National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for mechanical pulping semi-chemical

  1. Biological pretreatment for thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermomechanical (CTMP) pulping processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, G.C.; Akhtar, M.; Lentz, M.

    1996-10-01

    Treatment of wood chips with lignin-degrading fungi prior to preparing a refiner mechanical pulp (RMP) has substantially reduced energy consumption and increased paper strength properties. This study reports on thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermo-mechanical pulping (CTMP) of fungus treated wood chips. Loblolly pine chips were innoculated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, strain L14807 SS-3, and incubated two weeks in a chip silo. A pressurized 305 mm diameter disk refiner was used to prepare TMP and CTMP`s from fungal treated and non-treated wood chips. Two procedures were used to prepare the CTMP`s, injecting a sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide solution into the pressurized refiner, and impregnating the wood chips with a sodium sulfite solution. Energy consumption during pulp preparation and handsheet strength and optical properties will be presented and discussed.

  2. ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Steam stripping of foul condensates is common to remove methanol for the pulp mill ... 16CX8700 76 Pulp distribution, without Imports -- Pulp Manufactured AF&PA 2002 ...

  3. Pulp and paper program fact sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    Summaries are presented of Argonne technology transfer research projects in: sustainable forest management, environmental performance, energy performance, improved capital effectiveness, recycling, and sensors and controls. Applications in paper/pulp industry, other industries, etc. are covered.

  4. Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use This 2-page fact sheet describes The Paper and Allied Products Industry spending to operate electric motor systems and opportunities to reduce these costs. Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use (January 1999) (70.34 KB) More Documents & Publications Bandwidth Study U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing United States

  5. Pollution prevention for the kraft pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The document is an annotated bibliography of publications related to pollution prevention in the Kraft segment of the pulp and paper industry. It is organized by process area as follows: chip preparation, chemical pulping, pulp washing, bleaching, chemical recovery, recausticizing, power generation, wastewater treatment, papermaking, and general plant. The document contains 269 citations.

  6. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  7. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  8. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries | Department of Energy Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and the petroleum refining industries. The report also estimates the energy savings potential available from

  9. Bandwidth Study U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate ...

  10. Alabama Pine Pulp Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAlabamaPinePulpBiomassFacility&oldid397129" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  11. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries This ...

  12. Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

    2008-09-22

    Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries

  13. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

  14. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gustafson, Richard (Bellevue, WA); Callis, James B. (Seattle, WA); Mathews, Jeffrey D. (Neenah, WI); Robinson, John (Issaquah, WA); Bruckner, Carsten A. (San Mateo, CA); Suvamakich, Kuntinee (Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-26

    Paper pulp is added to a stain solution. The stain solution and pulp fibers are mixed to form a slurry. Samples are removed from the slurry and are admixed with dilution water and a bleach. Then, the fibers are moved into a flow cell where they are subjected to a light source adapted to stimulate fluorescence from the stained pulp fiber. Before the fiber slurry enters the flow cell it is mixed with a dilution water of bleach to reduce background fluorescence. The fluorescent light is collimated and directed through a dichroic filter onto a fluorescence splitting dichroic filter.

  15. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers (Patent) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Paper pulp is added to a ...

  16. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers (Patent) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to stimulate fluorescence from the stained pulp fiber. Before the fiber slurry enters the flow cell it is mixed with a dilution water of bleach to reduce background fluorescence. ...

  17. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was

  18. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  19. Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

  20. ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study Report ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study Report PDF icon ...

  1. Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

  2. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  3. Bandwidth Study U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bandwidth Study U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Bandwidth Study U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Pulp-Paper.jpg Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual

  4. RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) A fact sheet detailling a proposal of a biorefinery facility in an existing pulp mill to demonstrate the production of cellulosic ethanol from lignocellulosic (wood) extract. RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) (19.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Pacific Ethanol, Inc EA-1888:

  5. ITP Forest Products: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The United States is the world's leading producer, consumer, and exporter of pulp, paper, and paperboard products.

  6. Experimental investigations of beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbaniec, K.; Malczewski, J. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland). Dept. of Process Equipment

    1997-10-01

    Beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure makes it possible to save energy in sugar factories. A new concept of a two-stage convective steam drier is presented. To obtain kinetic data on beet pulp drying, an experimental setup was built. Beet pulp samples were dried at steam pressure up to 4 bar and temperature up to 220 C.

  7. Method of treating contaminated HEPA filter media in pulp process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jian S.; Argyle, Mark D.; Demmer, Ricky L.; Mondok, Emilio P.

    2003-07-29

    A method for reducing contamination of HEPA filters with radioactive and/or hazardous materials is described. The method includes pre-processing of the filter for removing loose particles. Next, the filter medium is removed from the housing, and the housing is decontaminated. Finally, the filter medium is processed as pulp for removing contaminated particles by physical and/or chemical methods, including gravity, flotation, and dissolution of the particles. The decontaminated filter medium is then disposed of as non-RCRA waste; the particles are collected, stabilized, and disposed of according to well known methods of handling such materials; and the liquid medium in which the pulp was processed is recycled.

  8. Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 | Department of Energy Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 The purpose of this 1999 paper is to estimate the remaining CHP potential in the chemicals and pulp/paper industries by capacity size, and estimate energy savings and

  9. ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bandwidth Study Report | Department of Energy Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study Report ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study Report doe_bandwidth.pdf (1.41 MB) More Documents & Publications Bandwidth Study U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing AMO PEER REVIEW, MAY 28-29, 2015 Low Cost Carbon Fiber from Renewable Resources

  10. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Melanie; Justiniano, Mauricio; McQueen, Shawna

    2005-12-01

    This detailed report benchmarks the energy and environmental characteristics of the key technologies used in the major processes of the United States pulp and paper industry.

  11. Cogeneration handbook for the pulp and paper industry. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, E.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the pulp and paper industry. Appendices B and O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  12. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  13. India's pulp and paper industry: Productivity and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, Katja

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's pulp and paper sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both statistical and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that productivity declined over the observed period from 1973-74 to 1993-94 by 1.1% p.a. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's pulp and paper sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protection afforded by high tariffs on imported paper products and other policies, which allowed inefficient, small plants to enter the market and flourish. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with liberalization of the sector, and tighter environmental controls, the industry is moving towards higher efficiency and productivity. However, the analysis also shows that because these improvements are being hampered by significant financial and other barriers the industry might have a long way to go.

  14. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  15. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waite, Darrell M; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P; Ceckler, William H

    2013-12-17

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hyrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  16. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waite, Darrell; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P.; Ceckler, William H.

    2015-06-30

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hydrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  17. Materials needs and opportunities in the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angelini, P.

    1995-08-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) supports research and development (R&D) in industry, the DOE national laboratories, and in universities to develop energy efficient, environmentally-acceptable industrial technologies. The Office of Industrial Technologies is working with seven energy-intensive industries to develop R&D roadmaps that will facilitate cooperative government-industry efforts to achieve energy-efficient, environmentally-acceptable, sustainable industries of the future. The forest products industry is one of the industries with which OIT is working to develop an R&D roadmap. The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program of the Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors long-term, directed research on materials that will enable industry to develop and utilize more energy-efficient, sustainable processes and technologies. The purpose of the study described in this report was to identify the material R&D needs and opportunities for the pulp and paper mill of the future.

  18. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  19. Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simo Sarkanen

    2002-02-04

    This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

  20. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  1. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  2. Overview of the government/industry workshop on opportunities for new materials in pulp and paper processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, J.K.; Fowler, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report presents a synopsis of the presentations made at the two-day workshop conducted in Portland, Oregon, on August 12 and 13, 1993, for the Advanced Industrial Concepts division (AICD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) and DOE national laboratory representatives from the pulp and paper industry. The information from the presentations is supplemented by additional statistics, as appropriate. The workshop objectives were (1) to develop a strategy and framework for collaboration between the pulp and paper industries and DOE`s national laboratories, (2) to identify major challenges to pulp and paper industry modernization, and (3) to identify research objectives for DOE national laboratories to improve materials and process technology in pulp and paper mills. Prior to the workshop, participants had the opportunity to tour paper mills and gain familiarity with pulp and paper processing methods. During the workshop, research needs for materials and processing that were identified at earlier AICD workshops were reviewed. Major problems of the pulp and paper industry were addressed, and ways in which DOE national laboratories are interacting with other industries to foster innovation and solve problems were presented. As a result of this and other workshops, a Pulp Paper Mill of the future strategy is being developed to address challenges identified in these proceedings. Continued efforts are expected by AICD to match candidate materials and processes from DOE national laboratories with the technology needs of pulp and paper mills.

  3. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. pulp and paper industry consumes over $7 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pulp and paper industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This paper provides a brief overview of the U.S. EPA ENERGY STAR(R) for Industry energy efficiency guidebook (a.k.a. the"Energy Guide") for pulp and paper manufacturers. The Energy Guide discusses a wide range of energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Also provided is a discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pulp and paper industry along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Many energy efficiency measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in pulp and paper mills and related industries worldwide. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. pulp and paper industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?as well as on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  4. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  5. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  6. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffers, Larry A.; Malito, Michael L.

    1996-01-01

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method.

  7. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

    1996-01-23

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

  8. Recycling of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by using electrodialysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fracaro, A. T.; Henry, M. P.; Pfromm, P.; Tsai, S.-P.

    1999-01-15

    Conservation of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by recycling the bleach plant effluent directly without treatment will cause accumulation of inorganic ''non-process elements'' (NPEs) and serious operational problems. In this work, an electrodialysis process is being developed for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached kraft pulp mills. In this process, electrodialysis functions as a selective kidney to remove inorganic NPEs from bleach plant effluents, before they reach the recovery cycle. Acidic bleach plant effluents from several mills using bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The total dissolved solids were mostly inorganic NPEs. Sodium was the predominant cation and chloride was present at significant levels in all these effluents. In laboratory electrodialysis experiments, selective removal of chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently. Rejection of organic compounds was up to 98%. Electrodialysis was shown to be resistant to membrane fouling and scaling, in a 100-hour laboratory experiment. Based on a model mill with 1,000 ton/day pulp production, the economic analysis suggests that the energy cost of electrodialysis is less than $200/day, and the capital cost of the stack is about $500,000.

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors epigenetically promote reparative events in primary dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Henry F.; Smith, Anthony J.; Fleming, Garry J.P.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2013-06-10

    Application of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) to cells epigenetically alters their chromatin structure and induces transcriptional and cellular reparative events. This study investigated the application of two HDACi, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA) on the induction of repair-associated responses in primary dental pulp cell (DPC) cultures. Flow cytometry demonstrated that TSA (100 nM, 400 nM) significantly increased cell viability. Neither HDACi was cytotoxic, although cell growth analysis revealed significant anti-proliferative effects at higher concentrations for VPA (>0.5 mM) and TSA (>50 nM). While high-content-analysis demonstrated that HDACi did not significantly induce caspase-3 or p21 activity, p53-expression was increased by VPA (3 mM, 5 mM) at 48 h. HDACi-exposure induced mineralization per cell dose-dependently to a plateau level (VPA-0.125 mM and TSA-25 nM) with accompanying increases in mineralization/dentinogenic-associated gene expression at 5 days (DMP-1, BMP-2/-4, Nestin) and 10 days (DSPP, BMP-2/-4). Both HDACis, at a range of concentrations, significantly stimulated osteopontin and BMP-2 protein expression at 10 and 14 days further supporting the ability of HDACi to promote differentiation. HDACi exert different effects on primary compared with transformed DPCs and promote mineralization and differentiation events without cytotoxic effects. These novel data now highlight the potential in restorative dentistry for applying low concentrations of HDACi in vital pulp treatment. -- Highlights: • Valproic acid and trichostatin A promoted mineralization in primary pulp cells. • Cell viability, apoptosis, caspase-3, p21 unaltered; p53 increased by valproic acid. • Trichostatin A increased cell viability at 24 h at selected concentrations. • Altered cell toxicity and differentiation between primary and transformed cells. • HDACi-induced the differentiation marker proteins osteopontin and BMP-2.

  10. A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

    2001-03-06

    This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

  11. Development and pilot testing of modular dynamic thermomechanical pulp mill model to develop energy reduction strategies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffin, D.W.

    1996-10-01

    With the development of on-line and real-time process simulations, one obtains the ability to predict and control the process; thus, the opportunity exists to improve energy efficiency, decrease materials wastes, and maintain product quality. Developing this capability was the objective of the this research program. A thermomechanical pulp mill was simulated using both a first principles model and a neural network. The models made use of actual process data and a model that calculated the mass and energy balance of the mill was successfully implemented and run at the mill on an hourly basis. The attempt to develop a model that accurately predicted the quality of the pulp was not successful. It was concluded that the key fro a successful implementation of a real-time control model, such as a neural net model, is availability of on-line sensors that sufficiently characterize the pulp.

  12. Pulp and paper mill of the future: A workshop. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleischman, E.; Sobczynski, S.F.

    1993-10-01

    This workshop began with sessions to consider where the industry is likely to be, or ideally where it should be, say, by the year 2020. The next sessions considered the `drivers` that motivate the industry to change. These drivers could be motivations towards the vision developed earlier, or they may be forces that tend to prevent the vision of the future form being realized. The final sessions focused on what techniques are being (or should be) developed in four major process areas of a typical manufacturing plant, consistent with the previously identified vision of a future pulp or paper mill.

  13. Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarun R. Naik; Yoon-moon Chun; Rudolph N. Kraus

    2003-09-18

    This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.

  14. Ten case history studies of energy efficiency improvements in pulp and paper mills. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The ten technologies chosen for case history development are: sonic sootblowing in boilers, boiler operation on oil-water emulsified fuel, energy efficient motors, computerized control of excess air for boilers, boiler control and load allocation, driving of waste-activated sludge by multiple effect evaporation, pre-drying of hog fuel, lime kiln computerization, heat wheel for process heat recovery, and organic Rankine bottoming cycle for thermomechanical pulping heat recovery. For each case study, there is given: the company name, employee contact, plant summary, a description of the energy consuming process and of the energy-saving action, an assessment of energy savings, and the decision process leading to the adoption of the measure. A data summary for discounted cash flow analysis is tabulated for each case. (LEW)

  15. Changing Trends in the Bulk Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    Compared with the experience of the 1990s, rising energy prices in recent years have led to questions about expectations of growth in industrial output, particularly in energy-intensive industries. Given the higher price trends, a review of expected growth trends in selected industries was undertaken as part of the production of Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO). In addition, projections for the industrial value of shipments, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system in AEO2004, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) in AEO2005. The change in industrial classification leads to lower historical growth rates for many industrial sectors. The impacts of these two changes are highlighted in this section for two of the largest energy-consuming industries in the U.S. industrial sector-bulk chemicals and pulp and paper.

  16. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayr, S. Ojanper, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: Rendering wastes mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  17. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John E. Pinkerton

    2007-08-15

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the U.S. (U.S. EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the U.S. This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then

  19. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the US (US EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the US This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the

  20. Pulsed Corona Plasma Technology for Treating VOC Emissions from Pulp Mills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridman, Alexander A.; Gutsol, Alexander; Kennedy, Lawrence A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Korobtsev, Sergey V.; Shiryaevsky, Valery L.; Medvedev, Dmitry

    2004-07-28

    Under the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies Forest Products program various plasma technologies were evaluated under project FWP 49885 ''Experimental Assessment of Low-Temperature Plasma Technologies for Treating Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Pulp Mills and Wood Products Plants''. The heterogeneous pulsed corona discharge was chosen as the best non-equilibrium plasma technology for control of the vent emissions from HVLC Brownstock Washers. The technology for removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from gas emissions with conditions typical of the exhausts of the paper industry by means of pulsed corona plasma techniques presented in this work. For the compounds of interest in this study (methanol, acetone, dimethyl sulfide and ? -pinene), high removal efficiencies were obtained with power levels competitive with the present technologies for the VOCs removal. Laboratory experiments were made using installation with the average power up to 20 W. Pilot plant prepared for on-site test has average plasma power up to 6.4 kW. The model of the Pilot Plant operation is presented.

  1. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Anglani, Norma; Einstein, Dan; Krushch, Marta; Price, Lynn

    2001-02-02

    This paper analyzes the energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reductions potential of the U.S. pulp and paper industry, one of the largest energy users in the U.S. manufacturing sector. We examined over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures. The measures were characterized, and then ordered on the basis of cost-effectiveness. The report indicates that there still exists significant potential for energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in this industry. The cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement is defined as having a simple pay-back period of three years or less. Not including increased recycling the study identifies a cost-effective savings potential of 16% of the primary energy use in 1994. Including increased recycling leads to a higher potential for energy savings, i.e. a range of cost-effective savings between 16% and 24% of primary energy use. Future work is needed to further elaborate on key energy efficiency measures identified in the report including barriers and opportunities for increased recycling of waste paper.

  2. Energy conservation and technological change as factors in climate change - a pulp and paper industry example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koleff, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Pulp and Paper Industry in the United States is one of this country`s most energy intensive industries with energy generally being the second or third largest direct operating expense in mill budgets. As such, the industry has long had an effective energy conservation program and has recorded impressive reductions in energy use. It is also one of the two most capital intensive industries in the United States and has a long capital investment cycle, which can be estimated by various techniques at between 20 and 30 years. This paper discusses the estimated impact of the industry`s energy conservation achievements on long term emission reductions of greenhouse gases and will show how technological changes within the industry have impacted past emission reductions and the prospects for continued progress through emerging technologies. The importance to the global competitiveness of the industry of implementing technological change designed to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases within the industry`s normal investment cycle will also be reviewed.

  3. A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

    2007-03-31

    Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be attractive under many circumstances. For nearly all of the

  4. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  5. Application of TDR technology to water content monitoring of capillary barriers made of pulp and paper residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, A.R.; Burnotte, F.; Lefebvre, G.

    1999-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) can be curbed by covering tailings with capillary barriers. The purposes of these barriers is to prevent O{sub 2} from interacting with mine residues. This control can be made by keeping a high degree of moisture inside the cover material. Saturation is thus a key parameter to be monitored. The purpose of this paper is to present how the time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique can be used in order to monitor the volumetric water content for pulp and paper residues that have been used as capillary barriers. Calibration curves for deinking residues are presented and compared to literature data relating to mineral and organic soils.

  6. Trees Containing Built-In Pulping Catalysts - Final Report - 08/18/1997 - 08/18/2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pullman, G.; Dimmel, D.; Peter, G.

    2000-08-18

    Several hardwood and softwood trees were analyzed for the presence of anthraquinone-type molecules. Low levels of anthraquinone (AQ) and anthrone components were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and sensitive selected-ion monitoring techniques. Ten out of seventeen hardwood samples examined contained AQ-type components; however, the levels were typically below {approximately}6 ppm. No AQs were observed in the few softwood samples that were examined. The AQs were more concentrated in the heartwood of teak than in the sapwood. The delignification of pine was enhanced by the addition of teak chips ({approximately}0.7% AQ-equivalence content) to the cook, suggesting that endogenous AQs can be released from wood during pulping and can catalyze delignification reactions. Eastern cottonwood contained AQ, methyl AQ, and dimethyl AQ, all useful for wood pulping. This is the first time unsubstituted AQ has been observed in wood extracts. Due to the presence of these pulping catalysts, rapid growth rates in plantation settings, and the ease of genetic transformation, eastern cottonwood is a suitable candidate for genetic engineering studies to enhance AQ content. To achieve effective catalytic pulping activity, poplar and cottonwood, respectively, require {approximately}100 and 1000 times more for pulping catalysts. A strategy to increase AQ concentration in natural wood was developed and is currently being tested. This strategy involves ''turning up'' isochorismate synthase (ICS) through genetic engineering. Isochorismate synthase is the first enzyme in the AQ pathway branching from the shikimic acid pathway. In general, the level of enzyme activity at the first branch point or committed step controls the flux through a biosynthetic pathway. To test if the level of ICS regulates AQ biosynthesis in plant tissues, we proposed to over-express this synthase in plant cells. A partial cDNA encoding a putative ICS was available from the random cDNA sequencing

  7. Pulping wastewater treatment: Aeration processes and equipment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning plant operations and methods, pilot plant and laboratory tests and results of pulping mill wastewater treatment by aeration. Composition of effluent components including condensates, bleaching effluents, and spent liquor are discussed. Foreign and domestic plant efficiency, performance reports, and cost data are considered. Aerator design, lagoon treatment system upgrading considerations, and environmental aspects are included. (Contains a minimum of 88 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Elevated extracellular calcium increases expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene via a calcium channel and ERK pathway in human dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tada, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Eiji; Kanaya, Sousuke; Hamaji, Nozomu; Sato, Hisae; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2010-04-16

    Dental pulp cells, which have been shown to share phenotypical features with osteoblasts, are capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and generating a dentin-like mineral structure. Elevated extracellular Ca{sup 2+}Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} has been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} signaling in odontogenesis remains unclear. We found that elevated Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene expression in human dental pulp cells. The increase was modulated not only at a transcriptional level but also at a post-transcriptional level, because treatment with Ca{sup 2+} increased the stability of BMP-2 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. A similar increase in BMP-2 mRNA level was observed in other human mesenchymal cells from oral tissue; periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, the latter cells exhibited considerably lower expression of BMP-2 mRNA compared with dental pulp cells and periodontal ligament cells. The BMP-2 increase was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, and partially inhibited by the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels inhibitor, nifedipine. However, pretreatment with nifedipine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by Ca{sup 2+}, suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+} influx from Ca{sup 2+} channels may operate independently of ERK signaling. Dental pulp cells do not express the transcript of Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptors (CaSR) and only respond slightly to other cations such as Sr{sup 2+} and spermine, suggesting that dental pulp cells respond to Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} to increase BMP-2 mRNA expression in a manner different from CaSR and rather specific for Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} among cations.

  9. Mechanical memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  10. Mechanical memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  11. Agreement Mechanisms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Agreement Mechanisms Agreement Mechanisms World-class experts and capabilities countering all aspects of explosive threats, and aiming predominantly at enhanced detection capabilities. CRADA: Cooperative Research and Development Agreement What is it? Work performed in collaboration with a sponsor. What does it do? Enables Los Alamos staff to participate with industry, academia, and nonprofit entities on collaborative R&D activities of mutual benefit. When is it used? An organization's

  12. Computational mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goudreau, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

  13. Computational mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raboin, P J

    1998-01-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area is a vital and growing facet of the Mechanical Engineering Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This work supports the development of computational analysis tools in the areas of structural mechanics and heat transfer. Over 75 analysts depend on thrust area-supported software running on a variety of computing platforms to meet the demands of LLNL programs. Interactions with the Department of Defense (DOD) High Performance Computing and Modernization Program and the Defense Special Weapons Agency are of special importance as they support our ParaDyn project in its development of new parallel capabilities for DYNA3D. Working with DOD customers has been invaluable to driving this technology in directions mutually beneficial to the Department of Energy. Other projects associated with the Computational Mechanics thrust area include work with the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) for ''Springback Predictability'' and with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the ''Development of Methodologies for Evaluating Containment and Mitigation of Uncontained Engine Debris.'' In this report for FY-97, there are five articles detailing three code development activities and two projects that synthesized new code capabilities with new analytic research in damage/failure and biomechanics. The article this year are: (1) Energy- and Momentum-Conserving Rigid-Body Contact for NIKE3D and DYNA3D; (2) Computational Modeling of Prosthetics: A New Approach to Implant Design; (3) Characterization of Laser-Induced Mechanical Failure Damage of Optical Components; (4) Parallel Algorithm Research for Solid Mechanics Applications Using Finite Element Analysis; and (5) An Accurate One-Step Elasto-Plasticity Algorithm for Shell Elements in DYNA3D.

  14. Overcoming the Recalcitrance of Cellulosic Biomass by Value Prior to Pulping: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-221

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowell, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) project goal was to demonstrate the technical and commercial feasibility of introducing a new value stream into existing pulp and paper mills. Essentially the intent was to transfer the energy content of extracted hemicellulose from electricity and steam generated in the recovery boiler to a liquid transportation fuel. The hemicellulose fraction was extracted prior to pulping, fractionated, or conditioned if necessary, and fermented to ethanol. Commercial adaptation of the process to wood hemicelluloses was a prerequisite for using this less currently valued component available from biomass and wood. These hemicelluloses are predominately glucurono-xylan in hardwoods and galactoglucomannan in softwoods (with a significant softwood component of an arabino-xylan) and will yield fermentation substrates different from cellulose. NREL provided its expertise in the area of fermentation host evaluation using its Zymomonas strains on the CleanTech Partner's (CTP) VPP project. The project was focused on the production of fuel ethanol and acetic acid from hemicellulose streams generated from wood chips of industrially important hardwood and softwood species. NREL was one of four partners whose ethanologen was tested on the hydrolyzed extracts. The use of commercially available enzymes to treat oligomeric sugar extracts was also investigated and coupled with fermentation. Fermentations by NREL were conducted with the Zymomonas mobilis organism with most of the work being performed with the 8b strain. The wood extracts hydrolyzed and/or fermented by NREL were those derived from maple, mixed southern hardwoods, and loblolly pine. An unhydrolyzed variant of the mixed southern hardwood extract possessed a large concentration of oligomeric sugars and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed with a number of enzymes, followed by fermentation. The fermentation of the wood extracts was carried out at bench scale in flasks or small bioreactors, with a

  15. Fractofusion mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasui, K. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, the fractofusion mechanism of cold fusion is investigated theoretically. The conditions necessary for fractofusion during the absorption of deuterium atoms by palladium specimens (the condition of so-called cold fusion experiments) is clarified, including crack generation at grain boundaries, the high orientation angle of grains, rapid crack formation, the increase of electrical resistance around a crack, the large width of cracks, and the generation of many cracks. The origin and quantity of the electrical field inside cracks in the conductor are also clarified. By the fractofusion mechanism, the experimental facts that neutron emissions are observed in bursts, that sometimes they coincide with the deformation of a palladium specimen, and that in many experiments excess neutrons were not observed are qualitatively explained. The upper limit of the total fractofusion yields during the absorption of deuterium atoms by palladium specimens are estimated.

  16. ELEVATING MECHANISM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

    1959-02-24

    An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

  17. Mechanical Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shook, Richard; /Marquette U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The particle beam of the SXR (soft x-ray) beam line in the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) has a high intensity in order to penetrate through samples at the atomic level. However, the intensity is so high that many experiments fail because of severe damage. To correct this issue, attenuators are put into the beam line to reduce this intensity to a level suitable for experimentation. Attenuation is defined as 'the gradual loss in intensity of any flux through a medium' by [1]. It is found that Beryllium and Boron Carbide can survive the intensity of the beam. At very thin films, both of these materials work very well as filters for reducing the beam intensity. Using a total of 12 filters, the first 9 being made of Beryllium and the rest made of Boron Carbide, the beam's energy range of photons can be attenuated between 800 eV and 9000 eV. The design of the filters allows attenuation for different beam intensities so that experiments can obtain different intensities from the beam if desired. The step of attenuation varies, but is relative to the thickness of the filter as a power function of 2. A relationship for this is f(n) = x{sub 0}2{sup n} where n is the step of attenuation desired and x{sub 0} is the initial thickness of the material. To allow for this desired variation, a mechanism must be designed within the test chamber. This is visualized using a 3D computer aided design modeling tool known as Solid Edge.

  18. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic Shop)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a challenging and rewarding career, while working, living, and playing in the Pacific Northwest. The Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic...

  19. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  20. Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

  1. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bast, R.M.; Chesnut, D.A.; Henning, C.D.; Lennon, J.P.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Smith, J.A.

    1994-12-13

    An attachment mechanism is described for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection. 6 figures.

  2. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bast, Richard M.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Henning, Carl D.; Lennon, Joseph P.; Pastrnak, John W.; Smith, Joseph A.

    1994-01-01

    An attachment mechanism for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection.

  3. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  4. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  5. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2002-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

  6. Computational Structural Mechanics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    load-2 TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling Computational Structural Mechanics Overview of CSM Computational structural mechanics is a well-established methodology for the design and analysis of many components and structures found in the transportation field. Modern finite-element models (FEMs) play a major role in these evaluations, and sophisticated software, such as the commercially available LS-DYNA® code, is

  7. Determination of Mechanical Properties

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Monofilament Laminates," paper 61-AV56 presented at American Society of Mechanical Engineers Aviation Conference, Los Angeles, California (March 1961). 21. G. S. Springer and s. ...

  8. Monroe Thomas, Mechanical Technician

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and endstation moves. Though he's training another mechanical technician to operate the crane, it's Monroe who is called upon for critical moves. He plays a key role in...

  9. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a challenging and rewarding career, while working, living, and playing in the Pacific Northwest. The Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (HMEM)...

  10. Mechanical code comparator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  11. Effect of thermo-mechanical treatment on mechanical and elastic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of thermo-mechanical treatment on mechanical and elastic properties of Ti-36Nb-5Zr alloy Title: Effect of thermo-mechanical treatment on mechanical and elastic properties of ...

  12. Energy consumption in thermomechanical pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marton, R.; Tsujimoto, N.; Eskelinen, E.

    1981-08-01

    Various components of refining energy were determined experimentally and compared with those calculated on the basis of the dimensions of morphological elements of wood. The experimentally determined fiberization energy of spruce was 6 to 60 times larger than the calculated value and that of birch 3 to 15 times larger. The energy consumed in reducing the Canadian standard freeness of isolated fibers from 500 to 150 ml was found to be approximately 1/3 of the total fiber development energy for both spruce and birch TMP. Chip size affected the refining energy consumption; the total energy dropped by approximately 30% when chip size was reduced from 16 mm to 3 mm in the case of spruce and approximately 40% for birch. 6 refs.

  13. Electronic door locking mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Gary Lin; Kirby, Patrick Gerald

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a motorized linkage for engaging a thumb piece in a door mechanism. The device has an exterior lock assembly with a small battery cell and combination lock. Proper entry by a user of a security code allows the battery to operate a small motor within the exterior lock assembly. The small motor manipulates a cam-plunger which moves an actuator pin into a thumb piece. The user applies a force on to the thumb piece. This force is transmitted by the thumb piece to a latch engagement mechanism by the actuator pin. The latch engagement mechanism operates the door latch.

  14. Electronic door locking mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, G.L.; Kirby, P.G.

    1997-10-21

    The invention is a motorized linkage for engaging a thumb piece in a door mechanism. The device has an exterior lock assembly with a small battery cell and combination lock. Proper entry by a user of a security code allows the battery to operate a small motor within the exterior lock assembly. The small motor manipulates a cam-plunger which moves an actuator pin into a thumb piece. The user applies a force on to the thumb piece. This force is transmitted by the thumb piece to a latch engagement mechanism by the actuator pin. The latch engagement mechanism operates the door latch. 6 figs.

  15. Rotary mechanical latch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Martinez, Michael A.; Marron, Lisa C.

    2012-11-13

    A rotary mechanical latch for positive latching and unlatching of a rotary device with a latchable rotating assembly having a latching gear that can be driven to latched and unlatched states by a drive mechanism such as an electric motor. A cam arm affixed to the latching gear interfaces with leading and trailing latch cams affixed to a flange within the drive mechanism. The interaction of the cam arm with leading and trailing latch cams prevents rotation of the rotating assembly by external forces such as those due to vibration or tampering.

  16. ELECTROMAGNETIC RELEASE MECHANISM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michelson, C.

    1960-09-13

    An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.

  17. Failure mechanisms in MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2003-07-01

    MEMS components by their very nature have different and unique failure mechanisms than their macroscopic counterparts. This paper discusses failure mechanisms observed in various MEMS components and technologies. MEMS devices fabricated using bulk and surface micromachining process technologies are emphasized. MEMS devices offer uniqueness in their application, fabrication, and functionality. Their uniqueness creates various failure mechanisms not typically found in their bulk or IC counterparts. In ICs, electrical precautions are taken to mitigate failure. In MEMS, both electrical and mechanical precautions must be enacted to reduce the risk of failure and increased reliability. Unlike ICs, many MEMS components are designed to interact with their environment, making the fabrication, testing, and packaging processes critical for the success of the device.

  18. Renewable Auction Mechanism (RAM)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Renewable Auction Mechanism (RAM) was approved by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) in December 2010 with a goal of installing 1,500 megawatts (MW) of new distributed generation...

  19. Mechanical Systems Qualification Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... the safety and health fundamentals of mechanical systems ... Engineering; DOE O 420.1B, Facility Safety; DOE G 430.1-1, Chapter 23: Life-Cycle Cost Estimate; DOE G 433.1-1, Nuclear ...

  20. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Brett Anthony

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  1. REACTOR CONTROL MECHANISM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, J.A.; Engberg, R.E.; Welch, J.M.

    1959-05-12

    A quick-releasing mechanism is described which may be used to rapidiy drop a device supported from beneath during normal use, such as a safety rod in a nuclear reactor. In accordance with this invention an electrical control signal, such as may be provided by radiation detection or other alarm condition sensing devices, is delivered to an electromagnetic solenoid, the armature of which is coupled to an actuating mechanism. The solenoid is energized when the mechanism is in its upper or cocked position. In such position, the mechanism engages a plurality of retaining balls, forcing them outward into engagement with a shoulder or recess in a corresponding section of a tubular extension on the upheld device. When the control signal to the solenoid suddenly ceases, the armature drops out, allowing the actuating mechanism to move slightly but rapidly under the force of a compressed spring. The weight of the device will urge the balls inward against a beveled portion of the actuating mechanism and away from the engaging section on the tubular extension, thus allowing the upheld device to fall freely under the influence of gravity.

  2. New directions in mechanics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kassner, Michael E.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia; Suo, Zhigang; Bao, Gang; Barbour, J. Charles; Brinson, L. Catherine; Espinosa, Horacio; Gao, Huajian; Granick, Steve; Gumbsch, Peter; et al

    2004-09-15

    The Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a workshop to identify cutting-edge research needs and opportunities, enabled by the application of theoretical and applied mechanics. The workshop also included input from biochemical, surface science, and computational disciplines, on approaching scientific issues at the nanoscale, and the linkage of atomistic-scale with nano-, meso-, and continuum-scale mechanics. This paper is a summary of the outcome of the workshop, consisting of three main sections, each put together by a team of workshop participants. Section 1 addresses research opportunities that can be realized by the applicationmore » of mechanics fundamentals to the general area of self-assembly, directed self-assembly, and fluidics. Section 2 examines the role of mechanics in biological, bioinspired, and biohybrid material systems, closely relating to and complementing the material covered in Section 1. In this manner, it was made clear that mechanics plays a fundamental role in understanding the biological functions at all scales, in seeking to utilize biology and biological techniques to develop new materials and devices, and in the general area of bionanotechnology. While direct observational investigations are an essential ingredient of new discoveries and will continue to open new exciting research doors, it is the basic need for controlled experimentation and fundamentally- based modeling and computational simulations that will be truly empowered by a systematic use of the fundamentals of mechanics. Section 3 brings into focus new challenging issues in inelastic deformation and fracturing of materials that have emerged as a result of the development of nanodevices, biopolymers, and hybrid bio–abio systems. As a result, each section begins with some introductory overview comments, and then provides illustrative examples that were presented at the workshop and which are believed to highlight the

  3. Backlash compensator mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrislock, Jerry L.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanism which compensates for backlash error in a lead screw position indicator by decoupling the indicator shaft from the lead screw when reversing rotation. The position indicator then displays correct information regardless of the direction of rotation of the lead screw.

  4. Wear-mechanism modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashby, M.F. . Dept. of Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    Goals of the program are to calculate the surface temperatures in dry sliding, develop a soft wear tester for ceramics, survey the wear mechanisms in brittle solids, and couple the temperature calculations with models to give wear maps for brittle solids. (DLC)

  5. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, a.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  6. Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Print Wednesday, 29 August 2007 00:00 The plant hormone auxin regulates many plant growth ...

  7. NUT SCREW MECHANISMS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, J.A.F.

    1958-07-01

    A reactor control mechanism is described wherein the control is achieved by the partial or total withdrawal of the fissile material which is in the form of a fuel rod. The fuel rod is designed to be raised and lowered from the reactor core area by means of two concentric ball nut and screw assemblies that may telescope one within the other. These screw mechanisms are connected through a magnetic clutch to a speed reduction gear and an accurately controllable prime motive source. With the clutch energized, the fuel rod may be moved into the reactor core area, and fine adjustments may be made through the reduction gearing. However, in the event of a power failure or an emergency signal, the magnetic clutch will become deenergized, and the fuel rod will drop out of the core area by the force of gravity, thus shutting down the operation of the reactor.

  8. Automation of mechanical testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heberling, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    This publication, Automation of Mechanical Testing, contains papers presented at the symposium of the same name, held in Pittsburgh, PA on 21 May 1992. The symposium was sponsored by ASTM Committee E-28 on Mechanical Testing. David T. Heberling, Armco Steel Co., L.P., Middletown Works Metallurgical Laboratory, Middletown, OH, presided as symposium chairman and is editor of the resulting publication. Hopefully, the initial flurry of activity has now subsided enough that the 90s can be a decade of maturing and standardization of automated test procedures. To help achieve this goal, the authors present in this STP nine technical papers on the automation of mechanical testing. The first five form a primer for those preparing to implement automated testing. These papers consist of information obtained the hard way--from experience with automation projects. Beginning with the fifth, which fits into both categories, the papers focus on specific technical issues and topics, many of which affect or need to be addressed by ASTM standards.

  9. Drill drive mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  10. Fracture mechanics: 26. volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, W.G.; Underwood, J.H.; Newman, J.C. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The original objective of these symposia was to promote technical interchange between researchers from the US and worldwide in the field of fracture. This objective was recently expanded to promote technical interchange between researchers in the field of fatigue and fracture. The symposium began with the Swedlow Memorial Lecture entitled ``Patterns and Perspectives in Applied Fracture Mechanics.`` The remaining 42 papers are divided into the following topical sections: Constraint crack initiation; Constraint crack growth; Weldments; Engineered materials; Subcritical crack growth; Dynamic loading; and Applications. Papers within the scope of the Energy Data Base have been processed separately.

  11. Fundamental Study of the Mechanical Strength Degradation Mechanisms of PFSA

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membranes and MEAs | Department of Energy Fundamental Study of the Mechanical Strength Degradation Mechanisms of PFSA Membranes and MEAs Fundamental Study of the Mechanical Strength Degradation Mechanisms of PFSA Membranes and MEAs Presentation at the 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held June 9, 2008, in Washington, DC huang_htmwg_2008.pdf (2.27 MB) More Documents & Publications Membrane Durability in PEM Fuel Cells: Chemical Degradation Automotive Perspective on PEM

  12. Microfabricated therapeutic actuator mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M.A.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.

    1997-07-08

    Electromechanical microstructures (microgrippers), either integrated circuit (IC) silicon-based or precision machined, to extend and improve the application of catheter-based interventional therapies for the repair of aneurysms in the brain or other interventional clinical therapies. These micromechanisms can be specifically applied to release platinum coils or other materials into bulging portions of the blood vessels also known as aneurysms. The ``micro`` size of the release mechanism is necessary since the brain vessels are the smallest in the body. Through a catheter more than one meter long, the micromechanism located at one end of the catheter can be manipulated from the other end thereof. The microgripper (micromechanism) of the invention will also find applications in non-medical areas where a remotely actuated microgripper or similar actuator would be useful or where micro-assembling is needed. 22 figs.

  13. Microfabricated therapeutic actuator mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, Milton A.; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Lee, Abraham P.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1997-01-01

    Electromechanical microstructures (microgrippers), either integrated circuit (IC) silicon-based or precision machined, to extend and improve the application of catheter-based interventional therapies for the repair of aneurysms in the brain or other interventional clinical therapies. These micromechanisms can be specifically applied to release platinum coils or other materials into bulging portions of the blood vessels also known as aneurysms. The "micro" size of the release mechanism is necessary since the brain vessels are the smallest in the body. Through a catheter more than one meter long, the micromechanism located at one end of the catheter can be manipulated from the other end thereof. The microgripper (micromechanism) of the invention will also find applications in non-medical areas where a remotely actuated microgripper or similar actuator would be useful or where micro-assembling is needed.

  14. Altitude release mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulhanek, Frank C.

    1977-01-01

    An altitude release mechanism for releasing a radiosonde or other measuring instrument from a balloon carrying it up into the atmosphere includes a bottle partially filled with water, a tube sealed into the bottle having one end submerged in the water in the bottle and the free end extending above the top of the bottle and a strip of water-disintegrable paper held within the free end of the tube linking the balloon to the remainder of the package. As the balloon ascends, the lowered atmospheric air pressure causes the air in the bottle to expand, forcing the water in the bottle up the tubing to wet and disintegrate the paper, releasing the package from the balloon.

  15. Rotary drive mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenderdine, E.W.

    1991-10-08

    This patent describes a rotary drive mechanism which includes a rotary solenoid having a stator and multi-poled rotor. A moving member rotates with the rotor and is biased by a biasing device. The biasing device causes a further rotational movement after rotation by the rotary solenoid. Thus, energization of the rotary solenoid moves the member in one direction to one position and biases the biasing device against the member. Subsequently, de- energization of the rotary solenoid causes the biasing device to move the member in the same direction to another position from where the moving member is again movable by energization and de-energization of the rotary solenoid. Preferably, the moving member is a multi-lobed cam having the same number of lobes as the rotor has poles. An anti- overdrive device is also preferably provided for preventing overdrive in the forward direction or a reverse rotation of the moving member and for precisely aligning the moving member.

  16. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluidtight barrier. A counterrotation removes the barrier.

  17. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1983-07-19

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces is described. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluid tight barrier. A counter rotation removes the barrier. 6 figs.

  18. PEBBLES Mechanics Simulation Speedup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. These simulations involve hundreds of thousands of pebbles and involve determining the entire core motion as pebbles are recirculated. Single processor algorithms for this are insufficient since they would take decades to centuries of wall-clock time. This paper describes the process of parallelizing and speeding up the PEBBLES pebble mechanics simulation code. Both shared memory programming with the Open Multi-Processing API and distributed memory programming with the Message Passing Interface API are used in simultaneously in this process. A new shared memory lock-less linear time collision detection algorithm is described. This method allows faster detection of pebbles in contact than generic methods. These combine to make full recirculations on AVR sized reactors possible in months of wall clock time.

  19. Rotary drive mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kenderdine, Eugene W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A rotary drive mechanism includes a rotary solenoid having a stator and multi-poled rotor. A moving member rotates with the rotor and is biased by a biasing device. The biasing device causes a further rotational movement after rotation by the rotary solenoid. Thus, energization of the rotary solenoid moves the member in one direction to one position and biases the biasing device against the member. Subsequently, de-energization of the rotary solenoid causes the biasing device to move the member in the same direction to another position from where the moving member is again movable by energization and de-energization of the rotary solenoid. Preferably, the moving member is a multi-lobed cam having the same number of lobes as the rotor has poles. An anti-overdrive device is also preferably provided for preventing overdrive in the forward direction or a reverse rotation of the moving member and for precisely aligning the moving member.

  20. Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Solid Mechanics Basic and applied research in theoretical continuum dynamics, modern hydrodynamic theory, materials modeling, global climate modeling, numerical...

  1. Mechanical Engineering | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities Electronics Design and Fabrication High Performance Computing Mechanical Engineering Monte Carlo Simulations Mechanical Engineering Mechanical Engineering In recent years the Mechanical Support Group has participated in the construction of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter, as well as detectors for the MINOS and NOvA experiments. For ATLAS, the group was responsible for construction of a large fraction of the extended barrel tile hadron calorimeter. For MINOS, we designed and fabricated

  2. Preliminary analysis of the state of the art of robotics and precision engineering and evaluation of potential for improved energy utilization in the pulp, paper, and related energy-consuming processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to conduct a preliminary analysis of the state of the art of two technologies, robotics and precision engineering, and to evaluate their potential for improved energy utilization in the pulp, paper, and related energy consuming processes. Activity in the robotics field is growing rapidly, most activity being related to the development of smart robots rather than to systems. There is a broad base of support, both in industry and the universities, for upgrading robot machine capabilities. A large part of that support is associated with visualization and tactile sensors which facilitate assembly, placement, inspection, and tracking. Progress in this area is relatively rapid and development times are short for specifically engineered applications. The critical path in the development of robotic systems lies in the generation of reliable sensor signals. Robotic systems require a broad spectrum of sensors from which hierarchical logic systems can draw decision making information. This requirement resulted in the establishment of a program at the National Bureau of Standards which is attempting to develop a spectrum of sensor capabilities. Such sensors are applicable to robotic system automatic process control in a variety of energy-intensive industries. Precision engineering is defined as the generation or manufacture of components wherein geometry, dimension, and surface finish are controlled to within several hundred Angstroms in single point turning operations. Investigation into the state of the art of precision engineering in the United States finds that this capability exists in several national laboratories and is intended to be used exclusively for the development of weapons. There is an attempt at the present time by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to expand its capability into industry. Several corporations are now beginning to develop equipment to support the precision engineering field.

  3. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (SXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical...

  4. Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Print The plant hormone auxin regulates many plant growth and development processes, including shoot growth, root branching, fruit ...

  5. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2008-01-01

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended...

  7. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2013-05-28

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. QUANTUM MECHANICS WITHOUT STATISTICAL POSTULATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. GEIGER; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    The Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics describes the measurement process in an intuitive way without a reduction postulate. Due to the chaotic motion of the hidden classical particle all statistical features of quantum mechanics during a sequence of repeated measurements can be derived in the framework of a deterministic single system theory.

  9. Mechanical Solutions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mechanical Solutions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mechanical Solutions Inc Place: New York Product: New York-based contractor. References: Mechanical Solutions Inc1 This...

  10. Statistical mechanics based on fractional classical and quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korichi, Z.; Meftah, M. T.

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this work is to study some problems in statistical mechanics based on the fractional classical and quantum mechanics. At first stage we have presented the thermodynamical properties of the classical ideal gas and the system of N classical oscillators. In both cases, the Hamiltonian contains fractional exponents of the phase space (position and momentum). At the second stage, in the context of the fractional quantum mechanics, we have calculated the thermodynamical properties for the black body radiation, studied the Bose-Einstein statistics with the related problem of the condensation and the Fermi-Dirac statistics.

  11. Phase space quantum mechanics - Direct

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasiri, S.; Sobouti, Y.; Taati, F.

    2006-09-15

    Conventional approach to quantum mechanics in phase space (q,p), is to take the operator based quantum mechanics of Schroedinger, or an equivalent, and assign a c-number function in phase space to it. We propose to begin with a higher level of abstraction, in which the independence and the symmetric role of q and p is maintained throughout, and at once arrive at phase space state functions. Upon reduction to the q- or p-space the proposed formalism gives the conventional quantum mechanics, however, with a definite rule for ordering of factors of noncommuting observables. Further conceptual and practical merits of the formalism are demonstrated throughout the text.

  12. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication about this research: G. Lee, J.Y. Kim, A.S. Budiman, N. Tamura, M. Kunz, K. Chen, M.J. Burek, J.R. Greer, and T.Y. Tsui, "Fabrication, structure and mechanical...

  13. Mechanically balanced tapered plug valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anaya, Jose R.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a novel hermetic tapered plug valve having a spring-like resilient mechanism for providing axial balance to the plug and thereby prevent valve lock up.

  14. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  15. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  16. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  17. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  18. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  19. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale

  20. Mechanical drive for blood pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bifano, N.J.; Pouchot, W.D.

    1975-07-29

    This patent relates to a highly efficient blood pump to be used as a replacement for a ventricle of the human heart to restore people disabled by heart disease. The mechanical drive of the present invention is designed to operate in conjunction with a thermoelectric converter power source. The mechanical drive system essentially converts the output of a rotary power into pulsatile motion so that the power demand from the thermoelectric converter remains essentially constant while the blood pump output is pulsed. (auth)

  1. Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Print Wednesday, 29 August 2007 00:00 The plant hormone auxin regulates many plant growth and development processes, including shoot growth, root branching, fruit ripening, tropisms, and flowering. But how such a simple molecule elicits such a variety of cellular responses has been a mystery. An important breakthrough came in 2005, wh en a conserved plant protein known as TIR1 (part of a protein destruction

  2. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  3. Mechanical Response of Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Case, Eldon D.

    2015-05-01

    A sufficient mechanical response of thermoelectric materials (TEMats) to structural loadings is a prerequisite to the exploitation of any candidate TEMat's thermoelectric efficiency. If a TEMat is mechanically damaged or cracks from service-induced stresses, then its thermal and electrical functions can be compromised or even cease. Semiconductor TEMats tend to be quite brittle and have a high coefficient of thermal expansion; therefore, they can be quite susceptible to mechanical failure when subjected to operational thermal gradients. Because of this, sufficient mechanical response (vis-a-vis, mechanical properties) of any candidate TEMat must be achieved and sustained in the context of the service-induced stress state to which it is subjected. This report provides an overview of the mechanical responses of state-of-the-art TEMats; discusses the relevant properties that are associated with those responses and their measurement; and describes important, nonequilibrium phenomena that further complicate their use in thermoelectric devices. For reference purposes, the report also includes several appendixes that list published data on elastic properties and strengths of a variety of TEMats.

  4. Mechanics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In BriefPlayers must connect buildings together by allocating resources in a resource chain across the map. They must reach and resolve their Objective within a given number of turns to succeed.To...

  5. Majorana Electroformed Copper Mechanical Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Overman, Cory T.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2012-04-30

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize ultra high purity electroformed copper for a variety of detector components and shielding. A preliminary mechanical evaluation was performed on the Majorana prototype electroformed copper material. Several samples were removed from a variety of positions on the mandrel. Tensile testing, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and hardness testing were conducted to evaluate mechanical response. Analyses carried out on the Majorana prototype copper to this point show consistent mechanical response from a variety of test locations. Evaluation shows the copper meets or exceeds the design specifications.

  6. MULTIPLE DIFFERENTIAL ROTARY MECHANICAL DRIVE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smits, R.G.

    1964-01-28

    This patent relates to a mechanism suitable for such applications as driving two spaced-apart spools which carry a roll film strip under conditions where the film movement must be rapidly started, stopped, and reversed while maintaining a constant tension on the film. The basic drive is provided by a variable speed, reversible rnotor coupled to both spools through a first differential mechanism and driving both spools in the same direction. A second motor, providing a constant torque, is connected to the two spools through a second differential mechanism and is coupled to impart torque to one spool in a first direction anid to the other spool in the reverse direction thus applying a constant tension to the film passing over the two spools irrespective of the speed or direction of rotation thereof. (AEC)

  7. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  8. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, P.T.

    1985-03-05

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer. 5 figs.

  9. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Peter T.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer.

  10. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  11. Multiple mechanisms of PCB neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, D.O.; Stoner, C.T.; Lawrence, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in cancer, but many of the symptoms in humans exposed to PCBs are related to the nervous system and behavior. We demonstrated three different direct mechanisms whereby PCBs are neurotoxic in rats. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the orthosubstituted PCB congener 2,4,4{prime}, but neither TCDD nor the coplanar PCB congener 3,4,5,3{prime},4{prime}, causes rapid death of cerebellar granule cells. The ortho-substituted congener 2,4,4{prime} reduced long-term potentiation, an indicator of cognitive potential, in hippocampal brain slices, but a similar effect was observed for the coplanar congener 3,4,3{prime},4{prime}, indicating that this effect may be caused by both ortho- and coplanar congeners by mechanisms presumably not mediated via the Ah receptor. It was previously shown that some ortho-substituted PCB congeners cause a reduction in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that this is due to reduction of synthesis of dopamine via inhibition of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, PCBs have a variety of mechanisms of primary neurotoxicity, and neurotoxicity is a characteristic of ortho-substituted, non-dioxin-like congeners as well as some coplanar congeners. The relative contribution of each of these mechanisms to the loss of cognitive function in humans exposed to PCBs remains to be determined. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Mechanical effects in cookoff modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, R.J.; Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    Complete cookoff modeling of energetic material in confined geometries must couple thermal, chemical and mechanical effects. In the past, modeling has focused on the prediction of the onset of combustion behavior based only on thermal-chemistry effects with little or no regard to the mechanical behavior of the energetic material. In this paper, an analysis tool is outlined which couples thermal, chemical, and mechanical behavior for one-dimensional Geometries comprised of multi-materials. A reactive heat flow code, XCHEM, and a quasistatic mechanics code, SANTOS, have been completely coupled using, a reactive, elastic-plastic constitutive model describing pressurization of the energetic material. This new Thermally Reactive Elastic-plastic explosive code, TREX, was developed to assess the coupling, of mechanics with thermal chemistry making multidimensional cookoff analysis possible. In this study, TREX is applied to confined and unconfined systems. The confined systems simulate One-Dimensional Time to explosion (ODTX) experiments in both spherical and cylindrical configurations. The spherical ODTX system is a 1.27 cm diameter sphere of TATB confined by aluminum exposed to a constant external temperature. The cylindrical ODTX system is an aluminum tube filled with HMX, NC, and inert exposed to a constant temperature bath. Finally. an unconfined system consisting of a hollow steel cylinder filled with a propellant composed of Al, RMX, and NC, representative of a rocket motor, is considered. This model system is subjected to transient internal and external radiative/convective boundary conditions representative of 5 minutes exposure to a fire. The confined systems show significant pressure prior to ignition, and the unconfined system shows extrusion of the propellent suggesting that the energetic material becomes more shock sensitive.

  13. Career Map: Mechanical Engineer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mechanical Engineer Career Map: Mechanical Engineer A mechanical engineer works with a large yellow robotic arm. Mechanical Engineer Position Title Mechanical Engineer Alternate Title(s) Project Engineer, Quality Engineer, Research Engineer, Design Engineer, Sales Engineer Education & Training Level Advanced, Bachelor's degree required, prefer graduate degree Education & Training Level Description Mechanical engineers need a bachelor's degree. A graduate degree is typically needed for

  14. Shaoxing Jinggong Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shaoxing Jinggong Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute Company SJMERI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shaoxing Jinggong Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute...

  15. Mechanical control of electroresistive switching (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Mechanical control of electroresistive switching Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical control of electroresistive ...

  16. Excitation Energy Sorting Mechanisms in Fission (Conference)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Excitation Energy Sorting Mechanisms in Fission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Excitation Energy Sorting Mechanisms in Fission You are accessing a document from the ...

  17. Degradation Mechanisms and Development of Protective Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mechanisms and Development of Protective Coatings for TES and HTF Containment Materials Degradation Mechanisms and Development of Protective Coatings for TES and HTF Containment ...

  18. Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials

  19. Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning caches Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning ...

  20. CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Journal Article: CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS AFFECTING FUSION. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED...

  1. NREL: Technology Transfer - Popular Mechanics: Scientists Break...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Popular Mechanics: Scientists Break This Virtual Power Grid to Save the Real One July 27, 2015 Popular Mechanics describes how NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF)...

  2. Mechanical properties and energy absorption characteristics of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanical properties and energy absorption characteristics of a polyurethane foam Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical properties and energy absorption ...

  3. Microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of metastable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and mechanical behavior of metastable -type Ti-30Nb-1Mo-4Sn alloy with low modulus and high strength Title: Microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of metastable ...

  4. Mechanical R&D | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assembles mechanical components. In our efforts we utilize Autodesk Inventor and ESPRIT CADCAM Software by DP Technology Corp., among others. Our Mechanical Design staff also...

  5. Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0_wereszczak.pdf (1.52 MB) More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability Thermoelectrics Theory and Structure

  6. Collapse Mechanisms Of Masonry Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuccaro, G.; Rauci, M.

    2008-07-08

    The paper outlines a possible approach to typology recognition, safety check analyses and/or damage measuring taking advantage by a multimedia tool (MEDEA), tracing a guided procedure useful for seismic safety check evaluation and post event macroseismic assessment. A list of the possible collapse mechanisms observed in the post event surveys on masonry structures and a complete abacus of the damages are provided in MEDEA. In this tool a possible combination between a set of damage typologies and each collapse mechanism is supplied in order to improve the homogeneity of the damages interpretation. On the other hand recent researches of one of the author have selected a number of possible typological vulnerability factors of masonry buildings, these are listed in the paper and combined with potential collapse mechanisms to be activated under seismic excitation. The procedure takes place from simple structural behavior models, derived from the Umbria-Marche earthquake observations, and tested after the San Giuliano di Puglia event; it provides the basis either for safety check analyses of the existing buildings or for post-event structural safety assessment and economic damage evaluation. In the paper taking advantage of MEDEA mechanisms analysis, mainly developed for the post event safety check surveyors training, a simple logic path is traced in order to approach the evaluation of the masonry building safety check. The procedure starts from the identification of the typological vulnerability factors to derive the potential collapse mechanisms and their collapse multipliers and finally addresses the simplest and cheapest strengthening techniques to reduce the original vulnerability. The procedure has been introduced in the Guide Lines of the Regione Campania for the professionals in charge of the safety check analyses and the buildings strengthening in application of the national mitigation campaign introduced by the Ordinance of the Central Government n. 3362

  7. Micro electro-mechanical heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Yunje; Asif, Syed Amanulla Syed; Cyrankowski, Edward; Warren, Oden Lee

    2016-04-19

    A sub-micron scale property testing apparatus including a test subject holder and heating assembly. The assembly includes a holder base configured to couple with a sub-micron mechanical testing instrument and electro-mechanical transducer assembly. The assembly further includes a test subject stage coupled with the holder base. The test subject stage is thermally isolated from the holder base. The test subject stage includes a stage subject surface configured to receive a test subject, and a stage plate bracing the stage subject surface. The stage plate is under the stage subject surface. The test subject stage further includes a heating element adjacent to the stage subject surface, the heating element is configured to generate heat at the stage subject surface.

  8. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  9. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  10. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  11. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  12. Locking mechanism for indexing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindemeyer, Carl W. (Aurora, IL)

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a locking mechanism for an indexing spindle. A conventional r gear having outwardly extending teeth is affixed to the spindle. Also included is a rotatably mounted camshaft whose axis is arranged in skewed relationship with the axis of the spindle. A disk-like wedge having opposing camming surfaces is eccentrically mounted on the camshaft. As the camshaft is rotated, the camming surfaces of the disc-like member are interposed between adjacent gear teeth with a wiping action that wedges the disc-like member between the gear teeth. A zero backlash engagement between disc-like member and gear results, with the engagement having a high mechanical advantage so as to effectively lock the spindle against bidirectional rotation.

  13. Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, R.B.; Denney, R.M.

    1981-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to inform readers of various technical activities within the Department, promote exchange of ideas, and give credit to personnel who are achieving the results. The report is presented in two parts: technical achievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into seven sections, each of which reports on an engineering division and its specific activities related to nuclear tests, nuclear explosives, weapons, energy systems, engineering sciences, magnetic fusion, and materials fabrication.

  14. Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Print The plant hormone auxin regulates many plant growth and development processes, including shoot growth, root branching, fruit ripening, tropisms, and flowering. But how such a simple molecule elicits such a variety of cellular responses has been a mystery. An important breakthrough came in 2005, wh en a conserved plant protein known as TIR1 (part of a protein destruction machinery system) was identified as a receptor for auxin. Now, an

  15. GUI for Structural Mechanics Codes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development of GUI for Structural Mechanics Codes The TRACC Cluster gives its users a lot of flexibility when it comes to requesting software version of LS-DYNA and computational resources for submitted jobs. To fully utilize that flexibility, users need to get familiar with on-line documentation of all the installed releases of different software and modules on the cluster. As on other LINUX based HPC systems, the submission and controlling of LS-DYNA is done through text commands. Especially

  16. Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Print The plant hormone auxin regulates many plant growth and development processes, including shoot growth, root branching, fruit ripening, tropisms, and flowering. But how such a simple molecule elicits such a variety of cellular responses has been a mystery. An important breakthrough came in 2005, wh en a conserved plant protein known as TIR1 (part of a protein destruction machinery system) was identified as a receptor for auxin. Now, an

  17. Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Print The plant hormone auxin regulates many plant growth and development processes, including shoot growth, root branching, fruit ripening, tropisms, and flowering. But how such a simple molecule elicits such a variety of cellular responses has been a mystery. An important breakthrough came in 2005, wh en a conserved plant protein known as TIR1 (part of a protein destruction machinery system) was identified as a receptor for auxin. Now, an

  18. Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Print The plant hormone auxin regulates many plant growth and development processes, including shoot growth, root branching, fruit ripening, tropisms, and flowering. But how such a simple molecule elicits such a variety of cellular responses has been a mystery. An important breakthrough came in 2005, wh en a conserved plant protein known as TIR1 (part of a protein destruction machinery system) was identified as a receptor for auxin. Now, an

  19. Mechanical engineering department technical review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, R.B. Denney, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to: (1) inform the readers of various technical activities within the department, (2) promote exchange of ideas, and (3) give credit to the personnel who are achieving the results. The report is formatted into two parts: technical acievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into eight sections, one for each division in the department providing the reader with the names of the personnel and the division accomplishing the work.

  20. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  1. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  2. Electric drive mechanism for vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, C.

    1983-06-21

    An electric drive mechanism is disclosed for vehicles, especially buses with overhead trolley routes, which routes are provided with relatively short interruptions in the overhead trolley. The drive mechanism includes a flywheel two externally excited electric motors which are adapted to be switched over from prime mover operation to generator operation, and which motors are effective as a ward-leonard drive during flywheel operation. The first electric motor is constructed for half of a maximum drive power and the second electric motor is likewise constructed for half or for square root 2/2 times the maximum drive power. Both electric motors are connected electrically in parallel during operation from the main electrical supply. The first and second motors are electrically connected in parallel during operation of the vehicle from the main electrical supply when a change-speed transmission is provided for connecting a drive shaft of one of the motors with driven vehicle wheels. A planetary gear transmission and a further transmission are provided for mechanically connecting the drive shaft of one of the motors with the second motor and with the flywheel.

  3. Mechanism of instantaneous coal outbursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, P.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhang, Y.X.

    2009-10-15

    Thousands of mine workers die every year from mining accidents, and instantaneous coal outbursts in underground coal mines are one of the major killers. Various models for these outbursts have been proposed, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesize that the mechanism of coal outbursts is similar to magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions; i.e., it is caused by high gas pressure inside coal but low ambient pressure on it, breaking coal into pieces and releasing the high-pressure gas in a shock wave. Hence, coal outbursts may be regarded as another type of gas-driven eruption, in addition to explosive volcanic, lake, and possible ocean eruptions. We verify the hypothesis by experiments using a shock-tube apparatus. Knowing the mechanism of coal outbursts is the first step in developing prediction and mitigation measures. The new concept of gas-driven solid eruption is also important to a better understanding of salt-gas outbursts, rock-gas outbursts, and mud volcano eruptions.

  4. DOE fundamentals handbook: Mechanical science. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Mechanical Science Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mechanical components and mechanical science. The handbook includes information diesel engines, heat exchangers, pumps, valves, and miscellaneous mechanical components. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the construction and operation of mechanical components that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  5. How reclamation tests mechanical governors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agee, J.C.; Girgis, G.K.; Cline, R.

    1996-08-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation has developed its own equipment for testing mechanical-hydraulic governors for hydroelectric generators. The device, called a Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) Simulator, generates a three-phase voltage that will drive the governor ballhead motor at variable speed. Utilizing this equipment, most traditional governor tests can be completed with the generating unit dewatered. In addition, frequency response testing and other detailed analytical tests can be performed to validate governor models. This article describes the development and design of the equipment, and it also discusses its usage in a case study of events at Glen Canyon Dam.

  6. Tank waste concentration mechanism study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, L.C.; Johnson, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    This study determines whether the existing 242-A Evaporator should continue to be used to concentrate the Hanford Site radioactive liquid tank wastes or be replaced by an alternative waste concentration process. Using the same philosophy, the study also determines what the waste concentration mechanism should be for the future TWRS program. Excess water from liquid DST waste should be removed to reduce the volume of waste feed for pretreatment, immobilization, and to free up storage capacity in existing tanks to support interim stabilization of SSTS, terminal cleanout of excess facilities, and other site remediation activities.

  7. Controlled Thermo-Mechanical Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-09-01

    The CTMP technology has the potential for widespread application in all major sectors of the domestic tube and pipe industry; two of the largest sectors are seamless mechanical tubing and seamless oil country tubular goods. It has been proven for the spheroidized annealing heat cycle for through-hardened steels and has led to the development of a recipe for automotive gear steels. Potential applications also exist in the smaller sectors of seamless line pipe, pressure tubing, and stainless tubing. The technology could also apply to non-ferrous metal industries, such as titanium.

  8. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Bellcrank mechanisms for Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senft, J.R.; Senft, V.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a family of linkage drive systems for Stirling engines containing several new members. These mechanisms are adaptable to all three configurations of Stirling engine, impose minimal side loads on pistons and displacer rods, and include compact forms suitable for pressurized high performance engines. This group of drive systems is generated by a simple common scheme. Near sinusoidal motion is taken from a crankshaft carrying a single crankpin by two connecting rods each driving a bellcrank. The stationary pivots of the bellcranks are located so that their oscillatory motion has the phase angle separation required between the piston and displacer. The bellcranks are further configured to bring the third pin motion to a location suitable for coupling with the piston or displacer of the engine in a way which minimizes side loading. The paper presents a number of new linkage drives from the dual bellcrank family and indicates how they are embodied in beta and alpha type Stirling engines. The paper includes a design for a small multipurpose engine incorporating one of the subject mechanisms.

  10. Eight plane IPND mechanical testing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, A.; Guarino, V.; Wood, K.; Nephew, T.; Ayres, D.; Lee, A.; High Energy Physics; FNAL

    2008-03-18

    A mechanical test of an 8 plane IPND mechanical prototype, which was constructed using extrusions from the testing/tryout of the 16 cell prototype extrusion die in Argonne National Laboratory, was conducted. There were 4 vertical and 4 horizontal planes in this 8 plane IPND prototype. Each vertical plane had four 16 cell extrusions, while each horizontal plane had six 16 cell extrusions. Each plane was glued together using the formulation of Devcon adhesive, Devcon 60. The vertical extrusions used in the vertical planes shares the same dimensions as the horizontal extrusions in the horizontal planes with the average web thickness of 2.1 mm and the average wall thickness of 3.1 mm. This mechanical prototype was constructed with end-seals on the both ends of the vertical extrusions. The gaps were filled with epoxy between extrusions and end-seals. The overall dimension of IPND is 154.8 by 103.1 by 21.7 inches with the weight of approximately 1200 kg, as shown in a figure. Two similar mechanical tests of 3 layer and 11 layer prototypes have been done in order to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint between extrusions in the NOvA detector. The test showed that the IPND prototype was able to sustain under the loading of weight of itself and scintillator. Two FEA models were built to verify the measurement data from the test. The prediction from FEA slice model seems correlated reasonably well to the test result, even under a 'rough' estimated condition for the wall thickness (from an untuned die) and an unknown property of 'garage type' extrusion. A full size of FEA 3-D model also agrees very well with the test data from strain gage readings. It is worthy to point out that the stress distribution of the structure is predominantly determined by the internal pressure, while the buckling stability relies more on the loading weight from the extrusions themselves and scintillate. Results of conducted internal pressure tests, including 3- cell, 11-cell and the IPND

  11. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  12. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  13. Fundamental mechanisms of micromachine reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; REDMOND,JAMES M.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; MAYER,THOMAS K.

    2000-01-01

    Due to extreme surface to volume ratios, adhesion and friction are critical properties for reliability of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), but are not well understood. In this LDRD the authors established test structures, metrology and numerical modeling to conduct studies on adhesion and friction in MEMS. They then concentrated on measuring the effect of environment on MEMS adhesion. Polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) is the primary material of interest in MEMS because of its integrated circuit process compatibility, low stress, high strength and conformal deposition nature. A plethora of useful micromachined device concepts have been demonstrated using Sandia National Laboratories' sophisticated in-house capabilities. One drawback to polysilicon is that in air the surface oxidizes, is high energy and is hydrophilic (i.e., it wets easily). This can lead to catastrophic failure because surface forces can cause MEMS parts that are brought into contact to adhere rather than perform their intended function. A fundamental concern is how environmental constituents such as water will affect adhesion energies in MEMS. The authors first demonstrated an accurate method to measure adhesion as reported in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 through 5, they then studied the effect of water on adhesion depending on the surface condition (hydrophilic or hydrophobic). As described in Chapter 2, they find that adhesion energy of hydrophilic MEMS surfaces is high and increases exponentially with relative humidity (RH). Surface roughness is the controlling mechanism for this relationship. Adhesion can be reduced by several orders of magnitude by silane coupling agents applied via solution processing. They decrease the surface energy and render the surface hydrophobic (i.e. does not wet easily). However, only a molecular monolayer coats the surface. In Chapters 3-5 the authors map out the extent to which the monolayer reduces adhesion versus RH. They find that adhesion is independent of

  14. Creep damage mechanisms in composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutt, S.R.

    1994-10-17

    During the past year, research has focused on processing and characterization of intermetallic composites synthesized by plasma spray deposition. This versatile process allows rapid synthesis of a variety of different composite systems with potential applications for coatings, functionally gradient materials, rapid proto-typing and 3d printing, as well as near-net-shape processing of complex shapes. We have been pursuing an experimental program of research aimed at a fundamental understanding of the microstructural processes involved in the synthesis of intermetallic composites, including diffusion, heat transfer, grain boundary migration, and the dependence of these phenomena on deposition parameters. The work has been motivated by issues arising from composite materials manufacturing technologies. Recent progress is described in section B on the following topics: (1) Reactive atomization and deposition of intermetallic composites (Ni3Al); (2) Reactive synthesis of MoSi2-SiC composites; (3) Mechanical alloying of nanocrystalline alloys; (4) Tensile creep deformation of BMAS glass-ceramic composites.

  15. Miniature mechanical transfer optical coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abel, Philip; Watterson, Carl

    2011-02-15

    A miniature mechanical transfer (MT) optical coupler ("MMTOC") for optically connecting a first plurality of optical fibers with at least one other plurality of optical fibers. The MMTOC may comprise a beam splitting element, a plurality of collimating lenses, and a plurality of alignment elements. The MMTOC may optically couple a first plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a first MT connector with a second plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a second MT connector and a third plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a third MT connector. The beam splitting element may allow a portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to pass through to the second plurality of fibers and simultaneously reflect another portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to the third plurality of fibers.

  16. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore » and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  17. Apparatus and method for generating mechanical waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allensworth, D.L.; Chen, P.J.

    1982-10-25

    Mechanical waves are generated in a medium by subjecting an electromechanical element to an alternating electric field having a frequency which induces mechanical resonance therein and is below any electrical resonance frequency thereof.

  18. Apparatus and method for generating mechanical waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allensworth, Dwight L.; Chen, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical waves are generated in a medium by subjecting an electromechanical element to an alternating electric field having a frequency which induces mechanical resonance therein and is below any electrical resonance frequency thereof.

  19. Mechanical properties and tribological behavior of contaminate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanoparticles on micromachined surfaces. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical properties and tribological behavior of contaminate nanoparticles on ...

  20. Mechanical Characterization of Fuel Injector Piezoactuators and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Fuel Injector Piezoactuators and their Piezoceramics Mechanical Characterization of Fuel Injector Piezoactuators and their Piezoceramics 2007 Diesel ...

  1. Training: Mechanical Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mechanical Insulation Training: Mechanical Insulation April 16, 2014 - 6:34pm Addthis Learn about the diverse training sessions offered. The courses are taught by highly qualified instructors who have met rigorous standards. View additional plant-wide resources. Mechanical Insulation Education and Awareness E-Learning Series Availability: Online self-paced workshop. The Mechanical Insulation Education & Awareness Campaign, or MIC, is an eLearning series offered by the U.S. Department of

  2. Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Modeling * Fundamental degradation mechanisms (LBNL) * Individual degradation models - kineticrate based (ANL) * Integrated comprehensive model (ANL) Characterization Methods to ...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Careers: Mechanical Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Engineering Engineering photo Sandia mechanical engineers design and develop advanced components and systems for national-defense programs, homeland security, and other applications. Mechanical engineers at Sandia work on design, analysis, manufacturing, and test activities in many areas, including nuclear weapons and power, renewable energy, intelligent machines, robotics, pulsed power, missile defense, remote sensing, advanced manufacturing, and micro- and nanosystems. Sandia

  4. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  5. (Fracture mechanics of inhomogeneous materials)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, B.R.

    1990-10-01

    Discussions were held with Japanese researchers concerning (1) the Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics in Inhomogeneous Materials and Structures (EPI) Program, and (2) ongoing large-scale pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) experiments in Japan. In the EPI Program, major activities in the current fiscal year include round-robin analyses of measured data from inhomogeneous base metal/weld metal compact- tension (CT) specimens fabricated from welded plates of A533 grade B class 1 steel. The round-robin task involves participants from nine research organizations in Japan and is scheduled for completion by the end of 1990. Additional experiments will be performed on crack growth in inhomogeneous CT specimens and three-point bend (3PB) specimens 10 mm thick. The data will be compared with that generated previously from 19-mm-thick-specimens. A new type of inhomogeneous surface-cracked specimen will be tested this year, with ratio of crack depth to surface length (a/c) satisfying 0.2 {le} (a/c) {le} 0. 8 and using a 3PB type of applied load. Plans are under way to fabricate a new welded plate of A533 grade B class 1 steel (from a different heat than that currently being tested) in order to provide an expanded fracture-toughness data base. Other topics concerning fracture-prevention issues in reactor pressure vessels were discussed with each of the host organizations, including an overview of ongoing work in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program.

  6. Mechanical properties of metal dihydrides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schultz, Peter A.; Snow, Clark S.

    2016-02-04

    First-principles calculations are used to characterize the bulk elastic properties of cubic and tetragonal phase metal dihydrides,more » $$\\text{M}{{\\text{H}}_{2}}$$ {$$\\text{M}$$ = Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, lanthanides} to gain insight into the mechanical properties that govern the aging behavior of rare-earth di-tritides as the constituent 3H, tritium, decays into 3He. As tritium decays, helium is inserted in the lattice, the helium migrates and collects into bubbles, that then can ultimately create sufficient internal pressure to rupture the material. The elastic properties of the materials are needed to construct effective mesoscale models of the process of bubble growth and fracture. Dihydrides of the scandium column and most of the rare-earths crystalize into a cubic phase, while dihydrides from the next column, Ti, Zr, and Hf, distort instead into the tetragonal phase, indicating incipient instabilities in the phase and potentially significant changes in elastic properties. We report the computed elastic properties of these dihydrides, and also investigate the off-stoichiometric phases as He or vacancies accumulate. As helium builds up in the cubic phase, the shear moduli greatly soften, converting to the tetragonal phase. Conversely, the tetragonal phases convert very quickly to cubic with the removal of H from the lattice, while the cubic phases show little change with removal of H. Finally, the source and magnitude of the numerical and physical uncertainties in the modeling are analyzed and quantified to establish the level of confidence that can be placed in the computational results, and this quantified confidence is used to justify using the results to augment and even supplant experimental measurements.« less

  7. Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered Print Wednesday, 23 February 2011 00:00 Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP II), the largest known eukaryotic enzyme that breaks down proteins (a protease), is implicated in numerous cellular processes including the degradation of the endogenous satiety agent cholecystokinin-8, making TPP II a target in the treatment of obesity. To gain insight into this molecular machine's mechanisms of

  8. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith Edward; Moser, William Elliott; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald; Knox, Kevin Jay

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  9. PROJECT PROFILE: Mechanically Stacked Hybrid Photovoltaic Tandems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Mechanically Stacked Hybrid Photovoltaic Tandems PROJECT PROFILE: Mechanically Stacked Hybrid Photovoltaic Tandems Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $999,999 Tandem cell architectures present a path toward higher module efficiencies over single junction designs. This project will develop a gallium indium phosphide (GaInP) on silicon mechanically stacked voltage-matched

  10. Investigating coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    processes in geothermal reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigating coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes in geothermal reservoirs ...

  11. Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    endogenous satiety agent cholecystokinin-8, making TPP II a target in the treatment of obesity. To gain insight into this molecular machine's mechanisms of activation and...

  12. CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Mechanical Equipment -...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nuclear Facility Construction - Mechanical Equipment Installation, (HSS CRAD 45-53, Rev. 0) This Criteria Review and Approach Document (HSS CRAD 45-53) establishes review criteria...

  13. FAQS Reference Guide – Mechanical Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the June 2008 edition of DOE-STD-1161-2008, Mechanical Systems Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  14. Quantum mechanical studies of carbon structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartelt, Norman Charles; Ward, Donald; Zhou, Xiaowang; Foster, Michael E.; Schultz, Peter A.; Wang, Bryan M.; McCarty, Kevin F.

    2015-10-01

    Carbon nanostructures, such as nanotubes and graphene, are of considerable interest due to their unique mechanical and electrical properties. The materials exhibit extremely high strength and conductivity when defects created during synthesis are minimized. Atomistic modeling is one technique for high resolution studies of defect formation and mitigation. To enable simulations of the mechanical behavior and growth mechanisms of C nanostructures, a high-fidelity analytical bond-order potential for the C is needed. To generate inputs for developing such a potential, we performed quantum mechanical calculations of various C structures.

  15. Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Evolution of Simulated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evolution of Simulated Heat-Affected Zones in Wrought Eglin Steel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Evolution of ...

  16. Thermally induced mechanical and permeability changes around...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A numerical investigation is conducted on the impacts of the thermal loading history on the evolution of mechanical response and permeability field of a fractured rock mass ...

  17. Mechanism and Substrate Recognition of 2-Hydroxyethylphosphonate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Mechanism and Substrate Recognition of ... Publication Date: 2011-09-20 OSTI Identifier: 1024499 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  18. Mechanical Engineer | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineer Department: Engineering Supervisor(s): Bill Blanchard Staff: EM 3 Requisition Number: 1500 The Mechanical Design Engineer will develop, design, manufacture, and test ...

  19. CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS AFFECTING FUSION. Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F Abstract not provided. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque,...

  20. Temperature dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; COMPRESSION; HEAT STORAGE; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; ...

  1. Financing Mechanisms for Renewable Energy Projects | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A variety of renewable energy financing mechanisms are available for federal agencies to help meet the 30% of electricity from renewable energy sources by 2025 target established...

  2. Cost Mechanisms | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Mechanisms Home Kyoung's picture Submitted by Kyoung(150) Contributor 9 July, 2013 - 20:57 GRR 3rd Quarter - Stakeholder Update Meeting Alaska analysis appropriations...

  3. FAQS Qualification Card - Mechanical Systems | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Programs is a set of common Functional Area Qualification Standards (FAQS) and ... More Documents & Publications FAQS Gap Analysis Qualification Card - Mechanical Systems ...

  4. Thermal-Mechanical Technologies | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of thermal-mechanical research includes: Single and two phase heat transfer Nanomaterial synthesis Heat transfer fluids Engine and power electronics cooling Thermal energy...

  5. Clean Development Mechanism Pipeline | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Development Mechanism Pipeline AgencyCompany Organization: UNEP-Risoe Centre, United Nations Environment Programme Sector: Energy, Land Topics: Finance, Implementation,...

  6. electrochemical battery stress-induced degradation mechanisms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electrochemical battery stress-induced degradation mechanisms - Sandia Energy Energy ... Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ...

  7. Theoretical and experimental determination of mechanical properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; COPPER; ELASTICITY; NIOBIUM ALLOYS; ...

  8. Partnering Mechanisms | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partnering Mechanisms Partnering Mechanisms Through appropriate contractual agreements, Y-12 enters into productive partnerships with universities, businesses, and community organizations, as well as with other federal agencies and national laboratories. Our partners have access to many unique and highly specialized products and services not available in the private sector. Productive partnerships with universities, businesses, and community organizations, as well as with other federal agencies

  9. Review - basic research needs in fluid mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, O.C. Jr.; Kreith, F.; White, F.M.

    1981-12-01

    A small segment of the engineering community was surveyed to obtain their judgement regarding the long-range needs for basic research in fluid mechanics. It is the purpose of this paper to provide a summary of a more detailed report, which identifies basic research needed in fluid mechanics. 12 refs.

  10. Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation pm012_wereszczak_2011_o.pdf (498.73 KB) More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics Theory and Structure Transport Properties, Thermal Response, and Mechanical Reliability of Thermoelectric Materials and Devices for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability

  11. Modeling the mechanical response of PBX 9501

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragaswamy, Partha; Lewis, Matthew W; Liu, Cheng; Thompson, Darla G

    2010-01-01

    An engineering overview of the mechanical response of Plastic-Bonded eXplosives (PBXs), specifically PBX 9501, will be provided with emphasis on observed mechanisms associated with different types of mechanical testing. Mechanical tests in the form of uniaxial tension, compression, cyclic loading, creep (compression and tension), and Hopkinson bar show strain rate and temperature dependence. A range of mechanical behavior is observed which includes small strain recoverable response in the form of viscoelasticity; change in stiffness and softening beyond peak strength due to damage in the form microcracks, debonding, void formation and the growth of existing voids; inelastic response in the form of irrecoverable strain as shown in cyclic tests, and viscoelastic creep combined with plastic response as demonstrated in creep and recovery tests. The main focus of this paper is to elucidate the challenges and issues involved in modeling the mechanical behavior of PBXs for simulating thermo-mechanical responses in engineering components. Examples of validation of a constitutive material model based on a few of the observed mechanisms will be demonstrated against three point bending, split Hopkinson pressure bar and Brazilian disk geometry.

  12. Parallel Algebraic Multigrids for Structural mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brezina, M; Tong, C; Becker, R

    2004-05-11

    This paper presents the results of a comparison of three parallel algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioners for structural mechanics applications. In particular, they are interested in investigating both the scalability and robustness of the preconditioners. Numerical results are given for a range of structural mechanics problems with various degrees of difficulty.

  13. Enhancement of mechanical properties of 123 superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, U.

    1995-04-25

    A composition and method are disclosed of preparing YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} superconductor. Addition of tin oxide containing compounds to YBCO superconductors results in substantial improvement of fracture toughness and other mechanical properties without affect on T{sub c}. About 5-20% additions give rise to substantially improved mechanical properties.

  14. Enhancement of mechanical properties of 123 superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    1995-01-01

    A composition and method of preparing YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor. Addition of tin oxide containing compounds to YBCO superconductors results in substantial improvement of fracture toughness and other mechanical properties without affect on T.sub.c. About 5-20% additions give rise to substantially improved mechanical properties.

  15. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Mechanics of Funding...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mechanics of Funding and Techical Assistance TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Mechanics of Funding and Techical Assistance Mechanics of Funding and Techical Assistance Items...

  16. NORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL RESERVE TRIGGER MECHANISM | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL RESERVE TRIGGER MECHANISM NORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL RESERVE TRIGGER MECHANISM Historical Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Trigger Mechanism Charts ...

  17. Defining the Mechanisms of Friction: A Grand Challenge in Interfacial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Defining the Mechanisms of Friction: A Grand Challenge in Interfacial Mechanics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Defining the Mechanisms of Friction: A Grand Challenge...

  18. Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage Media...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage Media Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage Media Presentation on the Kinetics, Mechanics and ...

  19. Sandia Energy - 2015 VIII MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF SALT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VIII MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF SALT Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Energy Workshops 2015 VIII MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF SALT 2015 VIII MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF...

  20. Project Engineer (Nuclear/Mechanical Engineer) | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Engineer (NuclearMechanical Engineer) Department: Engineering Supervisor(s): ... Its Mechanical Engineering Division (MED) is seeking to hire a NuclearMechanical Engineer ...

  1. Mechanisms affecting swelling in alloys with precipitates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansur, L.K.; Haynes, M.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    In alloys under irradiation many mechanisms exist that couple phase instability to cavity swelling. These are compounded with the more familiar mechanisms associated with point defect behavior and the evolution of microstructure. The mechanisms may be classified according to three modes of operation. Some affect cavity swelling directly by cavity-precipitate particle association, others operate indirectly by precipitate-induced changes in sinks other than cavities and finally there are mechanisms that are mediated by precipitate-induced changes in the host matrix. The physics of one mechanism of each type is developed in detail and the results compared where possible to experimental measurements. In particular, we develop the theory necessary to treat the effects on swelling of precipitation-induced changes in overall sink density; precipitation-induced changes in point defect trapping by solute depletion and creation of precipitate particle-matrix interfacial trap sites.

  2. GaN-on-diamond electronic device reliability: Mechanical and thermo-mechanical integrity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Dong; Sun, Huarui; Pomeroy, James W.; Kuball, Martin; Francis, Daniel; Faili, Firooz; Twitchen, Daniel J.

    2015-12-21

    The mechanical and thermo-mechanical integrity of GaN-on-diamond wafers used for ultra-high power microwave electronic devices was studied using a micro-pillar based in situ mechanical testing approach combined with an optical investigation of the stress and heat transfer across interfaces. We find the GaN/diamond interface to be thermo-mechanically stable, illustrating the potential for this material for reliable GaN electronic devices.

  3. Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P.; Benett, William J.; Schumann, Daniel L.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Fitch, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SM material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

  4. Supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Traikia, M. H.; Mebarki, N.

    2012-06-27

    A supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics is studied in the weak deformation approximation of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra. The corresponding supersymmetric q-deformed hamiltonians and charges are constructed explicitly.

  5. Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of Mechanically...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    properties similar to PbTe itself but with improved mechanical properties. Doping optimization was performed using PbI2 as an n-type dopant giving precise control of the...

  6. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Directional Solidified...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Directional Solidified Fe35Ni15Mn25Al25 Authors: Wu, Xiaolan 1 ; Baker, Ian 1 ; Miller, Michael K 2 ; More, Karren Leslie 2 ...

  7. Rock mechanics design in mining and tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1984-01-01

    This book introduces the design process as applied to rock mechanics aspects of underground mining and tunneling. Topics covered include a historical perspective, the design process in engineering, empirical methods of design, observational methods of design, and guided design.

  8. Formation mechanical properties and the sonic log

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elphick, R.Y.

    1988-11-01

    A program is presented that calculates the mechanical properties of reservoir rocks from sonic logs. The program was written in Microsoft BASIC and the source code for MS-DOS, Apple Macintosh, and Amiga personal computers is given.

  9. Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered Print Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP II), the largest known eukaryotic enzyme that breaks down proteins (a protease), is implicated in numerous cellular processes including the degradation of the endogenous satiety agent cholecystokinin-8, making TPP II a target in the treatment of obesity. To gain insight into this molecular machine's mechanisms of activation and proteolysis, researchers from Berkeley Lab, the University of California,

  10. Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered Print Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP II), the largest known eukaryotic enzyme that breaks down proteins (a protease), is implicated in numerous cellular processes including the degradation of the endogenous satiety agent cholecystokinin-8, making TPP II a target in the treatment of obesity. To gain insight into this molecular machine's mechanisms of activation and proteolysis, researchers from Berkeley Lab, the University of California,

  11. Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered Print Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP II), the largest known eukaryotic enzyme that breaks down proteins (a protease), is implicated in numerous cellular processes including the degradation of the endogenous satiety agent cholecystokinin-8, making TPP II a target in the treatment of obesity. To gain insight into this molecular machine's mechanisms of activation and proteolysis, researchers from Berkeley Lab, the University of California,

  12. Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered Print Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP II), the largest known eukaryotic enzyme that breaks down proteins (a protease), is implicated in numerous cellular processes including the degradation of the endogenous satiety agent cholecystokinin-8, making TPP II a target in the treatment of obesity. To gain insight into this molecular machine's mechanisms of activation and proteolysis, researchers from Berkeley Lab, the University of California,

  13. computational-structural-mechanics-student-thesis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Mechanics Student Thesis Abstract NUMERICAL MODELING OF STAY CABLES AND STAY CABLE BRIDGES The Computational Structural Mechanics staff at TRACC is supporting two students from Northern Illinois University who are working for a Masters degree. The CSM staff is directing the thesis research and working with them on two projects: (1) cable-stay bridge vibrations due to traffic loading and (2) aerodynamic loading on stay cables. During this quarter, Srihari Vannemreddi successfully

  14. Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered Print Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP II), the largest known eukaryotic enzyme that breaks down proteins (a protease), is implicated in numerous cellular processes including the degradation of the endogenous satiety agent cholecystokinin-8, making TPP II a target in the treatment of obesity. To gain insight into this molecular machine's mechanisms of activation and proteolysis, researchers from Berkeley Lab, the University of California,

  15. Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered Print Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP II), the largest known eukaryotic enzyme that breaks down proteins (a protease), is implicated in numerous cellular processes including the degradation of the endogenous satiety agent cholecystokinin-8, making TPP II a target in the treatment of obesity. To gain insight into this molecular machine's mechanisms of activation and proteolysis, researchers from Berkeley Lab, the University of California,

  16. Geothermal Exploration Policy Mechanisms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exploration Policy Mechanisms Geothermal Exploration Policy Mechanisms This report focuses on five of the policy types that are most relevant to the U.S. market and political context for the exploration and confirmation of conventional hydrothermal (geothermal) resources in the United States: (1) drilling failure insurance, (2) loan guarantees, (3) subsidized loans, (4) capital subsidies, and (5) government-led exploration. It describes each policy type and its application in other countries and

  17. Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, Rodney L.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Spernjak, Dusan; Baker, Andrew M.; Lujan, Roger W.; Langlois, David Alan; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Papadia, D. D.; Weber, Adam Z.; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Shi, Shouwnen; More, K. L.; Grot, Steve

    2015-08-03

    The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. By investigating cell component degradation modes and defining the fundamental degradation mechanisms of components and component interactions, new materials can be designed to improve durability. To achieve a deeper understanding of PEM fuel cell durability and component degradation mechanisms, we utilize a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary team with significant experience investigating these phenomena.

  18. Key Physical Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Stephan Bremner

    2010-07-21

    The objective of the project was to study both theoretically and experimentally the excitation, recombination and transport properties required for nanostructured solar cells to deliver energy conversion efficiencies well in excess of conventional limits. These objectives were met by concentrating on three key areas, namely, investigation of physical mechanisms present in nanostructured solar cells, characterization of loss mechanisms in nanostructured solar cells and determining the properties required of nanostructured solar cells in order to achieve high efficiency and the design implications.

  19. Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Print Wednesday, 31 March 2010 00:00 Polyketide natural products produced by bacteria and fungi are often characterized by the presence of multiple aromatic rings that are responsible for the activity of polyketides as both beneficial antibiotic and anticancer agents and as dangerous toxic compounds, such as the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins that are produced by

  20. Remote controlled vacuum joint closure mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doll, David W. (San Diego, CA); Hager, E. Randolph (La Jolla, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable and maintainable vacuum joint closure mechanism for a noncircular aperture is disclosed. The closure mechanism includes an extendible bellows coupled at one end to a noncircular duct and at its other end to a flange assembly having sealed grooves for establishing a high vacuum seal with the abutting surface of a facing flange which includes an aperture forming part of the system to be evacuated. A plurality of generally linear arrangements of pivotally coupled linkages and piston combinations are mounted around the outer surface of the duct and aligned along the length thereof. Each of the piston/linkage assemblies is adapted to engage the flange assembly by means of a respective piston and is further coupled to a remote controlled piston drive shaft to permit each of the linkages positioned on a respective flat outer surface of the duct to simultaneously and uniformly displace a corresponding piston and the flange assembly with which it is in contact along the length of the duct in extending the bellows to provide a high vacuum seal between the movable flange and the facing flange. A plurality of latch mechanisms are also pivotally mounted on the outside of the duct. A first end of each of the latch mechanisms is coupled to a remotely controlled latch control shaft for displacing the latch mechanism about its pivot point. In response to the pivoting displacement of the latch mechanism, a second end thereof is displaced so as to securely engage the facing flange.

  1. Designing a Micro-Mechanical Transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mainieri, R.

    1999-06-03

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Micro-mechanical electronic systems are chips with moving parts. They are fabricated with the same techniques that are used to manufacture electronic chips, sharing their low cost. Micro-mechanical chips can also contain electronic components. By combining mechanical parts with electronic parts it becomes possible to process signal mechanically. To achieve designs comparable to those obtained with electronic components it is necessary to have a mechanical device that can change its behavior in response to a small input - a mechanical transistor. The work proposed will develop the design tools for these complex-shaped resonant structures using the geometrical ray technique. To overcome the limitations of geometrical ray chaos, the dynamics of the rays will be studied using the methods developed for the study of nonlinear dynamical systems. T his leads to numerical methods that execute well in parallel computer architectures, using a limited amount of memory and no inter-process communication.

  2. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) for mechanical engineers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1996-11-18

    The ongoing advances in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are providing man-kind the freedom to travel to dimensional spaces never before conceivable. Advances include new fabrication processes, new materials, tailored modeling tools, new fabrication machines, systems integration, and more detailed studies of physics and surface chemistry as applied to the micro scale. In the ten years since its inauguration, MEMS technology is penetrating industries of automobile, healthcare, biotechnology, sports/entertainment, measurement systems, data storage, photonics/optics, computer, aerospace, precision instruments/robotics, and environment monitoring. It is projected that by the turn of the century, MEMS will impact every individual in the industrial world, totaling sales up to $14 billion (source: System Planning Corp.). MEMS programs in major universities have spawned up all over the United States, preparing the brain-power and expertise for the next wave of MEMS breakthroughs. It should be pointed out that although MEMS has been initiated by electrical engineering researchers through the involvement of IC fabrication techniques, today it has evolved such that it requires a totally multi-disciplinary team to develop useful devices. Mechanical engineers are especially crucial to the success of MEMS development, since 90% of the physical realm involved is mechanical. Mechanical engineers are needed for the design of MEMS, the analysis of the mechanical system, the design of testing apparatus, the implementation of analytical tools, and the packaging process. Every single aspect of mechanical engineering is being utilized in the MEMS field today, however, the impact could be more substantial if more mechanical engineers are involved in the systems level designing. In this paper, an attempt is made to create the pathways for a mechanical engineer to enter in the MEMS field. Examples of application in optics and medical devices will be used to illustrate how mechanical

  3. Thermo-mechanical characterization of silicone foams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rangaswamy, Partha; Smith, Nickolaus A.; Cady, Carl M.; Lewis, Matthew W.

    2015-10-01

    Cellular solids such as elastomeric foams are used in many structural applications to absorb and dissipate energy, due to their light weight (low density) and high energy absorption capability. In this paper we will discuss foams derived from S5370, a silicone foam formulation developed by Dow Corning. In the application presented, the foam is consolidated into a cushion component of constant thickness but variable density. A mechanical material model developed by Lewis (2013), predicts material response, in part, as a function of relative density. To determine the required parameters for this model we have obtained the mechanical response in compressionmorefor ambient, cold and hot temperatures. The variable density cushion provided samples sufficient samples so that the effect of sample initial density on the mechanical response could be studied. The mechanical response data showed extreme sensitivity to relative density. We also observed at strains corresponding to 1 MPa a linear relationship between strain and initial density for all temperatures. Samples taken from parts with a history of thermal cycling demonstrated a stiffening response that was a function of temperature, with the trend of more stiffness as temperature increased above ambient. This observation is in agreement with the entropic effects on the thermo-mechanical behavior of silicone polymers. In this study, we present the experimental methods necessary for the development of a material model, the testing protocol, analysis of test data, and a discussion of load (stress) and gap (strain) as a function of sample initial densities and temperaturesless

  4. Mechanical interface having multiple grounded actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Kenneth M.; Levin, Mike D.; Rosenberg, Louis B.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for interfacing the motion of a user-manipulable object with a computer system includes a user object physically contacted or grasped by a user. A 3-D spatial mechanism is coupled to the user object, such as a stylus or a medical instrument, and provides three degrees of freedom to the user object. Three grounded actuators provide forces in the three degrees of freedom. Two of the degrees of freedom are a planar workspace provided by a closed-loop linkage of members, and the third degree of freedom is rotation of the planar workspace provided by a rotatable carriage. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between actuators and the user object and include drums coupled to the carriage, pulleys coupled to grounded actuators, and flexible cables transmitting force between the pulleys and the drums. The flexibility of the cable allows the drums to rotate with the carriage while the pulleys and actuators remain fixed to ground. The interface also may include a floating gimbal mechanism coupling the linkage to the user object. The floating gimbal mechanism includes rotatably coupled gimbal members that provide three degrees of freedom to the user object and capstan mechanisms coupled between sensors and the gimbal members for providing enhanced sensor resolution.

  5. Thermo-mechanical characterization of silicone foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangaswamy, Partha; Smith, Nickolaus A.; Cady, Carl M.; Lewis, Matthew W.

    2015-10-01

    Cellular solids such as elastomeric foams are used in many structural applications to absorb and dissipate energy, due to their light weight (low density) and high energy absorption capability. In this paper we will discuss foams derived from S5370, a silicone foam formulation developed by Dow Corning. In the application presented, the foam is consolidated into a cushion component of constant thickness but variable density. A mechanical material model developed by Lewis (2013), predicts material response, in part, as a function of relative density. To determine the required parameters for this model we have obtained the mechanical response in compression for ambient, cold and hot temperatures. The variable density cushion provided samples sufficient samples so that the effect of sample initial density on the mechanical response could be studied. The mechanical response data showed extreme sensitivity to relative density. We also observed at strains corresponding to 1 MPa a linear relationship between strain and initial density for all temperatures. Samples taken from parts with a history of thermal cycling demonstrated a stiffening response that was a function of temperature, with the trend of more stiffness as temperature increased above ambient. This observation is in agreement with the entropic effects on the thermo-mechanical behavior of silicone polymers. In this study, we present the experimental methods necessary for the development of a material model, the testing protocol, analysis of test data, and a discussion of load (stress) and gap (strain) as a function of sample initial densities and temperatures

  6. On the fluid mechanics of fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TIESZEN,SHELDON R.

    2000-02-29

    Fluid mechanics research related to fire is reviewed with focus on canonical flows, multiphysics coupling aspects, experimental and numerical techniques. Fire is a low-speed, chemically-reacting, flow in which buoyancy plans an important role. Fire research has focused on two canonical flows, the reacting boundary-layer and the reacting free plume. There is rich, multi-lateral, bi-directional, coupling among fluid mechanics and scalar transport, combustion, and radiation. There is only a limited experimental fluid-mechanics database for fire due to measurement difficulties in the harsh environment, and the focus within the fire community on thermal/chemical consequences. Increasingly, computational fluid dynamics techniques are being used to provide engineering guidance on thermal/chemical consequences and to study fire phenomenology.

  7. The mechanical properties of FeAl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, I.; George, E.P.

    1996-12-31

    Only in the last few years has progress been made in obtaining reproducible mechanical properties data for FeAl. Two sets of observations are the foundation of this progress. The first is that the large vacancy concentrations that exist in FeAl at high temperature are easily retained at low temperature and that these strongly affect the low-temperature mechanical properties. The second is that RT ductility is adversely affected by water vapor. Purpose of this paper is not to present a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of FeAl but rather to highlight our understanding of key phenomena and to show how an understanding of the factors which control the yield strength and fracture behavior has followed the discovery of the above two effects. 87 refs, 9 figs.

  8. Multichannel framework for singular quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camblong, Horacio E.; Epele, Luis N.; Fanchiotti, Huner; Garca Canal, Carlos A.; Ordez, Carlos R.

    2014-01-15

    A multichannel S-matrix framework for singular quantum mechanics (SQM) subsumes the renormalization and self-adjoint extension methods and resolves its boundary-condition ambiguities. In addition to the standard channel accessible to a distant (asymptotic) observer, one supplementary channel opens up at each coordinate singularity, where local outgoing and ingoing singularity waves coexist. The channels are linked by a fully unitary S-matrix, which governs all possible scenarios, including cases with an apparent nonunitary behavior as viewed from asymptotic distances. -- Highlights: A multichannel framework is proposed for singular quantum mechanics and analogues. The framework unifies several established approaches for singular potentials. Singular points are treated as new scattering channels. Nonunitary asymptotic behavior is subsumed in a unitary multichannel S-matrix. Conformal quantum mechanics and the inverse quartic potential are highlighted.

  9. Remote controlled vacuum joint closure mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doll, D.W.; Hager, E.R.

    1984-02-22

    A remotely operable and maintainable vacuum joint closure mechanism for a noncircular aperture is disclosed. The closure mechanism includes an extendible bellows coupled at one end to a noncircular duct and at its other end to a flange assembly having sealed grooves for establishing a high vacuum seal with the abutting surface of a facing flange which includes an aperture forming part of the system to be evacuated. A plurality of generally linear arrangements of pivotally coupled linkages and piston combinations are mounted around the outer surface of the duct and aligned along the length thereof. Each of the piston/linkage assemblies is adapted to engage the flange assembly by means of a respective piston and is further coupled to a remote controlled piston drive shaft to permit each of the linkages positioned on a respective flat outer surface of the duct to simultaneously and uniformly displace a corresponding piston and the flange assembly with which it is in contact along the length of the duct in extending the bellows to provide a high vacuum seal between the movable flange and the facing flange. A plurality of latch mechanisms are also pivotally mounted on the outside of the duct. A first end of each of the latch mechanisms is coupled to a remotely controlled latch control shaft for displacing the latch mechanism about its pivot point. In response to the pivoting displacement of the latch mechanism, a second end thereof is displaced so as to securely engage the facing flange and maintain the high vacuum seal established by the displacement of the flange assembly and extension of the bellows without displacing the entire duct.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Aerogels. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parmenter, K.E.; Milstein, F.

    1995-01-01

    Aerogels are extremely low density solids that are characterized by a high porosity and pore sizes on the order of nanometers. Their low thermal conductivity and sometimes transparent appearance make them desirable for applications such as insulation in cryogenic vessels and between double paned glass in solar architecture. An understanding of the mechanical properties of aerogels is necessary before aerogels can be used in load bearing applications. In the present study, the mechanical behavior of various types of fiber-reinforced silica aerogels was investigated with hardness, compression, tension and shear tests. Particular attention was paid to the effects of processing parameters, testing conditions, storage environment, and age on the aerogels` mechanical response. The results indicate that the addition of fibers to the aerogel matrix generally resulted in softer, weaker materials with smaller elastic moduli. Furthermore, the testing environment significantly affected compression results. Tests in ethanol show an appreciable amount of scatter, and are not consistent with results for tests in air. In fact, the compression specimens appeared to crack and begin to dissolve upon exposure to the ethanol solution. This is consistent with the inherent hydrophobic nature of these aerogels. In addition, the aging process affected the aerogels` mechanical behavior by increasing their compressive strength and elastic moduli while decreasing their strain at fracture. However, desiccation of the specimens did not appreciably affect the mechanical properties, even though it reduced the aerogel density by removing trapped moisture. Finally, tension and shear test results indicate that the shear strength of the aerogels exceeds the tensile strength. This is consistent with the response of brittle materials. Future work should concentrate on mechanical testing at cryogenic temperatures, and should involve more extensive tensile tests.

  11. Stainless Steel Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Switzner, Nathan T

    2010-06-01

    A nitrogen strengthened 21-6-9 stainless steel plate was spinformed into hemispherical test shapes. A battery of laboratory tests was used to characterize the hemispheres. The laboratory tests show that near the pole (axis) of a spinformed hemisphere the yield strength is the lowest because this area endures the least “cold-work” strengthening, i.e., the least deformation. The characterization indicated that stress-relief annealing spinformed stainless steel hemispheres does not degrade mechanical properties. Stress-relief annealing reduces residual stresses while maintaining relatively high mechanical properties. Full annealing completely eliminates residual stresses, but reduces yield strength by about 30%.

  12. Bi-directional planar slide mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F.

    2003-11-04

    A bi-directional slide mechanism. A pair of master and slave disks engages opposite sides of the platform. Rotational drivers are connected to master disks so the disks rotate eccentrically about their respective axes of rotation. Opposing slave disks are connected to master disks on opposite sides of the platform by a circuitous mechanical linkage, or are electronically synchronized together using stepper motors, to effect coordinated motion. The synchronized eccentric motion of the pairs of master/slave disks compels smooth linear motion of the platform forwards and backwards without backlash. The apparatus can be incorporated in a MEMS device.

  13. Thickness measurement locations of mechanical integrity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, J.R.; Rivas, N.

    1996-07-01

    This paper will describe the importance of establishing thickness measurement location (TNE) criteria. It will also seek to quantify the frequency of inspections and review the methods for establishing techniques to ensure reliability and repeatability of inspections at TMLs using qualified inspectors. Also discussed will be the most useful way to document the results of an inspection and how to effectively maintain consistency in the mechanical integrity program. It reviews different methods of inspection and uses lessons learned from in-service experience with numerous mechanical projects in the petrochemical industry. The importance of qualified inspectors, quality inspection, electronic data acquisition and electronic data storage will be discussed.

  14. Cracked-fuel mechanics. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williford, R.E.; Lanning, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a modelling concept and a set of measurable parameters that have been shown to improve the prediction of the mechanical behavior of cracked fuel/cladding systems without added computational expense. The transition from classical annular gap/cylindrical pellet models to modified bulk properties and further to local behavior for cracked fuel systems is discussed. The results of laboratory experiments to verify these modelling parameters are shown. Data are also presented from laboratory experiments on unirradiated and irradiated rods which show that fuel rod mechanical response depends on fuel fragment size. The impact of these data on cracked fuel behavior and failure modelling is also discussed.

  15. Damage mechanisms in PBT-GF30 under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaaf, A., E-mail: alexander.schaaf@de.bosch.com; De Monte, M., E-mail: alexander.schaaf@de.bosch.com; Hoffmann, C., E-mail: alexander.schaaf@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Sector Research and Advance Engineering - Advance Production Technology 1 - Plastics Engineering (CR/APP), Postbox 1131, 71301 Waiblingen (Germany); Vormwald, M., E-mail: vormwald@wm.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Material Science, Darmstadt University of Technology (Germany); Quaresimin, M., E-mail: marino.quaresimin@unipd.it [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The scope of this paper is the investigation of damage mechanisms at microscopic scale on a short glass fiber reinforced polybutylene terephthalate (PBT-GF30) under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. In addition the principal mechanisms are verified through micro mechanical FE models. In order to investigate the fatigue behavior of the material both isothermal strain controlled fatigue (ISCF) tests at three different temperatures and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on plain and notched specimens, manufactured by injection molding. The goal of the work is to determine the damage mechanisms occurring under TMF conditions and to compare them with the mechanisms occurring under ISCF. For this reason fracture surfaces of TMF and ISCF samples loaded at different temperature levels were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, specimens that failed under TMF were examined on microsections revealing insight into both crack initiation and crack propagation. The findings of this investigation give valuable information about the main damage mechanisms of PBT-GF30 under TMF loading and serve as basis for the development of a TMF life estimation methodology.

  16. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  17. Towards Understanding the Mechanism of PETN Coarsening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, R; Overturf, G; Gee, R; Burnham, A; Weeks, B; De Yoreo, J

    2005-03-23

    The long-term goal is to determine the mechanism of PETN crystallization and coarsening at the solid-vapor interface and to quantify the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that control those processes. We achieve this goal by investigating the surface evolution of synthetic PETN single crystals using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) at various temperatures.

  18. Wear-mechanism modelling. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashby, M.F.

    1993-03-01

    Goals of the program are to calculate the surface temperatures in dry sliding, develop a soft wear tester for ceramics, survey the wear mechanisms in brittle solids, and couple the temperature calculations with models to give wear maps for brittle solids. (DLC)

  19. Mechanisms of cellular transformation by carcinogenic agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grunberger, D.; Goff, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 14 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: DNA Modification by Chemical Carcinogens; Role of DNA Lesions and Repair in the Transformation of Human Cells; The Induction and Regulation of Radiogenic Transformation In Vitro: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms; Cellular Transformation by Adenoviruses; and The fos Gene.

  20. Damper mechanism for nuclear reactor control elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taft, William Elwood

    1976-01-01

    A damper mechanism which provides a nuclear reactor control element decelerating function at the end of the scram stroke. The total damping function is produced by the combination of two assemblies, which operate in sequence. First, a tapered dashram assembly decelerates the control element to a lower velocity, after which a spring hydraulic damper assembly takes over to complete the final damping.

  1. Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Mechanical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines | Department of Energy Mechanical Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Mechanical Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines Mechanical Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines - Complete (25.92 MB) Lesson Plan: Mechanical Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines (125.71 KB) PowerPoint: Mechanical Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines (26.34 MB) More Documents & Publications Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mechanical Ventilation Energy

  2. QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of model atoms in fields Milonni, P.W. 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMS; OPTICAL MODELS; QUANTUM MECHANICS;...

  3. Identifying a cooperative control mechanism between an applied...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Identifying a cooperative control mechanism between an applied field and the environment ... Title: Identifying a cooperative control mechanism between an applied field and the ...

  4. Thermal and Mechanical Design Aspects of the LIFE Engine (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal and Mechanical Design Aspects of the LIFE Engine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal and Mechanical Design Aspects of the LIFE Engine The Laser Inertial ...

  5. Breakthrough Time and Mechanical Properties of Edge Sealing in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakthrough Time and Mechanical Properties of Edge Sealing in Different Environmental Conditions Breakthrough Time and Mechanical Properties of Edge Sealing in Different ...

  6. Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms Title: Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, ...

  7. Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms Title: Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an ...

  8. National Clean Development Mechanism Office India | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Mechanism Office India Jump to: navigation, search Name: National Clean Development Mechanism Office (India) Place: New Delhi, India Product: The Designated National...

  9. Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon Adsorber Materials Deactivation Mechanisms ...

  10. Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials... Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials...

  11. Optimization of Operating Parameters for Minimum Mechanical Specific...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanical Engineering Approved by Bruce Kang, PhD, Committee Chairperson James Smith, Ph.D. Larry Banta, Ph.D. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Keith ...

  12. Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber You are ...

  13. Understanding the Deactivation Mechanisms of Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deactivation Mechanisms of CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Understanding the Deactivation Mechanisms of CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application To understand ...

  14. Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction ... More Documents & Publications Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective ...

  15. Mechanical Design Engineer (MED) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design Engineer (MED) Department: Engineering Supervisor(s): Douglas Loesser Staff: ENG 3 ... Its Mechanical Engineering Division (MED) is seeking to hire a Mechanical Engineer. The ...

  16. Optical-Mechanical Engineer | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

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    Optical-Mechanical Engineer Department: Engineering Supervisor(s): Bill Blanchard Staff: ... We are seeking an Optical-Mechanical Engineer to join the Diagnostics Engineering Team in ...

  17. A sequential implicit algorithm of chemo-thermo-poro-mechanics...

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    A sequential implicit algorithm of chemo-thermo-poro-mechanics for fractured geothermal ...emo-thermo-poro-mechanics for fractured geothermal reservoirs Authors: Kim, Jihoon ; ...

  18. National Strategy Study on the Clean Development Mechanism in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Strategy Study on the Clean Development Mechanism in Indonesia Jump to: navigation, search Name National Strategy Study on the Clean Development Mechanism in Indonesia Agency...

  19. Verification of J-integral capability in Sierra Mechanics. (Technical...

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    Verification of J-integral capability in Sierra Mechanics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Verification of J-integral capability in Sierra Mechanics. You are...

  20. Biochemical Mechanisms and Energy Strategies of Geobacter Sulfurreduce...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biochemical Mechanisms and Energy Strategies of Geobacter Sulfurreducens Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biochemical Mechanisms and Energy Strategies of Geobacter ...

  1. Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates Title: Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates Authors: Chen, Wei ; Cui, ...

  2. Physicists ID Mechanism that Stabilizes Plasma in Tokamaks

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    Physicists ID Mechanism that Stabilizes Plasma in Tokamaks Physicists ID Mechanism that Stabilizes Plasma in Tokamaks Calculations Run at NERSC Create 3D Simulations of Fusion ...

  3. Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode Performance by Nitrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode Performance by Nitrogen Doping in LithiumSulfur ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode ...

  4. Collimator with attachment mechanism and system (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Collimator with attachment mechanism and system Title: Collimator with attachment mechanism and system A self-aligning collimator for a radiation ...

  5. General Renewable Energy-Financing Mechanisms | Open Energy Informatio...

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    Financing Mechanisms Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: General Renewable Energy-Financing Mechanisms AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector:...

  6. Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds Title: Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds This work empirically examines the ...

  7. Neutral Beam Mechanical Engineer | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

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    Mechanical Engineer Department: Engineering Supervisor(s): Tim Stevenson Staff: ENG 04 Requisition Number: 1500578 Provides general Mechanical Engineering and operations support...

  8. Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates for ...

  9. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in...

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    Conference: Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in EGS reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single ...

  10. Variability in Mechanical Properties of Laser Engineered Net...

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    Variability in Mechanical Properties of Laser Engineered Net Shaping Material. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Variability in Mechanical Properties of Laser Engineered ...

  11. Athermalization of resonant optical devices via thermo-mechanical...

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    Athermalization of resonant optical devices via thermo-mechanical feedback Title: Athermalization of resonant optical devices via thermo-mechanical feedback A passively athermal ...

  12. New mechanism discovered for controlling ultracold chemical reactions

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    New mechanism for controlling ultracold chemical reactions New mechanism discovered for controlling ultracold chemical reactions Researchers have discovered a new interference ...

  13. Self-Regulation Mechanism for Charged Point Defects in Hybrid...

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    Accepted Manuscript: Self-Regulation Mechanism for Charged Point Defects in Hybrid Halide Perovskites Title: Self-Regulation Mechanism for Charged Point Defects in Hybrid Halide ...

  14. Novel mechanism for vorticity generation in black-hole accretion...

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    Novel mechanism for vorticity generation in black-hole accretion disks Prev Next Title: Novel mechanism for vorticity generation in black-hole accretion disks Authors: ...

  15. Mechanism and Kinetic Modeling of Hydrogenation in The Organic...

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    Mechanism and Kinetic Modeling of Hydrogenation in The Organic GetterPd CatalystActivated Carbon Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanism and Kinetic Modeling ...

  16. American Society of Mechanical Engineers/Savannah River National...

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    American Society of Mechanical EngineersSavannah River National Laboratory (ASMESRNL) ... American Society of Mechanical EngineersSavannah River National Laboratory (ASMESRNL) ...

  17. Designing Renewable Energy Financing Mechanism Terms of Reference...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Designing Renewable Energy Financing Mechanism Terms of Reference (Redirected from Designing Renewable Energy Financing Mechanisms) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH...

  18. A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature...

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    Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature Chemistry Title A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature Chemistry Publication Type...

  19. In-situ characterization and diagnostics of mechanical degradation...

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    In-situ characterization and diagnostics of mechanical degradation in electrodes In-situ characterization and diagnostics of mechanical degradation in electrodes 2011 DOE Hydrogen ...

  20. STATISTICAL MECHANICS MODELING OF MESOSCALE DEFORMATION IN METALS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STATISTICAL MECHANICS MODELING OF MESOSCALE DEFORMATION IN METALS Anter El-Azab 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE dislocation dynamics; mesoscale deformation of metals; crystal mechanics...

  1. Property:FluidMechanicsMeasurement | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name FluidMechanicsMeasurement Property Type String Description MHK Fluid Mechanics Measurement Categories Used in FormTemplate MHKSensor Allows Values Differential...

  2. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model And Experiments...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model And Experiments For Optimization Of ... Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments for Optimization ...

  3. Uncommon Deformation Mechanisms during Fatigue-Crack Propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Uncommon Deformation Mechanisms during Fatigue-Crack Propagation in Nanocrystalline Alloys Prev Next Title: Uncommon Deformation Mechanisms during Fatigue-Crack Propagation ...

  4. Aid for Trade and Climate Change Financing Mechanisms | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aid for Trade and Climate Change Financing Mechanisms Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Aid for Trade and Climate Change Financing Mechanisms: Best...

  5. Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation and Reliability for Plug...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation and Reliability for Plug-in Vehicle Converters and Inverters Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation and Reliability for Plug-in Vehicle ...

  6. Helium Migration Mechanisms in Polycrystalline Uranium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Guillaume; Desgardin, Pierre; Sauvage, Thierry; Barthe, Marie-France; Garcia, Philippe; Carlot, Gaelle

    2007-07-01

    This study aims at identifying the release mechanisms of helium in uranium dioxide. Two sets of polycrystalline UO{sub 2} sintered samples presenting different microstructures were implanted with {sup 3}He ions at concentrations in the region of 0.1 at.%. Changes in helium concentrations were monitored using two Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques based on the {sup 3}He(d,{alpha}){sup 1}H reaction. {sup 3}He release is measured in-situ during sample annealing at temperatures ranging between 700 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. Accurate helium depth profiles are generated after each annealing stage. Results that provide data for further understanding helium release mechanisms are discussed. It is found that helium diffusion appears to be enhanced above 900 deg. C in the vicinity of grain boundaries possibly as a result of the presence of defects. (authors)

  7. Micro electro mechanical system optical switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorson, Kevin J; Stevens, Rick C; Kryzak, Charles J; Leininger, Brian S; Kornrumpf, William P; Forman, Glenn A; Iannotti, Joseph A; Spahn, Olga B; Cowan, William D; Dagel, Daryl J

    2013-12-17

    The present disclosure includes apparatus, system, and method embodiments that provide micro electo mechanical system optical switching and methods of manufacturing switches. For example, one optical switch embodiment includes at least one micro electro mechanical system type pivot mirror structure disposed along a path of an optical signal, the structure having a mirror and an actuator, and the mirror having a pivot axis along a first edge and having a second edge rotatable with respect to the pivot axis, the mirror being capable of and arranged to be actuated to pivot betweeen a position parallel to a plane of an optical signal and a position substantially normal to the plane of the optical signal.

  8. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-12-08

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion. 16 figs.

  9. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  10. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  11. Folded membrane dialyzer with mechanically sealed edges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markley, Finley W.

    1976-01-01

    A semipermeable membrane is folded in accordion fashion to form a stack of pleats and the edges are sealed so as to isolate the opposite surfaces of the membrane. The stack is contained within a case that provides ports for flow of blood in contact with one surface of the membrane through channels formed by the pleats and also provides ports for flow of a dialysate through channels formed by the pleats in contact with the other surface of the membrane. The serpentine side edges of the membrane are sealed by a solidified plastic material, whereas effective mechanical means are provided to seal the end edges of the folded membrane. The mechanical means include a clamping strip which biases case sealing flanges into a sealed relationship with end portions of the membrane near the end edges, which portions extend from the stack and between the sealing flanges.

  12. Stirling engine control mechanism and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dineen, John J.

    1983-01-01

    A reciprocating-to-rotating motion conversion and power control device for a Stirling engine includes a hub mounted on an offset portion of the output shaft for rotation relative to the shaft and for sliding motion therealong which causes the hub to tilt relative to the axis of rotation of the shaft. This changes the angle of inclination of the hub relative to the shaft axis and changes the axial stroke of a set of arms connected to the hub and nutating therewith. A hydraulic actuating mechanism is connected to the hub for moving its axial position along the shaft. A balancing wheel is linked to the hub and changes its angle of inclination as the angle of inclination of the hub changes to maintain the mechanism in perfect balance throughout its range of motion.

  13. Mechanical vibration to electrical energy converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kellogg, Rick Allen; Brotz, Jay Kristoffer

    2009-03-03

    Electromechanical devices that generate an electrical signal in response to an external source of mechanical vibrations can operate as a sensor of vibrations and as an energy harvester for converting mechanical vibration to electrical energy. The devices incorporate a magnet that is movable through a gap in a ferromagnetic circuit, wherein a coil is wound around a portion of the ferromagnetic circuit. A flexible coupling is used to attach the magnet to a frame for providing alignment of the magnet as it moves or oscillates through the gap in the ferromagnetic circuit. The motion of the magnet can be constrained to occur within a substantially linear range of magnetostatic force that develops due to the motion of the magnet. The devices can have ferromagnetic circuits with multiple arms, an array of magnets having alternating polarity and, encompass micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices.

  14. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  15. Thermal, chemical, and mechanical cookoff modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    A Thermally Reactive, Elastic-plastic eXplosive code, TREX, has been developed to analyze coupled thermal, chemical and mechanical effects associated with cookoff simulation of confined or unconfined energetic materials. In confined systems, pressure buildup precedes thermal runaway, and unconfined energetic material expands to relieve high stress. The model was developed based on nucleation, decomposition chemistry, and elastic/plastic mechanical behavior of a material with a distribution of internal defects represented as clusters of spherical inclusions. A local force balance, with mass continuity constraints, forms the basis of the model requiring input of temperature and reacted gas fraction. This constitutive material model has been incorporated into a quasistatic mechanics code SANTOS as a material module which predicts stress history associated with a given strain history. The thermal-chemical solver XCHEM has been coupled to SANTOS to provide temperature and reacted gas fraction. Predicted spatial history variables include temperature, chemical species, solid/gas pressure, solid/gas density, local yield stress, and gas volume fraction. One-Dimensional Time to explosion (ODTX) experiments for TATB and PBX 9404 (HMX and NC) are simulated using global multistep kinetic mechanisms and the reactive elastic-plastic constitutive model. Pressure explosions, rather than thermal runaway, result in modeling slow cookoff experiments of confined conventional energetic materials such as TATB. For PBX 9404, pressure explosions also occur at fast cookoff conditions because of low temperature reactions of nitrocellulose resulting in substantial pressurization. A demonstrative calculation is also presented for reactive heat flow in a hollow, propellant-filled, stainless steel cylinder, representing a rocket motor. This example simulation show

  16. Plugging mechanisms in a lost circulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Givler, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of lost circulation during the drilling of geothermal wells is recognized to be a serious impediment to well completion. A viable solution, in terms of an ''engineered'' plugging material, will be enhanced via analytical cognizance of possible down-hole plugging mechanisms. This paper investigates several plugging strategies that result from rudimentary, mathematical models of the mud rheology (with and without dispersed particulate). 10 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Electrically induced mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Peter J.

    1987-01-01

    A method of electrically inducing mechanical precompression of a ferroelectric plate covered with electrodes utilizes the change in strains of the plate as functions of applied electric field. A first field polarizes and laterally shrinks the entire plate. An outer portion of the electrodes are removed, and an opposite field partially depolarizes and expands the central portion of the plate against the shrunk outer portion.

  18. Electrically induced mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, P.J.

    1987-03-02

    A method of electrically inducing mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plate covered with electrodes utilizes the change in strains of the plate as functions of applied electric field. A first field polarizes and laterally shrinks the entire plate. An outer portion of the electrodes are removed, and an opposite field partially depolarizes and expands the central portion of the plate against the shrunk outer portion. 2 figs.

  19. Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Print Polyketide natural products produced by bacteria and fungi are often characterized by the presence of multiple aromatic rings that are responsible for the activity of polyketides as both beneficial antibiotic and anticancer agents and as dangerous toxic compounds, such as the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins that are produced by fungal species from the Aspergillus family of molds. Polyketide ring formation by fungal enzymes

  20. Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Print Polyketide natural products produced by bacteria and fungi are often characterized by the presence of multiple aromatic rings that are responsible for the activity of polyketides as both beneficial antibiotic and anticancer agents and as dangerous toxic compounds, such as the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins that are produced by fungal species from the Aspergillus family of molds. Polyketide ring formation by fungal enzymes

  1. Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Print Polyketide natural products produced by bacteria and fungi are often characterized by the presence of multiple aromatic rings that are responsible for the activity of polyketides as both beneficial antibiotic and anticancer agents and as dangerous toxic compounds, such as the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins that are produced by fungal species from the Aspergillus family of molds. Polyketide ring formation by fungal enzymes

  2. T-QUAKE Quantum Mechanical Microchip

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Principal application T-QUAKE Quantum Mechanical Microchip The quantum world defies intuition. One of its axioms, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, states that any attempt to measure the position or momentum of a quantum object changes the object itself. Historically, this principle was viewed as a hindrance by scientists trying to examine quantum particles. But the same quantum effects that make them difficult to measure have long been of interest to the cryptography and intelligence

  3. Molecular Mechanism of Biological Proton Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomes, R.

    1998-09-01

    Proton transport across lipid membranes is a fundamental aspect of biological energy transduction (metabolism). This function is mediated by a Grotthuss mechanism involving proton hopping along hydrogen-bonded networks embedded in membrane-spanning proteins. Using molecular simulations, the authors have explored the structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties giving rise to long-range proton translocation in hydrogen-bonded networks involving water molecules, or water wires, which are emerging as ubiquitous H{sup +}-transport devices in biological systems.

  4. Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Print Polyketide natural products produced by bacteria and fungi are often characterized by the presence of multiple aromatic rings that are responsible for the activity of polyketides as both beneficial antibiotic and anticancer agents and as dangerous toxic compounds, such as the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins that are produced by fungal species from the Aspergillus family of molds. Polyketide ring formation by fungal enzymes

  5. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, R M; Furlong, M W

    1981-05-01

    Colorado School of Mines is engaged in an experimental program to develop comprehensive models for the effects of coal composition upon the kinetics and mechanisms of coal hydrogenation, for the effects of mineral matter additives (disposable catalysts) upon kinetics and mechanisms of coal hydrogenation, and for the kinetics and mechanisms of the hydrogenation of coal derived products such as preasphaltenes, and asphaltenes. Experimental work was completed on a suite of bituminous coals, thus completing the initial phase of the coal reactivity study. Eleven of the 14 coals of the suite were successfully run in duplicate. Conversion to THF solubles was correlated well by pseudo-second order kinetics. The resulting kinetic rate constants correlated with H/C ratio, mean-max vitrinite reflectance, and a specially-defined fraction of reactive macerals. The data did not correlate well with O/C ratios of the parent coals. Computer-derived statistical fits of various kinetic models were limited in their effectiveness at fitting the experimental data. Experimental work on the first phase of the disposal catalyst studies was completed. Statistical significance testing of the experimental data showed: fractional conversion and yield of light hydrocarbon products increased with time; and mineral properties of the additives were more significant in increasing overall conversion than the additive surface areas. The relative effects of the additives are given.

  6. Geochemical Reaction Mechanism Discovery from Molecular Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stack, Andrew G.; Kent, Paul R. C.

    2014-11-10

    Methods to explore reactions using computer simulation are becoming increasingly quantitative, versatile, and robust. In this review, a rationale for how molecular simulation can help build better geochemical kinetics models is first given. We summarize some common methods that geochemists use to simulate reaction mechanisms, specifically classical molecular dynamics and quantum chemical methods and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Useful tools such as umbrella sampling and metadynamics that enable one to explore reactions are discussed. Several case studies wherein geochemists have used these tools to understand reaction mechanisms are presented, including water exchange and sorption on aqueous species and mineral surfaces, surface charging, crystal growth and dissolution, and electron transfer. The impact that molecular simulation has had on our understanding of geochemical reactivity are highlighted in each case. In the future, it is anticipated that molecular simulation of geochemical reaction mechanisms will become more commonplace as a tool to validate and interpret experimental data, and provide a check on the plausibility of geochemical kinetic models.

  7. Geochemical Reaction Mechanism Discovery from Molecular Simulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stack, Andrew G.; Kent, Paul R. C.

    2014-11-10

    Methods to explore reactions using computer simulation are becoming increasingly quantitative, versatile, and robust. In this review, a rationale for how molecular simulation can help build better geochemical kinetics models is first given. We summarize some common methods that geochemists use to simulate reaction mechanisms, specifically classical molecular dynamics and quantum chemical methods and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Useful tools such as umbrella sampling and metadynamics that enable one to explore reactions are discussed. Several case studies wherein geochemists have used these tools to understand reaction mechanisms are presented, including water exchange and sorption on aqueous species and mineralmore » surfaces, surface charging, crystal growth and dissolution, and electron transfer. The impact that molecular simulation has had on our understanding of geochemical reactivity are highlighted in each case. In the future, it is anticipated that molecular simulation of geochemical reaction mechanisms will become more commonplace as a tool to validate and interpret experimental data, and provide a check on the plausibility of geochemical kinetic models.« less

  8. Unraveling the Mechanism of Nanoscale Mechanical Reinforcement in Glassy Polymer Nanocomposites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Shiwang; Bocharova, Vera; Belianinov, Alex; Xiong, Shaomin; Kisliuk, Alexander; Somnath, Suhas; Holt, Adam P.; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Jesse, Stephen; Martin, Halie J.; et al

    2016-05-20

    The mechanical reinforcement of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) above the glass transition temperature, Tg, has been extensively researched. However, not much is known about the origin of this effect below Tg. In this paper, we unravel the mechanism of PNC reinforcement within the glassy state by directly probing nanoscale mechanical properties with atomic force microscopy and macroscopic properties with Brillouin light scattering. Our results unambiguously show that the "glassy" Young's modulus in the interfacial polymer layer of PNCs is two-times higher than in the bulk polymer, which results in significant reinforcement below Tg. We ascribe this phenomenon to a high stretchingmore » of the chains within the interfacial layer. Since the interfacial chain packing is essentially temperature independent, these findings provide a new insight into the mechanical reinforcement of PNCs also above Tg.« less

  9. Exploration of mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of single chondrocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Gu, YuanTong

    2014-05-05

    Based on the characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy, we report that the mechanical property of single chondrocytes has dependency on the strain-rates. By comparing the mechanical deformation responses and the Young's moduli of living and fixed chondrocytes at four different strain-rates, we explore the deformation mechanisms underlying this dependency property. We found that the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of living cells is governed by both of the cellular cytoskeleton and the intracellular fluid when the fixed chondrocytes are mainly governed by their intracellular fluid, which is called the consolidation-dependent deformation behavior. Finally, we report that the porohyperelastic constitutive material model which can capture the consolidation-dependent behavior of both living and fixed chondrocytes is a potential candidature to study living cell biomechanics.

  10. Mechanical R&D | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical R&D Mechanical R&D provides a wide range of design, analysis, and testing services for the Laboratoryâ€(tm)s scientific programs. Mechanical Design tests and evaluates engineering materials, designs and develops new experimental hardware and machine tools, and inspects and assembles mechanical components. In our efforts we utilize Autodesk Inventor and ESPRIT CAD/CAM Software by DP Technology Corp., among others. Our Mechanical Design staff also provides expertise in the

  11. Mechanical stabilization of BSCCO-2223 superconducting tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.G.; Grey, D.A.; Mantone, A.

    1996-12-31

    A system to provide mechanical stabilization to high temperature BSCCO-2223 superconducting tape by laminating 0.081 mm thick, spring hard, copper foil to both sides with lead-tin eutectic solder has been successfully optimized. This system has been applied as a method to create a strong, windable composite from pure silver BSCCO tapes with a minimum of critical current (I{sub c}) degradation. The {open_quotes}as received{close_quotes} conductor is evaluated for physical consistency of width and thickness over the 3000 meters that were later strengthened, insulated and wound into a demonstration coil. Electrical degradation in the strengthened tape as a result of lamination was found to average 24 percent with a range from 4 to 51 percent. This was less than the degradation that would have occurred in an unstrengthened tape during subsequent insulation and coil winding processes. Additional work was performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the strengthened tapes. The copper can double the ultimate tensile strength of the pure silver tapes. Additionally, pure silver and dispersion strengthened silver matrix tapes are laminated with 0.025 mm thick copper and 304 stainless steel foil to investigate minimization of the cross sectional area of the strengthening component. The stainless steel can increase the UTS of the pure silver tapes sixfold. Metallography is used to examine the laminate and the conductor. Mechanical properties and critical currents of these tapes are also reported both before and after strengthening. The I{sub c} is also measured as a function of strain on the laminated tapes.

  12. MECHANICS OF CRACK BRIDGING UNDER DYNAMIC LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. SRIDHAR; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    A bridging law for fiber reinforced composites under dynamic crack propagation conditions has been derived. Inertial effects in the mechanism of fiber pullout during dynamic propagation of a bridged crack are critically examined for the first time. By reposing simple shear lag models of pullout as problems of dynamic wave propagation, the effect of the frictional coupling between the fibers and the matrix is accounted for in a fairly straightforward way. The solutions yield the time-dependent relationship between the crack opening displacement and the bridging traction. Engineering criteria and the role of material and geometrical parameters for significant inertial effects are identified.

  13. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM (ARC EXTERNAL TO BLOCK)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brobeck, W.H.

    1958-09-01

    This patent pentains to an ion producing mechanism employed in a calutron which has the decided advantage of an increased amount of ionization effectuated by the arc, and a substantially uniform arc in poiat of time, i arc location and along the arc length. The unique features of the disclosed ion source lie in the specific structural arrangement of the source block, gas ionizing passage, filament shield and filament whereby the arc is established both within the ionizing passage and immediately outside the exit of the ionizing passage at the block face.

  14. Mechanical Models of Fault-Related Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, A. M.

    2003-01-09

    The subject of the proposed research is fault-related folding and ground deformation. The results are relevant to oil-producing structures throughout the world, to understanding of damage that has been observed along and near earthquake ruptures, and to earthquake-producing structures in California and other tectonically-active areas. The objectives of the proposed research were to provide both a unified, mechanical infrastructure for studies of fault-related foldings and to present the results in computer programs that have graphical users interfaces (GUIs) so that structural geologists and geophysicists can model a wide variety of fault-related folds (FaRFs).

  15. Porosity and mechanical properties of zirconium ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalatur, Ekaterina Narikovich, Anton; Buyakova, Svetlana E-mail: kulkov@ispms.tsc.ru; Kulkov, Sergey E-mail: kulkov@ispms.tsc.ru

    2014-11-14

    The article studies the porous ceramics consisting of ultra-fine ZrO{sub 2} powders. The porosity of ceramic samples varied from 15% to 80%. The structure of the ceramic materials had a cellular configuration. The distinctive feature of all experimentally obtained strain diagrams is their nonlinearity at low deformations characterized by the parabolic law. It was shown that the observed nonlinear elasticity for low deformations shown in strain diagrams is due to the mechanical instability of cellular elements of the ceramic framework.

  16. Use of chemical mechanical polishing in micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nasby, Robert D.; Hetherington, Dale L.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; McWhorter, Paul J.; Apblett, Christopher A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for removing topography effects during fabrication of micromachines. A sacrificial oxide layer is deposited over a level containing functional elements with etched valleys between the elements such that the sacrificial layer has sufficient thickness to fill the valleys and extend in thickness upwards to the extent that the lowest point on the upper surface of the oxide layer is at least as high as the top surface of the functional elements in the covered level. The sacrificial oxide layer is then polished down and planarized by chemical-mechanical polishing. Another layer of functional elements is then formed upon this new planarized surface.

  17. Use of chemical mechanical polishing in micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nasby, R.D.; Hetherington, D.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; McWhorter, P.J.; Apblett, C.A.

    1998-09-08

    A process for removing topography effects during fabrication of micromachines. A sacrificial oxide layer is deposited over a level containing functional elements with etched valleys between the elements such that the sacrificial layer has sufficient thickness to fill the valleys and extend in thickness upwards to the extent that the lowest point on the upper surface of the oxide layer is at least as high as the top surface of the functional elements in the covered level. The sacrificial oxide layer is then polished down and planarized by chemical-mechanical polishing. Another layer of functional elements is then formed upon this new planarized surface. 4 figs.

  18. Modelling of volatility in monetary transmission mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobešová, Anna; Klepáč, Václav; Kolman, Pavel; Bednářová, Petra

    2015-03-10

    The aim of this paper is to compare different approaches to modeling of volatility in monetary transmission mechanism. For this purpose we built time-varying parameter VAR (TVP-VAR) model with stochastic volatility and VAR-DCC-GARCH model with conditional variance. The data from three European countries are included in the analysis: the Czech Republic, Germany and Slovakia. Results show that VAR-DCC-GARCH system captures higher volatility of observed variables but main trends and detected breaks are generally identical in both approaches.

  19. Spacer grid assembly and locking mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Jr., Harold J.; Veca, Anthony R.; Donck, Harry A.

    1982-01-01

    A spacer grid assembly is disclosed for retaining a plurality of fuel rods in substantially parallel spaced relation, the spacer grids being formed with rhombic openings defining contact means for engaging from one to four fuel rods arranged in each opening, the spacer grids being of symmetric configuration with their rhombic openings being asymmetrically offset to permit inversion and relative rotation of the similar spacer grids for improved support of the fuel rods. An improved locking mechanism includes tie bars having chordal surfaces to facilitate their installation in slotted circular openings of the spacer grids, the tie rods being rotatable into locking engagement with the slotted openings.

  20. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wei-Yang

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  1. Mechanism of paint removing by organic solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Nero, V.; Siat, C.; Marti, M.J.; Aubry, J.M.; Lallier, J.P.; Dupuy, N.; Huvenne, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of paint removing has been studied by comparing the stripping efficiency of a given solvent with its ability to swell the film. The most effective solvents have a Hildebrand{close_quote}s parameter, {delta}{sub H}, ranging from 10.5 to 12 and a Dimroth parameter, ET{sub (30)}, ranging from 0.25 to 0.4. The synergy observed with the mixtures DMSO/non polar solvent is explained by a dissociation of the DMSO clusters into individual molecules which diffuse more easily. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Studies of combustion kinetics and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutman, D.

    1993-12-01

    The objective of the current research is to gain new quantitative knowledge of the kinetics and mechanisms of polyatomic free radicals which are important in hydrocarbon combustion processes. The special facility designed and built for these (which includes a heatable tubular reactor coupled to a photoionization mass spectrometer) is continually being improved. Where possible, these experimental studies are coupled with theoretical ones, sometimes conducted in collaboration with others, to obtain an improved understanding of the factors determining reactivity. The decomposition of acetyl radicals, isopropyl radicals, and n-propyl radicals have been studied as well as the oxidation of methylpropargyl radicals.

  3. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, K.C.

    1990-11-06

    This patent describes a tracking solar collector mechanism. It comprises: a stationary base structure which supports the tracking components; two parallel rows of uniformly spaced axial polar bearings attached to the base structure, each row comprising at least one bearing, wherein each member bearing of each row is coaligned with an associated bearing of the other row, the line joining each pair of coaligned polar bearings defining an associated polar tracking axis wherein the pair's polar axes are mutually parallel and are adapted to be aligned with the Earth's axis; at least one tracking module, each of which is supported by and turns on one of the pairs of coaligned polar bearings.

  4. Mod I automotive Stirling engine mechanical development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simetkosky, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Mod I Stirling engine was the first automotive Stirling engine designed specifically for automotive application. Testing of these engines has revealed several deficiencies in engine mechanical integrity which have been corrected by redesign or upgrade. The main deficiencies uncovered during the Mod I program lie in the combustion, auxiliary, main seal, and heater head areas. This paper will address each of the major area deficiencies in detail, and describe the corrective actions taken as they apply to the Mod I and the next Stirling-engine design, the Upgraded Mod I (a redesign to incorporate new materials for cost/weight reduction and improved performance).

  5. T-QUAKE Quantum Mechanical Microchip

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3b) How does the product operate? T-QUAKE Quantum Mechanical Microchip Delivering quantum-encoded secret keys is known as Quantum Key Distribution, or QKD; in essence it involves transmitting a series of randomly generated, quantum-encoded bits of information between a sender and a receiver, Alice and Bob, over a distance. This string of bits, called qubits, becomes the secret key Alice and Bob use to interpret encoded messages sent over less-secure channels. In the case of T-QUAKE, which relies

  6. T-QUAKE Quantum Mechanical Microchip

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4b) Describe how your product/service improves upon competitive products or technologies. T-QUAKE Quantum Mechanical Microchip Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2016-4224 O The Sandia team has created the first-ever functioning CV-QKD quantum photonic

  7. Defect-related internal dissipation in mechanical resonators and the study of coupled mechanical systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Czaplewski, David A.; Sullivan, John Patrick; Modine, Normand Arthur; Wendt, Joel Robert; Aslam, Dean (Michigan State University, Lansing, MI); Sepulveda-Alancastro, Nelson (University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR)

    2007-01-01

    Understanding internal dissipation in resonant mechanical systems at the micro- and nanoscale is of great technological and fundamental interest. Resonant mechanical systems are central to many sensor technologies, and microscale resonators form the basis of a variety of scanning probe microscopies. Furthermore, coupled resonant mechanical systems are of great utility for the study of complex dynamics in systems ranging from biology to electronics to photonics. In this work, we report the detailed experimental study of internal dissipation in micro- and nanomechanical oscillators fabricated from amorphous and crystalline diamond materials, atomistic modeling of dissipation in amorphous, defect-free, and defect-containing crystalline silicon, and experimental work on the properties of one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled mechanical oscillator arrays. We have identified that internal dissipation in most micro- and nanoscale oscillators is limited by defect relaxation processes, with large differences in the nature of the defects as the local order of the material ranges from amorphous to crystalline. Atomistic simulations also showed a dominant role of defect relaxation processes in controlling internal dissipation. Our studies of one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled oscillator arrays revealed that it is possible to create mechanical systems that should be ideal for the study of non-linear dynamics and localization.

  8. Rock mechanics contributions from defense programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    An attempt is made at illustrating the many contributions to rock mechanics from US defense programs, over the past 30-plus years. Large advances have been achieved in the technology-base area covering instrumentation, material properties, physical modeling, constitutive relations and numerical simulations. In the applications field, much progress has been made in understanding and being able to predict rock mass behavior related to underground explosions, cratering, projectile penetration, and defense nuclear waste storage. All these activities stand on their own merit as benefits to national security. But their impact is even broader, because they have found widespread applications in the non-defense sector; to name a few: the prediction of the response of underground structures to major earthquakes, the physics of the earth`s interior at great depths, instrumentation for monitoring mine blasting, thermo-mechanical instrumentation useful for civilian nuclear waste repositories, dynamic properties of earthquake faults, and transient large-strain numerical modeling of geological processes, such as diapirism. There is not pretense that this summary is exhaustive. It is meant to highlight success stories representative of DOE and DOD geotechnical activities, and to point to remaining challenges.

  9. Mechanical properties of reconstituted Australian black coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasinge, D.; Ranjith, P.G.; Choi, S.K.; Kodikara, J.; Arthur, M.; Li, H.

    2009-07-15

    Coal is usually highly heterogeneous. Great variation in properties can exist among samples obtained even at close proximity within the same seam or within the same core sample. This makes it difficult to establish a correlation between uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and point load index for coal. To overcome this problem, a method for making reconstituted samples for laboratory tests was developed. Samples were made by compacting particles of crushed coal mixed with cement and water. These samples were allowed to cure for four days. UCS and point load tests were performed to measure the geomechanical properties of the reconstituted coal. After four days curing, the average UCS was found to be approximately 4 MPa. This technical note outlines some experimental results and correlations that were developed to predict the mechanical properties of the reconstituted black coal samples. By reconstituting the samples from crushed coal, it is hoped that the samples will retain the important mechanical and physicochemical properties of coal, including the swelling, fluid transport, and gas sorption properties of coal. The aim is to be able to produce samples that are homogeneous with properties that are highly reproducible, and the reconstituted coal samples can be used for a number of research areas related to coal, including the long-term safe storage of CO{sub 2} in coal seams.

  10. A stochastic mechanism of electron heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2012-08-15

    Due to Landau resonant interaction with lower hybrid waves in the lower hybrid current drive scheme part of electrons are accelerated and, as a result of this, a tail of energetic electrons is formed on the electron distribution function. The same situation takes place in the problem of type III radio bursts when the suprathermal burst electrons acquire a plateau distribution due to excitation of plasma waves in the solar wind plasma. These distributions are unstable with respect to the cyclotron excitation of waves at anomalous Doppler resonance ('fan' instability). In this case, the tail electrons interact simultaneously with both (i) waves that accelerate or decelerate them (Cerenkov resonance) and (ii) waves excited in the process of the fan instability that led to their pitch angle diffusion. Because velocity diffusion lines of electrons formed due to heir interaction with each type of waves intersect, this interaction can lead not only to pitch angle diffusion but also to heating of electrons mainly in perpendicular direction. We investigated this mechanism of electron heating and studied the temporal evolution of the electron temperature and the energy of excited waves. Our results show significant enhancement of the electron perpendicular temperature T{sub Up-Tack} due to this stochastic heating mechanism.

  11. The Vainshtein mechanism in the cosmic web

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falck, Bridget; Koyama, Kazuya; Zhao, Gong-bo; Li, Baojiu E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the dependence of the Vainshtein screening mechanism on the cosmic web morphology of both dark matter particles and halos as determined by ORIGAMI. Unlike chameleon and symmetron screening, which come into effect in regions of high density, Vainshtein screening instead depends on the dimensionality of the system, and screened bodies can still feel external fields. ORIGAMI is well-suited to this problem because it defines morphologies according to the dimensionality of the collapsing structure and does not depend on a smoothing scale or density threshold parameter. We find that halo particles are screened while filament, wall, and void particles are unscreened, and this is independent of the particle density. However, after separating halos according to their large scale cosmic web environment, we find no difference in the screening properties of halos in filaments versus halos in clusters. We find that the fifth force enhancement of dark matter particles in halos is greatest well outside the virial radius. We confirm the theoretical expectation that even if the internal field is suppressed by the Vainshtein mechanism, the object still feels the fifth force generated by the external fields, by measuring peculiar velocities and velocity dispersions of halos. Finally, we investigate the morphology and gravity model dependence of halo spins, concentrations, and shapes.

  12. AHTR Mechanical, Structural, And Neutronic Preconceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Holcomb, David Eugene; Peretz, Fred J; Bradley, Eric Craig; Ilas, Dan; Qualls, A L; Zaharia, Nathaniel M

    2012-10-01

    This report provides an overview of the mechanical, structural, and neutronic aspects of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) design concept. The AHTR is a design concept for a large output Fluoride salt cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is being developed to enable evaluation of the technology hurdles remaining to be overcome prior to FHRs becoming a commercial reactor class. This report documents the incremental AHTR design maturation performed over the past year and is focused on advancing the design concept to a level of a functional, self-consistent system. The AHTR employs plate type coated particle fuel assemblies with rapid, off-line refueling. Neutronic analysis of the core has confirmed the viability of a 6-month 2-batch cycle with 9 weight-percent enriched uranium fuel. Refueling is intended to be performed automatically under visual guidance using dedicated robotic manipulators. The present design intent is for used fuel to be stored inside of containment for at least 6 months and then transferred to local dry wells for intermediate term, on-site storage. The mechanical and structural concept development effort has included an emphasis on transportation and constructability to minimize construction costs and schedule. The design intent is that all components be factory fabricated into rail transportable modules that are assembled into subsystems at an on-site workshop prior to being lifted into position using a heavy-lift crane in an open-top style construction. While detailed accident identification and response sequence analysis has yet to be performed, the design concept incorporates multiple levels of radioactive material containment including fully passive responses to all identified design basis or non-very-low frequency beyond design basis accidents. Key building design elements include: 1) below grade siting to minimize vulnerability to aircraft impact, 2) multiple natural circulation decay heat rejection chimneys, 3) seismic

  13. Appendices: Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...Showcase Demonstrations Case Studies Feedback Feedback Interval Each case Facility ... OIT Clearinghouse Phone: (800) 862-2086 Fax: (360) 385-8303 clearinghouse@ee.doe.gov Visit ...

  14. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... A fuel-to-steam conversion efficien- cy of 75 percent was assumed. This conversion accounts for losses in burning the fuel, generating the steam, and distributing it to the end ...

  15. Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... 12-15 months after approvals, saving jobs and providing economic opportunity across states such as Maine, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and New York. ...

  16. Combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through surface nanoengineering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elliott, Paul R.; Stagon, Stephen P.; Huang, Hanchen; Furrer, David U.; Burlatsky, Sergei F.; Filburn, Thomas P.

    2015-04-08

    This paper reports combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through the nanoscale engineering of surfaces in the form of nanorod-polymer composites. Specifically, the hydrophobicity derives from nanoscale features of mechanically hard ZnO nanorods and the mechanical durability derives from the composite structure of a hard ZnO nanorod core and soft polymer shell. Experimental characterization correlates the morphology of the nanoengineered surfaces with the combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability, and reveals the responsible mechanisms. Such surfaces may find use in applications, such as boat hulls, that benefit from hydrophobicity and require mechanical durability.

  17. Mechanical diode: Comparing numerical and experimental characterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagartz, M.J.; Segalman, D.; Simmermacher, T.

    1998-02-01

    In this introductory work, joint compliance is studied in both a numerical and experimental setting. A simple bolted interface is used as the test article and compliance is measured for the joint in both compression and in tension. This simple interface is shown to exhibit a strong non-linearity near the transition from compression to tension (or vice-versa). Modeling issues pertaining to numerically solving for the compliance are addressed. It is shown that the model predictions, in spite of convergence being very sensitive to numerical artifacts of the interface model, are in good agreement with experimentally measured strains and joint compliances. The joint behavior is a mechanical analogy to a diode, i.e., in compression, the joint is very stiff, acting almost as a rigid link, while in tension the joint is relatively soft, acting as a spring.

  18. LAMPF transition-region mechanical fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.; Gallegos, J.D.F.; Harrison, R.; Hart, V.E.; Hunter, W.T.; Rislove, S.E.; Sims, J.R.; Van Dyke, W.J.

    1984-07-01

    The primary purpose of the new Transition Region (TR-II) is to optimize the phase matching of the H/sup +/ and H/sup -/ beams during simultaneous transport. TR-II incorporates several design improvements that include larger aperture, a straight beam track, greater beam-path length adjustments, and utility lines integrated with the support system. The close pack density of magnets and beam-line hardware required innovative solutions to magnet design and mounting, vacuum manifolding, and utility routing. Critical magnet placement was accomplished using a new three-dimensional alignment system that does real-time vector calculations on a computer with input from two digital theodolites. All assembly and a large fraction of the mechanical fabrication were done by LAMPF personnel. The TR-II has been operational since September 1983 and routinely transports production beams up to 900-..mu..A current with no major problems.

  19. QCD mechanisms for heavy particle production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-09-01

    For very large pair mass, the production of heavy quarks and supersymmetric particles is expected to be governed by ACD fusion subprocesses. At lower mass scales other QCD mechanisms such as prebinding distortion and intrinsic heavy particle Fock states can become important, possibly accounting for the anomalies observed for charm hadroproduction. We emphasize the importance of final-state Coulomb interactions at low relative velocity in QCD and predict the existence of heavy narrow four quark resonances (c c-bar u u-bar) and (cc c-bar c-bar) in ..gamma gamma.. reactions. Coherent QCD contributions are discussed as a contribution to the non-additivity of nuclear structure functions and heavy particle production cross sections. We also predict a new type of amplitude zero for exclusive heavy meson pair production which follows from the tree-graph structure of QCD. 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Kang, In Seok

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  1. Mechanics and tribology of MEMS materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, Somuri V.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Boyce, Brad Lee; Buchheit, Thomas Edward

    2004-04-01

    Micromachines have the potential to significantly impact future weapon component designs as well as other defense, industrial, and consumer product applications. For both electroplated (LIGA) and surface micromachined (SMM) structural elements, the influence of processing on structure, and the resultant effects on material properties are not well understood. The behavior of dynamic interfaces in present as-fabricated microsystem materials is inadequate for most applications and the fundamental relationships between processing conditions and tribological behavior in these systems are not clearly defined. We intend to develop a basic understanding of deformation, fracture, and surface interactions responsible for friction and wear of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) materials. This will enable needed design flexibility for these devices, as well as strengthen our understanding of material behavior at the nanoscale. The goal of this project is to develop new capabilities for sub-microscale mechanical and tribological measurements, and to exercise these capabilities to investigate material behavior at this size scale.

  2. Mechanical connection for a tubular assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grover, J.M.

    1984-09-12

    Disclosed is a mechanical connection assembly for connecting two telescopically related parts together in a fluidtight relation. The system uses snap-in fasteners having flexible barbed tangs which are snapped into receiving holes formed in the parts being attached together. A locking pin can be inserted into a central aperture through the snap-in fastener to secure the fastener in the receiving holes. The system also includes a seal having sealing surfaces at least one of which is formed at an angle inclined relative to a true vertical. a metallic sealing element is interposed between the sealing surfaces. The geometry of the sealing surfaces is capable of compensating for the differential thermal growth rates occurring when the two parts are made from dissimilar metals.

  3. Chemical, mechanical treatment options reduce hydroprocessor fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groce, B.C.

    1996-01-29

    The processing of opportunity crudes and the need to meet stricter environmental regulations in the production of distillates and finished fuels have increased the benefit of the hydroprocessing unit to the refiner. With this potential for increased margins and more environmentally friendly fuel products comes increased risk of fouling in hydroprocessing units. Increased fouling can reduce unit reliability and increase maintenance and operating costs. The refiner has several options available to help minimize the fouling and maximize the unit`s profitability and flexibility. One of the two commonly selected options is to allocate capital for a mechanical solution to address a specific cause of fouling. The other option is the use of a chemical treatment program. This paper reviews the efficiency and implementation procedures for these two processes.

  4. Frictional granular mechanics: A variational approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.

    2009-10-16

    The mechanical properties of a cohesionless granular material are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. Intergranular interactions, including friction and sliding, are modeled by a set of contact rules based on the theories of Hertz, Mindlin, and Deresiewicz. A computer generated, three-dimensional, irregular pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacement of its boundaries. Deformation is described by a sequence of static equilibrium configurations of the pack. A variational approach is employed to find the equilibrium configurations by minimizing the total work against the intergranular loads. Effective elastic moduli are evaluated from the intergranular forces and the deformation of the pack. Good agreement between the computed and measured moduli, achieved with no adjustment of material parameters, establishes the physical soundness of the proposed model.

  5. Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  6. Decomposition of amino diazeniumdiolates (NONOates): Molecular mechanisms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shaikh, Nizamuddin; Valiev, Marat; Lymar, Sergei V.

    2014-08-23

    Although diazeniumdiolates (X[N(O)NO]-) are extensively used in biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological studies due to their ability to release NO and/or its congeneric nitroxyl, the mechanisms of these processes remain obscure. In this work, we used a combination of spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational techniques to arrive at a quantitatively consistent molecular mechanism for decomposition of amino diazeniumdiolates (amino NONOates: R2N[N(O)NO]-, where R = —N(C2H5)2(1), —N(C3H4NH2)2(2), or —N(C2H4NH2)2(3)). Decomposition of these NONOates is triggered by protonation of their [NN(O)NO]- group with the apparent pKa and decomposition rate constants of 4.6 and 1 s-1 for 1; 3.5 and 0.083 s-1 for 2; andmore » 3.8 and 0.0033 s-1 for 3. Although protonation occurs mainly on the O atoms of the functional group, only the minor R2N(H)N(O)NO tautomer (population ~ 10-7, for 1) undergoes the N—N heterolytic bond cleavage (kd ~ 107 s-1 for 1) leading to amine and NO. Decompositions of protonated amino NONOates are strongly temperature-dependent; activation enthalpies are 20.4 and 19.4 kcal/mol for 1 and 2, respectively, which includes contributions from both the tautomerization and bond cleavage. Thus, the bond cleavage rates exhibit exceptional sensitivity to the nature of R substituents which strongly modulate activation entropy. At pH < 2, decompositions of all three NONOates that have been investigated are subject to additional acid catalysis that occurs through di-protonation of the [NN(O)NO]- group.« less

  7. Decomposition of Amino Diazeniumdiolates (NONOates): Molecular Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaikh, Nizamuddin; Valiev, Marat; Lymar, Sergei V.

    2014-08-23

    Although diazeniumdiolates (X[N(O)NO]-) are extensively used in biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological studies due to their ability to slowly release NO and/or its congeneric nitroxyl, the mechanisms of these processes remain obscure. In this work, we used a combination of spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational techniques to arrive at a qualitatively consistent molecular mechanism for decomposition of amino diazeniumdiolates (amino NONOates: R2N[N(O)NO]-, where R = -N(C2H5)2 (1), -N(C3H4NH2)2 (2), or -N(C2H4NH2)2 (3)). Decomposition of these NONOates is triggered by protonation of their [NN(O)NO]- group with apparent pKa and decomposition rate constants of 4.6 and 1 s-1 for 1-H, 3.5 and 83 x 10-3 s-1 for 2-H, and 3.8 and 3.3 x 10-3 s-1 for 3-H. Although protonation occurs mainly on the O atoms of the functional group, only the minor R2N(H)N(O)NO tautomer (population ~0.01%, for 1) undergoes the N-N heterolytic bond cleavage (k ~102 s-1 for 1) leading to amine and NO. Decompositions of protonated amino NONOates are strongly temperature-dependent; activation enthalpies are 20.4 and 19.4 kcal/mol for 1 and 2, respectively, which includes contributions from both the tautomerization and bond cleavage. The bond cleavage rates exhibit exceptional sensitivity to the nature of R substituents which strongly modulate activation entropy. At pH < 2, decompositions of all these NONOates are subject to additional acid catalysis that occurs through di-protonation of the [NN(O)NO]- group.

  8. Theoretical Study of the Inverting Mechanism in a Processive Cellobiohydrolase with Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Payne, C. M.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Hypocrea jecorina Family 6 cellobiohydrolase (Cel6A) is one of most efficient enzymes for cellulose deconstruction to soluble sugars and is thus of significant current interest for the growing biofuels industry. Cel6A is known to hydrolyze b(1,4)-glycosidic linkages in cellulose via an inverting mechanism, but there are still questions that remain regarding the role of water and the catalytic base. Here we study the inverting, single displacement, hydrolytic reaction mechanism in Cel6A using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The computational model used to follow the reaction is a truncated active site model with several explicit waters based on structural studies of H. jecorina Cel6A. Proposed mechanisms are evaluated with several density functionals. From our calculations, the role of the water in nucleophilic attack on the anomeric carbon, and the roles of several residues in the active site loops are elucidated explicitly for the first time. We also apply quantum mechanical calculations to understand the proton transfer reaction which completes the catalytic cycle.

  9. Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism Print Tuesday, 23 June 2015 13:00 The cancer drug...

  10. Effect of Cusps in Time-Dependent Quantum Mechanics (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Cusps in Time-Dependent Quantum Mechanics Title: Effect of Cusps in Time-Dependent Quantum Mechanics Authors: Yang, Zeng-hui ; Maitra, Neepa T. ; Burke, Kieron ...

  11. Mechanism of DNA interstrand cross-link processing by repair...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Mechanism of DNA interstrand cross-link processing by repair nuclease FAN1 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanism of ...

  12. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; MECHANICAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DRAFT COOLING TOWERS; PERFORMANCE; SIMULATION; COST; DESIGN; HEAT TRANSFER; OPERATION; WATER REQUIREMENTS; COOLING TOWERS; ENERGY TRANSFER; MECHANICAL STRUCTURES; TOWERS...

  13. Deformation Quantization: Quantum Mechanic Lives and Works in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DENSITY MATRIX; DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS; FERMILAB; HILBERT SPACE; NUCLEAR PHYSICS; OPTICS; PATH INTEGRALS; PHASE SPACE; PROCESSING; QUANTIZATION; QUANTUM MECHANICS; UNCERTAINTY...

  14. Defect-reduction mechanism for improving radiative efficiency...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CAPACITANCE; ...

  15. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimization of Enhanced Geothermal System Development and Production | Department of Energy Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments for Optimization of Enhanced Geothermal System Development and Production Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments for Optimization of Enhanced Geothermal System Development and Production Project objective: Develop a novel Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) modeling tool.

  16. Process for predicting structural performance of mechanical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, David R.; Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Plimpton, Steven J.; Attaway, Stephen W.; Heinstein, Martin W.; Vaughan, Courtenay T.

    1998-01-01

    A process for predicting the structural performance of a mechanical system represents the mechanical system by a plurality of surface elements. The surface elements are grouped according to their location in the volume occupied by the mechanical system so that contacts between surface elements can be efficiently located. The process is well suited for efficient practice on multiprocessor computers.

  17. Process for predicting structural performance of mechanical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, D.R.; Hendrickson, B.A.; Plimpton, S.J.; Attaway, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Vaughan, C.T.

    1998-05-19

    A process for predicting the structural performance of a mechanical system represents the mechanical system by a plurality of surface elements. The surface elements are grouped according to their location in the volume occupied by the mechanical system so that contacts between surface elements can be efficiently located. The process is well suited for efficient practice on multiprocessor computers. 12 figs.

  18. Decoupling: Mechanics and Issues, Presentation to the New Mexico Public

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulation Commission Energy Efficiency Incentives Workshop | Department of Energy Decoupling: Mechanics and Issues, Presentation to the New Mexico Public Regulation Commission Energy Efficiency Incentives Workshop Decoupling: Mechanics and Issues, Presentation to the New Mexico Public Regulation Commission Energy Efficiency Incentives Workshop Decoupling: Mechanics and Issues, Presentation to the New Mexico Public Regulation Commission Energy Efficiency Incentives Workshop Decoupling:

  19. Microbial Mechanisms Enhancing Soil C Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zak, Donald

    2015-09-24

    Human activity has globally increased the amount of nitrogen (N) entering ecosystems, which could foster higher rates of C sequestration in the N-limited forests of the Northern Hemisphere. Presently, these ecosystems are a large global sink for atmospheric CO2, the magnitude of which could be influenced by the input of human-derived N from the atmosphere. Nevertheless, empirical studies and simulation models suggest that anthropogenic N deposition could have either an important or inconsequential effect on C storage in forests of the Northern Hemisphere, a set of observations that continues to fuel scientific discourse. Although a relatively simple set of physiological processes control the C balance of terrestrial ecosystems, we still fail to understand how these processes directly and indirectly respond to greater N availability in the environment. The uptake of anthropogenic N by N-limited forest trees and a subsequent enhancement of net primary productivity have been the primary mechanisms thought to increase ecosystem C storage in Northern Hemisphere forests. However, there are reasons to expect that anthropogenic N deposition could slow microbial activity in soil, decrease litter decay, and increase soil C storage. Fungi dominate the decay of plant detritus in forests and, under laboratory conditions, high inorganic N concentrations can repress the transcription of genes coding for enzymes which depolymerize lignin in plant detritus; this observation presents the possibility that anthropogenic N deposition could elicit a similar effect under field conditions. In our 18-yr-long field experiment, we have been able to document that simulated N deposition, at a rate expected in the near future, resulted in a significant decline in cellulolytic and lignolytic microbial activity, slowed plant litter decay, and increased soil C storage (+10%); this response is not portrayed in any biogeochemical model simulating the effect of atmospheric N deposition on ecosystem C

  20. AHTR Mechanical, Structural, and Neutronic Preconceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, V.K.; Holcomb, D.E.; Peretz, F.J.; Bradley, E.C.; Ilas, D.; Qualls, A.L.; Zaharia, N.M.

    2012-09-15

    This report provides an overview of the mechanical, structural, and neutronic aspects of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) design concept. The AHTR is a design concept for a large output Fluoride salt cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is being developed to enable evaluation of the technology hurdles remaining to be overcome prior to FHRs becoming an option for commercial reactor deployment. This report documents the incremental AHTR design maturation performed over the past year and is focused on advancing the design concept to a level of a functional, self-consistent system. The reactor concept development remains at a preconceptual level of maturity. While the overall appearance of an AHTR design is anticipated to be similar to the current concept, optimized dimensions will differ from those presented here. The AHTR employs plate type coated particle fuel assemblies with rapid, off-line refueling. Neutronic analysis of the core has confirmed the viability of a 6-month two-batch cycle with 9 wt. % enriched uranium fuel. Refueling is intended to be performed automatically under visual guidance using dedicated robotic manipulators. The report includes a preconceptual design of the manipulators, the fuel transfer system, and the used fuel storage system. The present design intent is for used fuel to be stored inside of containment for at least six months and then transferred to local dry wells for intermediate term, on-site storage. The mechanical and structural concept development effort has included an emphasis on transportation and constructability to minimize construction costs and schedule. The design intent is that all components be factory fabricated into rail transportable modules that are assembled into subsystems at an on-site workshop prior to being lifted into position using a heavy-lift crane in an open-top style construction. While detailed accident identification and response sequence analysis has yet to be performed, the design

  1. Decomposition of amino diazeniumdiolates (NONOates): Molecular mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaikh, Nizamuddin; Valiev, Marat; Lymar, Sergei V.

    2014-12-01

    Although diazeniumdiolates (X[N(O)NO]-) are extensively used in biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological studies due to their ability to release NO and/or its congeneric nitroxyl, the mechanisms of these processes remain obscure. In this work, we used a combination of spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational techniques to arrive at a quantitatively consistent molecular mechanism for decomposition of amino diazeniumdiolates (amino NONOates: R2N[N(O)NO]-, where R = N(C2H5)2(1), N(C3H4NH2)2(2), or N(C2H4NH2)2(3)). Decomposition of these NONOates is triggered by protonation of their [NN(O)NO]- group with the apparent pKa and decomposition rate constants of 4.6 and 1 s-1 for 1; 3.5 and 0.083 s-1 for 2; and 3.8 and 0.0033 s-1 for 3. Although protonation occurs mainly on the O atoms of the functional group, only the minor R2N(H)N(O)NO tautomer (population ~ 10-7, for 1) undergoes the NN heterolytic bond cleavage (kd ~ 107 s-1 for 1) leading to amine and NO. Decompositions of protonated amino NONOates are strongly temperature-dependent; activation enthalpies are 20.4 and 19.4 kcal/mol for 1 and 2, respectively, which includes contributions from both the tautomerization and bond cleavage. The bond cleavage rates exhibit exceptional sensitivity to the nature of R substituents which strongly modulate activation entropy. At pH < 2, decompositions of all three NONOates that have been investigated are subject to additional acid catalysis that occurs through di-protonation of the [NN(O)NO]- group.

  2. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  3. Mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Picardal, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    Nine bacteria were tested for the ability to dehalogenate tetrachloromethane (CT), tetrachloroethene (PCE), and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA) under anaerobic conditions. Three bacteria were able to reductively dehalogenate CT. Dehalogenation ability was not readily linked to a common metabolism or changes in culture redox potential. None of the bacteria tested were able to dehalogenate PCE or TCA. One of the bacteria capable of dehalogenating CT, Shewanella putrefaciens, was chosen as a model organism to study mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation. The effect of a variety of alternate electron acceptors on CT dehalogenation ability by S. putrefaciens was determined. oxygen and nitrogen oxides were inhibitory but Fe (III), trimethylamine oxide, and fumarate were not. A model of the electron transport chain of S. putrefaciens was developed to explain inhibition patterns. A period of microaerobic growth prior to CT exposure increased the ability of S. putrefaciens to dehalogenate CT. A microaerobic growth period also increased cytochrome concentrations. A relationship between cytochrome content and dehalogenation ability was developed from studies in which cytochrome concentrations in S. putrefaciens were manipulated by changing growth conditions. Stoichiometry studies using {sup 14}C-CT suggested that CT was first reduced to form a trichloromethyl radical. Reduction of the radical to produce chloroform and reaction of the radical with cellular biochemicals explained observed product distributions. Carbon dioxide or other fully dehalogenated products were not found.

  4. Mechanical properties of lanthanum and yttrium chromites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulik, S.W.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    In an operating high-temperature (1000{degrees}C) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the interconnect separates the fuel (P(O{sub 2}){approx}10{sup -16} atm) and the oxidant (P(O2){approx}10{sup 0.2} atm), while being electrically conductive and connecting the cells in series. Such severe atmospheric and thermal demands greatly reduce the number of viable candidate materials. Only two materials, acceptor substituted lanthanum chromite and yttrium chromite, meet these severe requirements. In acceptor substituted chromites (Sr{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} for La{sup 3+}), charge compensation is primarily electronic in oxidizing conditions (through the formation of Cr{sup 4+}). Under reducing conditions, ionic charge compensation becomes significant as the lattice becomes oxygen deficient. The formation of oxygen vacancies is accompanied by the reduction of Cr{sup 4+} ions to Cr{sup 3+} and a resultant lattice expansion. The lattice expansion observed in large chemical potential gradients is not desirable and has been found to result in greatly reduced mechanical strength.

  5. Microfabricated therapeutic actuators and release mechanisms therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Schumann, Daniel L.; Da Silva, Luiz; Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a retaining/release actuator for the delivery of material, such as embolic coils, for example, through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use. The SMP microtubing can be positioned around or within an end of a deposit material. Various heating arrangements can be utilized with the SMP release mechanism, and the SMP microtubing can include a metallic coating for enhanced light absorption.

  6. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  7. MECHANISMS AND OPTIMIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyriacos Zygourakis

    2000-10-31

    The completed research project has made some significant contributions that will help us meet the challenges outlined in the previous section. One of the major novelties of our experimental approach involves the application of video microscopy and digital image analysis to study important transient phenomena (like particle swelling and ignitions) occurring during coal pyrolysis and combustion. Image analysis was also used to analyze the macropore structure of chars, a dominant factor in determining char reactivity and ignition behavior at high temperatures where all the commercial processes operate. By combining advanced experimental techniques with mathematical modeling, we were able to achieve the main objectives of our project. More specifically: (1) We accurately quantified the effect of several important process conditions (like pyrolysis heating rate, particle size, heat treatment temperature and soak time) on the combustion behavior of chars. These measurements shed new light into the fundamental mechanisms of important transient processes like particle swelling and ignitions. (2) We developed and tested theoretical models that can predict the ignition behavior of char particles and their burn-off times at high temperatures where intraparticle diffusional limitations are very important.

  8. Mechanical seal having a single-piece, perforated mating ring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2007-08-07

    A mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) with reduced contact surface temperature, reduced contact surface wear, or increased life span. The mechanical seal comprises a rotating ring and a single-piece, perforated mating ring, which improves heat transfer by controllably channeling coolant flow through the single-piece mating ring such that the coolant is in substantially uniform thermal contact with a substantial portion of the interior surface area of the seal face, while maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanical seal and minimizing the potential for coolant flow interruptions to the seal face caused by debris or contaminants (e.g., small solids and trash) in the coolant.

  9. Mechanical seal having a double-tier mating ring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method to enhance the overall performance of mechanical seals in one of the following ways: by reducing seal face wear, by reducing the contact surface temperature, or by increasing the life span of mechanical seals. The apparatus is a mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) comprising a rotating ring and a double-tier mating ring. In a preferred embodiment, the double-tier mating ring comprises a first and a second stationary ring that together form an agitation-inducing, guided flow channel to allow for the removal of heat generated at the seal face of the mating ring by channeling a coolant entering the mating ring to a position adjacent to and in close proximity with the interior surface area of the seal face of the mating ring.

  10. Patterns and perspectives in applied fracture mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkle, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    This lecture begins with a overview of applied fracture mechanics pertinent to safety of pressure vessels. It then progresses to a chronological panorama of experimental and analytical results. To be useful and dependable in safety analysis of real structures, new analysis developments must be physically realistic, which means that they must accurately describe physical cause and effect. Consequently, before mathematical modeling can begin, cause and effect must be established from experimental data. This can be difficult and time consuming, but worth the effort. Accordingly, the theme of this paper is that the search for patterns is constant and vital. This theme is illustrated by the development of small, single-specimen, fracture toughness testing techniques. It is also illustrated by the development, based on two different published large-strain, elastic-plastic, three-dimensional finite-element analyses, of a hypothesis concerning three-dimensional loss of constraint. When a generalization of Irwin`s thickness-normalized plastic-zone parameter, reaches a value close to 2{pi}, the through-thickness contraction strain at the apex of the near-tip logarithmic-spiral slip-line region becomes the dominant negative strain accommodating crack opening. Because slip lines passing from the midplane to the stress-free side surfaces do not have to curve, once these slip lines are established, stresses near the crack tip are only elevated by strain hardening and constraint becomes significantly relaxed. This hypothesis, based on published three-dimensional elastic-plastic analyses, provides a potentially valuable means for gaining additional insight into constraint effects on fracture toughness by considering the roles played by the plastic strains as well as the stresses that develop near a crack tip.

  11. Mechanical design aspects of the HYVAX railgun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, W.E.; Cummings, C.E.; Davidson, R.F.; Parker, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    The hypervelocity experiment (HYVAX) railgun is designed to produce projectile velocities greater than 15 km/s in a 13-m-long, round bore gun. The HYVAX gun incorporates a modular design enabling it to operate in either a distributed energy-storage mode or a single-stage mode. The gun is composed of seven 0.3-m-long power input modules and nine 1.2-m-long accelerating modules. The gun is designed for a 100-shot life. To accommodate this, the bore may be enlarged from an initial diameter of 10.8 mm to a final diameter of 12.7 mm. This will allow the bore to be refinished several times during the life of the gun. To minimize mechanical and arc damage to the gun between bore refinishing operations, the gun will incorporate a low pressure helium projectile injector. Projectiles will be injected under vacuum at 350 m/s. The gun will be operated at a peak current and voltage of 600 kA and 6 kV respectively. The gun will undergo three phases of testing. The first phase will be the characterization of the gun's performance using a 3.0-m-long section of the gun comprising two power modules and two accelerating modules. This testing will be accomplished using two of the seven capacitor bank modules. The second test phase will use a distributed power configuration and seven capacitor bank modules to demonstrate a velocity of 15 km/s with a 1-g projectile. The predicted performance of the gun for this test phase is illustrated. In the third phase of testing we will use a magnetic flux compression demonstrating a velocity of 25 km/s.

  12. Electrolyte Genome Reveals New Instability Mechanism in Mg Electrolytes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joint Center for Energy Storage Research February 10, 2015, Research Highlights Electrolyte Genome Reveals New Instability Mechanism in Mg Electrolytes (Top) The Mg salt and solvent combinations simulated for solvation shell structures and dynamics (Bottom) The TFSI- decomposition mechanism triggered by partial reduction of Mg2+ ->Mg+. This mechanism consumes anion, disrupts the deposition of Mg0 on the anode and may deposit anion fragments on the anode. Scientific Achievement Simulations

  13. Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage Media |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage Media Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage Media Presentation on the Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage Media given at the DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials on May 18, 2006. storage_theory_session_eiazab.pdf (1.21 MB) More Documents & Publications Summary Report from Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials Documentation of Hybrid

  14. Deformation and Failure Mechanisms of Shape Memory Alloys (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Deformation and Failure Mechanisms of Shape Memory Alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deformation and Failure Mechanisms of Shape Memory Alloys The goal of this research was to understand the fundamental mechanics that drive the deformation and failure of shape memory alloys (SMAs). SMAs are difficult materials to characterize because of the complex phase transformations that give rise to their unique properties, including shape

  15. Chemistry: Mechanism and Experiment - Combustion Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Chemistry: Mechanism and Experiment Chemistry: Mechanism and Experiment The Mechanism and Experiment DWG uses an array of advanced experimental apparatus to probe the combustion chemistry of fuels. Primary apparatus used include shock tube (Hanson/Davidson), variable-pressure turbulent flow reactor (Dryer), rapid compression machine (Sung), low-pressure burner stabilized flame coupled with synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry (Hansen, Dryer), atmospheric-pressure burner

  16. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250ºC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Uranium Reduction by Clostridia and its Manipulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matin, A. C.

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this grant is to examine and manipulate the molecular mechanisms in Clostridia to make them better agents for uranyl [U(VI)] bioremediation.

  18. Coupled hydro-mechanical processes in crytalline rock and inindurateda...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    rock and ininduratedand plastic clays: A comparative discussion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coupled hydro-mechanical processes in crytalline rock and ...

  19. FCTO Announces Plenary Talk at American Society of Mechanical...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    FCTO Announces Plenary Talk at American Society of Mechanical Engineers Energy Sustainability and Fuel Cell Technology Conference FCTO Announces Plenary Talk at American Society of ...

  20. The two-electron reduction mechanism of ethylene carbonate: a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The two-electron reduction mechanism of ethylene carbonate: a quantum chemistry study. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The two-electron reduction ...

  1. Crystal Structure of MC159 Reveals Molecular Mechanism of DISC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Crystal Structure of MC159 Reveals Molecular Mechanism of DISC Assembly and FLIP Inhibition Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  2. Death Domain Assembly Mechanism Revealed by Crystal Structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Death Domain Assembly Mechanism Revealed by Crystal Structure of the Oligomeric PIDDosome Core Complex Citation Details In-Document ...

  3. Stand-alone Renewable Energy-Financing Mechanisms | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Stand-alone Renewable Energy-Financing Mechanisms AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy Focus...

  4. Built-in Electric Field Induced Mechanical Property Change at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and nanoelectromechanical systems, but relatively unexplored for nanoscale materials. ... electric field and the mechanical properties on the nanoscale for perovskite materials. ...

  5. Sandia Energy - Structural and Mechanical Adaptive Rotor Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Mechanical Adaptive Rotor Technology (SMART) Final Project Reports Published Home Renewable Energy Energy News Wind Energy News & Events Systems Analysis Structural and...

  6. Decoupling: Mechanics and Issues, Presentation to the New Mexico...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New Mexico Public Regulation Commission Energy Efficiency Incentives Workshop Decoupling: Mechanics and Issues, Presentation to the New Mexico Public Regulation Commission Energy ...

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - Wayne_Shirley_Decoupling_Mechanics_and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Decoupling: Mechanics and Issues Presentation to the New Mexico Public Regulation ... Website: http:www.raponline.org Context for Decoupling All forms of regulation are ...

  8. Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning Presents the reliationship between Pt particle size and NOx storage performance ...

  9. Mechanical Analysis of High Power Internally Cooled Annular Fuel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Mechanical Analysis of High Power Internally Cooled Annular Fuel Annular fuel with internal flow is proposed to allow higher power density in pressurized water reactors. The ...

  10. Microbial Mechanisms Enhancing Soil C Storage (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Microbial Mechanisms Enhancing Soil C Storage Human activity has globally increased ... of which could be influenced by the input of human-derived N from the atmosphere. ...

  11. Deformation Quantization: Quantum Mechanic Lives and Works in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    It has been useful in describing quantum flows in: quantum optics; nuclear physics; ... Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND ...

  12. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    full-scale laboratory investigations Michael S. Bruno 58 GEOSCIENCES; 02 PETROLEUM; 03 NATURAL GAS; ROCK DRILLING; PRESSURE DEPENDENCE; ROCK MECHANICS; ROTARY DRILLING; WELL...

  13. Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon AdsorberMaterials Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and ...

  14. Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism Print The cancer drug Gleevec is extremely specific, binding and inhibiting only the cancer-causing tyrosine protein...

  15. Deformation mechanisms in a precipitation-strengthened ferritic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    strain evolution and the microscopic load-sharing mechanisms during tensile ... Based on these interphase and intergranular load-partitioning studies, it is found that ...

  16. STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE ON FILLED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MODELING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE ON FILLED ELASTOMERS - RECENT INSIGHTS FROM EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING ...

  17. Modeling-Thermo-electrochemistry, Capacity Degradation and Mechanics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials ...

  18. Coarse-grained Energy Modeling of Rollback/Recovery Mechanisms...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Coarse-grained Energy Modeling of RollbackRecovery Mechanisms. Abstract not provided. Authors: Ferreira, Kurt Brian ; Ibtesham, Dewan ; DeBonis, David ; Arnold, Dorian ...

  19. Branching Mechanisms in Surfactant Micellar Growth (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Branching Mechanisms in Surfactant Micellar Growth Authors: Tang, M ; Carter, W C Publication Date: 2012-08-20 OSTI Identifier: 1169255 ...

  20. Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid Waste Management Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: A Guide to Clean Development...

  1. Grid Renewable Energy-Financing Mechanisms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0,, References: Grid Renewable Energy-Financing Mechanisms 1 Resources "Financial Risk Management Instruments for Renewable Energy Projects, Summary Document, United...

  2. SEACAS Theory Manuals: Part II. Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attaway, S.W.; Laursen, T.A.; Zadoks, R.I.

    1998-09-01

    This report summarizes the key continuum mechanics concepts required for the systematic prescription and numerical solution of finite deformation solid mechanics problems. Topics surveyed include measures of deformation appropriate for media undergoing large deformations, stress measures appropriate for such problems, balance laws and their role in nonlinear continuum mechanics, the role of frame indifference in description of large deformation response, and the extension of these theories to encompass two dimensional idealizations, structural idealizations, and rigid body behavior. There are three companion reports that describe the problem formulation, constitutive modeling, and finite element technology for nonlinear continuum mechanics systems.

  3. Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CROSS-LINKING; DENSITY; DISTRIBUTION; ...

  4. Discovering a previously unknown mechanism that halts solar eruptions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a previously unknown mechanism that halts solar eruptions before they blast into space By John Greenwald December 23, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook...

  5. Quantum-Mechanical Interatomic Potentials with Electron Temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electron Temperature for Strong Coupling Transition Metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantum-Mechanical Interatomic Potentials with Electron Temperature for ...

  6. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF A MECHANICALLY POLISHED AND AIR-EQUILIBRATED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF A MECHANICALLY POLISHED AND AIR-EQUILIBRATED 111 UO2 SURFACE BY RAMAN AND ELLIPSOMETRIC SPECTROSCOPY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  7. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Physics-Based Model Development. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based ...

  8. STATISTICAL MECHANICS MODELING OF MESOSCALE DEFORMATION IN METALS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dislocation systems in deformed crystals. 2) Formulating kinetic equations of dislocations and coupling these kinetics equations and crystal mechanics. 3) Computational solution ...

  9. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print ... are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly ...

  10. Degradation Mechanisms in Li-Ion Battery Electrolytes Uncovered...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Degradation Mechanisms in Li-Ion Battery Electrolytes Uncovered by In-Situ Scanning ... to evaluate stability and degradation in battery electrolytes Developed a rapid method ...

  11. Discovery of the Fundamental Mechanism of Action of Resveratrol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery of the Fundamental Mechanism of Action of Resveratrol Thursday, May 28, 2015 Resveratrol is reported to extend lifespan and provide cardio-neuro-protective, ...

  12. IN OTHER CATEGORIES; MACHINERY; MASS BALANCE; MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    world Bracher, B. 42 ENGINEERING NOT INCLUDED IN OTHER CATEGORIES; MACHINERY; MASS BALANCE; MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS; MAINTENANCE; REPAIR Field balancing can achieve significant...

  13. Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on Cu/Chabazite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on CuChabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life Cycle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Understanding NOx SCR...

  14. Crystallization and Mechanical Properties of Poly(l-lactide)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystallization and Mechanical Properties of Poly(l-lactide)-Based RubberySemicrystalline Multiblock Copolymers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystallization and...

  15. Variability in Mechanical Properties of Laser Engineered Net...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annual Meeting and Exhibition SAND2015-1811C Variability in Mechanical Properties of Laser ... the LENS process builds gjj material by injecting powder feedstock with laser heating. ...

  16. Water Outlet Control Mechanism for Fuel Cell System Operation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Water Outlet Control Mechanism for Fuel Cell System Operation in Variable Gravity Environments Self-Regulating Water Separation System for Fuel ...

  17. Enforcement Letter, Geiger Brothers Mechanical Contractors, INC- March 26, 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Issued to Geiger Brothers Mechanical Contractors, Inc. related to Installation and Inspection of Penetration Fire Seals at the DUF6 Conversion Building at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

  18. Mechanical Properties of Nuclear Fuel Surrogates using Picosecond Laser Ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Hurley; Marat Khafizov; Farhad Farzbod; Eric Burgett

    2013-05-01

    Detailed understanding between microstructure evolution and mechanical properties is important for designing new high burnup nuclear fuels. In this presentation we discuss the use of picosecond ultrasonics to measure localize changes in mechanical properties of fuel surrogates. We develop measurement techniques that can be applied to investigate heterogeneous elastic properties caused by localize changes in chemistry, grain microstructure caused by recrystallization, and mechanical properties of small samples prepared using focused ion beam sample preparation. Emphasis is placed on understanding the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties

  19. High Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms And Implications For Flux Measurement And Fractionation Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  20. American Society of Mechanical Engineers/Savannah River National...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Society of Mechanical EngineersSavannah River National Laboratory (ASMESRNL) ... Sponsored by SRNL, ASME, and DOE held at the Center for Hydrogen Research, Aiken, SC, ...

  1. Public Finance Mechanisms to Increase Investment in Energy Efficiency...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Increase Investment in Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Public Finance Mechanisms to Increase Investment in Energy Efficiency Agency...

  2. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title...

  3. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    This document corresponds to Appendix D: Modeling Integrated Summary Report of the Technical Assessment Team Report. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure (2.59 MB) ...

  4. Final Scientific/Technical Report for Project entitled "Mechanism...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Final ScientificTechnical Report for Project entitled "Mechanism of Uranium Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis" Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Scientific...

  5. Nonlinear mechanical resonators for ultra-sensitive mass detection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    However, operation of such nanoscale mechanical resonators is very challenging due to minuteness of their oscillation amplitudes and presence of multiple noise sources in real ...

  6. Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its Light-Front Holographic Embedding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal...

  7. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations Citation Details In-Document...

  8. Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its Light-Front Holographic Embedding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Baryon Spectrum from...

  9. Influence of Mechanical Properties Relevant to Standoff Deflection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Influence of Mechanical Properties Relevant to Standoff Deflection of Hazardous Asteroids Authors: Lomov, I ; Herbold, E B ; Antoun, T H ; Miller, P Publication Date: ...

  10. Deformation mechanisms in a precipitation-strengthened ferritic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    room-temperature ductility, the creep resistance of this material at high temperatures ... Subject: nuclear (including radiation effects), defects, mechanical behavior, spin ...

  11. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked...

  12. Anisotropy induced Kondo splitting in a mechanically stretched...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... EFFECT; MAGNETIC PROPERTIES; MAGNETS; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; MOLECULES; RESONANCE; SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTIONS; SPIN Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles DOI: 10.1063...

  13. Public Finance Mechanisms to Mobilize Investment in Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mobilize Investment in Climate Change Mitigation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Public Finance Mechanisms to Mobilize Investment in Climate Change...

  14. A New Mechanism of Charge Density Wave Discovered in Transition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 A New Mechanism of Charge Density Wave Discovered in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Charge density waves (CDW) are a type of coupled electronic-lattice instability found in...

  15. Failure mechanisms in MEMS. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In MEMS, both electrical and mechanical precautions must be enacted to reduce the risk of ... Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; MICROELECTRONICS; FAILURE MODE ANALYSIS; FABRICATION; PACKAGING; ...

  16. Mechanism of action and inhibition of dehydrosqualene synthase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanism of action and inhibition of dehydrosqualene synthase Citation Details ... Publisher: National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States) Research Org: ...

  17. Johney Green to Lead NREL Mechanical and Thermal Systems Engineering...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Johney Green to Lead NREL Mechanical and Thermal Systems Engineering Research August 11, 2016 Photo of Johney Green Photo of Johney Green The Energy Department's National Renewable ...

  18. Johney Green to Lead NREL Mechanical and Thermal Systems Engineering...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Johney Green to Lead NREL Mechanical and Thermal Systems Engineering Research August 11, 2016 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has named Dr. ...

  19. Chemically- and mechanically-mediated influences on the transport and mechanical characteristics of rock fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min, K.-B.; Rutqvist, J.; Elsworth, D.

    2009-02-01

    A model is presented to represent changes in the mechanical and transport characteristics of fractured rock that result from coupled mechanical and chemical effects. The specific influence is the elevation of dissolution rates on contacting asperities, which results in a stress- and temperature-dependent permanent closure. A model representing this pressure-dissolution-like behavior is adapted to define the threshold and resulting response in terms of fundamental thermodynamic properties of a contacting fracture. These relations are incorporated in a stress-stiffening model of fracture closure to define the stress- and temperature-dependency of aperture loss and behavior during stress and temperature cycling. These models compare well with laboratory and field experiments, representing both decoupled isobaric and isothermal responses. The model was applied to explore the impact of these responses on heated structures in rock. The result showed a reduction in ultimate induced stresses over the case where chemical effects were not incorporated, with permanent reduction in final stresses after cooling to ambient conditions. Similarly, permeabilities may be lower than they were in the case where chemical effects were not considered, with a net reduction apparent even after cooling to ambient temperature. These heretofore-neglected effects may have a correspondingly significant impact on the performance of heated structures in rock, such as repositories for the containment of radioactive wastes.

  20. Modeling thermal/chemical/mechanical response of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gross, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of modeling at Sandia National Laboratories is presented which describes coupled thermal, chemical and mechanical response of energetic materials. This modeling addresses cookoff scenarios for safety assessment studies in systems containing energetic materials. Foundation work is discussed which establishes a method for incorporating chemistry and mechanics into multidimensional analysis. Finite element analysis offers the capabilities to simultaneously resolve reactive heat transfer and structural mechanics in complex geometries. Nonlinear conduction heat transfer, with multiple step finite-rate chemistry, is resolved using a thermal finite element code. Rate equations are solved element-by-element using a modified matrix-free stiff solver This finite element software was developed for the simulation of systems requiring large numbers of finite elements. An iterative implicit scheme, based on the conjugate gradient method, is used and a hemi-cube algorithm is employed for the determination of view factors in surface-to-surface radiation transfer The critical link between the reactive heat transfer and mechanics is the introduction of an appropriate constitutive material model providing a stress-strain relationship for quasi-static mechanics analysis. This model is formally derived from bubble nucleation theory, and parameter variations of critical model parameters indicate that a small degree of decomposition leads to significant mechanical response. Coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical analysis is presented which simulates experiments designed to probe cookoff thermal-mechanical response of energetic materials.

  1. Project Profile: Degradation Mechanisms for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transfer Fluid Containment Materials | Department of Energy Degradation Mechanisms for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat Transfer Fluid Containment Materials Project Profile: Degradation Mechanisms for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat Transfer Fluid Containment Materials National Renewable Energy Laboratory logo -- This project is inactive -- The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with support from the University of Wisconsin and Sandia National Laboratories, under the National

  2. Hydrostatic self-aligning axial/torsional mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, Daniel G. (Knoxville, TN); Gerth, Howard L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a self-aligning axial/torsional loading mechanism for testing the strength of brittle materials which are sensitive to bending moments. Disposed inside said self-aligning loading mechanism is a frictionless hydrostatic ball joint with a flexure ring to accommodate torsional loads through said ball joint.

  3. QCD mechanisms of (semi)exclusive Drell-Yan processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovarov, A.A.; Teryaev, O.V.

    2015-04-10

    Two mechanisms for the lepton pair production in exclusive proton-meson collisions are considered and compared. Amplitudes and differential cross sections are calculated. The interference of these mechanisms is taken into account. The skewness dependence of the result is discussed.

  4. Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P.; Benett, William J.; Schumann, Daniel L.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Fitch, Joseph P.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SMP material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

  5. Treating electrostatics with Wolf summation in combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojeda-May, Pedro; Pu, Jingzhi

    2015-11-07

    The Wolf summation approach [D. Wolf et al., J. Chem. Phys. 110, 8254 (1999)], in the damped shifted force (DSF) formalism [C. J. Fennell and J. D. Gezelter, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 234104 (2006)], is extended for treating electrostatics in combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulations. In this development, we split the QM/MM electrostatic potential energy function into the conventional Coulomb r{sup −1} term and a term that contains the DSF contribution. The former is handled by the standard machinery of cutoff-based QM/MM simulations whereas the latter is incorporated into the QM/MM interaction Hamiltonian as a Fock matrix correction. We tested the resulting QM/MM-DSF method for two solution-phase reactions, i.e., the association of ammonium and chloride ions and a symmetric SN{sub 2} reaction in which a methyl group is exchanged between two chloride ions. The performance of the QM/MM-DSF method was assessed by comparing the potential of mean force (PMF) profiles with those from the QM/MM-Ewald and QM/MM-isotropic periodic sum (IPS) methods, both of which include long-range electrostatics explicitly. For ion association, the QM/MM-DSF method successfully eliminates the artificial free energy drift observed in the QM/MM-Cutoff simulations, in a remarkable agreement with the two long-range-containing methods. For the SN{sub 2} reaction, the free energy of activation obtained by the QM/MM-DSF method agrees well with both the QM/MM-Ewald and QM/MM-IPS results. The latter, however, requires a greater cutoff distance than QM/MM-DSF for a proper convergence of the PMF. Avoiding time-consuming lattice summation, the QM/MM-DSF method yields a 55% reduction in computational cost compared with the QM/MM-Ewald method. These results suggest that, in addition to QM/MM-IPS, the QM/MM-DSF method may serve as another efficient and accurate alternative to QM/MM-Ewald for treating electrostatics in condensed-phase simulations of chemical

  6. Molecular Imprinting as a Signal-Activation Mechanism of the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Molecular Imprinting as a Signal-Activation Mechanism of the Viral RNA Sensor RIG- Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  7. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF A MECHANICALLY POLISHED AND AIR-EQUILIBRATED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND AIR-EQUILIBRATED 111 UO2 SURFACE BY RAMAN AND ELLIPSOMETRIC SPECTROSCOPY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF A MECHANICALLY POLISHED AND AIR-EQUI...

  8. Coupled hydro-mechanical processes and fault reactivation induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coupled hydro-mechanical processes and fault reactivation induced by Co2 Injection in a three-layer storage formation Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become ...

  9. JTA8B Normal Mechanical Discussion Meeting Minutes January 7...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: JTA8B Normal Mechanical Discussion Meeting Minutes January,7, 2016 ; 2016-01-07 - 2016-01-07 ; Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States Research Org: ...

  10. Erratum: "'Water-cycle' mechanism for writing and erasingnanostructur...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Erratum: "'Water-cycle' mechanism for writing and erasing nanostructures at the LaAlO3SrTiO3 interface" Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 173110 (2010) Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  11. Mechanisms Engineering Test Loop - Phase I Status Report - FY2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hvasta, M.; Grandy, C.; Lisowski, D.; Borowski, A.

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the current status of the Mechanisms Engineering Test Loop (METL) as of the end of FY2015. METL is currently in Phase I of its design and construction.

  12. Harmful Shunting Mechanisms Found in Silicon Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    Scientists developed near-field optical microscopy for imaging electrical breakdown in solar cells and identified critical electrical breakdown mechanisms operating in industrial silicon and epitaxial silicon solar cells.

  13. Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The heating andor cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism ...

  14. Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The heating andor cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism ...

  15. Stainless steel 304 cladding mechanical properties and limitations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    steel 304 cladding mechanical properties and limitations during steady state operation of U-ZrH TRIGA type fuel. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stainless steel 304 ...

  16. Mechanical properties of dissimilar metal joints composed of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    composed of DP 980 Steel and AA 7075-T6 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical properties of dissimilar metal joints composed of DP 980 Steel and AA 7075-T6 A ...

  17. Small Business Assistance Mechanical Testing of Z-Coil Shoe

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sandia

    2009-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories conducts mechanical testing in 2001 through New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program on shoes developed and patented by Z-Coil Footwear. (SAND2006-2144P)

  18. Rock Mechanics Models and Measurements Challenges from Industry. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laubach, S.E.; Nelson, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    Increased mutual dependence of the economies of Canada, the United States and Mexico has now been recognized formally by agreements between the respective national governments. Noting the basic economic role of rock mechanics in the resource recovery and construction industries, it is appropriate that the First North American Rock Mechanics Symposium should confirm mutual interest in rock mechanics research and engineering practice in the neighboring countries. Different government and industrial emphases in the NAFTA countries lead to complementary strengths in their research and engineering programs. The First NARM Symposium is the first opportunity to explore thoroughly, within the scope of a single meeting, rock mechanics research in progress and engineering achievements in the three countries. Individual papers abstracted separately.

  19. A nanocrystal strain gauge for luminescence detection of mechanical forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Charina; Koski, Kristie; Olson, Andrew; Alivisatos, Paul

    2010-07-26

    Local microscale stresses play a crucial role in inhomogeneous mechanical processes from cell motility to material failure. However, it remains difficult to spatially resolve stress at these small length scales. While contact-probe and non-contact based techniques have been used to quantify local mechanical behavior in specific systems with high stiffness or stress and spatial resolution, these methods cannot be used to study a majority of micromechanical systems due to spectroscopic and geometrical constraints. We present here the design and implementation of a luminescent nanocrystal strain gauge, the CdSe/CdS core/shell tetrapod. The tetrapod can be incorporated into many materials, yielding a local stress measurement through optical fluorescence spectroscopy of the electronically confined CdSe core states. The stress response of the tetrapod is calibrated and utilized to study mechanical behavior in single polymer fibers. We expect that tetrapods can be used to investigate local stresses in many other mechanical systems.

  20. The tokamak density limit: A thermo-resistive disruption mechanism...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The tokamak density limit: A thermo-resistive disruption mechanism Authors: Gates, D. A. 1 ; Brennan, D. P. 1 ; Delgado-Aparicio, L. 1 ; White, R. B. 1 + Show Author ...