Sample records for mechanical behavior charge

  1. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a NewCuneo Matthew1, 20121+Mechanical Behavior of

  2. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a NewCuneo Matthew1, 20121+Mechanical Behavior

  3. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a NewCuneo Matthew1,Mechanical Behavior of Indium

  4. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a NewCuneo Matthew1, 20121+MechanicalMechanical

  5. Wave-Corpuscle Mechanics for Electric Charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Anatoli; Figotin, Alexander

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    superposition in nonlinear wave dynamics. Rev. Math. Phys.6. Babin, A. , Figotin, A. : Wave-corpuscle mechanics forV. , Fortunato, D. : Solitary waves in the nonlinear wave

  6. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a NewCuneo Matthew1, 20121+Mechanical

  7. Online Mechanism Design for Electric Vehicle Charging Enrico H. Gerding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Online Mechanism Design for Electric Vehicle Charging Enrico H. Gerding eg@ecs.soton.ac.uk Valentin electric vehicles are expected to place a consid- erable strain on local electricity distribution networks mechanisms are evaluated in depth, using data from a real-world trial of electric vehicles in the UK

  8. Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: kxu2006@sinano.ac.cn; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure.

  9. Behavior analysis and mechanism: One is not the other

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Edward K.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Behavior analysts have been called mechanists, and behavior analysis is said to be mechanistic, that is, aligned with the philosophy of mechanism. What this means is analyzed by (1) examining standard and specialized ...

  10. Characterization of Thermo-Mechanical Behaviors of Advanced High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Thermo-Mechanical Behaviors of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) Presenter: Mark Smith Principal Investigator: Xin Sun Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Principal...

  11. Characterization of Thermo-Mechanical Behaviors of Advanced High...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08smith7.pdf More Documents & Publications Characterization of Thermo-Mechanical Behaviors of...

  12. State of health and charge measurements in lithium-ion batteries using mechanical stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Craig B.

    State of health and charge measurements in lithium-ion batteries using mechanical stress John 2014 Keywords: Mechanical stress Lithium-ion battery State of charge (SOC) State of health (SOH importance of state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC) measurement to lithium-ion battery systems

  13. BEV Charging Behavior Observed in The EV Project for 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brion D. Bennett

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet will be issued quarterly to report on the number of Nissan Leafs vehicle usage, charging locations, and charging completeness as part of the EV Project. It will be posted on the INL/AVTA and ECOtality websites and will be accessible by the general public. The raw data that is used to create the report is considered proprietary/OUO and NDA protected, but the information in this report is NOT proprietary nor NDA protected.

  14. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  15. Characterization of Thermo-Mechanical Behaviors of Advanced High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. lm25smith.pdf More Documents & Publications Characterization of Thermo-Mechanical Behaviors of...

  16. Mechanical behavior of dip-brazed aluminum sandwich panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hohmann, Brian P. (Brian Patrick)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the mechanical behavior of sandwich panels containing cellular cores of varying shape. Compression and four point bend tests were performed on sandwich panels with square ...

  17. Nanostructure stabilization and mechanical behavior of binary nanocrystalline alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trelewicz, Jason R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals has become of great interest in recent years, owing to both their remarkable strength and the emergence of new deformation physics at the nanoscale. Of particular ...

  18. Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Lithium-ion Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An, Kai

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    THERMO-MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERY ELECTRODES A Thesis by KAI AN Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... on the thermo-mechanical behavior of lithium ion battery electrodes. It presents a single particle model of random lattice spring elements coupled with solid phase Li-ion diffusion under active temperature effects. The thermal features are realized by solving...

  19. Mechanical behavior of elastic rods under constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, James Thomas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the mechanics of thin elastic rods under a variety of loading conditions. Four scenarios are explored, with increasing complexity: i) the shape of a naturally ...

  20. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV demonstrations. One such previous study was a PHEV demonstration conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). AVTA's PHEV demonstration involved over 250 vehicles in the United States, Canada, and Finland. This paper summarizes driving and charging behavior observed in that demonstration, including the distribution of distance driven between charging events, charging frequency, and resulting proportion of operation charge depleting mode. Charging demand relative to time of day and day of the week will also be shown. Conclusions from the PHEV demonstration will be given which highlight the need for expanded analysis in The EV Project. For example, the AVTA PHEV demonstration showed that in the absence of controlled charging by the vehicle owner or electric utility, the majority of vehicles were charged in the evening hours, coincident with typical utility peak demand. Given this baseline, The EV Project will demonstrate the effects of consumer charge control and grid-side charge management on electricity demand. This paper will outline further analyses which will be performed by eTec and INL to documenting driving and charging behavior of vehicles operated in a infrastructure-rich environment.

  1. Generalized space-charge limited current and virtual cathode behaviors in one-dimensional drift space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhanfeng; Liu, Guozhi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China) [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-13, Xi'an 710024 (China); Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Sun, Jun [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-13, Xi'an 710024 (China)] [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-13, Xi'an 710024 (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the space-charge limited current (SLC) and virtual cathode behaviors in one-dimensional grounded drift space. A simple general analytical solution and an approximate solution for the planar diode are given. Through a semi-analytical method, a general solution for SLC in one-dimensional drift space is obtained. The behaviors of virtual cathode in the drift space, including dominant frequency, electron transit time, position, and transmitted current, are yielded analytically. The relationship between the frequency of the virtual cathode oscillation and the injected current presented may explain previously reported numerical works. Results are significant in facilitating estimations and further analytical studies.

  2. Transport mechanisms and experimental evidence of positively charged dust particles in an argon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.A.; Hareland, W.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collins, S.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that dense particle clouds often reside within the steady-state plasma; however, particle transport in the critical post-plasma period has not yet been fully explored. To better understand and characterize particle behavior, charge and transport properties of dust particles in an argon plasma, contained within a Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) reference cell, were studied in the steady-state and post-plasma regimes of a 500 mTorr, 25 W argon discharge. Using separate water chillers to control independently the temperatures of the upper and lower electrodes, various temperature gradients were imposed on the plasma and thermophoretic transport of the particle clouds observed for both steady and decaying discharges. Next, using a pulsed rf power supply and a tuned Langmuir probe, the decay times of electrons and ions were measured in the afterglow. Finally, utilizing high-speed video in concert with 10 mW He-Ne laser light, post-plasma particle trajectories were observed for various electric fields and electrode temperatures. Results were then compared to calculations from a net force model that included gravity, the electric field, fluid flow, ion drag, and thermophoresis. It was found that temperature gradients greater than {approximately} 10 C/cm significantly altered particle cloud configurations in steady plasmas, and provided a strong transport mechanism in the afterglow. Electrically, the measured ion density decay time was approximately equal to that of the electrons, consistent with ambipolar diffusion.

  3. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  4. Electricity Demand of PHEVs Operated by Private Households and Commercial Fleets: Effects of Driving and Charging Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Matthew Shirk; Ken Kurani; Casey Quinn; Jamie Davies

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automotive and energy researchers have made considerable efforts to predict the impact of plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) charging on the electrical grid. This work has been done primarily through computer modeling and simulation. The US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), in partnership with the University of California at Davis’s Institute for Transportation Stuides, have been collecting data from a diverse fleet of PHEVs. The AVTA is conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. This work provides the opportunity to quantify the petroleum displacement potential of early PHEV models, and also observe, rather than simulate, the charging behavior of vehicle users. This paper presents actual charging behavior and the resulting electricity demand from these PHEVs operating in undirected, real-world conditions. Charging patterns are examined for both commercial-use and personal-use vehicles. Underlying reasons for charging behavior in both groups are also presented.

  5. Corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials for coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A state-of-the-art review is presented on the corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials at elevated temperatures in coal-gasification environments. The gas atmosphere in coal-conversion processes are, in general, complex mixtures which contain sulfur-bearing components (H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/, and COS) as well as oxidants (CO/sub 2//CO and H/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/). The information developed over the last five years clearly shows sulfidation to be the major mode of material degradation in these environments. The corrosion behavior of structural materials in complex gas environments is examined to evaluate the interrelationships between gas chemistry, alloy chemistry, temperature, and pressure. Thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature corrosion processes that pertain to coal conversion are discussed, and kinetic data are used to compare the behavior of different commercial materials of interest. The influence of complex gas environments on the mechanical properties such as tensile, stress-rupture, and impact on selected alloys is presented. The data have been analyzed, wherever possible, to examine the role of environment on the property variation. The results from ongoing programs on char effects on corrosion and on alloy protection via coatings, cladding, and weld overlay are presented. Areas of additional research with particular emphasis on the development of a better understanding of corrosion processes in complex environments and on alloy design for improved corrosion resistance are discussed. 54 references, 65 figures, 24 tables.

  6. Charge carrier transport mechanisms in perovskite CdTiO{sub 3} fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imran, Z.; Rafiq, M. A., E-mail: aftab@cantab.net; Hasan, M. M. [Micro and Nano Devices Group, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad, 45650 (Pakistan)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical transport properties of electrospun cadmium titanate (CdTiO{sub 3}) fibers have been investigated using ac and dc measurements. Air annealing of as spun fibers at 1000?°C yielded the single phase perovskite fibers having diameter ?600 nm - 800 nm. Both the ac and dc electrical measurements were carried out at temperatures from 200 K – 420 K. The complex impedance plane plots revealed a single semicircular arc which indicates the interfacial effect due to grain boundaries of fibers. The dielectric properties obey the Maxwell-Wagner theory of interfacial polarization. In dc transport study at low voltages, data show Ohmic like behavior followed by space charge limited current (SCLC) with traps at higher voltages at all temperatures (200 K – 420 K). Trap density in our fibers system is N{sub t} = 6.27 × 10{sup 17} /cm{sup 3}. Conduction mechanism in the sample is governed by 3-D variable range hopping (VRH) from 200 K – 300 K. The localized density of states were found to be N(E{sub F}) = 5.51 × 10{sup 21} eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?3} at 2 V. Other VRH parameters such as hopping distance (R{sub hop}) and hopping energy (W{sub hop}) were also calculated. In the high temperature range of 320 K – 420 K, conductivity follows the Arrhenius law. The activation energy found at 2 V is 0.10 eV. Temperature dependent and higher values of dielectric constant make the perovskite CdTiO{sub 3} fibers efficient material for capacitive energy storage devices.

  7. On the mechanism of acceleration behavior of plasma bullet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S.; Lu, X., E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com; Pan, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two special experiments are designed to study the mechanism of the acceleration behavior of a plasma bullet when it exits a nozzle. First, a T-shape device is used to simulate the air diffusion when a plasma plume exits the nozzle. It is found that adding just 1% of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, or air to the main working gas He results in the acceleration of the plasma bullet. Second, materials of different permittivity are added to the left part of the outside of the tube. The experimental results show that the plasma bullet accelerates at the moment when it enters into the right part of the tube where there is no extra material on the outside of the tube. These two experiments confirm that the acceleration behavior of the plasma bullet when it exits the nozzle is due to the air diffusion, hence Penning ionization, and the permittivity change when the bullet exits the nozzle, for example, from a tube with high permittivity to air with low permittivity. Besides, electric field measurements show that the electric field in the bullet head increases when the plasma bullet accelerates. This confirms the electric field driven nature of the plasma bullet propagation.

  8. Deployment Mechanism Design with Behavioral Modeling Based on Pro/Engineer Motion Skeleton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kind of motion mechanisms, is often used to stretch out solar panels or antennas in spacecraftDeployment Mechanism Design with Behavioral Modeling Based on Pro/Engineer Motion Skeleton Chao.com.cn Keywords: Deployment mechanism, Motion skeleton, Behavioral modeling, Feasibility analysis Abstract

  9. Understanding sensitization behavior of lead selenide photoconductive detectors by charge separation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Lihua, E-mail: lihua.zhao@ou.edu, E-mail: shi@ou.edu; Qiu, Jijun; Weng, Binbin; Chang, Caleb; Yuan, Zijian; Shi, Zhisheng, E-mail: lihua.zhao@ou.edu, E-mail: shi@ou.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a charge separation model in this work to explain the mechanism of enhanced photoconductivity of polycrystalline lead salt photoconductors. Our results show that this model could clarify the heuristic fabrication processes of such lead salt detectors that were not well understood and often considered mysterious for nearly a century. The improved lifetime and performance of the device, e.g., responsivity, are attributed to the spatial separation of holes and electrons, hence less possibility of carrier recombination. This model shows that in addition to crystal quality the size of crystallites, the depth of outer conversion layer, and doping concentration could all affect detector performance. The simulation results agree well with experimental results and thus offer a very useful tool for further improvement of lead salt detectors. The model was developed with lead salt family of photoconductors in mind, but may well be applicable to a wider class of semiconducting films.

  10. Prediction of failure behavior of a welded pressure vessel containing flaws during a hydrogen-charged burst test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhuyan, G.S. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Sperling, E.J. [Amoco Corp., Naperville, IL (United States); Shen, G. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Metals Technology Labs.; Yin, H. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Farmers Branch, TX (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An industry-government collaborative program was carried out with an aim to promoting the acceptance of fracture mechanics based fitness-for-service assessment methodology for a service-damaged pressure vessel. A collaborative round robin exercise was carried out to predict the fracture behavior of a vessel containing hydrogen damage, fabrication related lack-of-fusion defects, an artificially induced fatigue crack and a localized thinned area. The fracture assessment procedures used include the US ASME Material Property Council`s PREFIS Program based on the British Standard (BS) Published Document (PD) 6493, ASME Section XI and The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) R6 approach; The welding Institute (TWI) CRACKWISE program (based on BS PD6493 Level 2 approach), a variant of the R6 approach, J-tearing instability approaches, various J-estimation schemes, LEFM approach and simplified stress analysis. Assessments were compared with the results obtained from a hydrogen charged burst test of the vessel. Predictions, based on the J-tearing approach, compared well with the actual burst test results. Actual burst pressure was about five times the operating pressure.

  11. Prediction of failure behavior of a welded pressure vessel containing flaws during a hydrogen-charged burst test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhuyan, G.S. [Powertech Labs Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Sperling, E.J. [BP-Amoco, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Shen, G. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Metals Technology Labs.; Yin, H. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An industry-government collaborative program was carried out with an aim to promoting the acceptance of fracture mechanics-based fitness-for-service assessment methodology for a service-damaged pressure vessel. A collaborative round robin exercise was carried out to predict the fracture behavior of a vessel containing hydrogen damage, fabrication-related lack-of-fusion defects, an artificially induced fatigue crack, and a localized thinned area. The fracture assessment procedures used include the US ASME Material Property Council`s PREFIS Program based on the British Standard (BS) Published Document (PD) 6493, ASME Section XI and The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) R6 approach, The Welding Institute (TWI) CRACKWISE program (based on BS PD6493 Level 2 approach), a variant of the R6 approach, J-tearing instability approaches, various J-estimation schemes, LEFM approach, and simplified stress analysis. Assessments were compared with the results obtained from a hydrogen-charged burst test of the vessel. Predictions, based on the J-tearing approach, compared well with the actual burst test results. Actual burst pressure was about five times the operating pressure.

  12. Critical behavior of charged Gauss-Bonnet AdS black holes in the grand canonical ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, De-Cheng; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermodynamics in the grand canonical ensemble of D-dimensional charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes in the extended phase space. We find that the usual small-large black hole phase transition, which exhibits analogy with the Van de Waals liquid-gas system holds in five-dimensional spherical charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes when its potential is fixed within the range $0Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes, there is no such phase transition. In the limiting case, Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes, with vanishing Gauss-Bonnet parameter, there is no critical behavior in the grand canonical ensemble. This result holds independent of the spacetime dimensions and topologies. We also examine the behavior of physical quantities in the vicinity of the critical point in the five-dimensional spherical charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes.

  13. Critical behavior of charged Gauss-Bonnet AdS black holes in the grand canonical ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De-Cheng Zou; Yunqi Liu; Bin Wang

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermodynamics in the grand canonical ensemble of D-dimensional charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes in the extended phase space. We find that the usual small-large black hole phase transition, which exhibits analogy with the Van de Waals liquid-gas system holds in five-dimensional spherical charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes when its potential is fixed within the range $0Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes, there is no such phase transition. In the limiting case, Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes, with vanishing Gauss-Bonnet parameter, there is no critical behavior in the grand canonical ensemble. This result holds independent of the spacetime dimensions and topologies. We also examine the behavior of physical quantities in the vicinity of the critical point in the five-dimensional spherical charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes.

  14. Mechanics of Insulator Behavior in Concrete Crosstie Fastening Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    of Insulator Behavior Analysis of failure modes and causes · Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) used

  15. Gibbs paradox and a possible mechanism of like-charge attraction in colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi-Lun Lee; Yiing-Rei Chen

    2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a reconsideration of the Gibbs paradox, we show that a residual, non-extensive term in entropy turns up upon mixing identical particles, whether they are indistinguishable or not. The positive contribution from this residual entropy leads to a decrease in free energy, and we suggest that this entropic mechanism may serve as a source of like-charge attractions between a pair of colloidal particles or other macroions. For a system of two colloidal particles along with their neutralizing counterions, such decrease in free energy is of a few thermal energies and therefore crucial to the effective interaction between the particles.

  16. On the Significance of Microtubule Flexural Behavior in Cytoskeletal Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    occurs in higher modes. This buckling mode switch takes place mostly because of the lateral support in all these modeling approaches is related to the flexural and buckling behavior of microtubular filaments. The objective of this paper is to explore the influence of this flexural and buckling behavior

  17. The normal basilar artery: structural properties and mechanical behavior 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wicker, Bethany Kay

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    is a well established model for vasospasm. However, surprisingly little is known about the mechanical properties of the rabbit basilar artery. Using an in vitro custom organ culture and mechanical testing device, acute and cultured basilar arteries from...

  18. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging Behaviors - Experiences from Six Smart Grid Investment Grant Projects

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt | Department of EnergyBehaviors: Experiences

  19. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rohrbaugh; John Smart

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  20. Analysis of the Behavior of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations with Renewable Generations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    initial policy. Simulation results confirm the convergence of the game between EVCSs. The results also assumed that EVs are charged only at home. However, considering that conventional internal combustion engine vehicles refuel at gas stations, EVs might also be charged at other facilities which provide

  1. Mechanical behavior of closed-cell and hollow-sphere metallic foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Wynn Steven, 1974-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) The elastic anisotropy and yield surfaces are fully characterized, and numerical equations are developed to allow the simple evaluation of the effect of geometric and material properties on the mechanical behavior ...

  2. An Atomistic Study of the Mechanical Behavior of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanocomposite Interfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awasthi, Amnaya P.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this dissertation pertains to the evaluation of stiffness of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a multiscale framework and modeling of the interfacial mechanical behavior in CNT-polymer nanocomposites. The goal is to study...

  3. Microstructure-based Computational Modeling of the Mechanical Behavior of Polymer Micro/Nano-composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heydarkhan Tehrani, Ardeshir

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation is devoted to the virtual investigation of the mechanical behavior of micro/nano polymer composites (MNPCs). Advanced composite materials are favored by the automotive industry and army departments for their customizable tailored...

  4. Characterization of thermo-mechanical and long-term behaviors of multi-layered composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Aravind R.

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents characterization of thermo-mechanical viscoelastic and long-term behaviors of thick-section multi-layered fiber reinforced polymer composite materials. The studied multi-layered systems belong to a class of thermo...

  5. Microstructure-based Computational Modeling of the Mechanical Behavior of Polymer Micro/Nano-composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heydarkhan Tehrani, Ardeshir

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation is devoted to the virtual investigation of the mechanical behavior of micro/nano polymer composites (MNPCs). Advanced composite materials are favored by the automotive industry and army departments for their customizable tailored...

  6. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PROPERTIES AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF TITANIUM HYDRIDE LAYERS GROWN ON TITANIUM IMPLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PROPERTIES AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF TITANIUM HYDRIDE LAYERS GROWN ON TITANIUM, Switzerland Keywords: SLA treated titanium - bone-anchored dental implants - transmission and scanning electron microscopy - titanium hydride sub-surface layer - epitaxy Abstract Commercially pure titanium

  7. Factors Affecting the Mechanical Behavior of Bone Subrata Saha, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Robert P.

    Factors Affecting the Mechanical Behavior of Bone by Subrata Saha, Ph.D. Research Professor-mail: subrata.saha@downstate.edu ABSTRACT The load carrying capacity of our skeletal system depends

  8. The influence of salinity on the mechanical behavior of high plasticity soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahy, Brian Patrick

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the influence of salinity on the mechanical behavior of smectitic rich high plasticity soils resedimented with pore fluid salinities ranging from 0 to 256 g/L. An extensive laboratory testing program ...

  9. Coupled Effects of Mechanics, Geometry, and Chemistry on Bio-membrane Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    build and analyze complete models to understand the behavior of multi-component membranes. We proposeCoupled Effects of Mechanics, Geometry, and Chemistry on Bio-membrane Behavior Thesis by Ha Giang, and encouragement. #12;iv Abstract Lipid bilayer membranes are models for cell membranes­the structure that helps

  10. Roles of nanofiller structure on mechanical behavior of thermoplastic nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weon, Jong Il

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    -based models accurately describe the relationship between clay structural parameters and the corresponding moduli for exfoliated nanocomposites. The impact fracture mechanisms of polypropylene (PP)-calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles have been investigated...

  11. The mechanical behavior of heavily overconsolidated resedimented Boston Blue Clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vargas Bustamante, Albalyra Geraldine

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geotechnical engineers encounter some of the most challenging problems in heavily overconsolidated soils. Clays under this condition originated in nature or man-made construction. This thesis investigates the mechanical ...

  12. Implications of Rapid Charging and Chemo-Mechanical Degradation in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Mohammed Fouad

    2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    ........................................... 18 Charging Protocols ................................................................................................... 30 Electrode Design Parameters .................................................................................... 44 Summary...) and the accompanied internal cell resistances in (b), during the charge/discharge pulse followed by CCCV ...... 44 Figure 20 The effect of electrode design parameters with (3 C-rate) CCCV charging starting at 25?C and using self-heating thermal condition (h = 28 W...

  13. Mechanisms of classical crystal growth theory explain quartz and silicate dissolution behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dove, Patricia M.

    Mechanisms of classical crystal growth theory explain quartz and silicate dissolution behavior processes was previously unknown for oxides or silicates, our mechanism-based findings are consistent, the geochemistry of earth systems is, in large part, controlled by the kinetics of silicate mineral dissolution

  14. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of ultrafine-grained titanium J. Gubicza1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenő

    Microstructure and mechanical behavior of ultrafine-grained titanium J. Gubicza1,a , Zs. Fogarassy1@yahoo.com Keywords: Titanium, Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP), radial forging, drawing, microstructure, mechanical properties. Abstract. Ultrafine-grained titanium was processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD

  15. Low temperature electrical and mechanical behavior of composite aluminum cryoconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Frese, Raymond Jack

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was produced by cyclic application ol' a known stress which causes permanent deformation in the pure ahrminum fibers of the conductor. The stress, applied in tension only, was cycled between ten percent of the engineering yield strength (O. les) and some... indicate that the cyclic resistivity behavior of the composite conductor is very much a, function of stress range. An order of magnitude Iv increase in resistivity is usually the result after 3000 stress cycles in the 10-100% stress range. A very small...

  16. Liquid crystal-enabled electroosmosis through spatial charge separation in distorted regions as a novel mechanism of electrokinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Israel Lazo; Chenhui Peng; Jie Xiang; Sergij V. Shiyanovskii; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically-controlled dynamics of fluids and particles at microscales is a fascinating area of research with applications ranging from microfluidics and sensing to sorting of biomolecules. The driving mechanisms are electric forces acting on spatially separated charges in an isotropic medium such as water. Here we demonstrate that anisotropic conductivity of liquid crystals enables new mechanism of highly efficient electro-osmosis rooted in space charging of regions with distorted orientation. The electric field acts on these distortion-separated charges to induce liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmosis (LCEO). LCEO velocities grow with the square of the field, which allows one to use an AC field to drive steady flows and to avoid electrode damage. Ionic currents in liquid crystals that have been traditionally considered as an undesirable feature in displays, offer a broad platform for versatile applications such as liquid crystal enabled electrokinetics, micropumping and mixing.

  17. 'Taking Charge': Kansans Save $2.3M in Challenge to Change Their Energy Behavior

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How did the Climate and Energy Project (CEP), a small environmental organization that has received Recovery Act funding, achieve $2.3 million in savings annually for Kansans? Learn more about the Take Charge Challenge, a 9-month competition in which residents across 16 communities competed against each other to save the most energy and money.

  18. Mechanism of direct current electrical charge conduction in p-toluenesulfonate doped polypyrrole/carbon composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Amit [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Chemistry, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Rajiv K.; Singh, Hari K.; Singh, Ramadhar, E-mail: ramadhar@mail.nplindia.org [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Department of Chemistry, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Polypyrrole/carbon (PPy/C) composites have been synthesized using varying concentration of p-toluenesulfonate (pTS) dopant by surface initiated in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization. The synthesis and influence of pTS on the structure of the PPy/C composites are confirmed by Fourier transform infrared studies and the morphological features have been examined by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, employed to examine the surface composition and doping level of these composites, confirms the anionic doping into the polymer backbone. Electron spin resonance measurement has been carried out on these samples to identify the nature of the charge carriers and their concentration at different doping levels. The dc electrical conductivity of these composites has been measured in the temperature range ?10–305?K. The observed results have been analyzed in the framework of existing theoretical models. Different Mott's parameters, such as characteristic temperature (T{sub 0}), density of states at the Fermi level (N(E{sub F})), average hopping distance (R), and average hopping energy (W), evaluated from dc conductivity data supports the applicability of Mott's three dimensional variable range hopping mechanism in this system.

  19. Sandia Energy - 2015 VIII MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF SALT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements RecentlyElectronicResourcesjobsJulyCatalysts and2015 VIII MECHANICAL

  20. Description of the Nonlinear and Collective Behavior of Charged-Particle Beams by means of a Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedele, Renato [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita Federico II, Napoli Complesso Universitario di M.S. Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); INFN, Napoli Complesso Universitario di M.S. Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Jovanovic, Dusan [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 57, Yu-11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charged-particle beams are employed for a number of scientific and technological applications. The conventional description of their collective behavior is usually given in terms of the Vlasov equation. In the last 15 years some alternative descriptions have been developed in terms of a nonlinear Schroedinger equation governing the collective dynamics of the beam while interacting with the surrounding medium. This approach gives new insights, providing an alternative 'key of reading' of the charged-particle beam dynamics, and have been applied to a number of physical problems concerning conventional particle accelerating machines as well as plasma-based accelerator schemes. Remarkably, it is based on a mathematical formalism fully similar to those used for the propagation of e.m. radiation beams in nonlinear media a well as the nonlinear dynamics of the Bose-Einsten condensates.In this paper, a presentation of some significant nonlinear collective effects of a charged-particle beam in particle accelerators, that have been recently investigated in the framework of the above Schroedinger-like descriptions, is given.

  1. A photodiode-based neutral particle bolometer for characterizing charge-exchanged fast-ion behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clary, R.; Smirnov, A.; Dettrick, S.; Knapp, K.; Korepanov, S.; Ruskov, E. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y. [University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutral particle bolometer (NPB) has been designed and implemented on Tri Alpha Energy's C-2 device in order to spatially and temporally resolve the charge-exchange losses of fast-ion populations originating from neutral beam injection into field-reversed configuration plasmas. This instrument employs a silicon photodiode as the detection device with an integrated tungsten filter coating to reduce sensitivity to light radiation. Here we discuss the technical aspects and calibration of the NPB, and report typical NPB measurement results of wall recycling effects on fast-ion losses.

  2. EV Everywhere Consumer/Charging Workshop: Target-Setting Framework and Consumer Behavior

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6: RecordJune 20,inConsumer/Charging Workshop:

  3. Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2002 SEM Annual Conference Proceedings, Milwaukee, WI, 2002. Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructured Melt Spun NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crone, Wendy C.

    . Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructured Melt Spun NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Dabin Wu ć , Wendy C. Crone Ą § ćTi Shape memory alloys (SMAs) were fabricated by cold-rolling melt-spun near equatomic NiTi. SMAs represent. Shape memory behavior was observed in the melt-spun ribbons, and pseudoelasitc behavior was observed

  4. Dry Chamber Wall Thermo-Mechanical Behavior and Lifetime under IFE Cyclic Energy Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    assessment of dry chamber wall based on ion and photon spectra from a new direct-drive target proposed by NRLDry Chamber Wall Thermo-Mechanical Behavior and Lifetime under IFE Cyclic Energy Deposition Lifetime is a key issue for the IFE dry chamber wall configuration. Past studies, such as SOMBRERO

  5. The mechanical behavior of normally consolidated soils as a function of pore fluid salinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horan, Aiden James

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pore fluid salinities in the Gulf of Mexico area can reach levels of 250 grams of salt per liter of pore fluid (g/1). It is now necessary to determine the effect that this salinity level can play on the mechanical behaviors ...

  6. Phase Transformation Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Thermomechanically Treated K3XF Nickel-Titanium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Phase Transformation Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Thermomechanically Treated K3XF Nickel-Titanium of thermomechanically treated K3XF (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) nickel-titanium instruments in relation to their phase composition was determined by scan- ning electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometric

  7. Stridulation by Jadera haematoloma (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae): Production Mechanism and Associated Behaviors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillooly, Jamie

    BEHAVIOR Stridulation by Jadera haematoloma (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae): Production Mechanism. Soc. Am. 105(1): 118Đ127 (2012); DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/AN11048 ABSTRACT The Hemiptera related Het- eropteran Hemiptera, the sounds in these other species function primarily in courtship

  8. MODEL OF MECHANISM BEHAVIOR FOR VERIFICATION OF PLC Jos M. Machado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MODEL OF MECHANISM BEHAVIOR FOR VERIFICATION OF PLC PROGRAMS José M. Machado University of Minho on formal methods is now available for checking PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) programs. To verify a PLC program, it is necessary to consider a set of properties to prove and one of the most interesting

  9. Deep structure and mechanical behavior of the lithosphere in the Hangai^Hovsgol region, Mongolia: new constraints from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Déverchčre, Jacques

    Deep structure and mechanical behavior of the lithosphere in the Hangai^Ho«vsgo«l region, Mongolia and mechanical behavior of the lithosphere beneath the Hangai^Ho«vsgo«l region, central Mongolia, Asia, in order rights reserved. Keywords: topography; gravity methods; Mongolia; Hangay Mountains; upper mantle; Łexure

  10. Design of Databus Charge Recovery Mechanism Victor Lyuboslavsky Benjamin Bishop Vijaykrishnan Narayanan Mary Jane Irwin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Benjamin

    a short­ ing period, the charge is transferred from the falling bit­lines to precharge the rising bit­lines, forcing the driving devices to con­ sume more power. A simple bus is one such structure that may not be suitable for low power design. The power dissipation on a bus line can be reduced by applying adiabatic

  11. Quantum mechanics of a charged particle in a background magnetic field interacting with linearized gravitational waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunandan Gangopadhyay; Anirban Saha

    2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the dynamics of a charged particle interacting with background electromagnetic field under the influence of linearized gravitational waves in the long wave-length and low-velocity limit. Following the prescription in \\cite{speli}, the system is quantized and the Hamiltonian is then solved by using standard algebraic iterative methods. The solution is in conformity with the classical analysis and shows the possibility of tuning the frequency by changing the magnetic field to set up resonance.

  12. Tuning of the electro-mechanical behavior of the cellular carbon nanotube structures with nanoparticle dispersions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gowda, Prarthana; Misra, Abha, E-mail: abha@isu.iisc.ernet.in [Departments of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India)] [Departments of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India); Ramamurty, Upadrasta [Departments of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India) [Departments of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanical and electrical characteristics of cellular network of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) impregnated with metallic and nonmetallic nanoparticles were examined simultaneously by employing the nanoindentation technique. Experimental results show that the nanoparticle dispersion not only enhances the mechanical strength of the cellular CNT by two orders of magnitude but also imparts variable nonlinear electrical characteristics; the latter depends on the contact resistance between nanoparticles and CNT, which is shown to depend on the applied load while indentation. Impregnation with silver nanoparticles enhances the electrical conductance, the dispersion with copper oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces the conductance of CNT network. In all cases, a power law behavior with suppression in the differential conductivity at zero bias was noted, indicating electron tunneling through the channels formed at the CNT-nanoparticle interfaces. These results open avenues for designing cellular CNT foams with desired electro-mechanical properties and coupling.

  13. Mechanisms for charge-transfer processes at electrode/solid-electrolyte interfaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chueh, William; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Whaley, Josh A.; McCarty, Kevin F.; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Farrow, Roger L.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project focused on developing and applying new x-ray spectroscopies to understand and improve electric charge transfer in electrochemical devices. Our approach studies the device materials as they function at elevated temperature and in the presence of sufficient gas to generate meaningful currents through the device. We developed hardware and methods to allow x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to be applied under these conditions. We then showed that the approach can measure the local electric potentials of the materials, identify the chemical nature of the electrochemical intermediate reaction species and determine the chemical state of the active materials. When performed simultaneous to traditional impedance-based analysis, the approach provides an unprecedented characterization of an operating electrochemical system.

  14. An experimental investigation into the stress-dependent mechanical behavior of cohesive soil with application to wellbore instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdulhadi, Naeem Omar

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the mechanical behavior of cohesive soils with reference to the applications of wellbore instabilities through an extensive program of laboratory element and model borehole tests. The laboratory ...

  15. Charge transport through a SET with a mechanically oscillating island N. M. Chtchelkatchev,1, 2, 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruder, Christoph

    the deviation of the island from its equilibrium position. (b) Equivalent circuit of the device on the mechanical displacement, thus, the vibrations of the island may influence the transport properties. Harmonic oscillations of the island and thermal vibrations change the transport characteristics in different ways

  16. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF U10MO MONOLITHIC MINIPLATES FOR RESEARCH AND TEST REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakan Ozaltun & Herman Shen

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents assessment of the mechanical behavior of U-10wt% Mo (U10Mo) alloy based monolithic fuel plates subject to irradiation. Monolithic, plate-type fuel is a new fuel form being developed for research and test reactors to achieve higher uranium densities within the reactor core to allow the use of low-enriched uranium fuel in high-performance reactors. Identification of the stress/strain characteristics is important for understanding the in-reactor performance of these plate-type fuels. For this work, three distinct cases were considered: (1) fabrication induced residual stresses (2) thermal cycling of fabricated plates; and finally (3) transient mechanical behavior under actual operating conditions. Because the temperatures approach the melting temperature of the cladding during the fabrication and thermal cycling, high temperature material properties were incorporated to improve the accuracy. Once residual stress fields due to fabrication process were identified, solution was used as initial state for the subsequent simulations. For thermal cycling simulation, elasto-plastic material model with thermal creep was constructed and residual stresses caused by the fabrication process were included. For in-service simulation, coupled fluid-thermal-structural interaction was considered. First, temperature field on the plates was calculated and this field was used to compute the thermal stresses. For time dependent mechanical behavior, thermal creep of cladding, volumetric swelling and fission induced creep of the fuel foil were considered. The analysis showed that the stresses evolve very rapidly in the reactor. While swelling of the foil increases the stress of the foil, irradiation induced creep causes stress relaxation.

  17. Charge disproportionation in La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}FeO{sub 3??} (x = 0.4 and 0.5) investigated by mechanical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Z. C.; Liu, M. F.; Chen, C. C.; Ying, X. N., E-mail: xnying@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of charge disproportionation in orthorhombic lanthanum orthoferrites La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}FeO{sub 3-?} (x?=?0.4 and 0.5) has been investigated by kilohertz mechanical spectroscopy. Contrast to rhombohedral La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-?} (x?=?0.5), no elastic softening was observed in La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}FeO{sub 3-?} above charge disproportionation. This different behavior of elastic modulus in La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}FeO{sub 3-?} and La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-?} unveils the implicit orbital effect. Below charge disproportionation, an internal friction peak around 140?K was observed in La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}FeO{sub 3-?}, which is similar to that in La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-?}. This peak is ascribed to an elastic manifestation of charge freezing and can be used as an indirect indication of CD in doped LaFeO{sub 3}.

  18. Mechanical and charge transport properties of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au (111) surface: The Role of Molecular Tilt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulleregan, Alice; Qi, Yabing; Ratera, Imma; Park, Jeong Y.; Ashby, Paul D.; Quek, Su Ying; Neaton, J. B.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between charge transport and mechanical properties of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on Au(111) films has been investigated using an atomic force microscope with a conductive tip. Molecular tilts induced by the pressure applied by the tip cause stepwise increases in film conductivity. A decay constant {beta} = 0.57 {+-} 0.03 {angstrom}{sup -1} was found for the current passing through the film as a function of tip-substrate separation due to this molecular tilt. This is significantly smaller than the value of {approx} 1 {angstrom}{sup -1} found when the separation is changed by changing the length of the alkanethiol molecules. Calculations indicate that for isolated dithiol molecules S-bonded to hollow sites, the junction conductance does not vary significantly as a function of molecular tilt. The impact of S-Au bonding on SAM conductance is discussed.

  19. Mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of materials exposed to an experimental, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesan, P.; Sagues, A.; Sethi, V.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A joint materials test program developed by the Institute for Mining and Minerals Research (IMMR) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) involved the postexposure mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of candidate structural materials in an experimental, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC). This combustor was operated by Accurex Corporation at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, under the direction of TVA. The materials studied were Type 304, Type 310, and INCOLOY alloy 800 in the form of disc coupons with and without crevice configurations. Type 304 was also used for mechanical property measurements. The alloys were exposed to the combustor environment at about840/sup 0/C for approximately 330 hours. The ranking in terms of decreasing weight loss was: (1) Type 304, (2) Type 310, and (3) INCOLOY alloy 800. The presence of tight crevices did not enhance the corrosion rate. In addition, the corrosion rates, based on the weight loss (typically 1 to 6 mpy), indicated that the alloys performed reasonably well when considering materials wastage. However, optical microscopy observations showed intergranular corrosion penetration in INCOLOY alloy 800 and Type 304. The mechanical properties of Type 304 were inferior to the unexposed alloy. A comparison of the data obtained from the combustor-exposed 304ss tensile samples with data from control samples exposed in vacuum to a similar thermal history indicated that the chemistry of the AFBC environment did not play a major role in the observed degradation of the mechanical properties.

  20. Damage mechanics characterization on fatigue behavior of a solder joint material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, C.L.; Yang, F. [Univ. of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Fang, H.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Physics Dept.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the first part of a comprehensive mechanics approach capable of predicting the integrity and reliability of solder joint material under fatigue loading without viscoplastic damage considerations. A separate report will be made to present a comprehensive damage model describing life prediction of the solder material under thermomechanical fatigue loading. The method is based on a theory of damage mechanics which makes possible a macroscopic description of the successive material deterioration caused by the presence of microcracks/voids in engineering materials. A damage mechanics model based on the thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes with internal state variables is proposed and used to provide a unified approach in characterizing the cyclic behavior of a typical solder material. With the introduction of a damage effect tensor, the constitutive equations are derived to enable the formulation of a fatigue damage dissipative potential function and a fatigue damage criterion. The fatigue evolution is subsequently developed based on the hypothesis that the overall damage is induced by the accumulation of fatigue and plastic damage. This damage mechanics approach offers a systematic and versatile means that is effective in modeling the entire process of material failure ranging from damage initiation and propagation leading eventually to macro-crack initiation and growth. As the model takes into account the load history effect and the interaction between plasticity damage and fatigue damage, with the aid of a modified general purpose finite element program, the method can readily be applied to estimate the fatigue life of solder joints under different loading conditions.

  1. Microstructural and mechanical behavior of a duplex stainless steel under hot working conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iza-Mendia, A. [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Tecnicas de Gipuzkoa, San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. of Materials]|[Univ. of Navarra, San Sebastian (Spain); Pinol-Juez, A. [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Tecnicas de Gipuzkoa, San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. of Materials; Urcola, J.J.; Gutierrez, I. [Univ. of Navarra, San Sebastian (Spain)

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the hot deformation of the duplex stainless steels, the complexity of the microstructure evolution and mechanical response is increased as compared with those of single-phase ferritic or austenitic stainless steels. In the present work, plane strain compression and torsion deformation modes have been used to analyze the microstructural evolution and the mechanical behavior of a duplex stainless steel in as-cast and wrought conditions, as a function of spatial phase distribution, the nature of interface, and the relative mechanical properties of both phases. The law of mixtures has been used to explain the different flow curves obtained when changing the phase distribution and/or the deformation mode. On deforming as-cast microstructures, the deformation partitions vary heterogeneously between both phases and some austenite areas act as hard nondeforming particles. Cracks have been observed to occur at the interface of such regions, from relatively low strains, for which the initial Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationship between ferrite and austenite is still present.

  2. Predicting the Operating Behavior of Ceramic Filters from Thermo-Mechanical Ash Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemmer, G.; Kasper, G.

    2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable operation, in other words the achievement of a succession of uniform filtration cycles of reasonable length is a key issue in high-temperature gas filtration with ceramic media. Its importance has rather grown in recent years, as these media gain in acceptance due to their excellent particle retention capabilities. Ash properties have been known for some time to affect the maximum operating temperature of filters. However, softening and consequently ''stickiness'' of the ash particles generally depend on composition in a complex way. Simple and accurate prediction of critical temperature ranges from ash analysis--and even more so from coal analysis--is still difficult without practical and costly trials. In general, our understanding of what exactly happens during break-down of filtration stability is still rather crude and general. Early work was based on the concept that ash particles begin to soften and sinter near the melting temperatures of low-melting, often alkaline components. This softening coincides with a fairly abrupt increase of stickiness, that can be detected with powder mechanical methods in a Jenicke shear cell as first shown by Pilz (1996) and recently confirmed by others (Kamiya et al. 2001 and 2002, Kanaoka et al. 2001). However, recording {sigma}-{tau}-diagrams is very time consuming and not the only off-line method of analyzing or predicting changes in thermo-mechanical ash behavior. Pilz found that the increase in ash stickiness near melting was accompanied by shrinkage attributed to sintering. Recent work at the University of Karlsruhe has expanded the use of such thermo-analytical methods for predicting filtration behavior (Hemmer 2001). Demonstrating their effectiveness is one objective of this paper. Finally, our intent is to show that ash softening at near melting temperatures is apparently not the only phenomenon causing problems with filtration, although its impact is certainly the ''final catastrophe''. There are other significant changes in regeneration at intermediate temperatures, which may lead to long-term deterioration.

  3. Modeling Frameworks for Representing the Mechanical Behavior of Tissues with a Specific Look at Vasculature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersohn, Alexander

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Many mechanicstic models aimed at predicting tissue behavior attempt to connect constitutive factors (such as effects due to collagen or fibrin concentrations) with the overall tissue behavior. Such a link between constitutive and material behaviors...

  4. Phase transitions of hairy black holes in massive gravity and thermodynamic behavior of charged AdS black holes in an extended phase space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behrouz Mirza; Zeinab Sherkatghanad

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of static and spherically symmetric hairy black holes in massive gravity. In this case, the black hole is surrounded in a spherical cavity with a fixed temperature on the surface. It is observed that these black holes have a phase transition similar to the liquid-gas phase transition of a Van der Waals fluid. Also, by treating the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ as a thermodynamic pressure $P$, we study the thermodynamic behavior of charged anti-de Sitter black holes in an ensemble with a pressure of $P$ and an electric potential $\\Phi$ as the natural variables. A second order phase transition is observed to take place for all the values of the electric potential $\\Phi$.

  5. Mass-Spring Model for Simulation of Heart Valve Tissue Mechanical Behavior Peter E. Hammer1,2,4,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Mass-Spring Model for Simulation of Heart Valve Tissue Mechanical Behavior Peter E. Hammer1, Cambridge, MA Abbreviated title: Mass-Spring Model for Simulation of Heart Valve Tissue * Address, MA, USA. E-mail address: peter.hammer@childrens.harvard.edu. #12;2 Abstract Heart valves

  6. Microstructure, mechanical property, biodegradation behavior, and biocompatibility of biodegradable FeFe2O3 composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    behaviors, and in vitro biocompatibility of Fe­ Fe2O3 composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering were

  7. Fundamental Processes of Coupled Radiation Damage and Mechanical Behavior in Nuclear Fuel Materials for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillpot, Simon; Tulenko, James

    2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work has been to elucidate the relationship among microstructure, radiation damage and mechanical properties for nuclear fuel materials. As representative nuclear materials, we have taken an hcp metal (Mg as a generic metal, and Ti alloys for fast reactors) and UO2 (representing fuel). The degradation of the thermo-mechanical behavior of nuclear fuels under irradiation, both the fissionable material itself and its cladding, is a longstanding issue of critical importance to the nuclear industry. There are experimental indications that nanocrystalline metals and ceramics may be more resistant to radiation damage than their coarse-grained counterparts. The objective of this project look at the effect of microstructure on radiation damage and mechanical behavior in these materials. The approach to be taken was state-of-the-art, large-scale atomic-level simulation. This systematic simulation program of the effects of irradiation on the structure and mechanical properties of polycrystalline Ti and UO2 identified radiation damage mechanisms. Moreover, it will provided important insights into behavior that can be expected in nanocrystalline microstructures and, by extension, nanocomposites. The fundamental insights from this work can be expected to help in the design microstructures that are less susceptible to radiation damage and thermomechanical degradation.

  8. Charge Storage Behavior of Nanowire Transistors Functionalized with Bis(terpyridine)-Fe(II) Molecules: Dependence on Molecular Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    wafer with patterned source/drain electrodes.9 The devices exhibit typical n-type FET behavior.5 molecules/nm2 for molecule 1, 2, and 3, respectively.11 A negative voltage pulse on the silicon back gate. These processes can be monitored by I-Vg curves that show the drain current (I) as a function of gate voltage (Vg

  9. EFFECTS OF MORPHOLOGY ON THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Si/C STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, N.J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and ductility in dual phase steels. However, it seems thatmechanical behavior of dual phase steels. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSL INTRODUCTION Dual phase steels whose structures consist of

  10. Dilatation-strain analysis of the effects of flaws on the mechanical behavior of a highly filled elastomer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Benjamin Ray

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) August 1966 460008 ABSTRACT Dilatation-Strain Analysis of the Effects of Flaws on the Mechanical Behavior of a Highly Filled Elastomer Benjamin Ray Smith, B. S. , Texas... and from plates of solid propellant milled to 0. 250 inches in thick- ness. These materials were supplied by the Rocketdyne Division of North American Aviation. Their designation for the propellant is RDS-500. Their properties, which were found in other...

  11. Mechanical and optical behavior of a novel optical fiber crack sensor and an interferometric strain sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Noah Gale, 1969-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proper interpretation of measurements from an optical fiber sensor requires a full understanding of its mechanical response to external action and the corresponding change in optical output. To quantify the mechanical ...

  12. Fusion Engineering and Design 3940 (1998) 759764 Mechanical behavior and design database of packed beds for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    of packed beds for blanket designs Alice Y. Ying *, Zi Lu, Mohamed A. Abdou Mechanical and Aerospace

  13. Asperity-scale surface mechanics - Implications to adhesive contacts and microscale deformation behavior of rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huaming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microtribology for Microelectromechanical Systems,” Wear,forces in microelectromechanical systems: mechanisms,Analysis Microelectromechanical Systems,” ASME J. Tribol. ,

  14. Hybridizing Energy Conversion and Storage in a Mechanical-to-Electrochemical Process for Self-Charging Power Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Hybridizing Energy Conversion and Storage in a Mechanical-to- Electrochemical Process for Self that directly hybridizes the two processes into one, in which the mechanical energy is directly converted hybridizes the two processes into one, through which the mechanical energy is directly converted

  15. Discrete particle transport in porous media : discrete observations of physical mechanisms influencing particle behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Joon Sik, 1973-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An understanding of how discrete particles in the micron to submicron range behave in porous media is important to a number of environmental problems. Discrete particle behavior in the interior of a porous medium is complex ...

  16. The consolidation and strength behavior of mechanically compressed fine-grained sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casey, Brendan (Brendan Anthony)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the consolidation and shear strength behavior of saturated fine-grained sediments over the effective stress range of 0.1 to 100 MPa. The research makes use of samples which are resedimented in the ...

  17. Mechanical behavior of tissue simulants and soft tissues under extreme loading conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalcioglu, Zeynep Ilke

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent developments in computer-integrated surgery and in tissue-engineered constructs necessitate advances in experimental and analytical techniques in characterizing properties of mechanically compliant materials such ...

  18. Mechanical behaviors and phase transition of Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Xiaozhi [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR), 1690 Cailun Rd., Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China); Ren, Xiangting [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); He, Duanwei, E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Institute of Fluid Physics and National Key Laboratory of Shockwave and Detonation Physic, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chen, Bin [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR), 1690 Cailun Rd., Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China); Yang, Wenge, E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR), 1690 Cailun Rd., Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China); High Pressure Synergetic Consortium (HPSynC), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical properties and phase transition often show quite large crystal size dependent behavior, especially at nanoscale under high pressure. Here, we have investigated Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals with in-situ x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy under high pressure up to 33.5?GPa. When compared to the structural transition routine cubic -> monoclinic -> hexagonal phase in bulk Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} under high pressure, the nano-sized Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows a much higher onset transition pressure from cubic to monoclinic structure and followed by a pressure-induced-amorphization under compression. The detailed analysis on the Q (Q?=?2?/d) dependent bulk moduli reveals the nanosized Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles consist of a clear higher compressible shell and a less compressible core. Insight into these phenomena shed lights on micro-mechanism studies of the mechanical behavior and phase evolution for nanomaterials under high pressure, in general.

  19. Microstructure, strengthening mechanisms and hot deformation behavior of an oxide-dispersion strengthened UFG Al6063 alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asgharzadeh, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, P.O. Box 51666-16471, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, P.O. Box 51666-16471, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kim, H.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 790-784, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 790-784, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Simchi, A., E-mail: simchi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrafine-grained Al6063/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.8 vol.%, 25 nm) nanocomposite was prepared via powder metallurgy route through reactive mechanical alloying and hot powder extrusion. Scanning electron microcopy, transmission electron microscopy, and back scattered electron diffraction analysis showed that the grain structure of the nanocomposite is trimodal and composed of nano-size grains (< 0.1 {mu}m), ultrafine grains (0.1-1 {mu}m), and micron-size grains (> 1 {mu}m) with random orientations. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite based on the strengthening-mechanism models revealed that the yield strength of the ultrafine-grained nanocomposite is mainly controlled by the high-angle grain boundaries rather than nanometric alumina particles. Hot deformation behavior of the material at different temperatures and strain rates was studied by compression test and compared to coarse-grained Al6063 alloy. The activation energy of the hot deformation process for the nanocomposite was determined to be 291 kJ mol{sup -1}, which is about 64% higher than that of the coarse-grained alloy. Detailed microstructural analysis revealed that dynamic recrystallization is responsible for the observed deformation softening in the ultrafine-grained nanocomposite. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strengthening mechanisms of Al6063/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hot deformation behavior of the nanocomposite was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hot deformation activation energy was determined using consecutive models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The restoration mechanisms and microstructural changes are presented.

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Cell Components to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries under Abuse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by NREL at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about coupling of mechanical behavior of cell...

  1. Impact of substrate temperature on the incorporation of carbon-related defects and mechanism for semi-insulating behavior in GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, A; Poblenz, C; Green, D S; Mishra, U K; Speck, J S; Ringel, S A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy and codoped with carbon and silicon were investigated for substratesubstrate temperature on the incorporation of carbon-related defects and mechanism for semi-insulating behavior in GaN

  2. How do quantum effects change conclusions about heterogeneous cluster behavior based on classical mechanics simulations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    February 1998 Comparisons of classical and quantum Monte Carlo simulation of SF6­ Ar n and SF6­ Ne n clusters are used to examine whether certain novel types of behavior seen in classical simulations of SF6­ Ar n and SF6­ Kr n persist when quantum effects are taken into account. For mixed clusters formed

  3. Mechanisms of Mating-Behavior Deterioration in Early Aging Male C. elegans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Xiaoyan

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    . This is consistent with the observation that old males exhibit reduced control over their ability to mate. Caloric restriction is an efficient non-genetic intervention to increase lifespan. I demonstrated here that it also improves mating behavior in 3-day-old males...

  4. Production, Characterization, and Mechanical Behavior of Cementitious Materials Incorporating Carbon Nanofibers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yazdanbakhsh, Ardavan

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    particles is an important parameter and poorly dispersed silica fume cannot enhance the overall dispersion of nano inclusions in cementitious materials. Finally, the mechanical testing and experimentations showed that CNFs, in absence of moist curing, even...

  5. Role of the precentral cortex in adapting behavior to different mechanical environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Andrew Garmory, 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We routinely produce movements under different mechanical contexts. All interactions with the physical environment, such as swinging a hammer or lifting a carton of milk, alter the forces experienced during movement. With ...

  6. Mechanisms leading to erratic snapback behavior in bipolar junction transistors with base emitter shorted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of avalanche injection in p/n- /n+ structures show that two very close breakdown states coexist. The mechanisms to an avalanche breakdown and a delay time before the initiation of the breakdown.2­14 Typically, shorter delays Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 Sameer Pendharkar Texas Instruments Inc., 13560

  7. Behavior of Turbulent Structures within a Mach 5 Mechanically Distorted Boundary Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peltier, Scott Jacob

    2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    field of incompressible boundary layer, taken from Adrian et al. (2000). ............................................................................... 138 Figure 6.15 Schematic of an individual hairpin vortex, describing the sweep and ejection... hairpin vortex, identifying the motions contributing to sweeps and ejections ....................................................................................... 235 Figure 7.46 Illustrations of the possible mechanisms contributing to the reduced...

  8. ME 378K Mechanical Behavior of Materials ABET EC2000 syllabus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Yakar, Adela

    of contemporary issues in engineering practice, including economic, social, political, and environmental issues. Apply principles of engineering, basic science, and mathematics (including multivariate calculus: For engineering majors, Mechanical Engineering 336 and 136L with a grade of at least C in each, and admission

  9. The effects of texture and composition on the mechanical behavior of experimentally deformed carbonate rocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hugman, Robert Harvey Harold

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    behavior in unconfined tests and large increases in ultimate strength with increases in confining pressure to 100 MPa (Fig. 1, a, e). These "crystalline" rocks are moderately ductile to ductile at 100 MPa confining pressure. A degree of work hardening... Limestone (67 0 microcrystalline carbonate), and Madison H61-16 Lime- stone (54 $ micrite) are included in this category (Fig. 1, b, d, f), All these rocks are strong in unconfined tests, and stronger at 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure then Yule Marble...

  10. Research into the microstructure and mechanical behavior of eutectic Bi-Sn and In-Sn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, J.L.F.; Mei, Z.; Morris, J.W. Jr. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manuscript reports on research into two low-melting, lead-free solder alloys, eutectic Bi-Sn and eutectic In-Sn. The microstructures were found to depend on both cooling rate and substrate, with the greatest variability in the In-Sn alloy. The nature of the intermetallic layer formed at the solder-substrate interface depends on both the solder and the substrate (Cu versus Ni). Also, the microstructure of the Bi-Sn can recrystallize during deformation, which is not the case with In-Sn. Data from creep and constant strain rate tests are given for slowly cooled samples. The creep behavior of In-Sn is constant with temperature, but the creep seems to be controlled by the In-rich phase in In-Sn on Cu and by the Sn-rich phase in In-Sn on Ni. Bi-Sn exhibits different creep behavior at temperatures above 40 {degrees}C than at 20 {degrees}C or lower. Stress-strain curves of Bi-Sn on Cu and In-Sn on Cu are similar, while In-Sn on Ni behaves differently. This is explained in terms of the deformation patterns in the alloys.

  11. Behavior of Laterally Loaded Shafts Constructed Behind the Face of a Mechanically Stabilized Earth Block Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierson, Matthew Charles

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    for all the failure mechanisms of conventional retaining walls. In addition, MSE walls must be designed for modes of failure unique to MSE walls. Failure of an MSE wall can occur several ways: sliding of layers, pullout of the reinforcement, elongation... lagging and panels, and wrapped sheets of geosynthetics? (FHWA, 1996). Most MSE systems use either a galvanized or epoxy coated steel reinforcement, or synthetic reinforcement like high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene, or polyester yarn...

  12. Phase transformation and mechanical behavior in annealed 2205 duplex stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badji, Riad [LPMTM-CNRS- Universite Paris 13, 99, av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)], E-mail: riadbadji1@yahoo.fr; Bouabdallah, Mabrouk [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, 10, Avenue Hassan Badi, BP 182, El Harrach (Algeria); Bacroix, Brigitte; Kahloun, Charlie [LPMTM-CNRS- Universite Paris 13, 99, av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Belkessa, Brahim; Maza, Halim [Welding and NDT research Centre, B.P 64, Cheraga (Algeria)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase transformations and mechanical behaviour during welding and subsequent annealing treatment of 2205 duplex stainless steel have been investigated. Detailed microstructural examination showed the presence of higher ferrite amounts in the heat affected zone (HAZ), while higher amounts of austenite were recorded in the centre region of the weld metal. Annealing treatments in the temperature range of 800-1000 deg. C resulted in a precipitation of {sigma} phase and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} chromium carbides at the {gamma}/{delta} interfaces that were found to be preferential precipitation sites. Above 1050 deg. C, the volume fraction of {delta} ferrite increases with annealing temperature. The increase of {delta} ferrite occurs at a faster rate in the HAZ than in the base metal and fusion zone. Optimal mechanical properties and an acceptable ferrite/austenite ratio throughout the weld regions corresponds to annealing at 1050 deg. C. Fractographic examinations showed that the mode of failure changed from quasi-cleavage fracture to dimple rupture with an increase in the annealing temperature from 850 to 1050 deg. C.

  13. SISGR – Domain Microstructures and Mechanisms for Large, Reversible and Anhysteretic Strain Behaviors in Phase Transforming Ferroelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yu

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This four-year project (including one-year no-cost extension) aimed to advance fundamental understanding of field-induced strain behaviors of phase transforming ferroelectrics. We performed meso-scale phase field modeling and computer simulation to study domain evolutions, mechanisms and engineering techniques, and developed computational techniques for nanodomain diffraction analysis; to further support above originally planned tasks, we also carried out preliminary first-principles density functional theory calculations of point defects and domain walls to complement meso-scale computations as well as performed in-situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray single crystal diffraction experiments to guide theoretical development (both without extra cost to the project thanks to XSEDE supercomputers and DOE user facility Advanced Photon Source).

  14. Mechanical Behavior Analysis of a Test Coil for MICE Coupling Solenoid during Quench

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Heng; Wang, Li; Guo, Xinglong; Wu, Hong; Green, M.A.

    2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The coupling magnet for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment has a self-inductance of 592 H and the magnet stored energy of 13 MJ at a full current of 210 A for the worst operation case of the MICE channel. The high level of stored energy in the magnet can cause high peak temperature during a quench and induce considerable impact of stresses. One test coil was built in order to validate the design method and to practice the stress and strain situation to occur in the coupling coil. In this study, the analysis on stress redistribution during a quench with sub-divided winding was performed. The stress variation may bring about failure of impregnating material such as epoxy resin, which is the curse of a new normal zone arising. Spring models for impregnating epoxy and fiber-glass cloth in the coil were used to evaluate the mechanical disturbance by impregnated materials failure. This paper presents the detailed dynamic stress and stability analysis to assess the stress distribution during the quench process and to check whether the transient loads are acceptable for the magnet.

  15. Effect of fiber architecture on mechanical behavior of SiC(f)/SiC composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, D.; Singh, J.P.; Sutaria, M.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluated mechanical properties (first matrix cracking stress, strength, and work-of-fracture) of Nicalon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites with three different fiber lay-up sequences (0{degrees}/20{degrees}/60{degrees}, 0{degrees}/40{degrees}/60{degrees}, and 0{degrees}/45{degrees}) at various temperatures from room to 1300{degrees}C. Up to 1200{degrees}C, ultimate strength and work-of-fracture for the 0{degrees}/40{degrees}/60{degrees} and 0{degrees}/45{degrees} composites increased, but then declined at 1300{degrees}C. The decreases were correlated to in-situ Nicalon fiber strength and fiber/matrix interface degradation. However, for the 0{degrees}/20{degrees}/60{degrees} composites, ultimate strength and work-of-fracture reached their a minima at 1200{degrees}C. These measured ultimate strengths at room and 1300{degrees}C were correlated to the predictions made with an analytical model and to in-situ fiber strength characteristics. The large difference in room-temperature ultimate strengths between the three sets of composites is attributed to the relative contributions of the off-axis fibers to the load-bearing capacity of each composite.

  16. Final Technical Report of project: "Contactless Real-Time Monitoring of Paper Mechanical Behavior During Papermaking"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel Lafond; Paul Ridgway; Ted Jackson; Rick Russo; Ken Telschow; Vance Deason; Yves Berthelot; David Griggs; Xinya Zhang; Gary Baum

    2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The early precursors of laser ultrasonics on paper were Prof. Y. Berthelot from the Georgia Institute of Technology/Mechanical Engineering department, and Prof. P. Brodeur from the Institute of Paper Science and Technology, both located in Atlanta, Georgia. The first Ph.D. thesis that shed quite some light on the topic, but also left some questions unanswered, was completed by Mont A. Johnson in 1996. Mont Johnson was Prof. Berthelot's student at Georgia Tech. In 1997 P. Brodeur proposed a project involving himself, Y. Berthelot, Dr. Ken Telschow and Mr. Vance Deason from INL, Honeywell-Measurex and Dr. Rick Russo from LBNL. The first time the proposal was not accepted and P. Brodeur decided to re-propose it without the involvement from LBNL. Rick Russo proposed a separate project on the same topic on his side. Both proposals were finally accepted and work started in the fall of 1997 on the two projects. Early on, the biggest challenge was to find an optical detection method which could detect laser-induced displacements of the web surface that are of the order of .1 micron in the ultrasonic range. This was to be done while the web was having an out-of-plane amplitude of motion in the mm range due to web flutter; while moving at 10 m/s to 30 m/s in the plane of the web, on the paper machine. Both teams grappled with the same problems and tried similar methods in some cases, but came up with two similar but different solutions one year later. The IPST, GT, INL team found that an interferometer made by Lasson Technologies Inc. using the photo-induced electro-motive force in Gallium Arsenide was able to detect ultrasonic waves up to 12-15 m/s. It also developed in house an interferometer using the Two-Wave Mixing effect in photorefractive crystals that showed good promises for on-line applications, and experimented with a scanning mirror to reduce motion-induced texture noise from the web and improve signal to noise ratio. On its side, LBNL had the idea to combine a commercial Mach-Zehnder interferometer to a spinning mirror synchronized to the web speed, in order to make almost stationary measurements. The method was demonstrated at up to 10 m/s. Both teams developed their own version of a web simulator that was driving a web of paper at 10 m/s or higher. The Department of Energy and members of the Agenda 2020 started to make a push for merging the two projects. This made sense because their topics were really identical but this was not well received by Prof. Brodeur. Finally IPST decided to reassign the direction of the IPST-INL-GT project in the spring of 1999 to Prof. Chuck Habeger so that the two teams could work together. Also at this time, Honeywell-Measurex dropped as a member of the team. It was replaced by ABB Industrial Systems whose engineers had extensive previous experience of working with ultrasonic sensors on paperboard. INL also finished its work on the project as its competencies were partly redundant with LBNL. From the summer of 1999, the IPST-GT and LBNL teams were working together and helped each other often by collaborating and visiting either laboratory when was necessary. Around the beginning of 2000, began an effort at IPST to create an off-line laser-ultrasonics instrument that could perform automated measurements of paper and paperboard's bending stiffness. It was widely known that the mechanical bending tests of paper used for years by the paper industry were very inaccurate and exhibited poor reproducibility; therefore the team needed a new instrument of reference to validate its future on-line results. In 1999-2000, the focus of the on-line instrument was on a pre-industrial demonstration on a pilot coater while reducing the damage to the web caused by the generation laser, below the threshold where it could be visible by the naked eye. During the spring of 2000 Paul Ridgway traveled to IPST and brought with him a redesigned system still using the same Mach-Zehnder interferometer as before, but this time employing an electric motor-driven spinning mirror instead of the previously belt-driven m

  17. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui [Clemson University; Meunier, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Wu, Peng [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  18. Hydro-mechanical behavior of Municipal Solid Waste subject to leachate recirculation in a large-scale compression reactor cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivier, Franck [Environment, Energy and Waste Research Center (CREED), 291, avenue Dreyfous Ducas, 78520 Limay (France) and Laboratoire LIRIGM - Maison des Geosciences, 1381, rue de la piscine 38400 Saint-Martin d'Heres (France)]. E-mail: franck.olivier@ujf-grenoble.fr; Gourc, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire LIRIGM - Maison des Geosciences, 1381, rue de la piscine 38400 Saint-Martin d'Heres (France)]. E-mail: gourc@ujf-grenoble.fr

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents the results of a laboratory experiment on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) subjected to one-dimensional compression in a 1 m{sup 3} instrumented cell. The focus was on the hydro-mechanical behavior of the material under conditions of confinement and leachate percolation that replicate those found in real-scale landfills. The operation of the apparatus is detailed together with the testing methodology and the monitoring program. Two samples of waste were tested: the first extended over a period of 10 months ('Control Test') and the second for 22 months ('Enhanced Test' with leachate recirculation). Consolidation data is reported with regard to both short-term (stress-dependent) and long-term (time-dependent) settlements. A discussion follows based on the derived values of primary and secondary compression ratios. Correlations between compression parameters and the biodegradation process are presented. In particular, results clearly highlight the effect of leachate recirculation on waste settlement: 24% secondary deformation reached after slightly less than 2 years (equivalent to a 5-fold increase in compressibility) and 17.9% loss of dry matter. Comparisons are proposed considering the results derived from the few monitoring programs conducted on experimental bioreactors worldwide. Finally, the hydraulic characterization of waste is discussed with regard to the evaluation of effective porosity and permeability.

  19. Electrically charged targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Ronald K. (Livermore, CA); Hunt, Angus L. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  20. First-principles study of compensation mechanisms in negatively charged LaGaO3/MgAl2O4 interfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rébola, Alejandro; Fong, Dillon D.; Eastman, Jeffrey A.; Ö?üt, Serdar; Zapol, Peter

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film oxide heterostructures with a bound charge at the interface require electrical compensation, which can involve redistribution of mobile charge carriers. We explore a model LaGaO3(001)//MgAl2O4(001) heterostructure with nominally negatively charged interfaces using first-principles methods and a Poisson-Boltzmann equation. We find that charge compensation by oxygen vacancies with quadratically decaying concentration away from the interface is more favorable than electronic redistribution. These vacancies have a potential to enhance ionic conductivity along the interfaces.

  1. How and why electrostatic charge of combustible nanoparticles can radically change the mechanism and rate of their oxidation in humid atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meshcheryakov, Oleg

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatically charged aerosol nanoparticles strongly attract surrounding polar gas molecules due to a charge-dipole interaction. In humid air, the substantial electrostatic attraction and acceleration of surrounding water vapour molecules towards charged combustible nanoparticles cause intense electrostatic hydration and preferential oxidation of these nanoparticles by accelerated water vapor molecules rather than non-polar oxygen molecules. In particular, electrostatic acceleration, acquired by surrounding water vapour molecules at a distance of their mean free path from the minimally charged iron metal nanoparticle can increase an oxidative activity of these polar molecules with respect to the nanoparticle by a factor of one million. Intense electrostatic hydration of charged metal nanoparticles converts the nanoparticle's oxide based shells into the hydroxide based electrolyte shells, transforming these nanoparticles into metal/air core-shell nanobatteries, periodically short-circuited by intra-particl...

  2. A Dynamic Algorithm for Facilitated Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taheri, Nicole; Ye, Yinyu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) are a rapidly developing technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and change the way vehicles obtain power. PEV charging stations will most likely be available at home and at work, and occasionally be publicly available, offering flexible charging options. Ideally, each vehicle will charge during periods when electricity prices are relatively low, to minimize the cost to the consumer and maximize societal benefits. A Demand Response (DR) service for a fleet of PEVs could yield such charging schedules by regulating consumer electricity use during certain time periods, in order to meet an obligation to the market. We construct an automated DR mechanism for a fleet of PEVs that facilitates vehicle charging to ensure the demands of the vehicles and the market are met. Our dynamic algorithm depends only on the knowledge of a few hundred driving behaviors from a previous similar day, and uses a simple adjusted pricing scheme to instantly assign feasible and satisfactory c...

  3. Modelling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic and oxide fuels for sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karahan, Aydin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A robust and reliable code to model the irradiation behavior of metal and oxide fuels in sodium cooled fast reactors is developed. Modeling capability was enhanced by adopting a non-empirical mechanistic approach to the ...

  4. Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric semiconductors: An intrinsic or extrinsic mechanism? April 5, 2011 at 3pm36-428 Carlos Silva University of...

  5. Evolution of Frictional Behavior of Punchbowl Fault Gouges Sheared at Seismic Slip Rates and Mechanical and Hydraulic Properties of Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism Sediments Deformed at Different Loading Paths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitajima, Hiroko

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of frictional heating, mechanical behavior, and microstructure evolution? by Hiroko Kitajima, Judith S. Chester, Frederick M. Chester, and Toshihiko Shimamoto, 2010. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, B08408, doi:10.1029/2009JB0 07038, Copyright 2010...

  6. Mayne, P.W., Coop, M.R., Springman, S., Huang, A-B., and Zornberg, J. (2009). State-of-the-Art Paper (SOA-1): GeoMaterial Behavior and Testing. Proc. 17th Intl. Conf. Soil Mechanics & Geotechnical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayne, Paul W.

    Mayne, P.W., Coop, M.R., Springman, S., Huang, A-B., and Zornberg, J. (2009). State-of-the-Art Paper (SOA-1): GeoMaterial Behavior and Testing. Proc. 17th Intl. Conf. Soil Mechanics & Geotechnical

  7. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Cell Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior is to make the models compatible with CAEBAT-1 and its Open Architecture Software (OAS) for wider

  8. Collective thermoelectrophoresis of charged colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arghya Majee; Alois Würger

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally driven colloidal transport is, to a large extent, due to the thermoelectric or Seebeck effect of the charged solution.We show that, contrary to the generally adopted single-particle picture, the transport coefficient depends on the colloidal concentration. For solutions that are dilute in the hydrodynamic sense, collective effects may significantly affect the thermophoretic mobility. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental observations on polyelectrolytes and charged particles and suggest that for charged colloids collective behavior is the rule rather than the exception.

  9. Microstructural Characterization of the Chemo-mechanical Behavior of Asphalt in Terms of Aging and Fatigue Performance Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Robert Grover

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of asphalt chemo-mechanics requires a basic understanding of the physical properties and chemical composition of asphalt and how these properties are linked to changes in performance induced by chemical modifications. This work uniquely...

  10. Final Report: Measurements of Core Conditions, Implosion Symmetry, and Anomaloes Acceleration Mechanisms on Omega through Charged Particle Spectroscopy, November 1, 1997 - December 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrasso, R.; Li, C.K.

    1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This work concerns the first spectroscopic measurements of energetic charged particles on Omega. Individual line profiles include D-3He protons (14.7 MeV) and alphas (3.6 MeV), D-T alphas (3.5 MeV), D-D protons (3.0 MeV), and D-D tutons (1.0 MeV)

  11. Application of the multi-mechanism deformation model for three-dimensional simulations of salt : behavior for the strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Bean, James E.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in 62 solution-mined caverns in salt domes located in Texas and Louisiana. Historically, three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the behavior of the caverns have been performed using a power law creep model. Using this method, and calibrating the creep coefficient to field data such as cavern closure and surface subsidence, has produced varying degrees of agreement with observed phenomena. However, as new salt dome locations are considered for oil storage facilities, pre-construction geomechanical analyses are required that need site-specific parameters developed from laboratory data obtained from core samples. The multi-mechanism deformation (M-D) model is a rigorous mathematical description of both transient and steady-state creep phenomena. Recent enhancements to the numerical integration algorithm within the model have created a more numerically stable implementation of the M-D model. This report presents computational analyses to compare the results of predictions of the geomechanical behavior at the West Hackberry SPR site using both models. The recently-published results using the power law creep model produced excellent agreement with an extensive set of field data. The M-D model results show similar agreement using parameters developed directly from laboratory data. It is also used to predict the behavior for the construction and operation of oil storage caverns at a new site, to identify potential problems before a final cavern layout is designed.

  12. Microstructural development and mechanical behavior of eutectic bismuth-tin and eutectic indium-tin in response to high temperature deformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, J.L.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering; [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanical behavior and microstructure of eutectic Bi-Sn and In-Sn solders were studied in parallel in order to better understand high temperature deformation of these alloys. Bi-Sn solder joints were made with Cu substrates, and In-Sn joints were made with either Cu or Ni substrates. The as-cast microstructure of Bi-Sn is complex regular, with the two eutectic phases interconnected in complicated patterns. The as-cast microstructure of In-Sn depends on the substrate. In-Sn on Cu has a non-uniform microstructure caused by diffusion of Cu into the solder during sample preparation, with regions of the Sn-rich {gamma} phase imbedded in a matrix of the In-rich {beta} phase. The microstructure of In-Sn on Ni is uniform and lamellar and the two phases are strongly coupled. The solders deform non-uniformly, with deformation concentrating in a band along the length of the sample for Bi-Sn and In-Sn on Cu, though the deformation is more diffuse in In-Sn than in Bi-Sn. Deformation of In-Sn on Ni spreads throughout the width of the joint. The different deformation patterns affect the shape of the stress-strain curves. Stress-strain curves for Bi-Sn and In-Sn on Cu exhibit sharp decays in the engineering stress after reaching a peak. Most of this stress decay is removed for In-Sn on Ni. The creep behavior of In-Sn also depends on the substrate, with the creep deformation controlled by the soft P phase of the eutectic for In-Sn on Cu and controlled by the harder {gamma} phase for In-Sn on Ni. When In-Sn on Ni samples are aged, the microstructure coarsens and changes to an array of {gamma} phase regions in a matrix of the {beta} phase, and the creep behavior changes to resemble that of In-Sn on Cu. The creep behavior of Bi-Sn changes with temperature. Two independent mechanisms operate at lower temperatures, but there is still some question as to whether one or both of these, or a third mechanism, operates at higher temperatures.

  13. Combined Charge Carrier Transport and Photoelectrochemical Characterization of BiVO4 Single Crystals: Intrinsic Behavior of a Complex Metal Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rettie, Alexander J.; Lee, Heung Chan; Marshall, Luke G.; Lin, Jung-Fu; Capen, Cigdem; Lindemuth, Jeffrey; McCloy, John S.; Zhou, Jianshi; Bard, Allen J.; Mullins, C. Buddie

    2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT: Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising photoelectrode material for the oxidation of water, but fundamental studies of this material are lacking. To address this, we report electrical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of BiVO4 single crystals (undoped, 0.6% Mo and 0.3% W:BiVO4) grown using the floating zone technique. We demonstrate that a small polaron hopping conduction mechanism dominates from 250-400 K, transitioning to a variable range hopping mechanism at lower temperatures. An anisotropy ratio of ~3 was observed along the c-axis, attributed to the layered structure of BiVO4. Measurements of the AC field Hall effect yielded an electron mobility of ~0.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 for Mo and W:BiVO4 at 300 K. By application of the Gärtner model, a hole diffusion length of ~140 nm was estimated. As a result of low carrier mobility, attempts to measure the DC Hall effect were unsuccessful. Analyses of the Raman spectra showed that Mo and W substituted for V and acted as donor impurities. Mott-Schottky analysis of electrodes with the (001) face exposed yielded a flat band potential of 0.03-0.08 V vs. RHE, while incident photon conversion efficiency tests showed that the dark coloration of the doped single crystals did not result in additional photocurrent. Comparison of these intrinsic properties to other metal oxides for PEC applications gives valuable insight into this material as a photoanode.

  14. Review on the effects of hydrogen at extreme pressures and temperatures on the mechanical behavior of polymers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecht, Ethan S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of hydrogen on the mechanics (e.g. strength, ductility, and fatigue resistance) of polymer materials are outlined in this report. There are a small number of studies reported in the literature on this topic, and even fewer at the extreme temperatures to which hydrogen service materials will be exposed. Several studies found little evidence that hydrogen affects the static tensile properties, long term creep, or ductile fracture of high density polyethylene or polyamide. However, there has been a report that a recoverable drop in the modulus of high density polyethylene is observable under high hydrogen pressure. A research need exists on the mechanical effects of hydrogen on the wide range of polymers used or considered for use in the hydrogen economy, due to the lack of data in the literature.

  15. Piston-assisted charge pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaur, D; Mourokh, L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine charge transport through a system of three sites connected in series in the situation when an oscillating charged piston modulates the energy of the middle site. We show that with an appropriate set of parameters, charge can be transferred against an applied voltage. In this scenario, when the oscillating piston shifts away from the middle site, the energy of the site decreases and it is populated by a charge transferred from the lower energy site. On the other hand, when the piston returns to close proximity, the energy of the middle site increases and it is depopulated by the higher energy site. Thus through this process, the charge is pumped against the potential gradient. Our results can explain the process of proton pumping in one of the mitochondrial enzymes, Complex I. Moreover, this mechanism can be used for electron pumping in semiconductor nanostructures.

  16. Thermophoresis of charged colloidal particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Fayolle; T. Bickel; A. Würger

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally induced particle flow in a charged colloidal suspension is studied in a fluid-mechanical approach. The force density acting on the charged boundary layer is derived in detail. From Stokes' equation with no-slip boundary conditions at the particle surface, we obtain the particle drift velocity and the thermophoretic transport coefficients. The results are discussed in view of previous work and available experimental data.

  17. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their program running safe and successfully. Sample Workplace Charging Policy More Documents & Publications...

  18. Effect of reinforcing particle type on morphology and age-hardening behavior of Al–4.5 wt.% Cu based nanocomposites synthesized through mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mostaed, A., E-mail: alimostaed@yahoo.com [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, 16765-3381 Pardis Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saghafian, H.; Mostaed, E. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokuhfar, A. [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, 16765-3381 Pardis Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaie, H.R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of reinforcing particle type (SiC and TiC) on morphology and precipitation hardening behavior of Al–4.5%Cu based nanocomposites synthesized via mechanical milling were investigated in the current work. In order to study the microstructure and morphology of mechanically milled powder, X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were utilized. Results revealed that at the early stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are polycrystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the TiC particles as reinforcement. But, at the final stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are single crystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the SiC ones. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that Al–4.5 wt.%Cu based nanocomposite powders were synthesized and confirmed that the mutual diffusion of aluminum and copper occurs through the interfacial plane of (200). The hardness results showed that not only does introducing 4 vol.% of reinforcing particles (SiC or TiC) considerably decrease the porosity of the bulk composite samples, but also it approximately doubles the hardness of Al–4.5 wt.%Cu alloy (53.4 HB). Finally, apart from TEM and scanning electron microscopy observation which are localized, a decline in hardness in the TiC and SiC contained samples, respectively, after 1.5 and 2 h aging time at 473 K proves the fact that the size of SiC particles is smaller than the size of the TiC ones. - Highlights: ? HRTEM results show mutual diffusion of Al and Cu occurs through the (200) planes. ? TiC particles enhance alloying process more than the SiC ones at the early stages of MM. ? SiC particles enhance alloying process more than the TiC ones at the final stages of MM.

  19. The influence of fiber/matrix interface on the mechanical behavior of Nicalon SiC fiber reinforced glass-ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.M.; Mitchell, T.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wadley, H.N.G. [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical properties of unidirectional Nicalon SiC fiber reinforced Ca aluminosilicate (CAS/SiC) and Mg aluminosilicate (MAS/SiC) glass-ceramic composites were investigated by tensile testing and nondestructive laser-ultrasound technique. The Ba-stuffed MAS was either undoped or doped with 5% borosilicate glass. Degradation of elastic stiffness constant C{sub 11} in transverse direction due to interface damage was monitored in situ by measuring the laser- generated ultrasound wave velocity. The three composite materials show different characteristics of macroscopic deformation behavior, which is correlated strongly to interface degradation. A stronger reduction trend of the elastic constant C{sub 11} is associated with a larger degree of inelastic deformation. The fracture surfaces also reveal the close relation between fiber pullout length and interfacial characteristics. Interfaces of these composites were studied by TEM; their influence on inhibiting and deflecting matrix cracks is discussed.

  20. Constitutive Model for the Time-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of 430 Stainless Steel and FeCrAlY Foams in Sulfur-Bearing Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanical behavior of 430 stainless steel and pre-oxidized FeCrAlY open-cell foam materials of various densities was evaluated in compression at temperatures between 450 C and 600 C in an environment containing hydrogen sulfide and water vapor. Both materials showed negligible corrosion due to the gaseous atmosphere for up to 168 hours. The monotonic stress-strain response of these materials was found to be dependent on both the strain rate and their density, and the 430 stainless steel foam materials exhibited less stress relaxation than FeCrAlY for similar experimental conditions. Using the results from multiple hardening-relaxation and monotonic tests, an empirical constitutive equation was derived to predict the stress-strain behavior of FeCrAlY foams as a function of temperature and strain rate. These results are discussed in the context of using these materials in a black liquor gasifier to accommodate the chemical expansion of the refractory liner resulting from its reaction with the soda in the black liquor.

  1. Electrostatics and radioactive aerosol behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, C.F.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive aerosols differ from their nonradioactive counterparts by their ability to charge themselves by emitting charged particles during the radioactive decay process. Evidence that electrostatics, including this charging process, can affect the transport of the aerosols was summarized previously. Charge distributions and the mean charge for a monodisperse radioactive aerosol have been considered in detail. The principal results of theory to calculate charge distributions on a aerosol with a size distribution, changes to Brownian coagulation rates for an aerosol in a reactor containment, and possible changes to aerosol deposition resulting from the charging will be presented. The main purpose of the work has been to improve calculations of aerosol behavior in reactor containments, but behavior in less ionizing environments will be affected more strongly, and some problems remain to be solved in performing reliable calculations.

  2. Chemical pressure and hidden one-dimensional behavior in rare earth tri-telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacchetti, A.; Degiorgi, L.; /Zurich, ETH; Giamarchi, T.; /Geneva U.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the first optical measurements of the rare-earth tri-telluride charge-density-wave systems. Our data, collected over an extremely broad spectral range, allow us to observe both the Drude component and the single-particle peak, ascribed to the contributions due to the free charge carriers and to the charge-density-wave gap excitation, respectively. The data analysis displays a diminishing impact of the charge-density-wave condensate on the electronic properties with decreasing lattice constant across the rare-earth series. We propose a possible mechanism describing this behavior and we suggest the presence of a one-dimensional character in these two-dimensional compounds. We also envisage that interactions and umklapp processes might play a relevant role in the formation of the charge-density-wave state in these compounds.

  3. Intrinsic Nanoscience of ? Pu-Ga Alloys: Local Structure and Speciation, Collective Behavior, Nanoscale Heterogeneity, and Aging Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conradson, Steven D.; Bock, Nicolas; Castro, Julio M.; Conradson, Dylan R.; Cox, Lawrence E.; Dmowski, Wojtek; Dooley, David E.; Egami, Takeshi; Espinosa-Faller, Francisco J.; Freibert, Franz J.; Garcia-Adeva, Angel J.; Hess, Nancy J.; Holmstrom, Erik; Howell, Rafael C.; Katz, Barbara A.; Lashley, Jason C.; Martinez, Raymond J.; Moore, David P.; Morales, Luis A.; Olivas, J David; Pereyra, Ramiro A.; Ramos, Michael; Terry, Jeff H.; Villella, Phillip M.

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Because diffraction measurements are sensitive only to the long range average arrangement of the atoms in the coherent portion of a crystal, complementary local structure measurements are required for a complete understanding of the structure of a complex material. This is particularly an issue in solid solutions where even random distributions of a solute will result in nanometer-scale fluctuations in the local composition. The structure will be further complicated if collective and cooperative phenomena organize the solute distribution via longer range interactions between non-bonded solute sites. If the solute affects the phase stability then the question is raised of whether the atoms in domains with local compositions outside the limits of the bulk phase will rearrange into the structure stable for that composition and temperature or if the resulting stress would prevent such a local phase transition. If the former, then phase separated, heterogeneous structures at or below the diffraction limit will form. This nanometerscale competition between the phase transition and the epitaxial mismatch – exacerbated by the added strain if the transition involves a volume change – raises the potential for the formation of novel structures that do not occur in bulk material, e.g., fcc Fe. This coupling over multiple scales between inhomogeneity ordering, elastic forces, phase competition, and texture in the form of coexisting structures is a hallmark of martensites, a class of complex materials that includes ?-stabilized PuGa and that often exhibit correlated atomic and electronic properties. The enigmatic and extreme nature of Pu is consistent with its exhibiting unusual structural behavior of this type, including nanoscale heterogeneity in ?-stabilized PuGa and its enhanced homogeneity on aging that has been suggested based on earlier X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and x-ray pair distribution function (pdf) measurements. Measurements on a defined set of laboratory-prepared materials now corroborate and better describe this heterogeneity while additional aged samples demonstrate the role of heterogeneity in aging processes in Pu.

  4. FRAPCON-2: A Computer Code for the Calculation of Steady State Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oxide Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berna, G. A; Bohn, M. P.; Rausch, W. N.; Williford, R. E.; Lanning, D. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FRAPCON-2 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady state response of light Mater reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, deformation, and tai lure histories of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (a) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (b) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (c) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (d) fission gas release, (e} fuel rod internal gas pressure, (f) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (g) cladding oxidation, and (h) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. FRAPCON-2 is programmed for use on the CDC Cyber 175 and 176 computers. The FRAPCON-2 code Is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by either the FRAP-T6 computer code or the thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP4/MOD7 Version 2.

  5. Crystallization Behavior of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Measured Using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis with Liquid Nitrogen Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small IV, W; Wilson, T S

    2010-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber specimens was conducted. Two dynamic temperature sweep tests, 25 to -100 C and 25 to -70 to 0 C (ramp rate = 1 C/min), were conducted at a frequency of 6.28 rad/s (1 Hz) using a torsion rectangular test geometry. A strain of 0.1% was used, which was near the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic region of the material based on an initial dynamic strain sweep test. Storage (G{prime}) and loss (G{double_prime}) moduli, the ratio G{double_prime}/G{prime} (tan {delta}), and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion ({alpha}) were determined as a function of temperature. Crystallization occurred between -40 and -60 C, with G{prime} increasing from {approx}6 x 10{sup 6} to {approx}4 x 10{sup 8} Pa. The value of {alpha} was fairly constant before ({approx}4 x 10{sup -4} mm/mm- C) and after ({approx}3 x 10{sup -4} mm/mm- C) the transition, and peaked during the transition ({approx}3 x 10{sup -3} mm/mm- C). Melting occurred around -30 C upon heating.

  6. Flow in porous media, phase behavior and ultralow interfacial tensions: mechanisms of enhanced petroleum recovery. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major program of university research, longer-ranged and more fundamental in approach than industrial research, into basic mechanisms of enhancing petroleum recovery and into underlying physics, chemistry, geology, applied mathematics, computation, and engineering science has been built at Minnesota. The 1982 outputs of the interdisciplinary team of investigators were again ideas, instruments, techniques, data, understanding and skilled people: forty-one scientific and engineering papers in leading journals; four pioneering Ph.D. theses; numerous presentations to scientific and technical meetings, and to industrial, governmental and university laboratories; vigorous program of research visits to and from Minnesota; and two outstanding Ph.D.'s to research positions in the petroleum industry, one to a university faculty position, one to research leadership in a governmental institute. This report summarizes the 1982 papers and theses and features sixteen major accomplishments of the program during that year. Abstracts of all forty-five publications in the permanent literature are appended. Further details of information transfer and personnel exchange with industrial, governmental and university laboratories appear in 1982 Quarterly Reports available from the Department of Energy and are not reproduced here. The Minnesota program continues in 1983, notwithstanding earlier uncertainty about the DOE funding which finally materialized and is the bulk of support. Supplemental grants-in-aid from nine companies in the petroleum industry are important, as are the limited University and departmental contributions. 839 references, 172 figures, 29 tables.

  7. Transformation behavior and shape memory characteristics of thermo-mechanically treated Ti–(45?x)Ni–5Cu–xV (at%) alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Jae-young; Chun, Su-jin [Division of Materials Scince and Engineering and ERI, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinjudaero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Materials Scince and Engineering and ERI, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinjudaero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eunsoo [Department of Civil Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Civil Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Yinong; Yang, Hong [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)] [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Nam, Tae-hyun, E-mail: tahynam@gnu.ac.kr [Division of Materials Scince and Engineering and ERI, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinjudaero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Materials Scince and Engineering and ERI, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinjudaero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Transformation behavior, shape memory characteristics and superelasticity of thermo-mechanically treated Ti–(45?x)Ni–5Cu–xV (at%) (x = 0.5–2.0) alloys were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractions, thermal cycling tests under constant load and tensile tests. The B2–B19? transformation occurred when V content was 0.5 at%, above which the B2–B19–B19? transformation occurred. The B2–B19 transformation was not separated clearly from the B19–B19? transformation. Thermo-mechanically treated Ti–(45?x)Ni–5Cu–xV alloys showed perfect shape memory effect and transformation hysteresis(?T) of Ti–43.5Ni–5.0Cu–1.5V and Ti–43.0Ni–5.0Cu–2.0V alloys was about 9 K which was much smaller than that of a Ti–44.5Ni–5.0Cu–0.5V alloy(23.3 K). More than 90% of superelastic recovery ratio was observed in all specimens and transformation hysteresis (??) of a Ti–44.5Ni–5.0Cu–0.5V alloy was about 70 MPa, which was much larger than that of a Ti–43.0Ni–5.0Cu–2.0V alloy (35 MPa).

  8. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  9. Randomly charged polymers in porous environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Blavatska; C. von Ferber

    2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the conformational properties of charged polymers in a solvent in the presence of structural obstacles correlated according to a power law $\\sim x^{-a}$. We work within the continuous representation of a model of linear chain considered as a random sequence of charges $q_i=\\pm q_0$. Such a model captures the properties of polyampholytes -- heteropolymers comprising both positively and negatively charged monomers. We apply the direct polymer renormalization scheme and analyze the scaling behavior of charged polymers up to the first order of an $\\epsilon=6-d$, $\\delta=4-a$-expansion.

  10. 3.22 Mechanical Properties of Materials, Spring 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Lorna J.

    Phenomenology of mechanical behavior of materials at the macroscopic level. Relationship of mechanical behavior to material structure and mechanisms of deformation and failure. Topics include: elasticity, viscoelasticity, ...

  11. 6When you heat a rubber band, it contracts. If you only know about point particles and ideal gases, this behavior is perplexing. But, a simple classical statistical mechanics model of a chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ha, Taekjip

    gases, this behavior is perplexing. But, a simple classical statistical mechanics model of a chain for given N and M. Call the result (N,M). (b) Using Stirling's approximation in the form ln(N!) N ln(N) - N and extent R, in the regime Na >> R. Write down the expression for the free energy of the chain (in

  12. animal behavior: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    behavior Describe the basic features of the scientific method and describe forms of energy in the context of behavior (radiant, chemical, mechanical, electrical behaviors. Know...

  13. Mechanical behavior of ultrastructural biocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearney, Cathal (Cathal John)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For numerous centuries nature has successfully developed biocomposite materials with detailed multiscale architectures to provide a material stiffness, strength and toughness. One such example is nacre, which is found in ...

  14. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Indium Under the Nanoscope In this work, Lee et al. investigated the small-scale plastic deformation of indium nanopillars, a previously unstudied material and crystal...

  15. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a NewCuneo Matthew1,

  16. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home andDisposition |MaterialsMatt10Laser,Measuring

  17. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home andDisposition

  18. Scratch behavior of polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Goy Teck

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the generated results that a good understanding can be gained on how different scratch conditions can affect scratch behavior of PP. A phenomenological deduction of the scratch damage process and mechanisms is also established. Considering the two main damage...

  19. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode Jun Liu,Modeling of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power SourcesBehavior of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources

  20. New charge radius relations for atomic nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. H. Sun; Y. Lu; J. P. Peng; C. Y. Liu; Y. M. Zhao

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the charge radii of neighboring atomic nuclei, independent of atomic number and charge, follow remarkably very simple relations, despite the fact that atomic nuclei are complex finite many-body systems governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. These relations can be understood within the picture of independent-particle motion and by assuming neighboring nuclei having similar pattern in the charge density distribution. A root-mean-square (rms) deviation of 0.0078 fm is obtained between the predictions in these relations and the experimental values, i.e., a comparable precision as modern experimental techniques. Such high accuracy relations are very useful to check the consistence of nuclear charge radius surface and moreover to predict unknown nuclear charge radii, while large deviations from experimental data is seen to reveal the appearance of nuclear shape transition or coexsitence.

  1. Now Available: Lakeland Electric SGIG Consumer Behavior Study...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charging Behaviors - Experiences from Six SGIG Projects (December 2014) Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers...

  2. SGIG Report Now Available: Experiences from the Consumer Behavior...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Customer Charging Behaviors - Experiences from Six SGIG Projects (December 2014) Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and...

  3. Charge regulation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  4. Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    miles across all available vehicles, not only the one being studied. Find out where the "other" gasoline/needs, Important destinations, HOV usage · Home and work charging infrastructure · Electricity prices · Purchase · Charging behavior · Location · Time · Frequency · Power · Level · Efficiency · Gasoline operation · MPG

  5. Electrically charged pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. D. Alloy; D. P. Menezes

    2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    n the present work we investigate one possible variation on the usual electrically neutral pulsars: the inclusion of electric charge. We study the effect of electric charge in pulsars assuming that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. All calculations were performed for zero temperature and fixed entropy equations of state.

  6. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Multiplexed Electric Vehicle Charging”, US20130154561A1,Chynoweth, ”Intelligent Electric Vehicle Charging System”,of RFID Mesh Network for Electric Vehicle Smart Charging

  7. http://journals.cambridge.org Downloaded: 24 Feb 2014 IP address: 128.100.48.236 Characterizing mechanical behavior of atomically thin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yu

    applications to composite materials,2­4 lubricants,5,6 electronics,7­9 batteries,10­12 optics,13,14 as well. Mechanical exfoliation Mechanically exfoliating graphite using scotch tape to produce graphene films of graphite Oxidizing graphite to form graphite oxide or starting with expandable graphite or graphite

  8. General Groves takes charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    takes charge Colonel James C. Marshall, head of the DSM project (Development of Substitute Materials), did not make much headway, yet he did accomplish some things that lasted....

  9. Physical process Mechanical mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Physical process Generation · Mechanical mechanisms F = m·a · Electric/Magnetic mechanisms F = B·i·l · Fluid dynamic/Hydraulic mechanisms q, p, ij · Thermal/Optical #12;2 Source unit

  10. High-Temperature Mechanical Behavior and Hot Rolling S.F. HARNISH, H.A. PADILLA, B.E. GORE, J.A. DANTZIG, A.J. BEAUDOIN,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dantzig, Jonathan A.

    and processing performance of 705X aluminum alloys is exam- ined, employing a combination of mechanical testing aluminum has been one of the most widely successful and broadly applicable materials devel- oped of these alloys include packaging, automotive, and aerospace. The Al-Zn- Mg-Cu 7000 series alloys have seen

  11. Evaluation of the thermal-hydraulic response and fuel rod thermal and mechanical deformation behavior during the power burst facility test LOC-3. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yackle, T.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Broughton, J.M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation of the results from the LOC-3 nuclear blowdown test conducted in the Power Burst Facility is presented. The test objective was to examine fuel and cladding behavior during a postulated cold leg break accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Separate effects of rod internal pressure and the degree of irradiation were investigated in the four-rod test. Extensive cladding deformation (ballooning) and failure occurred during blowdown. The deformation of the low and high pressure rods was similar; however, the previously irradiated test rod deformed to a greater extent than a similar fresh rod exposed to identical system conditions.

  12. Charge regulation in ionic solutions: thermal fluctuations and Kirkwood-Schumaker interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natasa Adzic; Rudolf Podgornik

    2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the behavior of two macroions with dissociable charge groups, regulated by local variables such as pH and electrostatic potential, immersed in a mono-valent salt solution, considering cases where the net charge can either change sign or remain of the same sign depending on these local parameters. The charge regulation, in both cases, is described with the proper free energy function for each of the macroions, while the coupling between the charges is evaluated on the approximate Debye-H\\"uckel level. The charge correlation functions and the ensuing charge fluctuation forces are calculated analytically and numerically. Strong attraction between like-charged macroions is found close to the point of zero charge, specifically due to asymmetric, anticorrelated charge fluctuations of the macroion charges. The general theory is then implemented for a system of two protein-like macroions, generalizing the form and magnitude of the Kirkwood-Schumaker interaction.

  13. Electrically charged compact stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subharthi Ray; Manuel Malheiro; Jose' P. S. Lemos; Vilson T. Zanchin

    2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We review here the classical argument used to justify the electrical neutrality of stars and show that if the pressure and density of the matter and gravitational field inside the star are large, then a charge and a strong electric field can be present. For a neutron star with high pressure (~ 10^{33} to 10^{35} dynes /cm^2) and strong gravitational field (~ 10^{14} cm/s^2), these conditions are satisfied. The hydrostatic equation which arises from general relativity, is modified considerably to meet the requirements of the inclusion of the charge. In order to see any appreciable effect on the phenomenology of the neutron stars, the charge and the electrical fields have to be huge (~ 10^{21} Volts/cm). These stars are not however stable from the viewpoint that each charged particle is unbound to the uncharged particles, and thus the system collapses one step further to a charged black hole

  14. Charging Black Saturn?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenda Chng; Robert Mann; Eugen Radu; Cristian Stelea

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordstrom solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we could find present either a conical singularity or a naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  15. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  16. Quantitative Modeling of Polymer Scratch Behavior 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, Mohammad Motaher

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    dependent mechanical behavior and pressure dependent frictional behavior in the FEM model, good agreement has been found between FEM simulation and experimental observations. The results suggest that, by including proper constitutive relationship...

  17. taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramani, Praveen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

  18. Abstract adiabatic charge pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Joye; V. Brosco; F. Hekking

    2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of an abstract formula describing quantum adiabatic charge pumping in a general context. We consider closed systems characterized by a slowly varying time-dependent Hamiltonian depending on an external parameter $\\alpha$. The current operator, defined as the derivative of the Hamiltonian with respect to $\\alpha$, once integrated over some time interval, gives rise to a charge pumped through the system over that time span. We determine the first two leading terms in the adiabatic parameter of this pumped charge under the usual gap hypothesis. In particular, in case the Hamiltonian is time periodic and has discrete non-degenerate spectrum, the charge pumped over a period is given to leading order by the derivative with respect to $\\alpha$ of the corresponding dynamical and geometric phases.

  19. International aeronautical user charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: 1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION Very few issues relating to the international air transportation industry are today as divisive as those pertaining to user charges imposed at international airports and enroute ...

  20. Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in New California Houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pollutant sources get more ventilation. • Except householdshealth issues motivate ventilation behavior. • Security andQuality, IAQ, mechanical ventilation systems, ventilation

  1. From Quantum Mechanics to Thermodynamics?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    From Quantum Mechanics to Thermodynamics? Dresden, 22.11.2004 Jochen Gemmer Universit¨at Osnabr to thermodynamical behavior · Quantum approach to thermodynamical behavior · The route to equilibrium · Summary of thermodynamical behavior entirely on the basis of Hamilton models and Schr¨odinger-type quantum dynamics. · define

  2. Transition from supercapacitor to battery behavior in electrochemical energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conway, B.E. (Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the storage of electrochemical energy in battery, supercapacitor, and double-layer capacitor devices is considered. A comparison of the mechanisms and performance of such systems enables their essential features to be recognized and distinguished, and the conditions for transition between supercapacitor and battery behavior to be characterized. Supercapacitor systems based on two-dimensional underpotential deposition reactions are highly reversible and their behavior arises from the pseudocapaccitance associated with potential-dependence of two-dimensional coverage of electroactive adatoms on an electrode substrate surface. Such capacitance can be 10-100 times the double-layer capacitance of the same electrode area. An essential fundamental difference from battery behavior arises because, in such systems, the chemical and associated electrode potentials are a continuous function of degree of charge, unlike the thermodynamic behavior of single-phase battery reactants. Quai-two-dimensional systems, such as hyperextended hydrous RuP{sub 2}, also exhibit large pseudocapacitance which, in this case, is associated with a sequence of redox redox processes that are highly reversible.

  3. Nano watermill driven by the revolving charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Nie, Xuechuan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hangjun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a novel nanoscale watermill for unidirectional transport of water molecules through a curved single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In this nanoscale system, a revolving charge is introduced to drive water chain confined inside the SWNT, which is served as nano waterwheel and nano engine. A resonance-like phenomenon is found that the revolving frequency of the charge plays a key role in pumping water chain. The water flux across the SWNT increases with respect to the revolving frequency of the external charge and reaches the maximum when the frequency is 4 THz. Correspondingly, the number of the hydrogen bonds of water chain inside the SWNT decreases dramatically with the frequency ranging from 4 THz to 25 THz. The mechanism behind the resonant phenomenon has been investigated systematically. Our findings are helpful for designing nanoscale fluidic devices and energy converters.

  4. Spreading of triboelectrically charged granular matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deepak Kumar; A. Sane; Smita Gohil; P. R. Bandaru; S. Bhattacharya; Shankar Ghosh

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the spreading of triboelectrically charged glass particles on an oppositely charged surface of a plastic cylindrical container in the presence of a constant mechanical agitation. The particles spread via sticking, as a monolayer on the cylinder's surface. Continued agitation initiates a sequence of instabilities of this monolayer, which first forms periodic wavy-stripe-shaped transverse density modulation in the monolayer and then ejects narrow and long particle-jets from the tips of these stripes. These jets finally coalesce laterally to form a homogeneous spreading front that is layered along the spreading direction. These remarkable growth patterns are related to a time evolving frictional drag between the moving charged glass particles and the countercharges on the plastic container. The results provide insight into the multiscale time-dependent tribolelectric processes and motivates further investigation into the microscopic causes of these macroscopic dynamical instabilities and spatial structures.

  5. Effect of point and grain boundary defects on the mechanical behavior of monolayer MoS{sub 2} under tension via atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Khanh Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Spearot, Douglas E., E-mail: dspearot@uark.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomistic simulation is used to study the structure and energy of defects in monolayer MoS{sub 2} and the role of defects on the mechanical properties of monolayer MoS{sub 2}. First, energy minimization is used to study the structure and energy of monosulfur vacancies positioned within the bottom S layer of the MoS{sub 2} lattice, and 60° symmetric tilt grain boundaries along the zigzag and armchair directions, with comparison to experimental observations and density functional theory calculations. Second, molecular dynamics simulations are used to subject suspended defect-containing MoS{sub 2} membranes to a state of multiaxial tension. A phase transformation is observed in the defect-containing membranes, similar to prior work in the literature. For monolayer MoS{sub 2} membranes with point defects, groups of monosulfur vacancies promote stress-concentration points, allowing failure to initiate away from the center of the membrane. For monolayer MoS{sub 2} membranes with grain boundaries, failure initiates at the grain boundary and it is found that the breaking force for the membrane is independent of grain boundary energy.

  6. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  7. Diffuse-charge effects on the transient response of electrochemical cells M. van Soestbergen,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    of an electrochemical cell in response to a current step, including effects of diffuse charge or "space charge" nearDiffuse-charge effects on the transient response of electrochemical cells M. van Soestbergen,1,2 P/discharge cycle of batteries 1­5 and the startup behavior of fuel cells 6 are important topics. Time- dependent

  8. Holographic Charge Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mike Blake; Aristomenis Donos; David Tong

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reissner-Nordstrom black hole provides the prototypical description of a holographic system at finite density. We study the response of this system to the presence of a local, charged impurity. Below a critical temperature, the induced charge density, which screens the impurity, exhibits oscillations. These oscillations can be traced to the singularities in the density-density correlation function moving in the complex momentum plane. At finite temperature, the oscillations are very similar to the Friedel oscillations seen in Fermi liquids. However, at zero temperature the oscillations in the black hole background remain exponentially damped, while Friedel oscillations relax to a power-law

  9. Overview of charge symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, G.A. [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1995-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge independence and symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature. The observations of the small charge symmetry breaking effects and the consequences of those effects are reviewed. The effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and the off shell dependence {ital q}{sup 2} of {rho}{sup 0}-{omega} mixing are stressed. We find that models which predict a strong {ital q}{sup 2} dependence of {rho}{sup 0}-{omega} mixing seem also to predict a strong {ital q}{sup 2} variation for the {rho}{sup 0}-{gamma}* matrix element, in contradiction with experiment.

  10. Unveiling Surface Redox Charge Storage of Interacting Two-Dimensional Hetero-Nanosheets in Hierarchical Architectures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahmood, Qasim [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University (Republic of Korea); Bak, Seong-Min [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kim, Min G. [Beamline Research Division, Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Republic of Korea); Yun, Sol [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon (Republic of Korea); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shin, Hyeon S. [Department of Energy Engineering, Department of Chemistry, and Low Dimensional Carbon Materials Center, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology(UNIST) (Republic of Korea); Kim, Woo S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University (Republic of Korea); Braun, Paul V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering Materials Research Laboratory and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana?Champaign, Urbana, Illinois (United States); Park, Ho S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon (Republic of Korea)

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional (2D) heteronanosheets are currently the focus of intense study due to the unique properties that emerge from the interplay between two low-dimensional nanomaterials with different properties. However, the properties and new phenomena based on the two 2D heteronanosheets interacting in a 3D hierarchical architecture have yet to be explored. Here, we unveil the surface redox charge storage mechanism of surface-exposed WS2 nanosheets assembled in a 3D hierarchical heterostructure using in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic methods. The surface dominating redox charge storage of WS2 is manifested in a highly reversible and ultrafast capacitive fashion due to the interaction of heteronanosheets and the 3D connectivity of the hierarchical structure. In contrast, compositionally identical 2D WS2 structures fail to provide a fast and high capacitance with different modes of lattice vibration. The distinctive surface capacitive behavior of 3D hierarchically structured heteronanosheets is associated with rapid proton accommodation into the in-plane W–S lattice (with the softening of the E2g bands), the reversible redox transition of the surface-exposed intralayers residing in the electrochemically active 1T phase of WS2 (with the reversible change in the interatomic distance and peak intensity of W–W bonds), and the change in the oxidation state during the proton insertion/deinsertion process. This proposed mechanism agrees with the dramatic improvement in the capacitive performance of the two heteronanosheets coupled in the hierarchical structure.

  11. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lal, Amit (Madison, WI); Li, Hui (Madison, WI); Blanchard, James P. (Madison, WI); Henderson, Douglass L. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  12. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  13. AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced...

  14. Neutron-Proton High-Energy Charge Exchange Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Yan; R. Tegen; T. Gutsche; V. E. Lyubovitskij; Amand Faessler

    2002-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The high energy proton-neutron charge exchange scattering reaction is studied in an effective hadron model for the energy range of s from 45.9 to 414.61 GeV*GeV. The main features of the observed differential cross section, the forward peak and the scaling behavior over a large energy region, are well reproduced.

  15. Quark star model with charge distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel Malaver

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we studied the behavior of relativistic objects with anisotropic matter distribution inthe presence of an electric field considering a gravitational potential Z(x) of Thirukkanesh and Ragel (2013) which depends on an adjustable parameter n. The equation of state presents a quadratic relation between the energy densityand the radial pressure. New exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell system are generated. A physical analysis of electromagnetic field indicates that is regular in the origin and well behaved. We show as a variation of the adjustable parameter n causes a modification in the charge density, the radial pressure and the mass of the stellar object.

  16. Charge detection in semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLean, Kenneth (Kenneth MacLean, III)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis nanometer scale charge sensors are used to study charge transport in two solid state systems: Lateral GaAs quantum dots and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). In both of these experiments we use ...

  17. General 2 charge geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marika Taylor

    2005-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Two charge BPS horizon free supergravity geometries are important in proposals for understanding black hole microstates. In this paper we construct a new class of geometries in the NS1-P system, corresponding to solitonic strings carrying fermionic as well as bosonic condensates. Such geometries are required to account for the full microscopic entropy of the NS1-P system. We then briefly discuss the properties of the corresponding geometries in the dual D1-D5 system.

  18. On the Proton charge extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Gluck

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the recent determination of the various proton charge extensions is compatible with Standard Model expectations.

  19. What kind of charging infrastructure do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document will describe the charging behavior of Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will include aggregated data from several thousand vehicles regarding time-of-day, power level, and location of charging and driving events. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  20. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Charged Carboxyl-Terminated Dendrimers in Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubin, Paul D.

    Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Charged Carboxyl-Terminated Dendrimers in Solutions Q. R-angle neutron scattering was used to characterize the solution behavior of charged carboxylic acid terminated- copy,16 small-angle X-ray scattering,17 and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS),18-25 have been used

  1. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Stĺl

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new webpage collecting charged Higgs resources is presented.

  2. PAH Sorption Mechanism and Partitioning Behavior in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    . Introduction Prior to the widespread distribution of natural gas, manu- factured gas from coke, coal, and oil. In the eastern United States, where coal was plentiful, gas was derived from coal or coke. Along the West Coast, because of the availability of oil and the expense in transporting coal or coke to this region, gas

  3. Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Javed, W. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstroem-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact (t - r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.

  4. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomyDr.Energy University Managing Increased Charging

  5. Automakers and Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments from TarasaName4ServicesTribalWorkplace Charging Summit

  6. NERSC HPSS Charging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1AllocationsNOVA Portal: Submit2014 2015Charging HPSS

  7. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  8. Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Poster...

  9. Pipeline charging of coke ovens with a preheated charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpov, A.V.; Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Kuznichenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work to test a pipeline charging method was conducted at the Konetsk Coke Works (a PK-2K coke oven system with a single gas main, oven width 407 mm, height 4300 mm, effective column 20.0 cm/sub 3/). This method consists of transporting the heated coal charge to the ovens through a pipe by means of steam. the charge is transported by high pressure chamber groups, and loaded by means of systems equipped with devices for separation, withdrawal and treatment of the spent steam. The principal goal of the present investigation was to test technical advances in the emission-free charging of preheated charges. The problem was, first, to create a reliable technology for separation of the steam from the charge immediately before loading it into the oven and, second, to provide a total elimination of emissions, thereby protecting the environment against toxic substances.

  10. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The report also examines when consumers want to recharge vehicles, and to what extent pricing and incentives can encourage consumers to charge during off-peak periods. Evaluating...

  11. Channeling problem for charged particles produced by confining environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Derbov, V. L. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation); Krassovitskiy, P. M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Vinitsky, S. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Channeling problem produced by confining environment that leads to resonance scattering of charged particles via quasistationary states imbedded in the continuum is examined. Nonmonotonic dependence of physical parameters on collision energy and/or confining environment due to resonance transmission and total reflection effects is confirmed that can increase the rate of recombination processes. The reduction of the model for two identical charged ions to a boundary problem is considered together with the asymptotic behavior of the solution in the vicinity of pair-collision point and the results of R-matrix calculations. Tentative estimations of the enhancement factor and the total reflection effect are discussed.

  12. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  13. Topological charge in 1+1 dimensional lattice $?^4$ theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asit K. De; A. Harindranath; Jyotirmoy Maiti; Tilak Sinha

    2005-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the topological charge in 1+1 dimensional $\\phi^4$ theory on a lattice with Anti Periodic Boundary Condition (APBC) in the spatial direction. We propose a simple order parameter for the lattice theory with APBC and we demonstrate its effectiveness. Our study suggests that kink condensation is a possible mechanism for the order-disorder phase transition in the 1+1 dimensional $\\phi^4$ theory. With renormalizations performed on the lattice with Periodic Boundary Condition (PBC), the topological charge in the renormalized theory is given as the ratio of the order parameters in the lattices with APBC and PBC. We present a comparison of topological charges in the bare and the renormalized theory and demonstrate invariance of the charge of the renormalized theory in the broken symmetry phase.

  14. Sacrificial Charge and Charge Injection! Evolution of Line Width!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Catherine E.

    . Similar structures are seen in the energy scale due to sacrificial charge. " Solar Min Solar Max increasing CTI, trailing charge and event/split thresholds Evolution of Energy Scale! · Radiation damage! Catherine Grant, Bev LaMarr, Eric Miller and Mark Bautz (MIT Kavli Institute)! Instruments and Data! · Front

  15. Gas-Solid Coexistence in Highly Charged Colloidal Suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Mohanty; B. V. R. Tata; A. Toyotama; T. Sawada

    2005-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous suspensions of highly charged polystyrene particles with different volume fractions have been investigated for structural ordering and phase behavior using static light scattering (SLS) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Under deionized conditions, suspensions of high charge density colloidal particles remained disordered whereas suspensions of relatively low charge density showed crystallization by exhibiting iridescence for the visible light. Though for unaided eye crystallized suspensions appeared homogeneous, static light scattering measurements and CLSM observations have revealed their inhomogeneous nature in the form of coexistence of voids with dense ordered regions. CLSM investigations on disordered suspensions showed their inhomogeneous nature in the form coexistence of voids with dense disordered (amorphous) regions. Our studies on highly charged colloids confirm the occurrence of gas-solid transition and are in accordance with predictions of Monte Carlo simulations using a pair-potential having a long-range attractive term [Mohanty and Tata, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2003, 264, 101]. Based on our experimental and simulation results we argue that the reported reentrant disordered state [Yamanaka et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 1998, 80, 5806 and Toyotama et al Langmuir, 2003, 19, 3236] in charged colloids observed at high charge densities is a gas-solid coexistence state.

  16. Apparatus and method for generating a magnetic field by rotation of a charge holding object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Vukovic, Lela (Westchester, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glenn, IL)

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and a method for the production of a magnetic field using a Charge Holding Object that is mechanically rotated. In a preferred embodiment, a Charge Holding Object surrounding a sample rotates and subjects the sample to one or more magnetic fields. The one or more magnetic fields are used by NMR Electronics connected to an NMR Conductor positioned within the Charge Holding Object to perform NMR analysis of the sample.

  17. The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation and Battery Management System Tutor degradation mechanisms of a Li-ion cell based on LiCoO2", Journal of Power Sources #12;Lithium ions and e and Y. Fuentes. Computer simulations of a lithium-ion polymer battery and implications for higher

  18. Thermodynamic geometry of charged rotating BTZ black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbar, M. [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Quevedo, H. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70543, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); ICRANet, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Saifullah, K. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sanchez, A. [Departamento de Posgrado, CIIDET, AP 752, Queretaro, QRO 76000 (Mexico); Taj, S. [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); ICRANet, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermodynamics and the thermodynamic geometries of charged rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes in (2+1)-gravity. We investigate the thermodynamics of these systems within the context of the Weinhold and Ruppeiner thermodynamic geometries and the recently developed formalism of geometrothermodynamics. Considering the behavior of the heat capacity and the Hawking temperature, we show that Weinhold and Ruppeiner geometries cannot describe completely the thermodynamics of these black holes and of their limiting case of vanishing electric charge. In contrast, the Legendre invariance imposed on the metric in geometrothermodynamics allows one to describe the charged rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and their limiting cases in a consistent and invariant manner.

  19. Shielding of a moving test charge in a quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Else, D.; Kompaneets, R.; Vladimirov, S. V. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The linearized potential of a moving test charge in a one-component fully degenerate fermion plasma is studied using the Lindhard dielectric function. The motion is found to greatly enhance the Friedel oscillations behind the charge, especially for velocities larger than half of the Fermi velocity, in which case the asymptotic behavior of their amplitude changes from 1/r{sup 3} to 1/r{sup 2.5}. In the absence of the quantum recoil (tunneling) the potential reduces to a form similar to that in a classical Maxwellian plasma, with a difference being that the plasma oscillations behind the charge at velocities larger than the Fermi velocity are not Landau damped.

  20. Capacitive charging system for high power battery charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a project to design, build, demonstrate, and document a Level 3 capacitive charging system, and it will be based on the existing PEZIC prototype capacitive coupler. The capacitive coupler will be designed to transfer power at a maximum of 600 kW, and it will transfer power by electric fields. The power electronics will transfer power at 100 kW. The coupler will be designed to function with future increases in the power electronics output power and increases in the amp/hours capacity of sealed batteries. Battery charging algorithms will be programmed into the control electronics. The finished product will be a programmable battery charging system capable of transferring 100 kW via a capacitive coupler. The coupler will have a low power loss of less than 25 watts when transferring 240 kW (400 amps). This system will increase the energy efficiency of high power battery charging, and it will enhance mobility by reducing coupler failures. The system will be completely documented. An important deliverable of this project is information. The information will be distributed to the Army`s TACOM-TARDEC`s Advanced Concept Group, and it will be distributed to commercial organizations by the Society of Automotive Engineers. The information will be valuable for product research, development, and specification. The capacitive charging system produced in this project will be of commercial value for future electric vehicles. The coupler will be designed to rapid charge batteries that have a capacity of several thousand amp/hours at hundreds of volts. The charging system built here will rapid charge batteries with several hundred amp/hours capacity, depending on the charging voltage.

  1. Critical Points of the Electric Field from a Collection of Point Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max, N; Weinkauf, T

    2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric field around a molecule is generated by the charge distribution of its constituents: positively charged atomic nuclei, which are well approximated by point charges, and negatively charged electrons, whose probability density distribution can be computed from quantum mechanics. For the purposes of molecular mechanics or dynamics, the charge distribution is often approximated by a collection of point charges, with either a single partial charge at each atomic nucleus position, representing both the nucleus and the electrons near it, or as several different point charges per atom. The critical points in the electric field are useful in visualizing its geometrical and topological structure, and can help in understanding the forces and motion it induces on a charged ion or neutral dipole. Most visualization tools for vector fields use only samples of the field on the vertices of a regular grid, and some sort of interpolation, for example, trilinear, on the grid cells. There is less risk of missing or misinterpreting topological features if they can be derived directly from the analytic formula for the field, rather than from its samples. This work presents a method which is guaranteed to find all the critical points of the electric field from a finite set of point charges. To visualize the field topology, we have modified the saddle connector method to use the analytic formula for the field.

  2. Dynamical Studies of Charged Di-Block Copolymer in Different Dielectric Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Kumar, Rajeev [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brownian Dynamics simulations are carried out to understand the effect of temperature and dielectric constant of the medium on microphase separation of charged-neutral diblock copolymer systems. For different dielectric media, we focus on the effect of temperature on the morphology and dynamics of model charged diblock copolymers. In this study we examine in detail a system with a partially charged block copolymer consisting of 75% neutral blocks and 25% of charged blocks with 50% degree of ionization. Our investigations show that due to the presence of strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions, the block copolymermorphologies are rather different than those of their neutral counterpart at low dielectric constant, however at high dielectric constant the neutral diblock behaviors are observed. This article highlights the effect of dielectric constant of two different media on different thermodynamic and dynamic quantities. At low dielectric constant, the morphologies are a direct outcome of the ion-counterion multiplet formation. At high dielectric constant, these charged diblocks behavior resembles that of neutral and weakly charged polymers with sustainable long-range order. Similar behavior has been observed in chain swelling, albeit with small changes in swelling ratio for large changes in polarity of the medium. The results of our simulations agree with recent experimental results and are consistent with recent theoretical predictions of counterion adsorption on flexible polyelectrolytes.

  3. Mechanical Engineering Department Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    ­Madison as an Honorary Fellow in 2012 after retiring from General Motors Research & DevelopmentMechanical Engineering Department Seminar Series Ignition and Flame Growth in Spray-Guided Stratified-Charge Gasoline Engines Dr. Todd Fansler Engine Research Center University of Wisconsin - Madison

  4. Dust acoustic shock waves in two temperatures charged dusty grains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Shewy, E. K. [Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Science and Arts College in Al-Rass, Physics Department, Qassim University, Al-Rass Province (Saudi Arabia); Abdelwahed, H. G. [Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Physics Department, Alkharj University, Al-kharj (Saudi Arabia); Elmessary, M. A. [Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The reductive perturbation method has been used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equation and modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burger for dust acoustic shock waves in a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged ions, hot and cold dust species with Boltzmann distributions for electrons and ions in the presence of the cold (hot) dust viscosity coefficients. The behavior of the shock waves in the dusty plasma has been investigated.

  5. Structures, electrical properties, and leakage current behaviors of un-doped and Mn-doped lead-free ferroelectric K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lingyan, E-mail: l.y.wang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ren, Wei, E-mail: l.y.wang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Shi, Peng; Wu, Xiaoqing [Electronic Material Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education and International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-free ferroelectric un-doped and doped K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} (KNN) films with different amounts of manganese (Mn) were prepared by a chemical solution deposition method. The thicknesses of all films are about 1.6??m. Their phase, microstructure, leakage current behavior, and electrical properties were investigated. With increasing the amounts of Mn, the crystallinity became worse. Fortunately, the electrical properties were improved due to the decreased leakage current density after Mn-doping. The study on leakage behaviors shows that the dominant conduction mechanism at low electric field in the un-doped KNN film is ohmic mode and that at high electric field is space-charge-limited and Pool-Frenkel emission. After Mn doping, the dominant conduction mechanism at high electric field of KNN films changed single space-charge-limited. However, the introduction of higher amount of Mn into the KNN film would lead to a changed conduction mechanism from space-charge-limited to ohmic mode. Consequently, there exists an optimal amount of Mn doping of 2.0?mol.?%. The 2.0?mol.?% Mn doped KNN film shows the lowest leakage current density and the best electrical properties. With the secondary ion mass spectroscopies and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, the homogeneous distribution in the KNN films and entrance of Mn element in the lattice of KNN perovskite structure were also confirmed.

  6. A battery material charges via an unexpected mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Johanna L.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments help to explain why lithium iron phosphate cathodes work so well.

  7. Charge storage mechanism in nanoporous carbons and its consequence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    has already been achieved in various applications. One of the challenges in the supercapacitor area is to increase their energy density. Some recent discoveries regarding ion...

  8. Unveiling Surface Redox Charge Storage of Interacting Two-Dimensional Hetero-Nanosheets in Hierarchical Architectures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahmood, Qasim; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Min G.; Yun, Sol; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Shin, Hyeon S.; Kim, Woo S.; Braun, Paul V.; Park, Ho S.

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional (2D) heteronanosheets are currently the focus of intense study due to the unique properties that emerge from the interplay between two low-dimensional nanomaterials with different properties. However, the properties and new phenomena based on the two 2D heteronanosheets interacting in a 3D hierarchical architecture have yet to be explored. Here, we unveil the surface redox charge storage mechanism of surface-exposed WS2 nanosheets assembled in a 3D hierarchical heterostructure using in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic methods. The surface dominating redox charge storage of WS2 is manifested in a highly reversible and ultrafast capacitive fashion due to themore »interaction of heteronanosheets and the 3D connectivity of the hierarchical structure. In contrast, compositionally identical 2D WS2 structures fail to provide a fast and high capacitance with different modes of lattice vibration. The distinctive surface capacitive behavior of 3D hierarchically structured heteronanosheets is associated with rapid proton accommodation into the in-plane W–S lattice (with the softening of the E2g bands), the reversible redox transition of the surface-exposed intralayers residing in the electrochemically active 1T phase of WS2 (with the reversible change in the interatomic distance and peak intensity of W–W bonds), and the change in the oxidation state during the proton insertion/deinsertion process. This proposed mechanism agrees with the dramatic improvement in the capacitive performance of the two heteronanosheets coupled in the hierarchical structure.« less

  9. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  10. What Kind of Charging Infrastructure Do Chevrolet Volt Drivers in The EV Project Use and When Do They Use It?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document will present information describing the charging behavior of Chevrolet Volts that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will included aggregated data from more than 1,800 vehicles regarding locations, power levels, and time-of-day of charging events performed by those vehicles. This document will be published to the INL AVTA website.

  11. The Energy of Charged Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Philip Solovej

    2004-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk I will discuss some of the techniques that have been developed over the past 35 years to estimate the energy of charged matter. These techniques have been used to solve stability of (fermionic) matter in different contexts, and to control the instability of charged bosonic matter. The final goal will be to indicate how these techniques with certain improvements can be used to prove Dyson's 1967 conjecture for the energy of a charged Bose gas--the sharp $N^{7/5}$ law.

  12. Efficient wireless charging with gallium nitride FETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Theresa (Theresa I.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Though wireless charging is more convenient than traditional wired charging methods, it is currently less efficient. This not only wastes power but can also result in a longer charging time. Improving the efficiency of ...

  13. Effect of charge distribution on RDX adsorption in IRMOF-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Ruichang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Keffer, David J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A [ORNL; Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Michalkova, Andrea [Jackson State University; Petrova, Tetyana [Jackson State University; Leszczynski, Jerzy [Computational Center for Molecular Structure and Interactions, Jackson, MS; Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu [ORNL; Doss, Bryant [West Virginia University; Lewis, James [West Virginia University

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations, classical grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations, and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to test the effect of charge distribution on hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) adsorption and diffusion in IRMOF-10. Several different methods for mapping QM electron distributions onto atomic point charges are explored, including the electrostatic potential (ESP) method, Mulliken population analysis, L{sub 0}wdin population analysis, and natural bond orbital analysis. Classical GCMC and MD simulations of RDX in IRMOF-10 are performed using 15 combinations of charge sources of RDX and IRMOF-10. As the charge distributions vary, interaction potential energies, the adsorption loading, and the self-diffusivities are significantly different. None of the 15 combinations are able to quantitatively capture the dependence of the energy of adsorption on local configuration of RDX as observed in the QM calculations. We observe changes in the charge distributions of RDX and IRMOF-10 with the introduction of an RDX molecule into the cage. We also observe a large dispersion contribution to the interaction energy from QM calculations that is not reproduced in the classical simulations, indicating that the source of discrepancy may not lie exclusively with the assignment of charges.

  14. Turbo-Charged Lighting Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, W. H. II

    TURBO-CHARGED LIGHTING DESIGN William H. Clark II Design Engineer O'Connell Robertson & Assoc Austin/ Texas ABSTRACT The task of the lighting designer has become very complex, involving thousands of choices for fixture types and hundreds...

  15. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  16. Structure, Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics in Magnetite (Fe3O4) (100) Surfaces from First Principles. Structure, Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics in...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Charging Equipment (EVSE) Testing Data Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging Equipment (EVSE) Testing Data Electric vehicle chargers (otherwise known as...

  18. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design Presentation given at the EV Everywhere...

  19. Metal-insulator Transition by Holographic Charge Density Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi Ling; Chao Niu; Jianpin Wu; Zhuoyu Xian; Hongbao Zhang

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a gravity dual for charge density waves (CDW) in which the translational symmetry along one spatial direction is spontaneously broken. Our linear perturbation calculation on the gravity side produces the frequency dependence of the optical conductivity, which exhibits the two familiar features of charge density waves, namely the pinned collective mode and gapped single-particle excitation. These two features indicate that our gravity dual also provides a new mechanism to implement the metal to insulator phase transition by CDW, which is further supported by the fact that d.c. conductivity decreases with the decreased temperature below the critical temperature.

  20. Rotating charged cylindrical black holes as particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Said, Jackson Levi [Physics Department, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080 (Malta); Adami, Kristian Zarb [Physics Department, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080 (Malta); Physics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has recently been pointed out that arbitrary center-of-mass energies may be obtained for particle collisions near the horizon of an extremal Kerr black hole. We investigate this mechanism in cylindrical topology. In particular we consider the center-of-mass energies of a cylindrical black hole with an extremal rotation and charge parameter. The geodesics are first derived with a rotating charged cylindrical black hole producing the background gravitational field. Finally the center-of-mass is determined for this background and its extremal limit is taken.

  1. Jet Charge at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Krohn; Tongyan Lin; Matthew D. Schwartz; Wouter J. Waalewijn

    2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowing the charge of the parton initiating a light-quark jet could be extremely useful both for testing aspects of the Standard Model and for characterizing potential beyond-the-Standard-Model signals. We show that despite the complications of hadronization and out-of-jet radiation such as pile-up, a weighted sum of the charges of a jet's constituents can be used at the LHC to distinguish among jets with different charges. Potential applications include measuring electroweak quantum numbers of hadronically decaying resonances or supersymmetric particles, as well as Standard Model tests, such as jet charge in dijet events or in hadronically-decaying W bosons in t-tbar events. We develop a systematically improvable method to calculate moments of these charge distributions by combining multi-hadron fragmentation functions with perturbative jet functions and pertubative evolution equations. We show that the dependence on energy and jet size for the average and width of the jet charge can be calculated despite the large experimental uncertainty on fragmentation functions. These calculations can provide a validation tool for data independent of Monte-Carlo fragmentation models.

  2. Statistical charge distribution over dust particles in a non-Maxwellian Lorentzian plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar-382428 (India); Misra, Shikha, E-mail: shikhamish@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies (CES), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    On the basis of statistical mechanics and charging kinetics, the charge distribution over uniform size spherical dust particles in a non-Maxwellian Lorentzian plasma is investigated. Two specific situations, viz., (i) the plasma in thermal equilibrium and (ii) non-equilibrium state where the plasma is dark (no emission) or irradiated by laser light (including photoemission) are taken into account. The formulation includes the population balance equation for the charged particles along with number and energy balance of the complex plasma constituents. The departure of the results for the Lorentzian plasma, from that in case of Maxwellian plasma, is graphically illustrated and discussed; it is shown that the charge distribution tends to results corresponding to Maxwellian plasma for large spectral index. The charge distribution predicts the opposite charging of the dust particles in certain cases.

  3. Maximizing Ion Current by Space Charge Neutralization using Negative Ions and Dust Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion current extracted from an ion source (ion thruster) can be increased above the Child-Langmuir limit if the ion space charge is neutralized. Similarly, the limiting kinetic energy density of the plasma flow in a Hall thruster might be exceeded if additional mechanisms of space charge neutralization are introduced. Space charge neutralization with high-mass negative ions or negatively charged dust particles seems, in principle, promising for the development of a high current or high energy density source of positive light ions. Several space charge neutralization schemes that employ heavy negatively charged particles are considered. It is shown that the proposed neutralization schemes can lead, at best, only to a moderate but nonetheless possibly important increase of the ion current in the ion thruster and the thrust density in the Hall thruster.

  4. Evolution of Frictional Behavior of Punchbowl Fault Gouges Sheared at Seismic Slip Rates and Mechanical and Hydraulic Properties of Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism Sediments Deformed at Different Loading Paths 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitajima, Hiroko

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Frictional measurements were made on natural fault gouge at seismic slip rates using a high-speed rotary-shear apparatus to study effects of slip velocity, acceleration, displacement, normal stress, and water content. Thermal-, mechanical...

  5. Degradation of charge sharing after neutron irradiation in strip silicon detectors with different geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casse, G

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the CERN/RD50 collaboration is the improvement of the radiation tolerance of semiconductor detectors for future experiments at high-luminosity colliders. In the RD50 framework, evidence of enhanced signal charge in severely irradiated silicon detectors (diodes, segmented planar and 3D devices) was found. The underlying mechanism was labelled charge multiplication. This has been one of the most exciting results from the research activity of RD50 because it could allow for a greatly extended radiation tolerance, if the mechanism is to be found controllable and tuneable. The charge multiplication mechanism is governed by impact ionisation from electrons drifting in high electric field. The electric field profile is influenced by the geometry of the implanted electrodes. In order to investigate the influence of the diode implantation geometry on charge multiplication, the RD50 collaboration has commissioned the production of miniature microstrip silicon sensors with various choices of strip pitch and s...

  6. Space charge emission in cylindrical diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres-Córdoba, Rafael; Martínez-García, Edgar [Universidad Autónoma de Cd. Juárez-IIT, Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)] [Universidad Autónoma de Cd. Juárez-IIT, Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a mathematical model to describe cylindrical electron current emissions through a physics approximation method is presented. The proposed mathematical approximation consists of analyzing and solving the nonlinear Poisson's equation, with some determined mathematical restrictions. Our findings tackle the problem when charge-space creates potential barrier that disable the steady-state of the beam propagation. In this problem, the potential barrier effects of electron's speed with zero velocity emitted through the virtual cathode happens. The interaction between particles and the virtual cathode have been to find the inter-atomic potentials as boundary conditions from a quantum mechanics perspective. Furthermore, a non-stationary spatial solution of the electrical potential between anode and cathode is presented. The proposed solution is a 2D differential equation that was linearized from the generalized Poisson equation. A single condition was used solely, throughout the radial boundary conditions of the current density formation.

  7. Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

    1983-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  8. & Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    , robotics, and the development of new tools for integrated approaches to concurrent engineeringAME Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering #12;Aerospace and Mechanical Engineers design complex Engineering (AME) students conduct basic and applied research within and across the usual disciplinary

  9. Sacrificial Charge and Charge Injection! Evolution of Line Width!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Catherine E.

    MeV). Anti-correlated with the solar cycle. Similar structures are seen in the energy scale due background" which depends on solar cycle and activity." XIS energy scale and line width as a function of cut increasing CTI, trailing charge and event/split thresholds Evolution of Energy Scale! · Radiation damage

  10. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allman, S.L.; Chunghsuan Chen; Chen, F.C.

    1993-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  11. Magnetic moment versus tensor charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mekhfi

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We express the baryon magnetic moments in terms of the baryon tensor charges, considering the quarks as relativistic interacting objects. Once tensor charges get measured accurately, the formula for the baryon magnetic moment will serve to extract precise information on the quark anomalous magnetic moment, the quark effective mass and the ratio of the quark constituent mass to the quark effective mass. The analogous formula for the baryon electric dipole moment is of no great use as it gets eventually sizable contributions from various CP- violating sources not necessary associated to the quark electric dipole moment.

  12. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Task 3: Mechanical behaviors of carbonated minerals. - Task 4: Modeling of CO2- reservoir rock interactions. - Task 5: Preparation of report covering the four tasks previous task,...

  13. Coulomb energy of uniformly-charged spheroidal shell systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vikram Jadhao; Zhenwei Yao; Creighton K. Thomas; Monica Olvera de la Cruz

    2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide exact expressions for the electrostatic energy of uniformly-charged prolate and oblate spheroidal shells. We find that uniformly-charged prolate spheroids of eccentricity greater than 0.9 have lower Coulomb energy than a sphere of the same area. For the volume-constrained case, we find that a sphere has the highest Coulomb energy among all spheroidal shells. Further, we derive the change in the Coulomb energy of a uniformly-charged shell due to small, area-conserving perturbations on the spherical shape. Our perturbation calculations show that buckling-type deformations on a sphere can lower the Coulomb energy. Finally, we consider the possibility of counterion condensation on the spheroidal shell surface. We employ a Manning-Oosawa two-state model approximation to evaluate the renormalized charge and analyze the behavior of the equilibrium free energy as a function of the shell's aspect ratio for both area-constrained and volume-constrained cases. Counterion condensation is seen to favor the formation of spheroidal structures over a sphere of equal area for high values of shell volume fractions.

  14. Why not only electric discharge but even a minimum charge on the surface of highly sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition and how a cloud of unipolar charged explosive particles turns into ball lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meshcheryakov, Oleg

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly s...

  15. RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    intended to recover a more significant share of fixed costs solely from solar PV customer- generators rooftop solar PV development at limited to no cost to taxpayers and non-solar utility customers. StandbyPage | i RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES: REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR

  16. RELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    experience little change while those using the electronic cutoff would drift due to ageing components and changing parameters. The first few shots using the electronic cutoff were less reliable than subsequentRELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS Clint Sprott July 30, 1965 University of Wisconsin

  17. The Schwinger mechanism and graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danielle Allor; Thomas D. Cohen; David A. McGady

    2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Schwinger mechanism, the production of charged particle-antiparticle pairs in a macroscopic external electric field, is derived for 2+1 dimensional theories. The rate of pair production per unit area for four species of massless fermions, with charge $q$, in a constant electric field $E$ is given by $ \\pi^{-2} \\hbar^{-3/2} \\tilde{c}^{-1/2} (q E)^{3/2} $ where $\\tilde{c}$ is the speed of light for the two-dimensional system. To the extent undoped graphene behaves like the quantum field-theoretic vacuum for massless fermions in 2+1 dimensions, the Schwinger mechanism should be testable experimentally. A possible experimental configuration for this is proposed. Effects due to deviations from this idealized picture of graphene are briefly considered. It is argued that with present day samples of graphene, tests of the Schwinger formula may be possible.

  18. Coupling between pore formation and phase separation in charged lipid membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroki Himeno; Hiroaki Ito; Yuji Higuchi; Tsutomu Hamada; Naofumi Shimokawa; Masahiro Takagi

    2015-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the effect of charge on the membrane morphology of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of various mixtures containing charged lipids. We observed the membrane morphologies by fluorescent and confocal laser microscopy in lipid mixtures consisting of a neutral unsaturated lipid [dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC)], a neutral saturated lipid [dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)], a charged unsaturated lipid [dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$)], a charged saturated lipid [dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$)], and cholesterol (Chol). In binary mixtures of neutral DOPC/DPPC and charged DOPC/DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$, spherical vesicles were formed. On the other hand, pore formation was often observed with GUVs consisting of DOPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$ and DPPC. In a DPPC/DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$/Chol ternary mixture, pore-formed vesicles were also frequently observed. The percentage of pore-formed vesicles increased with the DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$ concentration. Moreover, when the head group charges of charged lipids were screened by the addition of salt, pore-formed vesicles were suppressed in both the binary and ternary charged lipid mixtures. We discuss the mechanisms of pore formation in charged lipid mixtures and the relationship between phase separation and the membrane morphology. Finally, we reproduce the results seen in experimental systems by using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations.

  19. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  20. AVTA: ChargePoint America Recovery Act Charging Infrastructure Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports describe results of data collected through the Chargepoint America project, which deployed 4,600 public and home charging stations throughout the U.S. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  1. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Mass Transport Investigated with the Electrochemical and Electrogravimetric Impedance Techniques. 3. Complex Charge Transport in PPy/PSS Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwak, Juhyoun

    Mass Transport Investigated with the Electrochemical and Electrogravimetric Impedance Techniques. 3. Complex Charge Transport in PPy/PSS Films Haesik Yang and Juhyoun Kwak* Department of Chemistry, Korea AdVember 24, 1997 For the first time, the complex charge transport mechanism for polypyrrole

  3. Toolkit for Teaching Steering Behaviors for 3D Human-like Virtual Agents (Demonstration)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brom, Cyril

    of steering behaviors for Pogamut toolkit for developing control mechanisms of virtual agents. The second one]: Model Development General Terms Algorithms Keywords Steering behaviors, Human-like virtual agents behavior shows that steering behaviors may not only control low-level navigation, but they may also be used

  4. ARCHITECTURE OF A CHARGE-TRANSFER STATE REGULATING LIGHT HARVESTING IN A PLANT ANTENNA PROTEIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, Graham; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Avenson, Thomas J.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-dependent quenching of excess absorbed light energy (qE) is a vital mechanism for regulating photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. All of the physiological characteristics of qE have been positively correlated with charge-transfer between coupled chlorophyll and zeaxanthin molecules in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we present evidence for charge-transfer quenching in all three of the individual minor antenna complexes of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and we conclude that charge-transfer quenching in CP29 involves a de-localized state of an excitonically coupled chlorophyll dimer. We propose that reversible conformational changes in CP29 can `tune? the electronic coupling between the chlorophylls in this dimer, thereby modulating the energy of the chlorophylls-zeaxanthin charge-transfer state and switching on and off the charge-transfer quenching during qE.

  5. Quasi-Ohmic Single Molecule Charge Transport through Highly Conjugated meso-to-meso Ethyne-Bridged Porphyrin Wires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    ),24-29 including oligophenyleneimines (OPIs),7 butadiyne-bridged multi(porphyrin) systems,15(tetrathiafulvalene-pyromellitic- diimide-imine)s.27 Frisbie et al. have chronicled a change in charge transport mechanism in OPIs from

  6. Charge Density Waves in Exfoliated Films of van der Waals Materials: Evolution of Raman Spectrum in TiSe2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charge Density Waves in Exfoliated Films of van der Waals Materials: Evolution of Raman Spectrum graphene-like mechanical exfoliation of TiSe2 crystals to prepare a set of films with different thicknesses

  7. Transport of elliptic intense charged -particle beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J. (Jing), 1978-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport theory of high-intensity elliptic charged-particle beams is presented. In particular, the halo formation and beam loss problem associated with the high space charge and small-aperture structure is addressed, ...

  8. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of Maryland...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to become a part of the Workplace Charging Challenge. "We are delighted to be the first health care institution in Maryland to provide charging stations for our employees, staff...

  9. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  10. Fast Methods for Bimolecular Charge Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.

    We report a Hessian-implicit optimization method to quickly solve the charge optimization problem over protein molecules: given a ligand and its complex with a receptor, determine the ligand charge distribution that minimizes ...

  11. Free form hemispherical shaped charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haselman, Jr., Leonard C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is aspherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved.

  12. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of

  13. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of2 DOE Review of

  14. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of2 DOE Review

  15. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of the Rotating Wall Machine by David A.1

  16. Quarks with Integer Electric Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. LaChapelle

    2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the context of the Standard Model, quarks are placed in a $(\\mathbf{3},\\mathbf{2})\\oplus (\\mathbf{3},\\bar{\\mathbf{2}})$ matter field representation of $U_{EW}(2)$. Although the quarks carry unit intrinsic electric charge in this construction, anomaly cancellation constrains the Lagrangian in such a way that the quarks' associated currents couple to the photon with the usual 2/3 and 1/3 fractional electric charge associated with conventional quarks. The resulting model is identical to the Standard Model in the $SU_C(3)$ sector: However, in the $U_{EW}(2)$ sector it is similar but not necessarily equivalent. Off hand, the model appears to be phenomenologically equivalent to the conventional quark model in the electroweak sector for experimental conditions that preclude observation of individual constituent currents. On the other hand, it is conceivable that detailed analyses for electroweak reactions may reveal discrepancies with the Standard Model in high energy and/or large momentum transfer reactions. The possibility of quarks with integer electric charge strongly suggests the notion that leptons and quarks are merely different manifestations of the same underlying field. A speculative model is proposed in which a phase transition is assumed to occur between $SU_C(3)\\otimes U_{EM}(1)$ and $U_{EM}(1)$ regimes. This immediately; explains the equality of lepton/quark generations and lepton/hadron electric charge, relates neutrino oscillations to quark flavor mixing, reduces the free parameters of the Standard Model, and renders the issue of quark confinement moot.

  17. tt Charge asymmetry at hadron colliders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapelain, Antoine

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the current status for the measurements of the ttbar charge asymmetry at the Tevatron and LHC colliders.

  18. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  19. INL Testing of Wireless Charging Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    investments and FOAs (Funding Opportunity Announcements) * Provide the charging, automotive, and electric utility industries with independent testing assessments and...

  20. Probing the switching mechanism in ZnO nanoparticle memristors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, C.; Beirne, G. J.; Kamita, G.; Lakhwani, G.; Wang, J.; Greenham, N. C.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a cryostat (Oxford Instruments, Optistat CF). After reflection from the back contact of the sample (45o incident angle), the probe beam was incident on a silicon photodiode connected via a current-to-voltage converter to a dual-channel lock... . In this case, although the height of barrier decreases, the charge injection through the barrier shifts 7 from a tunneling mechanism to thermionic emission.24 Furthermore, the hopping mechanism dominates the charge transport inside the film, due...

  1. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  2. Electrostatic charging of lunar dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walch, Bob [Department of Physics, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado 80639 (United States); Horanyi, Mihaly [LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0392 (United States); Robertson, Scott [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0391 (United States)

    1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient dust clouds suspended above the lunar surface were indicated by the horizon glow observed by the Surveyor spacecrafts and the Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite Experiment (Apollo 17), for example. The theoretical models cannot fully explain these observations, but they all suggest that electrostatic charging of the lunar surface due to exposure to the solar wind plasma and UV radiation could result in levitation, transport and ejection of small grains. We report on our experimental studies of the electrostatic charging properties of an Apollo-17 soil sample and two lunar simulants MLS-1 and JSC-1. We have measured their charge after exposing individual grains to a beam of fast electrons with energies in the range of 20{<=}E{<=}90 eV. Our measurements indicate that the secondary electron emission yield of the Apollo-17 sample is intermediate between MLS-1 and JSC-1, closer to that of MLS-1. We will also discuss our plans to develop a laboratory lunar surface model, where time dependent illumination and plasma bombardment will closely emulate the conditions on the surface of the Moon.

  3. Holographic fermions in charged Gauss-Bonnet black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Pin Wu

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the properties of the Green's functions of the fermions in charged Gauss-Bonnet black hole. What we want to do is to investigate how the presence of Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant $\\alpha$ affects the dispersion relation, which is a characteristic of Fermi or non-Fermi liquid, as well as what properties such a system has, for instance, the Particle-hole (a)symmetry. One important result of this research is that we find for $q=1$, the behavior of this system is different from that of the Landau Fermi liquid and so the system can be candidates for holographic dual of generalized non-Fermi liquids. More importantly, the behavior of this system increasingly similar to that of the Landau Fermi liquid when $\\alpha$ is approaching its lower bound. Also we find that this system possesses the Particle-hole asymmetry when $q\

  4. Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy technologies, electric vehicles and the appurtenant charging infrastructure, is explored in detail to determine regarding system load profiles, vehicle charging strategies, electric vehicle adoption rates, and storage

  5. Optimal Decentralized Protocols for Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    into the electric power grid. EV charging increases the electricity demand, and potentially amplifies the peak1 Optimal Decentralized Protocols for Electric Vehicle Charging Lingwen Gan Ufuk Topcu Steven Low Abstract--We propose decentralized algorithms for optimally scheduling electric vehicle (EV) charging

  6. A User Programmable Battery Charging System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    to provide the convenience of rare battery replacement and extend the periods between charges. This thesis proposes a user programmable charging system that can charge a Lithium ion battery from three different input sources, i.e. a wall outlet, a universal...

  7. Space Charge and Equilibrium Emittances in Damping Rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu; Wolski, Andy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SPACE CHARGE AND EQUILIBRIUM EMITTANCES IN DAMPING RINGS ?for the pos- sible impact of space charge on the equilibriumrings. INTRODUCTION Direct space charge effects have the

  8. Shock-Dispersed-Fuel Charges: Combustion in Chambers and Tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A L

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In previous studies we have investigated after-burning effects of a fuel-rich explosive (TNT). In that case the detonation only releases about 30% of the available energy, but generates a hot cloud of fuel that can burn in the ambient air, thus evoking an additional energy release that is distributed in space and time. The current series of small-scale experiments can be looked upon as a natural generalization of this mechanism: a booster charge disperses a (non-explosive) fuel, provides mixing with air and, by means of the hot detonation products, the energy to ignite the fuel. The current version of our miniature Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charges consists of a spherical booster charge of 0.5 g PETN, embedded in a paper cylinder of approximately 2.2 cm, which is filled with powdered fuel compositions. The main compositions studied up to now contain aluminum flakes, hydrocarbon powders like polyethylene or hexosen (sucrose) and/or carbon particles. These charges were studied in four different chambers: two cylindrical vessels of 6.6-1 and 40.5-1 volume with a height-to-diameter ratio of approximately 1, a rectangular chamber of 41 (10.5 x 10.5 x 38.6 cm) and a 299.6 cm long tunnel model with a cross section of 8 x 8 cm (volume 19.21) closed at both ends.

  9. Mechanical instability at finite temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaoming Mao; Anton Souslov; Carlos I. Mendoza; T. C. Lubensky

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Many physical systems including lattices near structural phase transitions, glasses, jammed solids, and bio-polymer gels have coordination numbers that place them at the edge of mechanical instability. Their properties are determined by an interplay between soft mechanical modes and thermal fluctuations. In this paper we investigate a simple square-lattice model with a $\\phi^4$ potential between next-nearest-neighbor sites whose quadratic coefficient $\\kappa$ can be tuned from positive negative. We show that its zero-temperature ground state for $\\kappa power-law behavior of the shear modulus as a function of temperature. We expect our study to provide a general framework for the study of finite-temperature mechanical and phase behavior of other systems with a large number of floppy modes.

  10. Note: Charge transfer in a hydrated peptide group is determined mainly by its intrinsic hydrogen-bond energetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirkin, Noemi G.; Krimm, Samuel [LSA Biophysics, University of Michigan, 930 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055 (United States)] [LSA Biophysics, University of Michigan, 930 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055 (United States)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge transfer in a hydrogen-bonded N-methylacetamide(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} system is obtained from ?B97X-D/6-31++G** and CHelpG atomic charge calculations of individual peptide-water interactions as well as that of the entire complex. In the latter, the electron transfer to water is 0.19 e, influenced primarily by the hydrogen bonds to the C=O group. The values of such charge transfer are paralleled by the corresponding intrinsic hydrogen-bond energies. These results support the desirability of incorporating charge transfer in molecular mechanics energy functions.

  11. Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Samarian, A. A. [GREMI - Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energetique des Milieux Ionises, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An on-ground measurement of dust-particle residual charges in the afterglow of a dusty plasma was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force. It was found that positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral dust particles coexisted for more than 1 min after the discharge was switched off. The mean residual charge for 200-nm-radius particles was measured. The dust particle mean charge is about -5e at a pressure of 1.2 mbar and about -3e at a pressure of 0.4 mbar.

  12. Charging and discharging in ion implanted dielectric films used for capacitive radio frequency microelectromechanical systems switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Gang; Chen Xuyuan [Pen-Tung Sah Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Vestfold University College, P.O. Box 2243, N-3103 Toensberg (Norway); San Haisheng [Pen-Tung Sah Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor structure was used to investigate the dielectric charging and discharging in the capacitive radio frequency microelectromechanical switches. The insulator in MIS structure is silicon nitride films (SiN), which were deposited by either low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) processes. Phosphorus or boron ions were implanted into dielectric layer in order to introduce impurity energy levels into the band gap of SiN. The relaxation processes of the injected charges in SiN were changed due to the ion implantation, which led to the change in relaxation time of the trapped charges. In our experiments, the space charges were introduced by stressing the sample electrically with dc biasing. The effects of implantation process on charge accumulation and dissipation in the dielectric are studied by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement qualitatively and quantitatively. The experimental results show that the charging and discharging behavior of the ion implanted silicon nitride films deposited by LPCVD is quite different from the one deposited by PECVD. The charge accumulation in the dielectric film can be reduced by ion implantation with proper dielectric deposition method.

  13. Squeezout phenomena and boundary layer formation of a model ionic liquid under confinement and charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Capozza; A. Vanossi; A. Benassi; E. Tosatti

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical charging of parallel plates confining a model ionic liquid down to nanoscale distances yields a variety of charge-induced changes in the structural features of the confined film. That includes even-odd switching of the structural layering and charging-induced solidification and melting, with important changes of local ordering between and within layers, and of squeezout behavior. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we explore this variety of phenomena in the simplest charged Lennard-Jones coarse-grained model including or excluding the effect a neutral tail giving an anisotropic shape to one of the model ions. Using these models and open conditions permitting the flow of ions in and out of the interplate gap, we simulate the liquid squeezout to obtain the distance dependent structure and forces between the plates during their adiabatic appraoch under load. Simulations at fixed applied force illustrate an effective electrical pumping of the ionic liquid, from a thick nearly solid film that withstands the interplate pressure for high plate charge to complete squeezout following melting near zero charge. Effective enthalpy curves obtained by integration of interplate forces versus distance show the local minima that correspond to layering, and predict the switching between one minimum and another under squeezing and charging.

  14. Detailed Calculation of Test-Mass Charging in the LISA Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Araujo; P. Wass; D. Shaul; G. Rochester; T. J. Sumner

    2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrostatic charging of the LISA test masses due to exposure of the spacecraft to energetic particles in the space environment has implications in the design and operation of the gravitational inertial sensors and can affect the quality of the science data. Robust predictions of charging rates and associated stochastic fluctuations are therefore required for the exposure scenarios expected throughout the mission. We report on detailed charging simulations with the Geant4 toolkit, using comprehensive geometry and physics models, for Galactic cosmic-ray protons and helium nuclei. These predict positive charging rates of 50 +e/s (elementary charges per second) for solar minimum conditions, decreasing by half at solar maximum, and current fluctuations of up to 30 +e/s/Hz^{1/2}. Charging from sporadic solar events involving energetic protons was also investigated. Using an event-size distribution model, we conclude that their impact on the LISA science data is manageable. Several physical processes hitherto unexplored as potential charging mechanisms have also been assessed. Significantly, the kinetic emission of very low-energy secondary electrons due to bombardment of the inertial sensors by primary cosmic rays and their secondaries can produce charging currents comparable with the Monte Carlo rates.

  15. Vacuum charge fractionlization re-examined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Nogami

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a model of a quantized fermion field that is based on the Dirac equation in one dimensional space and re-examine how the fermion number of the vacuum, or the vacuum charge, varies when an external potential is switched on. With this model, fractionization of the vacuum charge has been illustrated in the literature by showing that the external potential can change the vacuum charge from zero to a fractional number. Charge conservation then appears violated in this process. This is because the charge that has been examined in this context is only a part of the total charge of the vacuum. The total charge is conserved. It is not fractionalized unless the Dirac equation has a zero mode. Two other confusing aspects are discussed. One is concerned with the usage of the continuum limit and the other with the regularization of the current operator. Implications of these aspects of the vacuum problem are explored.

  16. Regulation mechanisms in spatial stochastic development models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri Finkelshtein; Yuri Kondratiev

    2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to analyze different regulation mechanisms in spatial continuous stochastic development models. We describe the density behavior for models with global mortality and local establishment rates. We prove that the local self-regulation via a competition mechanism (density dependent mortality) may suppress a unbounded growth of the averaged density if the competition kernel is superstable.

  17. Nanocrystalline alloys : enhanced strengthening mechanisms and mechanically-driven structural evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rupert, Timothy J. (Timothy John)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocrystalline materials have experienced a great deal of attention in recent years, largely due to their impressive array of physical properties. In particular, nanocrystalline mechanical behavior has been of interest, ...

  18. Deformation Behavior of Nanoporous Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, J; Hodge, A M; Hamza, A V

    2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoporous open-cell foams are a rapidly growing class of high-porosity materials (porosity {ge} 70%). The research in this field is driven by the desire to create functional materials with unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties where the material properties emerge from both morphology and the material itself. An example is the development of nanoporous metallic materials for photonic and plasmonic applications which has recently attracted much interest. The general strategy is to take advantage of various size effects to introduce novel properties. These size effects arise from confinement of the material by pores and ligaments, and can range from electromagnetic resonances to length scale effects in plasticity. In this chapter we will focus on the mechanical properties of low density nanoporous metals and how these properties are affected by length scale effects and bonding characteristics. A thorough understanding of the mechanical behavior will open the door to further improve and fine-tune the mechanical properties of these sometimes very delicate materials, and thus will be crucial for integrating nanoporous metals into products. Cellular solids with pore sizes above 1 micron have been the subject of intense research for many years, and various scaling relations describing the mechanical properties have been developed.[4] In general, it has been found that the most important parameter in controlling their mechanical properties is the relative density, that is, the density of the foam divided by that of solid from which the foam is made. Other factors include the mechanical properties of the solid material and the foam morphology such as ligament shape and connectivity. The characteristic internal length scale of the structure as determined by pores and ligaments, on the other hand, usually has only little effect on the mechanical properties. This changes at the submicron length scale where the surface-to-volume ratio becomes large and the effect of free surfaces can no longer be neglected. As the material becomes more and more constraint by the presence of free surfaces, length scale effects on plasticity become more and more important and bulk properties can no longer be used to describe the material properties. Even the elastic properties may be affected as the reduced coordination of surface atoms and the concomitant redistribution of electrons may soften or stiffen the material. If, and to what extend, such length scale effects control the mechanical behavior of nanoporous materials depends strongly on the material and the characteristic length scale associated with its plastic deformation. For example, ductile materials such as metals which deform via dislocation-mediated processes can be expected to exhibit pronounced length scale effects in the sub-micron regime where free surfaces start to constrain efficient dislocation multiplication. In this chapter we will limit our discussion to our own area of expertise which is the mechanical behavior of nanoporous open-cell gold foams as a typical example of nanoporous metal foams. Throughout this chapter we will review our current understanding of the mechanical properties of nanoporous open-cell foams including both experimental and theoretical studies.

  19. Demand Charges | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE Facility DatabaseMichigan: Energy Resources Jump to:Delta, Ohio:Charges Jump

  20. Transverse charge and magnetization densities in the nucleon's chiral periphery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granados, Carlos G. [JLAB Newport News, VA (United States); Weiss, Christian [JLAB Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the light-front description of nucleon structure the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent transverse densities of charge and magnetization. Recent work has studied the transverse densities at peripheral distances b = O(M{pi}{sup -1}), where they are governed by universal chiral dynamics and can be computed in a model-independent manner. Of particular interest is the comparison of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities. We summarize (a) their interpretation as spin-independent and -dependent current matrix elements; (b) the leading-order chiral effective field theory results; (c) their mechanical interpretation in the light-front formulation; (d) the large-N_c limit of QCD and the role of {Delta} intermediate states; (e) the connection with generalized parton distributions and peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  1. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  2. Reproductive/Social Behavior Undergraduate Honors Thesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernald, Russell

    Kelly Eaton Neural mechanisms of parental care and filial cannibalism in female fish 2010 Catherine Harrell Interactive behavior research with a virtual cichlid fish 2010 Hong-An Nguyen The role of excitatory synaptic inputs in the social regulation of preoptic area neurons in the cichlid fish

  3. DECAY CONSTANTS OF CHARGED PSEUDO-SCALAR MESONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - and D+ s decays, the existence of a charged Higgs boson (or any other charged object beyond the Standard

  4. DECAY CONSTANTS OF CHARGED PSEUDO-SCALAR MESONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the existence of a charged Higgs boson (or any other charged object beyond the Standard Model) would modify

  5. Experimental simulation of charge conservation violation and Majorana dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Keil; C. Noh; A. Rai; S. Stützer; S. Nolte; D. G. Angelakis; A. Szameit

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Unphysical particles are commonly ruled out from the solution of physical equations, as they fundamentally cannot exist in any real system and, hence, cannot be examined experimentally in a direct fashion. One of the most celebrated equations that allows unphysical solutions is the relativistic Majorana equation\\cite{Majorana} which might describe neutrinos and other exotic particles beyond the Standard Model. The equation's physical solutions, the Majorana fermions, are predicted to be their own anti-particles and as a consequence they have to be neutrally charged; the charged version however (called Majoranon) is, due to charge non-conservation, unphysical and cannot exist. On the other hand, charge conservation violation has been contemplated in alternative theories associated with higher spacetime dimensions or a non-vanishing photon mass; theories whose exotic nature makes experimental testing with current technology an impossible task. In our work, we present an experimental scheme based on optics with which we simulate the dynamics of a Majoranon, involving the implementation of unphysical charge conjugation and complex conjugation. We show that the internal dynamics of the Majoranon is fundamentally different from that of its close cousin, the Dirac particle, to illustrate the nature of the unphysical operations. For this we exploit the fact that in quantum mechanics the wave function itself is not a measurable quantity. Therefore, wave functions of real physical particles, in our case Dirac particles with opposite masses, can be superposed to a wave function of an unphysical particle, the Majoranon. Our results open a new front in the field of quantum simulations of exotic phenomena, with possible applications in condensed matter physics, topological quantum computing, and testing theories within and beyond the Standard Model with existing technology.

  6. Why not only electric discharge but even a minimum charge on the surface of highly sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition and how a cloud of unipolar charged explosive particles turns into ball lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Meshcheryakov

    2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly sensitive explosives can be also caused by intense charge-dipole attacks of surrounding water vapor molecules electrostatically attracted from ambient humid air and strongly accelerated towards charged sites on explosive surfaces. Emission of electrons, photons and heat from ionized hot spots randomly migrating on charged surface of highly sensitive explosive aerosol nanoparticles converts such particles into the form of short-circuited thermionic nanobatteries.

  7. Computational mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goudreau, G.L.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

  8. Dynamic Behavior and Microstructural Properties of Cancellous Bone.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A total of 15 distal parts of bovine femoral bones were used for this study (72 hours post mortemDynamic Behavior and Microstructural Properties of Cancellous Bone. S. Laporte1 , F. David1 , V of the cancellous bone and to identify the link between this mechanical behavior and the microstructural properties

  9. Self-Organization and Collective Behavior in Vertebrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    , we consider systems in which insights from self-organization theory have been useful in improving our understanding of the underlying mechanics. Self-organization theory suggests that much of complex group behaviorSelf-Organization and Collective Behavior in Vertebrates Iain D. Couzin1 and Jens Krause2 1

  10. Computational mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raboin, P J

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area is a vital and growing facet of the Mechanical Engineering Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This work supports the development of computational analysis tools in the areas of structural mechanics and heat transfer. Over 75 analysts depend on thrust area-supported software running on a variety of computing platforms to meet the demands of LLNL programs. Interactions with the Department of Defense (DOD) High Performance Computing and Modernization Program and the Defense Special Weapons Agency are of special importance as they support our ParaDyn project in its development of new parallel capabilities for DYNA3D. Working with DOD customers has been invaluable to driving this technology in directions mutually beneficial to the Department of Energy. Other projects associated with the Computational Mechanics thrust area include work with the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) for ''Springback Predictability'' and with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the ''Development of Methodologies for Evaluating Containment and Mitigation of Uncontained Engine Debris.'' In this report for FY-97, there are five articles detailing three code development activities and two projects that synthesized new code capabilities with new analytic research in damage/failure and biomechanics. The article this year are: (1) Energy- and Momentum-Conserving Rigid-Body Contact for NIKE3D and DYNA3D; (2) Computational Modeling of Prosthetics: A New Approach to Implant Design; (3) Characterization of Laser-Induced Mechanical Failure Damage of Optical Components; (4) Parallel Algorithm Research for Solid Mechanics Applications Using Finite Element Analysis; and (5) An Accurate One-Step Elasto-Plasticity Algorithm for Shell Elements in DYNA3D.

  11. Why do Particle Clouds Generate Electric Charges?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Pähtz; H. J. Herrmann; T. Shinbrot

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.

  12. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  13. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  14. Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Buckley, M.; Rogers, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their current operating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly compares and contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.

  15. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  16. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt | Department of EnergyBehaviors: Experiences from

  17. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Departmentof1-SCORECARD-09-21-11 Page 1DepartmentBehaviors: Experiences

  18. Frictional cooling of positively charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Greenwald; Allen Caldwell

    2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the focuses of research and development towards the construction of a muon collider is muon beam preparation. Simulation of frictional cooling shows that it can achieve the desired emittance reduction to produce high-luminosity muon beams. We show that for positively charged particles, charge exchange interactions necessitate significant changes to schemes previously developed for negatively charged particles. We also demonstrate that foil-based schemes are not viable for positive particles.

  19. Particle accelerator employing transient space charge potentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides an accelerator for ions and charged particles. The plasma is generated and confined in a magnetic mirror field. The electrons of the plasma are heated to high temperatures. A series of local coils are placed along the axis of the magnetic mirror field. As an ion or particle beam is directed along the axis in sequence the coils are rapidly pulsed creating a space charge to accelerate and focus the beam of ions or charged particles.

  20. Rate-dependent deformation behavior of poss-filled and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soong, Sharon Yu-Wen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers are known to exhibit strong time-dependent mechanical behavior. In different temperatures or frequency regimes, the rate sensitivities of polymers change as various primary and secondary molecular mobility mechanisms ...

  1. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  2. Soret Motion of a Charged Spherical Colloid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seyyed Nader Rasuli; Ramin Golestanian

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermophoretic motion of a charged spherical colloidal particle and its accompanying cloud of counterions and co-ions in a temperature gradient is studied theoretically. Using the Debye-Huckel approximation, the Soret drift velocity of a weakly charged colloid is calculated analytically. For highly charged colloids, the nonlinear system of electrokinetic equations is solved numerically, and the effects of high surface potential, dielectrophoresis, and convection are examined. Our results are in good agreement with some of the recent experiments on highly charged colloids without using adjustable parameters.

  3. EV Project: Solar-Assisted Charging Demo

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    occurs at night and times during the day where PV generation is greater than EV charging load Technical Accomplishments and Progress - Peak Shaving Algorithms 17 * The most...

  4. Radiation from charges in the continuum limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ianconescu, Reuven [Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.

  5. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electron spin-in addition to charge-for the storage and processing of data. However, the manipulation of spin typically requires magnetic materials. While commonly found in...

  6. Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the progress of the Challenge and its partners as determined through the annual partner survey. progressreportfinal.pdf More Documents & Publications Workplace Charging...

  7. Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines: British Columbia AgencyCompany Organization: Natural...

  8. Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Table Updated: March 20, 2015 FY 2016 February 2015 CRC Calculation Table (pdf) Final FY 2015 CRC Letter & Table (pdf) Note: The Cost...

  9. Magnetic Charge of the Stark States of Hydrogen Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Pradhan

    2008-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    It is conjectured that Stark states of excited hydrogen atom posses magnetic charge for which the quantum mechanical operator is $${\\cal G}_{op} = {e\\over \\hbar} (\\vec\\sigma\\cdot\\vec A)$$ where $\\vec A$ is the Runge-Lenz vector. The expectation value $g$ of this operator for Stark states is found to be $$ g = e(n_1-n_2)$$ which obeys a Dirac-Saha type quantization formula $${eg\\over c} = (n_1-n_2)\\alpha$$ where $\\alpha$ is the fine structure constant and $n_1$ and $n_2$ are parabolic quantum numbers. An experimental arrangement is outlined to test this conjecture.

  10. Ultrafast Charge Separation and Nongeminate Electron-Hole Recombination in Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel L Smith; Alex W Chin

    2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of electron-hole separation in organic solar cells is currently hotly debated. Recent experimental work suggests that these charges can separate on extremely short timescales (<100 fs). This can be understood in terms of delocalised transport within fullerene aggregates, which is thought to emerge on short timescales before vibronic relaxation induces polaron formation. However, in the optimal heterojunction morphology, electrons and holes will often re-encounter each other before reaching the electrodes. If such charges trap and cannot separate, then device efficiency will suffer. Here we extend the theory of ultrafast charge separation to incorporate polaron formation, and find that the same delocalised transport used to explain ultrafast charge separation can account for the suppression of nongeminate recombination in the best devices.

  11. Flexible cobalt-phthalocyanine thin films with high charge carrier mobility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ajay [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS F-75013 Paris (France); Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Ashwini; Samanta, Soumen; Debnath, Anil K.; Jha, Purushottam; Prasad, Rajeshwar; Aswal, Dinesh K.; Gupta, Shiv K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Salmi, Zakaria; Nowak, Sophie; Chehimi, Mohamed M. [Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS F-75013 Paris (France)

    2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural and charge transport characteristics of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) films deposited on flexible bi-axially oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) substrates are investigated. CoPc films exhibited a preferential (200) orientation with charge carrier mobility of {approx}118 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} (at 300 K). These films exhibited a reversible resistance changes upon bending them to different radius of curvature. The charge transport in CoPc films is governed by a bias dependent crossover from ohmic (J-V) to trap-free space-charge limited conduction (J-V{sup 2}). These results demonstrate that CoPc films on flexible BOPET having high mobility and high mechanical flexibility are a potential candidate for flexible electronic devices.

  12. Localization of positive charge in DNA induced by its interaction with environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry B. Uskov; Alexander L. Burin

    2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscopic mechanisms of positive charge transfer in DNA remain unclear. A quantum state of electron hole in DNA is determined by the competition of the pi-stacking interaction $b$ sharing a charge between different base pairs and the interaction $\\lambda$ with the local environment which attempts to trap charge. To determine which interaction dominates we investigated charge quantum states in various $(GC)_{n}$ sequences choosing DNA parameters satisfying experimental data for the balance of charge transfer rates $G^{+} \\leftrightarrow G_{n}^{+}$, $n=2,3$ \\cite{FredMain}. We show that experimental data can be consistent with theory only assuming $b\\ll \\lambda$ meaning that charge is typically localized within the single $G$ site. Consequently any DNA sequence including the one consisting of identical base pairs behaves more like an insulating material then a molecular conductor. Our theory can be verified experimentally, for instance measuring balance of charge transfer reactions $G^{+} \\leftrightarrow G_{n}^{+}$, $n \\geq 4$ and comparing the experimental results with our predictions.

  13. Space charge modeling in electron-beam irradiated polyethylene: Fitting model and experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Roy, S.; Laurent, C.; Teyssedre, G. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Baudoin, F.; Griseri, V. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical model for describing charge accumulation in electron-beam irradiated low density polyethylene has been put forward recently. It encompasses the generation of positive and negative charges due to impinging electrons and their transport in the insulation. However, the model was not optimized to fit all the data available regarding space charge dynamics obtained using up-to-date pulsed electro-acoustic techniques. In the present approach, model outputs are compared with experimental space charge distribution obtained during irradiation and post-irradiation, the irradiated samples being in short circuit conditions or with the irradiated surface at a floating potential. A unique set of parameters have been used for all the simulations, and it encompasses the transport parameters already optimized for charge transport in polyethylene under an external electric field. The model evolution in itself consists in describing the recombination between positive and negative charges according to the Langevin formula, which is physically more accurate than the previous description and has the advantage of reducing the number of adjustable parameters of the model. This also provides a better description of the experimental behavior underlining the importance of recombination processes in irradiated materials.

  14. Aspects of charge recombination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Difley, Seth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, aspects of charge reconbination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices are presented. These devices show promise relative to traditional inorganic semiconductors. We show ...

  15. Mechanics of Rotating Isolated Horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhay Ashtekar; Christopher Beetle; Jerzy Lewandowski

    2001-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Black hole mechanics was recently extended by replacing the more commonly used event horizons in stationary space-times with isolated horizons in more general space-times (which may admit radiation arbitrarily close to black holes). However, so far the detailed analysis has been restricted to non-rotating black holes (although it incorporated arbitrary distortion, as well as electromagnetic, Yang-Mills and dilatonic charges). We now fill this gap by first introducing the notion of isolated horizon angular momentum and then extending the first law to the rotating case.

  16. Counter-ions at single charged wall: Sum rules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladislav Samaj

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For inhomogeneous classical Coulomb fluids in thermal equilibrium, like the jellium or the two-component Coulomb gas, there exists a variety of exact sum rules which relate the particle one-body and two-body densities. The necessary condition for these sum rules is that the Coulomb fluid possesses good screening properties, i.e. the particle correlation functions or the averaged charge inhomogeneity, say close to a wall, exhibit a short-range (usually exponential) decay. In this work, we study equilibrium statistical mechanics of an electric double layer with counter-ions only, i.e. a globally neutral system of equally charged point-like particles in the vicinity of a plain hard wall carrying a fixed uniform surface charge density of opposite sign. At large distances from the wall, the one-body and two-body counter-ion densities go to zero slowly according to the inverse-power law. In spite of the absence of screening, all known sum rules are shown to hold for two exactly solvable cases of the present system: in the weak-coupling Poisson-Boltzmann limit (in any spatial dimension larger than one) and at a special free-fermion coupling constant in two dimensions. This fact indicates an extended validity of the sum rules and provides a consistency check for reasonable theoretical approaches.

  17. Identifying the Charge Carriers of the Quark-Gluon Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott Pratt

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge correlations in lattice gauge calculations suggest that up, down and strange charges move independently in the QGP (quark-gluon plasma), and that the density of such charges is similar to what is expected from simple thermal arguments. Here, we show how specific elements of the charge-charge correlation matrix in the QGP survive hadronization and become manifest in final-state charge-charge correlation measurements.

  18. Essays in behavioral economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eil, David Holding

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Essays in Behavioral Economics A dissertation submitted inDoctor of Philosophy in Economics by David Holding Eilfunction,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, 1995,

  19. Interaction and Intelligent Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mataric, Maja J.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce basic behaviors as primitives for control and learning in situated, embodied agents interacting in complex domains. We propose methods for selecting, formally specifying, algorithmically implementing, ...

  20. Dynamics of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines with High Dilution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Dynamics of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines with High Dilution C. J. Chiang (HCCI) engines in light of the cycle-to-cycle thermal feedback due to the high percentage of exhaust temperature is the primary mechanism for con- trolling ignition timing in an HCCI engine, especially when

  1. Algebraic charge liquids RIBHU K. KAUL1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    to this fermion as a `holon'. The holon comes in two species, carrying charges ±1 in its interaction holons with charges ±1. From the f± and aµ, we can construct a variety of observables whose correlations

  2. Charged Higgs boson searches at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Dhiman; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the latest results from searches for singly charged Higgs bosons carried out by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the LHC. Both experiments have searched for production of charged Higgs bosons in pp collisions of up to 20 (5) fb^-

  3. Fluctuation bounds on charge and heat diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavel Kovtun

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study thermal fluctuation corrections to charge and heat conductivity in systems with locally conserved energy and charge, but without locally conserved momentum. Thermal fluctuations may naturally lead to a lower bound on diffusion constants for thermoelectric transport, and need to be taken into account when discussing potential bounds on transport coefficients.

  4. PRECISE CHARGE MEASUREMENT FOR LASER PLASMA ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Donahue, Rich; Rodgers, David; Smith, Alan; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Cross-calibrations of charge diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). Employed diagnostics are a scintillating screen, activation based measurement, and integrating current transformer. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8 %, showing that they can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs provided they are used properly.

  5. DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potsdam, Universität

    DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions #12;Outline 1. DNA: structure, charges, dense phases 2. Counterion and DNA condensation 3. ES DNA-DNA interactions 4. DNA toroidal structures 5. Interactions of real DNA helices 6. DNA-DNA ES recognition 7. DNA melting in aggregates 8. Azimuthal

  6. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  7. Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

  8. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, David K. (155 Coral Way, Broomfield, CO 80020); Haverty, Thomas W. (1173 Logan, Northglenn, CO 80233); Nordin, Carl W. (7203 W. 32nd Ave., Wheatridge, CO 80033); Tyree, William H. (1977 Senda Rocosa, Boulder, CO 80303)

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  9. Diffusion of a Highly-Charged Supramolecular Assembly: Direct Observation of Ion-Association in Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth; Pluth, Michael D.; Tiedemann, Bryan E.F.; van Halbeek, Herman; Nunlist, Rudi; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the solution behavior of supramolecular assemblies is essential for a full understanding of the formation and chemistry of synthetic host-guest systems. While the interaction between host and guest molecules is generally the focus of mechanistic studies of host-guest complexes, the interaction of the host-guest complex with other species in solution remains largely unknown, although in principle accessible by diffusion studies. Several NMR techniques are available to monitor diffusion and have recently been reviewed. Pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) NMR methods have attracted increasing interest, since they allow diffusion coefficients to be measured with high accuracy; they have been successfully used with observation of {sup 7}Li and {sup 31}P nuclei as well as with {sup 1}H NMR. We report here the direct measurement of diffusion coefficients to observe ion-association interactions by counter cations with a highly-charged supramolecular assembly. Raymond and coworkers have described the design and chemistry of a class of metal-ligand supramolecular assemblies over the past decade. The [Ga{sub 4}L{sub 6}]{sup 12-} (L = 1,5-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzamido)naphthalene) (1) (Figure 1) assembly has garnered the most attention, with the exploration of the dynamics and mechanism of guest exchange as well as the ability of 1 to achieve either stoichiometric or catalytic reactions inside its interior cavity. Recent studies have revealed the importance of counter cations in solution on the chemistry of 1. During the mechanistic study of the C-H bond activation of aldehydes by [Cp*Ir(PMe{sub 3})(olefin){sup +} {contained_in} 1]{sup 11-} a stepwise guest dissociation mechanism with an ion-paired intermediate was proposed. Similarly, in the mechanism for the hydrolysis of iminium cations generated from the 3-aza Cope rearrangement of enammonium cations in 1, the presence of an exterior ion association was part of the kinetic model. To further substantiate the indirect kinetic evidence for such ion-paired species, we sought to explore the solution behavior of 1 by studying the diffusion of 1 with varying alkali and tetraalkyl ammonium cations. For large molecules in solution, such as synthetic supramolecular assemblies, the diffusion behavior of host and guest molecules can provide valuable information on host-guest interaction. One characteristic feature of a stable host-guest complex is that the host and guest molecules diffuse at the same rate in solution; this has been observed in a number of supramolecular systems. In order to confirm that this system was suitable for study by diffusion NMR spectroscopy, a PGSE-DOSY spectrum was acquired of [NEt{sub 4} {contained_in} 1]{sup 11-} (Figure 2), which shows that the host and guest molecules diffuse at the same rate. Quantitative analysis of the data, from monitoring the integral of host and guest resonances as a function of applied gradient strength, gave identical diffusion coefficients, confirming that the host and guest molecules diffuse together.

  10. Polarization and Charge Transfer in the Hydration of Chloride Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen Zhao; David M. Rogers; Thomas L. Beck

    2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation, and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared with the estimated quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2 level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  11. Charge Transport and Glassy Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Kremer, Friedrich [University of Leipzig

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique features such as low melting points, low vapor pressures, wide liquidus temperature ranges, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical windows. As a result, they show promise for use in variety of applications: as reaction media, in batteries and supercapacitors, in solar and fuel cells, for electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors, for protein extraction and crystallization, and many others. Because of the ease with which they can be supercooled, ionic liquids offer new opportunities to investigate long-standing questions regarding the nature of the dynamic glass transition and its possible link to charge transport. Despite the significant steps achieved from experimental and theoretical studies, no generally accepted quantitative theory of dynamic glass transition to date has been capable of reproducing all the experimentally observed features. In this Account, we discuss recent studies of the interplay between charge transport and glassy dynamics in ionic liquids as investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques including broadband dielectric spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Based on EinsteinSmoluchowski relations, we use dielectric spectra of ionic liquids to determine diffusion coefficients in quantitative agreement with independent pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, but spanning a broader range of more than 10 orders of magnitude. This approach provides a novel opportunity to determine the electrical mobility and effective number density of charge carriers as well as their types of thermal activation from the measured dc conductivity separately. We also unravel the origin of the remarkable universality of charge transport in different classes of glass-forming ionic liquids.

  12. Electromagnetic field of a charge intersecting a cold plasma boundary in a waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekhina, Tatiana Yu.; Tyukhtin, Andrey V. [Radiophysics Department of St. Petersburg University, 1 Ulyanovskaya, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the electromagnetic field of a charge crossing a boundary between a vacuum and cold plasma in a waveguide. We obtain exact expressions for the field components and the spectral density of the transition radiation. With the steepest descent technique, we investigate the field components. We show that the electromagnetic field has a different structure in a vacuum than in cold plasma. We also develop an algorithm for the computation of the field based on a certain transformation of the integration path. The behavior of the field depending on distance and time and the spectral density depending on frequency are explored for different charge velocities. Some important physical effects are noted. A considerable increase and concentration of the field near the wave front in the plasma is observed for the case of ultrarelativistic particles. In the plasma, the mode envelopes and spectral density show zero points when the charge velocity is within certain limits.

  13. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  14. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  15. Charge and spin topological insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopaev, Yu. V., E-mail: kopaev@sci.lebedev.ru; Gorbatsevich, A. A.; Belyavskii, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The topologically nontrivial states of matter-charge and spin topological insulators, which exhibit, respectively, properties of the integer quantum Hall effect and the quantum spin Hall effect-are discussed. The topological characteristics (invariant with respect to weak adiabatic changes in the Hamiltonian parameters) which lead to such states are considered. The model of a 2D hexagonal lattice having symmetries broken with respect to time reversal and spatial inversion which was proposed by Haldane and marked the beginning of unprecedented activity in the study of topologically nontrivial states is discussed. This model relates the microscopic nature of the symmetry breaking with respect to the time reversal to the occurrence of spontaneous orbital currents which circulate within a unit cell. Such currents become zero upon summation over the unit cell, but they may form spreading current states at the surface which are similar to the edge current states under the quantum Hall effect. The first model of spontaneous currents (exciton insulator model) is considered, and the possibility of implementing new topologically nontrivial states in this model is discussed.

  16. Joachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    to charge from an inexpensive AC charging station feeding power directly from the electric grid are an effective catalyst for considerably expanding fast-charging infrastructure. With AC fast-charging, high-powerJoachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles using AC Master's Thesis, September 2013 #12

  17. Lung and alveolar wall elastic and hysteretic behavior in rats: effects of in vivo elastase treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutchen, Kenneth

    Lung and alveolar wall elastic and hysteretic behavior in rats: effects of in vivo elastase P. Ingenito, and Be´la Suki. Lung and alveolar wall elastic and hysteretic behavior in rats: effects behavior of the alveolar walls and the macroscopic mechanical properties of the whole lung in an in vivo

  18. A new approach for the simultaneous tracking of multiple honeybees for analysis of hive behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the most striking of animal behaviors, and the clarification of their mechanisms is a major subject behaviors, and the clarification of their mechanisms is a major subject in ethology (Manning and Dawkins: Monique Gauthier Apidologie (2011) 42:607­617 Original article * INRA, DIB-AGIB and Springer Science

  19. Rate constants for charge transfer across semiconductor-liquid interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fajardo, A.M.; Lewis, N.S. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Interfacial charge-transfer rate constants have been measured for n-type Si electrodes in contact with a series of viologen-based redox couples in methanol through analyses of the behavior of these junctions with respect to their current density versus potential and differential capacitance versus potential properties. The data allow evaluation of the maximum rate constant (and therefore the electronic coupling) for majority carriers in the solid as well as of the dependence of the rate constant on the driving force for transfer of delocalized electrons from the n-Si semiconducting electrode into the localized molecular redox species in the solution phase. The data are in good agreement with existing models of this interfacial electron transfer process and provide insight into the fundamental kinetic events underlying the use of semiconducting photoelectrodes in applications such as solar energy conversion. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Behavior of lithium alloy electrodes in organic electrolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Yoshiharu; Ishikawa, Masashi; Morita, Masayuki; Otani, Kenya [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrochemical behavior of lithium (Li) alloy electrodes, Li-aluminum (Al) and Li-tin (Sn), has been investigated in propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolyte containing lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}). The content of Al or Sn in the Li-based alloy was in the range of 0.1 to 2.0 wt.%. The interfacial behavior between the alloy electrode/electrolyte was discussed on the basis of the results of an ac impedance analysis and charge-discharge cycling tests.

  1. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B. [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico-IST, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa-UTL, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Astronomical Institute of Kharkov, V. N. Karazin National University, 35 Sumskaya Street, Kharkov, 61022 (Ukraine)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to be less difficult than one could think of it.

  2. Momentum computed tomography of charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Deyang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principle of the momentum computed tomography of charged particles is presented. It may be useful for momentum spectroscopy of various beam-matter interactions, especially when very intense beams are involved. It is able to collect the shower of charged particles with the 4Pi solid angle, and suitable for measuring the overall perspective of the arbitrary momentum distribution of the outgoing charged particles induced by arbitrary beams, especially when the other techniques are invalid. The extended collisional region, the strong field approximation and the case without magnetic field are discussed.

  3. Simulating spin-charge separation with light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitris G. Angelakis; Mingxia Huo; Elica Kyoseva; Leong Chuan kwek

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we show that stationary light-matter excitations generated inside a hollow one-dimensional waveguide filled with atoms, can be made to generate a photonic two-component Lieb Liniger model. We explain how to prepare and drive the atomic system to a strongly interacting regime where spin-charge separation could be possible. We then proceed by explaining how to measure the corresponding effective spin and charge densities and velocities through standard optical methods based in measuring dynamically the emitted photon intensities or by analyzing the photon spectrum. The relevant interactions exhibit the necessary tunability both to generate and efficiently observe spin charge separation with current technology.

  4. Superconducting Hair on Charged Black String Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukasz Nakonieczny; Marek Rogatko

    2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Behaviour of Dirac fermions in the background of a charged black string penetrated by an Abelian Higgs vortex is elaborated. One finds the evidence that the system under consideration can support fermion fields acting like a superconducting cosmic string in the sence that a nontrivial Dirac fermion field can be carried by the system in question. The case of nonextremal and extremal black string vortex systems were considered. The influence of electric and Higgs charge, the winding number and the fermion mass on the fermion localization near the black string event horizon was studied. It turned out that the extreme charged black string expelled fermion fields more violently comparing to the nonextremal one.

  5. Lyapunov Exponent and Charged Myers Perry Spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partha Pratim Pradhan

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the proper time Lyapunov exponent for charged Myers Perry black hole spacetime and investigate the instability of the equatorial circular geodesics (both timelike and null) via this exponent. We also show that for more than four spacetime dimensions $(N \\geq 3)$, there are \\emph{no} Innermost Stable Circular Orbits (ISCOs) in charged Myers Perry black hole spacetime. We further show that among all possible circular orbits, timelike circular orbits have \\emph{longer} orbital periods than null circular orbits (photon spheres) as measured by asymptotic observers. Thus, timelike circular orbits provide the \\emph{slowest way} to orbit around the charged Myers Perry black hole.

  6. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Potential Network Mechanisms Mediating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopell, Nancy

    , Boston, Massachusetts 02215, 2Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital with general anesthesia. Key words: propofol anesthesia; paradoxical excitation; GABAA ; M-current; EEG; beta rhythms Introduction General anesthesia is defined as a reversible, drug-induced con- junction of four

  7. Behavioral mechanisms underlying the extinction of cocaine self-administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valles, Rodrigo, Jr.

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the present series of experiments was to outline the influence of different doses of cocaine during training, training schedule, training length and abstinence duration to modulate subsequent extinction and reinstatement patterns. Abram...

  8. Neurotoxic mechanisms of methylmercury: cellular and behavior changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellum, Sairam

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The organic or methylated form of mercury (Hg), consisting of one methyl group bound to each atom of Hg, (methylmercury; MeHg), accounts for most of the Hg to which humans are exposed. MeHg, by virtue of its lipophilicity is highly neurotoxic...

  9. Cartel Mechanism Design: Nonratifiable Conditions of Collusive Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsueh, Shao-Chieh

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    boost exemption or have more budget to subsidize agents, it is less likely that a ring will be formed. v To my family and Hellen vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First, I am heartily grateful to my advisory committee. Professor Guoqiang Tian, chair of my advisory....3 concludes. All proofs are in Appendix A. 2.2. Model There are one seller and n (n ? 2) bidders in the economy. Bidder i?s value is vi ? V , i = (1, ..., n), which represents i?s willingness to pay for an object in an auction, and v = (v1, ..., vn...

  10. Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Lithium-ion Battery Electrodes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An, Kai

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing electric vehicles is widely considered as a direct approach to resolve the energy and environmental challenges faced by the human race. As one of the most promising power solutions to electric cars, the lithium ion battery is expected...

  11. Roles of nanofiller structure on mechanical behavior of thermoplastic nanocomposites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weon, Jong Il

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Traitedness has been described as the �the degree to which a particular trait structure is approximated in a given person� (Tellegen, p. 28, 1991) and has been hypothesized as one explanation for findings of weak trait...

  12. ``Modeling the Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Elastomers'' H. T. Banks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a nontrivial manner. Additionally, many elastomers, particularly those with a synthetic rubber base, exhibit 405 Gregson Drive Cary, NC 27511 Presented at a meeting of the Rubber Division, American Chemical (hysteresis). Currently available software packages for studying the stress­strain laws in rubber

  13. Mechanical Behavior of Cryomilled Ni Superalloy by Spark Plasma Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni Superalloy by Spark Plasma Sintering Z. ZHANG, B.Q. HAN,cryomilling and spark plasma sintering (SPS) was studied.prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. To

  14. Characterization of Thermo-Mechanical Behaviors of Advanced High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forming Integrated Forming Induced Phase Transformation in TRIP Steel Side Induced Phase Transformation in TRIP Steel Side Rail Crash Simulations Rail Crash Simulations (a)...

  15. Optical and mechanical behavior of the optical fiber infrasound sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWolf, Scott

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 The Optical Fiber Infrasound Sensor . . . . . . .Fiber Infrasound Sensor Optical fibers are well known forSchnidrig. An optical fiber infrasound sensor: A new lower

  16. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Gain Mechanisms for Contextually Guided

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Richard

    . Two recent theoretical studies ad- dressed contextual visuomotor remapping. Salinas (Salinas, 2004

  17. Comments on: 2015 VIII MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF SALT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i tCollaboration MarchCanadian2016Department

  18. Characterization of Thermo-Mechanical Behaviors of Advanced High Strength

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-DesertofSuccess Stories from

  19. Characterization of Thermo-Mechanical Behaviors of Advanced High Strength

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-DesertofSuccess Stories fromSteels (AHSS) |

  20. Quantification of the solid-state charge mobility in a model radical polymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baradwaj, Aditya G.; Rostro, Lizbeth; Boudouris, Bryan W., E-mail: boudouris@purdue.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, 480 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, 475 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We establish that an oft-used radical polymer, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) (PTMA), has a solid-state hole mobility value on the order of 10{sup ?4} cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} in a space charge-limited device geometry. Despite being completely amorphous and lacking any ?-conjugation, these results demonstrate that the hole mobility of PTMA is comparable to many well-studied conjugated polymers [e.g., poly(3-hexylthiophene)]. Furthermore, we show that the space charge-limited charge carrier mobility of these macromolecules is only a weak function of temperature, in contrast to many thermally-activated models of charge transport in polymeric materials. This key result demonstrates that the charge transport in radical polymers is inherently different than that in semicrystalline, conjugated polymers. These results establish the mechanism of solid-state charge transport in radical polymers and provide macromolecular design principles for this emerging class of organic electronic materials.

  1. Classical Interaction of a Magnet and a Point Charge: The Shockley-James Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timothy H. Boyer

    2014-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    It is pointed out that Coleman and Van Vleck make a major blunder in their discussion of the Shockly-James paradox by designating relativistic hidden mechanical momentum as the basis for resolution of the paradox. This blunder has had a wide influence in the current physics literature, including erroneous work on the Shockley-James paradox, on Mansuripur's paradox, on the motion of a magnetic moment, on the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift, and on the Aharonov-Casher phase shift. Although hidden mechanical momentum is indeed dominant for non-interacting particles moving in a closed orbit under the influence of an external electric field, the attention directed toward hidden mechanical momentum represents a fundamental misunderstanding of the classical electromagnetic interaction between a multiparticle magnet and an external point charge. In the interacting multiparticle situation, the external charge induces an electrostatic polarization of the magnet which leads to an internal electromagnetic momentum in the magnet where both the electric and magnetic fields for the momentum are contributed by the magnet particles. This internal electromagnetic momentum for the interacting multiparticle situation is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction compared to the familiar external electromagnetic momentum where the electric field is contributed by the external charged particle and the magnetic field is that due to the magnet. In the present article, the momentum balance of the Shockley-James situation for a system of a magnet and a point charge is calculated in detail for a magnet model consisting of two interacting point charges which are constrained to move in a circular orbit on a frictionless ring with a compensating negative charge at the center.

  2. Stringy Stability of Charged Dilaton Black Holes with Flat Event Horizon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yen Chin Ong; Pisin Chen

    2014-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically charged black holes with flat event horizon in anti-de Sitter space have received much attention due to various applications in Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, from modeling the behavior of quark-gluon plasma to superconductor. Crucial to the physics on the dual field theory is the fact that when embedded in string theory, black holes in the bulk may become vulnerable to instability caused by brane pair-production. Since dilaton arises naturally in the context of string theory, we study the effect of coupling dilaton to Maxwell field on the stability of flat charged AdS black holes. In particular, we study the stability of Gao-Zhang black holes, which are locally asymptotically anti-de Sitter. We find that for dilaton coupling parameter $\\alpha$ > 1, flat black holes are stable against brane pair production, however for 0 electrical charges is increased. Such instability however, behaves somewhat differently from that of flat Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. In addition, we prove that the Seiberg-Witten action of charged dilaton AdS black hole of Gao-Zhang type with flat event horizon (at least in 5-dimension) is always logarithmically divergent at infinity for finite values of $\\alpha$, and is finite and positive in the case $\\alpha$ tends to infinity . We also comment on the robustness of our result for other charged dilaton black holes that are not of Gao-Zhang type.

  3. A User Programmable Battery Charging System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable batteries are found in almost every battery powered application. Be it portable, stationary or motive applications, these batteries go hand in hand with battery charging systems. With energy harvesting being targeted in this day and age...

  4. Scattering of very light charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J C Taylor

    1993-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    I advance arguments against the view that the Lee-Nauenberg-Kinoshita theorem is relevant in practice to the scattering of charged particles as their mass tends to zero. I also discuss the case of massive coloured particle scattering.

  5. Charged particle rapidity distributions at relativistic energies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, ZW; Pal, S.; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Ba; Zhang, B.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT), which includes both initial partonic and final hadronic interactions, we study the rapidity distributions of charged particles such as protons, antiprotons, pions, and kaons in heavy ion collisions at RHIC...

  6. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David;

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  7. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1% per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm{sup 2} and 0.4 pC/ps/mm{sup 2}, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within {+-}10%.

  8. Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves Peptide Identification Rates."Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics 11(2):86-95. doi:10.1016j.gpb.2012.11.004 Authors: D...

  9. Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

  10. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Lawrence Berkeley National...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    has made plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) readiness a major focus of its site sustainability strategy. The laboratory began PEV charging for employees on a modest scale in May...

  11. Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.

  12. Energetics of protein charge transfer and photosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matyushov, Dmitry

    Energetics of protein charge transfer and photosynthesis Dmitry Matyushov Arizona State scheme is to snap a proton from solution! #12; Bacterial photosynthesis e 0.25 eV lost in two

  13. CHARGING STATION FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES GREEN PARKING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellend, Mark

    CHARGING STATION FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES P 3 P 3 P 6 GREEN PARKING UNIVERSITÉ DE SHERBROOKE YELLOW (CAR-POOLING) PERMITS HOSPITAL PARKING PARKING-PERMIT DISPENSERS RESERVED DISABLED PARKING PLACES ONE

  14. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a...

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: self-charging battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    self-charging battery Sandia Labs, Front Edge Technology, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Lab, Univ. of California-Los Angeles: Micro Power Source On March 20, 2013, in Energy...

  16. Sample Employee Survey for Workplace Charging Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicle (ex. Chevy Volt, Ford C-MAX, etc.) b. Electric vehicle (ex. Nissan Leaf, BMW Active-E, etc.) 5. Do you or would you have the ability to install a charging station...

  17. Smart Frequency-Sensing Charge Controller for Electric Vehicles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for licensing:System uses frequency-sensing charge controllers that provide automatic demand response and regulation service to the grid by reducing or turning the charging...

  18. New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Presentation given at...

  19. High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Most accurate and detailed chemical kinetic...

  20. Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy Storage AVTA: Bidirectional Fast Charging Report AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results...

  1. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: El Camino Real Charter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    El Camino Real Charter High School Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: El Camino Real Charter High School Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: El Camino Real Charter High School...

  2. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE Efficiency and Security Testing Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE...

  4. AVTA: Aerovironment AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Aerovironment AC Level 2 - February 2012 More Documents & Publications AVTA: Clipper Creek AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Eaton AC Level 2 Charging System...

  5. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of North Carolina...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eerevehiclesev-everywhere-workplace-charging-challenge July 15, 2014 Campus to get electric car-charging stations Last month, the university became the first institution in...

  6. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: State University of New...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State University of New York at New Paltz Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: State University of New York at New Paltz Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: State University of...

  7. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in...

  8. A Shell Model for Atomistic Simulation of Charge Transfer in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polarons, respectively, are modeled by delocalizing the polaron’s charge over a titanium or oxygen ion, respectively, and its first nearest-neighbors. The charge...

  9. Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

  10. Where do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper invesigates where Nissan Leaf drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at work, home, or some other location?

  11. Where do Chevrolet Volt drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates where Chevy Volt drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at home, work, or some other location.

  12. Essays in Behavioral Finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    behavior. Journal of Finance 64(6), 2515–2534. Cohen, L. ,returns. Journal of Finance 63(4), 1977–2011. Cohen, L. andannouncements. Journal of Finance 64, 709–749. DeLong, J.

  13. Charged Cylindrical Black Holes in Conformal Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson Levi Said; Joseph Sultana; Kristian Zarb Adami

    2013-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering cylindrical topology we present the static solution for a charged black hole in conformal gravity. We show that unlike the general relativistic case there are two different solutions, both including a factor that when set to zero recovers the familiar static charged black string solution in Einstein's theory. This factor gives rise to a linear term in the potential that also features in the neutral case and may have significant ramifications for particle trajectories.

  14. Experimental study of rare charged pion decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinko Pocanic; Emil Frlez; Andries van der Schaaf

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of simple dynamics, small number of available decay channels, and extremely well controlled radiative and loop corrections, make charged pion decays a sensitive means for testing the underlying symmetries and the universality of weak fermion couplings, as well as for improving our understanding of pion structure and chiral dynamics. This paper reviews the current state of experimental study of the allowed rare decays of charged pions: (a) leptonic, $\\pi^+ \\to e^+\

  15. Scalable quantum computer using superconducting charge qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Y. Huo; G. L. Long

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a scalable scheme for superconducting charge qubits with the assistance of one-dimensional superconducting transmission line resonator (STLR) playing the role of data bus. The coupling between qubit and data bus may be turned on and off by just controlling the gate voltage and externally applied flux of superconducting charge qubit. In our proposal, the entanglement between arbitrary two qubits and $W$ states of three qubits can be generated quickly and easily.

  16. Aquifer behavior with reinjection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonet, Euclides Jose

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AQUIFER BEHAVIOR WITH REINJECTION A Thesis By EUCLIDES JOSE BONET Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARUM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, f967 Major Subject... Petroleum Engineering AQUIFER BEHAVIOR WITH REINJECTION A Thesis By E UC LI DES JOSE BONE T Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) May, 1967 ACKNOWLEDGMENT Thanks are due to Petroleo Brasilerio S...

  17. Gravitational collapse of charged scalar fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose M. Torres; Miguel Alcubierre

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to study the gravitational collapse of charged matter we analyze the simple model of an self-gravitating massless scalar field coupled to the electromagnetic field in spherical symmetry. The evolution equations for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon sector are derived in the 3+1 formalism, and coupled to gravity by means of the stress-energy tensor of these fields. To solve consistently the full system we employ a generalized Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formulation of General Relativity that is adapted to spherical symmetry. We consider two sets of initial data that represent a time symmetric spherical thick shell of charged scalar field, and differ by the fact that one set has zero global electrical charge while the other has non-zero global charge. For compact enough initial shells we find that the configuration doesn't disperse and approaches a final state corresponding to a sub-extremal Reissner-N\\"ordstrom black hole with $|Q|charge of the scalar field $q$ we find that the final black hole tends to become more and more neutral. Our results support the cosmic censorship conjecture for the case of charged matter.

  18. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  19. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  20. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  1. Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology can be tuned with volume fraction of the charged block and the casting solvent. A physical understanding based on the underlying strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions is obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The 75/25 FPI-PSS shows hexagonal morphologies with the minority blocks (PSS) forming the continuous phase due to charge percolation and the FPI blocks arranged in hexagonal cylinders. Some long-range order can be sustained even if lipophobicity is increased (addition of water), albeit with lower dimensional structures. However, thermal annealing provides sufficient energy to disrupt the percolated charges and promotes aggregation of ionic sites which leads to a disordered system. Diverse and atypical morphologies are readily accessible by simply changing the number distribution of the charges on PSS block.

  2. In Situ Small Scale Mechanical Characterization of Materials Under Environmental 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Matthew Wayne

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    , aluminum and titanium alloys were examined using those two techniques. Analysis of their behavior in comparison with their published mechanical properties made it possible to establish connections between test parameters and conventional uniaxial tensile...

  3. Mechanics of deformation of carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akiskalos, Theodoros, 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal is to develop finite element techniques to evaluate the mechanical behavior of carbon nanotube enabled composites and gain a thorough understanding of the parameters that affect the properties of the composite, ...

  4. Modeling and implementation of solder-activated joints for single actuator, centimeter-scale robotic mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Telleria, Maria J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explains when, and why, solder-based phase change materials (PCMs) are best-suited as a means to modify a robotic mechanism's kinematic and elastomechanic behavior. The preceding refers to mechanisms that possess ...

  5. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Keywords: Methyl decanoate; Methyl decenoate; Surrogate; Oxidation; Biodiesel fuels; Kinetic modeling; Engine; Low

  6. MECHANICS AND NONLINEAR CONTROL: MAKING UNDERWATER VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard, Naomi

    which pro­ vide powerful means to understand and describe mechanical system behavior. Methods incorporat performance and efficient use of on­board power. We highlight the underwater vehicle control sys­ tem both torques that mimic the stabilizing moment associated with gravitational and buoy­ ant forces, using

  7. Induced-charge electrokinetics at large voltages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilic, Mustafa Sabri

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical transport theory cannot explain the experimental behavior of electrochemical systems in the extreme operating conditions required by modern microfluidics devices. Some experimental puzzles include strange ...

  8. Electric Field-Induced Skyrmion Crystals via Charged Monopoles in Insulating Helimagets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haruki Watanabe; Ashvin Vishwanath

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrons propagating in a magnetically ordered medium experience an additional gauge field associated with the Berry phase of their spin following the local magnetic texture. In contrast to the usual electromagnetic field, this gauge field admits monopole excitations, corresponding to hedgehog defects of the magnetic order. In an insulator, these hedgehogs carry a well-defined electric charge allowing for them to be controlled by electric fields. One particularly robust mechanism that contributes to the charge is the orbital magnetoelectric effect, captured by a $\\theta$ angle, which leads to a charge of $e\\theta/2\\pi$ on hedgehogs. This is a direct consequence of the Witten effect for magnetic monopoles in a $\\theta$ medium. A physical consequence is that external electric fields can induce skyrmion crystal phases in insulating helimagnets.

  9. From the Fourth Color to Spin-charge Separation - Neutrinos and Spinons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi Xiong

    2015-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the spin-charge separation mechanism to the quark-lepton unification models which consider the lepton number as the fourth color. In certain finite-density systems, quarks and leptons are decomposed into spinons and chargons, which carry the spin and charge degrees of freedom respectively. Neutrinos can be related to the spinons with respect to the electric-charge and spin separation in the early universe or other circumstances. Some effective, probably universal couplings between the spinon sector and the chargon sector are derived and a phenomenological description for the chargon condensate is proposed. It is then demonstrated that the spinon current can induce vorticity in the chargon condensate, and spinon zero modes are trapped in the vortices, forming spinon-vortex bound states. In cosmology this configuration may lead to the emission of extremely high energy neutrinos when vortices split and reconnect.

  10. From the Fourth Color to Spin-charge Separation - Neutrinos and Spinons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, Chi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the spin-charge separation mechanism to the quark-lepton unification models which consider the lepton number as the fourth color. In certain finite-density systems, quarks and leptons are decomposed into spinons and chargons, which carry the spin and charge degrees of freedom respectively. Neutrinos can be related to the spinons with respect to the electric-charge and spin separation in the early universe or other circumstances. Some effective, probably universal couplings between the spinon sector and the chargon sector are derived and a phenomenological description for the chargon condensate is proposed. It is then demonstrated that the spinon current can induce vorticity in the chargon condensate, and spinon zero modes are trapped in the vortices, forming spinon-vortex bound states. In cosmology this configuration may lead to the emission of extremely high energy neutrinos when vortices split and reconnect.

  11. Quantum dot nonlinearity through cavity-enhanced feedback with a charge memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morten P. Bakker; Thomas Ruytenberg; Wolfgang Loffler; Ajit V. Barve; Larry Coldren; Martin P. van Exter; Dirk Bouwmeester

    2015-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In an oxide apertured quantum dot (QD) micropillar cavity-QED system, we found strong QD hysteresis effects and lineshape modifications even at very low intensities corresponding to less than 0.001 intracavity photons. We attribute this to the excitation of charges by the intracavity field; charges that get trapped at the oxide aperture, where they screen the internal electric field and blueshift the QD transition. This in turn strongly modulates light absorption by cavity QED effects, eventually leading to the observed hysteresis and lineshape modifications. The cavity also enables us to observe the QD dynamics in real time, and all experimental data agrees well with a power-law charging model. This effect can serve as a novel tuning mechanism for quantum dots.

  12. Microscopic models for charge-noise-induced dephasing of solid-state qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Félix Beaudoin; W. A. Coish

    2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Several experiments have shown qubit coherence decay of the form $\\mathrm{exp}[-(t/T_2)^\\alpha]$ due to environmental charge-noise fluctuations. We present a microscopic description for temperature dependences of the parameters $T_2$ and $\\alpha$. Our description is appropriate to qubits in semiconductors interacting with spurious two-level charge fluctuators coupled to a thermal bath. We find distinct power-law dependences of $T_2$ and $\\alpha$ on temperature depending on the nature of the interaction of the fluctuators with the associated bath. We consider fluctuator dynamics induced by first- and second-order tunneling with a continuum of delocalized electron states. We also study one- and two-phonon processes for fluctuators in either GaAs or Si. These results can be used to identify dominant charge-dephasing mechanisms and suppress them.

  13. Charged Local Defects in Extended Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, Peter A.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The conventional approach to treating charged defects in extended systems in first principles calculations is via the supercell approximation using a neutralizing jellium background charge. I explicitly demonstrate shortcomings of this standard approach and discuss the consequences. Errors in the electrostatic potential surface over the volume of a supercell are shown to be comparable to a band gap energy in semiconductor materials, for cell sizes typically used in first principles simulations. I present an alternate method for eliminating the divergence of the Coulomb potential in supercell calculations of charged defects in extended systems that embodies a correct treatment of the electrostatic potential in the local viciniq of the a charged defect, via a mixed boundary condition approach. I present results of first principles calculations of charged vacancies in NaCl that illustrate the importance of polarization effects once an accurate representation of the local potential is obtained. These polarization effects, poorly captured in small supercells, also impact the energetic on the scale of typical band gap energies.

  14. Attraction between negatively charged surfaces mediated by spherical counterions with quadrupolar charge distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglic, Ales

    charge distribution Jasna Urbanija,1 Klemen Bohinc,2 Alfredo Bellen,3 Stefano Maset,3 Ales Iglic,2 functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations, as that of two interacting flat electrical double layers and by performing the Monte Carlo simulation are in excellent agreement. For high enough charge densities

  15. Stochastic Distributed Protocol for Electric Vehicle Charging with Discrete Charging Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    including those in the integration into the electric power grid. For example, EV charging potentially studies demonstrate that adopting "smart" charging strategies can mitigate some of the integration Gan, Ufuk Topcu, Member, IEEE, and Steven H. Low, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--To address the grid

  16. Fermion space charge in narrow-band gap semiconductors, Weyl semimetals and around highly charged nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eugene B. Kolomeisky; Joseph P. Straley; Hussain Zaidi

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of charged impurities in narrow-band gap semiconductors and Weyl semimetals can create electron-hole pairs when the total charge $Ze$ of the impurity exceeds a value $Z_{c}e$. The particles of one charge escape to infinity, leaving a screening space charge. The result is that the observable dimensionless impurity charge $Q_{\\infty}$ is less than $Z$ but greater than $Z_{c}$. There is a corresponding effect for nuclei with $Z >Z_{c} \\approx 170$, however in the condensed matter setting we find $Z_{c} \\simeq 10$. Thomas-Fermi theory indicates that $Q_{\\infty} = 0$ for the Weyl semimetal, but we argue that this is a defect of the theory. For the case of a highly-charged recombination center in a narrow band-gap semiconductor (or of a supercharged nucleus), the observable charge takes on a nearly universal value. In Weyl semimetals the observable charge takes on the universal value $Q_{\\infty} = Z_{c}$ set by the reciprocal of material's fine structure constant.

  17. Mechanics and tribology of MEMS materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, Somuri V.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Boyce, Brad Lee; Buchheit, Thomas Edward

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micromachines have the potential to significantly impact future weapon component designs as well as other defense, industrial, and consumer product applications. For both electroplated (LIGA) and surface micromachined (SMM) structural elements, the influence of processing on structure, and the resultant effects on material properties are not well understood. The behavior of dynamic interfaces in present as-fabricated microsystem materials is inadequate for most applications and the fundamental relationships between processing conditions and tribological behavior in these systems are not clearly defined. We intend to develop a basic understanding of deformation, fracture, and surface interactions responsible for friction and wear of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) materials. This will enable needed design flexibility for these devices, as well as strengthen our understanding of material behavior at the nanoscale. The goal of this project is to develop new capabilities for sub-microscale mechanical and tribological measurements, and to exercise these capabilities to investigate material behavior at this size scale.

  18. Electrical characteristics and formation mechanism of atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Weijing; Meng, Ying; Ouyang, Jiting, E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of atmospheric pressure plasma jet produced by a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge in helium in external electrostatic and magnetic field is investigated. Net negative charges in the plasma jet outside the tube were detected. The deflection of the plume in the external field was observed. The plasma jet is suggested to be formed by the electron beam from the temporal cathode which is accelerated by a longitudinal field induced by the surface charges on the dielectric tube or interface between the helium and ambient air. The helium flow is necessary for the jet formation in the surrounding air.

  19. New mechanism of membrane fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mueller; K. Katsov; M. Schick

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have carried out Monte Carlo simulation of the fusion of bilayers of single chain amphiphiles which show phase behavior similar to that of biological lipids. The fusion mechanism we observe is very different from the ``stalk'' hypothesis. Stalks do form on the first stage of fusion, but they do not grow radially to form a hemifused state. Instead, stalk formation destabilizes the membranes and results in hole formation in the vicinity of the stalks. When holes in each bilayer nucleate spontaneously next to the same stalk, an incomplete fusion pore is formed. The fusion process is completed by propagation of the initial connection, the stalk, along the edges of the aligned holes.

  20. The role of charged particles in the positive corona-generated photon count in a rod to plane air gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bian, X. M.; Wang, Y. J.; MacAlpine, J. M. K.; Chen, L.; Wang, L. M.; Guan, Z. C. [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China)] [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Wan, S. W. [State Grid Chongqing Nan'an Power Supply Company, 401336 Chongqing (China)] [State Grid Chongqing Nan'an Power Supply Company, 401336 Chongqing (China); Liu, L. [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China)] [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China)

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between the calculated charged-particle densities in positive corona, the rate of streamer production, and the photon count from the corona were investigated and found to be closely related. Both the densities of electrons and positive ions peaked at 11.8 kV, near the corona inception voltage; they then fell rapidly before slowly rising again. This behavior was exactly matched by the measured photon count. The calculation of the charged-particle density in a positive corona was achieved by means of a fluid model.

  1. Method for charging a hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Keyser, M.A.; Benson, D.K.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for charging a sample of either a permanent or reversible getter material with a high concentration of hydrogen while maintaining a base pressure below 10{sup {minus}4} torr at room temperature involves placing the sample of hydrogen getter material in a chamber, activating the sample of hydrogen getter material, overcharging the sample of getter material through conventional charging techniques to a high concentration of hydrogen, and then subjecting the sample of getter material to a low temperature vacuum bake-out process. Application of the method results in a reversible hydrogen getter which is highly charged to maximum capacities of hydrogen and which concurrently exhibits minimum hydrogen vapor pressures at room temperatures. 9 figs.

  2. Measuring and interpreting charge dependent anisotropic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei A. Voloshin; Ronald Belmont

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chiral Magnetic Wave (CMW) [1] predicts a dependence of the positive and negative particle elliptic flow on the event charge asymmetry. Such a dependence has been observed by the STAR Collaboration [2]. However, it is rather difficult to interpret the results of this measurement, as well as to perform cross-experiment comparisons, due to the dependence of the observable on experimental inefficiencies and the kinematic acceptance used to determine the net asymmetry. We propose another observable that is free from these deficiencies. It also provides possibilities for differential measurements clarifying the interpretation of the results. We use this new observable to study the effect of the local charge conservation that can mimic the effect of the CMW in charge dependent flow measurements.

  3. Electrostatic wire for stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, Daniel S. (Livermore, CA); Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Briggs, Richard J. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  4. Salt-induced reentrant stability of polyion-decorated particles with tunable surface charge density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simona Sennato; Laura Carlini; Domenico Truzzolillo; Federico Bordi

    2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrostatic complexation between DOTAP-DOPC unilamellar liposomes and an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte (NaPA) has been investigated in a wide range of the liposome surface charge density. We systematically characterized the "reentrant condensation" and the charge inversion of polyelectrolyte-decorated liposomes by means of dynamic light scattering and electrophoresis. We explored the stability of this model polyelectrolyte/colloid system by fixing each time the charge of the bare liposomes and by changing two independent control parameters of the suspensions: the polyelectrolyte/colloid charge ratio and the ionic strength of the aqueous suspending medium. The progressive addition of neutral DOPC lipid within the liposome membrane gave rise to a new intriguing phenomenon: the stability diagram of the suspensions showed a novel reentrance due to the crossing of the desorption threshold of the polyelectrolyte. Indeed, at fixed charge density of the bare DOTAP/DOPC liposomes and for a wide range of polyion concentrations, we showed that the simple electrolyte addition first (low salt regime) destabilizes the suspensions because of the enhanced screening of the residual repulsion between the complexes, and then (high salt regime) determines the onset of a new stable phase, originated by the absence of polyelectrolyte adsorption on the particle surfaces. We show that the observed phenomenology can be rationalized within the Velegol-Thwar model for heterogeneously charged particles and that the polyelectrolyte desorption fits well the predictions of the adsorption theory of Winkler and Cherstvy. Our findings unambiguously support the picture of the reentrant condensation as driven by the correlated adsorption of the polyelectrolyte chains on the particle surface, providing interesting insights into possible mechanisms for tailoring complex colloids via salt-induced effects.

  5. Transverse energy and charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions: From RHIC to LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghunath Sahoo; Aditya Nath Mishra

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the charged particle and transverse energy production mechanism from AGS, SPS, RHIC to LHC energies in the framework of nucleon and quark participants. At RHIC and LHC energies, the number of nucleons-normalized charged particle and transverse energy density in pseudorapidity, which shows a monotonic rise with centrality, turns out to be an almost centrality independent scaling behaviour when normalized to the number of participant quarks. A universal function which is a combination of logarithmic and power-law, describes well the charged particle and transverse energy production both at nucleon and quark participant level for the whole range of collision energies. Energy dependent production mechanisms are discussed both for nucleonic and partonic level. Predictions are made for the pseudorapidity densities of transverse energy, charged particle multiplicity and their ratio (the barometric observable, $\\frac{dE_{\\rm{T}}/d\\eta}{dN_{\\rm{ch}}/d\\eta} ~\\equiv \\frac{E_{\\rm{T}}}{N_{\\rm{ch}}}$) at mid-rapidity for Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}}=5.5$ TeV. A comparison with models based on gluon saturation and statistical hadron gas is made for the energy dependence of $\\frac{E_{\\rm{T}}}{N_{\\rm{ch}}}$.

  6. Current leakage relaxation and charge trapping in ultra-porous low-k materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borja, Juan; Plawsky, Joel L., E-mail: plawsky@rpi.edu; Gill, William N. [Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lu, T.-M. [Department of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Bakhru, Hassaram [University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE), Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Time dependent dielectric failure has become a pivotal aspect of interconnect design as industry pursues integration of sub-22?nm process-technology nodes. Literature has provided key information about the role played by individual species such as electrons, holes, ions, and neutral impurity atoms. However, no mechanism has been shown to describe how such species interact and influence failure. Current leakage relaxation in low-k dielectrics was studied using bipolar field experiments to gain insight into how charge carrier flow becomes impeded by defects within the dielectric matrix. Leakage current decay was correlated to injection and trapping of electrons. We show that current relaxation upon inversion of the applied field can be described by the stretched exponential function. The kinetics of charge trapping events are consistent with a time-dependent reaction rate constant, k=k{sub 0}?(t+1){sup ??1}, where 0?charge trapping reactions in amorphous solids by W. H. Hamill and K. Funabashi, Phys. Rev. B 16, 5523–5527 (1977). We explain the relaxation process in charge trapping events by introducing a nonlinear charge trapping model. This model provides a description on the manner in which the transport of mobile defects affects the long-tail current relaxation processes in low-k films.

  7. Exploration of mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of single chondrocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Gu, YuanTong, E-mail: yuantong.gu@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy, we report that the mechanical property of single chondrocytes has dependency on the strain-rates. By comparing the mechanical deformation responses and the Young's moduli of living and fixed chondrocytes at four different strain-rates, we explore the deformation mechanisms underlying this dependency property. We found that the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of living cells is governed by both of the cellular cytoskeleton and the intracellular fluid when the fixed chondrocytes are mainly governed by their intracellular fluid, which is called the consolidation-dependent deformation behavior. Finally, we report that the porohyperelastic constitutive material model which can capture the consolidation-dependent behavior of both living and fixed chondrocytes is a potential candidature to study living cell biomechanics.

  8. Transport in Charged Colloids Driven by Thermoelectricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alois Würger

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermal diffusion coefficient DT of a charged colloid in a temperature gradient, and find that it is to a large extent determined by the thermoelectric response of the electrolyte solution. The thermally induced salinity gradient leads in general to a strong increase with temperature. The difference of the heat of transport of coions and counterions gives rise to a thermoelectric field that drives the colloid to the cold or to the warm, depending on the sign of its charge. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental findings on thermophoresis in colloidal suspensions.

  9. Quantacell: Powerful charging of quantum batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix C. Binder; Sai Vinjanampathy; Kavan Modi; John Goold

    2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the problem of charging a quantum battery in finite time. We demonstrate an analytical optimal protocol for the case of a single qubit. Extending this analysis to an array of N qubits, we demonstrate that an N-fold advantage in power per qubit can be achieved when global operations are permitted. The exemplary analytic argument for this quantum advantage in the charging power is backed up by numerical analysis using optimal control techniques. It is demonstrated that the quantum advantage for power holds when, with cyclic operation in mind, initial and final states are required to be separable.

  10. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, Lewis A. (Danville, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  11. Static charged fluid spheres in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2001-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Interior perfect fluid solutions for the Reissner-Nordstrom metric are studied on the basis of a new classification scheme. It specifies which two of the fluid's characteristics are given functions and picks up accordingly one of the three main field equations, the other two being universal. General formulae are found for charged de Sitter solutions, the case of constant energy component of the energy-momentum tensor, the case of known pressure (including charged dust) and the case of linear equation of state. Explicit new global solutions, mainly in elementary functions, are given as illustrations. Known solutions are briefly reviewed and corrected.

  12. Noncommutative magnetic moment of charged particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adorno, T. C.; Gitman, D. M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Shabad, A. E. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vassilevich, D. V. [CMCC - Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, S.P. (Brazil); Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been argued that in noncommutative field theories, the sizes of physical objects cannot be taken smaller than an ''elementary length'' related to noncommutativity parameters. By gauge covariantly extending field equations of noncommutative U(1){sub *} theory to cover the presence of external sources, we find electric and magnetic fields produced by an extended static charge. We find that such a charge, apart from being an ordinary electric monopole, is also a magnetic dipole. By writing off the existing experimental clearance in the value of the lepton magnetic moments for the present effect, we get the bound on noncommutativity at the level of 10{sup 4} TeV.

  13. New developments in pipeline charging preheated coal at Inland Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, S.M. Jr.; Arsenault, A.A.; Rupp, P.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first commercial installation of a new pipeline oven charging system for preheated coal, designed by Dynamic Air, Inc., was made at Inland Steel's C Battery in October 1979. With the Dynamic Air charging sytem, production losses due to pipeline delays have been virtually eliminated, pipeline maintenance requirements have been reduced by 90%, conveying steam requirements have been significantly reduced, and oven charge weights have been increased by 500 kg (1000 lb). A test program was subsequently conducted during November and December 1980, to evaluate the use of nitrogen as a conveying medium for pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system. The test results clearly demonstrated that the same weight of preheated coal could be charged into an oven by using either steam or nitrogen as the conveying medium. Moreover, it was found that pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system is a function of the mass flow rate of the conveying medium. With nitrogen charging, an average 9% increase in oven charge rates was obtained at comparable conveying gas mass flow rates and charging bin pressures. In addition, average oven pressure during charging was reduced by approximately 40% and solids carryover was reduced by 100 kg (220 lb) per oven charge with nitrogen charging. It was found that solids carryover during pipeline oven charging is a function of the average pressure generated in the oven during charging, but it was also found that a large oven pressure surge at the end of the charge can produce excessive carryover to completely mask the effect.

  14. The corrosion behavior of DWPF glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors analyzed the corroded surfaces of reference glasses developed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to characterize their corrosion behavior. The corrosion mechanism of nuclear waste glasses must be known in order to provide source terms describing radionuclide release for performance assessment calculations. Different DWPF reference glasses were corroded under conditions that highlighted various aspects of the corrosion process and led to different extents of corrosion. The glasses corroded by similar mechanisms, and a phenomenological description of their corrosion behavior is presented here. The initial leaching of soluble glass components results in the formation of an amorphous gel layer on the glass surface. The gel layer is a transient phase that transforms into a layer of clay crystallites, which equilibrates with the solution as corrosion continues. The clay layer does not act as a barrier to either water penetration or glass dissolution, which continues beneath it, and may eventually separate from the glass. Solubility limits for glass components may be established by the eventual precipitation of secondary phases; thus, corrosion of the glass becomes controlled by the chemical equilibrium between the solution and the assemblage of secondary phases. In effect, the solution is an intermediate phase through which the glass transforms to an energetically more favorable assemblage of phases. Implications regarding the prediction of long-term glass corrosion behavior are discussed.

  15. Quantum transducers: Integrating Transmission Lines and Nanomechanical Resonators via Charge Qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. P. Sun; L. F. Wei; Yu-xi Liu; Franco Nori

    2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a mechanism to interface a transmission line resonator (TLR) with a nano-mechanical resonator (NAMR) by commonly coupling them to a charge qubit, a Cooper pair box with a controllable gate voltage. Integrated in this quantum transducer or simple quantum network, the charge qubit plays the role of a controllable quantum node coherently exchanging quantum information between the TLR and NAMR. With such an interface, a maser-like process is predicted to create a quasi-classical state of the NAMR by controlling a single-mode classical current in the TLR. Alternatively, a "Cooper pair" coherent output through the transmission line can be driven by a single-mode classical oscillation of the NAMR.

  16. Photoelectrochemical and photosensing behaviors of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumder, T.; Hmar, J. J. L.; Roy, J. N.; Mondal, S. P., E-mail: suvraphy@gmail.com, E-mail: suvra.phy@nita.ac.in [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Agartala 799046 (India); Debnath, K. [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Agartala 799046 (India); Gogurla, N.; Ray, S. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnO nanorods have been grown on indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrates by a low cost chemical process. Current-voltage characteristics have been studied using ZnO nanorods as photoanode in an electrochemical cell. The flat band voltage shift and depletion width of ZnO nanorods/electrolyte interface have been estimated from Mott-Schottky (MS) characteristics. The electrochemical impedance measurements have been carried out to study the charge transport mechanism at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface under dark and white light (100 mW/cm{sup 2}) illumination. The doping concentration of nanorods has been extracted from MS plot. Photoresponse behavior of ZnO nanorods is found to be enhanced than seed layers with the incident of white light. Spectral dependent photovoltage of ZnO nanorods has been carried out using monochromatic light of wavelength 250–600?nm. The photopotential recovery time has been estimated for nanorods and seed layers. The stability of ZnO nanorods as a photoanode has been investigated.

  17. The effects of topological charge change in heavy ion collisions: "Event by event P and CP violation"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri E. Kharzeev; Larry D. McLerran; Harmen J. Warringa

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) contains field configurations which can be characterized by a topological invariant, the winding number Q_w. Configurations with nonzero Q_w break the charge-parity CP symmetry of QCD. We consider a novel mechanism by which these configurations can separate charge in the presence of a background magnetic field - the "Chiral Magnetic Effect". We argue that sufficiently large magnetic fields are created in heavy ion collisions so that the Chiral Magnetic Effect causes preferential emission of charged particles along the direction of angular momentum. Since separation of charge is CP-odd, any observation of the Chiral Magnetic Effect could provide a clear demonstration of the topological nature of the QCD vacuum. We give an estimate of the effect and conclude that it might be observed experimentally.

  18. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurement with the MINOS near detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, Debdatta; /Pittsburgh U.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the measurement of energy dependence of the neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section on an isoscalar target in the range 3-50 GeV for neutrinos and 5-50 GeV energy range for antineutrinos. The data set was collected with the MINOS Near Detector using the wide band NuMI beam at Fermilab. The size of the charged current sample is 1.94 x 10{sup 6} neutrino events and 1.60 x 10{sup 5} antineutrino events. The flux has been extracted using a low hadronic energy sub-sample of the charged current events. The energy dependence of the cross section is obtained by dividing the charged current sample with the extracted flux. The neutrino and antineutrino cross section exhibits a linear dependence on energy at high energy but shows deviations from linear behavior at low energy. We also present a measurement of the ratio of antineutrino to neutrino inclusive cross section.

  19. Interpreting impedance spectra of organic photovoltaic cells—Extracting charge transit and recombination rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullenbach, Tyler K.; Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J., E-mail: rholmes@umn.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Holst, James [New Products R and D, Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 6000 N. Teutonia Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53209 (United States)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Impedance spectroscopy has been widely used to extract the electron-hole recombination rate constant in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs). This technique is typically performed on OPVs held at open-circuit. Under these conditions, the analysis is simplified with recombination as the only pathway for the decay of excess charge carriers; transit provides no net change in the charge density. In this work, we generalize the application and interpretation of impedance spectroscopy for bulk heterojunction OPVs at any operating voltage. This, in conjunction with reverse bias external quantum efficiency measurements, permits the extraction of both recombination and transit rate constants. Using this approach, the transit and recombination rate constants are determined for OPVs with a variety of electron donor-acceptor pairings and compositions. It is found that neither rate constant individually is sufficient to characterize the efficiency of charge collection in an OPV. It is demonstrated that a large recombination rate constant can be accompanied by a large transit rate constant, thus fast recombination is not necessarily detrimental to OPV performance. Extracting the transit and recombination rate constants permits a detailed understanding of how OPV architecture and processing conditions impact the transient behavior of charge carriers, elucidating the origin of optimum device configurations.

  20. Non-Gaussianities in the topological charge distribution of the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Cé; Cristian Consonni; Georg P. Engel; Leonardo Giusti

    2015-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the topological charge distribution of the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory with high precision in order to be able to detect deviations from Gaussianity. The computation is carried out on the lattice with high statistics Monte Carlo simulations by implementing a naive discretization of the topological charge evolved with the Yang--Mills gradient flow. This definition is far less demanding than the one suggested from Neuberger's fermions and, as shown in this paper, in the continuum limit its cumulants coincide with those of the universal definition appearing in the chiral Ward identities. Thanks to the range of lattice volumes and spacings considered, we can extrapolate the results for the second and fourth cumulant of the topological charge distribution to the continuum limit with confidence by keeping finite volume effects negligible with respect to the statistical errors. Our best results for the topological susceptibility is t_0^2*chi=6.67(7)*10^-4, where t_0 is a standard reference scale, while for the ratio of the forth cumulant over the second we obtain R=0.233(45). The latter is compatible with the expectations from the large Nc expansion, while it rules out the theta-behavior of the vacuum energy predicted by the dilute instanton model. Its large distance from 1 implies that, in the ensemble of gauge configurations that dominate the path integral, the fluctuations of the topological charge are of quantum non-perturbative nature.

  1. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic Shop)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The position is a Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic Shop) located in Kent, Washington, and will be responsible for the safe and efficient operation of a field garage performing...

  2. Impact of charge state on gas-phase behaviors of noncovalent protein complexes in collision induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wysocki, Vicki H.

    technique, has been interfaced with mass spectrometry instrumentation, resulting in great potential to traverse the cell is related to the collisional cross-section (CCS) of the ion. CCS measurements provide spectrometry alone. Recent studies4­7 have shown the effectiveness of comparing experimental CCS data

  3. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure deployment : policy analysis using a dynamic behavioral spatial model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearney, Michael J. (Michael Joseph)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States government is committed to promoting a market for electric vehicles. To ensure that this electrification program does not result in the same failure that has come be associated with its predecessor programs, ...

  4. Los Angeles, California, May 6 -9, 2012 A Behavioral Algorithm for State of Charge Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    conditions while producing adequate re- sults with other battery types or discharge con- ditions. Moreover an electrochemical battery. A variety of methods to solve this estimation problem have been proposed in the literature. However, most of these methods either assume equivalent circuit models for the battery and thus

  5. Total Dose Dependence of Oxide Charge, Interstrip Capacitance and Breakdown Behavior of sLHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    . Keywords: Silicon microstrip detectors; Surface radiation damage; MOS capacitors PACS: 29.40 Gx; 29.40 Wk Collider, the Super-LHC (sLHC), requires a critical evaluation of the radiation hardness of the silicon

  6. The mechanics of pressed-pellet separators in molten salt batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Kevin Nicholas; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Roberts, Scott Alan; Grillet, Anne

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a phenomenological constitutive model that describes the macroscopic behavior of pressed-pellet materials used in molten salt batteries. Such materials include separators, cathodes, and anodes. The purpose of this model is to describe the inelastic deformation associated with the melting of a key constituent, the electrolyte. At room temperature, all constituents of these materials are solid and do not transport cations so that the battery is inert. As the battery is heated, the electrolyte, a constituent typically present in the separator and cathode, melts and conducts charge by flowing through the solid skeletons of the anode, cathode, and separator. The electrochemical circuit is closed in this hot state of the battery. The focus of this report is on the thermal-mechanical behavior of the separator, which typically exhibits the most deformation of the three pellets during the process of activating a molten salt battery. Separator materials are composed of a compressed mixture of a powdered electrolyte, an inert binder phase, and void space. When the electrolyte melts, macroscopically one observes both a change in volume and shape of the separator that depends on the applied boundary conditions during the melt transition. Although porous flow plays a critical role in the battery mechanics and electrochemistry, the focus of this report is on separator behavior under flow-free conditions in which the total mass of electrolyte is static within the pellet. Specific poromechanics effects such as capillary pressure, pressure-saturation, and electrolyte transport between layers are not considered. Instead, a phenomenological model is presented to describe all such behaviors including the melting transition of the electrolyte, loss of void space, and isochoric plasticity associated with the binder phase rearrangement. The model is appropriate for use finite element analysis under finite deformation and finite temperature change conditions. The model reasonably describes the stress dependent volume and shape change associated with dead load compression and spring-type boundary conditions; the latter is relevant in molten salt batteries. Future work will transition the model towards describing the solid skeleton of the separator in the traditional poromechanics context.

  7. QEP WORKING GROUP CHARGES Assessment Working Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Paul

    and a framework that details timelines, leadership, resource allocation, and an assessment plan that is clearlyQEP WORKING GROUP CHARGES Assessment Working Group The topic of the QEP should fit should be supported by a thorough understanding of the institutional context and by assessment data

  8. Interaction of Gravitational Waves with Charged Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thulsi Wickramasinghe; Will Rhodes; Mitchell Revalski

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown here that a cloud of charged particles could in principle absorb energy from gravitational waves (GWs) incident upon it, resulting in wave attenuation. This could in turn have implications for the interpretation of future data from early universe GWs.

  9. Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,§ Sohail Chatoor, Jaan Ma¨nnik, Marcel A. G an experimental study of 1/f noise in liquid-gated graphene transistors. We show that the gate dependence to the graphene, while at high carrier density it is consistent with noise due to scattering in the channel

  10. Conserved charges in 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The covariant canonical expression for the conserved charges, proposed by Nester, is tested on several solutions in three-dimensional gravity with or without torsion and topologically massive gravity. In each of these cases, the calculated values of energy momentum and angular momentum are found to satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics.

  11. Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge) The Task Force will advise the Chancellor and Campus Provost/Executive Vice Chancellor (CP/EVC) on current and past water use and provide recommendations on implementation of policies for potable water use reductions in support of The Regents Policy on Sustainable

  12. Short Communication Growth of charged micelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nonlinearities suggests that Coulomb interactions result in an additional contribution to the free energy of an end-cap that modifies the growth law for the average micelle size. In some cases, the micelle size varies approximately as 03A6(1/2)(1+039B),where 039B > 0 depends on the renormalized coulomb charge

  13. Effective dynamics of a classical point charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polonyi, Janos, E-mail: polonyi@iphc.cnrs.fr

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective Lagrangian of a point charge is derived by eliminating the electromagnetic field within the framework of the classical closed time path formalism. The short distance singularity of the electromagnetic field is regulated by an UV cutoff. The Abraham–Lorentz force is recovered and its similarity to quantum anomalies is underlined. The full cutoff-dependent linearized equation of motion is obtained, no runaway trajectories are found but the effective dynamics shows acausality if the cutoff is beyond the classical charge radius. The strength of the radiation reaction force displays a pole in its cutoff-dependence in a manner reminiscent of the Landau-pole of perturbative QED. Similarity between the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance and dynamical symmetry breaking is pointed out. -- Highlights: •Extension of the classical action principle for dissipative systems. •New derivation of the Abraham–Lorentz force for a point charge. •Absence of a runaway solution of the Abraham–Lorentz force. •Acausality in classical electrodynamics. •Renormalization of classical electrodynamics of point charges.

  14. Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this price decrease in mind and does an economic study on the feasibility of using photovoltaic cells to charge electric fork lift trucks, at different costs per peak watt. This particular idea could be used as a measure of energy conservation for industrial...

  15. CP and charge asymmetries at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morello, Michael; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for B0 and B0s decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pions or kaons). We report also the first observation of B0s->DsK mode and the measurement of its branching fraction.

  16. Rigidly rotating cylinders of charged dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The gravitational field of a rigidly rotating cylinder of charged dust is found analytically. The general and all regular solutions are divided into three classes. The acceleration and the vorticity of the dust are given, as well as the conditions for the appearance of closed timelike curves.

  17. Quantum Entropy of Charged Rotating Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1996-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss a method for obtaining the one-loop quantum corrections to the tree-level entropy for a charged Kerr black hole. Divergences which appear can be removed by renormalization of couplings in the tree-level gravitational action in a manner similar to that for a static black hole.

  18. Three-dimensional charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  19. Process for fabricating a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  20. Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this price decrease in mind and does an economic study on the feasibility of using photovoltaic cells to charge electric fork lift trucks, at different costs per peak watt. This particular idea could be used as a measure of energy conservation for industrial...

  1. Thermal effects and space-charge limited transition in crossed-field devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marini, Samuel; Rizzato, Felipe B.; Pakter, Renato [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully kinetic model for the electron flow in a crossed field device is derived and used to determine the system stationary states. It is found that for low injection temperatures, there is a simultaneous presence of distinct stationary solutions and an abrupt transition between accelerating and space-charge limited regimes. On the other hand, for high injection temperatures, there is only a single stationary solution branch and the change between the regimes becomes continuous. For intermediate temperatures, it is then identified a critical point that separates the abrupt and continuous behaviors. It is also investigated how intrinsic space-charge oscillations may drive stationary states unstable in certain parameter regimes. The results are verified with N-particle self-consistent simulations.

  2. Effect of dimerization on dynamics of spin-charge separation in Pariser-Parr-Pople model: A time-dependent DMRG study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Tirthankar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of static electron-phonon coupling, on real-time dynamics of spin and charge transport in $\\pi$-conjugated polyene chains. The polyene chain is modeled by the Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian with dimerized nearest-neighbor parameter $t_{0}(1+\\delta)$ for short bonds and $t_{0}(1-\\delta)$ for long bonds, and long-range electron-electron interactions. We follow the time evolution of the spin and charge using time-dependent DMRG technique, when a hole is injected at one end of the chain in its ground state. We find that spin and charge dynamics followed through spin and charge velocities, depend both on chain length and extent of dimerization, $\\delta$. Analysis of the results requires focusing on physical quantities such as average spin and charge polarizations, particularly in the large dimerization limit. In the dimerization range 0.0 $\\le$ $\\delta$ $\\le$ 0.15, spin-charge dynamics is found to have a well defined behavior, with spin-charge separation (measured as the ratio of charge v...

  3. Non-intrusive measurement of particle charge: Electrostatic dry coal cleaning. Technical progress report No. 8, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As we reported in the Technical Progress Report No. 7, there are surges of electric current in the charging loop during triboelectrification of all particles. A high speed data acquisition and analysis system was developed to monitor and record the current pattern. There is no known report on such charge-discharge surges in the literature. The mechanism for it is yet to be understood. The on-line computerized electric current measurement also leads to an observation of charging effects as a function of particle feeding rate. It is shown that feed rate greatly alters particle charge. Such an effect is mostly overlooked by researchers and it could have a important role in process design where the feed rate would be maximized. The initial results for coal and mineral particles demonstrated that the average charge was lower when the feed rate was increased. Further investigation is scheduled to identify potential controlling factors, eg, the solid volume fraction and particle number density could be important process factors. The study of charging velocity and particle size was continued. It was found that particle charge was linearly dependent on the charging velocity for all samples investigated. However, the slope of this linear dependence varied for particles having different diameters. In addition, the charge-velocity relationships were dependent on feeding rates. Hence, the data discussed below include these interrelationships.

  4. Health Behavior Health Promotion -Prevention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meagher, Mary

    chronic disease complications Improve quality of life Reduce health care costs #12;ImpactHealth Behavior Health Promotion - Prevention Modification of Health Attitudes and Health Behavior #12;Health Promotion: An Overview Basic philosophy Good health = individual and collective goal

  5. Effect of dimerization on dynamics of spin-charge separation in Pariser-Parr-Pople model: A time-dependent density matrix renormalization group study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tirthankar Dutta; S. Ramasesha

    2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of static electron-phonon coupling, on real-time dynamics of spin and charge transport in $\\pi$-conjugated polyene chains. The polyene chain is modeled by the Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian with dimerized nearest-neighbor parameter $t_{0}(1+\\delta)$ for short bonds and $t_{0}(1-\\delta)$ for long bonds, and long-range electron-electron interactions. We follow the time evolution of the spin and charge using time-dependent density matrix renormalization group technique, when a hole is injected at one end of the chain in its ground state. We find that spin and charge dynamics followed through spin and charge velocities, depend both on chain length and extent of dimerization, $\\delta$. Analysis of the results requires focusing on physical quantities such as average spin and charge polarizations, particularly in the large dimerization limit. In the dimerization range 0.0 $\\le$ $\\delta$ $\\le$ 0.15, spin-charge dynamics is found to have a well defined behavior, with spin-charge separation (measured as the ratio of charge velocity to spin velocity) as well as, the total amount of charge and spin transported in a given time, along the chain, decreasing as dimerization increases. However, in the range 0.3 $\\le$ $\\delta$ $\\le$ 0.5, it is observed that the dynamics of spin and charge transport becomes complicated. It is observed that for large $\\delta$ values, spin-charge separation is suppressed and the injected hole fails to travel the entire length of the chain.

  6. Charge migration in organic materials: Can propagating charges affect the key physical quantities controlling their motion?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollub, C; Gutierrez, R; Berlin, Y; Cuniberti, G

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge migration is a ubiquitous phenomenon with profound implications throughout many areas of chemistry, physics, biology and materials science. The long-term vision of designing functional materials with tailored molecular scale properties has triggered an increasing quest to identify prototypical systems where truly molecular conduction pathways play a fundamental role. Such pathways can be formed due to the molecular organization of various organic materials and are widely used to discuss electronic properties at the nanometer scale. Here, we present a computational methodology to study charge propagation in organic molecular stacks at nano and sub-nanoscales and exploit this methodology to demonstrate that moving charge carriers strongly affect the values of the physical quantities controlling their motion. The approach is also expected to find broad application in the field of charge migration in soft matter systems.

  7. Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 1 Welcome MIE Industrial Advisory Board October 15, 2010 #12;Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 2 MIE Dorothy Adams Undergraduate/Graduate Secretary David Schmidt Associate Professor & Graduate Program Director #12;Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 3 MIE James Rinderle

  8. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has · STOP (Structural, Thermal, and Optical Performance) analyses of optical systems Thermal engineers lead evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

  9. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the Department of Mechanical Engineering Tufts University Retooling Our Energy Ecosystem: challengesMechanical engineering Department Seminar Robert J. Hannemann The Gordon Institute and Chair of the Tufts Department of Mechanical Engineering. His technical and academic interests

  10. Probing protein orientation near charged surfaces with an implicit-solvent model and the PyGBe code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Christopher D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein-surface interactions are ubiquitous in biological processes and bioengineering, yet are not fully understood. In the field of biosensors, a key factor in biosensor performance is the orientation of biomolecules near charged surfaces. The aim of this work is developing and assessing a computational model to study proteins interacting with charged surfaces and obtain orientation data. After extending the implicit-solvent model used in the open-source code PyGBe and deriving an analytical solution for simple geometry, our careful grid-convergence analysis builds confidence on the correctness and value of our approach for probing protein orientation. Further computational experiments support it: they study preferred orientations for protein GB1 D4' and immunoglobulin G. Sampling the free energy for protein GB1 at a range of tilt and rotation angles with respect to the charged surface, we calculated the probability of the protein orientation and observed a dipolar behavior. This result is consistent with p...

  11. Transient behavior of ultracapacitors and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, R.A. [Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Ulm (Germany)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several different mechanisms can be used to provide short term high power pulses from electrochemical systems. Their fundamental characteristics and applicability to the different types of transient output requirements will be discussed. When significant amounts of energy must be delivered, the most favorable materials operate by means of insertion reactions. The methods that can be employed to quantitatively evaluate the critical materials parameters will be described. Spreadsheet techniques are especially useful for modeling the transient transport behavior of components containing such materials under various boundary conditions. LaPlace transform methods can then be used to convert information about the parameters of individual components into the dynamic response of the total system.

  12. Energy Performance and Home Owner Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ME 4343 HVAC Design The Impact of Occupancy Behavior Patterns On the Energy Consumption in Low-income Residential Buildings Bing Dong1, Yifei Duan1, Rui Liu2, Taeg Nishimoto2 1 Building Performance and Diagnostics Group, Mechanical Engineering..., the University of Texas, San Antonio, TX, USA 2 College of Architecture, the University of Texas, San Antonio, TX, USA ESL-KT-13-12-04 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Introduction • Large gaps between...

  13. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering It is a new beginning for innovative fundamental and applied and consolidation of bulk nanocrystalline materials using mechanical alloying, the alloy development and synthesis

  14. Probing the QCD Critical Point by Higher Moments of Net-Charge Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nihar Ranjan Sahoo

    2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Beam Energy Scan program has been undertaken at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to search for the QCD critical point. The presence of the critical point is expected to lead to non-monotonic behavior of several quantities. Here we report the result of higher moments of net-charge distributions for Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 39 GeV as measured by the STAR experiment. The STAR results are compared with results from HIJING event generator and Hadron Resonance (HRG) Models.

  15. The Influence of Friendship Networks on Adolescents' Health-Risk Behaviors: A Social Network Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Kwon Chan

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Friendships among adolescents can exert significant influence on behaviors that pose risk to their health. However, empirical evidence for friendships’ influence is mixed due to various factors. Among these factors, are the complex mechanisms...

  16. Characteristics of syntactic processing : an examination utilizing behavioral and fMRI techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Evan, 1975-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores two important factors that constrain the syntactic parser of the sentence processing mechanism, syntactic storage costs and plausibility information. It uses behavioral methods to explore the characteristics ...

  17. The loss rates of O{sup +} in the inner magnetosphere caused by both magnetic field line curvature scattering and charge exchange reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Y., E-mail: yji@spaceweather.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, C. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With consideration of magnetic field line curvature (FLC) pitch angle scattering and charge exchange reactions, the O{sup +} (>300?keV) in the inner magnetosphere loss rates are investigated by using an eigenfunction analysis. The FLC scattering provides a mechanism for the ring current O{sup +} to enter the loss cone and influence the loss rates caused by charge exchange reactions. Assuming that the pitch angle change is small for each scattering event, the diffusion equation including a charge exchange term is constructed and solved; the eigenvalues of the equation are identified. The resultant loss rates of O{sup +} are approximately equal to the linear superposition of the loss rate without considering the charge exchange reactions and the loss rate associated with charge exchange reactions alone. The loss time is consistent with the observations from the early recovery phases of magnetic storms.

  18. Portunes: Privacy-Preserving Fast Authentication for Dynamic Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    a charging section, and the EV's battery is charged through magnetic induction between the coils simultaneously charge multiple EVs with different battery types and coils. While the micro charging pad approach charging parameters, such as the desired charging rate, battery type, coil type, etc. Second, the charging

  19. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer...

  20. Design and control of photoflash capacitor charging circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negrete, Michael G. (Michael George), 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops an optimal strategy for charging photoflash capacitors. Photoflash capacitors need to be charged to voltages as high as 350V in low-voltage battery-powered portable devices. With the decreasing size ...