National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for measuring thermal evolution

  1. Advancing reactive tracer methods for measuring thermal evolution in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2-and water-based geothermal reservoirs | Department of Energy Advancing reactive tracer methods for measuring thermal evolution in CO2-and water-based geothermal reservoirs Advancing reactive tracer methods for measuring thermal evolution in CO2-and water-based geothermal reservoirs DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project aims to develop reactive tracer method for monitoring thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems. tracers_hull_thermal_evolution.pdf (852.51

  2. Advancing reactive tracer methods for measuring thermal evolution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ....51 KB) More Documents & Publications Using Thermally-Degrading, Partitioning, and Nonreactive Tracers to Determine Temperature Distribution and FractureHeat Transfer Surface Area ...

  3. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in Geothermal Reservoirs: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; Laurence C. Hull; George D. Redden

    2011-07-01

    The injection of cold fluids into engineered geothermal system (EGS) and conventional geothermal reservoirs may be done to help extract heat from the subsurface or to maintain pressures within the reservoir (e.g., Rose et al., 2001). As these injected fluids move along fractures, they acquire heat from the rock matrix and remove it from the reservoir as they are extracted to the surface. A consequence of such injection is the migration of a cold-fluid front through the reservoir (Figure 1) that could eventually reach the production well and result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). Efficient operation of an EGS as well as conventional geothermal systems involving cold-fluid injection requires accurate and timely information about thermal depletion of the reservoir in response to operation. In particular, accurate predictions of the time to thermal breakthrough and subsequent rate of thermal drawdown are necessary for reservoir management, design of fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting of economic return. A potential method for estimating migration of a cold front between an injection well and a production well is through application of reactive tracer tests, using chemical whose rate of degradation is dependent on the reservoir temperature between the two wells (e.g., Robinson 1985). With repeated tests, the rate of migration of the thermal front can be determined, and the time to thermal breakthrough calculated. While the basic theory behind the concept of thermal tracers has been understood for some time, effective application of the method has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes results of a study that used several methods to investigate application of reactive tracers to monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir. These methods included (1) mathematical investigation of the sensitivity of known and hypothetical reactive tracers, (2) laboratory testing of novel

  4. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  5. Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal and mechanical measurements for the bent-beam polycrystalline silicon thermal ... SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES; SILICON; VALIDATION Microactuators.; Ceramic ...

  6. THERMAL AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF COLLAPSING FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, William J.; Scannapieco, Evan

    2013-05-10

    Intergalactic filaments form the foundation of the cosmic web that connect galaxies together, and provide an important reservoir of gas for galaxy growth and accretion. Here we present very high resolution two-dimensional simulations of the thermal and chemical evolution of such filaments, making use of a 32 species chemistry network that tracks the evolution of key molecules formed from hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. We study the evolution of filaments over a wide range of parameters including the initial density, initial temperature, strength of the dissociating UV background, and metallicity. In low-redshift, Z Almost-Equal-To 0.1 Z{sub Sun} filaments, the evolution is determined completely by the initial cooling time. If this is sufficiently short, the center of the filament always collapses to form a dense, cold core containing a substantial fraction of molecules. In high-redshift, Z = 10{sup -3} Z{sub Sun} filaments, the collapse proceeds much more slowly. This is mostly due to the lower initial temperatures, which lead to a much more modest increase in density before the atomic cooling limit is reached, making subsequent molecular cooling much less efficient. Finally, we study how the gravitational potential from a nearby dwarf galaxy affects the collapse of the filament and compare this to NGC 5253, a nearby starbursting dwarf galaxy thought to be fueled by the accretion of filament gas. In contrast to our fiducial case, a substantial density peak forms at the center of the potential. This peak evolves faster than the rest of the filament due to the increased rate at which chemical species form and cooling occurs. We find that we achieve similar accretion rates as NGC 5253 but our two-dimensional simulations do not recover the formation of the giant molecular clouds that are seen in radio observations.

  7. A nanostructure thermal property measurement platform. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    side of the central heater), and this feature permits identification of possible changes in thermal conductance along the wire and measurement of the thermal contact resistance. ...

  8. Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments Citation Details ... OSTI Identifier: 1104515 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-611892 Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X DOE ...

  9. Thermal conductivity measurements of Summit polycrystalline silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Rebecca; Kuppers, Jaron D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-11-01

    A capability for measuring the thermal conductivity of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials using a steady state resistance technique was developed and used to measure the thermal conductivities of SUMMiT{trademark} V layers. Thermal conductivities were measured over two temperature ranges: 100K to 350K and 293K to 575K in order to generate two data sets. The steady state resistance technique uses surface micromachined bridge structures fabricated using the standard SUMMiT fabrication process. Electrical resistance and resistivity data are reported for poly1-poly2 laminate, poly2, poly3, and poly4 polysilicon structural layers in the SUMMiT process from 83K to 575K. Thermal conductivity measurements for these polysilicon layers demonstrate for the first time that the thermal conductivity is a function of the particular SUMMiT layer. Also, the poly2 layer has a different variation in thermal conductivity as the temperature is decreased than the poly1-poly2 laminate, poly3, and poly4 layers. As the temperature increases above room temperature, the difference in thermal conductivity between the layers decreases.

  10. Local measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hurley, David H.; Schley, Robert S.; Khafizov, Marat; Wendt, Brycen L.

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous measurement of local thermal diffusivity and conductivity is demonstrated on a range of ceramic samples. This was accomplished by measuring the temperature field spatial profile of samples excited by an amplitude modulated continuous wave laser beam. A thin gold film is applied to the samples to ensure strong optical absorption and to establish a second boundary condition that introduces an expression containing the substrate thermal conductivity. The diffusivity and conductivity are obtained by comparing the measured phase profile of the temperature field to a continuum based model. A sensitivity analysis is used to identify the optimal film thickness formore » extracting the both substrate conductivity and diffusivity. Proof of principle studies were conducted on a range of samples having thermal properties that are representative of current and advanced accident tolerant nuclear fuels. It is shown that by including the Kapitza resistance as an additional fitting parameter, the measured conductivity and diffusivity of all the samples considered agree closely with literature values. Lastly, a distinguishing feature of this technique is that it does not require a priori knowledge of the optical spot size which greatly increases measurement reliability and reproducibility.« less

  11. Local measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, David H.; Schley, Robert S.; Khafizov, Marat; Wendt, Brycen L.

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous measurement of local thermal diffusivity and conductivity is demonstrated on a range of ceramic samples. This was accomplished by measuring the temperature field spatial profile of samples excited by an amplitude modulated continuous wave laser beam. A thin gold film is applied to the samples to ensure strong optical absorption and to establish a second boundary condition that introduces an expression containing the substrate thermal conductivity. The diffusivity and conductivity are obtained by comparing the measured phase profile of the temperature field to a continuum based model. A sensitivity analysis is used to identify the optimal film thickness for extracting the both substrate conductivity and diffusivity. Proof of principle studies were conducted on a range of samples having thermal properties that are representative of current and advanced accident tolerant nuclear fuels. It is shown that by including the Kapitza resistance as an additional fitting parameter, the measured conductivity and diffusivity of all the samples considered agree closely with literature values. Lastly, a distinguishing feature of this technique is that it does not require a priori knowledge of the optical spot size which greatly increases measurement reliability and reproducibility.

  12. Local measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, David H.; Schley, Robert S.; Khafizov, Marat; Wendt, Brycen L.

    2015-12-15

    Simultaneous measurement of local thermal diffusivity and conductivity is demonstrated on a range of ceramic samples. This was accomplished by measuring the temperature field spatial profile of samples excited by an amplitude modulated continuous wave laser beam. A thin gold film is applied to the samples to ensure strong optical absorption and to establish a second boundary condition that introduces an expression containing the substrate thermal conductivity. The diffusivity and conductivity are obtained by comparing the measured phase profile of the temperature field to a continuum based model. A sensitivity analysis is used to identify the optimal film thickness for extracting the both substrate conductivity and diffusivity. Proof of principle studies were conducted on a range of samples having thermal properties that are representatives of current and advanced accident tolerant nuclear fuels. It is shown that by including the Kapitza resistance as an additional fitting parameter, the measured conductivity and diffusivity of all the samples considered agreed closely with the literature values. A distinguishing feature of this technique is that it does not require a priori knowledge of the optical spot size which greatly increases measurement reliability and reproducibility.

  13. Error and uncertainty in Raman thermal conductivity measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; Yates, Luke; Graham, Samuel

    2015-04-22

    We investigated error and uncertainty in Raman thermal conductivity measurements via finite element based numerical simulation of two geometries often employed -- Joule-heating of a wire and laser-heating of a suspended wafer. Using this methodology, the accuracy and precision of the Raman-derived thermal conductivity are shown to depend on (1) assumptions within the analytical model used in the deduction of thermal conductivity, (2) uncertainty in the quantification of heat flux and temperature, and (3) the evolution of thermomechanical stress during testing. Apart from the influence of stress, errors of 5% coupled with uncertainties of ±15% are achievable for most materialsmore » under conditions typical of Raman thermometry experiments. Error can increase to >20%, however, for materials having highly temperature dependent thermal conductivities or, in some materials, when thermomechanical stress develops concurrent with the heating. A dimensionless parameter -- termed the Raman stress factor -- is derived to identify when stress effects will induce large levels of error. Together, the results compare the utility of Raman based conductivity measurements relative to more established techniques while at the same time identifying situations where its use is most efficacious.« less

  14. Error and uncertainty in Raman thermal conductivity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; Yates, Luke; Graham, Samuel

    2015-04-22

    We investigated error and uncertainty in Raman thermal conductivity measurements via finite element based numerical simulation of two geometries often employed -- Joule-heating of a wire and laser-heating of a suspended wafer. Using this methodology, the accuracy and precision of the Raman-derived thermal conductivity are shown to depend on (1) assumptions within the analytical model used in the deduction of thermal conductivity, (2) uncertainty in the quantification of heat flux and temperature, and (3) the evolution of thermomechanical stress during testing. Apart from the influence of stress, errors of 5% coupled with uncertainties of ±15% are achievable for most materials under conditions typical of Raman thermometry experiments. Error can increase to >20%, however, for materials having highly temperature dependent thermal conductivities or, in some materials, when thermomechanical stress develops concurrent with the heating. A dimensionless parameter -- termed the Raman stress factor -- is derived to identify when stress effects will induce large levels of error. Together, the results compare the utility of Raman based conductivity measurements relative to more established techniques while at the same time identifying situations where its use is most efficacious.

  15. Stress Evolution in Sn Thin Films During Thermal Cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, K. J.; Cheong, K. C.; Cai Zhonghou; Ingham, B.; Toney, M. F.

    2009-07-23

    Finite Element Modelling and corresponding X-ray and Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction measurements have been used to investigate the development of strain in thin tin films during thermal cycling. The modeled average strain in the film was found to agree within 20% to the experimental result, although the strain within individual grains was found to vary dramatically as observed by electron backscatter diffraction and synchrotron microdiffraction.

  16. High-resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal evolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temporal evolution of megagauss magnetic fields created in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-resolution measurements...

  17. Evolution of the macromolecular structure of sporopollenin during thermal degradation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bernard, S.; Benzerara, K.; Beyssac, O.; Balan, E.; G. E. Brown, Jr.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstructing the original biogeochemistry of organic microfossils requires quantifying the extent of the chemical transformations they experienced during burial and maturation processes. In the present study, fossilization experiments have been performed using modern sporopollenin chosen as an analogue for the resistant biocompounds possibly constituting the wall of many organic microfossils. Sporopollenin powder has been processed thermally under argon atmosphere at different temperatures (up to 1000 °C) for varying durations (up to 900 min). Solid residues of each experiment have been characterized using infrared, Raman and synchrotron-based XANES spectroscopies. Results indicate that significant defunctionalisation and aromatization affect the molecular structure ofmore » sporopollenin with increasing temperature. Two distinct stages of evolution with temperature are observed: in a first stage, sporopollenin experiences dehydrogenation and deoxygenation simultaneously (below 500 °C); in a second stage (above 500 °C) an increasing concentration in aromatic groups and a lateral growth of aromatic layers are observed. With increasing heating duration (up to 900 min) at a constant temperature (360 °C), oxygen is progressively lost and conjugated carbon–carbon chains or domains grow progressively, following a log-linear kinetic behavior. Based on the comparison with natural spores fossilized within metasediments which experienced intense metamorphism, we show that the present experimental simulations may not perfectly mimic natural diagenesis and metamorphism. Moreover, performing such laboratory experiments provides key insights on the processes transforming biogenic molecules into molecular fossils.« less

  18. Evolution of the macromolecular structure of sporopollenin during thermal degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, S.; Benzerara, K.; Beyssac, O.; Balan, E.; G. E. Brown, Jr.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstructing the original biogeochemistry of organic microfossils requires quantifying the extent of the chemical transformations they experienced during burial and maturation processes. In the present study, fossilization experiments have been performed using modern sporopollenin chosen as an analogue for the resistant biocompounds possibly constituting the wall of many organic microfossils. Sporopollenin powder has been processed thermally under argon atmosphere at different temperatures (up to 1000 °C) for varying durations (up to 900 min). Solid residues of each experiment have been characterized using infrared, Raman and synchrotron-based XANES spectroscopies. Results indicate that significant defunctionalisation and aromatization affect the molecular structure of sporopollenin with increasing temperature. Two distinct stages of evolution with temperature are observed: in a first stage, sporopollenin experiences dehydrogenation and deoxygenation simultaneously (below 500 °C); in a second stage (above 500 °C) an increasing concentration in aromatic groups and a lateral growth of aromatic layers are observed. With increasing heating duration (up to 900 min) at a constant temperature (360 °C), oxygen is progressively lost and conjugated carbon–carbon chains or domains grow progressively, following a log-linear kinetic behavior. Based on the comparison with natural spores fossilized within metasediments which experienced intense metamorphism, we show that the present experimental simulations may not perfectly mimic natural diagenesis and metamorphism. Moreover, performing such laboratory experiments provides key insights on the processes transforming biogenic molecules into molecular fossils.

  19. Damage evolution and residual stresses in plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, J. P.

    1999-02-03

    Air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings were subjected to thermal cycling and residual stress evolution in thermally grown oxide scale was studied by micro- and macro-ruby fluorescence spectroscopy. The macro approach reveals that compressive stress in the oxide scale increases with increasing number of thermal cycles (and thus increasing scale thickness), reaching a value of 1.8 GPa at a scale thickness of 3-4 {micro}m (80 cycles). Micro-ruby fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that protrusions of the zirconia top coat into the bond coat act as localized areas of high stress concentration, leading to damage initiation during thermal cycling.

  20. Method for measuring thermal properties using a long-wavelength infrared thermal image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Charles L.; Costin, Laurence S.; Smith, Jody L.; Moya, Mary M.; Mercier, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-30

    A method for estimating the thermal properties of surface materials using long-wavelength thermal imagery by exploiting the differential heating histories of ground points in the vicinity of shadows. The use of differential heating histories of different ground points of the same surface material allows the use of a single image acquisition step to provide the necessary variation in measured parameters for calculation of the thermal properties of surface materials.

  1. Entanglement evolution of a two-mode Gaussian system in various thermal environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihaescu, Tatiana Isar, Aurelian

    2015-12-07

    We describe the evolution of the quantum entanglement of an open system consisting of two bosonic modes interacting with a common thermal environment, described by two different models. The initial state of the system is taken of Gaussian form. In the case of a thermal bath, characterized by temperature and dissipation constant which correspond to an asymptotic Gibbs state of the system, we show that for a zero temperature of the thermal bath an initial entangled Gaussian state remains entangled for all finite times. For an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death takes place and we calculate the survival time of entanglement. For the second model of the environment, corresponding to a non-Gibbs asymptotic state, we study the possibility of generating entanglement. We show that the generation of the entanglement between two uncoupled bosonic modes is possible only for definite values of the temperature and dissipation constant, which characterize the thermal environment.

  2. Non-Contact Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity in Ion-Implanted Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmann, F.; Mason, D. R.; Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2015-11-03

    Knowledge of mechanical and physical property evolution due to irradiation damage is essential for the development of future fission and fusion reactors. Ion-irradiation provides an excellent proxy for studying irradiation damage, allowing high damage doses without sample activation. Limited ion-penetration-depth means that only few-micron-thick damaged layers are produced. Substantial effort has been devoted to probing the mechanical properties of these thin implanted layers. Yet, whilst key to reactor design, their thermal transport properties remain largely unexplored due to a lack of suitable measurement techniques. Here we demonstrate non-contact thermal diffusivity measurements in ion-implanted tungsten for nuclear fusion armour. Alloying with transmutation elements and the interaction of retained gas with implantation-induced defects both lead to dramatic reductions in thermal diffusivity. These changes are well captured by our modelling approaches. Our observations have important implications for the design of future fusion power plants.

  3. Non-Contact Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity in Ion-Implanted Nuclear Materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hofmann, F.; Mason, D. R.; Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2015-11-03

    Knowledge of mechanical and physical property evolution due to irradiation damage is essential for the development of future fission and fusion reactors. Ion-irradiation provides an excellent proxy for studying irradiation damage, allowing high damage doses without sample activation. Limited ion-penetration-depth means that only few-micron-thick damaged layers are produced. Substantial effort has been devoted to probing the mechanical properties of these thin implanted layers. Yet, whilst key to reactor design, their thermal transport properties remain largely unexplored due to a lack of suitable measurement techniques. Here we demonstrate non-contact thermal diffusivity measurements in ion-implanted tungsten for nuclear fusion armour. Alloying withmore » transmutation elements and the interaction of retained gas with implantation-induced defects both lead to dramatic reductions in thermal diffusivity. These changes are well captured by our modelling approaches. Our observations have important implications for the design of future fusion power plants.« less

  4. Valence-band electronic structure evolution of graphene oxide upon thermal annealing for optoelectronics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yamaguchi, Hisato; Ogawa, Shuichi; Watanabe, Daiki; Hozumi, Hideaki; Gao, Yongqian; Eda, Goki; Mattevi, Cecilia; Fujita, Takeshi; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Ishizuka, Shinji; et al

    2016-04-08

    We report valence band electronic structure evolution of graphene oxide (GO) upon its thermal reduction. Degree of oxygen functionalization was controlled by annealing temperatures, and an electronic structure evolution was monitored using real-time ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. We observed a drastic increase in density of states around the Fermi level upon thermal annealing at ~600 °C. The result indicates that while there is an apparent band gap for GO prior to a thermal reduction, the gap closes after an annealing around that temperature. This trend of band gap closure was correlated with electrical, chemical, and structural properties to determine a setmore » of GO material properties that is optimal for optoelectronics. The results revealed that annealing at a temperature of ~500 °C leads to the desired properties, demonstrated by a uniform and an order of magnitude enhanced photocurrent map of an individual GO sheet compared to as-synthesized counterpart.« less

  5. Thermal evolution of the crystal structure of the orthorhombic perovskite LaFeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Charlotte A.L.; Kavanagh, Christopher M.; Knight, Kevin S.; Kockelmann, Winfried; Morrison, Finlay D.; Lightfoot, Philip

    2015-10-15

    The thermal evolution of the crystal structure of the prototypical orthorhombic perovskite LaFeO{sub 3} has been studied in detail by powder neutron diffraction in the temperature range 25thermal behavior to be understood. In particular, the largest-amplitude symmetry modes (viz. in-phase and out-of-phase octahedral tilts, and A-site cation displacements) are shown to display relatively ‘normal’ behavior, increasing with decreasing temperature, which contrasts with the anomalous behavior previously shown by the derivative Bi{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3}. However, an unexpected behavior is seen in the nature of the intra-octahedral distortion, which is used to rationalize the unique occurrence of a temperature dependent crossover of the a and c unit cell metrics in this compound. - Graphical abstract: The unusual thermal evolution of lattice metrics in the perovskite LaFeO{sub 3} is rationalized from a detailed powder neutron diffraction study. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of the perovskite LaFeO{sub 3} studied in detail by powder neutron diffraction. • Unusual thermal evolution of lattice metrics rationalized. • Contrasting behavior to Bi-doped LaFeO{sub 3}. • Octahedral distortion/tilt parameters explain unusual a and c lattice parameter behavior.

  6. Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marat Khafizov; Clarissa Yablinsky; Todd Allen; David Hurley

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the influence of proton irradiation on thermal conductivity in single crystal silicon. We apply laser based modulated thermoreflectance technique to extract the change in conductivity of the thin layer damaged by proton irradiation. Unlike time domain thermoreflectance techniques that require application of a metal film, we perform our measurement on uncoated samples. This provides greater sensitivity to the change in conductivity of the thin damaged layer. Using sample temperature as a parameter provides a means to deduce the primary defect structures that limit thermal transport. We find that under high temperature irradiation the degradation of thermal conductivity is caused primarily by extended defects.

  7. Fracture Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fracture Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an EGS Reservoir Advancing reactive tracer methods for measuring thermal evolution in CO2-and water-based geothermal ...

  8. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and interpret reactive tracer tests - Development of suitable tracers to cover a range of reservoir temperature and residence time conditions - Testing the tools and tracers in a...

  9. SSC 50 mm dipole magnet cryostat thermal measurement results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1993-05-01

    A prototype Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) 50 mm dipole magnet cryostat, DCA323, was instrumented at Fermilab and delivered to the SSC Laboratory for installation into the accelerator systems string test facility. In series with other magnets, the instrumented cryostat will be used to quantify and verify cryostat thermal performance with respect to design requirements. Prior to leaving Fermilab, DCA323 was subjected to magnetic testing at the Magnet Test Facility (MTF). This presented an opportunity to obtain preliminary thermal performance data under simulated operating conditions. It should be noted that measurements of overall cryostat thermal performance were not possible during the MTF measurements as the magnet test stands are designed for magnetic rather than thermal testing. They are not designed to limit heat inleak to the ends of the cryostat, which has been shown to have a significant effect on overall measured thermal performance. Nonetheless, these measurements do offer insight into the performance of several of the cryostat components and sub-systems.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF THERMAL EVOLUTION IN THE MAGNETIC PROTECTION OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Bustamante, Sebastian; Cuartas, Pablo A.; Hoyos, Jaime H. E-mail: sbustama@pegasus.udea.edu.co E-mail: jhhoyos@udem.edu.co

    2013-06-10

    Magnetic protection of potentially habitable planets plays a central role in determining their actual habitability and/or the chances of detecting atmospheric biosignatures. Here we develop a thermal evolution model of potentially habitable Earth-like planets and super-Earths (SEs). Using up-to-date dynamo-scaling laws, we predict the properties of core dynamo magnetic fields and study the influence of thermal evolution on their properties. The level of magnetic protection of tidally locked and unlocked planets is estimated by combining simplified models of the planetary magnetosphere and a phenomenological description of the stellar wind. Thermal evolution introduces a strong dependence of magnetic protection on planetary mass and rotation rate. Tidally locked terrestrial planets with an Earth-like composition would have early dayside magnetopause distances between 1.5 and 4.0 R{sub p} , larger than previously estimated. Unlocked planets with periods of rotation {approx}1 day are protected by magnetospheres extending between 3 and 8 R{sub p} . Our results are robust in comparison with variations in planetary bulk composition and uncertainties in other critical model parameters. For illustration purposes, the thermal evolution and magnetic protection of the potentially habitable SEs GL 581d, GJ 667Cc, and HD 40307g were also studied. Assuming an Earth-like composition, we found that the dynamos of these planets are already extinct or close to being shut down. While GL 581d is the best protected, the protection of HD 40307g cannot be reliably estimated. GJ 667Cc, even under optimistic conditions, seems to be severely exposed to the stellar wind, and, under the conditions of our model, has probably suffered massive atmospheric losses.

  11. Hot wire thermal conductivity measurements in high temperature refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dils, R.R.; Allen, J.D.; Richmond, J.C.; McNeil, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the hot wire thermal conductivity test, a wire embedded in the material to be tested is heated with constant power input, and the temperature is measured at short time intervals. The thermal conductivity is computed from the known power input to the wire and the measured rate of increase in the wire temperature after about 700 s of heating. A finite-difference computer simulation of the hot wire test was developed to evaluate the effects of several variables in the properties of the materials tested and in the test procedures on the measured thermal conductivity. Equations relating the radiant heat transfer in a material to its optical properties were developed and a radiant heat transfer component was developed for the finite-difference simulation. Equations were derived to compute the spectral optical properties of a test material from the measured spectral normal-hemispherical transmittance of a sample of the material of known thickness that is thin enough to have a measurable transmittance over the wavelength range of about 500 to 20,000 nm, and the spectral near-normal hemispherical reflectance of a sample of the material thick enough to be completely opaque, over the same wavelength range. The optical extinction coefficient, and the ratio of the scattering coefficient, to the absorption coefficient, of MinK 2000 and K3000 brick were evaluated from their measured spectral transmittances and reflectances, and used to compute the radiant heat transfer component in these materials. The hot wire test measures an average thermal conductivity for all directions away from the wire in a plane normal to the wire. Extensive tests were made of MinK 2000 and K3000, and the measured values are compared to the guarded hot plate thermal conductivity, which is unidirectional normal to the face of a brick. 67 references, 31 figures, 23 tables.

  12. Electrostatic analyzer measurements of ionospheric thermal ion populations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.

    2016-07-09

    Here, we define the observational parameter regime necessary for observing low-altitude ionospheric origins of high-latitude ion up ow/out ow. We present measurement challenges and identify a new analysis technique which mitigates these impediments. To probe the initiation of auroral ion up ow, it is necessary to examine the thermal ion population at 200{350 km, where typical thermal energies are tenths of eV. Interpretation of the thermal ion distribution function measurement requires removal of payload sheath and ram effects. We use a 3-D Maxwellian model to quantify how observed ionospheric parameters such as density, temperature, and flows affect in situ measurementsmore » of the thermal ion distribution function. We define the viable acceptance window of a typical top-hat electrostatic analyzer in this regime and show that the instrument's energy resolution prohibits it from directly observing the shape of the particle spectra. To extract detailed information about measured particle population, we define two intermediate parameters from the measured distribution function, then use a Maxwellian model to replicate possible measured parameters for comparison to the data. Liouville's theorem and the thin-sheath approximation allow us to couple the measured and modeled intermediate parameters such that measurements inside the sheath provide information about plasma out- side the sheath. We apply this technique to sounding rocket data to show that careful windowing of the data and Maxwellian models allows for extraction of the best choice of geophysical parameters. More widespread use of this analysis technique will help our community expand its observational database of the seed regions of ionospheric outflows.« less

  13. MEASUREMENT OF WIND SPEED FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Cary Tuckfield, C; Malcolm Pendergast, M

    2009-01-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected thermal imagery and ground truth data at two commercial power plant cooling lakes to investigate the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and wind speed, and statistics derived from thermal imagery. SRNL demonstrated in a previous paper [1] that a linear relationship exists between the standard deviation of image temperature and surface heat flux. In this paper, SRNL will show that the skewness of the temperature distribution derived from cooling lake thermal images correlates with instantaneous wind speed measured at the same location. SRNL collected thermal imagery, surface meteorology and water temperatures from helicopters and boats at the Comanche Peak and H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant cooling lakes. SRNL found that decreasing skewness correlated with increasing wind speed, as was the case for the laboratory experiments. Simple linear and orthogonal regression models both explained about 50% of the variance in the skewness - wind speed plots. A nonlinear (logistic) regression model produced a better fit to the data, apparently because the thermal convection and resulting skewness are related to wind speed in a highly nonlinear way in nearly calm and in windy conditions.

  14. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  15. A model for residual stress evolution in air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, B. G.; Singh, J. P.; Grimsditch, M.

    2000-02-28

    Ruby fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that residual stress in air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings is a function of the local interface geometry. The stress profile of a simulated rough interface characterized by ``peaks'' and ``valleys'' was modeled with a finite-element approach that accounted for thermal mismatch, oxide scale growth, and top coat sintering. Dependence of the stress profile on interface geometry and microstructure was investigated, and the results were compared with measured stresses.

  16. Device and Software to Measure Thermal Impedance of Electrochemical Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Device and Software to Measure Thermal Impedance of Electrochemical Systems National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Different components within an electrochemical system (e.g., a battery) can generate heat due to inefficiencies in

  17. Evaluation of thermal gradients in longitudinal spin Seebeck effect measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sola, A. Kuepferling, M.; Basso, V.; Pasquale, M.; Kikkawa, T.; Uchida, K.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-05-07

    In the framework of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), we developed an experimental setup for the characterization of LSSE devices. This class of device consists in a layered structure formed by a substrate, a ferrimagnetic insulator (YIG) where the spin current is thermally generated, and a paramagnetic metal (Pt) for the detection of the spin current via the inverse spin-Hall effect. In this kind of experiments, the evaluation of a thermal gradient through the thin YIG layer is a crucial point. In this work, we perform an indirect determination of the thermal gradient through the measurement of the heat flux. We developed an experimental setup using Peltier cells that allow us to measure the heat flux through a given sample. In order to test the technique, a standard LSSE device produced at Tohoku University was measured. We find a spin Seebeck S{sub SSE} coefficient of 2.8×10{sup −7} V K{sup −1}.

  18. Apparent thermal conductivity measurements by an unguarded technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.; McElroy, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    An unguarded longitudinal heat-flow apparatus for measuring the apparent thermal conductivity (lambda/sub a) of insulations was tested with mean specimen temperatures from 300 to 330/sup 0/K on samples up to 0.91 m wide, 1.52 m long, and 0.15 m thick. Heat flow is provided by a horizontal electrically heated Nichrome screen sandwiched between test samples that are bounded by temperature controlled copper plates and 9 cm of mineral fiber insulation. A determinate error analysis shows lambda/sub a/ measurement uncertainty to be less than +- 1.7% for insulating materials as thin as 3 cm. Three-dimensional thermal modeling indicates negligible error in lambda/sub a/ due to edge loss for insulations up to 7.62 cm thick when the temperature difference across the sample is measured at the sceen center. System repeatability and reproducibility were determined to be +- 0.2%. Differences of lambda/sub a/ results from the screen tester and results from the National Bureau of Standards were 0.1% for a 10-kg/m/sup 3/ Calibration Transfer Standard and 0.9% for 127-kg/m/sup 3/ fibrous glass board (SRM 1450b). Measurements on fiberglass and rock wool batt insulations showed the dependence of lambda/sub a/ on density, temperature, temperature difference, plate emittance, and heat flow direction. Results obtained for lambda/sub a/ as a function of density at 24/sup 0/C differed by less than 2% from values obtained with a guarded hot plate. These results demonstrate that this simple technique has the accuracy and sensitivity needed for useful lambda/sub a/ measurements on thermal insulating materials.

  19. Measurement of directional thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation and soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, J.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Soil Science; Balick, L.K. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring directional thermal emissivity as a function of view angle for plant canopies and soils using two infrared thermometers each sensitive to a different wavelength band. By calibrating the two infrared thermometers to 0.1C consistency, canopy directional emissivity can be estimated with typical errors less than 0.005 in the 8--14 um wavelength band, depending on clarity of the sky and corrections for CO{sub 2} absorption by the atmosphere. A theoretical justification for the method is developed along with an error analysis. Laboratory measurements were used to develop corrections for CO{sub 2}, absorption and a field calibration method is used to obtain the necessary 0.1C consistency for relatively low cost infrared thermometers. The emissivity of alfalfa (LAI=2.5) and corn (LAI=3.2) was near 0.995 and independent of view angle. Individual corn leaves had an emissivity of 0.97. A wheat (LAI=3.0) canopy had an emissivity of 0.985 at nadir and 0.975 at 75 degree view angle. The canopy emissivity values tend to be higher than values in the literature, and are useful for converting infrared thermometer measurements to kinetic temperature and interpreting satellite thermal observations.

  20. Fast Thermal Helium Beam diagnostic for measurements of edge electron profiles and fluctuations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agostini, M. Scarin, P.; Cavazzana, R.; Carraro, L.; Grando, L.; Taliercio, C.; Franchin, L.; Tiso, A.

    2015-12-15

    The edge of fusion experiments is a region where strong gradients develop, together with the presence of strong fluctuations due to turbulence. The thermal helium beam diagnostic developed for the RFX-mod experiment allows the measurements with a single diagnostic of both low frequency time evolution of the edge radial profiles of electron density and temperature (tens of hertz), and the high frequency fluctuations (hundreds of kHz). To maximize the collected light, the three HeI lines necessary to be measured for the evaluation of n{sub e} and T{sub e} are separated with a spectrograph, and multianode photomultipliers are used as light detectors. The paper describes the diagnostic setup, with the interface hardware with the machine and the optical layout, and the characterization of its performances.

  1. Reexamination of Basal Plane Thermal Conductivity of Suspended Graphene Samples Measured by Electro-Thermal Micro-Bridge Methods

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jo, Insun; Pettes, Michael; Lindsay, Lucas R.; Ou, Eric; Weathers, Annie; Moore, Arden; Yao, Zhen; Shi, Li

    2015-05-18

    Thermal transport in suspended graphene samples has been measured in prior works and this work with the use of a suspended electro-thermal micro-bridge method. These measurement results are analyzed here to evaluate and eliminate the errors caused by the extrinsic thermal contact resistance. It is noted that the thermal resistance measured in a recent work increases linearly with the suspended length of the single-layer graphene samples synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and that such a feature does not reveal the failure of Fourier s law despite the increase in the apparent thermal conductivity with length. The re-analyzed thermal conductivitymore » of a single-layer CVD graphene sample reaches about ( 1680 180 )Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, which is close to the highest value reported for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In comparison, the thermal conductivity values measured for two suspended exfoliated bi-layer graphene samples are about ( 880 60 ) and ( 730 60 ) Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, and approach that of the natural graphite source above room temperature. However, the low-temperature thermal conductivities of these suspended graphene samples are still considerably lower than the graphite values, with the peak thermal conductivities shifted to much higher temperatures. Analysis of the thermal conductivity data reveals that the low temperature behavior is dominated by phonon scattering by polymer residue instead of by the lateral boundary.« less

  2. Reexamination of Basal Plane Thermal Conductivity of Suspended Graphene Samples Measured by Electro-Thermal Micro-Bridge Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Insun; Pettes, Michael; Lindsay, Lucas R; Ou, Eric; Weathers, Annie; Moore, Arden; Yao, Zhen; Shi, Li

    2015-01-01

    Thermal transport in suspended graphene samples has been measured in prior works and this work with the use of a suspended electro-thermal micro-bridge method. These measurement results are analyzed here to evaluate and eliminate the errors caused by the extrinsic thermal contact resistance. It is noted that the thermal resistance measured in a recent work increases linearly with the suspended length of the single-layer graphene samples synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and that such a feature does not reveal the failure of Fourier s law despite the increase in the apparent thermal conductivity with length. The re-analyzed thermal conductivity of a single-layer CVD graphene sample reaches about ( 1680 180 )Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, which is close to the highest value reported for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In comparison, the thermal conductivity values measured for two suspended exfoliated bi-layer graphene samples are about ( 880 60 ) and ( 730 60 ) Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, and approach that of the natural graphite source above room temperature. However, the low-temperature thermal conductivities of these suspended graphene samples are still considerably lower than the graphite values, with the peak thermal conductivities shifted to much higher temperatures. Analysis of the thermal conductivity data reveals that the low temperature behavior is dominated by phonon scattering by polymer residue instead of by the lateral boundary.

  3. Comparative thermal conductivity measurements at Sandia National Laboratories. [Pyroceram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweet, J.N.; Roth, E.P.; Moss, M.; Haseman, G.M.; Anaya, J.A.

    1986-06-01

    A detailed examination has been made on the use of the comparative method for measuring the thermal conductivity of solid materials. Existing data analysis methods are discussed and new techniques, based on generalized linear least squares methods, are presented. An error analysis is made to determine the potential accuracy, reproducibility, and repeatability of the technique. For the case in which the reference conductivity is known to a relative accuracy of +-5%, the overall relative accuracy of the measurement is shown to be about +-6%. Experimental data are presented for the conductivities of commonly used reference materials; Pyrex 7740, Pyroceram 9606, Inconel 718, and Armco iron. Data are also given for two potential reference materials: fused silica and 304 stainless steel.

  4. Influence of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution of nuclear reactor pressure vessel materials: An atom probe study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareige, P.; Russell, K.F.; Stoller, R.E.; Miller, M.K.

    1998-03-01

    Atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) investigations of the microstructure of unaged (as-fabricated) and long-term thermally aged ({approximately} 100,000 h at 280 C) surveillance materials from commercial reactor pressure vessel steels were performed. This combination of materials and conditions permitted the investigation of potential thermal-aging effects. This microstructural study focused on the quantification of the compositions of the matrix and carbides. The APFIM results indicate that there was no significant microstructural evolution after a long-term thermal exposure in weld, plate, or forging materials. The matrix depletion of copper that was observed in weld materials was consistent with the copper concentration in the matrix after the stress-relief heat treatment. The compositions of cementite carbides aged for 100,000 h were compared with the Thermocalc{trademark} prediction. The APFIM comparisons of materials under these conditions are consistent with the measured change in mechanical properties such as the Charpy transition temperature.

  5. ENTHALPY-BASED THERMAL EVOLUTION OF LOOPS. II. IMPROVEMENTS TO THE MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cargill, P. J.; Bradshaw, S. J.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2012-06-20

    This paper develops the zero-dimensional (0D) hydrodynamic coronal loop model 'Enthalpy-based Thermal Evolution of Loops' (EBTEL) proposed by Klimchuk et al., which studies the plasma response to evolving coronal heating, especially impulsive heating events. The basis of EBTEL is the modeling of mass exchange between the corona and transition region (TR) and chromosphere in response to heating variations, with the key parameter being the ratio of the TR to coronal radiation. We develop new models for this parameter that now include gravitational stratification and a physically motivated approach to radiative cooling. A number of examples are presented, including nanoflares in short and long loops, and a small flare. The new features in EBTEL are important for accurate tracking of, in particular, the density. The 0D results are compared to a 1D hydro code (Hydrad) with generally good agreement. EBTEL is suitable for general use as a tool for (1) quick-look results of loop evolution in response to a given heating function, (2) extensive parameter surveys, and (3) situations where the modeling of hundreds or thousands of elemental loops is needed. A single run takes a few seconds on a contemporary laptop.

  6. Phase-field simulations of intragranular fission gas bubble evolution in UO2 under post-irradiation thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2013-05-15

    Fission gas bubble is one of evolving microstructures, which affect thermal mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking, in operating nuclear fuels. Therefore, fundamental understanding of gas bubble evolution kinetics is essential to predict the thermodynamic property and performance changes of fuels. In this work, a generic phasefield model was developed to describe the evolution kinetics of intra-granular fission gas bubbles in UO2 fuels under post-irradiation thermal annealing conditions. Free energy functional and model parameters are evaluated from atomistic simulations and experiments. Critical nuclei size of the gas bubble and gas bubble evolution were simulated. A linear relationship between logarithmic bubble number density and logarithmic mean bubble diameter is predicted which is in a good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Calculation of TMD Evolution for Transverse Single Spin Asymmetry Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mert Aybat, Ted Rogers, Alexey Prokudin

    2012-06-01

    In this letter, we show that it is necessary to include the full treatment of QCD evolution of Transverse Momentum Dependent parton densities to explain discrepancies between HERMES data and recent COMPASS data on a proton target for the Sivers transverse single spin asymmetry in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). Calculations based on existing fits to TMDs in SIDIS, and including evolution within the Collins-Soper-Sterman with properly defined TMD PDFs are shown to provide a good explanation for the discrepancy. The non-perturbative input needed for the implementation of evolution is taken from earlier analyses of unpolarized Drell-Yan (DY) scattering at high energy. Its success in describing the Sivers function in SIDIS data at much lower energies is strong evidence in support of the unifying aspect of the QCD TMD-factorization formalism.

  8. First Results of Scanning Thermal Diffusivity Microscope (STDM) Measurements on Irradiated Monolithic and Dispersion Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. K. Huber; M. K. Figg; J. R. Kennedy; A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs

    2012-07-01

    The thermal conductivity of the fuel material in a reactor before and during irradiation is a sensitive and fundamental parameter for thermal hydraulic calculations that are useds to correctly determine fuel heat fluxes and meat temperatures and to simulate performance of the fuel elements during operation. Several techniques have been developed to measure the thermal properties of fresh fuel to support these calculations, but it is crucial to also investigate the change of thermal properties during irradiation.

  9. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

  10. Generalized Procedure for Improved Accuracy of Thermal Contact Resistance Measurements for Materials With Arbitrary Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayer, Robert A.

    2014-06-26

    Thermal contact resistance (TCR) is most commonly measured using one-dimensional steady-state calorimetric techniques. In the experimental methods we utilized, a temperature gradient is applied across two contacting beams and the temperature drop at the interface is inferred from the temperature profiles of the rods that are measured at discrete points. During data analysis, thermal conductivity of the beams is typically taken to be an average value over the temperature range imposed during the experiment. Our generalized theory is presented and accounts for temperature-dependent changes in thermal conductivity. The procedure presented enables accurate measurement of TCR for contacting materials whose thermal conductivity is any arbitrary function of temperature. For example, it is shown that the standard technique yields TCR values that are about 15% below the actual value for two specific examples of copper and silicon contacts. Conversely, the generalized technique predicts TCR values that are within 1% of the actual value. The method is exact when thermal conductivity is known exactly and no other errors are introduced to the system.

  11. Systems and methods for thermal imaging technique for measuring mixing of fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booten, Charles; Tomerlin, Jeff; Winkler, Jon

    2016-06-14

    Systems and methods for thermal imaging for measuring mixing of fluids are provided. In one embodiment, a method for measuring mixing of gaseous fluids using thermal imaging comprises: positioning a thermal test medium parallel to a direction gaseous fluid flow from an outlet vent of a momentum source, wherein when the source is operating, the fluid flows across a surface of the medium; obtaining an ambient temperature value from a baseline thermal image of the surface; obtaining at least one operational thermal image of the surface when the fluid is flowing from the outlet vent across the surface, wherein the fluid has a temperature different than the ambient temperature; and calculating at least one temperature-difference fraction associated with at least a first position on the surface based on a difference between temperature measurements obtained from the at least one operational thermal image and the ambient temperature value.

  12. Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gell, M.; Jordan, E.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. This program evaluates the bond strength of yttria stabilized zirconia coatings with MCrAlY and Pt-Al bond coats utilizing diffraction and fluorescence methods.

  13. Generalized Procedure for Improved Accuracy of Thermal Contact Resistance Measurements for Materials With Arbitrary Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sayer, Robert A.

    2014-06-26

    Thermal contact resistance (TCR) is most commonly measured using one-dimensional steady-state calorimetric techniques. In the experimental methods we utilized, a temperature gradient is applied across two contacting beams and the temperature drop at the interface is inferred from the temperature profiles of the rods that are measured at discrete points. During data analysis, thermal conductivity of the beams is typically taken to be an average value over the temperature range imposed during the experiment. Our generalized theory is presented and accounts for temperature-dependent changes in thermal conductivity. The procedure presented enables accurate measurement of TCR for contacting materials whose thermalmore » conductivity is any arbitrary function of temperature. For example, it is shown that the standard technique yields TCR values that are about 15% below the actual value for two specific examples of copper and silicon contacts. Conversely, the generalized technique predicts TCR values that are within 1% of the actual value. The method is exact when thermal conductivity is known exactly and no other errors are introduced to the system.« less

  14. Thermal Properties Capability Development Workshop Summary to Support the Implementation Plan for PIE Thermal Conductivity Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David

    2015-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE)-Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and associated nuclear fuels programs have invested heavily over the years in infrastructure and capability development. With the current domestic and international need to develop Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF), increasing importance is being placed on understanding fuel performance in irradiated conditions and on the need to model and validate that performance to reduce uncertainty and licensing timeframes. INL’s Thermal Properties Capability Development Workshop was organized to identify the capability needed by the various nuclear programs and list the opportunities to meet those needs. In addition, by the end of fiscal year 2015, the decision will be made on the initial thermal properties instruments to populate the shielded cell in the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  15. Decoherence-free evolution of time-dependent superposition states of two-level systems and thermal effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prado, F. O.; Duzzioni, E. I. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Caixa Postal 593, 38400-902 Uberlandia, Minas Geraisn (Brazil); Almeida, N. G. de [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, 74001-970, Goiania, Goias (Brazil); Moussa, M. H. Y. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Villas-Boas, C. J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In this paper we detail some results advanced in a recent letter [Prado et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073008 (2009).] showing how to engineer reservoirs for two-level systems at absolute zero by means of a time-dependent master equation leading to a nonstationary superposition equilibrium state. We also present a general recipe showing how to build nonadiabatic coherent evolutions of a fermionic system interacting with a bosonic mode and investigate the influence of thermal reservoirs at finite temperature on the fidelity of the protected superposition state. Our analytical results are supported by numerical analysis of the full Hamiltonian model.

  16. The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU): Full Measurement of WallPerform ance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.C.; Sherman, M.H.; Adams, J.W.

    1981-10-01

    There are many ways of calculating the dynamic thermal performance of walls and many ways of measuring the performance of walls in the laboratory, relatively few field measurements have been made of the dynamic performance of wall in situ. Measuring the thermal performance of walls in situ poses two separate problems: measuring the heat fluxes and surface temperatures of the wall, and reducing this data set into usable parameters. We have solved the first problem by developing the Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU). ETTU consists of two specially constructed polystyrene blankets, 1.2m square, placed on either side of the test wall that both control and measure the surface fluxes and surface temperatures of the wall. To solve the second problem we have developed a simplified dynamic model that describes the thermal performance of a wall in terms of its steady-state conductance, a time constant, and some storage terms. We have used ETTU in the field to measure the thermal performance of walls, and have applied our simplified analysis to calculate simplified thermal parameters from this data set. In this report, we present the in-situ measurements made to date using ETTU, and the resulting model predictions. The agreement between measured and predicted surface fluxes demonstrates the ability of our test unit and analytic model to describe the dynamic performance of walls in situ.

  17. Thermal performance measurements on ultimate heat sinks--cooling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nuclear facilities existing at elevated water temperatures in result of experiencing a ... A geothermal water retention basin has been chosen as the site for the first measurement ...

  18. Thermal Imaging Technique for Measuring Mixing of Fluids - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fluid flow. Current methods rely on different physical principles such as: pressure measurement, particle tracking using images, heat removal from a wire and Doppler shift...

  19. Hot wire needle probe for in-reactor thermal conductivity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JE Daw; JL Rempe; DL Knudson

    2012-08-01

    Thermal conductivity is a key property that must be known for proper design, test, and application of new fuels and structural materials in nuclear reactors. Thermal conductivity is highly dependent on the physical structure, chemical composition, and the state of the material. Typically, thermal conductivity changes that occur during irradiation are measured out-of-pile by Post Irradiated Examination (PIE) using a “cook and look” approach in hot-cells. Repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make out-of-pile measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provides understanding of the sample's end state at the time each measurement is made. There are also limited thermophysical property data for advanced fuels. Such data are needed for simulation design codes, the development of next generation reactors, and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Being able to quickly characterize fuel thermal conductivity during irradiation can improve the fidelity of data, reduce costs of post-irradiation examinations, increase understanding of how fuels behave under irradiation, and confirm or improve existing thermal conductivity measurement techniques. This paper discusses recent efforts to develop and evaluate an in-pile thermal conductivity sensor based on a hot wire needle probe. Testing has been performed on samples with thermal conductivities ranging from 0.2 W/m-K to 22 W-m-K in temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 600 °C. Thermal conductivity values measured using the needle probe match data found in the literature to within 5% for samples tested at room temperature, 5.67% for low thermal conductivity samples tested at high temperatures, and 10% for high thermal conductivity samples tested at high temperatures. Experimental results also show that this sensor is capable of operating in various test conditions and of surviving long duration irradiations.

  20. A wall and edge guarded hot box for thermal transmittance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gatland, S.D. II; Miller, R.G.; Goss, W.P.; Baumgardner, R.L.; Williams, R.G.

    1997-11-01

    A unique guarded hot box designed for thermal testing of fenestration products incorporates several new design concepts from guarded hot plates, namely wall and edge guards, is described in detail. The wall and edge guarded hot box was built to meet the test methodologies specified in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Methods C 236-89, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Steady-State Thermal Performance of Building Assemblies by Means of a Guarded Hot Box, C 976-90, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Steady-State Thermal Performance of Building Assemblies by Means of a Calibrated Hot Box and C 1199-91, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Steady-State Thermal Transmittance of Fenestration Systems Using Hot Box Methods. Calibration test results for the box wall and specimen frame flanking are presented. Results from calibration transfer standard tests are compared with theoretical calculations and discussed.

  1. In situ nanostructure generation and evolution within a bulk thermoelectric material to reduce lattice thermal conductivity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girard, S. N.; He, J.; Li, C.; Moses, S.; Wang, G.; Uher, C.; Dravid, V. P.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2010-07-26

    We show experimentally the direct reduction in lattice thermal conductivity as a result of in situ nanostructure generation within a thermoelectric material. Solid solution alloys of the high-performance thermoelectric PbTe-PbS 8% can be synthesized through rapid cooling and subsequent high-temperature activation that induces a spontaneous nucleation and growth of PbS nanocrystals. The emergence of coherent PbS nanostructures reduces the lattice thermal conductivity from {approx}1 to {approx}0.4 W/mK between 400 and 500 K.

  2. Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials (Prop. 2004-067)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Sharp, J

    2006-01-01

    Thermal conductivity is an important material property of the bulk thermoelectrics. To improve ZT a reduced thermal conductivity is always desired. However, there is no standard material for thermoelectrics and the test results, even on the same material, often show significant scatter. The scatter in thermal conductivity made reported ZT values uncertain and sometime unrepeatable. One of the reasons for the uncertainty is due to the microstructure differences resulting from sintering, heat treatment and other processing parameters. They selected commonly used bulk thermoelectric materials and conducted thermal conductivity measurements using the laser flash diffusivity and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) systems. Thermal conductivity was measured as a function of temperature of temperature from room temperature to 500 K and back to room temperature. The effect of thermal cycling on the bulk thermoelectric was studied. Comnbined with measurements on electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient, they show the use of a ZT map in selecting thermoelectrics. The commercial bulk material showed very good consistency and reliability compared to other bulk materials. The goal is to develop a thermal transport properties database for the bulk thermoelectrics and make the information available to the research community and industry.

  3. Thermal conductivity measurements via time-domain thermoreflectance for the characterization of radiation induced damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheaito, Ramez; Gorham, Caroline S.; Misra, Amit; Hattar, Khalid; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-05-01

    The progressive build up of displacement damage and fission products inside different systems and components of a nuclear reactor can lead to significant defect formation, degradation, and damage of the constituent materials. This structural modification can highly influence the thermal transport mechanisms and various mechanical properties of solids. In this paper we demonstrate the use of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), a non-destructive method capable of measuring the thermal transport in material systems from nano to bulk scales, to study the effect of radiation damage and the subsequent changes in the thermal properties of materials. We use TDTR to show that displacement damage from ion irradiation can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of Optimized ZIRLO, a material used as fuel cladding in several current nuclear reactors. We find that the thermal conductivity of copper-niobium nanostructured multilayers does not change with helium ion irradiation doses of up to 1015 cm-2 and ion energy of 200 keV suggesting that these structures can be used and radiation tolerant materials in nuclear reactors. We compare the effect of ion doses and ion beam energies on the measured thermal conductivity of bulk silicon. Results demonstrate that TDTR thermal measurements can be used to quantify depth dependent damage.

  4. Thermal conductivity measurements via time-domain thermoreflectance for the characterization of radiation induced damage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheaito, Ramez; Gorham, Caroline S.; Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA; Misra, Amit; Hattar, Khalid; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-05-01

    The progressive build up of displacement damage and fission products inside different systems and components of a nuclear reactor can lead to significant defect formation, degradation, and damage of the constituent materials. This structural modification can highly influence the thermal transport mechanisms and various mechanical properties of solids. In this paper we demonstrate the use of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), a non-destructive method capable of measuring the thermal transport in material systems from nano to bulk scales, to study the effect of radiation damage and the subsequent changes in the thermal properties of materials. We use TDTR to show that displacementmore » damage from ion irradiation can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of Optimized ZIRLO, a material used as fuel cladding in several current nuclear reactors. We find that the thermal conductivity of copper-niobium nanostructured multilayers does not change with helium ion irradiation doses of up to 1015 cm-2 and ion energy of 200 keV suggesting that these structures can be used and radiation tolerant materials in nuclear reactors. We compare the effect of ion doses and ion beam energies on the measured thermal conductivity of bulk silicon. Results demonstrate that TDTR thermal measurements can be used to quantify depth dependent damage.« less

  5. Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.; Kunzelman, R.; Ruschman, M.; Schoo, C.

    1992-04-01

    The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs.

  6. The thermal conductivity of rock under hydrothermal conditions: measurements and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Colin F.; Sass, John H.

    1996-01-24

    The thermal conductivities of most major rock-forming minerals vary with both temperature and confining pressure, leading to substantial changes in the thermal properties of some rocks at the high temperatures characteristic of geothermal systems. In areas with large geothermal gradients, the successful use of near-surface heat flow measurements to predict temperatures at depth depends upon accurate corrections for varying thermal conductivity. Previous measurements of the thermal conductivity of dry rock samples as a function of temperature were inadequate for porous rocks and susceptible to thermal cracking effects in nonporous rocks. We have developed an instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks at temperatures from 20 to 350 °C and confining pressures up to 100 MPa. A transient line-source of heat is applied through a needle probe centered within the rock sample, which in turn is enclosed within a heated pressure vessel with independent controls on pore and confining pressure. Application of this technique to samples of Franciscan graywacke from The Geysers reveals a significant change in thermal conductivity with temperature. At reservoir-equivalent temperatures of 250 °C, the conductivity of the graywacke decreases by approximately 25% relative to the room temperature value. Where heat flow is constant with depth within the caprock overlying the reservoir, this reduction in conductivity with temperature leads to a corresponding increase in the geothermal gradient. Consequently, reservoir temperature are encountered at depths significantly shallower than those predicted by assuming a constant temperature gradient with depth. We have derived general equations for estimating the thermal conductivity of most metamorphic and igneous rocks and some sedimentary rocks at elevated temperature from knowledge of the room temperature thermal conductivity. Application of these equations to geothermal exploration should improve estimates

  7. A robust and well shielded thermal conductivity device for low temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toews, W. H.; Hill, R. W.

    2014-04-15

    We present a compact mechanically robust thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for measurements at low temperatures (<1 K) and high magnetic fields on small high-purity single crystal samples. A high-conductivity copper box is used to enclose the sample and all the components. The box provides protection for the thermometers, heater, and most importantly the sample increasing the portability of the mount. In addition to physical protection, the copper box is also effective at shielding radio frequency electromagnetic interference and thermal radiation, which is essential for low temperature measurements. A printed circuit board in conjunction with a braided ribbon cable is used to organize the delicate wiring and provide mechanical robustness.

  8. Differential heating: A versatile method for thermal conductivity measurements in high-energy-density matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Sio, H.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, G. W.

    2015-09-04

    We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. As a result, the sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.

  9. Evolution of a voltage-time model of thermal batteries. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, J.

    1991-02-01

    A temperature time model of thermal batteries has almost been completed and validated against experimental data. This Memorandum first summarises early attempts to integrate a voltage-time model into this, taking advantage of the instantaneous predictions of temperature, thermodynamic potentials, and internal resistance which the thermal model provides. It then describes how recent refinements of the voltage-time model have led to improved simulation of the discharges of a wide range of sizes and types of thermal battery under an equally wide range of test conditions. The semi-empirical approach adopted has been to provide a universally-applicable framework based on logical concepts to cover various effects such as polarisation etc, but with adjustable numerical parameters. It is shown that a moderately good simulation may be obtained for the majority of available discharge curves, using this one set of equations and without altering parameter values. Further improvements can be obtained when parameter values are optimised for one particular type of battery. Comparisons of model simulations against a body of experimental data have pinpointed remaining discrepancies which will guide further refinement efforts.

  10. Direct Measurement of EGR Cooler Deposit Thermal Properties for Improved Understanding of Cooler Fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; Sluder, Scott; Storey, John Morse

    2009-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with NOX emissions standards. This paper reports results of a study of fundamental aspects of EGR cooler fouling. An apparatus and procedure were developed to allow surrogate EGR cooler tubes to be exposed to diesel engine exhaust under controlled conditions. The resulting fouled tubes were removed and analyzed. Volatile and non-volatile deposit mass was measured for each tube. Thermal diffusivity of the deposited soot cake was measured by milling a window into the tube and using the Xenon flash lamp method. The heat capacity of the deposit was measured at temperatures up to 430 C and was slightly higher than graphite, presumably due to the presence of hydrocarbons. These measurements were combined to allow calculation of the deposit thermal conductivity, which was determined to be 0.041 W/mK, only ~1.5 times that of air and much lower than the 304 stainless steel tube (14.7 W/mK). The main determinant of the deposit thermal conductivity is density, which was measured to be just 2% that of the density of the primary soot particles (or 98% porous). The deposit layer thermal resistance was calculated and compared with estimates of the thermal resistance calculated from gas temperature data during the experiment. The deposit properties were also used to further analyze the temperature data collected during the experiment.

  11. A method for measuring non-linear elastic properties of thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.A.; Ruud, J.A.; Kaya, A.C.; deLorenzi, H.G.

    1995-06-01

    Accurate characterization of the elastic properties of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) is important for failure prediction. Thermally sprayed coatings often exhibit anisotropic and nonlinear elastic properties due to the coating microstructure that results from the thermal spray process. A method was developed for determining the elastic behavior of TBC`s on substrates by measuring the in-plane modulus as a function of residual coating stress. The in-plane modulus was determined by resonant frequency measurement, and the residual stress was measured from the substrate curvature. The residual stress was varied both by increasing the temperature of the TBC and substrate and by applying compressive plastic strain to the metal substrate. The stress-strain behavior of the TBC was derived from the data for modulus versus residual stress, and significant nonlinear elastic behavior was observed.

  12. Prediction and measurement of thermal transport across interfaces between isotropic solids and graphitic materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, Patrick E.; Norris, Pamela M.; Smoyer, Justin L.; Duda, John C.

    2010-06-01

    Due to the high intrinsic thermal conductivity of carbon allotropes, there have been many attempts to incorporate such structures into existing thermal abatement technologies. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphitic materials (i.e., graphite and graphene flakes or stacks) have garnered much interest due to the combination of both their thermal and mechanical properties. However, the introduction of these carbon-based nanostructures into thermal abatement technologies greatly increases the number of interfaces per unit length within the resulting composite systems. Consequently, thermal transport in these systems is governed as much by the interfaces between the constituent materials as it is by the materials themselves. This paper reports the behavior of phononic thermal transport across interfaces between isotropic thin films and graphite substrates. Elastic and inelastic diffusive transport models are formulated to aid in the prediction of conductance at a metal-graphite interface. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductance at Au-graphite interfaces is measured via transient thermoreflectance from 78 to 400 K. It is found that different substrate surface preparations prior to thin film deposition have a significant effect on the conductance of the interface between film and substrate.

  13. Thermal evolution of the metastable r8 and bc8 polymorphs of silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Haberl, Bianca; Guthrie, Malcolm; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Shen, Guoyin; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of two metastable polymorphs of silicon under thermal annealing was investi- gated. These phases with body-centred cubic bc8 and rhombohedral r8 structures can be formed upon pressure release from metallic silicon. In the present study, these metastable polymorphs were formed by two dierent methods, via point loading and in a diamond-anvil cell. Upon thermal annealing dierent transition pathways were detected. In the point loading case, the previously reported Si-XIII formed and was conrmed as a new phase with an as yet unidentied structure. In the diamond-anvil cell case, bc8-Si transformed to the hexagonal-diamond structure at elevated pressure, consistentmore » with previous studies at ambient pressure. In contrast, r8-Si transformed directly to diamond-cubic Si at a temperature of 255C. These data were used to construct diagrams of the metastability regimes of the polymorphs formed in a diamond anvil cell and may prove useful for potential technological applications of these metastable polymorphs.« less

  14. Thermal evolution of the metastable r8 and bc8 polymorphs of silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haberl, Bianca; Guthrie, Malcolm; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Shen, Guoyin; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of two metastable polymorphs of silicon under thermal annealing was investi- gated. These phases with body-centred cubic bc8 and rhombohedral r8 structures can be formed upon pressure release from metallic silicon. In the present study, these metastable polymorphs were formed by two dierent methods, via point loading and in a diamond-anvil cell. Upon thermal annealing dierent transition pathways were detected. In the point loading case, the previously reported Si-XIII formed and was conrmed as a new phase with an as yet unidentied structure. In the diamond-anvil cell case, bc8-Si transformed to the hexagonal-diamond structure at elevated pressure, consistent with previous studies at ambient pressure. In contrast, r8-Si transformed directly to diamond-cubic Si at a temperature of 255C. These data were used to construct diagrams of the metastability regimes of the polymorphs formed in a diamond anvil cell and may prove useful for potential technological applications of these metastable polymorphs.

  15. Pump-probe measurements of the thermal conductivity tensor for materials lacking in-plane symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feser, Joseph P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Liu, Jun; Cahill, David G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Frederick-Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    We previously demonstrated an extension of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) which utilizes offset pump and probe laser locations to measure in-plane thermal transport properties of multilayers. However, the technique was limited to systems of transversely isotropic materials studied using axisymmetric laser intensities. Here, we extend the mathematics so that data reduction can be performed on non-transversely isotropic systems. An analytic solution of the diffusion equation for an N-layer system is given, where each layer has a homogenous but otherwise arbitrary thermal conductivity tensor and the illuminating spots have arbitrary intensity profiles. As a demonstration, we use both TDTR and time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements to obtain thermal conductivity tensor elements of <110> ?-SiO{sub 2}. We show that the out-of-phase beam offset sweep has full-width half-maxima that contains nearly independent sensitivity to the in-plane thermal conductivity corresponding to the scanning direction. Also, we demonstrate a Nb-V alloy as a low thermal conductivity TDTR transducer layer that helps improve the accuracy of in-plane measurements.

  16. Measurement of concrete E-modulus evolution since casting: A novel method based on ambient vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azenha, Miguel; Magalhaes, Filipe; Faria, Rui; Cunha, Alvaro

    2010-07-15

    The use of ambient vibration tests to characterize the evolution of E-modulus of concrete right after casting is investigated in this paper. A new methodology is proposed, which starts by casting a concrete cylindrical beam inside a hollow acrylic formwork. This beam is then placed horizontally, simply supported at both extremities, and vertical accelerations resulting from ambient vibration are measured at mid-span. Processing these mid-span acceleration time series using power spectral density functions allows a continuous identification of the first flexural frequency of vibration of the composite beam, which in turn is correlated with the evolutive E-modulus of concrete since casting. Together with experiments conducted with the proposed methodology, a complementary validation campaign for concrete E-modulus determination was undertaken by static loading tests performed on the composite beam, as well as by standard compressive tests of concrete cylinders of the same batch loaded at different ages.

  17. The study of frequency-scan photothermal reflectance technique for thermal diffusivity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hua, Zilong; Ban, Heng; Hurley, David H.

    2015-05-05

    A frequency scan photothermal reflectance technique to measure thermal diffusivity of bulk samples is studied in this manuscript. Similar to general photothermal reflectance methods, an intensity-modulated heating laser and a constant intensity probe laser are used to determine the surface temperature response under sinusoidal heating. The approach involves fixing the distance between the heating and probe laser spots, recording the phase lag of reflected probe laser intensity with respect to the heating laser frequency modulation, and extracting thermal diffusivity using the phase lag – (frequency)1/2 relation. The experimental validation is performed on three samples (SiO2, CaF2 and Ge), which have a wide range of thermal diffusivities. The measured thermal diffusivity values agree closely with literature values. Lastly, compared to the commonly used spatial scan method, the experimental setup and operation of the frequency scan method are simplified, and the uncertainty level is equal to or smaller than that of the spatial scan method.

  18. The study of frequency-scan photothermal reflectance technique for thermal diffusivity measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hua, Zilong; Ban, Heng; Hurley, David H.

    2015-05-05

    A frequency scan photothermal reflectance technique to measure thermal diffusivity of bulk samples is studied in this manuscript. Similar to general photothermal reflectance methods, an intensity-modulated heating laser and a constant intensity probe laser are used to determine the surface temperature response under sinusoidal heating. The approach involves fixing the distance between the heating and probe laser spots, recording the phase lag of reflected probe laser intensity with respect to the heating laser frequency modulation, and extracting thermal diffusivity using the phase lag – (frequency)1/2 relation. The experimental validation is performed on three samples (SiO2, CaF2 and Ge), which havemore » a wide range of thermal diffusivities. The measured thermal diffusivity values agree closely with literature values. Lastly, compared to the commonly used spatial scan method, the experimental setup and operation of the frequency scan method are simplified, and the uncertainty level is equal to or smaller than that of the spatial scan method.« less

  19. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubey, P. K. Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-15

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  20. Synthesis and Magnetic, Thermal, and Electrical Measurements on Complex non-Cuprate Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, Laurence L

    2006-02-27

    The project investigated superconductivity in non-cuprate materials with critical temperatures, T{sub c}, in excess of 20 K in order to understand the thermodynamics of several of these materials. The project is a cooperative effort between investigators at Southern University (SU), Louisiana State University (LSU), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It involved synthesis of high quality samples, and subsequent detailed magnetic, thermal and electrical measurements on them. The project provided a PhD Thesis research experience and training for a graduate student, Ms. Robin Macaluso. High quality, single crystal samples were synthesized by Ms. Macaluso under the direction of one of the CO-PIS, John Sarao, during the summer while she was a visitor at LANL being supported by this grant. On these samples magnetic measurements were performed at SU, thermal and electrical measurements were made in the LSU Physics and Astronomy Department. The crystallographic properties were determined in the LSU Chemistry Department by Ms. Macaluso under the direction of her dissertation advisor, Dr. Julia Chan. Additional high field magnetic measurements on other samples were performed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) both in Tallahassee and at LANL. These measurements involved another graduate student, Umit Alver, who used some of the measurements as part of his PhD dissertation in Physics at LSU.

  1. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilgrim, C. C.; Heyes, A. L.; Feist, J. P.

    2014-02-18

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300C and 900C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  2. Evaluation of Thermal Evolution Profiles and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Pyrolysis of Coal/Corn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Huffman, Gerald; Shah, Naresh; Honaker, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The thermal evolution profiles and kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of two Montana coals (DECS-38 subbituminous coal and DECS-25 lignite coal), one biomass sample (corn stover), and their blends (10%, 20%, and 30% by weight of corn stover) have been investigated at a heating rate of 5°C/min in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, using thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal evolution profiles of subbituminous coal and lignite coal display only one major peak over a wide temperature distribution, ~152–814°C and ~175–818°C, respectively, whereas the thermal decomposition profile for corn stover falls in a much narrower band than that of the coals, ~226–608°C. Themore » nonlinearity in the evolution of volatile matter with increasing percentage of corn stover in the blends verifies the possibility of synergistic behavior in the blends with subbituminous coal where deviations from the predicted yield ranging between 2% and 7% were observed whereas very little deviations (1%–3%) from predicted yield were observed in blends with lignite indicating no significant interactions with corn stover. In addition, a single first-order reaction model using the Coats-Redfern approximation was utilized to predict the kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis reaction. The kinetic analysis indicated that each thermal evolution profile may be represented as a single first-order reaction. Three temperature regimes were identified for each of the coals while corn stover and the blends were analyzed using two and four temperature regimes, respectively.« less

  3. Multicycle rapid thermal annealing optimization of Mg-implanted GaN: Evolution of surface, optical, and structural properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenlee, Jordan D.; Feigelson, Boris N.; Anderson, Travis J.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Mastro, Michael A.; Eddy, Charles R.; Hobart, Karl D.; Kub, Francis J.; Tadjer, Marko J.

    2014-08-14

    The first step of a multi-cycle rapid thermal annealing process was systematically studied. The surface, structure, and optical properties of Mg implanted GaN thin films annealed at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200?C were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Nomarski microscopy. The GaN thin films are capped with two layers of in-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition -grown AlN and annealed in 24 bar of N{sub 2} overpressure to avoid GaN decomposition. The crystal quality of the GaN improves with increasing annealing temperature as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and the full widths at half maximums of the E{sub 2} and A{sub 1} (LO) Raman modes. The crystal quality of films annealed above 1100?C exceeds the quality of the as-grown films. At 1200?C, Mg is optically activated, which is determined by photoluminescence measurements. However, at 1200?C, the GaN begins to decompose as evidenced by pit formation on the surface of the samples. Therefore, it was determined that the optimal temperature for the first step in a multi-cycle rapid thermal anneal process should be conducted at 1150?C due to crystal quality and surface morphology considerations.

  4. Graphitic carbon nanospheres: A Raman spectroscopic investigation of thermal conductivity and morphological evolution by pulsed laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Radhe; Sahoo, Satyaprakash E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu; Chitturi, Venkateswara Rao; Katiyar, Ram S. E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu

    2015-12-07

    Graphitic carbon nanospheres (GCNSs) were prepared by a unique acidic treatment of multi-walled nanotubes. Spherical morphology with a narrow size distribution was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy studies. The room temperature Raman spectra showed a clear signature of D- and G-peaks at around 1350 and 1591 cm{sup −1}, respectively. Temperature dependent Raman scattering measurements were performed to understand the phonon dynamics and first order temperature coefficients related to the D- and G-peaks. The temperature dependent Raman spectra in a range of 83–473 K were analysed, where the D-peak was observed to show a red-shift with increasing temperature. The relative intensity ratio of D- to G-peaks also showed a significant rise with increasing temperature. Such a temperature dependent behaviour can be attributed to lengthening of the C-C bond due to thermal expansion in material. The estimated value of the thermal conductivity of GCNSs ∼0.97 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} was calculated using Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the effect of pulsed laser treatment on the GCNSs was demonstrated by analyzing the Raman spectra of post irradiated samples.

  5. Measurement of the anisotropic thermal conductivity of molybdenum disulfide by the time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun Choi, Gyung-Min; Cahill, David G.

    2014-12-21

    We use pump-probe metrology based on the magneto-optic Kerr effect to measure the anisotropic thermal conductivity of (001)-oriented MoS{sub 2} crystals. A ?20?nm thick CoPt multilayer with perpendicular magnetization serves as the heater and thermometer in the experiment. The low thermal conductivity and small thickness of the CoPt transducer improve the sensitivity of the measurement to lateral heat flow in the MoS{sub 2} crystal. The thermal conductivity of MoS{sub 2} is highly anisotropic with basal-plane thermal conductivity varying between 85110 W?m{sup -1}?K{sup -1} as a function of laser spot size. The basal-plane thermal conductivity is a factor of ?50 larger than the c-axis thermal conductivity, 2.00.3?W?m{sup -1}?K{sup -1}.

  6. New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham Tu Quoc, S. Cheymol, G.; Semerok, A.

    2014-05-15

    Modulated photothermal radiometry is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r{sub 0} and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%–10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r{sub 0}/100 ≤ L ≤ r{sub 0}/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement.

  7. Apparatus and method for measurement of weak optical absorptions by thermally induced laser pulsing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cremers, David A.; Keller, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal lensing phenomenon is used as the basis for measurement of weak optical absorptions when a cell containing the sample to be investigated is inserted into a normally continuous-wave operation laser-pumped dye laser cavity for which the output coupler is deliberately tilted relative to intracavity circulating laser light, and pulsed laser output ensues, the pulsewidth of which can be related to the sample absorptivity by a simple algorithm or calibration curve. A minimum detection limit of less than 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.-1 has been demonstrated using this technique.

  8. Apparatus and method for measurement of weak optical absorptions by thermally induced laser pulsing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cremers, D.A.; Keller, R.A.

    1985-10-01

    The thermal lensing phenomenon is used as the basis for measurement of weak optical absorptions when a cell containing the sample to be investigated is inserted into a normally continuous-wave operation laser-pumped dye laser cavity for which the output coupler is deliberately tilted relative to intracavity circulating laser light, and pulsed laser output ensues, the pulsewidth of which can be related to the sample absorptivity by a simple algorithm or calibration curve. A minimum detection limit of less than 10[sup [minus]5] cm[sup [minus]1] has been demonstrated using this technique. 6 figs.

  9. Apparatus and method for measurement of weak optical absorptions by thermally induced laser pulsing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cremers, D.A.; Keller, R.A.

    1982-06-08

    The thermal lensing phenomenon is used as the basis for measurement of weak optical absorptions when a cell containing the sample to be investigated is inserted into a normally continuous-wave operation laser-pumped dye laser cavity for which the output coupler is deliberately tilted relative to intracavity circulating laser light, and pulsed laser output ensues, the pulsewidth of which can be rlated to the sample absorptivity by a simple algorithm or calibration curve. A minimum detection limit of less than 10/sup -5/ cm/sup -1/ has been demonstrated using this technique.

  10. Impact of parasitic thermal effects on thermoelectric property measurements by Harman method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Beomjin Baek, Seung-Hyub; Keun Kim, Seong; Kim, Jin-Sang

    2014-04-15

    Harman method is a rapid and simple technique to measure thermoelectric properties. However, its validity has been often questioned due to the over-simplified assumptions that this method relies on. Here, we quantitatively investigate the influence of the previously ignored parasitic thermal effects on the Harman method and develop a method to determine an intrinsic ZT. We expand the original Harman relation with three extra terms: heat losses via both the lead wires and radiation, and Joule heating within the sample. Based on the expanded Harman relation, we use differential measurement of the sample geometry to measure the intrinsic ZT. To separately evaluate the parasitic terms, the measured ZTs with systematically varied sample geometries and the lead wire types are fitted to the expanded relation. A huge discrepancy (∼28%) of the measured ZTs depending on the measurement configuration is observed. We are able to separately evaluate those parasitic terms. This work will help to evaluate the intrinsic thermoelectric property with Harman method by eliminating ambiguities coming from extrinsic effects.

  11. MEASUREMENTS OF ANISOTROPIC ION TEMPERATURES, NON-THERMAL VELOCITIES, AND DOPPLER SHIFTS IN A CORONAL HOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2013-02-15

    We present a new diagnostic allowing one to measure the anisotropy of ion temperatures and non-thermal velocities, as well as Doppler shifts with respect to the ambient magnetic field. This method provides new results, as well as an independent test for previous measurements obtained with other techniques. Our spectral data come from observations of a low-latitude, on-disk coronal hole. A potential field source surface model was used to calculate the angle between the magnetic field lines and the line of sight for each spatial bin of the observation. A fit was performed to determine the line widths and Doppler shifts parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. For each line width component we derived ion temperatures T {sub i,} and T {sub i, Parallel-To} and non-thermal velocities v {sub nt,} and v {sub nt, Parallel-To }. T {sub i,} was cooler than off-limb polar coronal hole measurements, suggesting increasing collisional cooling with decreasing height. T {sub i, Parallel-To} is consistent with a uniform temperature of (1.8 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K for each ion. Since parallel ion heating is expected to be weak, this ion temperature should reflect the proton temperature. A comparison between our results and others implies a large proton temperature gradient around 1.02 R {sub Sun }. The non-thermal velocities are thought to be proportional to the amplitudes of various waves. Our results for v {sub nt,} agree with Alfven wave amplitudes inferred from off-limb polar coronal hole line width measurements. Our v {sub nt, Parallel-To} results are consistent with slow magnetosonic wave amplitudes inferred from Fourier analysis of time-varying intensity fluctuations. Doppler shift measurements yield outflows of Almost-Equal-To 5 km s{sup -1} for ions formed over a broad temperature range. This differs from other studies that found a strong Doppler shift dependence on formation temperature.

  12. Measurement of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and viscosity of TiO{sub 2}-water nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duangthongsuk, Weerapun; Wongwises, Somchai

    2009-04-15

    Nanofluid is an innovative heat transfer fluid with superior potential for enhancing the heat transfer performance of conventional fluids. Many attempts have been made to investigate its thermal conductivity and viscosity, which are important thermophysical properties. No definitive agreements have emerged, however, about these properties. This article reports the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids experimentally. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in water with volume concentration of 0.2-2 vol.% are used in the present study. A transient hot-wire apparatus is used for measuring the thermal conductivity of nanofluids whereas the Bohlin rotational rheometer (Malvern Instrument) is used to measure the viscosity of nanofluids. The data are collected for temperatures ranging from 15 C to 35 C. The results show that the measured viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased as the particle concentrations increased and are higher than the values of the base liquids. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased with increasing nanofluid temperatures and, conversely, the viscosity of nanofluids decreased with increasing temperature of nanofluids. Moreover, the measured thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids are quite different from the predicted values from the existing correlations and the data reported by other researchers. Finally, new thermophysical correlations are proposed for predicting the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. (author)

  13. Correlating hydrogen oxidation and evolution activity on platinum at different pH with measured hydrogen binding energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, WC; Zhuang, ZB; Gao, MR; Zheng, J; Chen, JGG; Yan, YS

    2015-01-08

    The hydrogen oxidation/evolution reactions are two of the most fundamental reactions in distributed renewable electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. The identification of the reaction descriptor is therefore of critical importance for the rational catalyst design and development. Here we report the correlation between hydrogen oxidation/evolution activity and experimentally measured hydrogen binding energy for polycrystalline platinum examined in several buffer solutions in a wide range of electrolyte pH from 0 to 13. The hydrogen oxidation/evolution activity obtained using the rotating disk electrode method is found to decrease with the pH, while the hydrogen binding energy, obtained from cyclic voltammograms, linearly increases with the pH. Correlating the hydrogen oxidation/evolution activity to the hydrogen binding energy renders a monotonic decreasing hydrogen oxidation/evolution activity with the hydrogen binding energy, strongly supporting the hypothesis that hydrogen binding energy is the sole reaction descriptor for the hydrogen oxidation/evolution activity on monometallic platinum.

  14. Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K. [Multilayer insulation (MLI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.; Kunzelman, R.; Ruschman, M.; Schoo, C.

    1992-04-01

    The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs.

  15. A compact and miniaturized high resolution capacitance dilatometer for measuring thermal expansion and magnetostriction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuechler, R.; Bauer, T.; Brando, M.; Steglich, F.

    2012-09-15

    We describe the design, construction, calibration, and two different applications of a miniature capacitance dilatometer. The device is suitable for thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements from 300 K down to about 25 mK, with a resolution of 0.02 A at low temperatures. The main body of the dilatometer is fabricated from a single block of a Be-Cu alloy by electrical discharge milling. This creates an extremely compact high-resolution measuring cell. We have successfully tested and operated dilatometers of this new type with the commonly used physical property measurement system by quantum design, as well as with several other cryogenic refrigeration systems down to 25 mK and in magnetic fields up to 20 T. Here, the capacitance is measured with a commercially available capacitance bridge. Using a piezoelectric rotator from Attocube Systems, the cell can be rotated at T= 25 mK inside of an inner vacuum chamber of 40 mm diameter. The miniaturized design for the one-axis rotation setup allows a rotation of 360 Degree-Sign .

  16. Strains in Thermally Growing Alumina Films Measured in-situ usingSynchrotron X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, P.Y.; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W.

    2006-01-02

    Strains in thermally grown oxides have been measured in-situ, as the oxides develop and evolve. Extensive data have been acquired from oxides grown in air at elevated temperatures on different model alloys that form Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Using synchrotron x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source (Beamline 12BM, Argonne National Laboratory), Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from the oxidizing specimen were recorded every 5 minutes during oxidation and subsequent cooling. The diffraction patterns were analyzed to determine strains in the oxides, as well as phase changes and the degree of texture. To study a specimen's response to stress perturbation, the oxidizing temperature was quickly cooled from 1100 to 950 C to impose a compressive thermal stress in the scale. This paper describes this new experimental approach and gives examples from oxidized {beta}-NiAl, Fe-20Cr-10Al, Fe-28Al-5Cr and H{sub 2}-annealed Fe-28Al-5Cr (all at. %) alloys to illustrate some current understanding of the development and relaxation of growth stresses in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  17. Measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity of multi-layer insulation between 20 K and 90 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurd, Joseph A.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-01-29

    NASA has the need to efficiently store cryogenic propellants in space for long periods of time. One method to improve storage efficiency is to use multi-layer insulation (MLI), a technique that minimizes the boiling rate due to radiation heat transfer. Typically, the thermal performance of MLI is determined by measuring the rate of evaporation of liquid nitrogen from a calibrated cryostat. The main limitation with this method is that testing conditions are restricted by the boiling temperature of the LN{sub 2}, which may not match the requirements of the application. The Multi-Layer Insulation Thermal Conductivity Experiment (MIKE) at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is capable of measuring the effective thermal conductivity of MLI at variable boundary temperatures. MIKE uses cryo-refrigerators to control boundary temperatures in the calorimeter and a calibrated thermal link to measure the heat load. To make the measurements requested by NASA, MIKE needed to be recalibrated for the 20 K to 90 K range. Also, due to the expectation of a lower heat transfer rate, the heat load support rod material was changed to one with a lower thermal conductivity to ensure the temperature difference seen on the cold rod could be measurable at the estimated heat load. Presented are the alterations to MIKE including calibration data and heat load measurements on new load-bearing MLI supplied by NASA.

  18. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Andrew T.

    2012-08-30

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.

  19. Resistivity measurements of halide-salt/MgO separators for thermal cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redey, L.; McParland, M. ); Guidotti, R. )

    1990-01-01

    Resistivities of 20 compositions of halide-salt/MgO mixtures (various selections and percentages of LiF, LiCl, LiBr, KCl, KBr, CsBr, and MgO) to be used in Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells have been measured at temperatures between the melting point of a particular mixture and 500{degrees}C. The resistivities were determined with cold-pressed electrolyte-binder pellets by using a special cell and DC measuring technique. Temperature, salt composition, and MgO content were found to have a strong influence on resistivity. These factors are listed in decreasing order of the magnitude of the effect. The fabrication density (porosity) of the pellet also has some effect on resistivity. These measured resistivities provide a data base to select optimum compositions of electrolyte-binder pellets for LiSi/FeS{sub 2} thermal batteries and to calculate area-specific resistances of these components for battery modeling and optimization. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  1. Thermal Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Sciences NETL's Thermal Sciences competency provides the scientific, engineering, and technology development community with innovative and efficient approaches to measure, harness, and convert thermal energy. Research includes sensors, advanced energy concepts, and thermodynamic optimization, specifically: Sensors and Diagnostics Advanced sensor and diagnostic technology to develop and evaluate advanced methods for non-intrusive measurement and measurement in extreme environments.

  2. In-situ nanostructure generation and evolution within a bulk thermoelectric material to reduce lattice thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girard, Steven; He, Jiaqing; Li, Chang-Peng; Moses, Steven; Wang, Guoyu Y.; Uher, Ctirad; Dravid, Vinayak; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2010-07-26

    We show experimentally the direct reduction in lattice thermal conductivity as a result of in situ nanostructure generation within a thermoelectric material. Solid solution alloys of the high-performance thermoelectric PbTe-PbS 8% can be synthesized through rapid cooling and subsequent high-temperature activation that induces a spontaneous nucleation and growth of PbS nanocrystals. The emergence of coherent PbS nanostructures reduces the lattice thermal conductivity from ~1 to ~0.4 W/mK between 400 and 500 K.

  3. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; Souza, Mariano de; Lang, Michael

    2012-08-15

    We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To T Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 250 MPa. Helium ({sup 4}He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

  4. Detailed thermal performance measurements and cost effectiveness of earth-sheltered construction: a case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.

    1985-09-01

    Earth-covering, solar gain, and massive construction are the design concepts successfully blended to produce an energy-efficient, durable, and comfortable building. Twenty-four-hour-quiet sleeping quarters and quality office space were the first design objectives of this building, these were successfully accomplished. The data acquisition system and a unique energy-balance analysis documents the thermal performance of each envelope component. Since the building's typical number of occupants, size, and internal electric loads are similar to those of a large residential building, the energy-performance data are extended to the residential marketplace. First-cost estimates for the whole building, earth-covered roof, and bermed wall are used with the detailed measured energy-use data to estimate cost effectiveness using residential economics criteria, such as 3% discount rate and 30-year life. The results from this analysis confirm the fact that earth, sun, and mass can save substantial amounts of annual and peak energy demand. However, further construction cost reductions are needed to produce more favorable cost effectiveness in the residential market arena. The overall thermal conductance value of this building is lower than the average values from the 300 low-energy residences as reported in the Building Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis, Part A (BECA-A), data base. However, the balance point of this building, with mechanical ventilation to ensure about 0.5 air change per hour, is substantially higher than those reported for low-energy residential buildings. This suggests that most of the energy-efficient homes either have an air-to-air heat exchanger or infiltration levels far below the generally accepted 0.5 air change per hour to ensure healthy indoor air quality. Reflective insulating blinds were installed in this building and have enhanced the daylighting and usability of the building. 9 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED THERMAL-ACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeffrey J. Swetelitsch

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to explore microwave-excited thermal-acoustic (META) phenomena for quantitative analysis of granular and powdered materials, with the culmination of the research to be an on-line carbon-in-ash monitor for coal-fired power plants. This technique of analyzing unburned carbon in fly ash could be a less tedious and time consuming method as compared to the traditional LOI manual procedure. Phase 1 of the research focused on off-line single-frequency thermal-acoustic measurements where an off-line fly ash monitor was constructed that could operate as analytical tool to explore instrument and methodology parameters for quantifying the microwave-excited thermal-acoustic effect of carbon in fly ash, and it was determined that the off-line thermal-acoustic technique could predict the carbon content of a random collection of fly ashes with a linear correlation constant of R{sup 2} = 0.778. Much higher correlations are expected for fly ashes generated from a single boiler. Phase 2 of the research developing a methodology to generate microwave spectra of various powders, including fly ash, coal, and inorganic minerals, and to determine if these microwave spectra could be used for chemical analyses. Although different minerals produced different responses, higher resolution microwave spectra would be required to be able to distinguish among minerals. Phase 3 of the research focused on the development of an on-line fly ash monitor that could be adapted to measure either a thermal-acoustic or thermal-elastic response to due microwave excitation of fly ash. The thermal-acoustic response was successfully employed for this purpose but the thermal-elastic response was too weak to yield a useful on-line device.

  6. Hot filament technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of molten lithium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaworske, D.A.; Perry, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Molten salts, such as lithium fluoride, are attractive candidates for thermal energy storage in solar dynamic space power systems because of their high latent heat of fusion. However, these same salts have poor thermal conductivities which inhibit the transfer of heat into the solid phase and out of the liquid phase. One concept for improving the thermal conductivity of the thermal energy storage system is to add a conductive filler material to the molten salt. High thermal conductivity pitch-based graphite fibers are being considered for this application. Although there is some information available on the thermal conductivity of lithium fluoride solid, there is very little information on lithium fluoride liquid, and no information on molten salt graphite fiber composites. This paper describes a hot filament technique for determining the thermal conductivity of molten salts. The hot filament technique was used to find the thermal conductivity of molten lithium fluoride at 930 C, and the thermal conductivity values ranged from 1.2 to 1.6 W/mK. These values are comparable to the slightly larger value of 5.0 W/mK for lithium fluoride solid. In addition, two molten salt graphite fiber composites were characterized with the hot filament technique and these results are also presented.

  7. Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester MLI (multilayer insulation) system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.

    1989-09-01

    The plastic materials used in the multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets of the superconducting magnets of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are comprised entirely of polyesters. This paper reports on tests conducted in three separate experimental blanket arrangements. The tests explore the thermal performance of two candidate blanket joint configurations each employing a variation of a stepped-butted joint nested between sewn blanket seams. The results from the joint configurations are compared to measurements made describing the thermal performance of the basic blanket materials as tested in an ideal joint configuration. Twenty foil sensors were incorporated within each test blanket to measure interstitial layer and joint layer temperatures. Heat flux and thermal gradients are reported for high and degraded insulating vacuums, and during transient and steady state conditions. In complement with this paper is an associate paper bearing the same title head but with the title extension Part 1: Instrumentation and experimental preparation (300K-80K)'. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Ground truth measurements plan for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2000-01-03

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have developed a diverse group of algorithms for processing and analyzing the data that will be collected by the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) after launch late in 1999. Each of these algorithms must be verified by comparison to independent surface and atmospheric measurements. SRTC has selected 13 sites in the continental U.S. for ground truth data collections. These sites include a high altitude cold water target (Crater Lake), cooling lakes and towers in the warm, humid southeastern US, Department of Energy (DOE) climate research sites, the NASA Stennis satellite Validation and Verification (V and V) target array, waste sites at the Savannah River Site, mining sites in the Four Corners area and dry lake beds in the southwestern US. SRTC has established mutually beneficial relationships with the organizations that manage these sites to make use of their operating and research data and to install additional instrumentation needed for MTI algorithm V and V.

  9. Study of non-contact measurement of the thermal expansion coefficients of materials based on laser feedback interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Fasong; Tan, Yidong; Zhang, Shulian; Lin, Jing; Ding, Yingchun

    2015-04-15

    The noncooperative and ultrahigh sensitive length measurement approach is of great significance to the study of a high-precision thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) determination of materials at a wide temperature range. The novel approach is presented in this paper based on the Nd:YAG microchip laser feedback interferometry with 1064 nm wavelength, the beam frequency of which is shifted by a pair of acousto-optic modulators and then the heterodyne phase measurement technique is used. The sample is placed in a muffle furnace with two coaxial holes opened on the opposite furnace walls. The measurement beams are perpendicular and coaxial on each surface of the sample, the configuration which can not only achieve the length measurement of sample but also eliminate the influence of the distortion of the sample supporter. The reference beams inject on the reference mirrors which are put as possible as near the holes, respectively, to eliminate the air disturbances and the influence of thermal lens effect out of the furnace chamber. For validation, the thermal expansion coefficients of aluminum and steel 45 samples are measured from room temperature to 748 K, which proved measurement repeatability of TECs is better than 0.6 × 10{sup −6}(K{sup −1}) at the range of 298 K–598 K and the high-sensitive non-contact measurement of the low reflectivity surface induced by the oxidization of the samples at the range of 598 K–748 K.

  10. HOW THERMAL EVOLUTION AND MASS-LOSS SCULPT POPULATIONS OF SUPER-EARTHS AND SUB-NEPTUNES: APPLICATION TO THE KEPLER-11 SYSTEM AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Eric D.; Miller, Neil; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    We use models of thermal evolution and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) driven mass loss to explore the composition and history of low-mass, low-density transiting planets. We investigate the Kepler-11 system in detail and provide estimates of both the current and past planetary compositions. We find that an H/He envelope on Kepler-11b is highly vulnerable to mass loss. By comparing to formation models, we show that in situ formation of the system is extremely difficult. Instead we propose that it is a water-rich system of sub-Neptunes that migrated from beyond the snow line. For the broader population of observed planets, we show that there is a threshold in bulk planet density and incident flux above which no low-mass transiting planets have been observed. We suggest that this threshold is due to the instability of H/He envelopes to XUV-driven mass loss. Importantly, we find that this mass-loss threshold is well reproduced by our thermal evolution/contraction models that incorporate a standard mass-loss prescription. Treating the planets' contraction history is essential because the planets have significantly larger radii during the early era of high XUV fluxes. Over time low-mass planets with H/He envelopes can be transformed into water-dominated worlds with steam envelopes or rocky super-Earths. Finally, we use this threshold to provide likely minimum masses and radial-velocity amplitudes for the general population of Kepler candidates. Likewise, we use this threshold to provide constraints on the maximum radii of low-mass planets found by radial-velocity surveys.

  11. Tailoring characteristic thermal stability of Ni-Au binary nanocrystals via structure and composition engineering: theoretical insights into structural evolution and atomic inter-diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bangquan; Wang, Hailong; Xing, Guozhong; Wang, Rongming E-mail: rmwang@ustb.edu.cn

    2014-11-15

    We report on the structural evolution and atomic inter-diffusion characteristics of the bimetallic Ni-Au nanocrystals (NCs) by molecular dynamics simulations studies. Our results reveal that the thermal stability dynamics of Ni-Au NCs strongly depends on the atomic configurations. By engineering the structural construction with Ni:Au = 1:1 atomic composition, compared with core-shell Au@Ni and alloy NCs, the melting point of core-shell Ni@Au NCs is significantly enhanced up to 1215 K. Unexpectedly, with atomic ratio of Au:Ni= 1:9, the melting process initiates from the atoms in the shell of Ni@Au and alloy NCs, while starts from the core of Au@Ni NCs. The corresponding features and evolution process of structural motifs, mixing and segregation are illustrated via a series of dynamic simulations videos. Moreover, our results revealed that the face centered cubic phase Au{sub 0.75}Ni{sub 0.25} favorably stabilizes in NCs form but does not exist in the bulk counterpart, which elucidates the anomalies of previously reported experimental results on such bimetallic NCs.

  12. Optimizing and calibrating a mode-mismatched thermal lens experiment for low absorption measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcano, Aristides; Cabrera, Humberto; Guerra, Mayamaru; Cruz, Renato A.; Jacinto, Carlos; Catunda, Tomaz

    2006-07-15

    We describe a calibrated two-beam mode-mismatched thermal lens experiment aimed at determination of the absorption coefficient and the photothermal parameters of a nearly transparent material. The use of a collimated probe beam in the presence of a focused excitation beam optimizes the thermal lens experiment. The signal becomes independent from the Rayleigh parameters and waist positions of the beams. We apply this method to determine the absolute value of the thermal diffusivity and absorption coefficient of distilled water at 533 nm.

  13. Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester MLI (multilayer insulation) system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.N.; Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.

    1989-09-01

    Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) were conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) under three experimental test arrangements. Each experiment measured the thermal performance of a 32-layer MLI blanket instrumented with twenty foil sensors to measure interstitial layer temperatures. Heat leak values and sensor temperatures were monitored during transient and steady state conditions under both design and degraded insulating vacuums. Heat leak values were measured using a heatmeter. MLI interstitial layer temperatures were measured using Cryogenic Linear Temperature Sensors (CLTS). Platinum resistors monitored system temperatures. High vacuum was measured using ion gauges; degraded vacuum employed thermocouple gauges. A four-wire system monitored instrumentation sensors and calibration heaters. An on-line computerized data acquisition system recorded and processes data. This paper reports on the instrumentation and experimental preparation used in carrying out these measurements. In complement with this paper is an associate paper bearing the same title head, but with the title extension Part 2: Laboratory results (300K--80K). 13 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Thermal imaging measurement of lateral diffusivity and non-invasive material defect detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Jiangang; Deemer, Chris

    2003-01-01

    A system and method for determining lateral thermal diffusivity of a material sample using a heat pulse; a sample oriented within an orthogonal coordinate system; an infrared camera; and a computer that has a digital frame grabber, and data acquisition and processing software. The mathematical model used within the data processing software is capable of determining the lateral thermal diffusivity of a sample of finite boundaries. The system and method may also be used as a nondestructive method for detecting and locating cracks within the material sample.

  15. Thermal conductance measurements of bolted copper joints for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, R.; Tatkowski, Greg; Ruschman, M.; Golwala, S. R.; Kellaris, N.; Daal, M.; Hall, Jeter C.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2015-09-01

    Joint thermal conductance testing has been undertaken for bolted copper to copper connections from 60 mK to 26 K. This testing was performed to validate an initial design basis for the SuperCDMS experiment, where a dilution refrigerator will be coupled to a cryostat via multiple bolted connections. Copper used during testing was either gold plated or passivated with citric acid to prevent surface oxidation. Results obtained are well fit by a power law regression of joint thermal conductance to temperature and match well with data collected during a literature review.

  16. Thermal conductance measurements of bolted copper joints for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, R. L.; Tatkowski, G; Ruschman, M.; Golwala, S.; Kellaris, N.; Daal, M.; Hall, J.; Hoppe, E. W.

    2015-05-22

    Joint thermal conductance testing has been undertaken for bolted copper to copper connections from 60 mK to 26 K. This testing was performed to validate an initial design basis for the SuperCDMS experiment, where a dilution refrigerator will be coupled to a cryostat via multiple bolted connections. Copper used during testing was either gold plated or passivated with citric acid to prevent surface oxidation. Results obtained are well fit by a power law regression of joint thermal conductance to temperature and match well with data collected during a literature review.

  17. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, Y. Manabe, T.; Ohno, N.; Takagi, M.; Kajita, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Morisaki, T.

    2014-09-15

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ∼4 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −2} s{sup −1} when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  18. The influence of differential irradiation and circulation on the thermal evolution of gas giant planets. I. Upper limits from radiative equilibrium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauscher, Emily; Showman, Adam P.

    2014-04-01

    As a planet ages, it cools and its radius shrinks at a rate set by the efficiency with which heat is transported from the interior out to space. The bottleneck for this transport is at the boundary between the convective interior and the radiative atmosphere; the opacity there sets the global cooling rate. Models of planetary evolution are often one dimensional (1D), such that the radiative-convective boundary (RCB) is defined by a single temperature, pressure, and opacity. In reality the spatially inhomogeneous stellar heating pattern and circulation in the atmosphere could deform the RCB, allowing heat from the interior to escape more efficiently through regions with lower opacity. We present an analysis of the degree to which the RCB could be deformed and the resultant change in the evolutionary cooling rate. In this initial work we calculate the upper limit for this effect by comparing an atmospheric structure in local radiative equilibrium to its 1D equivalent. We find that the cooling through an uneven RCB could be enhanced over cooling through a uniform RCB by as much as 10%-50%. We also show that the deformation of the RCB (and the enhancement of the cooling rate) increases with a greater incident stellar flux or a lower inner entropy. Our results indicate that this mechanism could significantly change a planet's thermal evolution, causing it to cool and shrink more quickly than would otherwise be expected. This may exacerbate the well-known difficulty in explaining the very large radii observed for some hot Jupiters.

  19. First measurement of time evolution of electron temperature profiles with Nd:YAG Thomson scattering system on Heliotron J

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenmochi, N. Tei, S.; Zang, L.; Ohtani, Y.; Kasajima, K.; Minami, T.; Takahashi, C.; Mizuuchi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Okada, H.; Kado, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Ohshima, S.; Konoshima, S.; Shi, N.; Sano, F.

    2014-11-15

    A Nd:YAG Thomson scattering system has been developed for Heliotron J. The system consists of two 550 mJ 50 Hz lasers, large collection optics, and 25 radial channel (?1 cm spatial resolution) interference polychromators. This measurement system achieves a S/N ratio of ?50 for low-density plasma (n{sub e} ? 0.5 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}). A time evolution of electron temperature profiles was measured with this system for a high-intensity gas-puff (HIGP) fueling neutral-beam-injection plasma. The peripheral temperature of the higher-density phase after HIGP recovers to the low-density pre-HIGP level, suggesting that improving particle transport in the HIGP plasma may be possible.

  20. Measurement of fenestration net energy performance: Considerations leading to development of a Mobile Window Thermal Test (MoWitt) facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.

    1988-08-01

    The authors present a detailed consideration of the energy flows entering a building space and the effect of random measurement errors on determining fenestration performance. Estimates of error magnitudes are made for a passive test cell; they show that a more accurate test facility is needed for reliable measurements on fenestration systems with thermal resistance 2-10 times that of single glazing or with shading coefficients less than 0.7. A test facility of this type, built at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is described. The effect of random errors in this facility is discussed and computer calculations of its performance are presented. The discussion shows that, for any measurement facility, random errors are most serious in nighttime measurements, and systematic errors are most important in daytime measurements. It is concluded that, for this facility, errors from both sources should be small.

  1. Modeling non-harmonic behavior of materials from experimental inelastic neutron scattering and thermal expansion measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Dipanshu; Aref, Amjad; Dargush, Gary; Delaire, Olivier A.

    2016-07-20

    Based on thermodynamic principles, we derive expressions quantifying the non-harmonic vibrational behavior of materials, which are rigorous yet easily evaluated from experimentally available data for the thermal expansion coefficient and the phonon density of states. These experimentally-derived quantities are valuable to benchmark first-principles theoretical predictions of harmonic and non-harmonic thermal behaviors using perturbation theory, ab initio molecular-dynamics, or Monte-Carlo simulations. In this study, we illustrate this analysis by computing the harmonic, dilational, and anharmonic contributions to the entropy, internal energy, and free energy of elemental aluminum and the ordered compound FeSi over a wide range of temperature. Our results agreemore » well with previous data in the literature and provide an efficient approach to estimate anharmonic effects in materials.« less

  2. Measurements of continuous mix evolution in a high energy density shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, E. Doss, F.; Flippo, K.; Fincke, J.

    2014-04-15

    We report on the novel integration of streaked radiography into a counter-flowing High Energy Density (HED) shear environment that continually measures a growing mix layer of Al separating two low-density CH foams. Measurements of the mix width allow us to validate compressible turbulence models and with streaked imaging, make this possible with a minimal number of experiments on large laser facilities. In this paper, we describe how the HED counter-flowing shear layer is created and diagnosed with streaked radiography. We then compare the streaked data to previous two-dimensional, single frame radiography and radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment with inline compressible turbulent mix models.

  3. Development and validation of capabilities to measure thermal properties of layered monolithic U-Mo alloy plate-type fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkes, Douglas; Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Pool, Karl N.; Smith, Frances N.; Steen, Franciska H.

    2014-07-19

    The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy in a monolithic form has been proposed as one fuel design capable of converting some of the world’s highest power research reactors from the use of high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). One aspect of the fuel development and qualification process is to demonstrate appropriate understanding of thermal conductivity behavior of the fuel system as a function of temperature and expected irradiation conditions. The purpose of this paper is to verify and validate the functionality of equipment methods installed in hot cells for eventual measurements on irradiated uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel specimens, procedures to operate the equipment, and models to extract the desired thermal properties. The results presented here demonstrate the adequacy of the equipment, procedures and models that have been developed for this purpose based on measurements conducted on surrogate depleted uranium-molybdenum (DU-Mo) alloy samples containing a zirconium diffusion barrier and clad in aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061). The results are in excellent agreement with thermal property data reported in the literature for similar U-Mo alloys as a function of temperature.

  4. Thermal evolution of antiferromagnetic correlations and tetrahedral bond angles in superconducting FeTe1-xSex

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangyong; Schneeloch, J. A.; Wen, Jinsheng; Bozin, E. S.; Granroth, G. E.; Winn, B. L.; Feygenson, M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Gu, Genda; et al

    2016-03-14

    It has recently been demonstrated that dynamical magnetic correlations measured by neutron scattering in iron chalcogenides can be described with models of short-range correlations characterized by particular choices of four-spin plaquettes, where the appropriate choice changes as the parent material is doped towards superconductivity. Here we apply such models to describe measured maps of magnetic scattering as a function of two-dimensional wave vectors obtained for optimally superconducting crystals of FeTe1–xSex. We show that the characteristic antiferromagnetic wave vector evolves from that of the bicollinear structure found in underdoped chalcogenides (at high temperature) to that associated with the stripe structure ofmore » antiferromagnetic iron arsenides (at low temperature); these can both be described with the same local plaquette, but with different interplaquette correlations. While the magnitude of the low-energy magnetic spectral weight is substantial at all temperatures, it actually weakens somewhat at low temperature, where the charge carriers become more itinerant. The observed change in spin correlations is correlated with the dramatic drop in the electronic scattering rate and the growth of the bulk nematic response upon cooling. Lastly, we also present powder neutron diffraction results for lattice parameters in FeTe1–xSex indicating that the tetrahedral bond angle tends to increase towards the ideal value upon cooling, in agreement with the increased screening of the crystal field by more itinerant electrons and the correspondingly smaller splitting of the Fe 3d orbitals.« less

  5. Considerations and measurements of latent-heat-storage salts for secondary thermal battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, A.A.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Armijo, J.R.

    1988-05-16

    Given its potential benefits, the practicality of using a latent heat-storage material as the basis for a passive thermal management system is being assessed by Chloride Silent Power Ltd. (CSPL) with technical assistance from Beta Power, Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Based on the experience gained in large-scale solar energy storage programs, fused salts were selected as the primary candidates for the heat-storage material. The initial phase of this assessment was directed to an EV battery being designed at CSPL for the ETX-II program. Specific tasks included the identification and characterization of potential fused salts, a determination of placement options for the salts within the battery, and an assessment of the ultimate benefit to the battery system. The results obtained to date for each of these tasks are presented in this paper.

  6. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, ATR Cycle 100-BC, April 23, 1993--May 13, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.D.; Murray, R.K.; Rogers, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for ATR Cycle 100-BC which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) as requested by the Power Reactor Programs (ATR Experiments) Radiation Measurements Work Order. This report contains fluence rate values corresponding to the particular elevations (relative to the 80 ft. core elevation) where the measurements were taken. The data in this report consists of (1) a table of the ATR power history and distribution, (2) a hard copy listing of all thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, (3) plots of both the thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, and (4) a magnetic record (3.5 inch diskette) containing a listing of only the fast neutron fluence rates, their assigned elevations and proper header identification of all monitor positions contained herein. The fluence rates reported are for the average power levels given in the table of power history and distribution. All {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} holder monitor wires for this cycle are 54 inches long. All {open_quotes}SR{close_quotes} holder monitor wires for this cycle are 55 inches long. This length allows measurement of the full core region and makes the first count elevation 24.73 inches above core midplane. Due to the safety rod problems in the west lobe, {open_quotes}BR{close_quotes} holders were used in the W-1, 2, 3, and 4 positions. All {open_quotes}BR{close_quotes} holder monitor wires for this cycle are 56.25 inches long. The distance from the end of the wires to the first count position was 4.25 inches for all wires counted from this cycle. The results from the measurements in the W-1, 2, 3, 4 monitor positions indicate that the safety rod followers were rotated to a different azimuthal orientation relative to the normal orientation. The results indicate that the rotation was counterclockwise from their normal orientation. This is the same condition observed starting with Cycle 99-B.

  7. Evolution of the sensor fish device for measuring physical conditions in sever hydraulic environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, J. P.

    2003-03-01

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new fish-friendly turbines, and spillway designs and operations, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. This report discusses the development and field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River, which have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  8. Evolution of the Sensor Fish Device for Measuring Physical Conditions in Severe Hydraulic Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2003-02-28

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new ''fish-friendly'' turbines, and spillway designs and operations, scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. The Sensor Fish was developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine System program. Field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  9. In-Situ Measurement of Power Loss for Crystalline Silicon Modules Undergoing Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Loading Stress Testing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Pater; Sera, Dezso

    2015-09-15

    We analyze the degradation of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules undergoing simultaneous thermal, mechanical, and humidity stress testing to develop a dark environmental chamber in-situ measurement procedure for determining module power loss. From the analysis we determine three main categories of failure modes associated with the module degradation consisting of: shunting, recombination losses, increased series resistance losses, and current mismatch losses associated with a decrease in photo-current generation by removal of some cell areas due to cell fractures. Based on the analysis, we propose an in-situ module power loss monitoring procedure that relies on dark current-voltage measurements taken during the stress test, and initial and final module flash testing, to determine the power degradation characteristic of the module.

  10. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF SOLAR FLARES WITH AIA/SDO. II. HYDRODYNAMIC SCALING LAWS AND THERMAL ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Shimizu, Toshifumi E-mail: shimizu.toshifumi@isas.jaxa.jp

    2013-10-20

    In this study we measure physical parameters of the same set of 155 M- and X-class solar flares observed with AIA/SDO as analyzed in Paper I, by performing a differential emission measure analysis to determine the flare peak emission measure EM{sub p} , peak temperature T{sub p} , electron density n{sub p} , and thermal energy E{sub th}, in addition to the spatial scales L, areas A, and volumes V measured in Paper I. The parameter ranges for M- and X-class flares are log (EM{sub p}) = 47.0-50.5, T{sub p} = 5.0-17.8 MK, n{sub p} = 4 × 10{sup 9}-9 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup –3}, and thermal energies of E{sub th} = 1.6 × 10{sup 28}-1.1 × 10{sup 32} erg. We find that these parameters obey the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) scaling law T{sub p}{sup 2}∝n{sub p} L and H∝T {sup 7/2} L {sup –2} during the peak time t{sub p} of the flare density n{sub p} , when energy balance between the heating rate H and the conductive and radiative loss rates is achieved for a short instant and thus enables the applicability of the RTV scaling law. The application of the RTV scaling law predicts power-law distributions for all physical parameters, which we demonstrate with numerical Monte Carlo simulations as well as with analytical calculations. A consequence of the RTV law is also that we can retrieve the size distribution of heating rates, for which we find N(H)∝H {sup –1.8}, which is consistent with the magnetic flux distribution N(Φ)∝Φ{sup –1.85} observed by Parnell et al. and the heating flux scaling law F{sub H} ∝HL∝B/L of Schrijver et al.. The fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model in conjunction with the RTV scaling law reproduces the observed power-law distributions and their slopes for all geometrical and physical parameters and can be used to predict the size distributions for other flare data sets, instruments, and detection algorithms.

  11. ROTATIONAL CORRECTIONS TO NEUTRON-STAR RADIUS MEASUREMENTS FROM THERMAL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baubck, Michi; zel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Morsink, Sharon M.

    2015-01-20

    We calculate the rotational broadening in the observed thermal spectra of neutron stars spinning at moderate rates in the Hartle-Thorne approximation. These calculations accurately account for the effects of the second-order Doppler boosts as well as for the oblate shapes and the quadrupole moments of the neutron stars. We find that fitting the spectra and inferring the bolometric fluxes under the assumption that a star is not rotating causes an underestimate of the inferred fluxes and, thus, radii. The correction depends on the stellar spin, mass, radius, and the observer's inclination. For a 10km, 1.4 M {sub ?} neutron star spinning at 600Hz, the rotational correction to the flux is ?1%-4%, while for a 15km neutron star with the same spin period, the correction ranges from 2% for pole-on sources to 12% for edge-on sources. We calculate the inclination-averaged corrections to inferred radii as a function of the neutron-star radius and mass and provide an empirical formula for the corrections. For realistic neutron-star parameters (1.4 M {sub ?}, 12km, 600Hz), the stellar radius is on the order of 4% larger than the radius inferred under the assumption that the star is not spinning.

  12. Field-measured performance of four full-scale cylindrical stratified chilled-water thermal storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musser, A.; Bahnfleth, W.P.

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented for controlled flow rate tests in four full-scale cylindrical chilled-water storage tanks. The tanks range in volume from 1.15 to 5.18 million gallons (4.35 to 19.61 million liters) and have water depths of 40 to 65 ft (12.2 to 19.8 m). Water is introduced into and withdrawn from two of these tanks using radial parallel plate diffusers, while the remaining two tanks utilize octagonal slotted pipe diffuser designs. Thermal performance is quantified for full cycles in terms of Figure of Merit, for single charge and discharge processes as half-cycle Figure of Merit, and for incomplete charge and discharge processes as Lost Capacity. Results show that the thermal performance of all four tanks is excellent, with less than 4% of theoretical cooling capacity lost to inlet mixing and other degradation mechanisms for flow rates less than or equal to design. Based on these results, the appropriateness of current design guidance is discussed. Operational issues that affect implementation of controlled flow rate full-scale tests are also identified, and measurement issues are addressed.

  13. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, Martin J.

    1999-01-01

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress.

  14. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, M.J.

    1999-07-06

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material is disclosed comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress. 3 figs.

  15. Measuring the Optical Performance of Evacuated Receivers via an Outdoor Thermal Transient Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Netter, J.

    2011-08-01

    Modern parabolic trough solar collectors operated at high temperatures to provide the heat input to Rankine steam power cycles employ evacuated receiver tubes along the collector focal line. High performance is achieved via the use of a selective surface with a high absorptance for incoming short-wave solar radiation and a low emittance for outgoing long-wave infrared radiation, as well as the use of a hard vacuum to essentially eliminate convective and conductive heat losses. This paper describes a new method that determines receiver overall optical efficiency by exposing a fluid-filled, pre-cooled receiver to one sun outdoors and measuring the slope of the temperature curve at the point where the receiver temperature passes the glass envelope temperature (that is, the point at which there is no heat gain or loss from the absorber). This transient test method offers the potential advantages of simplicity, high accuracy, and the use of the actual solar spectrum.

  16. Note: A simple model for thermal management in solenoids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, E. M. Ellis, J.

    2013-11-15

    We describe a model of the dynamical temperature evolution in a solenoid winding. A simple finite element analysis is calibrated by accurately measuring the thermally induced resistance change of the solenoid, thus obviating the need for accurate knowledge of the mean thermal conductivity of the windings. The model predicts quasi thermal runaway for relatively modest current increases from the normal operating conditions. We demonstrate the application of this model to determine the maximum current that can be safely applied to solenoids used for helium spin-echo measurements.

  17. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  18. thermal energy power conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear ... Climate & Earth Systems Climate Measurement & Modeling ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC ...

  19. Low energy spectral index and E{sub p} evolution of quasi-thermal photosphere emission of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-04-20

    Recent observations by the Fermi satellite suggest that a photosphere emission component is contributing to the observed spectrum of many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One important question is whether the photosphere component can interpret the typical 'Band' function of GRBs with a typical low energy photon spectral index α ∼ –1. We perform a detailed study of the photosphere emission spectrum by progressively introducing several physical ingredients previously not fully incorporated, including the probability distribution of the location of a dynamically evolving photosphere, superposition of emission from an equal arrival time 'volume' in a continuous wind, the evolution of optical depth of a wind with finite but evolving outer boundary, as well as the effect of different top-hat wind luminosity (L{sub w} ) profiles. By assuming a comoving blackbody spectrum emerging from the photosphere, we find that for an outflow with a constant or increasing L{sub w} , the low-energy spectrum below the peak energy (E{sub p} ), can be modified to F {sub ν} ∼ ν{sup 1.5} (α ∼ +0.5). A softer (–1 < α < +0.5) or flat (α = –1) spectrum can be obtained during the L{sub w} decreasing phase or high-latitude-emission-dominated phase. We also study the evolution of E{sub p} as a function of wind and photosphere luminosity in this photosphere model. An E{sub p} – L tracking pattern can be reproduced if a certain positive dependence between the dimensionless entropy η and L{sub w} is introduced. However, the hard-to-soft evolution pattern cannot be reproduced unless a contrived condition is invoked. In order to interpret the Band spectrum, a more complicated photosphere model or a different energy dissipation and radiation mechanism is needed.

  20. Thermally induced mechanical and permeability changes around...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A numerical investigation is conducted on the impacts of the thermal loading history on the evolution of mechanical response and permeability field of a fractured rock mass ...

  1. Assessment of thermal evolution stages and oil-gas migration of carbonate source rocks of early tertiary in eastern Sichuan, China, by organic inclusion analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Jixi; Li Benchao; Fu Jiamo

    1989-03-01

    The Jialinjiang Formation of early Tertiary in Sichuan, China, is a series of limestone and dolomite sediments deposited in a platform shoal environment. The diagenetic sequence and organic inclusions trapped in minerals of 95 samples from 20 drillings have been studied. At the late diagenetic stage, pale yellow organic inclusions consisted of liquid hydrocarbons disseminated in pore-infiltrating dolomite, and the homogeneous temperature of contemporaneous saline liquid inclusions possessing a low gas-liquid ratio was 86/degree/C. This indicates the evolution of the organic matter had gone over the oil generating threshold and oil formation had initiated. In the limestone formed at the late diagenetic stage, more brown-yellow organic inclusions were scattered and/or developed along with fissures, comprising 60-70% liquid hydrocarbons and 30-40% gaseous hydrocarbons. Contemporaneous saline liquid inclusions with gas-liquid ratios of 5-10% had homogeneous temperatures of 90/degree/-130/degree/C. These findings show that the organic material had entered a high evolution stage and oil migration had taken place on a large scale.

  2. An in-line thermal-neutron coincidence counter for WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) certification measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krick, M.S.; Osborne, L.; Polk, P.J.; Atencio, J.D.; Bjork, C.

    1989-10-01

    A custom-designed, in-line, thermal-neutron coincidence counter has been constructed for the certification of plutonium waste intended for storage at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The mechanical and electrical components of the system and its performance characteristics are described. 6 refs., 16 figs.

  3. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  4. Fission Product Data Measured at Los Alamos for Fission Spectrum and Thermal Neutrons on {sup 239}Pu, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selby, H.D.; Mac Innes, M.R.; Barr, D.W.; Keksis, A.L.; Meade, R.A.; Burns, C.J.; Chadwick, M.B.; Wallstrom, T.C.

    2010-12-15

    We describe measurements of fission product data at Los Alamos that are important for determining the number of fissions that have occurred when neutrons are incident on plutonium and uranium isotopes. The fission-spectrum measurements were made using a fission chamber designed by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in the BIG TEN critical assembly, as part of the Inter-laboratory Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Reaction Rate (ILRR) collaboration. The thermal measurements were made at Los Alamos' Omega West Reactor. A related set of measurements were made of fission-product ratios (so-called R-values) in neutron environments provided by a number of Los Alamos critical assemblies that range from having average energies causing fission of 400-600 keV (BIG TEN and the outer regions of the Flattop-25 assembly) to higher energies (1.4-1.9 MeV) in the Jezebel, and in the central regions of the Flattop-25 and Flattop-Pu, critical assemblies. From these data we determine ratios of fission product yields in different fuel and neutron environments (Q-values) and fission product yields in fission spectrum neutron environments for {sup 99}Mo, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 141,143}Ce, and {sup 147}Nd. Modest incident-energy dependence exists for the {sup 147}Nd fission product yield; this is discussed in the context of models for fission that include thermal and dynamical effects. The fission product data agree with measurements by Maeck and other authors using mass-spectrometry methods, and with the ILRR collaboration results that used gamma spectroscopy for quantifying fission products. We note that the measurements also contradict earlier 1950s historical Los Alamos estimates by {approx}5-7%, most likely owing to self-shielding corrections not made in the early thermal measurements. Our experimental results provide a confirmation of the England-Rider ENDF/B-VI evaluated fission-spectrum fission product yields that were carried

  5. Measuring galaxy clustering and the evolution of [C II] mean intensity with far-IR line intensity mapping during 0.5 < z < 1.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzgil, B. D.; Aguirre, J. E.; Lidz, A.; Bradford, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Infrared fine-structure emission lines from trace metals are powerful diagnostics of the interstellar medium in galaxies. We explore the possibility of studying the redshifted far-IR fine-structure line emission using the three-dimensional (3D) power spectra obtained with an imaging spectrometer. The intensity mapping approach measures the spatio-spectral fluctuations due to line emission from all galaxies, including those below the individual detection threshold. The technique provides 3D measurements of galaxy clustering and moments of the galaxy luminosity function. Furthermore, the linear portion of the power spectrum can be used to measure the total line emission intensity including all sources through cosmic time with redshift information naturally encoded. Total line emission, when compared to the total star formation activity and/or other line intensities, reveals evolution of the interstellar conditions of galaxies in aggregate. As a case study, we consider measurement of [C II] autocorrelation in the 0.5 < z < 1.5 epoch, where interloper lines are minimized, using far-IR/submillimeter balloon-borne and future space-borne instruments with moderate and high sensitivity, respectively. In this context, we compare the intensity mapping approach to blind galaxy surveys based on individual detections. We find that intensity mapping is nearly always the best way to obtain the total line emission because blind, wide-field galaxy surveys lack sufficient depth and deep pencil beams do not observe enough galaxies in the requisite luminosity and redshift bins. Also, intensity mapping is often the most efficient way to measure the power spectrum shape, depending on the details of the luminosity function and the telescope aperture.

  6. Direct in situ measurement of coupled magnetostructural evolution in a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy and its theoretical modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pramanick, Abhijit; Shapiro, Steve M.; Glavic, Artur; Samolyuk, German; Aczel, Adam A.; Lauter, Valeria; Ambaye, Haile; Gai, Zheng; Ma, Jie; Stoica, Alexandru D.; et al

    2015-10-14

    In this study, ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) have shown great potential as active components in next generation smart devices due to their exceptionally large magnetic-field-induced strains and fast response times. During application of magnetic fields in FSMAs, as is common in several magnetoelastic smart materials, there occurs simultaneous rotation of magnetic moments and reorientation of twin variants, resolving which, although critical for design of new materials and devices, has been difficult to achieve quantitatively with current characterization methods. At the same time, theoretical modeling of these phenomena also faced limitations due to uncertainties in values of physical properties suchmore » as magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MCA), especially for off-stoichiometric FSMA compositions. Here, in situ polarized neutron diffraction is used to measure directly the extents of both magnetic moments rotation and crystallographic twin-reorientation in an FSMA single crystal during the application of magnetic fields. Additionally, high-resolution neutron scattering measurements and first-principles calculations based on fully relativistic density functional theory are used to determine accurately the MCA for the compositionally disordered alloy of Ni2Mn1.14Ga0.86. The results from these state-of-the-art experiments and calculations are self-consistently described within a phenomenological framework, which provides quantitative insights into the energetics of magnetostructural coupling in FSMAs. Based on the current model, the energy for magnetoelastic twin boundaries propagation for the studied alloy is estimated to be ~150kJ/m3.« less

  7. Method for ultra-trace cesium isotope ratio measurements from environmental samples using thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.; Mann, Nick R.; White, Byron M.

    2015-05-01

    135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can provide the age, origin and history of environmental Cs contamination. Relatively high precision 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratio measurements from samples containing femtogram quantities of 137Cs are needed to accurately track contamination resuspension and redistribution following environmental 137Cs releases; however, mass spectrometric analyses of environmental samples are limited by the large quantities of ionization inhibitors and isobaric interferences which are present at relatively high concentrations in the environment. We report a new approach for Cs purification from environmental samples. An initial ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile (AMP-PAN) column provides a robust method for extracting Cs under a wide variety of sample matrices and mass loads. Cation exchange separations using a second AMP-PAN column result in more than two orders of magnitude greater Cs/Rb separation factors than commercially available strong cation exchangers. Coupling an AMP-PAN cation exchanging step to a microcation column (AG50W resin) enables consistent 2-4% (2?) measurement errors for samples containing 3-6,000 fg 137Cs, representing the highest precision 135Cs/137Cs ratio measurements currently reported for soil samples at the femtogram level.

  8. Accuracy of real time noninvasive temperature measurements using magnetic resonance thermal imaging in patients treated for high grade extremity soft tissue sarcomas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craciunescu, Oana I.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Soher, Brian J.; Wyatt, Cory R.; Arabe, Omar; Maccarini, Paolo; Das, Shiva K.; Cheng, Kung-Shan; Wong, Terence Z.; Jones, Ellen L.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; MacFall, James R.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To establish accuracy of real time noninvasive temperature measurements using magnetic resonance thermal imaging in patients treated for high grade extremity soft tissue sarcomas. Methods: Protocol patients with advanced extremity sarcomas were treated with external beam radiation therapy and hyperthermia. Invasive temperature measures were compared to noninvasive magnetic resonance thermal imaging (MRTI) at 1.5 T performed during hyperthermia. Volumetric temperature rise images were obtained using the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) technique during heating in a 140 MHz miniannular phased array applicator. MRTI temperature changes were compared to invasive measurements of temperature with a multisensor fiber optic probe inside a no. 15 g catheter in the tumor. Since the PRFS technique is sensitive to drifts in the primary imaging magnetic field, temperature change distributions were corrected automatically during treatment using temperature-stable reference materials to characterize field changes in 3D. The authors analyzed MRT images and compared, in evaluable treatments, MR-derived temperatures to invasive temperatures measured in extremity sarcomas. Small regions of interest (ROIs) were specified near each invasive sensor identified on MR images. Temperature changes in the interstitial sensors were compared to the corresponding ROI PRFS-based temperature changes over the entire treatment and over the steady-state period. Nonevaluable treatments (motion/imaging artifacts, noncorrectable drifts) were not included in the analysis. Results: The mean difference between MRTI and interstitial probe measurements was 0.91 deg. C for the entire heating time and 0.85 deg. C for the time at steady state. These values were obtained from both tumor and normal tissue ROIs. When the analysis is done on just the tumor ROIs, the mean difference for the whole power on time was 0.74 deg. C and during the period of steady state was 0.62 deg. C. Conclusions: The

  9. Improvement in Thermal-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) using Total Flash Evaporation (TFE) method for lanthanides isotope ratio measurements in transmutation targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mialle, S.; Gourgiotis, A.; Aubert, M.; Stadelmann, G.; Gautier, C.; Isnard, H.

    2011-07-01

    The experiments involved in the PHENIX french nuclear reactor to obtain precise and accurate data on the total capture cross sections of the heavy isotopes and fission products require isotopic ratios measurements with uncertainty of a few per mil. These accurate isotopic ratio measurements are performed with mass spectrometer equipped with multi-collector system. The major difficulty for the analyses of these actinides and fission products is the low quantity of the initial powder enclosed in steel container (3 to 5 mg) and the very low quantities of products formed (several {mu}g) after irradiation. Specific analytical developments are performed by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) to be able to analyse several nanograms of elements with this technique. A specific method of acquisition named Total Flash Evaporation was adapted in this study in the case of lanthanide measurements for quantity deposited on the filament in the order of 2 ng and applied on irradiated fuel. To validate the analytical approach and discuss about the accuracy of the data, the isotopic ratios obtained by TIMS are compared with other mass spectrometric techniques such as Multiple-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). (authors)

  10. Development of time-domain differential Raman for transient thermal probing of materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Shen; Wang, Tianyu; Hurley, David; Yue, Yanan; Wang, Xinwei

    2015-01-01

    A novel transient thermal characterization technology is developed based on the principles of transient optical heating and Raman probing: time-domain differential Raman. It employs a square-wave modulated laser of varying duty cycle to realize controlled heating and transient thermal probing. Very well defined extension of the heating time in each measurement changes the temperature evolution profile and the probed temperature field at ?s resolution. Using this new technique, the transient thermal response of a tipless Si cantilever is investigated along the length direction. A physical model is developed to reconstruct the Raman spectrum considering the temperature evolution, while taking intomoreaccount the temperature dependence of the Raman emission. By fitting the variation of the normalized Raman peak intensity, wavenumber, and peak area against the heating time, the thermal diffusivity is determined as 9.17 10??, 8.14 10??, and 9.51 10?? m/s. These results agree well with the reference value of 8.66 10?? m/s considering the 10% fitting uncertainty. The time-domain differential Raman provides a novel way to introduce transient thermal excitation of materials, probe the thermal response, and measure the thermal diffusivity, all with high accuracy.less

  11. Development of time-domain differential Raman for transient thermal probing of materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Shen; Wang, Tianyu; Hurley, David; Yue, Yanan; Wang, Xinwei

    2015-01-01

    A novel transient thermal characterization technology is developed based on the principles of transient optical heating and Raman probing: time-domain differential Raman. It employs a square-wave modulated laser of varying duty cycle to realize controlled heating and transient thermal probing. Very well defined extension of the heating time in each measurement changes the temperature evolution profile and the probed temperature field at ?s resolution. Using this new technique, the transient thermal response of a tipless Si cantilever is investigated along the length direction. A physical model is developed to reconstruct the Raman spectrum considering the temperature evolution, while taking into account the temperature dependence of the Raman emission. By fitting the variation of the normalized Raman peak intensity, wavenumber, and peak area against the heating time, the thermal diffusivity is determined as 9.17 10??, 8.14 10??, and 9.51 10?? m/s. These results agree well with the reference value of 8.66 10?? m/s considering the 10% fitting uncertainty. The time-domain differential Raman provides a novel way to introduce transient thermal excitation of materials, probe the thermal response, and measure the thermal diffusivity, all with high accuracy.

  12. Structural Evolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evolution in the Neutron Rich-Nucleus 14 B Shadi Bedoor Department of Physics Western Michigan University We have studied 14 B employing two complementary reactions: 13 B(d,p)...

  13. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    magnetic fluctuation-induced particle flux "invited... a... W. X. Ding, D. L. Brower, and T. Y. Yates Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA ͑Presented 13 May 2008; received 12 May 2008; accepted 16 May 2008; published online 31 October 2008͒ Magnetic field fluctuation-induced particle transport has been directly measured in the high-temperature core of the MST reversed field pinch plasma. Measurement of radial

  14. Burn propagation in a PBX 9501 thermal explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, B. F.; Smilowitz, L.; Romero, J. J.; Sandstrom, M. M.; Asay, B. W.; Schwartz, C.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F.; Morris, C.; Murray, M. M.; McNeil, W. V.; Marr-Lyon, M.; Rightley, P. M.

    2007-12-12

    We have applied proton radiography to study the conversion of solid density to gaseous combustion products subsequent to ignition of a thermal explosion in PBX 9501. We apply a thermal boundary condition to the cylindrical walls of the case, ending with an induction period at 205 C. We then introduce a laser pulse that accelerates the thermal ignition and synchronizes the explosion with the proton accelerator. We then obtain fast, synchronized images of the evolution of density loss with few microsecond resolution during the approximately 100 microsecond duration of the explosion. We present images of the solid explosive during the explosion and discuss measured rates and assumed mechanisms of burning the role of pressure in this internal burning.

  15. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutrino Induced, Charged Current, Charged Pion Production by Michael Joseph Wilking B.Ch.E., University of Minnesota, 2001 M.S., University of Colorado, 2007 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Physics 2009 This thesis entitled: Measurement of Neutrino Induced, Charged Current, Charged Pion Production written by Michael Joseph Wilking has been

  16. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    core velocity fluctuations and the dynamo in a reversed-field pinch * D. J. Den Hartog, †,a) J. T. Chapman, b) D. Craig, G. Fiksel, P. W. Fontana, S. C. Prager, and J. S. Sarff Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Received 16 November 1998; accepted 20 January 1999͒ Plasma flow velocity fluctuations have been directly measured in the high-temperature magnetically confined plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus ͑MST͒

  17. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 H( 7 Be, 8 B)γ cross section by Ryan P. Fitzgerald A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Physics & Astronomy. Chapel Hill 2005 Approved: A. E. Champagne, Advisor J. C. Blackmon, Reader C. Iliadis, Reader ABSTRACT Ryan P. Fitzgerald: Measurement of the 1 H( 7 Be, 8 B)γ cross section (Under the Direction of A. E. Champagne) The fusion

  18. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interpretation of micro benchmark and application energy use on the Cray XC30 Brian Austin, and Nicholas J. Wright ⇤ August 29, 2014 Abstract Understanding patterns of application energy use is key to reaching future HPC e ciency goals. We have measured the sensitivity of en- ergy use to CPU frequency for several microbenchmarks and applications on a Cray XC30. First order fits to the performance and power data are su cient to describe the energy used by these applications. Exam- ination of

  19. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronegative Contaminants and Drift Electron Lifetime in the MicroBooNE Experiment The MicroBooNE Collaboration May 19, 2016 Abstract High-purity liquid argon is critical for the operation of a liquid argon time projec- tion chamber (LArTPC). At MicroBooNE, we have achieved an electron drift lifetime of at least 6 ms without evacuation of the detector vessel. Measurements of the elec- tronegative contaminants oxygen and water are described and shown as the gas and liquid argon stages of

  20. Thermal analysis of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and development of a powder aging model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Geoffrey W; Sandstrom, Mary M; Giambra, Anna M; Archuleta, Jose G; Monroe, Deirde C

    2009-01-01

    We have applied a range of different physical and thermal analysis techniques to characterize the thermal evolution of the specific surface area of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders. Using atomic force microscopy we have determined that the mass transfer mechanism leading to powder coarsening is probably sublimation and redeposition of PETN. Using thermogravimetric analysis we have measured vapor pressures of PETN powders whose aging will be simulated in future work. For one specific powder we have constructed an empirical model of the coarsening that is fit to specific surface area measurements at 60 C to 70 C to provide predictive capability of that powder's aging. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectroscopy measurements highlight some of the thermal behavior of the powders and suggest that homologue-based eutectics and impurities are localized in the powder particles.

  1. LoCuSS: A COMPARISON OF CLUSTER MASS MEASUREMENTS FROM XMM-NEWTON AND SUBARU-TESTING DEVIATION FROM HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM AND NON-THERMAL PRESSURE SUPPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yu-Ying; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Finoguenov, Alexis; Smith, Graham P.; Sanderson, Alastair J. R.; Piffaretti, Rocco; Valdarnini, Riccardo; Evrard, August E.; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2010-03-10

    We compare X-ray hydrostatic and weak-lensing mass estimates for a sample of 12 clusters that have been observed with both XMM-Newton and Subaru. At an over-density of DELTA = 500, we obtain 1 - M {sup X}/M {sup WL} = 0.01 +- 0.07 for the whole sample. We also divided the sample into undisturbed and disturbed sub-samples based on quantitative X-ray morphologies using asymmetry and fluctuation parameters, obtaining 1 - M {sup X}/M {sup WL} = 0.09 +- 0.06 and -0.06 +- 0.12 for the undisturbed and disturbed clusters, respectively. In addition to non-thermal pressure support, there may be a competing effect associated with adiabatic compression and/or shock heating which leads to overestimate of X-ray hydrostatic masses for disturbed clusters, for example, in the famous merging cluster A1914. Despite the modest statistical significance of the mass discrepancy, on average, in the undisturbed clusters, we detect a clear trend of improving agreement between M {sup X} and M {sup WL} as a function of increasing over-density, M{sup X}/M{sup WL}=(0.908+-0.004)+(0.187+-0.010){center_dot} log{sub 10}(DELTA/500). We also examine the gas mass fractions, f{sub gas} = M {sup gas}/M {sup WL}, finding that they are an increasing function of cluster radius, with no dependence on dynamical state, in agreement with predictions from numerical simulations. Overall, our results demonstrate that XMM-Newton and Subaru are a powerful combination for calibrating systematic uncertainties in cluster mass measurements.

  2. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-12-01

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneous materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X-ray CT (all previous thermal-imaging software can only produce 2D results). Because thermal effusivity is an intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity, etc.,more » quantitative imaging of effusivity allowed direct visualization of material's internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one-sided, non contact and sensitive to material's thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the measured

  3. Thermal Diffusivity and Specific Heat Measurements of Titanium Potassium Perchlorate Titanium Subhydride Potassium Perchlorate 9013 Glass 7052 Glass SB-14 Glass and C-4000 Muscovite Mica Using the Flash Technique.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, Paul Elliott; Cooper, Marcia A.

    2015-02-01

    The flash technique was used to measure the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of titanium potassium perchlorate (TKP) ignition powder (33wt% Ti - 67wt% KP) with Ventron sup- plied titanium particles, TKP ignition powder (33wt% Ti - 67wt% KP) with ATK supplied titanium particles, TKP output powder (41wt% Ti - 59wt% KP), and titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (THKP) (33wt% TiH 1.65 - 67wt% KP) at 25 o C. The influence of density and temperature on the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of TKP with Ventron supplied titanium particles was also investigated. Lastly, the thermal diffusivity and specific heats of 9013 glass, 7052 glass, SB-14 glass, and C-4000 Muscovite mica are presented as a function of temperature up to 300 o C.

  4. Evolution Securities Ltd formerly Evolution Beeson Gregory |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    7AN Product: Evolution Securities is the investment banking business of Evolution Group plc providing equity research, institutional sales and trading and corporate finance...

  5. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-11-05

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneoirs materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X—ray CT (all previous thepnal—imaging software can only produce 20 results) . Because thermal effusivity is an Intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity,more » etc., quantitative imaging of eftusivity allowed direct visualization of material’s internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one—sided, non contact and sensitive to material’s thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the

  6. Calibrating thermal behavior of electronics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2016-05-31

    A method includes determining a relationship between indirect thermal data for a processor and a measured temperature associated with the processor, during a calibration process, obtaining the indirect thermal data for the processor during actual operation of the processor, and determining an actual significant temperature associated with the processor during the actual operation using the indirect thermal data for the processor during actual operation of the processor and the relationship.

  7. High temperature thermographic measurements of laser heated silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elhadj, S; Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Cooke, D J; Bude, J D; Johnson, M; Feit, M; Draggoo, V; Bisson, S E

    2009-11-02

    In situ spatial and temporal surface temperature profiles of CO{sub 2} laser-heated silica were obtained using a long wave infrared (LWIR) HgCdTe camera. Solutions to the linear diffusion equation with volumetric and surface heating are shown to describe the temperature evolution for a range of beam powers, over which the peak surface temperature scales linearly with power. These solutions were used with on-axis steady state and transient experimental temperatures to extract thermal diffusivity and conductivity for a variety of materials, including silica, spinel, sapphire, and lithium fluoride. Experimentally-derived thermal properties agreed well with reported values and, for silica, thermal conductivity and diffusivity are shown to be approximately independent of temperature between 300 and 2800K. While for silica our analysis based on a temperature independent thermal conductivity is shown to be accurate, for other materials studied this treatment yields effective thermal properties that represent reasonable approximations for laser heating. Implementation of a single-wavelength radiation measurement in the semi-transparent regime is generally discussed, and estimates of the apparent temperature deviation from the actual outer surface temperature are also presented. The experimental approach and the simple analysis presented yield surface temperature measurements that can be used to validate more complex physical models, help discriminate dominant heat transport mechanisms, and to predict temperature distribution and evolution during laser-based material processing.

  8. Electron density measurements of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal N{sub 2} plasma jet by Stark broadening and irradiance intensity methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Dezhi; Shen, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xie, Hongbing; Shu, Xingsheng; Meng, Yuedong; Li, Jiangang; Cheng, Cheng E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Chu, Paul K. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-05-15

    An atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma jet excited by high frequency alternating current using nitrogen is developed and the electron density in the active region of this plasma jet is investigated by two different methods using optical emission spectroscopy, Stark broadening, and irradiance intensity method. The irradiance intensity method shows that the average electron density is about 10{sup 20}/m{sup 3} which is slightly smaller than that by the Stark broadening method. However, the trend of the change in the electron density with input power obtained by these two methods is consistent.

  9. Measurements of gas sorption from seawater and the influence of gas release on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penney, T.R.; Althof, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    The technical community has questioned the validity and cost-effectiveness of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems because of the unknown effect of noncondensable gas on heat exchanger performance and the power needed to run vacuum equipment to remove this gas. To date, studies of seawater gas desorption have not been prototypical for system level analysis. This study gives preliminary gas desorption data on a vertical spout, direct contact evaporator and multiple condenser geometries. Results indicate that dissolved gas can be substantially removed before the seawater enters the heat exchange process, reducing the uncertainty and effect of inert gas on heat exchanger performance.

  10. Thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.T.; Winchester, C.S.; Jolson, J.D.

    1989-06-20

    A thermal battery is described comprising at least one electrochemical cell comprising an anode of alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or alloys thereof, a fusible salt electrolyte, a fluorocarbon polymer or fluorochlorocarbon polymer depolarizer, and means for heating the cell to melt the electrolyte.

  11. Multiple station thermal diffusivity instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Gaal, P.S.

    1995-12-31

    A multiple furnace laser flash thermal diffusivity system has been developed. The system is equipped with a movable Nd:Glass laser unit, two IR detectors and furnaces for precise measurements of thermal diffusivity over the temperature range from {minus}150{degree}C to 2500{degree}C. All furnaces can operate in vacuum and inert gas; the environmental effects furnace also supports oxidizing and reducing environments. To increase testing speed the graphite and aluminum furnaces are both equipped with six-sample carousels. Thermal diffusivity measurements of three standard reference materials show excellent results over the entire temperature range.

  12. Modeling the thermal deformation of TATB-based explosives. Part 1: Thermal expansion of neat-pressed polycrystalline TATB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Darby J.

    2014-05-08

    We detail a modeling approach to simulate the anisotropic thermal expansion of polycrystalline (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) TATB-based explosives that utilizes microstructural information including porosity, crystal aspect ratio, and processing-induced texture. This report, the first in a series, focuses on nonlinear thermal expansion of neat-pressed polycrystalline TATB specimens which do not contain any binder; additional complexities related to polymeric binder and irreversible ratcheting behavior are briefly discussed, however detailed investigation of these aspects are deferred to subsequent reports. In this work we have, for the first time, developed a mesoscale continuum model relating the thermal expansion of polycrystal TATB specimens to their microstructural characteristics. A self-consistent homogenization procedure is used to relate macroscopic thermoelastic response to the constitutive behavior of single-crystal TATB. The model includes a representation of grain aspect ratio, porosity, and crystallographic texture attributed to the consolidation process. A quantitative model is proposed to describe the evolution of preferred orientation of graphitic planes in TATB during consolidation and an algorithm constructed to develop a discrete representation of the associated orientation distribution function. Analytical and numerical solutions using this model are shown to produce textures consistent with previous measurements and characterization for isostatic and uniaxial die-pressed specimens. Predicted thermal strain versus temperature for textured specimens are shown to be in agreement with corresponding experimental measurements. Using the developed modeling approach, several simulations have been run to investigate the influence of microstructure on macroscopic thermal expansion behavior. Results from these simulations are used to identify qualitative trends. Implications of the identified trends are discussed in the context of thermal

  13. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, J.L.; Vresk, J.

    1989-07-18

    A thermal transient anemometer is disclosed having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe. 12 figs.

  14. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, James L.; Vresk, Josip

    1989-01-01

    A thermal transient anemometer having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe.

  15. Study of electron temperature profile evolution during L-H transition with measurement of electron cyclotron emission on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z.; Hsieh, C.; Zhang, J.; Lohr, J.; Stockdale, R.E.; Bell, G.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Luo, J.

    1995-06-01

    The L-H transition has been intensively investigated since it was discovered in the ASDEX tokamak in 1982. Considerable experimental evidence shows that the formation of the transport barrier at the plasma edge, during which the edge density and temperature gradients suddenly increase, is a common feature in the L-H transition discharge in all devices. Formation of the transport barrier is indicated by a sharp reduction in the D{alpha} radiation at the periphery of the plasma despite a simultaneous increase in the plasma density. A new heterodyne electron cyclotron emission radiometer, which had been built for the ATF device at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has been installed on DIII-D. The instrument features 32 channels with high temporal and spatial resolution and covers the outer half of DIII-D plasma at full magnetic field. Initial measurements with the instrument at the time of the L-H transition show that there is no T{sub e}, precursor to the transition and this is further supported by observations during dithering L-H transition where the transport barrier is immediately destroyed when the plasma briefly returns to the L-mode during process of the transition. Other applications of the new instrument have included T{sub e}, profile measurements during edge localized modes and during Ohmic and beam-heated sawteeth, which highlight the magnetic reconnection process. The instrument will be described and some of these results win be presented.

  16. Direct in situ measurement of coupled magnetostructural evolution in a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy and its theoretical modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pramanick, Abhijit; Shapiro, Steve M.; Glavic, Artur; Samolyuk, German; Aczel, Adam A.; Lauter, Valeria; Ambaye, Haile; Gai, Zheng; Ma, Jie; Stoica, Alexandru D.; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Wimmer, Sebastian; Wang, Xun -Li

    2015-10-14

    In this study, ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) have shown great potential as active components in next generation smart devices due to their exceptionally large magnetic-field-induced strains and fast response times. During application of magnetic fields in FSMAs, as is common in several magnetoelastic smart materials, there occurs simultaneous rotation of magnetic moments and reorientation of twin variants, resolving which, although critical for design of new materials and devices, has been difficult to achieve quantitatively with current characterization methods. At the same time, theoretical modeling of these phenomena also faced limitations due to uncertainties in values of physical properties such as magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MCA), especially for off-stoichiometric FSMA compositions. Here, in situ polarized neutron diffraction is used to measure directly the extents of both magnetic moments rotation and crystallographic twin-reorientation in an FSMA single crystal during the application of magnetic fields. Additionally, high-resolution neutron scattering measurements and first-principles calculations based on fully relativistic density functional theory are used to determine accurately the MCA for the compositionally disordered alloy of Ni2Mn1.14Ga0.86. The results from these state-of-the-art experiments and calculations are self-consistently described within a phenomenological framework, which provides quantitative insights into the energetics of magnetostructural coupling in FSMAs. Based on the current model, the energy for magnetoelastic twin boundaries propagation for the studied alloy is estimated to be ~150kJ/m3.

  17. Thermal Storage and Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids: measuring thermophysical properties, measuring fluid flow and heat transfer, and simulating flow of thermal energy and fluid.

  18. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  19. Comparison of GAPCON-THERMAL-3 and FRAPCON-2 fuel-performance codes to in-reactor measurement of elastic cladding deformation. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanning, D.D.; Rausch, W.N.; Williford, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    A revision of the GAPCON-3 computer code became part of the NRC-sponsored FRAPCON-2 code. This paper presents a comparison of both codes to in-reactor data from IFA-508, a 3-rod test rig in the Halden Reactor, Norway, which features simultaneous measurements of fuel temperature, power, axial elongation, and diametral strain. The modeling revisions included putting all regions of the fuel in contact with cladding at all time, but assigning non-linear, spatially dependent, anisotropic elastic moduli to the fuel on an incremental load step basis. The moduli are functions of the local available void within the cladding. These concepts bring demonstrable improvement to the code predictions.

  20. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This ...

  1. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun’ichi

    2015-03-12

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  2. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V.; Bak, Chan S.

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  3. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances ...

  4. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  5. Microstructural Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits Microstructural Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits Characterize the thermo-physical properties of the deposit under different operating conditions on model EGR cooler tube and determine the long-term changes in deposit properties due to thermal cycling and water/HC condensation deer09_lance.pdf (5.25 MB) More Documents & Publications Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Materials Issues Associated with EGR

  6. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the

  7. Heat transmission between a profiled nanowire and a thermal bath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanc, Christophe; Heron, Jean-Savin; Fournier, Thierry; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2014-07-28

    Thermal transport through profiled and abrupt contacts between a nanowire and a reservoir has been investigated by thermal conductance measurements. It is demonstrated that above 1?K the transmission coefficients are identical between abrupt and profiled junctions. This shows that the thermal transport is principally governed by the nanowire itself rather than by the resistance of the thermal contact. These results are perfectly compatible with the previous theoretical models. The thermal conductance measured at sub-Kelvin temperatures is discussed in relation to the universal value of the quantum of thermal conductance.

  8. Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    profiles along microactuator legs in standard laboratory air pressures and reduced ... Report Number(s): SAND2009-0521 TRN: US201009%%248 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 ...

  9. Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close Cite: ...

  10. Evaluation of Thermal Evolution Profiles and Estimation of Kinetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Kinetic Parameters for Pyrolysis of CoalCorn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric ... of Kinetic Parameters for Pyrolysis of CoalCorn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric ...

  11. Thermal Evolution Models for the Valles Caldera with Reference...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by commercial interests seeking hydrothermal resources. In addition, a number of test wells have been drilled just outside the calderas west margin by the Los Alamos...

  12. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine A.

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  13. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  14. Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

  15. Thermal conductivity of semitransparent materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fine, H.A.; Jury, S.H.; McElroy, D.L.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The three-region approximate solution for coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer and an exact solution for uncoupled conductive and radiative heat transfer in a grey semitransparent medium bounded by infinite parallel isothermal plates are employed to establish the dependence of the apparent thermal conductivity of semitransparent materials on other material properties and boundary conditions. An application of the analyses which uses apparent thermal conductivity versus density data to predict the dependence of apparent thermal conductivity on temperature is demonstrated. The predictions for seven sets of R-11 fiberglass and rock wool insulations agree with published measured values to within the limits of experimental error (+- 3%). Agreement for three sets of R-19 fiberglass insulations was, however, not good.

  16. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  17. Evolution Energies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Evolution Energies Product: US-based designer and installer of large scale photovoltaic systems. References: Evolution Energies1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  18. New light on human evolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light on human evolution New light on human evolution Scientists recently unearthed 8 million-year-old gorilla fossils from the Chorora Formation in Ethiopia, which indicate the ...

  19. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-19

    Here, we studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3-Vaidya background. A prescription was given for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. Moreover, we found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlatormore » and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.« less

  20. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  1. An Electromotive Force Measurement System for Alloy Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Changhu Xing; Colby Jensen; Heng Ban; Robert Mariani; J. Rory Kennedy

    2010-11-01

    The development of advanced nuclear fuels requires a better understanding of the transmutation and micro-structural evolution of the materials. Alloy fuels have the advantage of high thermal conductivity and improved characteristics in fuel-cladding chemical reaction. However, information on thermodynamic and thermophysical properties is limited. The objective of this project is to design and build an experimental system to measure the thermodynamic properties of solid materials from which the understanding of their phase change can be determined. The apparatus was used to measure the electromotive force (EMF) of several materials in order to calibrate and test the system. The EMF of chromel was measured from 100C to 800C and compared with theoretical values. Additionally, the EMF measurement of Ni-Fe alloy was performed and compared with the Ni-Fe phase diagram. The prototype system is to be modified eventually and used in a radioactive hot-cell in the future.

  2. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  3. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4 Average thermal performance rating of solar thermal collectors by type shipped in 2009 ... Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey." ...

  4. Thermal Decomposition of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) with a New One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) Apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, T D; Simpson, R L; Maienschein, J; Tarver, C

    2001-03-23

    The thermal explosion of trinitrotoluene (TNT) is used as a basis for evaluating the performance of a new One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX) apparatus. The ODTX experiment involves holding a 12.7 mm-diameter spherical explosive sample under confinement (150 MPa) at a constant elevated temperature until the confining pressure is exceeded by the evolution of gases during chemical decomposition. The resulting time to explosion as a function of temperature provides valuable decomposition kinetic information. A comparative analysis of the measurements obtained from the new unit and an older system is presented. Discussion on selected performance aspects of the new unit will also be presented. The thermal explosion of TNT is highly dependent on the material. Analysis of the time to explosion is complicated by historical and experimental factors such as material variability, sample preparation, temperature measurement and system errors. Many of these factors will be addressed. Finally, a kinetic model using a coupled thermal and heat transport code (chemical TOPAZ) was used to match the experimental data.

  5. THE ODTX SYSTEM FOR THERMAL IGNITION AND THERMAL SAFETY STUDY OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P C; Hust, G; Howard, M; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-03

    Understanding the response of energetic material to thermal event is very important for the storage and handling of energetic materials. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) can precisely measure times to explosion and minimum ignition temperatures of energetic materials at elevated temperatures. These measurements provide insight into the relative ease of thermal ignition and allow for the determination of kinetic parameters. The ODTX system can potentialy be a good tool to measure violence of the thermal ignition by monitoring the size of anvil cavity. Recent ODTX experimental data on various energetic materials (solid and liquids) are reported in this paper.

  6. Residual stress within nanoscale metallic multilayer systems during thermal cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Economy, David Ross; Cordill, Megan Jo; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2015-09-21

    Projected applications for nanoscale metallic multilayers will include wide temperature ranges. Since film residual stress has been known to alter system reliability, stress development within new film structures with high interfacial densities should be characterized to identify potential long-term performance barriers. To understand factors contributing to thermal stress evolution within nanoscale metallic multilayers, stress in Cu/Nb systems adhered to Si substrates was calculated from curvature measurements collected during cycling between 25 °C and 400 °C. Additionally, stress within each type of component layers was calculated from shifts in the primary peak position from in-situ heated X-ray diffraction. The effects of both film architecture (layer thickness) and layer order in metallic multilayers were tracked and compared with monolithic Cu and Nb films. Analysis indicated that the thermoelastic slope of nanoscale metallic multilayer films depends on thermal expansion mismatch, elastic modulus of the components, and also interfacial density. The layer thickness (i.e. interfacial density) affected thermoelastic slope magnitude while layer order had minimal impact on stress responses after the initial thermal cycle. When comparing stress responses of monolithic Cu and Nb films to those of the Cu/Nb systems, the nanoscale metallic multilayers show a similar increase in stress above 200 °C to the Nb monolithic films, indicating that Nb components play a larger role in stress development than Cu. Local stress calculations from X-ray diffraction peak shifts collected during heating reveal that the component layers within a multilayer film respond similarly to their monolithic counterparts.

  7. Residual stress within nanoscale metallic multilayer systems during thermal cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Economy, David Ross; Cordill, Megan Jo; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2015-09-21

    Projected applications for nanoscale metallic multilayers will include wide temperature ranges. Since film residual stress has been known to alter system reliability, stress development within new film structures with high interfacial densities should be characterized to identify potential long-term performance barriers. To understand factors contributing to thermal stress evolution within nanoscale metallic multilayers, stress in Cu/Nb systems adhered to Si substrates was calculated from curvature measurements collected during cycling between 25 °C and 400 °C. Additionally, stress within each type of component layers was calculated from shifts in the primary peak position from in-situ heated X-ray diffraction. The effects ofmore » both film architecture (layer thickness) and layer order in metallic multilayers were tracked and compared with monolithic Cu and Nb films. Analysis indicated that the thermoelastic slope of nanoscale metallic multilayer films depends on thermal expansion mismatch, elastic modulus of the components, and also interfacial density. The layer thickness (i.e. interfacial density) affected thermoelastic slope magnitude while layer order had minimal impact on stress responses after the initial thermal cycle. When comparing stress responses of monolithic Cu and Nb films to those of the Cu/Nb systems, the nanoscale metallic multilayers show a similar increase in stress above 200 °C to the Nb monolithic films, indicating that Nb components play a larger role in stress development than Cu. Local stress calculations from X-ray diffraction peak shifts collected during heating reveal that the component layers within a multilayer film respond similarly to their monolithic counterparts.« less

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF PRECIPITATION IN ALUMINUM CASTING A356.2 ALLOY USING NONDESTRUCTIVE MICROSTRUCTURE ELECTRONIC PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiattisaksri, P.; Gibbs, P. J.; Koenig, K.; Pfeif, E. A.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D. L.; Lasseigne, A. N.; Mendez, P. F.

    2010-02-22

    Application of nondestructive electronic property measurements to assess the strengthening of Mg{sub 2}Si precipitates in aluminum A356.2 casting has been demonstrated. The results indicated the evolution of precipitation phase through over aging with increased cooling time or thickness of the cast part. The classical optimum precipitation behavior has been characterized and verified with thermal analysis, thermoelectric power, low frequency impedance, and micro hardness measurements. A proposed practice to use nondestructive electronic property measurement tools to assess aluminum casting for acceptable mechanical properties after mold shake out is presented.

  9. Thermal conductivity of tubrostratic carbon nanofiber networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Saltonstall, Chris B.; Leseman, Zayd C.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Composite material systems composed of a matrix of nano materials can achieve combinations of mechanical and thermophysical properties outside the range of traditional systems. While many reports have studied the intrinsic thermal properties of individual carbon fibers, to be useful in applications in which thermal stability is critical, an understanding of heat transport in composite materials is required. In this work, air/ carbon nano fiber networks are studied to elucidate the system parameters influencing thermal transport. Sample thermal properties are measured with varying initial carbon fiber fill fraction, environment pressure, loading pressure, and heat treatment temperature through a bidirectional modificationmore » of the 3ω technique. The nanostructures of the individual fibers are characterized with small angle x-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy providing insight to individual fiber thermal conductivity. Measured thermal conductivity varied from 0.010 W/(m K) to 0.070 W/(m K). An understanding of the intrinsic properties of the individual fibers and the interactions of the two phase composite is used to reconcile low measured thermal conductivities with predictive modeling. This methodology can be more generally applied to a wide range of fiber composite materials and their applications.« less

  10. Thermal conductivity of tubrostratic carbon nanofiber networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Saltonstall, Chris B.; Leseman, Zayd C.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Composite material systems composed of a matrix of nano materials can achieve combinations of mechanical and thermophysical properties outside the range of traditional systems. While many reports have studied the intrinsic thermal properties of individual carbon fibers, to be useful in applications in which thermal stability is critical, an understanding of heat transport in composite materials is required. In this work, air/ carbon nano fiber networks are studied to elucidate the system parameters influencing thermal transport. Sample thermal properties are measured with varying initial carbon fiber fill fraction, environment pressure, loading pressure, and heat treatment temperature through a bidirectional modification of the 3ω technique. The nanostructures of the individual fibers are characterized with small angle x-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy providing insight to individual fiber thermal conductivity. Measured thermal conductivity varied from 0.010 W/(m K) to 0.070 W/(m K). An understanding of the intrinsic properties of the individual fibers and the interactions of the two phase composite is used to reconcile low measured thermal conductivities with predictive modeling. This methodology can be more generally applied to a wide range of fiber composite materials and their applications.

  11. Project Profile: Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Storage | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Storage Project Profile: Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Storage TEES logo Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES), under the Thermal Storage FOA, created a composite thermal energy storage material by embedding nanoparticles in a molten salt base material. Approach Graphic of a chart with dots and horizontal lines. TEES measured the specific heat using modulated digital scanning calorimetry and created a system performance and economic

  12. Insights From Laboratory Experiments On Simulated Faults With Application To Fracture Evolution In Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Karner, Ph.D

    2006-06-01

    Laboratory experiments provide a wealth of information related to mechanics of fracture initiation, fracture propagation processes, factors influencing fault strength, and spatio-temporal evolution of fracture properties. Much of the existing literature reports on laboratory studies involving a coupling of thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and/or chemical processes. As these processes operate within subsurface environments exploited for their energy resource, laboratory results provide insights into factors influencing the mechanical and hydraulic properties of geothermal systems. I report on laboratory observations of strength and fluid transport properties during deformation of simulated faults. The results show systematic trends that vary with stress state, deformation rate, thermal conditions, fluid content, and rock composition. When related to geophysical and geologic measurements obtained from engineered geothermal systems (e.g. microseismicity, wellbore studies, tracer analysis), laboratory results provide a means by which the evolving thermal reservoir can be interpreted in terms of physico-chemical processes. For example, estimates of energy release and microearthquake locations from seismic moment tensor analysis can be related to strength variations observed from friction experiments. Such correlations between laboratory and field data allow for better interpretations about the evolving mechanical and fluid transport properties in the geothermal reservoir ultimately leading to improvements in managing the resource.

  13. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  14. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF GASES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, W.J.

    1949-06-01

    This patent describes apparatus for the quantitative analysis of a gaseous mixture at subatmospheric pressure by measurement of its thermal conductivity. A heated wire forms one leg of a bridge circuit, while the gas under test is passed about the wire at a constant rate. The bridge unbalance will be a measure of the change in composition of the gas, if compensation is made for the effect due to gas pressure change. The apparatus provides a voltage varying with fluctuations of pressure in series with the indicating device placed across the bridge, to counterbalance the voltage change caused by fluctuations in the pressure of the gaseous mixture.

  15. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  16. CMI Unique Facility: Thermal Analysis in High Magnetic Fields | Critical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Institute Thermal Analysis in High Magnetic Fields The ability to measure Thermal Analysis in High Magnetic Fields is one of more than a dozen unique facilities developed by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub of the U.S. Department of Energy. CMI researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are able to measure materials over a wider range of conditions because they adapted commercial thermal analysis components to be compatible with high magnetic fields and

  17. Solid state thermal rectifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    None

    2016-07-05

    Thermal rectifiers using linear nanostructures as core thermal conductors have been fabricated. A high mass density material is added preferentially to one end of the nanostructures to produce an axially non-uniform mass distribution. The resulting nanoscale system conducts heat asymmetrically with greatest heat flow in the direction of decreasing mass density. Thermal rectification has been demonstrated for linear nanostructures that are electrical insulators, such as boron nitride nanotubes, and for nanostructures that are conductive, such as carbon nanotubes.

  18. Sandia Thermal Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-11-23

    Thermal analysis in 1-D planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries using control volume finite element spatial discretization with 1st and 2nd order implicit time integrators.

  19. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  20. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-09

    This presentation provides an update of NREL's battery thermal characterization efforts for the 2015 U.S. Department of Energy Annual Merit Reviews.

  1. Ambient temperature thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, A. N.; Bliss, D. E.; McManis III

    1985-11-26

    An ambient temperature thermal battery having two relatively high temperature melting electrolytes which form a low melting temperature electrolyte upon activation.

  2. Model of evolution of surface grain structure under ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knyazeva, Anna G.; Kryukova, Olga N.

    2014-11-14

    Diffusion and chemical reactions in multicomponent systems play an important role in numerous technology applications. For example, surface treatment of materials and coatings by particle beam leads to chemical composition and grain structure change. To investigate the thermal-diffusion and chemical processes affecting the evolution of surface structure, the mathematical modeling is efficient addition to experiment. In this paper two-dimensional model is discussed to describe the evolution of titanium nitride coating on the iron substrate under implantation of boron and carbon. The equation for diffusion fluxes and reaction rate are obtained using Gibbs energy expansion into series with respect to concentration and their gradients.

  3. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  4. Mapping the evolution of scientific ideas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, David; Herrera, Mark; Gulbahce, Natali

    2009-01-01

    Despite the apparent conceptual boundaries of scientific fields, a formal description for their evolution is lacking. Here we describe a novel approach to study the dynamics and evolution of scientific fields using a network-based analysis. We build an idea network consisting of American Physical Society PACS numbers as nodes representing scientific concepts. Two PACS numbers are linked if there exist publications that reference them simultaneously. We locate scientific fields using Cfinder, an overlapping community finding algorithm, and describe the time evolution of these fields using a community evolution method over the course of 1985-2006. The communities we identify map to known scientific fields, and their age strongly depends on t.heir size, impact and activity. Our analysis further suggests that communities that redefine themselves by merging and creating new groups of ideas tend to have more fitness as measured by the impact per paper, and hence communities with a higher fitness tend to be short-lived. The described approach to quantify the evolution of ideas may be relevant in making predictions about the future of science and how to guide its development.

  5. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  6. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  7. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K; Cuppett, D; Dyer, D

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with Kalwall building panels. An added feature of the Kalwall system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  8. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  9. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Elder, Michael G.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  10. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  11. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  12. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  13. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  14. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  15. Using field observations to inform thermal hydrology models of permafrost dynamics with ATS (v0.83)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atchley, Adam L.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Coon, Ethan T.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is profoundly transforming the carbon-rich Arctic tundra landscape, potentially moving it from a carbon sink to a carbon source by increasing the thickness of soil that thaws on a seasonal basis. Thus, the modeling capability and precise parameterizations of the physical characteristics needed to estimate projected active layer thickness (ALT) are limited in Earth system models (ESMs). In particular, discrepancies in spatial scale between field measurements and Earth system models challenge validation and parameterization of hydrothermal models. A recently developed surface–subsurface model for permafrost thermal hydrology, the Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is used in combination with field measurements to achieve the goals of constructing a process-rich model based on plausible parameters and to identify fine-scale controls of ALT in ice-wedge polygon tundra in Barrow, Alaska. An iterative model refinement procedure that cycles between borehole temperature and snow cover measurements and simulations functions to evaluate and parameterize different model processes necessary to simulate freeze–thaw processes and ALT formation. After model refinement and calibration, reasonable matches between simulated and measured soil temperatures are obtained, with the largest errors occurring during early summer above ice wedges (e.g., troughs). The results suggest that properly constructed and calibrated one-dimensional thermal hydrology models have the potential to provide reasonable representation of the subsurface thermal response and can be used to infer model input parameters and process representations. The models for soil thermal conductivity and snow distribution were found to be the most sensitive process representations. However, information on lateral flow and snowpack evolution might be needed to constrain model representations of surface hydrology and snow depth.

  16. Using field observations to inform thermal hydrology models of permafrost dynamics with ATS (v0.83)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atchley, A. L.; Painter, S. L.; Harp, D. R.; Coon, E. T.; Wilson, C. J.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2015-04-14

    Climate change is profoundly transforming the carbon-rich Arctic tundra landscape, potentially moving it from a carbon sink to a carbon source by increasing the thickness of soil that thaws on a seasonal basis. However, the modeling capability and precise parameterizations of the physical characteristics needed to estimate projected active layer thickness (ALT) are limited in Earth System Models (ESMs). In particular, discrepancies in spatial scale between field measurements and Earth System Models challenge validation and parameterization of hydrothermal models. A recently developed surface/subsurface model for permafrost thermal hydrology, the Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is used in combination with field measurements to calibrate and identify fine scale controls of ALT in ice wedge polygon tundra in Barrow, Alaska. An iterative model refinement procedure that cycles between borehole temperature and snow cover measurements and simulations functions to evaluate and parameterize different model processes necessary to simulate freeze/thaw processes and ALT formation. After model refinement and calibration, reasonable matches between simulated and measured soil temperatures are obtained, with the largest errors occurring during early summer above ice wedges (e.g. troughs). The results suggest that properly constructed and calibrated one-dimensional thermal hydrology models have the potential to provide reasonable representation of the subsurface thermal response and can be used to infer model input parameters and process representations. The models for soil thermal conductivity and snow distribution were found to be the most sensitive process representations. However, information on lateral flow and snowpack evolution might be needed to constrain model representations of surface hydrology and snow depth.

  17. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  18. Neutrino Physics with Thermal Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nucciotti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano Bicocca and INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2009-11-09

    The investigation of fundamental neutrino properties like its mass and its nature calls for the design of a new generation of experiments. High sensitivity, high energy resolution, and versatility together with the possibility of a simple multiplexing scheme are the key features of future detectors for these experiments. Thermal detectors can combine all these features. This paper reviews the status and the perspectives for what concerns the application of this type of detectors to neutrino physics, focusing on direct neutrino mass measurements and neutrinoless double beta decay searches.

  19. Temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Bible, Don W.; Sohns, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  20. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  1. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  2. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2 Solar thermal collector shipments by type, quantity, revenue, and average price, 2008 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  3. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1 Distribution of domestic solar thermal collector shipments (thousand square feet) 2008 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  4. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by type, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  5. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Shipments of solar thermal collectors ranked by origin and destination, 2009 Origin Top ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  6. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by source, 2000 - 2009 Imports Domestically ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  7. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by disposition, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  8. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7 Percent of solar thermal collector shipments by the 10 largest companies, 2000 - 2009 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  9. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5 Shipments of complete solar thermal collector systems, 2008 and 2009 Shipment ... Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

  10. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Import shipments of solar thermal collectors by country, 2008 and 2009 (square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...