plasma

  8. Spark plasma sintering of Mn-Al-C hard magnets , E Fazakas2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Spark plasma sintering of Mn-Al-C hard magnets A Pasko1 , M LoBue1 , E Fazakas2 , L K Varga2 and F characterization of isotropic Mn-Al-C bulk samples obtained by spark plasma sintering (SPS) is reported by spark plasma sintering (SPS). This technique, to our knowledge, has not been used for preparation of Mn

  9. Densification and microstructure development in spark plasma sintered WC6 wt% ZrO2 nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    Densification and microstructure development in spark plasma sintered WC­6 wt% ZrO2 nanocomposites nanocomposite, spark plasma sintered at 1300 °C, for varying times of up to 20 min. The primary aim of this work investigation indicated that ZrO2 in the spark plasma sintered nanocomposite adopted an orthorhombic crystal

  10. A Muscle-Reflex Model That Encodes Principles of Legged Mechanics Produces Human Walking Dynamics and Muscle Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, Hartmut

    While neuroscientists identify increasingly complex neural circuits that control animal and human gait, biomechanists find that locomotion requires little control if principles of legged mechanics are heeded that shape and ...

  11. Development of an engine fuel and spark controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suter, William Gregory

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to develop an engine control unit (ECU) for a four cylinder engine to be used in a Formula SAE racers. The ECU must provide effective fuel injection and spark ignition control and provide for easy adjustment...

  12. Novel Spark Plugs Improve Energy Efficiency of Compressed Natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novel Spark Plugs Improve Energy Efficiency of Compressed Natural Gas Engines Energy Innovations use affects climate change. Vehicles operating on compressed natural gas reduce petroleum fuel use, the vast majority of compressed natural gas (CNG) engines are used in transit buses serving the public

  13. MODELING CYCLIC VARIABILITY IN SPARK-ASSISTED HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark assist appears to offer considerable potential for increasing the speed and load range over which homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is possible in gasoline engines. Numerous experimental studies of the transition between conventional spark-ignited (SI) propagating-flame combustion and HCCI combustion in gasoline engines with spark assist have demonstrated a high degree of deterministic coupling between successive combustion events. Analysis of this coupling suggests that the transition between SI and HCCI can be described as a sequence of bifurcations in a low-dimensional dynamic map. In this paper we describe methods for utilizing the deterministic relationship between cycles to extract global kinetic rate parameters that can be used to discriminate multiple distinct combustion states and develop a more quantitative understanding of the SI-HCCI transition. We demonstrate the application of these methods for indolene-containing fuels and point out an apparent HCCI mode switching not previously reported. Our results have specific implications for developing dynamic combustion models and feedback control strategies that utilize spark-assist to expand the operating range of HCCI combustion.

  14. Understanding the dynamics of spark-assisted HCCI combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL; Glewen, William J [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark assist appears to offer considerable potential for increasing the speed and load range over which homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is possible in gasoline engines. Numerous experimental studies of the transition between conventional spark-ignited (SI) propagating-flame combustion and HCCI combustion in gasoline engines with spark assist have demonstrated a high degree of deterministic coupling between successive combustion events. Analysis of this coupling suggests that the transition between SI and HCCI can be described as a sequence of bifurcations in a low-dimensional dynamic map. In this paper we describe methods for utilizing the deterministic relationship between cycles to extract global kinetic rate parameters that can be used to discriminate multiple distinct combustion states and develop a more quantitative understanding of the SI-HCCI transition. We demonstrate the application of these methods for indolene-containing fuels and point out an apparent HCCI mode switching not previously reported. Our results have specific implications for developing dynamic combustion models and feedback control strategies that utilize spark-assist to expand the operating range of HCCI combustion.

  15. Modeling Cyclic Variability in Spark-Assisted HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark assist appears to offer considerable potential for increasing the speed and load range over which homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is possible in gasoline engines. Numerous experimental studies of the transition between conventional spark-ignited (SI) propagating-flame combustion and HCCI combustion in gasoline engines with spark assist have demonstrated a high degree of deterministic coupling between successive combustion events. Analysis of this coupling suggests that the transition between SI and HCCI can be described as a sequence of bifurcations in a low-dimensional dynamic map. In this paper, we describe methods for utilizing the deterministic relationship between cycles to extract global kinetic rate parameters that can be used to discriminate multiple distinct combustion states and develop a more quantitative understanding of the SI-HCCI transition. We demonstrate the application of these methods for indolene-containing fuels and point out an apparent HCCI mode switching not previously reported. Our results have specific implications for developing dynamic combustion models and feedback control strategies that utilize spark assist to expand the operating range of HCCI combustion.

  16. pH-Dependent Reduction Potentials and Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Mechanisms in Hydrogen-Producing Nickel Molecular Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horvath, Samantha; Fernandez, Laura; Appel, Aaron M.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nickel-based Ph Bz 2 2 P N electrocatalysts, which are comprised of a nickel atom and two 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane ligands, have been shown to effectively catalyze H2 production in acetonitrile. Recent electrochemical experiments revealed a linear dependence of the NiII/I reduction potential on pH, suggesting a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction. In the proposed mechanism, the catalytic cycle begins with a PCET process involving electrochemical electron transfer to the nickel center and intermolecular proton transfer from an acid to the pendant amine ligand. This paper presents quantum mechanical calculations of this PCET process to examine the thermodynamics of the sequential mechanisms, in which either the electron or the proton transfers first (ET–PT and PT–ET, respectively), and the concerted mechanism (EPT). The favored mechanism depends on a balance among many factors, including the acid strength, association free energy for the acid–catalyst complex, PT free energy barrier, and ET reduction potential. The ET reduction potential is less negative after PT, favoring the PT–ET mechanism, and the association free energy is less positive after reduction, favoring the ET–PT mechanism. The calculations, along with analysis of the experimental data, indicate that the sequential ET–PT mechanism is favored for weak acids because of the substantial decrease in the association free energy after reduction. For strong acids, however, the PT–ET mechanism may be favored because the association free energy is somewhat smaller and PT is more thermodynamically favorable. The concerted mechanism could also occur, particularly for intermediate acid strengths. In the context of the entire catalytic cycle for H2 production, the initial PCET process involving intermolecular PT has a more negative reduction potential than the subsequent PCET process involving intramolecular PT. As a result, the second PCET should occur spontaneously, which is consistent with cyclic voltammogram experiments. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  17. Numerical and experimental design of three-electrode spark gap for synthetic test circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osmokrovic, P.; Lazarevic, Z.; Kusic, D. (Buleva Revolucije 73, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering); Arsic, N. (Suncani Breg bb, Pristina (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a three-electrode spark gap used with synthetic circuit is considered in this paper. Two types of three-electrode gas insulated spark gaps have been tested: a spark gap with a third electrode being inside the main electrode, and a spark gap with a separate third electrode. Both types of spark gaps were theoretically sized in the optimal way. Several characteristics are determined experimentally: (1) the influence of the gas insulation parameters on the spark gap functioning, (2) the influence of the working and triggering voltages polarities on the spark gap functioning, (3) the influence of the triggering voltage rate-of-rise on the spark gap functioning and (4) the degree of spark gap erosion vs number of operations. Three types of gases were applied: SF6 gas, N2 gas and mixture of 60% SF6 with 40% N2. Also, three electrode materials were used: copper, steel and tungsten. The spark gap switching time and delay time are measured. The statistical analysis of results is presented.

  18. A multi-mode combustion diagram for spark assisted compression ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavoie, George A.; Martz, J.; Wooldridge, M.; Assanis, D. [University of Michigan, Mechanical Engineering Department, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential utility of spark discharges to assist low temperature, compression ignited engines has resulted in a number of experimental studies. These show mixed results; sometimes spark is effective at controlling heat release timing, sometimes it only stabilizes combustion, and sometimes it has no effect at all. In order to help understand the spark assisted process we propose a multi-mode combustion diagram to delineate the regimes of spark ignition, flame propagation, compression ignition, knocking combustion and spark-assisted combustion, in terms of unburned and burned gas temperatures near top dead center. An analysis of existing experimental data suggests that the effectiveness of spark assist is best at higher and middle loads and decreases as load is reduced. (author)

  19. The Resistive-WELL detector: a compact spark-protected single amplification-stage MPGD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Bencivenni; R. De Oliveira; G. Morello; M. Poli Lener

    2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present a novel idea for a compact spark-protected single amplification stage Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD). The detector amplification stage, realized with a structure very similar to a GEM foil, is embedded through a resistive layer in the readout board. A cathode electrode, defining the gas conversion/drift gap, completes the detector mechanics. The new structure, that we call Resistive-WELL (R-WELL), has some characteristics in common with previous MPGDs, such as C.A.T. and WELL, developed more than ten years ago. The prototype object of the present study has been realized in the 2009 by TE-MPE-EM Workshop at CERN. The new architecture is a very compact MPGD, robust against discharges and exhibiting a large gain ($\\sim$6$\\times$10$^3$), simple to construct and easy for engineering and then suitable for large area tracking devices as well as huge calorimetric apparata.

  20. Control strategy for hydrocarbon emissions in turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engines during cold-start

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cedrone, Kevin David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline consumption and pollutant emissions from transportation are costly and have serious, demonstrated environmental and health impacts. Downsized, turbocharged direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engines ...

  1. Effect of processing conditions on microstructure and mechanical behaviour of metals sintered from nanopowders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    that also decreased the ductility. The reduced time and temperature in Spark Plasma Sintering compared was consolidated by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) method. Before HIPEffect of processing conditions on microstructure and mechanical behaviour of metals sintered from

  2. Application of Pulse Spark Discharges for Scale Prevention and Continuous Filtration Methods in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Young; Fridman, Alexander

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop a new scale-prevention technology by continuously precipitating and removing dissolved mineral ions (such as calcium and magnesium) in cooling water while the COC could be doubled from the present standard value of 3.5. The hypothesis of the present study was that if we could successfully precipitate and remove the excess calcium ions in cooling water, we could prevent condenser-tube fouling and at the same time double the COC. The approach in the study was to utilize pulse spark discharges directly in water to precipitate dissolved mineral ions in recirculating cooling water into relatively large suspended particles, which could be removed by a self-cleaning filter. The present study began with a basic scientific research to better understand the mechanism of pulse spark discharges in water and conducted a series of validation experiments using hard water in a laboratory cooling tower. Task 1 of the present work was to demonstrate if the spark discharge could precipitate the mineral ions in water. Task 2 was to demonstrate if the selfcleaning filter could continuously remove these precipitated calcium particles such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. Task 3 was to demonstrate if the scale could be prevented or minimized at condenser tubes with a COC of 8 or (almost) zero blowdown. In Task 1, we successfully completed the validation study that confirmed the precipitation of dissolved calcium ions in cooling water with the supporting data of calcium hardness over time as measured by a calcium ion probe. In Task 2, we confirmed through experimental tests that the self-cleaning filter could continuously remove precipitated calcium particles in a simulated laboratory cooling tower such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. In addition, chemical water analysis data were obtained which were used to confirm the COC calculation. In Task 3, we conducted a series of heat transfer fouling tests using a condenser heat exchanger in the laboratory cooling tower, from which we confirmed that the plasma water treatment technology could prevent or significantly mitigate mineral foulings in condenser tubes when compared with the no-treatment case. With the completion of the present work, a cooling water treatment technology using pulse spark discharges is currently ready for field-validation tests. The plasma water treatment technology is a true mechanical water softener with almost no maintenance, which continuously converts hard water to soft water spending a relatively small amount of energy. Such a mechanical water softener could find wide-spread applications to solve hard water problems both in industry and at home.

  3. Low-pressure spark gap triggered by an ion diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, D.S.

    1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark gap apparatus for use as an electric switch operating at high voltage, high current and high repetition rate. Mounted inside a housing are an anode, cathode and ion plate. An ionizable fluid is pumped through the chamber of the housing. A pulse of current to the ion plate causes ions to be emitted by the ion plate, which ions move into and ionize the fluid. Electric current supplied to the anode discharges through the ionized fluid and flows to the cathode. Current stops flowing when the current source has been drained. The ionized fluid recombines into its initial dielectric ionizable state. The switch is now open and ready for another cycle.

  4. Low pressure spark gap triggered by an ion diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, Daniel S. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark gap apparatus for use as an electric switch operating at high voltage, high current and high repetition rate. Mounted inside a housing are an anode, cathode and ion plate. An ionizable fluid is pumped through the chamber of the housing. A pulse of current to the ion plate causes ions to be emitted by the ion plate, which ions move into and ionize the fluid. Electric current supplied to the anode discharges through the ionized fluid and flows to the cathode. Current stops flowing when the current source has been drained. The ionized fluid recombines into its initial dielectric ionizable state. The switch is now open and ready for another cycle.

  5. Simulation of turbulent flames relevant to spark-ignition engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Irufan

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    -premixed. In premixed flames, fuel and oxidiser are mixed homo- geneously before combustion. Lean-burn gas turbines for power generation and spark-ignition (SI) IC engines are typical examples of this type of combustion. In non-premixed or ‘diffusion flames’, the fuel... and oxidiser are transported sep- arately into the reaction zones by diffusion. Aero-engine gas turbines and diesel engines are typical examples of non-premixed combustion. It is often the case in practical systems that fuel and air is not completely mixed...

  6. Spark Energy, LP (New York) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern IL Elec Coop, IncSouthwesternSpark Energy, LPSpark Energy,

  7. Full densification of Molybdenum powders using Spark Plasma Sintering B. Mouawad1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Full densification of Molybdenum powders using Spark Plasma Sintering B. Mouawad1 , M. Soueidan1, 2.bley@laplace.univ-tlse.fr, bruno.allard@insa- lyon.fr Abstract: Pure molybdenum powder was sintered using Spark Plasma Sintering Plasma Sintering, densification, microstructure. I. Introduction Molybdenum has a body-centered cubic

  8. Size effects on varistor properties made from zinc oxide nanoparticles by low temperature spark plasma sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of nanostructured varistors by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) are investigated, using 8 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles to 600°C. Keywords: Organometallic, Zinc oxide, Nanoparticles, Spark plasma sintering, Varistor hal plasma sintering By Léna Saint Macary, § Myrtil L. Kahn, * Claude Estournès; Pierre Fau , David

  9. SUBMISSION TO IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES 1 Application of the Spark Plasma Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    --semiconductor device packaging, power elec- tronics, Spark Plasma Sintering, Three-dimensional packaging. I Plasma Sintering Technique to Low-Temperature Copper Bonding Bassem Mouawad, Maher Soueidan, Damien FabrSUBMISSION TO IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES 1 Application of the Spark

  10. The spark counting of etched fission-fragment tracks in polycarbonate for a personal neutron dosimetry system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, K G; Holt, P D; Wylie, J W

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spark counting of etched fission-fragment tracks in polycarbonate for a personal neutron dosimetry system

  11. Laser propagation and energy absorption by an argon spark C. V. Bindhu, S. S. Harilal,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    Laser propagation and energy absorption by an argon spark C. V. Bindhu, S. S. Harilal,a) M. S The laser propagation and energy absorption of an argon spark induced by a laser at different pressures is investigated. 8 ns pulses from a frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser are used to create the spark

  12. Manifestation of constrained dynamics in a low pressure spark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auluck, S K H

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some features of neutron emission from dense plasma focus suggest that the participating deuterons have energy in the range of 105 eV and have a directionality of toroidal motion. Theoretical models of these devices assume that the plasma evolves through a purely irrotational flow and thus fail to predict such solenoidal flow on the scale of the plasma dimensions. Predictions of a relaxation theory are consistent with experimental data [S K H Auluck, Physics of Plasmas,18, 032508 (2011)], but the assumptions upon which it is based are not compatible with known features of these devices. There is thus no satisfactory theoretical construct which provides the necessity for solenoidal flow in these devices. This paper proposes such theoretical construct, namely, the principle of constrained dynamics, and describes an experiment which provides support for this idea. The experiment consisted of low inductance, self-breaking spark discharge in helium at a pressure ~100 hPa between two pointed electrodes separated by...

  13. Combustion Process in a Spark Ignition Engine: Dynamics and Noise Level Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kaminski; M. Wendeker; K. Urbanowicz; G. Litak

    2003-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyse the experimental time series of internal pressure in a four cylinder spark ignition engine. In our experiment, performed for different spark advance angles, apart from usual cyclic changes of engine pressure we observed oscillations. These oscillations are with longer time scales ranging from one to several hundred engine cycles depending on engine working conditions. Basing on the pressure time dependence we have calculated the heat released per cycle. Using the time series of heat release to calculate the correlation coarse-grained entropy we estimated the noise level for internal combustion process. Our results show that for a smaller spark advance angle the system is more deterministic.

  14. Assessing the hydrocarbon emissions in a homogeneous direct injection spark ignited engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radovanovic, Michael S

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the purpose of researching hydrocarbon (HC) emissions in a direct-injection spark ignited (DISI) engine, five experiments were performed. These experiments clarified the role of coolant temperature, injection pressure, ...

  15. Soot formation in direct injection spark ignition engines under cold-idle operating conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketterer, Justin Edward

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct injection spark ignition engines are growing rapidly in popularity, largely due to the fuel efficiency improvements in the turbo-downsized engine configuration that are enabled by direct injection technology. ...

  16. Interaction of a spark-generated bubble with a rubber beam: Numerical and experimental study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, S. W.

    In this paper, the physical behaviors of the interaction between a spark-generated bubble and a rubber beam are studied. Both numerical and experimental approaches are employed to investigate the bubble collapse near the ...

  17. Apparatus and method for the spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cremers, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Radziemski, Leon J. (Las Cruces, NM); Loree, Thomas R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the qualitative and quantitative spectroscopic investigation of elements present in a liquid sample using the laser spark. A series of temporally closely spaced spark pairs is induced in the liquid sample utilizing pulsed electromagnetic radiation from a pair of lasers. The light pulses are not significantly absorbed by the sample so that the sparks occur inside of the liquid. The emitted light from the breakdown events is spectrally and temporally resolved, and the time period between the two laser pulses in each spark pair is adjusted to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the emitted signals. In comparison with the single pulse technique, a substantial reduction in the limits of detectability for many elements has been demonstrated. Narrowing of spectral features results in improved discrimination against interfering species.

  18. Apparatus and method for the spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cremers, D.A.; Radziemski, L.J.; Loree, T.R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the qualitative and quantitative spectroscopic investigation of elements present in a liquid sample using the laser spark. A series of temporally closely spaced spark pairs is induced in the liquid sample utilizing pulsed electromagnetic radiation from a pair of lasers. The light pulses are not significantly absorbed by the sample so that the sparks occur inside of the liquid. The emitted light from the breakdown events is spectrally and temporally resolved, and the time period between the two laser pulses in each spark pair is adjusted to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the emitted signals. In comparison with the single pulse technique, a substantial reduction in the limits of detectability for many elements has been demonstrated. Narrowing of spectral features results in improved discrimination against interfering species.

  19. Impact of retarded spark timing on engine combustion, hydrocarbon emissions, and fast catalyst light-off

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallgren, Brian E. (Brian Eric), 1976-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to determine the effects of substantial spark retard on engine combustion, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, feed gas enthalpy, and catalyst light-off. Engine experiments were conducted at ...

  20. Use of a Thermodynamic Engine Cycle Simulation to Study a Turbocharged Spark-ignition Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawand, Vaibhav

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to examine the turbocharged spark-ignition engines in greater detail using second law analyses as they are gaining popularity in high performance and conventional automobiles as well. A thermodynamic simulation was developed in order to investigate...

  1. A user-friendly computer simulation of a spark ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berrios, Ivan

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . This simulation is not intended for more specific engine characteristics such as combustion chamber geometry, inlet manifold design, spark-plug placement and the like. This research is an extension of the work done in MEEN 410 "Internal Coinbustion Engines...A USER-FRIENDLY COMPUTER SIMULATION OF A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE A Thesis by IVAN BERRIOS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  2. EFFECT OF H2 PRODUCED THROUGH STEAM-METHANE REFORMING ON CHP PLANT EFFICIENCY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 EFFECT OF H2 PRODUCED THROUGH STEAM-METHANE REFORMING ON CHP PLANT EFFICIENCY O. Le Corre1 , C for a CHP plant based on spark ignition engine running under lean conditions. An overall auto-fire or knock occurred. Keywords: Hydrogen, CHP, natural gas, power, efficiency, environmental impact. 1

  3. Managing transient behaviors of a dual mode spark ignition-- controlled auto ignition engine with a variable valve timing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santoso, Halim G. (Halim Gustiono), 1975-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has the potential of providing better fuel economy and emissions characteristics than current spark ignition engines. One implementation of this technology ...

  4. Combustion Process in a Spark Ignition Engine: Analysis of Cyclic Maximum Pressure and Peak Pressure Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Litak; T. Kaminski; J. Czarnigowski; A. K. Sen; M. Wendeker

    2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we analyze the cycle-to-cycle variations of maximum pressure $p_{max}$ and peak pressure angle $\\alpha_{pmax}$ in a four-cylinder spark ignition engine. We examine the experimental time series of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ for three different spark advance angles. Using standard statistical techniques such as return maps and histograms we show that depending on the spark advance angle, there are significant differences in the fluctuations of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$. We also calculate the multiscale entropy of the various time series to estimate the effect of randomness in these fluctuations. Finally, we explain how the information on both $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ can be used to develop optimal strategies for controlling the combustion process and improving engine performance.

  5. The effects of applied current on one-dimensional interdiffusion between copper and nickel in spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudinsky, S.; Gauvin, R.; Brochu, M., E-mail: mathieu.brochu@mcgill.ca [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C5 (Canada)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a powder metallurgy technique that employs the use of fast sintering kinetics to produce final consolidated components in a matter of minutes. In order to use blended powders in SPS to obtain fully alloyed parts, diffusion during sintering must be understood. An investigation into the effects of current on the diffusion of copper and nickel was performed using SPS. Bulk specimens were used to generate diffusion couples in SPS in alternating orientations with respect to the direction of the current. Control samples were produced using a horizontal insertion vacuum furnace. Experiments were performed at temperatures between 850?°C and 1000?°C for 3?h. Concentration profiles were obtained by the use of both energy-dispersive spectroscopy and a Monte Carlo simulated correction curve. Diffusion coefficients and activation energies were calculated for samples produced by SPS and annealing without current. It was shown that, at temperatures near 0.9?T{sub m}, the application of current in SPS inhibits diffusion between copper and nickel due to the re-orientation of electrons caused by the loss of ferromagnetism in nickel. Activation energy for diffusion is, however, decreased due to the temperature gradients arising from the difference in resistivity between the two species.

  6. Relationship of Ammonium Nitrogen Distribution to Mineralogy in a Hapludalf Soil1 D. L. SPARKS, R. L. BLEVINS, H. H. BAILEY, AND R. I. BARNHISELZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Relationship of Ammonium Nitrogen Distribution to Mineralogy in a Hapludalf Soil1 D. L. SPARKS, R to the soil. Additional Index Words: silt mineralogy, clay mineralogy, exchangeable ammonium. Sparks, D. L., R

  7. In vitro study on newly designed biodegradable Fe-X composites (X W, CNT) prepared by spark plasma sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    iron and the additive secondary phase X using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method, aiming to obtain on newly designed biodegradable Fe-X composites (X ¼ W, CNT) prepared by spark plasma sintering. J Biomed plasma sintering J. Cheng,1 Y.F. Zheng1,2 1 Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering

  8. A simple high-voltage high current spark gap with subnanosecond jitter triggered by femtosecond laser filamentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A simple high-voltage high current spark gap with subnanosecond jitter triggered by femtosecond and able to switch currents in excess of 10 kA with sub-nanosecond jitter. The spark gap is remotely with a nanosecond jitter time2-7 . The jitter could be reduced to hundred of picoseconds with a SF6 filled cell8

  9. The part played by death in the novels of Muriel Spark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Gillian Russ

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , however, is not so much directed tuward his mother as to her murderer, her old companion named Benny. The end of the novel finds him rushing home to England to do all he can for Benny. Freddy expresses the strongest emotions to death of any Spark... has been seeking, an escape from the absolute boredom of her life and she anticipates rather than fears it. Bizarre events surround deaths which occur in other Spark novels. In The Mandelbaum Gate the murder of an old lady in Iondon is almost...

  10. Analysis of cyclic variability in spark-assisted HCCI combustion using a double Wiebe function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Glewen, William J [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heuristic algorithm based on a double Wiebe function is proposed for estimating the relative importance of distinct combustion modes (propagating flame and compression ignition) occurring within individual combustion cycles as an engine is transitioned from conventional spark-ignited (SI) combustion to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The proposed algorithm automates the analysis and categorization of pressure measurements from large numbers of individual cycles, providing new insight into the unstable combustion processes occurring during mode transition. Similar techniques could potentially be utilized for on-line diagnostics and control of the balance between SI and HCCI combustion in spark-assisted HCCI.

  11. ArcSafe® with Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanoseconds to produce a momen- tary short circuit that reflects energy back to the sensors at the injection point. Conventional Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) techniques can...

  12. Mechanisms of Selenate Adsorption on Iron Oxides and Hydroxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    - bonding mechanisms on hematite, goethite, and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). It was learned that selenate-sphere surface complexes on goethite and HFO. This continuum of adsorption mechanisms is strongly affected for thesurfaceandimpliesthatthesamemechanismsarepresent in both systems. Zhang and Sparks (1) analyzed selenate adsorption on goethite using a triple

  13. Bulk FePt/Fe3Pt nanocomposite magnets prepared by spark plasma Chuan-Bing Rong, Vikas Nandwana, Narayan Poudyal, and J. Ping Liua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J. Ping

    Bulk FePt/Fe3Pt nanocomposite magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering Chuan-Bing Rong, Vikas nanocomposite magnets from nano- particles remains a great challenge. Spark plasma sintering SPS is known as one; published online 27 April 2007 FePt/Fe3Pt bulk nanocomposite magnets have been prepared by the spark plasma

  14. Interface Driven Energy Filtering of Thermoelectric Power in Spark Plasma Sintered Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 Nanoplatelet Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, Qihua

    Interface Driven Energy Filtering of Thermoelectric Power in Spark Plasma Sintered Bi2Te2.7Se0 of the thermodynamic environment during spark plasma sintering (SPS) on the TE performance of bulk figure of merit, Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 nanoplatelet composites, spark plasma sintering, interfaces, grain

  15. Deformation and mechanical properties of the expansive cements produced by inter-grinding cement clinker and MgOs with various reactivities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mo, Liwu; Liu, Meng; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Deng, Min

    2015-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    additive in normal concrete, particularly in the concrete for hydraulic structures 54 under deep water, was limited. The ettringite-based expansive additive can produce rapid 55 expansion at early age, mainly within 14 days, which has been widely used [7... . Cem. 481 Concr. Compos., 26 (2004), pp. 677-685. 482 [3] P. Lura. Autogenous deformation and internal curing of concrete. PhD thesis, Delft 483 24 University of Technology, Delft: Delft University Press, 2003. 484 [4] B. Lothenbach, K. Scrivener...

  16. Control-Oriented Model of a Dual Equal Variable Cam Timing Spark Ignition Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    control 1 Introduction. Modern automobile engines must satisfy the challenging and often con icting goals) 248-3611, Phone: (313) 322-1977 y Control Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical EngineeringControl-Oriented Model of a Dual Equal Variable Cam Timing Spark Ignition Engine A. G

  17. Ryan Naraine, Eweek, 2004.11.11: "XP SP2 flaw warning sparks debate on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Daniel

    system. "San Jose, Calif.-based Finjan Software released an alert warning that attackers could `silently warning is overblown. " `Our early analysis indicates that Finjan's claims are potentially misleadingRyan Naraine, Eweek, 2004.11.11: "XP SP2 flaw warning sparks debate on disclosure "The debate over

  18. Silvia Solano's interest in carbon sequestration was first sparked on a six-month internship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Silvia Solano's interest in carbon sequestration was first sparked on a six-month internship experiments combining EOR with carbon sequestration. "I thought this was a win-win solution," she said. "You of a research team conduct- ing a large-scale test of carbon sequestration. "I knew I wanted to learn more about

  19. Crevice volume effect on spark ignition engine efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Patrick M. (Patrick Michael)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of experiments and a simulation study are completed to quantify the effect of the piston crevice on engine efficiency. The simulation study breaks down the loss mechanisms on brake efficiency at different displacement ...

  20. Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Cold Fast Idle Conditions for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimou, Iason

    The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0° C to 40° C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under ...

  1. Reducing cold start hydrocarbon emissions from port fuel injected spark ignition engines with improved management of hardware & controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Kevin R., 1980-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to investigate strategies for reducing cold start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from port fuel injected (PFI) spark ignition (SI) engines with better use of existing hardware and control ...

  2. Effect of fuel properties on the first cycle fuel delivery in a Port Fuel Injected Spark Ignition Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Kevin R., 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Achieving robust combustion while also yielding low hydrocarbon (HC) emissions is difficult for the first cycle of cranking during the cold start of a Port Fuel Injected (PFI) Spark Ignition (SI) engine. Cold intake port ...

  3. Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Kenneth

    The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

  4. The effects of spark ignition parameters on the lean burn limit of natural gas combustion in an internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chlubiski, Vincent Daniel

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A full factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of internal combustion engine ignition parameters on the air-fuel ratio (A/F) lean limit of combustion with compressed natural gas (CNG). Spark electrical characteristics (voltage...

  5. In vitro degradation and biocompatibility of FePd and FePt composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    rate than pure iron, Fe-5 wt.%Pd and Fe-5 wt.%Pt composites were prepared by spark plasma sinteringIn vitro degradation and biocompatibility of Fe­Pd and Fe­Pt composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering T. Huang a,b , J. Cheng c , Y.F. Zheng a,b,c, a State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex

  6. An analytical investigation of the effects of water injection on combustion products and detonation in spark ignition engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, William Charles

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF WATER INJECTION ON COMBUSTION PRODUCTS AND DETONATION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES A Thesis by WILIIAM CHARLES BROWN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ANNI University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering AN ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION Ol' THE El'FECTS OF WATER INJECTION ON COMBUSTION PRODUCTS AND DETONATION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES A Thesis by WILLIAM...

  7. Spark-protected ion-source control and monitoring system at 1. 5 MV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogaty, J.M.; Zolecki, R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Program at Argonne National Laboratory utilizes a 1.5-MV Xe ion preaccelerator. Reliable beam transport requires accurate measurements and precise control of various ion-source parameters. This paper discusses the use of a multiplexed fiberoptic data-transmission system and low-cost digital stepper motors for control functions. Techniques are discussed which allow TTL and CMOS semiconductor curcuits to survive the destructive sparks which can occur in the 1.5-MV preaccelerator.

  8. On the nature of cylic dispersion in spark assisted HCCI combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report experimental observations of cyclic combus-tion variability during the transition between propagating flame combustion and homogeneous charge compres-sion ignition (HCCI) in a single-cylinder, stoichiometri-cally fueled, spark-assisted gasoline engine. The level of internal EGR was controlled with variable valve actua-tion (VVA), and HCCI combustion was achieved at high levels of internal EGR using the VVA system. Spark-ignition was used for conventional combustion and was optionally available during HCCI. The transition region between purely propagating combustion and HCCI was mapped at multiple engine speeds and loads by incre-mentally adjusting the internal EGR level and capturing data for 2800 sequential cycles. These measurements revealed a complex sequence of high COV, cyclic com-bustion variations when operating between the propagat-ing flame and HCCI limits. We were able to experimen-tally demonstrate an increase in the zone of acceptable HCCI-like combustion by using the spark assist. A de-tailed analysis of the cyclic variations in the intermediate zone indicates that they are dominated by nonlinear, nonrandom processes. Comparisons with previous studies of lean-limit cyclic variations suggest that nonlin-ear EGR feedback is probably the major source of the observed variations for this engine. The predictable na-ture of this feedback suggests the possibility of develop-ing on-line diagnostics and proactive control algorithms for expanding stable HCCI operation and improving transitions between conventional and HCCI modes.

  9. Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

  10. The Effects of Fuel Characteristics on Stoichiometric Spark-Assisted HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of fuel lean HCCI operation using a variety of fuels are well known and have been demonstrated using different engine concepts in the past. In contrast, stoichiometric operation of HCCI is less well documented. Recent studies have highlighted the benefits of operating at a stoichiometric condition in terms of load expansion combined with the applicability of three way catalyst technology to reduce NOx emissions. In this study the characterization of stoichiometric HCCI using gasoline-like fuels was undertaken. The fuels investigated are gasoline, a 50 vol% blend of iso-butanol and gasoline (IB50), and an 85% vol blend of ethanol and gasoline (E85). A single cylinder engine operating with direct injection and spark assist combined with a fully variable hydraulic valve actuation system allowed a wide range of operating parameters to be studied. This included the effects of negative valve overlap duration, intake valve closing and valve lift. Furthermore, the interaction between fuel injection timing and spark and how they can affect the required valve timing to achieve stoichiometric HCCI combustion are also studied. A comprehensive combustion and emissions analysis is conducted using gasoline, IB50 and E85 at an engine speed of 2000rpm over a range of operating loads. The resultant fuel properties which differed in terms of octane rating, fuel oxygenation and heat of vaporization show that stoichiometric HCCI is possible using a range of fuels but that these fuel characteristics do have some effect on the combustion characteristics. How these fuel properties can enable an increased engine operating envelope to be achieved, in comparison with both fuel lean HCCI and conventional spark ignited combustion, is then discussed.

  11. Cycle-to-Cycle Fluctuations of Burned Fuel Mass in Spark Ignition Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wendeker; G. Litak; M. Krupa

    2003-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine a simple, fuel-air, model of combustion in spark ignition (si) engine with indirect injection. In our two fluid model, variations of fuel mass burned in cycle sequences appear due to stochastic fluctuations of a fuel feed amount. We have shown that a small amplitude of these fluctuations affects considerably the stability of a combustion process strongly depending on the quality of air-fulel mixture. The largest influence was found in the limit of a lean combustion. The possible effect of nonlinearities in the combustion process were also discussed.

  12. Towards the understanding of cyclic variability in a spark ignited engine using multi-cycle LES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermorel, O.; Richard, S.; Colin, O.; Angelberger, C.; Benkenida, A. [IFP, 1 and 4 Avenue de Bois-Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Veynante, D. [EM2C, CNRS and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) has been used to analyze the occurrence and the causes of cycle-to-cycle combustion variations in a spark ignited four-valve single cylinder engine fueled with a homogeneous propane-air mixture. The combustion modeling combines an Eulerian model derived from the RANS AKTIM model that mimics the spark ignition and the Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM-LES) that describes the flame propagation. The motion of piston and valves is accounted for using an Arbitrary Eulerian Lagrangian (ALE) technique with body-fitted meshes. The computation covers nine consecutive complete four-stroke cycles following an initialization cycle. The obtained LES results are compared with experimental measurements. Although the number of computed cycles is fairly low, LES is shown to be able to reproduce both quantitatively and qualitatively the cyclic variability observed experimentally. The investigation of the possible causes of variability illustrates the unprecedented possibility LES offers for understanding cycle-to-cycle variations. (author)

  13. Final report on development of Pulse Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) for aging aircraft wiring application.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Howard, R. Kevin; Peña, Gary Edward; Schneider, Larry X.; Higgins, Matthew B.; Glover, Steven Frank

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) is a Sandia National Laboratories Patented, non-destructive wiring system diagnostic that has been developed to detect defects in aging wiring systems in the commercial aircraft fleet. PASD was previously demonstrated on relatively controlled geometry wiring such as coaxial cables and shielded twisted-pair wiring through a contract with the U.S. navy and is discussed in a Sandia National Laboratories report, SAND2001-3225 ''Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) Diagnostic Technique for the Location of Defects in Aging Wiring Systems''. This report describes an expansion of earlier work by applying the PASD technique to unshielded twisted-pair and discrete wire configurations commonly found in commercial aircraft. This wiring is characterized by higher impedances as well as relatively non-uniform impedance profiles that have been found to be challenging for existing aircraft wiring diagnostics. Under a three year contract let by the Federal Aviation Administration, Interagency Agreement DTFA-03-00X90019, this technology was further developed for application on aging commercial aircraft wiring systems. This report describes results of the FAA program with discussion of previous work conducted under U.S. Department of Defense funding.

  14. The Effects of Fuel Characteristics on Stoichiometric Spark-Assisted HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of fuel lean HCCI operation using a variety of fuels are well known and have been demonstrated using different engine concepts in the past. In contrast, stoichiometric operation of HCCI is less well documented. Recent studies have highlighted the benefits of operating at a stoichiometric condition in terms of load expansion combined with the applicability of three way catalyst technology to reduce NOx emissions. In this study the characterization of stoichiometric HCCI using gasoline-like fuels was undertaken. The fuels investigated are gasoline, a 50 vol% blend of iso-butanol and gasoline (IB50), and an 85% vol blend of ethanol and gasoline (E85). A single cylinder engine operating with direct injection and spark assist combined with a fully variable hydraulic valve actuation system allowed a wide range of operating parameters to be studied. The resultant fuel properties which differed in terms of octane rating, fuel oxygenation and heat of vaporization show that stoichiometric HCCI is possible using a range of fuels but that these fuel characteristics do have some effect on the combustion characteristics. How these fuel properties can enable an increased engine operating envelope to be achieved, in comparison with both fuel lean HCCI and conventional spark ignited combustion, is then discussed.

  15. System for time-discretized vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of spark breakdown in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryberg, D.; Fierro, A.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for time-discretized spectroscopic measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission from spark discharges in the 60-160 nm range has been developed for the study of early plasma-forming phenomena. The system induces a spark discharge in an environment close to atmospheric conditions created using a high speed puff value, but is otherwise kept at high vacuum to allow for the propagation of VUV light. Using a vertical slit placed 1.5 mm from the discharge the emission from a small cross section of the discharge is allowed to pass into the selection chamber consisting of a spherical grating, with 1200 grooves/mm, and an exit slit set to 100 ?m. Following the exit slit is a photomultiplier tube with a sodium salicylate scintillator that is used for the time discretized measurement of the VUV signal with a temporal resolution limit of 10 ns. Results from discharges studied in dry air, Nitrogen, SF{sub 6}, and Argon indicate the emission of light with wavelengths shorter than 120 nm where the photon energy begins to approach the regime of direct photoionization.

  16. The Making of Beauty: Aesthetic Spaces in the Fiction of D. H. Lawrence, Muriel Spark, and Virginia Woolf 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joori

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation rethinks textual images of the other’s beauty, depicted in works by D. H. Lawrence, Muriel Spark, and Virginia Woolf, whose fascination with the other, called by this dissertation the beloved, urged them to inscribe the beloved’s...

  17. Modeling and Control of a Spark Ignition Engine with Variable Cam Timing A. G. Stefanopoulou, J. A. Cooky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    and multivariable. The control scheme jointly manages fuel and cam position. 1 Introduction. Modern automobile external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems commonly used for NOx reduction. Control SystemsModeling and Control of a Spark Ignition Engine with Variable Cam Timing A. G. Stefanopoulou, J. A

  18. Thermodynamics of Potassium Exchange in Soil Using a Kinetics Approach1 D. L. SPARKS AND P. M. JARDINEZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Thermodynamics of Potassium Exchange in Soil Using a Kinetics Approach1 D. L. SPARKS AND P. M. JARDINEZ ABSTRACT Thermodynamics of potassium (K) exchange using a kinetics ap- proach was investigated that more energy was needed to desorb K than to adsorb K. Thermodynamic and pseudother- modynamic parameters

  19. An ignition and combustion model based on the level-set method for spark ignition engine multidimensional modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Zhichao; Reitz, Rolf D. [Engine Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the prediction accuracy of the spark ignition and combustion processes in spark ignition engines, improved ignition and flame propagation models have been developed and implemented in the CFD code, KIVA-3V. An equation to calculate the spark ignition kernel growth rate is derived that considers the effects of the spark ignition discharge energy and flow turbulence on the ignition kernel growth. In addition, a flamelet combustion model based on the G equation combustion model was developed and implemented. To test the ignition and combustion models, they were applied to a homogeneous charge pancake-shaped-combustion-chamber engine, in which experimental heat flux data from probes in the engine head and cylinder liner were available. By comparing the flame arrival timings with the simulation predictions, the ignition and combustion models were validated. In addition, the models were also applied to a homogeneous charge propane-fueled SI engine. Good agreement with experimental cylinder pressures and NO{sub x} data was obtained as a function of ignition timing, engine speed, and EGR levels. (author)

  20. Sorption and Desorption of Acetonitrile on Montmorillonite from Aqueous Solutions Z. Z. Zhang,* D. L. Sparks, and R. A. Pease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Sorption and Desorption of Acetonitrile on Montmorillonite from Aqueous Solutions Z. Z. Zhang,* D. L. Sparks, and R. A. Pease ABSTRACT The sorption and desorption of acetonitrile on K, Na, Ca, and Mg- trometer and the c-axis spacings of K, Ca, and Mg montmorillonite in the acetonitrile solutions were

  1. Method and apparatus for electrical cable testing by pulse-arrested spark discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnum, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Warne, Larry K. (Albuquerque, NM); Jorgenson, Roy E. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Larry X. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for electrical cable testing by Pulse-Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) uses the cable response to a short-duration high-voltage incident pulse to determine the location of an electrical breakdown that occurs at a defect site in the cable. The apparatus for cable testing by PASD includes a pulser for generating the short-duration high-voltage incident pulse, at least one diagnostic sensor to detect the incident pulse and the breakdown-induced reflected and/or transmitted pulses propagating from the electrical breakdown at the defect site, and a transient recorder to record the cable response. The method and apparatus are particularly useful to determine the location of defect sites in critical but inaccessible electrical cabling systems in aging aircraft, ships, nuclear power plants, and industrial complexes.

  2. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Sulfate Adsorption/Desorption on Goethite Using Pressure-Jump Relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Kinetics and Mechanisms of Sulfate Adsorption/Desorption on Goethite Using Pressure-Jump Relaxation Peng Chu Zhang* and Donald L. Sparks ABSTRACT Sulfate adsorption/desorption on goethite (Fe indicated that adsorption decreased with increased pH of the goethite suspension. The triple-layer model fit

  3. The effects of cycle-to-cycle variations on nitric oxide (NO) emissions for a spark-ignition engine: Numerical results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarroel, Milivoy

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . To carry out the proposed study, an engine simulation model was used. The simulation determines engine performance and NO emissions as functions of engine operating conditions, engine design parameters, and combustion parameters. An automotive, spark...

  4. Production of S/sub 2/F/sub 10/ by SF/sub 6/ spark discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauers, I.; Votaw, P.C.; Griffin, G.D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The highly toxic compound S/sub 2/F/sub 10/ is formed in SF/sub 6/ following spark discharges. When the spark cell is dried, the S/sub 2/F/sub 10/ yield was 6.8 /times/ 10/sup /minus/11/ mol/J at an SF/sub 6/ pressure P = 133 kPa. Moisture appears to suppress the S/sub 2/F/sub 10/ yield, although once formed, the S/sub 2/F/sub 10/ is quite stable with respect to moisture. This could explain the variation in observation from experiment to experiment in the literature. These results also raise important questions as to the influence of drying agents that are used in high-voltage systems on the S/sub 2/F/sub 10/ yield. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. A Study on Formation and Thermal Stability of Nano-sized Oxide Clusters in Mechanically Alloyed NiAl for High Temperature Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KIM, YONG-DEOG

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alloying and spark-plasma sintering, in Designing,and consolidated by spark plasma sintering. 2000. Trans Techalloying and spark-plasma sintering. 2004. Trans Tech

  6. Multi-timescale modeling of ignition and flame regimes of n-heptane-air mixtures near spark assisted homogeneous charge compression ignition conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, Yiguang; Sun, Wenting; Burke, M. P.; Gou, Xiaolong; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The flame regimes of ignition and flame propagation as well as transitions between different flame regimes of n-heptane-air mixtures in a one-dimensional, cylindrical, spark assisted homogeneously charged compression ignition (HCCI) reactor are numerically modeled using a multi-timescale method with reduced kinetic mechanism. It is found that the initial mixture temperature and pressure have a dramatic impact on flame dynamics. Depending on the initial temperature gradient, there exist at least six different combustion regimes, an initial single flame front propagation regime, a coupled low temperature and high temperature double-flame regime, a decoupled low temperature and high temperature double-flame regime, a low temperature ignition regime, a single high temperature flame regime, and a hot ignition regime. The results show that the low temperature and high temperature flames have distinct kinetic and transport properties as well as flame speeds, and are strongly influenced by the low temperature chemistry. The pressure and heat release rates are affected by the appearance of different flame regimes and the transitions between them. Furthermore, it is found that the critical temperature gradient for ignition and acoustic wave coupling becomes singular at the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. The results show that both the NTC effect and the acoustic wave propagation in a closed reactor have a dramatic impact on the ignition front and acoustic interaction.

  7. Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    by spark plasma sintering.Mechanics of Materials, vol. 42 (n° 5). pp. 548-558. ISSN 0167-6636 Any produced by spark plasma sintering Gabriella Bolzon a,*, Enzo J. Chiarullo a , Pedro Egizabal b , Claude composites Spark plasma sintering (SPS) Material characterization Instrumented indentation Drucker

  8. Effect of temperature and time on properties of Spark Plasma Sintered NiCuZn: Co ferrite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effect of temperature and time on properties of Spark Plasma Sintered NiCuZn: Co ferrite K. Zehani hundred MHz, and a high resistivity, but the conventional sintering temperature is too high for co. EXPERIMENTAL: Powders of basic oxides Fe2O3, NiO, CuO and ZnO and Co2O3 were used for the preparation of Ni

  9. Effects of Soil Organic Matter on the Kinetics and Mechanisms of Pb(II) Sorption and Desorption in Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Effects of Soil Organic Matter on the Kinetics and Mechanisms of Pb(II) Sorption and Desorption in Soil Daniel G. Strawn* and Donald L. Sparks ABSTRACT make better predictions about the mobility and threat from Pb contami- and desorption behavior on soil be understood, as wellnated soil, it is critical

  10. Characterizing dilute combustion instabilities in a multi-cylinder spark-ignited engine using symbolic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark-ignited internal combustion engines have evolved considerably in recent years in response to increasingly stringent regulations for emissions and fuel-economy. One new advanced engine strategy utilizes high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce combustion temperatures, thereby increasing thermodynamic efficiency and reducing nitrogen oxide emissions. While this strategy can be highly effective, it also poses major control and design challenges due to the large combustion oscillations that develop at sufficiently high EGR levels. Previous research has documented that combustion instabilities can propagate between successive engine cycles in individual cylinders via self-generated feedback of reactive species and thermal energy in the retained residual exhaust gases. In this work, we use symbolic analysis to characterize multi-cylinder combustion oscillations in an experimental engine operating with external EGR. At low levels of EGR, intra-cylinder oscillations are clearly visible and appear to be associated with brief, intermittent coupling among cylinders. As EGR is increased further, a point is reached where all four cylinders lock almost completely in phase and alternate simultaneously between two distinct bi-stable combustion states. From a practical perspective, it is important to understand the causes of this phenomenon and develop diagnostics that might be applied to ameliorate its effects. We demonstrate here that two approaches for symbolizing the engine combustion measurements can provide useful probes for characterizing these instabilities.

  11. Cyclic Variability During the Transition Between Spark-ignited Combustion and HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental observations of cyclic variability are described for the transition between conventional spark-ignited (SI) propagating-flame combustion and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in a single-cylinder, stoichiometrically fueled, gasoline engine. The engine under study is equipped with a fully variable valve actuation (VVA) system which was used to control the levels of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to achieve the transition from conventional SI to HCCI. Engine operation in both SI and HCCI modes was observed to be very stable with only minor, stochastic cyclic variability. However, during transitions between these modes, operation was observed to be highly unstable with high levels of cyclic variability and occasionally the engine could not sustain combustion. Analysis of the observed cyclic variability suggests that the transition between SI and HCCI can be described as a sequence of bifurcations in a low-dimensional dynamic map. The deterministic nature of the instabilities observed during the transition suggest that it is possible to make accurate, short-term predictions of combustion performance allowing for the possibility of developing on-line diagnostics and proactive control algorithms for expanding stable HCCI operation and improving transitions between conventional combustion modes and HCCI.

  12. Physical process Mechanical mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Physical process Generation · Mechanical mechanisms F = m·a · Electric/Magnetic mechanisms F = B·i·l · Fluid dynamic/Hydraulic mechanisms q, p, ij · Thermal/Optical #12;2 Source unit

  13. Combustion, Control, and Fuel Effects in a Spark Assisted HCCI Engine Equipped with Variable Valve Timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Widespread implementation of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines is presently hindered by stability, control, and load range issues. Although the operable HCCI speed/load range is expanding, it is likely that the initial HCCI engines will rely on conventional combustion for part of the operating cycle. In the present study, we have investigated the role of fuel properties and chemistry on the operation of a spark-assisted gasoline HCCI engine. The engine employed is a single cylinder, 500 cc, port fuel injected research engine, operating near lambda = 1.0 and equipped with hydraulic variable valve actuation. HCCI is initiated by early exhaust valve closing to retain exhaust in the cylinder, thereby increasing the cylinder gas temperature. This is also referred to as a 'negative overlap' strategy. A total of 10 custom blended gasolines and three different batches of indolene from two suppliers were run at 5 speed-load combinations and performance was characterized by timing sweeps. Within the quality of the data set, we can say the all fuels provided equivalent combustion and performance characteristics when compared at the same combustion phasing. The fuels did, however, require different degrees of retained exhaust as measured by exhaust valve closing angle to achieve the same combustion phasing. Fuels with higher octane sensitivity were found to ignite more easily or more quickly and to burn more quickly than fuels with lower octane sensitivity. This is an expected result since the engine is naturally aspirated and operates with high compression temperatures due to the high retained exhaust fraction and recompression.

  14. "Studying the physics and mechanics that underlie the flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    -Direct Injection Engine Technologies Direct injection engines are internal combustion engines with spark ignition

  15. Thermoelectric transport properties of polycrystalline titanium diselenide co-intercalated with nickel and titanium using spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holgate, T.C. [Department of Energy Storage and Conversion, Technical University of Denmark, Riso Campus, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Zhu, S.; Zhou, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Bangarigadu-Sanasy, S.; Kleinke, H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); He, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Tritt, T.M., E-mail: ttritt@clemson.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycrystalline samples of nickel intercalated (0-5%) TiSe{sub 2} were attempted via solid-state reaction in evacuated quartz tubes followed by densification using a spark plasma sintering process. X-ray diffraction data indicated that mixed NiSe{sub 2} and TiSe{sub 2} phases were present after initial synthesis by solid-state reaction, but a pure TiSe{sub 2} phase was present after the spark plasma sintering. While EPMA data reveals the stoichiometry to be near 1:1.8 (Ti:Se) for all samples, comparisons of the measured bulk densities to the theoretical densities suggest that the off stoichiometry is a result of the co-intercalation of both Ni and Ti rather than Se vacancies. Due to the presence of excess Ti (0.085-0.130 per formula) in the van der Waals gap of all the samples, the sensitive electron-hole balance is offset by the additional Ti-3d electrons, leading to an increase in the thermopower (n-type) over pristine, stoichiometric TiSe{sub 2}. The effects of the co-intercalation of both Ni and Ti in TiSe{sub 2} on the structural, thermal, and electrical properties are discussed herein. - Graphical abstract: Co-intercalation of nickel and excess titanium into the van der Waals gap of TiSe{sub 2} via solid state synthesis followed by spark plasma sintering results in a systematic shift in the ratio of hole and electron carrier concentration, which is close to unity for pristine TiSe{sub 2}. This directly affects the electrical transport properties, and as the structural disorder induced by intercalation suppresses the lattice thermal conductivity, co-intercalation is an effective route to enhance the thermoelectric properties of transition metal diselenides. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single phase bulk Ni and Ti co-intercalated TiSe{sub 2} samples prepared by spark plasma sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density and X-ray diffraction suggest that the Ni and excess Ti are ordered in the Van der Waals gap. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-intercalation of Ni and Ti can be used to control electron-hole ratio and structural disorder.

  16. News -Little Geobacter still sparks discoveries after 20 years from the T... file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/pbrown/My%20Documents/re... 1 of 2 6/19/2007 8:33 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    , Geobacter exhale electricity through 20 to 30 hair-like structures, just 3 to 5 nanometers in diameterNews - Little Geobacter still sparks discoveries after 20 years from the T... file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/pbrown/My%20Documents/re... 1 of 2 6/19/2007 8:33 PM Little Geobacter still sparks

  17. Characteristics of cyclic heat release variability in the transition from spark ignition to HCCI in a gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, Asok K [Indiana University; Litak, Grzegorz [Technical University of Lublin; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study selected examples of previously published cyclic heat-release measurements from a single-cylinder gasoline engine as stepwise valve timing adjustments were made to shift from spark ignited (SI) combustion to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). Wavelet analysis of the time series, combined with conventional statistics and multifractal analysis, revealed previously undocumented features in the combustion variability as the shift occurred. In the spark-ignition combustion mode, the heat-release variations were very small in amplitude and exhibited more persistent low-frequency oscillations with intermittent high-frequency bursts. In the HCCI combustion mode, the amplitude of the heat-release variations again was small and involved mainly low-frequency oscillations. At intermediate states between SI and HCCI, a wide range of very large-amplitude oscillations occurred, including both persistent low-frequency periodicities and intermittent high-frequency bursts. It appears from these results that real-time wavelet decomposition of engine cylinder pressure measurements may be useful for on-board tracking of SI HCCI combustion regime shifts.

  18. Produce syngas for methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.L. (Foster Wheeler International Corp., Milan (IT))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined reforming, in which an oxygen reforming reactor is added downstream from a conventional tubular reactor to produce syngas for methanol, achieves a substantial reduction in energy consumption with the least impact on the environment. This paper reports that the advantages of this process scheme are as follows: 8% to 10% reduction in the consumption of natural gas per ton of methanol, The size of the primary reformer is reduced, Reduction of syngas compression requirement due to increased syngas pressure, Reduced steam consumption, Production of syngas with the stoichiometric composition required by methanol synthesis. Synthesis gases for the production of methanol and synfuels are basically mixtures of hydrogen and carbon oxides. They have been produced from natural gas by steam reforming, autothermal reforming and noncatalytic partial oxidation.

  19. Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Combustion of Hydrocarbon and Other Types of Chemical Fuels

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Reaction mechanisms have been tested and validated extensively through comparisons between computed results and measured data from laboratory experiments (e.g., shock tubes, laminar flames, rapid compression machines, flow reactors, stirred reactors) and from practical systems (e.g., diesel engines, spark-ignition engines, homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) engines). These kinetic models are used to examine a wide range of combustion systems.

  20. Method for producing hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, J.L.

    1980-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a method for producing high quality hydrogen, the carbon monoxide level of a hydrogen stream which also contains hydrogen sulfide is shifted in a bed of iron oxide shift catalyst to a desired low level of carbon monoxide using less catalyst than the minimum amount of catalyst which would otherwise be required if there were no hydrogen sulfide in the gas stream. Under normal operating conditions the presence of even relatively small amounts of hydrogen sulfide can double the activity of the catalyst such that much less catalyst may be used to do the same job.

  1. Supporting Data-Producing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure ofIndustrialSupporting Data-Producing Facilities and

  2. CYCLE-BY-CYCLE COMBUSTION VARIATIONS IN SPARK-IGNITED ENGINES Engineering Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-8088 USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    -2053 USA ABSTRACT Under constant nominal operating conditions, internal combustion engines can exhibit sub Introduction Under constant nominal operating conditions, internal combustion engines can exhibit substantialCYCLE-BY-CYCLE COMBUSTION VARIATIONS IN SPARK-IGNITED ENGINES C.S. DAW Engineering Technology

  3. Kinetics of Ion Exchange on Clay Minerals and Soil: II. Elucidation of Rate-limiting Steps1 R. A. OGWADA ANDD. L. SPARKS2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Kinetics of Ion Exchange on Clay Minerals and Soil: II. Elucidation of Rate-limiting Steps1 R. A of this study was to elucidate the rate- limiting steps for K+ adsorption on the clay minerals and soil. We.L. Sparks. 1986. Kinetics of ion exchange on clay minerals and soil: II. Elucidation of rate-limiting steps

  4. Kinetics of nickel precipitate formation in soils Edward Peltier and D. L. Sparks. Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, 152

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    GEOC 26 Kinetics of nickel precipitate formation in soils Edward Peltier and D. L. Sparks and sequestration of nickel in contaminated soils. As these precipitates age, their stability increases, resulting have been combined to determine the kinetics and controlling factors of nickel hydroxide precipitates

  5. N. Frage, M.P. Dariel Effect of spark plasma sintering (SPS) parameters and LiF doping on the functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vardi, Amichay

    1 N. Frage, M.P. Dariel Effect of spark plasma sintering (SPS) parameters and LiF doping Nd:YAG specimens sintered at various temperatures (a) and with different heating rate (b). Fig. 5. Optical transmittance of the LiF-doped specimen sintered at 1400o C for 20 min with heating rate 2º

  6. Utilizing a cycle simulation to examine the use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for a spark-ignition engine: including the second law of thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyani, Rajeshkumar Ghanshyambhai

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    , the optimum EGR rate should be carefully determined in order to obtain the better engine performance and emissions. A thermodynamic cycle simulation of the four-stroke spark-ignition engine was used to determine the effects of EGR on engine performance...

  7. System for treating produced water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Lynn (Austin, TX); Kinney, Kerry (Austin, TX); Bowman, Robert S. (Lemitar, NM); Kwon, Soondong (Kyungbuk, KR)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method were used to treat produced water. Field-testing demonstrated the removal of contaminants from produced water from oil and gas wells.

  8. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  9. Yale University Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dollar, Aaron M.

    ) ­ #92474A029 (4x) #12;OpenHand Yale University Mechanical Engineering 3D Printer Requirements · Current · Majority of parts are designed to not require support material · Authors do not know how well alternate 3D printers will produce adequate components #12;OpenHand Yale University Mechanical Engineering Finger

  10. periodica polytechnica Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    structure. Keywords aluminium alloys · nanostructured materials · mechanical characterization · X-thickness texture gradient produced by the different routes of DSR have been studied in Al 1050 aluminium alloy [15 routes on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al 7075 aluminium alloy. Microstructure

  11. Signal Analysis of Automotive Engine Spark Ignition System using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Case-based Maintenance (CBM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.; Vong, C. M. [Department of Computer and Information Science, FST, University of Macau (China); Wong, P. K. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, FST, University of Macau (China)

    2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    With the development of modern technology, modern vehicles adopt electronic control system for injection and ignition. In traditional way, whenever there is any malfunctioning in an automotive engine, an automotive mechanic usually performs a diagnosis in the ignition system of the engine to check any exceptional symptoms. In this paper, we present a case-based reasoning (CBR) approach to help solve human diagnosis problem. Nevertheless, one drawback of CBR system is that the case library will be expanded gradually after repeatedly running the system, which may cause inaccuracy and longer time for the CBR retrieval. To tackle this problem, case-based maintenance (CBM) framework is employed so that the case library of the CBR system will be compressed by clustering to produce a set of representative cases. As a result, the performance (in retrieval accuracy and time) of the whole CBR system can be improved.

  12. A Producer-Consumer Model with Stoichiometric Elimination Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peckham, Bruce B.

    into account not only food quantity, but also food quality. In other words, the nutrient content, or equivalently, the stoichiometric ratio of nutrient to biomass, as well as the biomass, is of interest on the flow of a single currency, such as energy stored in carbon compounds or biomass. This point of view

  13. Development of an Innovative High-Thermal Conductivity UO2 Ceramic Composites Fuel Pellets with Carbon Nano-Tubes Using Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subhash, Ghatu; Wu, Kuang-Hsi; Tulenko, James

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the most common fuel material in commercial nuclear power reactors. Despite its numerous advantages such as high melting point, good high-temperature stability, good chemical compatibility with cladding and coolant, and resistance to radiation, it suffers from low thermal conductivity that can result in large temperature gradients within the UO2 fuel pellet, causing it to crack and release fission gases. Thermal swelling of the pellets also limits the lifetime of UO2 fuel in the reactor. To mitigate these problems, we propose to develop novel UO2 fuel with uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that can provide high-conductivity thermal pathways and can eliminate fuel cracking and fission gas release due to high temperatures. CNTs have been investigated extensively for the past decade to explore their unique physical properties and many potential applications. CNTs have high thermal conductivity (6600 W/mK for an individual single- walled CNT and >3000 W/mK for an individual multi-walled CNT) and high temperature stability up to 2800°C in vacuum and about 750°C in air. These properties make them attractive candidates in preparing nano-composites with new functional properties. The objective of the proposed research is to develop high thermal conductivity of UO2–CNT composites without affecting the neutronic property of UO2 significantly. The concept of this goal is to utilize a rapid sintering method (5–15 min) called spark plasma sintering (SPS) in which a mixture of CNTs and UO2 powder are used to make composites with different volume fractions of CNTs. Incorporation of these nanoscale materials plays a fundamentally critical role in controlling the performance and stability of UO2 fuel. We will use a novel in situ growth process to grow CNTs on UO2 particles for rapid sintering and develop UO2-CNT composites. This method is expected to provide a uniform distribution of CNTs at various volume fractions so that a high thermally conductive UO2-CNT composite is obtained with a minimal volume fraction of CNTs. The mixtures are sintered in the SPS facility at a range of temperatures, pressures, and time durations so as to identify the optimal processing conditions to obtain the desired microstructure of sintered UO2-CNT pellets. The second objective of the proposed work is to identify the optimal volume fraction of CNTs in the microstructure of the composites that provides the desired high thermal conductivity yet retaining the mechanical strength required for efficient function as a reactor fuel. We will systematically study the resulting microstructure (grain size, porosity, distribution of CNTs, etc.) obtained at various SPS processing conditions using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). We will conduct indentation hardness measurements and uniaxial strength measurements as a function of volume fraction of CNTs to determine the mechanical strength and compare them to the properties of UO2. The fracture surfaces will be studied to determine the fracture characteristics that may relate to the observed cracking during service. Finally, we will perform thermal conductivity measurements on all the composites up to 1000° C. This study will relate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal properties at various volume fractions of CNTs. The overall intent is to identify optimal processing conditions that will provide a well-consolidated compact with optimal microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. The deliverables include: (1) fully characterized UO2-CNT composite with optimal CNT volume fraction and high thermal conductivity and (2) processing conditions for production of UO2-CNT composite pellets using SPS method.

  14. 173. NICKEL SORPTION KINETICS ON THE CLAY FRACTION OF A SOIL. D.R. Roberts and D.L. Sparks, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    173. NICKEL SORPTION KINETICS ON THE CLAY FRACTION OF A SOIL. D.R. Roberts and D.L. Sparks on the release of Ni(II) from the clay fraction. Ascertaining the kinetics of nickel sorption on clay minerals

  15. Tearing Graphene Sheets From Adhesive Substrates Produces Tapered Nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    Thin films Tearing Graphene Sheets From Adhesive Substrates Produces Tapered Nanoribbons Dipanjan Sen, Kostya S. Novoselov, Pedro M. Reis, and Markus J. Buehler* Graphene is a truly two- film materials have been studied extensively, the key mechanical properties of graphene

  16. Producing Quail for Home Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornberry, Fredrick D.

    1998-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Hobby and backyard producers are becoming interested in producing quail for home consumption. This publication gives tips on housing and brooding, nutrition, lighting, cannibalism, health and slaughter. It includes three recipes....

  17. Multi-scale current activated tip-based sintering of powder-based materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Desouky, Ahmed Mohamed

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alloying and spark plasma sintering. Acta Materialia 57:2010) Mechanism of Spark Plasma Sintering, Ceramics 044903:enhancement in spark plasma sintering: Impact of high

  18. Microalloying of transition metal silicides by mechanical activation and field-activated reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA); Woolman, Joseph N. (Davis, CA); Petrovic, John J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloys of transition metal suicides that contain one or more alloying elements are fabricated by a two-stage process involving mechanical activation as the first stage and densification and field-activated reaction as the second stage. Mechanical activation, preferably performed by high-energy planetary milling, results in the incorporation of atoms of the alloying element(s) into the crystal lattice of the transition metal, while the densification and field-activated reaction, preferably performed by spark plasma sintering, result in the formation of the alloyed transition metal silicide. Among the many advantages of the process are its ability to accommodate materials that are incompatible in other alloying methods.

  19. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  20. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  1. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables such as internal dilution level and charge temperature. As a result, HCCI combustion has limited robustness when variables exceed the required narrow ranges determined in this program. HCCI combustion is also not available for the entire range of production engine speeds and loads, (i.e., the dynamic range is limited). Thus, regular SI combustion must be employed for a majority of the full dynamic range of the engine. This degrades the potential fuel economy impact of HCCI combustion. Currently-available combustion control actuators for the simple valve train system engine do not have the authority for continuous air - fuel or torque control for managing the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI and thus, require further refinement to meet customer refinement expectations. HCCI combustion control sensors require further development to enable robust long-term HCCI combustion control. Finally, the added technologies required to effectively manage HCCI combustion such as electric cam phasers, central direct fuel injection, cylinder pressure sensing, high-flow exhaust gas recirculation system, etc. add excessive on-engine cost and complexity that erodes the production-viability business

  2. Grain Boundary (GB) Studies in Nano- and Micro- Crystalline Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanju, Mst Sohanazaman

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mechanisms in spark plasma sintering of nanocrystallinestep sintering and spark plasma sintering of Al 2 O 3 , ZrO

  3. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  4. Methods of producing cesium-131

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  5. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  6. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H.C.

    1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  7. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

    2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  8. A Numerical Study of a Simple Stochastic/Deterministic Model of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Fluctuations in Spark Ignition Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Litak; M. Wendeker; M. Krupa; J. Czarnigowski

    2004-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine a simple, fuel-air, model of combustion in a spark ignition (si) engine with indirect injection. In our two fluid model, variations of fuel mass burned in cycle sequences appear due to stochastic fluctuations of a fuel feed amount. We have shown that a small amplitude of these fluctuations affects considerably the stability of a combustion process strongly depending on the quality of air-fuel mixture. The largest influence was found in the limit of a lean combustion. The possible effect of nonlinearities in the combustion process has been also discussed.

  9. Current Producers of Developed Grasses Producers Contact Phone Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rod 979-543-0121 Trinity Turf Nursery* Doug O'Conner 800-290-8873 Wharton Turfgrass Jimmy Kocurek 979 Turfgrass Jimmy Kocurek 979-532-4340 Wittig Grass Farms Allan Wittig 979-657-4496 Diamond Producers Contact Turfgrass Jimmy Kocurek 979-532-4340 Winstead Turf Farms* (AR, MS, TN) Bobby Winstead 800-624-8873 Wittig

  10. Producing and Detecting Correlated atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christoph I. Westbrook; Martijn Schellekens; Aurélien Perrin; Valentina Krachmalnicoff; Jose Carlos Viana Gomes; Jean-Baptiste Trebbia; Jérôme Estève; Hong Chang; Isabelle Bouchoule; Denis Boiron; Alain Aspect; Tom Jeltes; John McNamara; Wim Hogervorst; Wim Vassen

    2006-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss experiments to produce and detect atom correlations in a degenerate or nearly degenerate gas of neutral atoms. First we treat the atomic analog of the celebrated Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment, in which atom correlations result simply from interference effects without any atom interactions.We have performed this experiment for both bosons and fermions. Next we show how atom interactions produce correlated atoms using the atomic analog of spontaneous four-wavemixing. Finally, we briefly mention experiments on a one dimensional gas on an atom chip in which correlation effects due to both interference and interactions have been observed.

  11. Additive manufacturing method of producing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Additive manufacturing method of producing silver or copper tracks on polyimide film Problem/stripping) using an additive process support by a novel bio- degradable photo-initiator package. technology. Building on previous work by Hoyd- Gigg Ng et al. [1,2], Heriot-Watt has developed an additive film

  12. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  13. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, Rommel (Westminster, CO); Chen, Yih-Wen (Omaha, NE)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  14. Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella Oneidensis Strain MR-1 and Other Microorganisms . Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

  15. Spark Distributed Analytic Framework

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    you are inside a batch job. Interactive mode Submit an interactive batch job: qsub -I -q ccmint -l walltime00:30:00 -l mppwidth48 Once you are inside the job, do the following...

  16. Spark Distributed Analytic Framework

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarship Fund3Biology|Solar windMarchSpace-AgeSpacer

  17. & Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    , robotics, and the development of new tools for integrated approaches to concurrent engineeringAME Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering #12;Aerospace and Mechanical Engineers design complex Engineering (AME) students conduct basic and applied research within and across the usual disciplinary

  18. Superheater Corrosion Produced By Biomass Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant] [SharpConsultant; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations] [FPInnovations; Keiser, James R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About 90% of the world's bioenergy is produced by burning renewable biomass fuels. Low-cost biomass fuels such as agricultural wastes typically contain more alkali metals and chlorine than conventional fuels. Although the efficiency of a boiler's steam cycle can be increased by raising its maximum steam temperature, alkali metals and chlorine released in biofuel boilers cause accelerated corrosion and fouling at high superheater steam temperatures. Most alloys that resist high temperature corrosion protect themselves with a surface layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, this Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fluxed away by reactions that form alkali chromates or volatilized as chromic acid. This paper reviews recent research on superheater corrosion mechanisms and superheater alloy performance in biomass boilers firing black liquor, biomass fuels, blends of biomass with fossil fuels and municipal waste.

  19. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Perry, William L. (Jemez Springs, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  20. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing (Tuscaloosa, AL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  1. Method for producing monodisperse aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Lawrence W. (Los Alamos, NM); Soderholm, Sidney C. (Pittsford, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  2. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  3. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.; Coronado, P.R.

    1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  4. The Effects of Charge Motion and Laminar Flame Speed on Late Robust Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Wai K.

    The effects of charge motion and laminar flame speeds on combustion and exhaust temperature have been studied by using an air jet in the intake flow to produce an adjustable swirl or tumble motion, and by replacing the ...

  5. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  6. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  7. Number of Producing Gas Wells

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21 4.65per9 0 1 2 3 4 5Producing Gas

  8. Mechanical Harvesting of Corn.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorenson, J. W. (Jerome Wallace); Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

    1948-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - - TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, Director ' College Station, Texas BULLETIN 706 OCTOBER 1948 Mechanical Harvesting of Corn H. P. SMITH and J. W. SORENSON, JR. Department of Agricultural Engineering LlBRARY Atricaltr... of corn, from which they harvest about 77 million bushels valued at about 584 million. Most of the corn produced in Texas is harvested by hand. There were approximately 800 corn-picking machines of all types used in Texas in 1947. Texas farmers grow...

  9. INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrier, D.S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray fluoresence spectrometry (XRF); spark source massNAA A NAA B NAA c NAA D XRF No. of Replicates SilmpleSe, Sr, Ti, U, V, Zn, Zr XRF B Air dried energy-dispersive

  10. Microstructure, mechanical property, biodegradation behavior, and biocompatibility of biodegradable FeFe2O3 composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    behaviors, and in vitro biocompatibility of Fe­ Fe2O3 composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering were

  11. Characterization of uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 . Characterization of uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 . Abstract: The reduction of...

  12. Transition Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles. Transition Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles....

  13. Methods for producing secreted polypeptides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maiyuran, Suchindra (Gold River, CA); Fidantsef, Ana (Davis, CA); Brody, Howard (Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a polypeptide, comprising: (a) cultivating a fungal host cell in a medium conducive for the production of the polypeptide, wherein the fungal host cell comprises a nucleic acid construct comprising a first nucleotide sequence encoding a signal peptide operably linked to a second nucleotide sequence encoding the polypeptide, wherein the first nucleotide sequence is foreign to the second nucleotide sequence and the 3' end of the first nucleotide sequence is immediately upstream of the initiator codon of the second nucleotide sequence. The present invention also relates to the isolated signal peptide sequences and to constructs, vectors, and fungal host cells comprising the signal peptide sequences operably linked to nucleotide sequences encoding polypeptides.

  14. Mechanisms of deflagration-to-detonation transition under initiation by high-voltage nanosecond discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakitin, Aleksandr E.; Starikovskii, Andrei Yu. [Physics of Nonequilibrium Systems Lab, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutski Lane, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study of detonation initiation in a stoichiometric propane-oxygen mixture by a high-voltage nanosecond gas discharge was performed in a detonation tube with a single-cell discharge chamber. The discharge study performed in this geometry showed that three modes of discharge development were realized under the experimental conditions: a spark mode with high-temperature channel formation, a streamer mode with nonuniform gas excitation, and a transient mode. Under spark and transient initiation, simultaneous ignition inside the discharge channel occurred, forming a shock wave and leading to a conventional deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) via an adiabatic explosion. The DDT length and time at 1 bar of initial pressure in the square smooth tube with a 20-mm transverse size amounted to 50 mm and 50{mu}s, respectively. The streamer mode of discharge development at an initial pressure of 1 bar resulted in nonuniform mixture excitation and a successful DDT via a gradient mechanism, which was confirmed by high-speed time resolved ICCD imaging. The gradient mechanism implied a longer DDT time of 150{mu}s, a DDT run-up distance of 50 mm, and an initiation energy of 1 J, which is two orders of magnitude less than the direct initiation energy for a planar detonation under these conditions. (author)

  15. Adult equine bone-marrow stromal cells produce a cartilage-like ECM superior to animal-matched adult chondrocytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kisiday, John D.

    Our objective was to evaluate the age-dependent mechanical phenotype of bone marrow stromal cell- (BMSC-) and chondrocyte-produced cartilage-like neo-tissue and to elucidate the matrix-associated mechanisms which generate ...

  16. Electrochemical method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Joan; Jang, Bor Z.

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets with an average thickness smaller than 30 nm from a layered graphite material. The method comprises (a) forming a carboxylic acid-intercalated graphite compound by an electrochemical reaction; (b) exposing the intercalated graphite compound to a thermal shock to produce exfoliated graphite; and (c) subjecting the exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce the nano-scaled graphene platelets. Preferred carboxylic acids are formic acid and acetic acid. The exfoliation step in the instant invention does not involve the evolution of undesirable species, such as NO.sub.x and SO.sub.x, which are common by-products of exfoliating conventional sulfuric or nitric acid-intercalated graphite compounds. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  17. Computational mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goudreau, G.L.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

  18. Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     The Oregon Department of Energy provides a tax credit for agricultural producers or collectors of biomass.  The credit can be used for eligible biomass used to produce biofuel; biomass used in...

  19. Computational mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raboin, P J

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area is a vital and growing facet of the Mechanical Engineering Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This work supports the development of computational analysis tools in the areas of structural mechanics and heat transfer. Over 75 analysts depend on thrust area-supported software running on a variety of computing platforms to meet the demands of LLNL programs. Interactions with the Department of Defense (DOD) High Performance Computing and Modernization Program and the Defense Special Weapons Agency are of special importance as they support our ParaDyn project in its development of new parallel capabilities for DYNA3D. Working with DOD customers has been invaluable to driving this technology in directions mutually beneficial to the Department of Energy. Other projects associated with the Computational Mechanics thrust area include work with the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) for ''Springback Predictability'' and with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the ''Development of Methodologies for Evaluating Containment and Mitigation of Uncontained Engine Debris.'' In this report for FY-97, there are five articles detailing three code development activities and two projects that synthesized new code capabilities with new analytic research in damage/failure and biomechanics. The article this year are: (1) Energy- and Momentum-Conserving Rigid-Body Contact for NIKE3D and DYNA3D; (2) Computational Modeling of Prosthetics: A New Approach to Implant Design; (3) Characterization of Laser-Induced Mechanical Failure Damage of Optical Components; (4) Parallel Algorithm Research for Solid Mechanics Applications Using Finite Element Analysis; and (5) An Accurate One-Step Elasto-Plasticity Algorithm for Shell Elements in DYNA3D.

  20. Synthesis of BaTiO[subscript 3]-20wt%CoFe[subscript 2]O[subscript 4] Nanocomposites via Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, Dipankar; Han, Hyuksu; Nino, Juan C.; Subhash, Ghatu; Jones, Jacob L. (Florida)

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Barium titanate-20wt% cobalt ferrite (BaTiO{sub 3}-20wt%CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanocomposites were sintered from nanocrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and pressureless sintering (PS) techniques. Using SPS, dense polycrystalline composites were obtained at a sintering temperature as low as 860 C and a time of 5 min whereas PS required a higher sintering temperature (1150 C) and time (120 min) to obtain similarly dense composites. Microstructural analysis of the composites showed that both the techniques retained nanocrystalline grain sizes after sintering. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the BaTiO{sub 3}-20wt%CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites sintered by the SPS technique did not exhibit formation of any new phase(s) due to reaction between the BaTiO{sub 3} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases during sintering. However, the PS technique resulted in the formation of additional phases (other than the BaTiO{sub 3} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases) in the composites. While the composites synthesized by SPS were of superior phase-purity, evidence of Fe diffusion from the spinel to the perovskite phase was found from X-ray diffraction and permittivity measurements.

  1. Benzene is an important industrial chemical (> 2 billion gallons produced annually in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Benzene is an important industrial chemical (> 2 billion gallons produced annually in the United leukemia (Snyder 2002). However, the mechanisms of benzene-induced hematotoxicity and leukemo- genesis further light on these mechanisms and better understand the risk benzene poses, we examined the effects

  2. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: produce and deliver hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produce and deliver hydrogen High-Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production On July 9, 2014, in Center for Infrastructure Research and Innovation (CIRI),...

  4. Method for producing microporous metal bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danko, Joseph C. (Danville, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tungsten is vapor-deposited by hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride (WF.sub.6) to produce a tungsten body having from 40 to 100 ppm fluorine. The tungsten is then heated under vacuum to produce grain boundary porosity for a sufficient period of time to allow the pores along the grain boundaries to become interconnected.

  5. PRODUCER -SCROUNGER GAME n-Person Game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caraco, Thomas

    size, ESS frequency of scrounging Assumptions of Producer-Scrounger Game Fix group (or population size Producer invades Scrounger n-Person Game with ESS q* : 0 ESS ** q P q S dq dW dq dW ESS frequency of scrounger

  6. Experimental Investigation of Spark-Ignited Combustion with High-Octane Biofuels and EGR. 1. Engine Load Range and Downsize Downspeed Opportunity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in midlevel alcohol gasoline blends with 24% vol/vol isobutanol gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol/vol ethanol gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine was used with an 11.85:1 compression ratio, hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and was capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Experiments were conducted with all fuels to full-load conditions with = 1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. Higher octane number biofuel blends exhibited increased stoichiometric torque capability at this compression ratio, where the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg (indicated mean effective pressure gross) at = 1. EGR provided thermodynamic advantages and was a key enabler for increasing engine efficiency for all fuel types. However, with E30, EGR was less useful for knock mitigation than gasoline or IB24. Torque densities with E30 with 15% EGR at = 1 operation were similar or better than a modern EURO IV calibration turbo-diesel engine. The results of the present study suggest that it could be possible to implement a 40% downsize + downspeed configuration (1.2 L engine) into a representative midsize sedan. For example, for a midsize sedan at a 65 miles/h cruise, an estimated fuel consumption of 43.9 miles per gallon (MPG) (engine out 102 g-CO2/km) could be achieved with similar reserve power to a 2.0 L engine with 87AKI (38.6 MPG, engine out 135 g-CO2/km). Data suggest that, with midlevel alcohol gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol gasoline blends and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  7. Energy Spread Reduction of Electron Beams Produced via Laser Wake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, B

    2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons holds great promise for producing ultra-compact stages of GeV scale, high quality electron beams for applications such as x-ray free electron lasers and high energy colliders. Ultra-high intensity laser pulses can be self-guided by relativistic plasma waves over tens of vacuum diffraction lengths, to give >1 GeV energy in cm-scale low density plasma using ionization-induced injection to inject charge into the wake at low densities. This thesis describes a series of experiments which investigates the physics of LWFA in the self-guided blowout regime. Beginning with high density gas jet experiments the scaling of the LWFA-produced electron beam energy with plasma electron density is found to be in excellent agreement with both phenomenological theory and with 3-D PIC simulations. It is also determined that self-trapping of background electrons into the wake exhibits a threshold as a function of the electron density, and at the densities required to produce electron beams with energies exceeding 1 GeV a different mechanism is required to trap charge into low density wakes. By introducing small concentrations of high-Z gas to the nominal He background the ionization-induced injection mechanism is enabled. Electron trapping is observed at densities as low as 1.3 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} in a gas cell target, and 1.45 GeV electrons are demonstrated for the first time from LWFA. This is currently the highest electron energy ever produced from LWFA. The ionization-induced trapping mechanism is also shown to generate quasi-continuous electron beam energies, which is undesirable for accelerator applications. By limiting the region over which ionization-induced trapping occurs, the energy spread of the electron beams can be controlled. The development of a novel two-stage gas cell target provides the capability to tailor the gas composition in the longitudinal direction, and confine the trapping process to occur only in a limited, defined region. Using this technique a 460 MeV electron beam was produced with an energy spread of 5%. This technique is directly scalable to multi-GeV electron beam generation with sub-percent energy spreads.

  8. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photosynthetic Microalgae Producing Biofuels Euntaek Lee,Photosyn- thetic Microalgae Producing Biofuels”, Journal of

  9. Effet de la temprature et du temps de frittage sur les proprits du ferrite NiCuZn :Co fritt avec le procd Spark Plasma Sintering ( SPS ) et ralisation d'une inductance intgrs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Effet de la température et du temps de frittage sur les propriétés du ferrite NiCuZn :Co fritté.zehani@satie.ens-cachan.fr _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Résumé : Le frittage du ferrite spinelle NiCuZn par le procédé Spark Plasma Sintering a été étudié pour structurales, diélectrique et magnétique pour ce ferrite ont été étudiées pour différentes valeurs de la

  10. Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to prevent waste and to avoid the drilling of unnecessary wells and to encourage the development of coal seam natural gas producing areas in Louisiana, the commissioner of conservation is...

  11. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  12. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Schmidt, Andrew J. (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA), Franz; James A. (Kennewick, WA), Alnajjar; Mikhail S. (Richland, WA), Neuenschwander; Gary G. (Burbank, WA), Alderson; Eric V. (Kennewick, WA), Orth; Rick J. (Kennewick, WA), Abbas; Charles A. (Champaign, IL), Beery; Kyle E. (Decatur, IL), Rammelsberg; Anne M. (Decatur, IL), Kim; Catherine J. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  13. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  14. Clean Energy Producing and Exporting Countries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atighetchi, K.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fitting structure are being investigated. The model developed will be presented to various Natural Gas producing countries such as Iran, Iraq, Russia, and Saudi to name a few and will ultimately be set up the same way that OPEC was....

  15. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkes, Grant L; O'Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  16. Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, William E. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

  17. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  18. Texas producers attitudes on agricultural policy issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewell, Frank David

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    !!is Chapter dealing with income qroups producers were oiv. :: ', 'o: . '1 thr. ?e ?"', th less $25, 000 gross income, {2) those with gr! '. . . ; ". -', 525, 000 cross into!te, but less than $100, 000, and {3) +hose with gros. 'nrome greater than $100, 000... of export embargoes, (3) Producer promotional and advertising programs, (4) Land use and problems connected with the urbanization of rural lands, (5) Who should receive food stamps and questions concerning the usefulness of the program itself, (6...

  19. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

  20. Air bubbles clean produced water for reinjection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michnick, M.J. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The reuse of produced water in a waterflood may be hazardous to the health and wealth of the reservoir. Disposal of produced water and finding a new source of water for a waterflood can double your costs. Air flotation is being tested to rehabilitate produced water on a lease in eastern Kansas. The use of air flotation in the oil field is at least forty years old. However, many operators are reluctant to spend the capital for surface equipment to assure a supply of good quality water for their waterflood operation. Before the installation of the air flotation unit only the produced water was filtered through a 75-micron bag and the filter water was then added to the make-up water. Seventy-five micron cartridge filters were used at the wellhead. Both the plant and wellhead filters required frequent replacement. Injection wells averaged more than one cleaning and acidization per year. Since installation of the air flotation unit, the combined produced and makeup water is passed through either a 25-or 10-micron bag filter in the plant and a 10-micron cartridge at the wellhead. The results of the test being conducted by an independent oil operator show a reduction in the cost for the water injection system. This study is part of the Department of Energy Class I PONS with independent oil operators.

  1. Effect of aspect ratios of in situ formed TiB whiskers on the mechanical properties of TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    ; In situ formed TiB whiskers; Spark plasma sintering Titanium alloys have been noted as promising high by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) process, which is highly useful when seeking to control the aniso- tropic) were synthesized through an in situ reac- tion between TiB2 and Ti­6Al­4V powders during a spark plasma

  2. Nanocrystallization in spark plasma sintered Fe{sub 48}Cr{sub 15}Mo{sub 14}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6} bulk amorphous alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ashish; Harimkar, Sandip P. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)] [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States); Katakam, Shravana; Dahotre, Narendra B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States); Ilavsky, Jan [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is evolving as an attractive process for the processing of multi-component Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys and their in-situ nanocomposites with controlled primary nanocrystallization. Extended Q-range small angle neutron scattering (EQ-SANS) analysis, complemented by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, was performed to characterize nanocrystallization behavior of SPS sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys. The SANS experiments show significant scattering for the samples sintered in the supercooled region indicating local structural/compositional changes associated with the profuse nucleation of nanoclusters (?4 nm). For the samples spark plasma sintered near and above crystallization temperature (>653 °C), the SANS data show the formation of interference maximum indicating the formation and growth of (Fe,Cr){sub 23}C{sub 6} crystallites. The SANS data also indicate the evolution of bimodal crystallite distribution at higher sintering temperatures (above T{sub x1}). The growth of primary nanocrystallites results in impingement of concentration gradient fields (soft impingement effect), leading to non-random nucleation of crystallites near the primary crystallization.

  3. Assessment of reduced mechanisms using One Dimensional Stochastic Turbulence model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chien, Li-Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Giampaolo, T. (2009). The gas turbine handbook : principlesnatural gas. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, Masri, A. , Dibble,spark-ignition (SI) engines and gas-turbine engines. In SI

  4. Carbene reactions produced by recoil excitation methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowery, Kirby

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ CTC1 + HC1 (2) The CTC1 once formed was shown to react with olefins to produce tri- tium-labeled chlorocyclopropanes. For instance, in the case of CTC1 reacting with ethylene, monochlorocyclopropane-t is formed as shown: /6, CTC1 + H O'=CH2 ~ H2C...) Ma&or Subject 1968 (year) Che !is try CARBENE REACTIONS PRODUCED BY RECOIL EXCITATION METHODS A Thesis by Kirby Lowery, Jr. Approved as to style and content by: (Head of Department) (Memb er ) (iMember ) (Member) (iM err:b e r ) (Member...

  5. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  6. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  7. KEYNOTE SPEAKER Dr. Don Sparks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    research also conducts speciation research on metal contaminated soils and on plants that accumulate large quantities of metals (hyper-accumulators). The results of these studies are useful in developing effective

  8. SPARK! 2012 | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton n u a l r e p o r LakeDepartment2

  9. SPARK! 2013 | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton n u a l r e p o r LakeDepartment23

  10. SPARK! 2015 | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton n u a l r e p o r LakeDepartment235

  11. Metrics for a Sustainable Produced By

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Metrics for a Sustainable EcoVillage #12;2 Produced By: Nam Nguyen Master of Urban and Regional Project Manager Project for Pride in Living (PPL) Jeffrey Skrenes Housing Director Hawthorne Neighborhood Council Photo source: Unless otherwise noted, photos are provided by People for Pride in Living

  12. The Challenge Domestic solar panels produce electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    Sheffield Science Gateway. The Challenge Domestic solar panels produce electricity for homes materials to a wide range of optoelectronic devices, including solar panels. This project was one of 10 of renewable energy generated by solar panels. As a country with ambitious targets for renewable energy at both

  13. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Delivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for transportation and stationary power. DOE Milestone #12;Hydrogen Delivery Options · Gaseous hydrogen - Pipelines, corrosion Gaseous hydrogen pipeline delivery program would share similar technology R&D areasDelivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas Christopher Freitas Office of Natural Gas

  15. Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The information and analyses in Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers is intended to provide a critical review, and promote an understanding, of the possible motivations and apparent consequences of investment decisions made by some of the largest corporations in the energy industry.

  16. Table of Contents Producing Hydrogen................1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , hydrogen produced from fossil fuels (like natural gas) can help to build early markets and infrastructure Natural Gas Reforming ....................8 Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming...........................9 Coal, nitrogen oxides). Economic Vitality The United States can secure a share of future global energy markets

  17. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  18. Assignment 2 Organizing and Producing Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    ). They are commonly used in calculations relating to the energy consumption required to heat buildings. We will use-weather-dependent consumption is the amount of energy used when none is devoted to heating. Estimate this using the regressionAssignment 2 Organizing and Producing Data Math 363 September 19, 2013 1. The life span in days

  19. Assignment 2 Organizing and Producing Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    ). They are commonly used in calculations relating to the energy consumption required to heat buildings. We will use-weather-dependent consumption is the amount of energy used when none is devoted to heating. Estimate this using the regressionAssignment 2 Organizing and Producing Data Math 363 February 6, 2014 1. The life span in days of 88

  20. Why does gravitational radiation produce vorticity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Herrera; W. Barreto; J. Carot; A. Di Prisco

    2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the vorticity of world--lines of observers at rest in a Bondi--Sachs frame, produced by gravitational radiation, in a general Sachs metric. We claim that such an effect is related to the super--Poynting vector, in a similar way as the existence of the electromagnetic Poynting vector is related to the vorticity in stationary electrovacum spacetimes.

  1. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biochemical composition of microalgae from the green algalof Selected Photosynthetic Microalgae Producing Biofuelsof Selected Photosyn- thetic Microalgae Producing Biofuels”,

  2. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

  3. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  4. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic Shop)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The position is a Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic Shop) located in Kent, Washington, and will be responsible for the safe and efficient operation of a field garage performing...

  5. Velocity-selected molecular pulses produced by an electric guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sommer, C.; Motsch, M.; Chervenkov, S.; Buuren, L. D. van; Zeppenfeld, M.; Pinkse, P. W. H.; Rempe, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatic velocity filtering is a technique for the production of continuous guided beams of slow polar molecules from a thermal gas. We extended this technique to produce pulses of slow molecules with a narrow velocity distribution around a tunable velocity. The pulses are generated by sequentially switching the voltages on adjacent segments of an electric quadrupole guide synchronously with the molecules propagating at the desired velocity. This technique is demonstrated for deuterated ammonia (ND{sub 3}), delivering pulses with a velocity in the range of 20-100 m/s and a relative velocity spread of (16{+-}2)% at full width at half maximum. At velocities around 60 m/s, the pulses contain up to 10{sup 6} molecules each. The data are well reproduced by Monte Carlo simulations, which provide useful insight into the mechanisms of velocity selection.

  6. Use of Dynamical Undulator Mechanism to Produce Short Wavelength Radiation in Volume FEL (VFEL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. G. Baryshevsky; K. G. Batrakov

    2002-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    VFEL lasing in system with dynamical undulator is described. In this system radiation of long wavelength creates the undulator for lasing on shorter wavelength. Two diffraction gratings with different spatial periods form VFEL resonator. The grating with longer period pumps the resonator with long wavelength radiation to provide necessary amplitude of undulator field. The grating with shorter period makes mode selection for short wavelength radiation. Lasing of such a system in terahertz frequency range is discussed.

  7. Energy Comparison Vacuum Producing Equipment - Mechanical Vacuum Pumps vs. Steam Ejectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foisy, E. C.; Munkittrick, M. T.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vacuum on condensers, process reactors, or equipment and processes requiring subatmospheric conditions, has been to utilize steam ejectors. Due to the inherent operating inefficiency and wastefulness of the steam ejector, coupled with the rapidly...

  8. Method for producing catalysis from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

  9. Method for producing catalysts from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

    1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

  10. Method of producing .sup.67 Cu

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Jr., Harold A. (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, John W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Thomas, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bentley, Glenn E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing carrier-free .sup.67 Cu by proton spallation combined with subsequent chemical separation and purification is disclosed. A target consisting essentially of pressed zinc oxide is irradiated with a high energy, high current proton beam to produce a variety of spallogenic nuclides, including .sup.67 Cu and other copper isotopes. The irradiated target is dissolved in a concentrated acid solution to which a palladium salt is added. In accordance with the preferred method, the spallogenic copper is twice coprecipitated with palladium, once with metallic zinc as the precipitating agent and once with hydrogen sulfide as the precipitating agent. The palladium/copper precipitate is then dissolved in an acid solution and the copper is separated from the palladium by liquid chromatography on an anion exchange resin.

  11. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  12. Sounds energetic: the radio producer's energy minibook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Minibook will be expanded into the final Radio Producer's Energy Sourcebook. Radio producers and broadcasters are asked to contribute ideas for presenting energy knowledge to the public and to be included in the Sourcebook. Chapter One presents a case study suggesting programming and promotion ideas and sample scripts for a radio campaign that revolves around no-cost or low-cost steps listeners can take to increase their home energy efficiency and save money. A variety of other energy topics and suggestions on ways to approach them are addressed in Chapter Two. Chapter Three contains energy directories for Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, and Washington, DC. The directories will be expanded in the Sourcebook and will consist of a selection of local public and private sector energy-related organizations and list local experts and organizations and the best Federal, state, and local government programs that can provide consumers and citizens groups with information, technical assistance, and financial support. (MCW)

  13. Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, J.T.; Miller, J.R.

    1984-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers. 6 figs.

  14. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Evans, R.J.

    1987-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof as disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  15. Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, James T. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, John R. (Penfield, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers.

  16. Method of producing microchannel and nanochannel articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Urso, Brian R.

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an article having channels therethrough includes the steps of: providing a ductile structure defining at least one macro-channel, the macro-channel containing a salt; drawing the ductile structure in the axial direction of the at least one macro-channel to reduce diameter of the macro-channel; and contacting the salt with a solvent to dissolve the salt to produce an article having at least one microchannel.

  17. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

  18. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions. [Rainier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10/sup 12/ calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 ..mu..m scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity.

  19. NREL discoveries will enable manufacturers to produce more robust photovoltaic modules.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL discoveries will enable manufacturers to produce more robust photovoltaic modules. Over the past decade, some photovoltaic (PV) modules have experienced power losses because of the system voltage-Induced Degradation Mechanisms on PV Modules and Methods For Test." 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. Key

  20. Subsidence in the Michigan basin produced ~5 km of sedimentation over a period of more

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABSTRACT Subsidence in the Michigan basin produced ~5 km of sedimentation over a period of more a plate tectonic framework for the his- tory of the Michigan basin. INTRODUCTION The Michigan basin of the Michigan basin has led to numerous proposals for basin subsidence mechanisms, including thermal contraction

  1. On the heat flux and entropy produced by thermal fluctuations S. Ciliberto1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by an elastic force. Our results set strong constrains on the energy exchanged between coupled nano-systems held kept at different temperatures and coupled by an elastic force [13, 19]. Thus it gives more insight into the properties of the heat flux produced by mechanical coupling, in the famous Feymann ratchet [22­24] widely

  2. Membrane Technology for Produced Water in Lea County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecilia Nelson; Ashok Ghosh

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Southeastern New Mexico (SENM) is rich in mineral resources, including oil and gas. Produced water is a byproduct from oil and gas recovery operations. SENM generates approximately 400 million barrels per year of produced water with total dissolved solids (TDS) as high as ~ 200,000 ppm. Typically, produced water is disposed of by transporting it to injection wells or disposal ponds, costing around $1.2 billion per year with an estimated use of 0.3 million barrels of transportation fuel. New Mexico ranks first among U.S. states in potash production. Nationally, more than 85% of all potash produced comes from the Carlsbad potash district in SENM. Potash manufacturing processes use large quantities of water, including fresh water, for solution mining. If the produced water from oilfield operations can be treated and used economically in the potash industry, it will provide a beneficial use for the produced water as well as preserve valuable water resources in an area where fresh water is scarce. The goal of this current research was to develop a prototype desalination system that economically treats produced water from oil and/or natural gas operations for the beneficial use of industries located in southeastern New Mexico. Up until now, most water cleaning technologies have been developed for treating water with much lower quantities of TDS. Seawater with TDS of around 30,000 ppm is the highest concentration that has been seriously studied by researchers. Reverse osmosis (RO) technology is widely used; however the cost remains high due to high-energy consumption. Higher water fluxes and recoveries are possible with a properly designed Forward Osmosis (FO) process as large driving forces can be induced with properly chosen membranes and draw solution. Membrane fouling and breakdown is a frequent and costly problem that drives the cost of desalination very high. The technology developed by New Mexico Tech (NMT) researchers not only protects the membrane, but has also proven to generate higher water flux, based on the series of experiments conducted. Laboratory tests at NMT demonstrated that an unprecedented water flux of 1300 l/m2/hr (where typical flux is on the order of 0-3 l/m{sup 2}/hr) can be achieved from a properly designed membrane module. The patent pending NMT system, which was designed and developed at NMT was successful in reducing the possibility for concentration polarization and thereby increasing the permeate water flux, while still maintaining a high salt rejection rate of 96% or greater. For feed solutions having a dissolved contaminant concentration greater than 10,000 ppm, preliminary economic analysis demonstrates that a well-designed FO process will outperform an RO process. Most produced water generated in SENM has TDS higher than 10,000 ppm. Therefore, it is logical to use FO to desalinate the water. Since the issues associated with concentration polarization has only recently been solved by our mechanically enhanced membrane module, the level of system maturity is not at the same level as that for RO. Our efforts going forward will be directed at taking the technology to a higher level of system maturity. With the superior cost effectiveness for FO, it is imperative that this technology reach a point that is competitive with RO in order to meet the expanding need for water for industries in SENM. NMT seeks to demonstrate the greater cost effectiveness by proving the process through a scaled up model. To ensure success, NMT feels it is important to demonstrate this technology in a larger system, (~ 100,000 GPD), before venturing to the commercial scale. This will build confidence in the process with the commercial sector. In addition, it will be possible to develop some of the operational processes around renewable energy sources for the scaled up model. This will further lower the operating costs and enhance the environmentally clean aspect of the process.

  3. Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 1 Welcome MIE Industrial Advisory Board October 15, 2010 #12;Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 2 MIE Dorothy Adams Undergraduate/Graduate Secretary David Schmidt Associate Professor & Graduate Program Director #12;Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 3 MIE James Rinderle

  4. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has · STOP (Structural, Thermal, and Optical Performance) analyses of optical systems Thermal engineers lead evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

  5. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the Department of Mechanical Engineering Tufts University Retooling Our Energy Ecosystem: challengesMechanical engineering Department Seminar Robert J. Hannemann The Gordon Institute and Chair of the Tufts Department of Mechanical Engineering. His technical and academic interests

  6. Method of producing a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H.C.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulose-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  7. Method of producing a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulose-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  8. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering It is a new beginning for innovative fundamental and applied and consolidation of bulk nanocrystalline materials using mechanical alloying, the alloy development and synthesis

  9. Effect of densification mechanism on the S2 grain boundary plane distribution in WCCo composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    (sinter- HIP) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). It was found that the S2 twist boundary is the most common point of Co, was maintained for 30 min. Sample 2 (similarly hereinafter) was prepared via spark plasma Keywords: Grain boundary Cemented carbide Sintering Electron microscopy Five parameter analysis a b s t r

  10. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of ultrafine-grained Ni processed by different powder metallurgy methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    a Ni nanopowder by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructure of sintering), e.g., in spark plasma sintering (SPS), where the consolidation is assisted by electric current step. The ultrafine-grained microstructures obtained by powder sintering are less textured compared

  11. Method for producing nanostructured metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Simpson, Randall L.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Gash, Alexander

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic route for producing nanostructure metal-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing. This procedure employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-metal inorganic salts and environmentally friendly solvents such as water and ethanol. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by the addition of a proton scavenger, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively. Using this method synthesis of metal-oxide nanostructured materials have been carried out using inorganic salts, such as of Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ga3+, In3+, Hf4+, Sn4+, Zr4+, Nb5+, W6+, Pr3+, Er3+, Nd3+, Ce3+, U3+ and Y3+. The process is general and nanostructured metal-oxides from the following elements of the periodic table can be made: Groups 2 through 13, part of Group 14 (germanium, tin, lead), part of Group 15 (antimony, bismuth), part of Group 16 (polonium), and the lanthanides and actinides. The sol-gel processing allows for the addition of insoluble materials (e.g., metals or polymers) to the viscous sol, just before gelation, to produce a uniformly distributed nanocomposites upon gelation. As an example, energetic nanocomposites of FexOy gel with distributed Al metal are readily made. The compositions are stable, safe, and can be readily ignited to thermitic reaction.

  12. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Mendoza, Daniel (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  13. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  14. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  15. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  16. Method of producing .beta.-spodumene bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chyung, Kenneth (Painted Post, NY); Day, J. Paul (Big Flats, NY); Holleran, Louis M. (Big Flats, NY); Olszewski, Anthony R. (Bath, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beta-spodumene bodies and method of preparing the bodies that involves providing a uniform plastic batch of inorganic raw materials, organic binder, and vehicle, wherein the inorganic raw materials are composed of, in percent by weight, about 75% to 95% minerals, and about 5% to 25% glass. The batch is formed into a green body that is fired to produce a body composed substantially of beta-spodumene, and having a thermal expansion coefficient of <10.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C.(0-800.degree. C.), and a strength of .gtoreq.4 Ksi.

  17. Apparatus for producing voltage and current pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirbie, Hugh (Los Alamos, NM); Dale, Gregory E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus having one or more modular stages for producing voltage and current pulses. Each module includes a diode charging means to charge a capacitive means that stores energy. One or more charging impedance means are connected to the diode charging means to provide a return current pathway. A solid-state switch discharge means, with current interruption capability, is connected to the capacitive means to discharge stored energy. Finally, a control means is provided to command the switching action of the solid-state switch discharge means.

  18. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  19. Method for producing titanium aluminide weld rod

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); Argetsinger, Edward R. (Albany, OR)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing titanium aluminide weld rod comprising: attaching one end of a metal tube to a vacuum line; placing a means between said vacuum line and a junction of the metal tube to prevent powder from entering the vacuum line; inducing a vacuum within the tube; placing a mixture of titanium and aluminum powder in the tube and employing means to impact the powder in the tube to a filled tube; heating the tube in the vacuum at a temperature sufficient to initiate a high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction between the titanium and aluminum; and lowering the temperature to ambient temperature to obtain a intermetallic titanium aluminide alloy weld rod.

  20. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  1. Carbene reactions produced by recoil excitation methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowery, Kirby

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a very electronegative fluorine atom and a double bond with high electron density. In the case of its trans- counterpart, these rwo effects roughly cancel out each other due to its more balanced geom- Sample No Gas Pressure cm Hg TkRK I I I...) (month) 1968 (year) ABSTRACT Carbene Reactions Produced by Recoil Excitation Methods. (August 1968) Kirby Lowery, Jr. , B. S. , Stephen F. Austin State College; Directed by: Dr. Yi-Noo Tang Using the separation technique of radio-gas chromatography...

  2. Cathode for aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell comprising the steps of providing an anode in a cell, preferably a non-reactive anode, and also providing a cathode in the cell, the cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity reactive with molten aluminum to provide a highly electrically conductive layer on the base material. Electric current is passed from the anode to the cathode and alumina is reduced and aluminum is deposited at the cathode. The cathode base material is selected from boron carbide, and zirconium oxide.

  3. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composties produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intenisty acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaciton products comprise a solide particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particles-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

  4. MICHIGAN IS #1 ORGANIC DRY BEAN PRODUCER Black beans #1 class produced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;MICHIGAN IS #1 ORGANIC DRY BEAN PRODUCER ¢ Black beans #1 class produced ¢ Need to maximize Lansing, MI) ¢ Split plot design Main plot= Cover crop (4) Sub-plot= Bean variety (4) IMPACT OF COVER CROPS ON ORGANIC DRY BEANS #12;2010 2011 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Clover Radish

  5. Bassett Mechanical Explores Mid-size Wind Market

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    About five years ago, Wisconsin’s Bassett Mechanical began branching into renewable energy. The nearly 75-year-old company started producing components used to anchor the towers of wind turbines to their foundations.

  6. Multi-scale scratching in chemical-mechanical polishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eusner, Thor

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) semiconductor devices, the chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) process is extensively employed. During the CMP process, undesirable scratches are produced on Cu ...

  7. A non-blocking buffer mechanism for real-time event message communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, KHK

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of time- constrained messages", IEEE Trans. on Computers,Mechanism for Real-Time Event Message Communicatoin K. H. (in facilitating state message communication from a producer

  8. Method for producing and treating coal gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calderon, Albert (P.O. Box 126, Bowling Green, OH 43402)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of generating a de-sulphurized volatile matter and a relatively low Btu gas includes the initial step of pyrolyzing coal to produce volatile matter and a char. The volatile matter is fed to a first de-sulphurizer containing a de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. At the same time, the char is gasified to produce a relatively low Btu gas. The low Btu gas is fed to a second de-sulphurizer containing the de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. A regenerator is provided for removing sulphur from the de-sulphurizing agent. Portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved among the first de-sulphurizer, the second de-sulphurizer, and the regenerator such that the regenerator regenerates the de-sulphurizing agent. Preferably, the portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved from the second de-sulphurizer to the first de-sulphurizer, from the first de-sulphurizer to the regenerator, and from the regenerator to the second de-sulphurizer.

  9. Trip Report-Produced-Water Field Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted field testing of a produced-water pretreatment apparatus with assistance from faculty at the Texas A&M University (TAMU) protein separation sciences laboratory located on the TAMU main campus. The following report details all of the logistics surrounding the testing. The purpose of the test was to use a new, commercially-available filter media housing containing modified zeolite (surfactant-modified zeolite or SMZ) porous medium for use in pretreatment of oil and gas produced water (PW) and frac-flowback waters. The SMZ was tested previously in October, 2010 in a lab-constructed configuration ('old multicolumn system'), and performed well for removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from PW. However, a less-expensive, modular configuration is needed for field use. A modular system will allow the field operator to add or subtract SMZ filters as needed to accommodate site specific conditions, and to swap out used filters easily in a multi-unit system. This test demonstrated the use of a commercial filter housing with a simple flow modification and packed with SMZ for removing BTEX from a PW source in College Station, Texas. The system will be tested in June 2012 at a field site in Pennsylvania for treating frac-flowback waters. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine sorption efficiency of BTEX in the new configuration; and (2) to observe the range of flow rates, backpressures, and total volume treated at a given flow rate.

  10. Intense ultraviolet perturbations on aquatic primary producers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Horvath, Jorge

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last decade, the hypothesis that one or more biodiversity drops in the Phanerozoic eon, evident in the geological record, might have been caused by the most powerful kind of stellar explosion so far known (Gamma Ray Bursts) has been discussed in several works. These stellar explosions could have left an imprint in the biological evolution on Earth and in other habitable planets. In this work we calculate the short-term lethality that a GRB would produce in the aquatic primary producers on Earth. This effect on life appears as a result of ultraviolet (UV) re-transmission in the atmosphere of a fraction of the gamma energy, resulting in an intense UV flash capable of penetrating ~ tens of meters in the water column in the ocean. We focus on the action of the UV flash on phytoplankton, as they are the main contributors to global aquatic primary productivity. Our results suggest that the UV flash could cause an hemispheric reduction of phytoplankton biomass in the upper mixed layer of the World Ocean o...

  11. Combined Quantum Mechanical and Molecular Mechanics Studies of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical and Molecular Mechanics Studies of the Electron-Transfer Reactions Involving Carbon Tetrachloride in Combined Quantum Mechanical and Molecular Mechanics Studies of the...

  12. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    Mechanical engineering Department Seminar Ju Li Professor MIT Electrochemical-mechanical actions computational and experimental research on mechanical properties of materials, and energy storage and conversion Refreshments served at 10:45 AM The creation of a nanoscale electrochemical and mechanical testing platform

  13. Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Determine...

  14. active oil producing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were investigated and the evolution of oil-producing structures 14 Ris Energy Report 2 Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils that have been Multidisciplinary Databases and...

  15. Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and Geopressured...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and Geopressured Resources (Fact Sheet), Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and...

  16. Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer therapy gets a boost from new isotope Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium A new medical isotope project shows promise for rapidly producing major...

  17. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microalgae Producing Biofuels Euntaek Lee, Ri-Liang Heng,Microalgae Producing Biofuels”, Journal of Quantitativeconverted into liquid biofuels [50–53]. On the other hand,

  18. ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000 ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000...

  19. Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Produced From Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine P-1 Particulate Produced From Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine P-1...

  20. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A hearth furnace for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing having a drying/preheat zone, a conversion zone, a fusion zone, and optionally a cooling zone, the conversion zone is between the drying/preheat zone and the fusion zone. A moving hearth is positioned within the furnace housing. A hood or separation barrier within at least a portion of the conversion zone, fusion zone or both separates the fusion zone into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  1. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  2. Plasma treatment for producing electron emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Don Mayo (Santa Fe, NM); Walter, Kevin Carl (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma treatment for producing carbonaceous field emission electron emitters is disclosed. A plasma of ions is generated in a closed chamber and used to surround the exposed surface of a carbonaceous material. A voltage is applied to an electrode that is in contact with the carbonaceous material. This voltage has a negative potential relative to a second electrode in the chamber and serves to accelerate the ions toward the carbonaceous material and provide an ion energy sufficient to etch the exposed surface of the carbonaceous material but not sufficient to result in the implantation of the ions within the carbonaceous material. Preferably, the ions used are those of an inert gas or an inert gas with a small amount of added nitrogen.

  3. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  4. New policy imperatives for energy producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Mallakh, R.; El Mallakh, D.H. (eds.)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conferences sponsored by the International Research Center for Energy and Economic Development are organized toward increasing the understanding of the multifaceted problems in energy - economic, technical, and political - that confront not just the consuming industrial powers but the developing OPEC and non-OPEC producers and, in particular, the Third World countries whose plight is extreme. All types were represented at this 6th conference, and the 21 papers mirror the diversity of ideas and, at the same time, the very real areas where cooperation and coordination are clearly both possible and desirable. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA); one abstract was selected for Energy Research Abstracts (ERA).

  5. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  6. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L. (Grand Rapids, MN); Englund, David J. (Bovey, MN); Iwasaki, Iwao (Grand Rapids, MN); Fosnacht, Donald R. (Hermantown, MN); Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A hearth furnace 10 for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing 11 having a drying/preheat zone 12, a conversion zone 13, a fusion zone 14, and optionally a cooling zone 15, the conversion zone 13 is between the drying/preheat zone 12 and the fusion zone 14. A moving hearth 20 is positioned within the furnace housing 11. A hood or separation barrier 30 within at least a portion of the conversion zone 13, fusion zone 14 or both separates the fusion zone 14 into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth 20 and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth 20. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth 20. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  7. Rocky Mountain Basins Produced Water Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Historical records for produced water data were collected from multiple sources, including Amoco, British Petroleum, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Wyoming Oil and Gas Commission (WOGC), Denver Earth Resources Library (DERL), Bill Barrett Corporation, Stone Energy, and other operators. In addition, 86 new samples were collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 from the following areas: Waltman-Cave Gulch, Pinedale, Tablerock and Wild Rose. Samples were tested for standard seven component "Stiff analyses", and strontium and oxygen isotopes. 16,035 analyses were winnowed to 8028 unique records for 3276 wells after a data screening process was completed. [Copied from the Readme document in the zipped file available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the Zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain four versions of the database: ACCESS, EXCEL, DBF, and CSV formats. The information consists of detailed water analyses from basins in the Rocky Mountain region.

  8. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm.sup.3 and greater than 0.27g/cm.sup.3. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods.

  9. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm{sup 3} and greater than 0.27g/cm{sup 3}. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods. 8 figs.

  10. Hydrogen ions produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using nickel grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oohara, W.; Kawata, K.; Hibino, T. [Department of Electronic Device Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube 755-8611 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Device Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube 755-8611 (Japan)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Positive and negative hydrogen ions are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a nickel grid, where the irradiation current density of positive ions onto the grid can be controlled by the discharge power. The irradiation energy can be controlled by both the grid potential and the discharge plasma potential. Extraction properties and energy distributions of positive and negative ions produced in the cases of using the grid and a porous nickel plate are compared. Two production mechanisms of negative ions are found in the process of plasma-assisted catalytic ionization.

  11. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bast, R.M.; Chesnut, D.A.; Henning, C.D.; Lennon, J.P.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Smith, J.A.

    1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An attachment mechanism is described for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection. 6 figures.

  12. Replacing chemicals in recycle mills with mechanical alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-intensity spark fired underwater decomposes a small amount of the water into hydroxyl radicals, which are strong oxidants. These are able to oxidize contaminants such as glue and wood pitch that enter paper recycling mills as a part of the incoming furnish and cost the industry several hundred million dollars. The sparking technique is safe, inexpensive, and is capable of treating large volumes of water, which makes it attractive for mill applications. Several mill trials were run. Sparking caused a decrease in the tack of the deposits in one case. Lower bleach use occurred in two other mills; sparking reduced the degree of ink reattachment to fiber. The payback for either application is attractive. Sparking induced deposition of contaminants in another mill, which is a positive development--if it can be controlled. The technique is also able to degas water and to oxidize odor-causing sulfur compounds. Although one unit has been purchased by a mill, second-order effects caused by the technology needs to be defined further before the technology can be broadly applied.

  13. Management of produced water in oil and gas operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Chirag V.

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Produced water handling has been an issue of concern for oil and gas producers as it is one of the major factors that cause abandonment of the producing well. The development of effective produced water management strategies poses a big challenge...

  14. Process for producing large grain cadmium telluride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasoon, F.S.; Nelson, A.J.

    1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing a cadmium telluride polycrystalline film having grain sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m. The process comprises providing a substrate upon which cadmium telluride can be deposited and placing that substrate within a vacuum chamber containing a cadmium telluride effusion cell. A polycrystalline film is then deposited on the substrate through the steps of evacuating the vacuum chamber to a pressure of at least 10{sup {minus}6} torr.; heating the effusion cell to a temperature whereat the cell releases stoichiometric amounts of cadmium telluride usable as a molecular beam source for growth of grains on the substrate; heating the substrate to a temperature whereat a stoichiometric film of cadmium telluride can be deposited; and releasing cadmium telluride from the effusion cell for deposition as a film on the substrate. The substrate then is placed in a furnace having an inert gas atmosphere and heated for a sufficient period of time at an annealing temperature whereat cadmium telluride grains on the substrate grow to sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m.

  15. Method for producing ceramic particles and agglomerates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Gleiman, Seth S. (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for generating spherical and irregularly shaped dense particles of ceramic oxides having a controlled particle size and particle size distribution. An aerosol containing precursor particles of oxide ceramics is directed into a plasma. As the particles flow through the hot zone of the plasma, they melt, collide, and join to form larger particles. If these larger particles remain in the hot zone, they continue melting and acquire a spherical shape that is retained after they exit the hot zone, cool down, and solidify. If they exit the hot zone before melting completely, their irregular shape persists and agglomerates are produced. The size and size distribution of the dense product particles can be controlled by adjusting several parameters, the most important in the case of powder precursors appears to be the density of powder in the aerosol stream that enters the plasma hot zone. This suggests that particle collision rate is responsible for determining ultimate size of the resulting sphere or agglomerate. Other parameters, particularly the gas flow rates and the microwave power, are also adjusted to control the particle size distribution.

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  17. Enhancing the energy of terahertz radiation from plasma produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jahangiri, Fazel [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashida, Masaki; Tokita, Shigeki; Sakabe, Shuji [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Physics, GSS, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nagashima, Takeshi; Hangyo, Masanori [Department of Physics, GSS, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Department of Physics, GSS, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Terahertz (THz) radiation from atomic clusters illuminated by intense femtosecond laser pulses is investigated. By studying the angular distribution, polarization properties and energy dependence of THz waves, we aim to obtain a proper understanding of the mechanism of THz generation. The properties of THz waves measured in this study differ from those predicted by previously proposed mechanisms. To interpret these properties qualitatively, we propose that the radiation is generated by time-varying quadrupoles, which are produced by the ponderomotive force of the laser pulse.

  18. A study of pseudoscalar states produced centrally in pp interactions at 450 GeV/c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The WA102 Collaboration; D. Barberis et al

    1998-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been made of pseudoscalar mesons produced centrally in pp interactions. The results show that the eta and etaprime appear to have a similar production mechanism which differs from that of the pi0. The production properties of the eta and etaprime are not consistent with what is expected from double Pomeron exchange. In addition the production mechanism for the eta and etaprime is such that the production cross section are greatest when the azimuthal angle between the pT vectors of the two protons is 90 degrees.

  19. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices (Stiff-Davis and Oddo-Thomson) to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (11) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (12) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (13) Cleanup and integration of water quality databases. (14) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

  20. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

    2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (1) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (2) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (3) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

  1. Graduate School Engineering Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franssen, Michael

    Mechanics c/o Eindhoven University of Technology PO Box 513, building W-hoog 2.113 5600 MB Eindhoven NL Tel on Engineering Mechanics, a joint initiative of the Eindhoven and Delft Universities of Technology Mechanics c/o Eindhoven University of Technology PO Box 513, building W-hoog 2.113 5600 MB Eindhoven NL

  2. Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Mario A. Rotea Professor and Department Head #12;2Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Outline · Undergraduate Degree Programs · Graduate Degree Programs · The Faculty · The Research · Summary #12;3Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Programs ­ BSME & BSIE 0 20 40 60

  3. UNSATURATED SOIL MECHANICS IMPLEMENTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    UNSATURATED SOIL MECHANICS IMPLEMENTATION DURING PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION QUALITY ASSURANCE Mn !! Performance Based Construction QA !! Unsaturated Soil Mechanics !! What We've Learned !! Next Steps #12.6-6.0 5 - 7 19 0.8 5 7 - 9 24 1.1 4 9 - 11 28 1.2 4 #12;Unsaturated Soil Mechanics #12;Fundamentals

  4. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering An experimental methodology is presented for mechanism Yang is a second graduate student in the department of mechanical engineering of ASU. He received his Jian Yang School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy Arizona State University October 5

  5. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    efficient energy systems. Evelyn N. Wang is an Associate Professor in the Mechanical Engineering DepartmentMechanical engineering Department Seminar Evelyn Wang Depaprtment of Mechanical Engineering MIT Nanoengineered Surfaces: Transport Phenomena and Energy Applications 11:00 AM Friday, 5 April 2013 Room 245, 110

  6. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical engineering Department Seminar Domitilla Del Vecchio Department of Mechanical. A near future is envisioned in which re- engineered bacteria will turn waste into energy and kill cancer, she joined the Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Laboratory for Information and Decision

  7. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Mechanical Engineering at the School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, working in Dr. MarcusMechanical & Aerospace Engineering The atomization of a liquid jet by a high speed cross.S.E. degree in mechanical engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology in 2006 and M.S. degree

  8. Mechanical Models of Fault-Related Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, A. M.

    2003-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject of the proposed research is fault-related folding and ground deformation. The results are relevant to oil-producing structures throughout the world, to understanding of damage that has been observed along and near earthquake ruptures, and to earthquake-producing structures in California and other tectonically-active areas. The objectives of the proposed research were to provide both a unified, mechanical infrastructure for studies of fault-related foldings and to present the results in computer programs that have graphical users interfaces (GUIs) so that structural geologists and geophysicists can model a wide variety of fault-related folds (FaRFs).

  9. Slaughter and carcass characteristics of Santa Gertrudis steers produced by different management practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddish, Robert Lee

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    T V v r- t?B ?. M ?'i?> SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF SANTA GERTRUDIS STEERS PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES A Dissertation By ROBERT LEE REDDISH"i Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical... theexperimental cattle, Mr. Harold Franke and Mr* H*. V. Reyes for feeding and caring for the experimental cattle, and Dr. M. J* Garber and Mr. R* L . Smith for their help with the statistical analyses. The work of Dr* Sylvia Cover in collection...

  10. Slaughter and carcass characteristics of Santa Gertrudis steers produced by different management practices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddish, Robert Lee

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    T V v r- t?B ?. M ?'i?> SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF SANTA GERTRUDIS STEERS PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES A Dissertation By ROBERT LEE REDDISH"i Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical... theexperimental cattle, Mr. Harold Franke and Mr* H*. V. Reyes for feeding and caring for the experimental cattle, and Dr. M. J* Garber and Mr. R* L . Smith for their help with the statistical analyses. The work of Dr* Sylvia Cover in collection...

  11. Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

  12. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  13. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

  14. Method for producing through extrusion an anisotropic magnet with high energy product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chandhok, Vijay K.

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing an anisotropic magnet with high energy product through extrusion and, more specifically, by placing a particle charge of a composition from the which magnet is to be produced in a noncircular container, heating the container and particle charge and extruding the container and particle charge through a noncircular extrusion die in such a manner that one of the cross-sectional axes or dimension of the container and particle charge is held substantially constant during the extrusion to compact the particle charge to substantially full density by mechanical deformation produced during the extrusion to achieve a magnet with anisotropic magnetic properties along the axes or dimension thereof and, more specifically, a high energy product along the transverse of the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the extruded magnet.

  15. Electric Potential Near The Extraction Region In Negative Ion Sources With Surface Produced Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukano, A. [Monozukuri Department, Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology, 1-10-40 Higashi-Ohi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0011 (Japan); Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kouhoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential distribution near the extraction region in negative ion sources for the plasma with the surface produced negative ions is studied analytically. The potential is derived analytically by using a plasma-sheath equation, where negative ions produced on the Plasma Grid (PG) surface are considered in addition to positive ions and electrons. A negative potential peak is formed in the sheath region near the PG surface for the case of strong surface production of negative ions or for low energy negative ions. Negative ions are reflected by the negative potential peak near the PG and returned to the PG surface. This reflection mechanism by the negative potential peak possibly becomes a factor in negative ion extraction. It is also indicated that the potential difference between the plasma region and the wall decreases by the surface produced negative ions. This also has the possibility to contribute to the negative ion extraction.

  16. Producing and controlling of the pollutant in the coal`s coking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S. [Shanxi Environmental Protection Bureau (China); Fan, Z. [Shanxi Central Environmental Monitoring Station (China)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the process of heating and coke shaping, different pollutants and polluting factors will be produced and lost to the environment due to the different coking methods. The paper analyzes the production mechanism, type, emission, average quantity, and damage to the environment of the major pollutants and polluting factors produced in several kinds of coking processes in China at the present. Then, the paper concludes that an assessment for any coking method should include a comprehensive beneficial assessment of economical benefit, environmental benefit and social benefit. The items in the evaluation should consist of infrastructure investment, which includes production equipment and pollution control equipment, production cost, benefit and profit produced by one ton coal, whether the pollution complies with the environmental requirement, extent of the damage, influence to the social development, and etc.

  17. ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS by Elliott Paul Barnhart.........................................................................................8 Coal and Metabolite Enrichment Studies ..................................................................................14 Ability of the Consortium to Produce Methane from Coal and Metabolites ................16

  18. Influences of climate on aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotty, Peter J.

    Influences of climate on aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin contamination Peter J. Cotty a human exposure, crop contamination with aflatoxins causes significant economic loss for producers, marketers, and processors of diverse susceptible crops. Aflatoxin contamination occurs when specific fungi

  19. From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels June 25, 2010 - 4:00pm Addthis Lindsay Gsell INEOS Bio -- one of the 17 global companies of...

  20. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Produce Hydrogen: A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage. Version 2, 2010. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A...

  1. Multi-echelon inventory optimization for fresh produce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limvorasak, Saran

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For fresh produce, the product freshness is a key value to end consumers. Retailers try to maximize product freshness at retail stores while maintaining high product availability. Fresh produce that is close to the end of ...

  2. Ion emission and expansion in laser-produced tin plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burdt, Russell Allen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    scale length laser-produced tin plasmas, PhD dissertation,and Expansion in Laser-Produced Tin Plasma A dissertationof a CO 2 laser pulse with tin-based plasma for an extreme

  3. SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's First 3D-Printed Vehicle at IMTS 2014 SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's...

  4. alloy surfaces produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    includes the production of the mold. Let us look at an example: To produce a curved glass-fibre reinforced con- crete panel, a mold is produced from styrofoam. The cheapest way of...

  5. affected surface produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    includes the production of the mold. Let us look at an example: To produce a curved glass-fibre reinforced con- crete panel, a mold is produced from styrofoam. The cheapest way of...

  6. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broesius, J.Y. (comp.)

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  7. Modified Fresnel zone plates that produce sharp Gaussian focal spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Modified Fresnel zone plates that produce sharp Gaussian focal spots Qing Cao and Ju¨rgen Jahns Fresnel zone plate that can produce an approximate Gaussian focal spot is proposed for the focusing of 7.7 nm can be produced by a modified Fresnel zone plate with a minimum structure size of 30 nm

  8. Grain size effect on the giant dielectric constant of CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} nanoceramics prepared by mechanosynthesis and spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Mohamad M., E-mail: mmohamad@kfu.edu.sa [Department of Physics, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsaa 31982 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University in the New Valley, El-Kharga 72511 (Egypt); Yamada, Koji [Department of Applied Molecular Chemistry, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Narashino, Chiba 275-8575 (Japan)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} (CCTO) nanoceramics with different grain sizes were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at different temperatures (SPS-800, SPS-900, SPS-975, and SPS-1050) of the mechanosynthesized nano-powder. Structural and microstructural properties were studied by XRD and field-emission scanning electron microscope measurements. The grain size of CCTO nanoceramics increases from 80?nm to ?200?nm for the ceramics sintered at 800?°C and 975?°C, respectively. Further increase of SPS temperature to 1050?°C leads to micro-sized ceramics of 2–3??m. The electrical and dielectric properties of the investigated ceramics were studied by impedance spectroscopy. Giant dielectric constant was observed in CCTO nanoceramics. The dielectric constant increases with increasing the grain size of the nanoceramics with values of 8.3?×?10{sup 3}, 2.4?×?10{sup 4}, and 3.2?×?10{sup 4} for SPS-800, SPS-900, and SPS-975, respectively. For the micro-sized SPS-1050 ceramics, the dielectric constant dropped to 2.14?×?10{sup 4}. The dielectric behavior is interpreted within the internal barrier layer capacitance picture due to the electrical inhomogeneity of the ceramics. Besides the resistive grain boundaries that are usually observed in CCTO ceramics, domain boundaries appear as a second source of internal layers in the current nanoceramics.

  9. Lift producing device exhibiting low drag and reduced ventilation potential and method for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Richard A. (115 Wimico Dr., Indian Harbour Beach, FL 32937)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lift producing device is disclosed which is adapted to be connected to a vehicle to provide lift to the vehicle when the vehicle is moved relative to a first fluid medium having a first density and viscosity and being in contact with a second fluid medium adjacent the vehicle. The second fluid medium has a second fluid density which is different from the first fluid density. The lift producing device comprises opposed first and second major surfaces joined at a longitudinally extending leading edge and at a longitudinally extending trailing edge, with at least a portion of the longitudinally extending leading edge being spaced from the longitudinally extending trailing edge by a predetermined mean chord length. When the vehicle is moved relative to the first fluid medium at a velocity within a range of predetermined velocities, with each of the velocities having a direction inclined from a plane extending through the leading edge and the trailing edge within a predetermined angular range, a region of high pressure is generated in the first fluid medium adjacent the first major surface and a region of low pressure is generated in the first fluid medium adjacent the second major surface. The lift producing device has a cross-sectional shape which will generate a pressure distribution around the device when the vehicle is moved relative to the first fluid medium at a velocity within the range of predetermined velocities such that the first fluid medium exhibits attached laminar flow along the device for a portion of the predetermined mean chord length from the leading edge to the trailing edge and will neither form a laminar separation bubble adjacent the second major surface of the device, nor exhibit turbulent separation adjacent the second major surface for substantially all of the predetermined mean chord length from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The portion along which attached laminar flow is maintained is the longest portion which will still fulfill the flow separation requirements. A method for producing the foil is also disclosed.

  10. Method for Producing Flame Retardant Porous Products and Products Produced Thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

  11. Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame. 1 fig.

  12. Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

  13. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    operating in microfluidic environment, which can dynamically diverge, collimate and focus surface plasmons in 2012, with a joint appointment in the Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

  14. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Center. Currently he is an Assistant Prof. in the Aerospace and Ocean Engineering DepartmentMechanical engineering Department Seminar Cornel Sultan Virginia Tech Design for Control

  15. The Dam1 kinetochore complex harnesses microtubule dynamics to produce force and Charles L. Asbury, Daniel R. Gestaut, Andrew F. Powers, Andrew D. Franck, and Trisha N. Davis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Trisha N.

    movement The Dam1 kinetochore complex harnesses microtubule dynamics to produce force and Charles L.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;The Dam1 kinetochore complex harnesses microtubule dynamics to produce are uncertain, and the mechanism of MT-dependent force production is unknown. Recent work suggests that the Dam1

  16. Development of biomass gasification to produce substitute fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, R.J.; Knight, R.A.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of an efficient pressurized, medium-Btu steam-oxygen-blown fluidized-bed biomass gasification process was conducted. The overall program included initial stages of design-support research before the 12-ton-per-day (TPD) process research unit (PRU) was built. These stages involved the characterization of test-specific biomass species and the characteristics and limits of fluidization control. Also obtained for the design of the adiabatic PRU was information from studies with bench-scale equipment on the rapid rates of biomass devolatilization and on kinetics of the rate-controlling step of biomass char and steam gasification. The development program culminated with the sucessful operation of the PRU through 19 parametric-variation tests and extended steady-state process-proving tests. the program investigated the effect of gasifier temperature, pressure, biomass throughput rate, steam-to-biomass ratio, type of feedstock, feedstock moisture, and fludized-bed height on gasification performance. A long-duration gasification test of 3 days steady-state operation was conducted with the whole tree chips to indentify long-term effects of fluidized process conditions; to establish gasifier material and energy balances; to determine the possible breakthrough of low concentration organic species; and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the system components. Results indicate that the pressurized fludizied-bed process, can achieve carbon conversions of about 95% with cold gas thermal efficiences about 75% and with low and tar production. New information was collected on the oil and tar fraction, which relate to the process operating conditions and feedstock type. The different feedstocks studied were very similar in elemental compositions, and produced similar product gas compositions, but each has a different distribution and character of the oil and tar fractions. 11 refs., 45 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. EAF steel producers and the K061 dilemma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prichard, L.C.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The scrap based steel producers in the United States generate an estimated 650,000 tons of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust annually which is classified as hazardous waste, K061. These scrap based producers commonly referred to as mini-mills represented 39% of the steel produced in 1994. Based upon the EAF plants being installed or planned today, it is a reasonable projection to anticipate 50% of the steel produced in the United States will be by EAF`S. Using a straight line projection of percent of steel produced to tonnage of EAF dust generated, this will result in 833,000 tons of dust being generated upon the completion of these new EAF producing plants, presumably by the year 2000. Because the United States is a capitalistic economy, a steel producer is in business to make a profit therefore dust management becomes a very important variable in the cost of making steel.

  18. New mechanism for lightning initiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Buchwald, M.; Gurevich, A. [Lebedev Institute of Physical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). To distinguish radio-frequency (rf) signals generated by lightning from the electromagnetic pulse produced by a nuclear explosion, it is necessary to understand the fundamental nature of thunderstorm discharges. The recent debate surrounding the origin of transionospheric pulse pairs (TIPPs) detected by the BLACKBEARD experiment aboard the ALEXIS satellite illustrates this point. We have argued that TIPP events could originate from the upward propagating discharges recently identified by optical images taken from the ground, from airplanes, and from the space shuttle. In addition, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) measurements of x-ray bursts originating from thunderstorms are almost certainly associated with these upward propagating discharges. When taken together, these three measurements point directly to the runaway electron mechanism as the source of the upward discharges. The primary goal of this research effort was to identify the specific role played by the runaway-air-breakdown mechanism in the general area of thunderstorm electricity and in so doing develop lightning models that predict the optical, rf, and x-ray emissions that are observable from space.

  19. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Program of Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    offers graduate programs in the fields of thermal science and engineering mechanics. Current areasMECHANICAL ENGINEERING Program of Study Correspondence The Department of Mechanical Engineering of research activity include Biomedical Engineering, Biomimetics, Composite Materials, Computational Mechanics

  20. Respiratory Mechanisms of Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    Respiratory Mechanisms of Support Nasal Cannula Hi Flow Nasal Cannula CPAP Continuous positive the respiratory system is working to compensate for a metabolic issue so as to normalize the blood pH. HCO3 - 22 uses PIP Mechanical Ventilation: Volume vs. Pressure: Volume Control Pressure Control Cycle Volume Time

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    Explore and understand applicable science Create new materials #12;Indian Railways #12;Wheel Impact Load automated system for On-Line estimation of Wheel Impact Loads and detection of Wheel Flats of running trains Detection System (WILD) #12;Derailment Mechanism Laboratory Tests Lab Brake Mechanism Placement of Sensors

  2. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    Mechanical engineering Department Seminar Junjie Niu Postdoctoral Associate MIT Engineering Nano nanomaterials in applications of energy storage, biomedicine and chemo-mechanics. In 2007, Dr.Niu received young-structured Materials for Energy Storage 11:00 AM Friday, 14 February 2014 Room 245, 110 Cummington Mall Refreshments

  3. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Abstract Solid materials used in energy conversion and storage Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University April 6, 2012 at 2:00pm in SCOB 252 School for Engineering of Matter, Transport & Energy #12;

  4. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering The development of high-energy storage devices has been one energy capacity over 500 cycles. Teng Ma received his BS degree in Thermal and Power Engineering from Xi and Technology of China in 2009. He is currently a Ph.D. candidate in Mechanical Engineering at School

  5. Tearing graphene sheets from adhesive substrates produces tapered nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Dipanjan

    Graphene is a truly two-dimensional atomic crystal with exceptional electronic and mechanical properties. Whereas conventional bulk and thin-film materials have been studied extensively, the key mechanical properties of ...

  6. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  7. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 13 NOVEMBER 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2130 Collisionless shocks in laser-produced plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    acceleration (TNSA; refs 12­14) and radiation-pressure acceleration15,16 . These are known to produce a large,22 as well as radiofrequency phase rotation23 has also been applied to generate a narrow peak from a TNSA exponential spectrum. The radiation-pressure acceleration mechanism has the poten- tial to generate narrow

  8. Mechanical code comparator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Dalton, Larry J. (Bernalillo, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  9. Method of producing Pb-stabilized superconductor precursors and method of producing superconductor articles therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kroeger, D.M.; Hsu, H.S.; Brynestad, J.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxide superconductor powder precursors are prepared in an aerosol pyrolysis process. A solution of the metal cations is introduced into a furnace at 600--1,000 C for 0.1 to 60 seconds. The process produces micron to submicron size powders without the usual loss of the lead stabilizer. The resulting powders have a narrow particle size distribution, a small grain size, and are readily converted to a superconducting composition upon subsequent heat treatment. The precursors are placed in a metal body deformed to form a wire or tape and heated to form a superconducting article. The fine powders permit a substantial reduction in heat treatment time, thus enabling a continuous processing of the powders into superconducting wire, tape or multifilamentary articles by the powder-in-tube process. 3 figs.

  10. Method of producing Pb-stabilized superconductor precursors and method of producing superconductor articles therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Hsu, Huey S. (Knoxville, TN); Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxide superconductor powder precursors are prepared in an aerosol pyrolysis process. A solution of the metal cations is introduced into a furnace at 600.degree.-1000.degree. C. for 0.1 to 60 seconds. The process produces micron to submicron size powders without the usual loss of the lead stabilizer. The resulting powders have a narrow particle size distribution, a small grain size, and are readily converted to a superconducting composition upon subsequent heat treatment. The precursors are placed in a metal body deformed to form a wire or tape and heated to form a superconducting article. The fine powders permit a substantial reduction in heat treatment time, thus enabling a continuous processing of the powders into superconducting wire, tape or multifilamentary articles by the powder-in-tube process.

  11. 07SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitrova, Vania

    07SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE DEGREES School of Mechanical Engineering FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Undergraduate Degrees 2015 #12;www.engineering.leeds.ac.uk/mechanical UNDERGRADUATE DEGREES SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING The School of Mechanical Engineering offers both a broad mechanical engineering degree

  12. Accepted Manuscript Mechanical and electrical properties of cross-linked carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    chemical reaction between functional groups on them. The reaction is included by spark plasma sintering pellet before sintering, the electric conductivity of cross-linked CNT increases by one order from 2 S

  13. Mechanisms of brightness perception

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Alan Edward

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    percepts produced by luminance modulation. Vision Research,a square with the same luminance on a dark background (Fig.than point-for-point luminance. While this would predict

  14. Mechanizing Exploratory Game Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Adam Marshall

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    describe a flexible approach to game ruleset generation thatgeneration, producing a large space of playable mini-games. The flexibleflexible use as a gameplay trace inference system transformed into RoleModel’s multiple uses in story generation: “(

  15. Electronic door locking mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, G.L.; Kirby, P.G.

    1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a motorized linkage for engaging a thumb piece in a door mechanism. The device has an exterior lock assembly with a small battery cell and combination lock. Proper entry by a user of a security code allows the battery to operate a small motor within the exterior lock assembly. The small motor manipulates a cam-plunger which moves an actuator pin into a thumb piece. The user applies a force on to the thumb piece. This force is transmitted by the thumb piece to a latch engagement mechanism by the actuator pin. The latch engagement mechanism operates the door latch. 6 figs.

  16. Mechanism of Gravity Impulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning Wu

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well-known that energy-momentum is the source of gravitational field. For a long time, it is generally believed that only stars with huge masses can generate strong gravitational field. Based on the unified theory of gravitational interactions and electromagnetic interactions, a new mechanism of the generation of gravitational field is studied. According to this mechanism, in some special conditions, electromagnetic energy can be directly converted into gravitational energy, and strong gravitational field can be generated without massive stars. Gravity impulse found in experiments is generated by this mechanism.

  17. Rotary mechanical latch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Martinez, Michael A.; Marron, Lisa C.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotary mechanical latch for positive latching and unlatching of a rotary device with a latchable rotating assembly having a latching gear that can be driven to latched and unlatched states by a drive mechanism such as an electric motor. A cam arm affixed to the latching gear interfaces with leading and trailing latch cams affixed to a flange within the drive mechanism. The interaction of the cam arm with leading and trailing latch cams prevents rotation of the rotating assembly by external forces such as those due to vibration or tampering.

  18. acinetobacter baumannii producing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    part of this thesis, the objective is to identify optimal bidding strategies in the wholesale electricity market. We consider asymmetric producers submitting bids to a system...

  19. adrenal pheochromocytoma producing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    part of this thesis, the objective is to identify optimal bidding strategies in the wholesale electricity market. We consider asymmetric producers submitting bids to a system...

  20. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp 2 hybridized carbon, is an outstanding material...

  1. Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells can be improved. Citation: Edmondson PD, WJ Weber, F Namavar, and Y Zhang.2011."Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in...

  2. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: wind turbines produce rated power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wind turbines produce rated power Increasing the Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility's Power Production On April 7, 2014, in Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Partnership,...

  4. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Friday, January 30, 2015 Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp2 hybridized carbon, is...

  5. alternative splicing produces: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feasible, Alternative, Renewable, Electrical Energy Producing Ocean Floor System Mark, alternative energy system to convert the circular motion of ocean waves as they propagate...

  6. From Producer Innovation to User and Open Collaborative Innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Carliss

    In this paper we assess the economic viability of innovation by producers relative to two increasingly important alternative models: innovations by single user individuals or firms, and

  7. Biochar Produced from Anaerobically Digested Fiber Reduces Phosphorus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lagoons. Abstract: This study evaluated the use of biochar produced from anaerobic digester dairy fiber (ADF) to sequester phosphorus (P) from dairy lagoons. The ADF was...

  8. Ultralight, ultrastiff mechanical metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Xiaoyu

    The mechanical properties of ordinary materials degrade substantially with reduced density because their structural elements bend under applied load. We report a class of microarchitected materials that maintain a nearly ...

  9. Mechanical Compression Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apaloo, T. L.; Kawamura, K.; Matsuda, J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to develop, design and test compressors built to meet the needs of the mechanically demanding industrial heat pump applications which often require high compression ratios and temperatures in excess of 200 degrees F. This paper will review the theoretical...

  10. Renewable Auction Mechanism (RAM)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Renewable Auction Mechanism (RAM), approved by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) in December 2010, is expected to result in 1,299 megawatts (MW) of new distributed generation ...

  11. Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use By MFI Zeolite Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Lee; Liangxiong Li

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Desalination of brines produced from oil and gas fields is an attractive option for providing potable water in arid regions. Recent field-testing of subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide for climate management purposes provides new motivation for optimizing efficacy of oilfield brine desalination: as subsurface reservoirs become used for storing CO{sub 2}, the displaced brines must be managed somehow. However, oilfield brine desalination is not economical at this time because of high costs of synthesizing membranes and the need for sophisticated pretreatments to reduce initial high TDS and to prevent serious fouling of membranes. In addition to these barriers, oil/gas field brines typically contain high concentrations of multivalent counter cations (eg. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) that can reduce efficacy of reverse osmosis (RO). Development of inorganic membranes with typical characteristics of high strength and stability provide a valuable option to clean produced water for beneficial uses. Zeolite membranes have a well-defined subnanometer pore structure and extreme chemical and mechanical stability, thus showing promising applicability in produced water purification. For example, the MFI-type zeolite membranes with uniform pore size of {approx}0.56 nm can separate ions from aqueous solution through a mechanism of size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion (Donnan exclusion). Such a combination allows zeolite membranes to be unique in separation of both organics and electrolytes from aqueous solutions by a reverse osmosis process, which is of great interest for difficult separations, such as oil-containing produced water purification. The objectives of the project 'Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use by MFI Zeolite Membranes' are: (1) to conduct extensive fundamental investigations and understand the mechanism of the RO process on zeolite membranes and factors determining the membrane performance, (2) to improve the membranes and optimize operating conditions to enhance water flux and ion rejection, and (3) to perform long-term RO operation on tubular membranes to study membrane stability and to collect experimental data necessary for reliable evaluations of technical and economic feasibilities. Our completed research has resulted in deep understanding of the ion and organic separation mechanism by zeolite membranes. A two-step hydrothermal crystallization process resulted in a highly efficient membrane with good reproducibility. The zeolite membranes synthesized therein has an overall surface area of {approx}0.3 m{sup 2}. Multichannel vessels were designed and machined for holding the tubular zeolite membrane for water purification. A zeolite membrane RO demonstration with zeolite membranes fabricated on commercial alpha-alumina support was established in the laboratory. Good test results were obtained for both actual produced water samples and simulated samples. An overall 96.9% ion rejection and 2.23 kg/m{sup 2}.h water flux was achieved in the demonstration. In addition, a post-synthesis modification method using Al{sup 3+}-oligomers was developed for repairing the undesirable nano-scale intercrystalline pores. Considerable enhancement in ion rejection was achieved. This new method of zeolite membrane modification is particularly useful for enhancing the efficiency of ion separation from aqueous solutions because the modification does not need high temperature operation and may be carried out online during the RO operation. A long-term separation test for actual CBM produced water has indicated that the zeolite membranes show excellent ion separation and extraordinary stability at high pressure and produced water environment.

  12. Low-temperature method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets and their nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Shi, Jinjun (Columbus, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of exfoliating a layered material to produce separated nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm. The method comprises: (a) providing a graphite intercalation compound comprising a layered graphite containing expandable species residing in an interlayer space of the layered graphite; (b) exposing the graphite intercalation compound to an exfoliation temperature lower than 650.degree. C. for a duration of time sufficient to at least partially exfoliate the layered graphite without incurring a significant level of oxidation; and (c) subjecting the at least partially exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce separated platelets. The method can further include a step of dispersing the platelets in a polymer or monomer solution or suspension as a precursor step to nanocomposite fabrication.

  13. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0. 02 g/cc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm[sup 3] to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm[sup 3]. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described. 7 figures.

  14. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0.02 g/cc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm.sup.3 to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm.sup.3. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described.

  15. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    expression  profiles.   Mol.   Genet.   Genomics  279: Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus2006.  Aspergillus niger genomics: past, present and into 

  16. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Tsouris, Constantinos (Oak Ridge, TN); Feng, James Q. (Fairport, NY)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway.

  17. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Feng, J.Q.

    1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway. 4 figs.

  18. The Key Coal Producers ONLINE SUPPORTING MATERIALS to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    The Key Coal Producers ONLINE SUPPORTING MATERIALS to A Global Coal Production Forecast with Multi's most important coal-producing area is North-Central China. The provinces of Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Shaanxi and Shanxi together accounted for 83 percent of China's proven coal reserves in 2000, and Shanxi

  19. Magnetic minerals produced by magnetotactic bacteria Balzs Arat1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Magnetic minerals produced by magnetotactic bacteria Balázs Arató1 , Mihály Pósfai1 and Rafal E-controlled mineralization Abstract. Magnetotactic bacteria produce intracellular magnetic minerals that have distinct for studying the biological membrane around the mineral grains. Our goals were to deduce the possible growth

  20. UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol By Sandi Alswager Karstens, IANR News Service On-farm cost of producing switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol averages about $60 per ethanol from switchgrass because that industry is not really born yet." Researchers offered a speculative

  1. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  2. Produced Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, A. P.; Campbell, R. [Campbell Applied Physics

    2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    ORNL has developed a treatment for produced water using a combination of microbial fuel cells and electrosorption. A collaboration between Campbell Applied Physics and ORNL was initiated to further investigate development of the technology and apply it to treatment of field produced water. The project successfully demonstrated the potential of microbial fuel cells to generate electricity from organics in produced water. A steady voltage was continuously generated for several days using the system developed in this study. In addition to the extraction of electrical energy from the organic contaminants, use of the energy at the representative voltage was demonstrated for salts removal or desalination of the produced water. Thus, the technology has potential to remove organic as well as ionic contaminants with minimal energy input using this technology. This is a novel energy-efficient method to treat produced water. Funding to test the technology at larger scale is being pursued to enable application development.

  3. Methods and apparatus for producing and storing positrons and protons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for producing and storing positrons may include a trap that defines an interior chamber therein and that contains an electric field and a magnetic field. The trap may further include a source material that includes atoms that, when activated by photon bombardment, become positron emitters to produce positrons. The trap may also include a moderator positioned adjacent the source material. A photon source is positioned adjacent the trap so that photons produced by the photon source bombard the source material to produce the positron emitters. Positrons from the positron emitters and moderated positrons from the moderator are confined within the interior chamber of the trap by the electric and magnetic fields. Apparatus for producing and storing protons are also disclosed.

  4. Hyperspectral imaging of oil producing microalgae under thermal and nutritional stress.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study. This work was a joint effort between research teams at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico and California. Preliminary results indicate there is a photosystem response to silica starvation in diatoms that could impact the mechanisms for lipid accumulation.

  5. Review of Poher experiment on fields produced by electric discharges in a superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Lewis

    2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High current through cold YBaCuO produced effects on the mounting and on remote piezoelectric detectors. The effects were not observed with warm YBaCuO or other cold or warm materials. Two hypotheses are evaluated for the direct mechanical forces: a hypothetical vacuum field, and a model in which boil off of liquid nitrogen acts as a thruster. Data from the remote detector are compared with data from Podkletnov. Properties of a field required to explain data with the remote detectors are described.

  6. Method to produce alumina aerogels having porosities greater than 80 percent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step method for producing monolithic alumina aerogels having porosities of greater than 80 percent. Very strong, very low density alumina aerogel monoliths are prepared using the two-step sol-gel process. The method of preparing pure alumina aerogel modifies the prior known sol method by combining the use of substoichiometric water for hydrolysis, the use of acetic acid to control hydrolysis/condensation, and high temperature supercritical drying, all of which contribute to the formation of a polycrystalline aerogel microstructure. This structure provides exceptional mechanical properties of the alumina aerogel, as well as enhanced thermal resistance and high temperature stability.

  7. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Euntaek Lee, Ri-Liang Heng, and Laurent Pilon Mechanical andE. Lee, R. -L. Heng, and L. Pilon, 2013. “Spectral Optical

  8. Jar mechanism accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, E.A.; Webb, D.D.

    1989-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an accelerator for use with a jar mechanism in a well pipe string to enhance the jarring impact delivered to a stuck object wherein the jar mechanism includes inner and outer members for connection, respectively, between the well pipe string the stuck object. The jar mechanism members are constructed to (1) restrict relative longitudinal movement therebetween to build up energy in the well pipe string and accelerator and then (2) to release the jar mechanism members for unrestrained, free relative longitudinal movement therebetween to engage jarring surfaces on the jar mechanism members for delivering a jarring impact to the stuck object. The accelerator includes: inner and outer telescopically connected members relatively movable longitudinally to accumulate energy in the accelerator; the inner and outer accelerator members each having means for connecting the accelerator in the well pipe string; means associated with the inner and outer members for initially accomodating a predetermined minimum length of unrestrained, free relative longitudinal movement between the inner and outer accelerator members.

  9. When fish die, bacteria or the enzymes they produce invade the flesh of fish. This process produces toxic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel, Howard E.

    ABSTRACT When fish die, bacteria or the enzymes they produce invade the flesh of fish. This process produces toxic compounds in the fish and the fish becomes spoiled. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy neural network (ANN) for the development of an ANN based FT-IR Screening System for fish

  10. A Computer Generated Reduced Iso-Octane Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Applied to Simulation of HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Flowers, D; Smith, J R; Dibble, R; Chen, J Y

    2002-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper shows how a computer can systematically remove non-essential chemical reactions from a large chemical kinetic mechanism. The computer removes the reactions based upon a single solution using a detailed mechanism. The resulting reduced chemical mechanism produces similar numerical predictions significantly faster than predictions that use the detailed mechanism. Specifically, a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for iso-octane has been derived from a detailed mechanism by eliminating unimportant reaction steps and species. The reduced mechanism has been developed for the specific purpose of fast and accurate prediction of ignition timing in an HCCI engine. The reduced mechanism contains 199 species and 383 reactions, while the detailed mechanism contains 859 species and 3606 reactions. Both mechanisms have been used in numerical simulation of HCCI combustion. The simulations show that the reduced mechanism predicts pressure traces and heat release with good accuracy, similar to the accuracy obtained with the detailed mechanism. As may be expected, emissions of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide are not as well predicted with the reduced mechanism as with the detailed mechanism, since the reduced mechanism was targeted for predicting HCCI ignition and not HC and CO emissions. Considering that the reduced mechanism requires about 25 times less computational time than the detailed mechanism (2 hours vs. 2 days), the ability to automatically generate a problem specific reduced mechanism is an important new tool for combustion research in general.

  11. Producing a trimethylpentanoic acid using hybrid polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a method of producing the trimethylpentanoic acid, comprising: providing a host cell of the present invention, and culturing said host cell in a suitable culture medium such that the trimethylpentanoic acid is produced, optionally isolating the trimethylpentanoic acid, and optionally, reducing the isolated trimethylpentanoic acid into a trimethylpentanol or an iso-octane.

  12. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Munsterman, Erwin Henh (Amsterdam, NL); Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus (Amsterdam, NL); Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius (Amsterdam, NL)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  13. Mechanical Production of Cotton in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson); Jones, D. L. (Don L.)

    1948-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    miles per hour should cover 50 to 70 acres in a 10-hour day. In exceed- ingly heavy crop residue this type of machine fails to thoroughly chop all the vegetation. In Northwestern Texas, the 4 and 5- MECHANIZED PRODUCTION OF COTTON IN TEXAS 7 row... of these tractors are used in the production of cotton, but surely the majority are being used on farms producing cotton. The production of a cotton crop can be divided into nine operations : disposal of crop residue and cover crops, preparation of the seedbed...

  14. Rheological and Mechanical Considerations for Photovoltaic Encapsulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (pv) devices are encapsulated in polymeric materials not only for corrosion protection, but also for mechanical support. Even though ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) suffers from having both glass and melting phase transitions at temperatures experienced under environmental exposure, its low cost and good optical transmission made EVA the most commonly used material for PV modules. These transitions, however, cause EVA to embrittle at low temperatures (~ -15 deg C) and to be very soft at high temperatures (>40 deg C). From mechanical considerations, one would prefer a material that was relatively unchanged under a wide temperature range. This would produce a more predictable and reliable package. These concerns are likely to become more important as silicon based cells are made thinner.

  15. Program Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Program Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation with a Survey of Existing Transformation Systems Jonne van Wijngaarden Eelco Visser UU-CS-2003-048 Institute Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation with a Survey of Existing

  16. An oscillatory mechanism for prioritizing salient unattended stimuli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanRullen, Rufin

    oscillations (30­100 Hz) that are phase-locked to the alpha oscillations keep competing unattended excitable representation and so forth. This mechanism produces a `phase code' in which spatial oscillations [6]. In particular we suggest that gamma oscillations that are phase-locked to the alpha

  17. Anomalous Phase Inversion in Polymer Blends Prepared by Cryogenic Mechanical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , as well as interpenetrating and bicontinu- ous networks.7,8 Phase inversion occurs when the mi- norityAnomalous Phase Inversion in Polymer Blends Prepared by Cryogenic Mechanical Alloying Archie P strategies for producing highly dis- persed multicomponent polymer blends. By their very nature

  18. Behind the Scenes at Berkeley Lab - The Mechanical Fabrication Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wells, Russell; Chavez, Pete; Davis, Curtis; Bentley, Brian

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Part of the Behind the Scenes series at Berkeley Lab, this video highlights the lab's mechanical fabrication facility and its exceptional ability to produce unique tools essential to the lab's scientific mission. Through a combination of skilled craftsmanship and precision equipment, machinists and engineers work with scientists to create exactly what's needed - whether it's measured in microns or meters.

  19. Behind the Scenes at Berkeley Lab - The Mechanical Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Russell; Chavez, Pete; Davis, Curtis; Bentley, Brian

    2013-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Part of the Behind the Scenes series at Berkeley Lab, this video highlights the lab's mechanical fabrication facility and its exceptional ability to produce unique tools essential to the lab's scientific mission. Through a combination of skilled craftsmanship and precision equipment, machinists and engineers work with scientists to create exactly what's needed - whether it's measured in microns or meters.

  20. Mechanisms of amplitude modulation in wind turbine , A. J. Bullmoreb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mechanisms of amplitude modulation in wind turbine noise M. Smitha , A. J. Bullmoreb , M. M. Candb produced by wind turbines is inherently time varying. This amplitude modulation is normally due The environmental noise impact of wind turbine generators has to be assessed when planning new installations

  1. Applications Received by DOE/FE to Export Domestically Produced...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Applications Received by DOEFE to Export Domestically Produced LNG from the Lower-48 States (as of March 5, 2014) All Changes Since February 11, 2014 Update Are In Red 1 Company...

  2. aspergillus ochraceus produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    source of energy like wind. In this project by using a small fan blade, electric power is produced by utilizing the drag force of the wind in a moving vehicle. This project...

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Characterization of the cellulolytic and hydrogen-producing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or acid rain (Nath and Das 2004). Moreover, H2 can be produced biologically from renew- able resources this efficiently through physicochemical techniques such as steam explo- sion and dilute-acid pretreatment, as well

  4. anaerobic ethanol producer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    attractive to both male and female M. sutor beetles Hanks, Lawrence M. 4 Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest...

  5. Using Virtual Teamwork to Produce an Information Technology Magazine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkley, Travis J.

    2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The fast paced world of Information Technology is constantly changing. News magazines are one frequently used resource in the never-ending battle to stay current. While it takes a large company to produce a nationally-recognized ...

  6. USDA Webinar: Value-Added Producer Grants for Tribal Entities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development, this tribal-specific training will provide an overview of the FY14 Funding Opportunity and the Value-Added Producer Grants ...

  7. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  8. Scientists propose a solution to a critical barrier to producing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists propose a solution to a critical barrier to producing fusion By John Greenwald April 23, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook From left: physicists Luis...

  9. Treating and Reusing Produced Water | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers at OGTC Seek Sustainable Produced Water Management Solutions Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to...

  10. RPSEA Final Report Small Producers Program Development Strategies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have increased the reservoir pressure and improved oil recovery. The South Kilgore Unit and the South Pilot area are two of the best producing areas in the ETOF in the last 10...

  11. How Much Energy Does Your State Produce? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How Much Energy Does Your State Produce? November 10, 2014 - 2:52pm Addthis Energy Production in Trillion Btu: 2012 Click on each state to learn more about how much energy it...

  12. DOE Seeks Industry Proposals for Feasibility Study to Produce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Plants DOE Seeks Industry Proposals for Feasibility Study to Produce Greenhouse Gas-Free Hydrogen at Existing Nuclear Power Plants April 13, 2006 - 10:19am Addthis...

  13. SaskPower Small Power Producers Program (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Power Producers Program accommodates customers who wish to generate up to 100 kilowatts (kW) of electricity for the purpose of offsetting power that would otherwise be purchased from...

  14. Reactive binders for metal parts produced by Three Dimensional Printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, Helen Jean

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a solid free form fabrication process which enables the construction of parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. In the current process, metal parts are produced by printing ...

  15. New Methane-Producing Microbe Found in Thawing Permafrost | U...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    the metabolic pathway for methanogenesis, the process by which microbes consume hydrogen and CO2 and produce CH4. Measurements of CH4 flux at the thawing permafrost site and...

  16. Studies on the mechanism of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granule formation in Ralstonia eutropha H16/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Mimi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are biodegradable polymers produced by bacteria in the form of insoluble granules for carbon storage. Insights into the mechanisms of granule formation are important for improving commercial PHB ...

  17. Structural Studies of the Catalytic and Regulatory Mechanisms of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic and regulatory mechanisms of phenylalanine hydroxylase were investigated by structural studies of in this research. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH) hydroxylates phenylalanine to produce tyrosine using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4...

  18. Design of an actuation mechanism for compliant-body biomimetic robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellott, Sean Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I designed and simulated an actuator mechanism for generating a moment within a compliant (soft) body system. The moment produces vibrational waves throughout a compliant material, and these vibrations are ...

  19. Mechanical Properties and Radiation Tolerance of Ultrafine Grained and Nanocrystalline Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Cheng

    2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    loops. Here we provide experimental evidence that high angle grain boundaries can effectively remove radiation-induced defects. The equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) technique was used to produce ultrafine grained Fe-Cr-Ni alloy. Mechanical...

  20. The functional role of the mammalian tectorial membrane in the cochlear mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghaffari, Roozbeh, 1979-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sound-evoked vibrations transmitted into the mammalian cochlea produce traveling waves that provide the mechanical tuning necessary for spectral decomposition of sound. These traveling waves of motion propagate along the ...

  1. Role of the precentral cortex in adapting behavior to different mechanical environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Andrew Garmory, 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We routinely produce movements under different mechanical contexts. All interactions with the physical environment, such as swinging a hammer or lifting a carton of milk, alter the forces experienced during movement. With ...

  2. Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    on the PI's current research on energy harvesting nanowires, Li-ion batteries, and PEM fuel cells. In energy nanowires from both modeling and in-situ quantitative microscopy perspectives. In Li-ion battery work, we-ion intercalation into nanowires. The last, electro-mechanical characterization of degraded and fresh electrode

  3. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical engineering Department Seminar Wynter J. Duncanson Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering Virginia Tech Smart' Bubbles for Acoustic Contrast in Oil Reservoirs 11:00 AM Friday, 19 April engineering from Boston University. Her doctoral research was devoted to designing surface architectures

  4. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    -electronics, soft robotics, and bio-integrated systems. Host: Basu #12;, Urbana-Champaign Mechanical Design and Fabrication Techniques for Bio-Electronic Systems 11:00 AM Friday, 7 February 2014 Room 245, 110 Cummington Mall Refreshments served at 10:45 AM Biological systems

  5. Mechanical & Biomedical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    * Engineering Statistics or Probability and Statistics* 3 ME 380 Kinematics & Machine Dynamics 4 ME, CE, or ENGRMechanical & Biomedical Engineering Department BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COURSE Differential Equations and Matrix Theory 4 ENGR 245 Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 3 ENGR 210

  6. Imaging the Antikythera Mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malzbender, Tom (Hewlett Packard Laboratories) [Hewlett Packard Laboratories

    2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1900, a party of sponge divers chanced on the wreck of a Roman merchant vessel between Crete and mainland Greece. It was found to contain numerous ancient Greek treasures, among them a mysterious lump of clay that split open to reveal 'mathematical gears' as it dried out. This object is now known as the Antikythera Mechanism, one of the most enlightening artifacts in terms of revealing the advanced nature of ancient Greek science and technology. In 2005 we travelled to the National Archeological Museum in Athens to apply our Reflectance Imaging methods to the mechanism in the hopes of revealing ancient writing on the device. We were successful, and along with the results of Microfocus CT imaging, we are able to decipher 3000 characters compared with the original 800 known. This lead to an understanding that the device was a mechanical, astronomical computer from 150 B.C.E. capable of predicting solar and lunar eclipses along with other celestial events. This talk will overview both the imaging methods as well as what they reveal about the Antikythera Mechanism.

  7. STUDENT HANDBOOK MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krstic, Miroslav

    accredited programs) Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering: · An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics-long learning. · A knowledge of contemporary issues. · An ability to use modern engineering techniques, skills, and computing tools necessary for engineering practice. Additionally: Aerospace Engineering · Knowledge of key

  8. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    implementation of predictive methods in commercial, numerical codes. Finally, opportunities for students University in 2007. During this time, he has been elected to several leadership positions within the ASME, including as the secretary of the ASME Research Committee on the Mechanics of Jointed Structures, he has

  9. ################### g VM Production Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai­C. Voss, Bonn University 1 Vector meson production at HERA ############################### ################# ############### ############ #################################### ######################################### ############################ #12; Kai­C. Voss, Bonn University 2 Vector meson production at HERA # ################################################## ############################## ## ####################################### # # ## # ######## ### #### # # #12; Kai­C. Voss, Bonn University 3 Vector meson production at HERA VM Production Mechanisms soft

  10. Department of Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Teng

    Department of Mechanical Engineering 2014 Fast Facts Faculty Based on 2013 statistics from Master's Degrees Awarded 45 Doctorate Degrees Awarded Funding Fiscal Year 2013 $20M Total Research for Energetic Concepts Development Center for Environmental Energy Engineering Center for Risk and Reliability

  11. MECHANICAL TEST LAB CAPABILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MECHANICAL TEST LAB CAPABILITIES · Static and cyclic testing (ASTM and non-standard) · Impact drop testing · Slow-cycle fatigue testing · High temperature testing to 2500°F · ASTM/ Boeing/ SACMA standard testing · Ability to design and fabricate non-standard test fixtures and perform non-standard tests

  12. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reisslein, Martin

    conductivity. Coupled with its low thermal conductivity, polymer thermoelectric composites are attractive and thermoelectric applications. I will show that the thermal conductivity of ultra-thin polymer films can both conductivity and phonon transport mechanisms over the past 2 decades, owing much to the challenging needs

  13. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Integration Specialist in the Smart Grid Technologies and Strategy Division of the California IndependentMechanical and Aerospace Engineering seminar The Challenges of Renewable Energy Integration into the CAISO Grid Abstract I will be presenting who the CAISO is and what we do. We will also discuss where we

  14. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  15. Confined Thermal Multicharged Ions Produced by Synchrotron Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, David A.; Kravis, S. D.; Sellin, I. A.; Levin, J. C.; Short, R. T.; Meron, M.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, K. W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the accelerated schedule publication is not delayed for receipt of corrections unless requested by the author or noted by the editor Confined thermal multlcharged lons produced by synchrotron radiation D. A. Church and S. D. Kravis Physics Department, Texas... M. Meron, B. M. Johnson, and K. W. Jones Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (Received 2 April 1987) Synchrotron x rays have been used to produce a confined multicharged ion gas near room tem- perature. Comparison of charge-state-number...

  16. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

    1984-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

  17. Analysis of alternative marketing organizations for improving rice producer income

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillot, Patrick Dale

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Depart nt) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) December 1975 ABSTRACT Analysis of Alternative Marketing Organizations for Improving Rice Producer income. (December 1975) Patrick Dale Guillot, B. S. , Louisiana State University Chairman of Advisory... of the Blue Ribbon Rice Mills, Inc. This gives ARI milling and storage facilities. Also, AGA has acquired control and ownership of the MGC facilities. Both of these actions are definite moves toward a fully integrated and producer operated organization...

  18. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of process for producing H.sub.2 by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  19. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of process for producing H/sub 2/ by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  20. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ``produced water.`` Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.