Sample records for measuring thermal evolution

  1. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2- and Water-Based Geothermal Reservoirs Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last...

  2. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in Geothermal Reservoirs: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; Laurence C. Hull; George D. Redden

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The injection of cold fluids into engineered geothermal system (EGS) and conventional geothermal reservoirs may be done to help extract heat from the subsurface or to maintain pressures within the reservoir (e.g., Rose et al., 2001). As these injected fluids move along fractures, they acquire heat from the rock matrix and remove it from the reservoir as they are extracted to the surface. A consequence of such injection is the migration of a cold-fluid front through the reservoir (Figure 1) that could eventually reach the production well and result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). Efficient operation of an EGS as well as conventional geothermal systems involving cold-fluid injection requires accurate and timely information about thermal depletion of the reservoir in response to operation. In particular, accurate predictions of the time to thermal breakthrough and subsequent rate of thermal drawdown are necessary for reservoir management, design of fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting of economic return. A potential method for estimating migration of a cold front between an injection well and a production well is through application of reactive tracer tests, using chemical whose rate of degradation is dependent on the reservoir temperature between the two wells (e.g., Robinson 1985). With repeated tests, the rate of migration of the thermal front can be determined, and the time to thermal breakthrough calculated. While the basic theory behind the concept of thermal tracers has been understood for some time, effective application of the method has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes results of a study that used several methods to investigate application of reactive tracers to monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir. These methods included (1) mathematical investigation of the sensitivity of known and hypothetical reactive tracers, (2) laboratory testing of novel tracers that would improve method sensitivity, (3) development of a software tool for design and interpretation of reactive tracer tests and (4) field testing of the reactive tracer temperature monitoring concept.

  3. Thermal Evolution of Strange Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou Xia; Wang Lingzhi; Zhou Aizhi

    2007-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the thermal evolution of rotating strange stars with the deconfinement heating due to magnetic braking. We consider the stars consisting of either normal quark matter or color-flavor-locked phase. Combining deconfinement heating with magnetic field decay, we find that the thermal evolution curves are identical to pulsar data.

  4. Advancing reactive tracer methods for measuring thermal evolution in CO2-and water-based geothermal reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project aims to develop reactive tracer method for monitoring thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems.

  5. Energy Partitions and Evolution in a Purely Thermal Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleishman, Gregory D; Gary, Dale E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a solely thermal flare, which we detected in the microwave range from the thermal gyro- and free-free emission it produced. An advantage of analyzing thermal gyro emission is its unique ability to precisely yield the magnetic field in the radiating volume. When combined with observationally-deduced plasma density and temperature, these magnetic field measurements offer a straightforward way of tracking evolution of the magnetic and thermal energies in the flare. For the event described here, the magnetic energy density in the radio-emitting volume declines over the flare rise phase, then stays roughly constant during the extended peak phase, but recovers to the original level over the decay phase. At the stage where the magnetic energy density decreases, the thermal energy density increases; however, this increase is insufficient, by roughly an order of magnitude, to compensate for the magnetic energy decrease. When the magnetic energy release is over, the source parameters come back to ne...

  6. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  7. Thermal evolution of microstructure in ion-irradiated GaN. |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    evolution of microstructure in ion-irradiated GaN. Thermal evolution of microstructure in ion-irradiated GaN. Abstract: The thermal evolution of the microstructure created by...

  8. Measurements of the Thermal Neutron Scattering Kernel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Measurements of the Thermal Neutron Scattering Kernel Li (Emily) Liu, Yaron Danon, Bjorn Becker and discussions Problems and Future study Questions #12;3 M. Mattes and J. Keinert, Thermal Neutron Scattering experimental data used was from 1973-1974! M. Mattes and J. Keinert, Thermal Neutron Scattering Data

  9. Measuring Thermal Transport in Extreme Environments: Thermal Conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Chen California Institute of Technology Jackie Li University of Michigan supported by CarnegieMeasuring Thermal Transport in Extreme Environments: Thermal Conductivity of Water Ice VII to 20 GPa David G. Cahill, Wen-Pin Hsieh, Dallas Trinkle, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Bin

  10. Thermal emission measurement and calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Susannah (Susannah R.)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis details a measurement setup and experimental procedures for emittance measurements using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. We calibrate the FTIR measurement system using measurements of a blackbody ...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Big dams and salmon evolution: changes in thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angilletta, Michael

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Big dams and salmon evolution: changes in thermal regimes and their potential (Oncorhynchus spp.) across portions of their natural range, dams have arguably played a major role in many locations (NRC 1996; Lichatowich 1999; Ruckelshaus et al. 2002). Large dams (>15 m tall)­ designed

  12. Measurement-driven quantum evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roa, L.; Delgado, A.; Ladron de Guevara, M. L.; Klimov, A. B. [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta, Chile and Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the problem of mapping an unknown mixed quantum state onto a known pure state without the use of unitary transformations. This is achieved with the help of sequential measurements of two noncommuting observables only. We show that the overall success probability is maximized in the case of measuring two observables whose eigenstates define mutually unbiased bases. We find that for this optimal case the success probability quickly converges to unity as the number of measurement processes increases and that it is almost independent of the initial state. In particular, we show that to guarantee a success probability close to one the number of consecutive measurements must be larger than the dimension of the Hilbert space. We connect these results to quantum copying, quantum deleting, and entanglement generation.

  13. Thermal conductivity measurements of Summit polycrystalline silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Rebecca; Kuppers, Jaron D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A capability for measuring the thermal conductivity of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials using a steady state resistance technique was developed and used to measure the thermal conductivities of SUMMiT{trademark} V layers. Thermal conductivities were measured over two temperature ranges: 100K to 350K and 293K to 575K in order to generate two data sets. The steady state resistance technique uses surface micromachined bridge structures fabricated using the standard SUMMiT fabrication process. Electrical resistance and resistivity data are reported for poly1-poly2 laminate, poly2, poly3, and poly4 polysilicon structural layers in the SUMMiT process from 83K to 575K. Thermal conductivity measurements for these polysilicon layers demonstrate for the first time that the thermal conductivity is a function of the particular SUMMiT layer. Also, the poly2 layer has a different variation in thermal conductivity as the temperature is decreased than the poly1-poly2 laminate, poly3, and poly4 layers. As the temperature increases above room temperature, the difference in thermal conductivity between the layers decreases.

  14. Thermal evolution of the Schwinger model with Matrix Product Operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. Bañuls; K. Cichy; J. I. Cirac; K. Jansen; H. Saito

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the suitability of tensor network techniques for describing the thermal evolution of lattice gauge theories. As a benchmark case, we have studied the temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model, using matrix product operators to approximate the thermal equilibrium states for finite system sizes with non-zero lattice spacings. We show how these techniques allow for reliable extrapolations in bond dimension, step width, system size and lattice spacing, and for a systematic estimation and control of all error sources involved in the calculation. The reached values of the lattice spacing are small enough to capture the most challenging region of high temperatures and the final results are consistent with the analytical prediction by Sachs and Wipf over a broad temperature range.

  15. Quasi-static thermal evolution of compact objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Becerra; H. Hernandez; L. A. Nunez

    2014-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study under what conditions the thermal peeling is present for dissipative local and quasi-local anisotropic spherical matter configurations. The thermal peeling occurs when different signs in the velocity of fluid elements appears, giving rise to the splitting of the matter configuration. The evolution is considered in the quasi-static approximation and the matter contents are radiant, anisotropic (unequal stresses) spherical local and quasi-local fluids. The heat flux and the associated temperature profiles are described by causal thermodynamics consistent with this approximation. It is found some particular, local and quasi-local equation of state for ultra-dense matter configurations exhibit thermal peeling when most of the radiated energy is concentrated at the middle of the distribution. This effect, which appears to be associated with extreme astrophysical scenarios (highly relativistic and very luminous gravitational system expelling its outer mass shells), is very sensible to energy flux profile and to the shape of the luminosity emitted by the compact object.

  16. Evolution of Surname Distribution under Gender-Equality Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toral, Raúl

    Evolution of Surname Distribution under Gender- Equality Measures Luis F. Lafuerza, Raul Toral Mallorca, Spain Abstract We consider a model for the evolution of surname distribution under a gender, Toral R (2011) Evolution of Surname Distribution under Gender-Equality Measures. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18105

  17. Predicting Thermal Conductivity Evolution of Polycrystalline Materials Under Irradiation Using Multiscale Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dongsheng; Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiscale methodology was developed to predict the evolution of thermal conductivity of polycrystalline fuel under irradiation. In the mesoscale level, phase field model was used to predict the evolution of gas bubble microstructure. Generation of gas atoms and vacancies were taken into consideration. In the macroscopic scale, a statistical continuum mechanics model was applied to predict the anisotropic thermal conductivity evolution during irradiation. Microstructure predicted by phase field model was fed into statistical continuum mechanics model to predict properties and behavior. Influence of irradiation intensity, exposition time and morphology were investigated. This approach provides a deep understanding on microstructure evolution and property prediction from a basic scientific viewpoint.

  18. Eects of thermo-chemical mantle convection on the thermal evolution of the Earth's core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tackley, Paul J.

    E¡ects of thermo-chemical mantle convection on the thermal evolution of the Earth's core Takashi in the core with a fully dynamic thermo-chemical mantle convection model is developed to investigate

  19. Thermal performance measurements of insulated roof systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courville, G.E.; Childs, K.W.; Walukas, D.J.; Childs, P.W.; Griggs, E.I.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Roof Thermal Researcch Apparatus for carrying out thermal and hygric experiments on sections of low-sloped roofs. Test panels are exposed to a controlled temperature interior space and to the prevailing East Tennessee exterior environment. They are well instrumented and all data are stored and aided in the analysis by computer systems. Current experiments include studies of the effect of wet insulation on membrane temperature, thermal storage phenomena in built-up roof insulation, and the effects of varying surface reflectance on roof thermal performance.

  20. Thermal Structure and Radius Evolution of Irradiated Gas Giant Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phil Arras; Lars Bildsten

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the thermal structure and radii of strongly irradiated gas giant planets over a range in mass and irradiating flux. The cooling rate of the planet is sensitive to the surface boundary condition, which depends on the detailed manner in which starlight is absorbed and energy redistributed by fluid motion. We parametrize these effects by imposing an isothermal boundary condition $T \\equiv T_{\\rm deep}$ below the photosphere, and then constrain $T_{\\rm deep}$ from the observed masses and radii. We compute the dependence of luminosity and core temperature on mass, $T_{\\rm deep}$ and core entropy, finding that simple scalings apply over most of the relevant parameter space. These scalings yield analytic cooling models which exhibit power-law behavior in the observable age range $0.1-10 {\\rm Gyr}$, and are confirmed by time-dependent cooling calculations. We compare our model to the radii of observed transiting planets, and derive constraints on $T_{\\rm deep}$. Only HD 209458 has a sufficiently accurate radius measurement that $T_{\\rm deep}$ is tightly constrained; the lower error bar on the radii for other planets is consistent with no irradiation. More accurate radius and age measurements will allow for a determination of the correlation of $T_{\\rm deep}$ with the equilibrium temperature, informing us about both the greenhouse effect and day-night asymmetries.

  1. A simplified model for thermal-wave cavity self-consistent measurement of thermal diffusivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jun, E-mail: jun.shen@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca; Zhou, Jianqin; Gu, Caikang [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio, National Research Council Canada, 4250 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1W5 (Canada)] [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio, National Research Council Canada, 4250 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1W5 (Canada); Neill, Stuart [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Building M-9, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)] [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Building M-9, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Michaelian, Kirk H.; Fairbridge, Craig [CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada, One Oil Drive Patch, Devon, Alberta T9G 1A8 (Canada)] [CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada, One Oil Drive Patch, Devon, Alberta T9G 1A8 (Canada); Astrath, Nelson G. C.; Baesso, Mauro L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, Maringá, Paraná 87020-900 (Brazil)] [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, Maringá, Paraná 87020-900 (Brazil)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A simplified theoretical model was developed for the thermal-wave cavity (TWC) technique in this study. This model takes thermal radiation into account and can be employed for absolute measurements of the thermal diffusivity of gas and liquid samples without any knowledge of geometrical and thermal parameters of the components of the TWC. Using this model and cavity-length scans, thermal diffusivities of air and distilled water were accurately and precisely measured as (2.191 ± 0.004) × 10{sup ?5} and (1.427 ± 0.009) × 10{sup ?7} m{sup 2}?s{sup ?1}, respectively, in very good agreement with accepted literature values.

  2. Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T Temperatures of Window Specimens: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith1 , Howdy and cold sides, respectively. Surface temperature maps were compiled using an infrared thermographic system

  3. Thermal evolution behavior of carbides and {gamma} Prime precipitates in FGH96 superalloy powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Lin, E-mail: zhanglincsu@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Liu Hengsan, E-mail: lhsj63@sohu.com [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); He Xinbo, E-mail: xb_he@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Rafi-ud-din, E-mail: rafiuddi@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Qu Xuanhui, E-mail: quxh@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Qin Mingli, E-mail: mlqin75@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Li Zhou, E-mail: zhouli621@126.com [National Key Lab of High Temperature Structural Materials, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing, 100095 (China); Zhang Guoqing, E-mail: g.zhang@126.com [National Key Lab of High Temperature Structural Materials, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing, 100095 (China)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of rapidly solidified FGH96 superalloy powder and the thermal evolution behavior of carbides and {gamma} Prime precipitates within powder particles were investigated. It was observed that the reduction of powder size and the increase of cooling rate had transformed the solidification morphologies of atomized powder from dendrite in major to cellular structure. The secondary dendritic spacing was measured to be 1.02-2.55 {mu}m and the corresponding cooling rates were estimated to be in the range of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4}-4.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K{center_dot}s{sup -1}. An increase in the annealing temperature had rendered the phase transformation of carbides evolving from non-equilibrium MC Prime carbides to intermediate transition stage of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, and finally to thermodynamically stable MC carbides. The superfine {gamma} Prime precipitates were formed at the dendritic boundaries of rapidly solidified superalloy powder. The coalescence, growth, and homogenization of {gamma}' precipitates occurred with increasing annealing temperature. With decreasing cooling rate from 650 Degree-Sign C{center_dot}K{sup -1} to 5 Degree-Sign C{center_dot}K{sup -1}, the morphological development of {gamma} Prime precipitates had been shown to proceed from spheroidal to cuboidal and finally to solid state dendrites. Meanwhile, a shift had been observed from dendritic morphology to recrystallized structure between 900 Degree-Sign C and 1050 Degree-Sign C. Moreover, accelerated evolution of carbides and {gamma}' precipitates had been facilitated by the formation of new grain boundaries which provide fast diffusion path for atomic elements. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural characteristic of FGH96 superalloy powder was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relation between microstructure, particle size, and cooling rate was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal evolution behavior of {gamma} Prime and carbides in loose FGH96 powder was studied.

  4. Major transitions in evolution linked to thermal gradients above hydrothermal vents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthonie W. J. Muller

    2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The emergence of the main divisions of today's life: (1) unicellular prokaryotes, (2) unicellular eukaryotes, (3) multicellular eukaryotes, and (4) metazoans, are examples of the--still unexplained--major transitions in evolution. Regarding the origin of life, I have proposed that primordial life functioned as heat engine (thermosynthesis) while thermally cycled in convecting volcanic hot springs. Here I argue for a role of thermal gradients above submarine hydrothermal vents (SHV) in several major transitions. The last decade has witnessed the emergence of phononics, a novel discipline in physics based on controlled heat transport in thermal gradients. It builds thermal analogs to electronic devices: the thermal diode, the thermal transistor, the thermal switch, the thermal amplifier, the thermal memory--the thermal computer has been proposed. Encouraged by (1) the many similarities between microtubules (MT) and carbon nanotubes, which have a very high thermal conductivity, and (2) the recent discovery of a silk protein which also has a very high thermal conductivity, I combine and extend the mentioned ideas, and propose the general conjecture that several major transitions of evolution were effected by thermal processes, with four additional partial conjectures: (1) The first organisms used heat engines during thermosynthesis in convection cells; (2) The first eukaryotic cells used MT during thermosynthesis in the thermal gradient above SHV; (3) The first metazoans used transport of water or in water during thermosynthesis above SHV under an ice-covered ocean during the Gaskiers Snowball Earth; and (4) The first mammalian brain used a thermal machinery based on thermal gradients in or across the cortex. When experimentally proven these conjectures, which are testable by the methods of synthetic biology, would significantly enhance our understanding of life.

  5. Front surface thermal property measurements of air plasma spray coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Ted; Kakuda, Tyler [University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5070 (United States); Kulkarni, Anand [Siemens Energy, Orlando, Florida 32826-2399 (United States)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A front-surface measurement for determining the thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings has been applied to air plasma spray coatings. The measurement is used to determine all independent thermal properties of the coating simultaneously. Furthermore, with minimal requirements placed on the sample and zero sample preparation, measurements can be made under previously impossible conditions, such as on serviceable engine parts. Previous application of this technique was limited to relatively thin coatings, where a one-dimensional heat transfer model is applied. In this paper, the influence of heat spreading on the measurement of thicker coatings is investigated with the development of a two-dimensional heat transfer model.

  6. Method for measuring thermal properties using a long-wavelength infrared thermal image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM); Costin, Laurence S. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Jody L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moya, Mary M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mercier, Jeffrey A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for estimating the thermal properties of surface materials using long-wavelength thermal imagery by exploiting the differential heating histories of ground points in the vicinity of shadows. The use of differential heating histories of different ground points of the same surface material allows the use of a single image acquisition step to provide the necessary variation in measured parameters for calculation of the thermal properties of surface materials.

  7. Thermal emission microscopy measures the spa-tial distribution of temperature in a sample. Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    per unit area emitted by an object is proportional to its absolute temperature to the fourth powerThermal emission microscopy measures the spa- tial distribution of temperature in a sample. Thermal- cause the optical power emitted by the sample is a function of its local temperature. The optical power

  8. Electrical, Frequency and Thermal Measurement and Modelling of Supercapacitor Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Electrical, Frequency and Thermal Measurement and Modelling of Supercapacitor Performance Yasser--This paper presents an evaluation of commercial supercapacitors performance (ESR, C, self-discharge, Pmax, Emax, coulumbic efficiency, etc), under different conditions. Characterization of supercapacitor

  9. Thermal and Kinematic Evolution of the Eastern Cordillera Fold and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toro, Jaime

    that determine the timing of hydrocarbon source rock maturation and the quality of sandstone reservoirs.0. The models were constrained by well, seismic, apatite fission-track, and thermal-maturity data. The main Tertiary, the bulk of the deformation occurred during the Miocene to Holocene Andean orogeny. Rocks

  10. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Saltstone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Fowley, M.D.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive liquid effluent from the In Tank Precipitation Process is mixed with Portland cement, flyash and furnace alag to form Saltstone. The Saltstone is poured into vaults at Z Area for long term disposal. A transient heat transfer model of the Saltstone pouring process was previously written to determine whether the Saltstone temperature would exceed the Technical Specification Limit of 95 degrees C. The present work was performed to provide Saltstone density, heat capacity, heat of hydration and thermal conductivity for inclusion in the model.

  11. Thermal imaging measurement of lateral thermal diffusivity in continuous fiber ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, J. G.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.

    2000-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared thermal imaging has become a common technique for nondestructive evaluation and measurement of thermal properties in ceramic specimens. Flash thermal imaging can be used to determine two-dimensional through-thickness thermal diffusivity in a planar specimen. In this study, the authors extended the method to determine lateral, or transverse, thermal diffusivity in the specimen. During the flash thermal imaging test, pulsed heat energy is applied to a specimen's back surface, which is partially shielded, and the change of temperature distribution on the front surface is monitored by an infrared thermal imaging system. The temperature distribution represents the effect of both the normal heat transfer through the specimen's thickness and the lateral heat transfer through the interface between the shielded and unshielded back-surface regions. Those temperature distributions are then fitted with a theoretical solution of the heat transfer process to determine the lateral thermal diffusivity at the interface. This technique has been applied to measure lateral thermal diffusivity in a steel plate and a continuous fiber ceramic composite specimen.

  12. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Tairan, E-mail: trfu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  13. In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Measurement Method for Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joy L. Rempe; Brandon Fox; Heng Ban; Joshua E. Daw; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermophysical properties of advanced nuclear fuels and materials during irradiation must be known prior to their use in existing, advanced, or next generation reactors. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties for predicting fuel and material performance. A joint Utah State University (USU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) project, which is being conducted with assistance from the Institute for Energy Technology at the Norway Halden Reactor Project, is investigating in-pile fuel thermal conductivity measurement methods. This paper focuses on one of these methods – a multiple thermocouple method. This two-thermocouple method uses a surrogate fuel rod with Joule heating to simulate volumetric heat generation to gain insights about in-pile detection of thermal conductivity. Preliminary results indicated that this method can measure thermal conductivity over a specific temperature range. This paper reports the thermal conductivity values obtained by this technique and compares these values with thermal property data obtained from standard thermal property measurement techniques available at INL’s High Test Temperature Laboratory. Experimental results and material properties data are also compared to finite element analysis results.

  14. Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Thermal Conductivity in Alumina-Water Nanofluid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortenberry, Stephen

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this effort, the temporal behavior of a manufactured alumina (Al2O3) – water nanofluid was evaluated. Measurements of nanofluid effective thermal conductivity were acquired over an extended time period. Analysis of acquired measurements...

  15. Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Thermal Conductivity in Alumina-Water Nanofluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortenberry, Stephen

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this effort, the temporal behavior of a manufactured alumina (Al2O3) – water nanofluid was evaluated. Measurements of nanofluid effective thermal conductivity were acquired over an extended time period. Analysis of acquired measurements...

  16. The influence of impregnation by hydrocarbons on coal structure during its thermal evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    structure (hydrocarbon/oil-like substances) on the thermal evolution of the coal. The transformation ratio of the resultant products was performed. Changes in textural and microtextural properties associated and other hydrogenated products. This is, therefore, related to coals with high liptinite contents [6, 7, 8

  17. Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process localiser la chambre à vapeur. INTRODUCTION [1] Huge quantities of heavy oils (heavy oil, extra heavy oil. Larribau 64018 Pau Cedex, France Oil and Gas Science and Technology 2012, 67 (6), 1029-1039, doi:10

  18. Formation and thermal evolution of insoluble reservoir bitumen in Angolan carbonate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Formation and thermal evolution of insoluble reservoir bitumen in Angolan carbonate reservoirs from 98% insoluble bitumen to 45% insoluble, indicating a substantial spread of maturity. However, the discordance shown by these parameters (e.g. bitumen reflectance and bitumen solubility in DCM) indicates

  19. Thermal measurements in the nuclear winter fire test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, M.E.; Keltner, N.R.; Kent, L.A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March, 1987, a large open pool fire test was performed to provide test measurements to help define the thermal characteristics of large open pool fires and estimates of the smoke source term for the nuclear winter (global effects) scenario. This report will present the results of the thermal measurements as well as comparisons with previous test results. These measurements included flame temperatures, heat fluxes to a variety of calorimeters, and gas velocities in the lower flame regions. 13 refs., 76 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Thermal imaging measurement and correlation of thermal diffusivity in continuous fiber ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, J.G.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Easler, T.E.; Szweda, A. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); Craig, P.A. [DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites (CFCCs) are currently being developed for a variety of high-temperature applications, including use in advanced heat engines. For such composites, knowledge of porosity distribution and presence of defects is important for optimizing mechanical and thermal behavior of the components. The assessment of porosity and its distribution is also necessary during composite processing to ensure component uniformity. To determine the thermal properties of CFCC materials, and particularly for detecting defects and nonuniformities, the authors have developed an infrared thermal imaging method to provide a single-shot full-field measurement of thermal diffusivity distributions in large components. This method requires that the back surface of a specimen receives a thermal pulse of short duration and that the temperature of the front surface is monitored as a function of time. The system has been used to measure thermal diffusivities of several CFCC materials with known porosity or density values, including SYLRAMIC{trademark} SiC/SiNC composite samples from Dow Corning and SiC/SiC and enhanced SiC/SiC samples from DuPont Lanxide Composites, to determine the relationship of thermal diffusivity to component porosity or density.

  1. Spectral measurement of the thermal excitation of a superconducting qubit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Spectral measurement of the thermal excitation of a superconducting qubit A. Palacios-Laloy, F of a superconducting qubit 2 Superconducting qubits [1] are promising candidates for implementing a solid- state lying in their ground state. In most superconducting qubit experiments, the initialization is simply

  2. Time Evolution of Tunneling in Thermal Medium -- Environment-driven Excited Tunneling --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sh. Matsumoto; M. Yoshimura

    2003-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Time evolution of tunneling phenomena proceeding in thermal medium is studied using a standard model of environment interaction. A semiclassical probability formula for the particle motion in a metastable state of one dimensional system put in thermal medium is combined with the formula of quantum penetration factor through a potential barrier, to derive the tunneling rate in medium. Effect of environment, its influence on time evolution in particular, is clarified in a real-time formalism. A nonlinear resonance effect is shown to enhance the tunneling rate at finite times of order $2/\\eta $, with $\\eta $ the friction coefficient. In the linear approximation this effect has relevance to the parametric resonance. This effect enhances the possibility of early termination of the cosmological phase transition much prior to the typical Hubble time.

  3. Advancing reactive tracer methods for measuring thermal evolution...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ability to accurately detect reservoir characteristics including fluid pathways, dynamics, residence time, etc." - 4.1.5.1-Barrier J: "Inadequate tracers andor tracer...

  4. VALIDATION OF A THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FUEL COMPACTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Phillips; Colby Jensen; Changhu Xing; Heng Ban

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow measurement system has been built to measure the thermal conductivity of a composite nuclear fuel compact. It is a steady-state measurement device designed to operate over a temperature range of 300 K to 1200 K. No existing apparatus is currently available for obtaining the thermal conductivity of the composite fuel in a non-destructive manner due to the compact’s unique geometry and composite nature. The current system design has been adapted from ASTM E 1225. As a way to simplify the design and operation of the system, it uses a unique radiative heat sink to conduct heat away from the sample column. A finite element analysis was performed on the measurement system to analyze the associated error for various operating conditions. Optimal operational conditions have been discovered through this analysis and results are presented. Several materials have been measured by the system and results are presented for stainless steel 304, inconel 625, and 99.95% pure iron covering a range of thermal conductivities of 10 W/m*K to 70 W/m*K. A comparison of the results has been made to data from existing literature.

  5. Analysis of measurements of the thermal conductivity of liquid urania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

    1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis was performed of the three existing measurements of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of molten uranium dioxide. A transient heat transfer code (THTB) was used for this analysis. A much smaller range of values for thermal conductivity than originally reported was found: the original values ranged from 2.4 to 11 W . m/sup -1/ . K/sup -1/, with a mean of 7.3 W . m/sup -1/ . K/sup -1/, whereas the recalculated values ranged from 4.5 to 6.75 W . m/sup -1/ . K/sup -1/, with a mean of 5.6 W . m/sup -1/ . K/sup -1/.

  6. Material loss angles from direct measurements of broadband thermal noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Principe, Maria; Pierro, Vincenzo; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Taurasi, Ilaria; Villar, Akira E; Black, Eric D; Libbrecht, Kenneth G; Michel, Christophe; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimate the loss angles of the materials currently used in the highly reflective test-mass coatings of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, namely Silica, Tantala, and Ti-dop ed Tantala, from direct measurement of coating thermal noise in an optical interferometer testbench, the Caltech TNI. We also present a simple predictive theory for the material properties of amorphous glassy oxide mixtures, which gives results in good agreement with our measurements on Ti-doped Tantala. Alternative measure ment methods and results are reviewed, and some critical issues are discussed.

  7. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  8. MEASUREMENT OF WIND SPEED FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Cary Tuckfield, C; Malcolm Pendergast, M

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected thermal imagery and ground truth data at two commercial power plant cooling lakes to investigate the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and wind speed, and statistics derived from thermal imagery. SRNL demonstrated in a previous paper [1] that a linear relationship exists between the standard deviation of image temperature and surface heat flux. In this paper, SRNL will show that the skewness of the temperature distribution derived from cooling lake thermal images correlates with instantaneous wind speed measured at the same location. SRNL collected thermal imagery, surface meteorology and water temperatures from helicopters and boats at the Comanche Peak and H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant cooling lakes. SRNL found that decreasing skewness correlated with increasing wind speed, as was the case for the laboratory experiments. Simple linear and orthogonal regression models both explained about 50% of the variance in the skewness - wind speed plots. A nonlinear (logistic) regression model produced a better fit to the data, apparently because the thermal convection and resulting skewness are related to wind speed in a highly nonlinear way in nearly calm and in windy conditions.

  9. Effect of implanted species on thermal evolution of ion-induced defects in ZnO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azarov, A. Yu.; Rauwel, P.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.; Svensson, B. G. [Department of Physics, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, PO Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Hallén, A. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH-ICT, Electrum 229, SE-164 40, Kista, Stockholm (Sweden); Du, X. L. [Institute of Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Implanted atoms can affect the evolution of ion-induced defects in radiation hard materials exhibiting a high dynamic annealing and these processes are poorly understood. Here, we study the thermal evolution of structural defects in wurtzite ZnO samples implanted at room temperature with a wide range of ion species (from {sup 11}B to {sup 209}Bi) to ion doses up to 2?×?10{sup 16}?cm{sup ?2}. The structural disorder was characterized by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis, and transmission electron microscopy, while secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to monitor the behavior of both the implanted elements and residual impurities, such as Li. The results show that the damage formation and its thermal evolution strongly depend on the ion species. In particular, for F implanted samples, a strong out-diffusion of the implanted ions results in an efficient crystal recovery already at 600?°C, while co-implantation with B (via BF{sub 2}) ions suppresses both the F out-diffusion and the lattice recovery at such low temperatures. The damage produced by heavy ions (such as Cd, Au, and Bi) exhibits a two-stage annealing behavior where efficient removal of point defects and small defect clusters occurs at temperatures ?500?°C, while the second stage is characterized by a gradual and partial annealing of extended defects. These defects can persist even after treatment at 900?°C. In contrast, the defects produced by light and medium mass ions (O, B, and Zn) exhibit a more gradual annealing with increasing temperature without distinct stages. In addition, effects of the implanted species may lead to a nontrivial defect evolution during the annealing, with N, Ag, and Er as prime examples. In general, the obtained results are interpreted in terms of formation of different dopant-defect complexes and their thermal stability.

  10. Geophys. J. Int. (1999) 139, 248260 The thermal evolution of sedimentary basins and its effect on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the resulting maturation index of particular source rocks, given the combined effects of the thermal and burial of the evolution of the Earth's thermal maturation of hydrocarbons in potential oil source rocks, can profile of hydrocarbon source rocks depends on a range of factors, including the primary rock type and its original

  11. An Information-Theoretic Measure of Uncertainty due to Quantum and Thermal Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arlen Anderson; Jonathan J. Halliwell

    1993-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We study an information-theoretic measure of uncertainty for quantum systems. It is the Shannon information $I$ of the phase space probability distribution $\\la z | \\rho | z \\ra $, where $|z \\ra $ are coherent states, and $\\rho$ is the density matrix. The uncertainty principle is expressed in this measure as $I \\ge 1$. For a harmonic oscillator in a thermal state, $I$ coincides with von Neumann entropy, $- \\Tr(\\rho \\ln \\rho)$, in the high-temperature regime, but unlike entropy, it is non-zero at zero temperature. It therefore supplies a non-trivial measure of uncertainty due to both quantum and thermal fluctuations. We study $I$ as a function of time for a class of non-equilibrium quantum systems consisting of a distinguished system coupled to a heat bath. We derive an evolution equation for $I$. For the harmonic oscillator, in the Fokker-Planck regime, we show that $I$ increases monotonically. For more general Hamiltonians, $I$ settles down to monotonic increase in the long run, but may suffer an initial decrease for certain initial states that undergo ``reassembly'' (the opposite of quantum spreading). Our main result is to prove, for linear systems, that $I$ at each moment of time has a lower bound $I_t^{min}$, over all possible initial states. This bound is a generalization of the uncertainty principle to include thermal fluctuations in non-equilibrium systems, and represents the least amount of uncertainty the system must suffer after evolution in the presence of an environment for time $t$.

  12. Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nauroy, Jean-François; Guy, N; Baroni, Axelle; Delage, Pierre; Mainguy, Marc; 10.2516/ogst/2012027

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In thermally enhanced recovery processes like cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) or steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), continuous steam injection entails changes in pore fluid, pore pressure and temperature in the rock reservoir, that are most often unconsolidated or weakly consolidated sandstones. This in turn increases or decreases the effective stresses and changes the elastic properties of the rocks. Thermally enhanced recovery processes give rise to complex couplings. Numerical simulations have been carried out on a case study so as to provide an estimation of the evolution of pressure, temperature, pore fluid saturation, stress and strain in any zone located around the injector and producer wells. The approach of Ciz and Shapiro (2007) - an extension of the poroelastic theory of Biot-Gassmann applied to rock filled elastic material - has been used to model the velocity dispersion in the oil sand mass under different conditions of temperature and stress. A good agreement has been found between these pre...

  13. Design of a steady state thermal conductivity measurement device for CNT RET polymer composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louie, Brian Ming

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NY: Taylor & Francis. [10] Tritt, T. M. (2004). MeasurementBulk Materials. In T. M. Tritt, Thermal Conductivity Theory,

  14. Apparatus for thermal performance measurements of insulated roof systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courville, G.E.; Childs, K.W.; Walukas, D.J.; Childs, P.W.; Griggs, E.I.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy conducted thermal performance measurements on low-slope roofs with a recently developed field test apparatus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The apparatus accommodates four 4 ft x 8 ft test specimens and includes the measurement capabilities for specimen temperatures, temperature gradients, heat flows and moisture content. A weather station characterizes outdoor weather conditions. Tests underway include (1) validation of a roof surface temperature model developed to study the effects of wet insulation; (2) measurement of temperature distributions and heat transfer in high R-value roofs; and (3) validation of an analysis of the effectiveness of high reflectance surfaces. Preliminary experimental results are presented and correlations between experiment and modeling are discussed.

  15. Reexamination of Basal Plane Thermal Conductivity of Suspended Graphene Samples Measured by Electro-Thermal Micro-Bridge Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Insun [University of Texas at Austin; Pettes, Michael [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Lindsay, Lucas R [ORNL; Ou, Eric [University of Texas at Austin; Weathers, Annie [University of Texas at Austin; Moore, Arden [Louisiana Tech University; Yao, Zhen [University of Texas at Austin; Shi, Li [University of Texas at Austin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal transport in suspended graphene samples has been measured in prior works and this work with the use of a suspended electro-thermal micro-bridge method. These measurement results are analyzed here to evaluate and eliminate the errors caused by the extrinsic thermal contact resistance. It is noted that the thermal resistance measured in a recent work increases linearly with the suspended length of the single-layer graphene samples synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and that such a feature does not reveal the failure of Fourier s law despite the increase in the apparent thermal conductivity with length. The re-analyzed thermal conductivity of a single-layer CVD graphene sample reaches about ( 1680 180 )Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, which is close to the highest value reported for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In comparison, the thermal conductivity values measured for two suspended exfoliated bi-layer graphene samples are about ( 880 60 ) and ( 730 60 ) Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, and approach that of the natural graphite source above room temperature. However, the low-temperature thermal conductivities of these suspended graphene samples are still considerably lower than the graphite values, with the peak thermal conductivities shifted to much higher temperatures. Analysis of the thermal conductivity data reveals that the low temperature behavior is dominated by phonon scattering by polymer residue instead of by the lateral boundary.

  16. Measuring oxygen reduction/evolution reactions on the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Ciucci, Francesco [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of fuel cells and metal-air batteries is significantly limited by the activation of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR/OER). Despite the well-recognized role of oxygen reaction kinetics on the viability of energy technologies, the governing mechanisms remain elusive and until now addressable only by macroscopic studies. This lack of nanoscale understanding precludes optimization of material architecture. Here we report direct measurements of oxygen reduction/evolution reactions and oxygen vacancy diffusion on oxygen-ion conductive solid surfaces with sub-10 nanometer resolution. In electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), the biased scanning probe microscopy tip acts as a moving, electrocatalytically active probe exploring local electrochemical activity. The probe concentrates an electric field in a nanometer-scale volume of material, and bias-induced, picometer-level surface displacements provide information on local electrochemical processes. Systematic mapping of oxygen activity on bare and Pt-functionalized yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) surfaces is demonstrated. This approach allows directly visualization of ORR/OER activation process at the triple-phase boundary, and can be extended to broad spectrum of oxygen-conductive and electrocatalytic materials.

  17. Thermal Runaway During the Evolution of ONeMg Cores towards Accretion-Induced Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwab, Josiah; Bildsten, Lars

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the evolution of degenerate electron cores primarily composed of the carbon burning products oxygen, neon, and magnesium (hereafter ONeMg cores) that are undergoing compression. Electron capture reactions on A=20 and A=24 isotopes reduce the electron fraction and heat the core. We develop and use a new capability of the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) stellar evolution code that provides a highly accurate implementation of these key reactions. These new accurate rates and the ability of MESA to perform extremely small spatial zoning demonstrates a thermal runaway in the core triggered by the temperature and density sensitivity of the Ne-20 electron capture reactions. Both analytics and numerics show that this thermal runaway does not trigger core convection, but rather leads to a centrally concentrated (r 8.5 \\times 10^9\\, \\textrm{g cm}^{-3}$. Based on previous work and order-of-magnitude calculations, we expect objects which ignite oxygen at or above these densities to collap...

  18. Solar wind electron temperature and density measurements on the Solar Orbiter with thermal noise spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar wind electron temperature and density measurements on the Solar Orbiter with thermal noise of the plasma thermal noise analysis for the Solar Orbiter, in order to get accurate measurements of the total of their small mass and therefore large thermal speed, the solar wind electrons are expected to play a major role

  19. Solar wind electron density and temperature over solar cycle 23: Thermal noise measurements on Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    upstream of the EarthÃ?s bow shock. The WIND/WAVES thermal noise receiver was specially designed to measureSolar wind electron density and temperature over solar cycle 23: Thermal noise measurements on Wind the in situ plasma thermal noise spectra, from which the electron density and temperature can be accurately

  20. Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of PbTe Nanocrystal Coated Glass Fibers by the 3 Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruan, Xiulin

    using the self-heated 3 method particularly at low frequency. While prior 3 measurements on wire to measure the thermal properties of wire-like samples in the axial direction. These include the self-heating and electrical thermal sensing,6 pulsed laser-assisted thermal relaxation technique,7 and the technique

  1. Spatially localized measurement of thermal conductivity using a hybrid photothermal technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David H Hurley; Marat Khafizov; Zilong Hua; Rory Kennedy; Heng Ban

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photothermal technique capable of measuring thermal conductivity with micrometer lateral resolution is presented. This technique involves measuring separately the thermal diffusivity, D, and thermal effusivity, e, to extract the thermal conductivity, k=(e2/D)1/2. To generalize this approach, sensitivity analysis was conducted for materials having a range of thermal conductivities. Experimental validation was sought using two substrate materials, SiO2 and CaF2, both coated with thin titanium films. The measured conductivities compare favorably with literature values.

  2. Neutron superfluidity in strongly magnetic interiors of neutron stars and its effect on thermal evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ch. Schaab; F. Weber; M. K. Weigel

    1998-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of a neutron m=2-superfluid in the interior of neutron stars is investigated. This pairing state is energetically favoured in strong magnetic fields ($H\\sim 10^{16}-10^{17}$ G). Because of the node in the angular-dependent energy gap along the field direction the neutrino emissivity is only suppressed polynomially as function in $T/T_{c}$ instead of exponentially, as it is obtained for a nodeless pairing state. The effect of this pairing state on the thermal evolution of neutron stars is studied, and its outcome is compared with the evolution of ``normal'', i.e. nodeless, superfluid and non-superfluid neutron stars, and also with observations. We find that particularly the predicted surface temperatures of the enhanced cooling scenario considerably change and come into agreement with temperatures deduced from observational data within the hydrogen atmosphere model. Furthermore the surface temperature depends on the magnetic field strength as an additional parameter aside from the neutron star mass. The latter is however only operative in the case of the intermediate cooling scenario.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of thermal lens and temperature map in ytterbium-doped fluoride crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    characterization of temperature map and thermal lensing in Yb3+ :CaF2 and Yb3+ :SrF2 crystals under high-power with or without laser operation. We notice that all TL dioptric powers (Dth) are negative. Since the thermal lens focal length (fth) is inversely proportional to Dth, the measured thermal lenses are divergent for both

  4. ENS'07 Paris, France, 3-4 December 2007 MEASUREMENTS OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF ALUMINUM NANOPOWDERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ENS'07 Paris, France, 3-4 December 2007 MEASUREMENTS OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF ALUMINUM spectroscopy (PAS) as a powerful technique to estimate thermal properties of aluminum nanosized powders. Aluminum nanopowders are considered as effective constituents of energetic materials. Thermal conductivity

  5. First Results of Scanning Thermal Diffusivity Microscope (STDM) Measurements on Irradiated Monolithic and Dispersion Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. K. Huber; M. K. Figg; J. R. Kennedy; A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity of the fuel material in a reactor before and during irradiation is a sensitive and fundamental parameter for thermal hydraulic calculations that are useds to correctly determine fuel heat fluxes and meat temperatures and to simulate performance of the fuel elements during operation. Several techniques have been developed to measure the thermal properties of fresh fuel to support these calculations, but it is crucial to also investigate the change of thermal properties during irradiation.

  6. Supernova progenitors and iron density evolution from SN rate evolution measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Blanc; Laura Greggio

    2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Using an extensive compilation of literature supernova rate data we study to which extent its evolution constrains the star formation history, the distribution of the type Ia supernova (SNIa) progenitor's lifetime, the mass range of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) progenitors, and the evolution of the iron density in the field. We find that the diagnostic power of the cosmic SNIa rate on their progenitor model is relatively weak. More promising is the use of the evolution of the SNIa rate in galaxy clusters. We find that the CCSN rate is compatible with a Salpeter IMF, with a minimum mass for their progenitors > 10 Msun. We estimate the evolution in the field of the iron density released by SNe and find that in the local universe the iron abundance should be ~ 0.1 solar. We discuss the difference between this value and the iron abundance in clusters.

  7. Measurement and modeling of thermal properties of cakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Yah Hwa Eva

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    porosity. The predicted thermal conductivity is: I-28A kc-kd k = kc where A =? I+HA 2kc+kd (4) The thermal conductivities of the continuous and disperse phases are kc and kd respectively, while 8 is the void fraction of the disperse phase (or... porosity). The Naxwell-Eucken's equation may be applicable to cake. Russell (1935) examined porous insulating structures and derived the following equation to predict thermal conductivity of two-phase porous material. +(I-8 )kc/kd k=kc 8 -8+(1+8-g...

  8. Thermal Transport Measurement of Silicon-Germanium Nanowires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gwak, Yunki

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal properties of one dimensional nanostructures are of interest for thermoelectric energy conversion. Thermoelectric efficiency is related to non dimensional thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT=S^2 o T/k, where S ,o , k and T are Seebeck...

  9. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

  10. The measurement of thermal conductivity of jelly from 25 to 95 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yih-Rong

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    line heat source method, the thermal con- ductivities of a jelly model (unflavored jelly), sugar solution and some commercial jelly products were measured. The studies were conducted in the temperature range from 25 to 95 'C. Thermal conductivity... were developed from experimental data for unflavored jelly and sugar solutions to predict the thermal conductivity of commercially available fruit jellies at various moisture contents. The predicted values obtained were statistically compared...

  11. Thermal Transport Measurement of Silicon-Germanium Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gwak, Yunki

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    to the enhanced boundary scattering. Among the nanoscale semiconductor materials, Silicon-Germanium(SiGe) alloy nanowire is a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials The thermal conductivities of SiGe core-shell nanowires with core diameters of 96nm, 129...

  12. Power Handling of the Bulk Tungsten Divertor Row at JET: First Measurements and Comparison to the GTM Thermal Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power Handling of the Bulk Tungsten Divertor Row at JET: First Measurements and Comparison to the GTM Thermal Model

  13. Hot wire needle probe for in-reactor thermal conductivity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JE Daw; JL Rempe; DL Knudson

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity is a key property that must be known for proper design, test, and application of new fuels and structural materials in nuclear reactors. Thermal conductivity is highly dependent on the physical structure, chemical composition, and the state of the material. Typically, thermal conductivity changes that occur during irradiation are measured out-of-pile by Post Irradiated Examination (PIE) using a “cook and look” approach in hot-cells. Repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make out-of-pile measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provides understanding of the sample's end state at the time each measurement is made. There are also limited thermophysical property data for advanced fuels. Such data are needed for simulation design codes, the development of next generation reactors, and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Being able to quickly characterize fuel thermal conductivity during irradiation can improve the fidelity of data, reduce costs of post-irradiation examinations, increase understanding of how fuels behave under irradiation, and confirm or improve existing thermal conductivity measurement techniques. This paper discusses recent efforts to develop and evaluate an in-pile thermal conductivity sensor based on a hot wire needle probe. Testing has been performed on samples with thermal conductivities ranging from 0.2 W/m-K to 22 W-m-K in temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 600 °C. Thermal conductivity values measured using the needle probe match data found in the literature to within 5% for samples tested at room temperature, 5.67% for low thermal conductivity samples tested at high temperatures, and 10% for high thermal conductivity samples tested at high temperatures. Experimental results also show that this sensor is capable of operating in various test conditions and of surviving long duration irradiations.

  14. Effective thermal conductivity measurements relevant to deep borehole nuclear waste disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaikh, Samina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to measure the effective thermal conductivity of a number of materials (particle beds, and fluids) proposed for use in and around canisters for disposal of high level nuclear waste in deep ...

  15. Development of a nanostructure thermal property measurement platform compatible with a transmission electron microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, C. Thomas (Charles Thomas)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the electrical and thermal transport properties of one-dimensional nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes and nanowires) typically are obtained without detailed knowledge of the specimen's atomicscale structure ...

  16. Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . A survey of good practices for reflectivity measurement in CSP applications was completed by Solar of reflectivity includes both specular and diffuse reflectivity as well a directional and spectral measurement

  17. On the evolution of the empirical measure for the Hard-Sphere dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Pulvirenti; Sergio Simonella

    2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove that the evolution of marginals associated to the empirical measure of a finite system of hard spheres is driven by the BBGKY hierarchical expansion. The usual hierarchy of equations for $L^1$ measures is obtained as a corollary. We discuss the ambiguities arising in the corresponding notion of microscopic series solution to the Boltzmann-Enskog equation.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IN-PILE TECHNIQUE FOR THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon Fox; Heng Ban; Joy L. Rempe; Joshua E. Daw; Keith G. Condie; Darrell L. Knudson

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermophysical properties of advanced fuels and materials during irradiation must be known prior to their use in existing, advanced, or next generation reactors. Fuel thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties for predicting fuel performance and reactor safety. This paper discusses a joint Utah State University (USU)/Idaho National Laboratory (INL) project to investigate an in-pile fuel thermal conductivity measurement technique using a surrogate fuel rod. The method used a surrogate fuel rod with Joule heating to simulate volumetric heat generation as a proof-of-concept test in-pile application. Carbon structural foam, CFOAM®, a product of Touchtone Research Laboratory was chosen as the surrogate material because of the variable electrical and thermal properties upon fabrication. To stay within the surrogate fuel rod requirements, electrical and thermal properties were tailored by Touchtone Research Laboratory to match required values. This paper describes are the techniques used for quantifying thermal conductivity. A description of the test setup and preliminary results are presented. Two thermocouples are inserted into a 1-inch diameter, 6-inch long rod of CFOAM® at known locations. Knowing the applied volumetric heat to the rod by electrical resistance heating, the thermal conductivity can be calculated. Sensitivities of this measurement can also found by analysis and testing of different configurations of the sample setup. Verification of thermal conductivity is found by measuring the thermal properties of the CFOAM® using different methods. Thermal properties including thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, and expansion coefficient of two types of CFOAM®, CFOAM20 and CFOAM25, were characterized using standard measurement techniques, such as laser flash, differential scanning calorimetry, and pushrod dilatometry.

  19. Thermal Imaging Technique for Measuring Mixing of Fluids - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in theTheoretical Study onThermal Hydraulic

  20. Measurement of the thermal neutron capture cross section of {sup 180}W

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, W. G.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, J. I.; Hahn, I. S.; Kim, A. R.; Kim, H. J. [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Science Education, Ewha Woman's University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Physics Department, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We measured the thermal neutron capture cross section for the {sup 180}W nucleus. There is only one previous measurement with regard to this cross section, and it yielded a value of 30 -100%+300% b. To determine whether {sup 181}W is an appropriate low energy neutrino source, the thermal neutron capture cross section should be measured more precisely to estimate the production rate of {sup 181}W inside a nuclear reactor. We measured the cross section of {sup 180}W using a natural tungsten foil and obtained a value of 22.6{+-}1.7 b.

  1. Te (R,t) Measurements using Electron Bernstein Wave Thermal Emission on NSTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diem, S J; Efthimion, P C; LeBlanc, B P; Carter, M; Caughman, J; Wilgen, J B; Harvey, R W; Preinhaelter, J; Urban, J

    2006-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) routinely studies overdense plasmas with ne of (1–5) X 1019 m-3 and total magnetic field of <0.6 T, so that the first several electron cyclotron harmonics are overdense. The electrostatic electron Bernstein wave (EBW) can propagate in overdense plasmas, exhibits strong absorption, and is thermally emitted at electron cyclotron harmonics. These properties allow thermal EBW emission to be used for local Te measurement. A significant upgrade to the previous NSTX EBW emission diagnostic to measure thermal EBW emission via the oblique B-X-O mode conversion process has been completed. The new EBW diagnostic consists of two remotely steerable, quad-ridged horn antennas, each of which is coupled to a dual channel radiometer. Fundamental (8–18 GHz) and second and third harmonic (18–40 GHz) thermal EBW emission and polarization measurements can be obtained simultaneously.

  2. The performance check between whole building thermal performance criteria and exterior wall measured clear wall R-value, thermal bridging, thermal mass, and airtightness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Buildings Technology Center; Kossecka, E. [Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland); Berrenberg, L. [American Polysteel Forms (United States)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the last IEA Annex 32 meeting it was proposed that the annex develop the links between level 1 (the whole building performance) and level 2 (the envelope system). This paper provides a case study of just that type of connection. An exterior wall mockup is hot box tested and modeled in the laboratory. Measurements of the steady state and dynamic behavior of this mockup are used as the basis to define the thermal bridging, thermal mass benefit and air tightness of the whole wall system. These level two performance characteristics are related to the whole building performance. They can be analyzed by a finite difference modeling of the wall assembly. An equivalent wall theory is used to convert three dimensional heat flow to one dimensional terms that capture thermal mass effects, which in turn are used in a common whole building simulation model. This paper illustrates a performance check between the thermal performance of a Massive ICF (Insulating Concrete Form) wall system mocked up (level 2) and Whole Building Performance criteria (level 1) such as total space heating and cooling loads (thermal comfort).

  3. Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenden, B.B.; Hartman, J.S.; Reich, F.R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of equipment for measuring temperature and strain in a rapidly heated and pressurized cylinder of stainless steel is discussed. Simultaneous cinematography of the full circumference of the cylinder without interference with temperature and strain measurements is also illustrated. The integrated system uses a reflective chamber for the sample and requires careful consideration of the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument.

  4. Transient Non-linear Thermal FEM Simulation of Smart Power Switches and Verification by Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Kosel; R. Sleik; M. Glavanovics

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal FEM (Finite Element Method) simulations can be used to predict the thermal behavior of power semiconductors in application. Most power semiconductors are made of silicon. Silicon thermal material properties are significantly temperature dependent. In this paper, validity of a common non-linear silicon material model is verified by transient non-linear thermal FEM simulations of Smart Power Switches and measurements. For verification, over-temperature protection behavior of Smart Power Switches is employed. This protection turns off the switch at a pre-defined temperature which is used as a temperature reference in the investigation. Power dissipation generated during a thermal overload event of two Smart Power devices is measured and used as an input stimulus to transient thermal FEM simulations. The duration time of the event together with the temperature reference is confronted with simulation results and thus the validity of the silicon model is proved. In addition, the impact of non-linear thermal properties of silicon on the thermal impedance of power semiconductors is shown.

  5. Efficient finite-time measurements under thermal regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Alexandre Brasil; Leonardo Andreta de Castro; Reginaldo de Jesus Napolitano

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Contrary to conventional quantum mechanics, which treats measurement as instantaneous, here we explore a model for finite-time measurement. The main two-level system interacts with the measurement apparatus in a Markovian way described by the Lindblad equation, and with an environment, which does not include the measuring apparatus. To analyse the environmental effects on the final density operator, we use the Redfield approach, allowing us to consider a non-Markovian noise. In the present hybrid theory, to trace out the environmental degrees of freedom, we use a previously-developed analytic method based on superoperator algebra and Nakajima-Zwanzig superoperators. Here, we analyse two types of system-environment interaction, phase and amplitude damping, which allows us to conclude that, in general, a finite-time quantum measurement performed during a certain period is more efficient than an instantaneous measurement performed at the end of it, because the rate of change of the populations is attenuated by the system-measurement apparatus interaction.

  6. The thermal conductivity of rock under hydrothermal conditions: measurements and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Colin F.; Sass, John H.

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of most major rock-forming minerals vary with both temperature and confining pressure, leading to substantial changes in the thermal properties of some rocks at the high temperatures characteristic of geothermal systems. In areas with large geothermal gradients, the successful use of near-surface heat flow measurements to predict temperatures at depth depends upon accurate corrections for varying thermal conductivity. Previous measurements of the thermal conductivity of dry rock samples as a function of temperature were inadequate for porous rocks and susceptible to thermal cracking effects in nonporous rocks. We have developed an instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks at temperatures from 20 to 350 °C and confining pressures up to 100 MPa. A transient line-source of heat is applied through a needle probe centered within the rock sample, which in turn is enclosed within a heated pressure vessel with independent controls on pore and confining pressure. Application of this technique to samples of Franciscan graywacke from The Geysers reveals a significant change in thermal conductivity with temperature. At reservoir-equivalent temperatures of 250 °C, the conductivity of the graywacke decreases by approximately 25% relative to the room temperature value. Where heat flow is constant with depth within the caprock overlying the reservoir, this reduction in conductivity with temperature leads to a corresponding increase in the geothermal gradient. Consequently, reservoir temperature are encountered at depths significantly shallower than those predicted by assuming a constant temperature gradient with depth. We have derived general equations for estimating the thermal conductivity of most metamorphic and igneous rocks and some sedimentary rocks at elevated temperature from knowledge of the room temperature thermal conductivity. Application of these equations to geothermal exploration should improve estimates of subsurface temperatures derived from heat flow measurements.

  7. Measurement on the thermal neutron capture cross section of w-180

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. G. Kang; Y. D. Kim; J. I. Lee; I. S. Hahn; A. R. Kim; H. J. Kim

    2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the thermal neutron capture cross section for w-180 nucleus. There is only one previous data on this cross section with a value of 30 $^{+300%}_{-100%}$ barn. To consider w-181 as a low energy neutrino source, the thermal neutron capture cross section should be measured more precisely to estimate the production rate of w-181 inside a nuclear reactor. We measured the cross section of w-180 with a natural tungsten foil and obtained a new value of 21.9 $\\pm$ 2.5 barn

  8. COMBINED THERMAL MEASUREMENT AND SIMULATION FOR THE DETAILED ANALYSIS OF FOUR OCCUPIED LOW-ENERGY BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gieseler, Udo D. J.

    COMBINED THERMAL MEASUREMENT AND SIMULATION FOR THE DETAILED ANALYSIS OF FOUR OCCUPIED LOW-ENERGY BUILDINGS U.D.J. Gieseler, F.D. Heidt1 , W. Bier Division of Building Physics and Solar Energy, University energy and temperature measurements of occupied buildings very well. These buildings repre- sent small

  9. The high conductivity of iron and thermal evolution of the Earth's core Hitoshi Gomi a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with secular cooling (along with possible radioactive heating) and buoy- ant release of incompatible light, if thermal buoyancy alone drives convection, then the power for maintaining a geodynamo must be in excess

  10. Thermal conductivity measurements of insulators for fusion blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, F.L.; Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alumina-silica mat (8 lb/ft/sup 3/) varied in thermal conductivity in air and Ar from 0.06 W/m- K at 300/sup 0/C to 0.22 W/m- K at 1000/sup 0/C, but in He it increased to 0.24 W/m- K at 300/sup 0/C and 0.54 W/m- K at 1000/sup 0/C, while in steam it was about midway between these values. The carbon and graphite felts behaved similarly, but the rigid and denser (24 lb/ft/sup 3/) zirconia fiberboard exhibited superior insulating properties: 0.07 W/m- K at 300/sup 0/C and 0.14 W/m- K at 1000/sup 0/C in air and Ar, and 0.13 W/m- K at 300/sup 0/C and 0.17 W/m- K at 1000/sup 0/C in steam, but rising to 0.15 W/m- K at 300/sup 0/C and 0.49 W/m- K at 1000/sup 0/C in He. The lighter zirconia felt (14 lb/ft/sup 3/) in steam at 1000/sup 0/C was thought to be best at 0.23 W/m- K and only 0.40 W/m- K in He at 1000/sup 0/C.

  11. A Measurement Method of Actual Thermal Performance of Detached Houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iwamae, A.; Nagai, H.; Miura, H.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of residential houses based on field measurement (In Japanese), AIJ Report on Environmental engineering Vol.3, 1981 2) Martin Sandberg, J?rgen Eriksson: Commissioning of residential buildings in Sweden, IEA ECBCS Annex40 meetings held in Quebec, 2001/9, Doc...

  12. Measurement and quantification of aggregate thermal coefficient of expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chande, Gautam U

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SRG 8 67 El Paso El Paso Granite Slag 5 9042 9. 31163 Panama 3/8" 10. 3914 Panama 1" 12 904 28 Figure 6. Measurement of CTE of aggregate sample Scanning electron microscopy and?i-ray microanaiysis It is known that the CTE of the aggregate...

  13. An experimental measurement of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of a porous solid-liquid system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, James Elliott

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT QF THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND DIFFUSIVITY OF A POROUS SOLID LIQUID SYSTEM By James Elliott Dunn A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the reQuirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1959 Major Sub)ect: Mechanical Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL MEASURFJ1ENT OF THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND DIFFUSIVITY OF A POROUS SOLID LIQUID SYSTEM A Thesis James Elliott Dunn...

  14. Uncertainty Analysis on the Design of Thermal Conductivity Measurement by a Guarded Cut-Bar Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Phillips; Changhu Xing; Colby Jensen; Heng Ban1

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique adapted from the guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow method was selected for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of a nuclear fuel compact over a temperature range characteristic of its usage. This technique fulfills the requirement for non-destructive measurement of the composite compact. Although numerous measurement systems have been created based on the guarded comparative method, comprehensive systematic (bias) and measurement (precision) uncertainty associated with this technique have not been fully analyzed. In addition to the geometric effect in the bias error, which has been analyzed previously, this paper studies the working condition which is another potential error source. Using finite element analysis, this study showed the effect of these two types of error sources in the thermal conductivity measurement process and the limitations in the design selection of various parameters by considering their effect on the precision error. The results and conclusions provide valuable reference for designing and operating an experimental measurement system using this technique.

  15. Pump-probe measurements of the thermal conductivity tensor for materials lacking in-plane symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feser, Joseph P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Liu, Jun; Cahill, David G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Frederick-Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We previously demonstrated an extension of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) which utilizes offset pump and probe laser locations to measure in-plane thermal transport properties of multilayers. However, the technique was limited to systems of transversely isotropic materials studied using axisymmetric laser intensities. Here, we extend the mathematics so that data reduction can be performed on non-transversely isotropic systems. An analytic solution of the diffusion equation for an N-layer system is given, where each layer has a homogenous but otherwise arbitrary thermal conductivity tensor and the illuminating spots have arbitrary intensity profiles. As a demonstration, we use both TDTR and time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements to obtain thermal conductivity tensor elements of <110> ?-SiO{sub 2}. We show that the out-of-phase beam offset sweep has full-width half-maxima that contains nearly independent sensitivity to the in-plane thermal conductivity corresponding to the scanning direction. Also, we demonstrate a Nb-V alloy as a low thermal conductivity TDTR transducer layer that helps improve the accuracy of in-plane measurements.

  16. A NEW MEASUREMENT STRATEGY FOR in situ TESTING OF WALL THERMAL PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Condon, P.E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conservation, Dynamic thermal envelope thermal performanceTHERHAL TEST UNIT The envelope thermal test unit (ETTU) is athe thermal resistance of building envelope systems through

  17. Growth and Evolution of Thermal Instabilities in Idealized Galaxy-Cluster Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meece, Gregory; Voit, Mark

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat input roughly balances radiative cooling in the gaseous cores of galaxy clusters even when the central cooling time is short, implying that cooling triggers a feedback loop that maintains thermal balance. Furthermore, cores with short cooling times tend to have multiphase structure, suggesting that the intracluster medium (ICM) becomes locally thermally unstable for cooling times < 1 Gyr. In this work, we use 2D and 3D hydrodynamic simulations to study the onset of condensation in idealized galaxy-cluster cores. In particular, we look at how the condensation process depends on the ratio of cooling time to freefall time and on the geometry of the gravitational potential. We conclude that the ICM can always evolve to a state in which condensation occurs if given enough time, but that an initial timescale ratio tcool /tff < 10 is needed for thermal instability to grow quickly enough to affect realistic cluster cores within a timescale that is relevant for cosmological structure formation. We find that...

  18. Thermal measurements of active semiconductor micro-structures acquired through the substrate using near IR thermoreflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , which precludes the use of typical surface thermal characterization techniques. A near infrared microscopy (SThM), or optical techniques such as infrared (IR) microscopy, or thermoreflectance to be able to measure the heating of devices in flip chip bonded integrated circuit's (IC) and other

  19. Measuring the Influence of Grain-Boundary Misorientation on Thermal Groove Geometry in Ceramic Polycrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    -boundary energies is to measure the geometry of the thermal grooves that form where the boundaries intersect a free is the excess free energy per unit area of the ith interface; ti the unit vector that lies in the ith interface) reduces to: gb s = 2 cos s 2 (2) In Eq. (2), the ratio of the grain-boundary excess free energy

  20. Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low, Gwf , test the Wiedemann-Franz (wf) law, and infer the electronic heat capacity, with a minimum value of a Coulomb-interacting electron-hole plasma may result in deviations from the Fermi-liquid values of the Mott

  1. Thermal Emittance Measurement of the Cs2Te Photocathode in FZD Superconducting RF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, R; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Teichert, J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal emittance of the photocathode is an interesting physical property for the photoinjector, because it decides the minimum emittance the photoinjector can finally achieve. In this paper we will report the latest results of the thermal emittance of the Cs2Te photocathode in FZD Superconducting RF gun. The measurement is performed with solenoid scan method with very low bunch charge and relative large laser spot on cathode, in order to reduce the space charge effect as much as possible, and meanwhile to eliminate the wake fields and the effect from beam halos.

  2. Distinguishability of hyperentangled Bell states by linear evolution and local projective measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pisenti, N.; Gaebler, C. P. E.; Lynn, T. W. [Department of Physics, Harvey Mudd College, 301 Platt Blvd., Claremont, California 91711 (United States)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring an entangled state of two particles is crucial to many quantum communication protocols. Yet Bell-state distinguishability using a finite apparatus obeying linear evolution and local measurement is theoretically limited. We extend known bounds for Bell-state distinguishability in one and two variables to the general case of entanglement in n two-state variables. We show that at most 2{sup n+1}-1 classes out of 4{sup n} hyper-Bell states can be distinguished with one copy of the input state. With two copies, complete distinguishability is possible. We present optimal schemes in each case.

  3. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubey, P. K., E-mail: premkdubey@gmail.com; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar [Acoustics, Ultrasonics, Vibration Standards and Electronics Instrumentation Cell, CSIR–National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  4. Absolute measurement of thermal noise in a resonant short-range force experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Yan; E. A. Housworth; H. O. Meyer; G. Visser; E. Weisman; J. C. Long

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Planar, double-torsional oscillators are especially suitable for short-range macroscopic force search experiments, since they can be operated at the limit of instrumental thermal noise. As a study of this limit, we report a measurement of the noise kinetic energy of a polycrystalline tungsten oscillator in thermal equilibrium at room temperature. The fluctuations of the oscillator in a high-Q torsional mode with a resonance frequency near 1 kHz are detected with capacitive transducers coupled to a sensitive differential amplifier. The electronic processing is calibrated by means of a known electrostatic force and input from a finite element model. The measured average kinetic energy is in agreement with the expected value of 1/2 kT.

  5. IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF WALL THERMAL PERFORMANCE: DATA INTERPRETATION AND APPARATUS DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.; de Vinuesa, S.G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Description: The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (submitted forCross-sectional view of Envelope Thermal Test Unit blanketmeasurement prototype, the Envelope Thermal Test Unit,12 and

  6. A thermal method for measuring the rate of water movement in plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloodworth, Morris Elkins

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L?BP A 8 V a L ?BPA8B8 op A THERMAL METHOD FOR MEASURING THE RATE OF WATER MOVEMENT IN PLANTS A Dissertation By Morris Elkins Bloodworth Vao Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial... and content by: ???? ???? '? ^p?P? ?? ???^??^? ?ip?^?? ?p?? ?? ??^?????^??????????????????????????????????? ? ??? ?????? ?? P ? ^ ? ? p ^ ? ? ???????????????????? ?? ? ? ???? ???????P?? ???? ?i??i ^i? ??^i?? ?? ?p??? ? ? ? p? ?Bo? ?Bo?A??8 ??? ????A...

  7. Synthesis and Magnetic, Thermal, and Electrical Measurements on Complex non-Cuprate Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, Laurence L

    2006-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The project investigated superconductivity in non-cuprate materials with critical temperatures, T{sub c}, in excess of 20 K in order to understand the thermodynamics of several of these materials. The project is a cooperative effort between investigators at Southern University (SU), Louisiana State University (LSU), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It involved synthesis of high quality samples, and subsequent detailed magnetic, thermal and electrical measurements on them. The project provided a PhD Thesis research experience and training for a graduate student, Ms. Robin Macaluso. High quality, single crystal samples were synthesized by Ms. Macaluso under the direction of one of the CO-PIS, John Sarao, during the summer while she was a visitor at LANL being supported by this grant. On these samples magnetic measurements were performed at SU, thermal and electrical measurements were made in the LSU Physics and Astronomy Department. The crystallographic properties were determined in the LSU Chemistry Department by Ms. Macaluso under the direction of her dissertation advisor, Dr. Julia Chan. Additional high field magnetic measurements on other samples were performed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) both in Tallahassee and at LANL. These measurements involved another graduate student, Umit Alver, who used some of the measurements as part of his PhD dissertation in Physics at LSU.

  8. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilgrim, C. C. [Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK and Sensor Coating Systems, Imperial Incubator, Bessemer Building, Level 1 and 2, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Heyes, A. L. [Energy Technology and Innovation Initiative, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Feist, J. P. [Sensor Coating Systems, Imperial Incubator, Bessemer Building, Level 1 and 2, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300°C and 900°C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  9. THERMAL EVOLUTION OF DEUTERIUM IN 4H-SIC R. Delamare1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ². Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements were performed confirmed by TDS experiments. Results from RBS/C indicated that during the desorption of deuterium and #12;RBS/C were performed by using the 3.5 MeV van de Graaf implanter (CERI Orleans

  10. Measurement of neutron capture on $^{48}$Ca at thermal and thermonuclear energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Beer; C. Coceva; P. V. Sedyshev; Yu. P. Popov; H. Herndl; R. Hofinger; P. Mohr; H. Oberhummer

    1996-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Karlsruhe pulsed 3.75\\,MV Van de Graaff accelerator the thermonuclear $^{48}$Ca(n,$\\gamma$)$^{49}$Ca(8.72\\,min) cross section was measured by the fast cyclic activation technique via the 3084.5\\,keV $\\gamma$-ray line of the $^{49}$Ca-decay. Samples of CaCO$_3$ enriched in $^{48}$Ca by 77.87\\,\\% were irradiated between two gold foils which served as capture standards. The capture cross-section was measured at the neutron energies 25, 151, 176, and 218\\,keV, respectively. Additionally, the thermal capture cross-section was measured at the reactor BR1 in Mol, Belgium, via the prompt and decay $\\gamma$-ray lines using the same target material. The $^{48}$Ca(n,$\\gamma$)$^{49}$Ca cross-section in the thermonuclear and thermal energy range has been calculated using the direct-capture model combined with folding potentials. The potential strengths are adjusted to the scattering length and the binding energies of the final states in $^{49}$Ca. The small coherent elastic cross section of $^{48}$Ca+n is explained through the nuclear Ramsauer effect. Spectroscopic factors of $^{49}$Ca have been extracted from the thermal capture cross-section with better accuracy than from a recent (d,p) experiment. Within the uncertainties both results are in agreement. The non-resonant thermal and thermonuclear experimental data for this reaction can be reproduced using the direct-capture model. A possible interference with a resonant contribution is discussed. The neutron spectroscopic factors of $^{49}$Ca determined from shell-model calculations are compared with the values extracted from the experimental cross sections for $^{48}$Ca(d,p)$^{49}$Ca and $^{48}$Ca(n,$\\gamma$)$^{49}$Ca.

  11. New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham Tu Quoc, S., E-mail: sang.phamtuquoc@cea.fr; Cheymol, G.; Semerok, A. [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Nuclear Energy, DEN/DANS/DPC/SEARS/LISL, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)] [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Nuclear Energy, DEN/DANS/DPC/SEARS/LISL, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Modulated photothermal radiometry is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r{sub 0} and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%–10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r{sub 0}/100 ? L ? r{sub 0}/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement.

  12. Thermal neutron capture cross section of gadolinium by pile-oscillation measurements in MINERVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leconte, P.; Di-Salvo, J.; Antony, M.; Pepino, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Hentati, A. [International School in Nuclear Engineering, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gadolinium is used as a burnable poison in most LWR to account for the excess of reactivity of fresh fuels. For an accurate prediction of the cycle length, its nuclear data and especially its neutron capture cross section needs to be known with a high precision. Recent microscopic measurements at Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. (RPI) suggest a 11% smaller value for the thermal capture cross section of {sup 157}Gd, compared with most of evaluated nuclear data libraries. To solve this inconsistency, we have analyzed several pile-oscillation experiments, performed in the MINERVE reactor. They consist in the measurement of the reactivity variation involved by the introduction in the reactor of small-samples, containing different mass amounts of natural gadolinium. The analysis of these experiments is done through the exact perturbation theory, using the PIMS calculation tool, in order to link the reactivity effect to the thermal capture cross section. The measurement of reactivity effects is used to deduce the 2200 m.s-1 capture cross section of {sup nat}Gd which is (49360 {+-} 790) b. This result is in good agreement with the JEFF3.1.1 value (48630 b), within 1.6% uncertainty at 1{sigma}, but is strongly inconsistent with the microscopic measurements at RPI which give (44200 {+-} 500) b. (authors)

  13. Measurement of delayed-neutron yield from {sup 237}Np fission induced by thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundorin, N. A.; Zhdanova, K. V.; Zhuchko, V. E.; Pikelner, L. B., E-mail: plb@nf.jinr.ru; Rebrova, N. V.; Salamatin, I. M.; Smirnov, V. I.; Furman, V. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The delayed-neutron yield from thermal-neutron-induced fission of the {sup 237}Np nucleus was measured using a sample periodically exposed to a pulsed neutron beam with subsequent detection of neutrons during the time intervals between pulses. The experiment was realized on an Isomer-M setup mounted in the IBR-2 pulsed reactor channel equipped with a mirror neutron guide. The setup and the experimental procedure are described, the background sources are thoroughly analyzed, and the experimental data are presented. The total delayed-neutron yield from {sup 237}Np fission induced by thermal neutrons is {nu}{sub d} = 0.0110 {+-} 0.0009. This study was performed at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (JINR, Dubna)

  14. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs.

  15. Multicycle rapid thermal annealing optimization of Mg-implanted GaN: Evolution of surface, optical, and structural properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenlee, Jordan D., E-mail: jordan.greenlee.ctr@nrl.navy.mil [National Research Council, 500 Fifth St. NW, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Feigelson, Boris N.; Anderson, Travis J.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Mastro, Michael A.; Eddy, Charles R.; Hobart, Karl D.; Kub, Francis J. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Tadjer, Marko J. [American Society for Engineering Education, 1818 N St. NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The first step of a multi-cycle rapid thermal annealing process was systematically studied. The surface, structure, and optical properties of Mg implanted GaN thin films annealed at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200?°C were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Nomarski microscopy. The GaN thin films are capped with two layers of in-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition -grown AlN and annealed in 24 bar of N{sub 2} overpressure to avoid GaN decomposition. The crystal quality of the GaN improves with increasing annealing temperature as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and the full widths at half maximums of the E{sub 2} and A{sub 1} (LO) Raman modes. The crystal quality of films annealed above 1100?°C exceeds the quality of the as-grown films. At 1200?°C, Mg is optically activated, which is determined by photoluminescence measurements. However, at 1200?°C, the GaN begins to decompose as evidenced by pit formation on the surface of the samples. Therefore, it was determined that the optimal temperature for the first step in a multi-cycle rapid thermal anneal process should be conducted at 1150?°C due to crystal quality and surface morphology considerations.

  16. Measurement of cryogenic moderator temperature effects in a small heterogeneous thermal reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoovler, G.S.; Ball, R.M.; Lewis, R.H.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Past papers have described a critical experiment (CX) built at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the neutronic behavior of the particle-bed reactor (PBK). Among the experiments previously reported were tests to measure the reactivity effect of uniform temperature variations between 20 and 80{degree}C. This paper describes additional experiments designed to examine the effects of cryogenic moderator temperatures on core reactivity and neutron spectrum. The general importance of temperature effects to the design of the PBR have been previously discussed. A unique feature of the PBR is that the moderator may be at cryogenic temperatures during reactor startup. Because temperature effects in small, heterogeneous thermal reactors can be significant and because we found no integral measurements with cryogenic moderators in such systems, an experiment with a cryogenic moderator was designed and performed in the CX as an extension to the isothermal measurements previously reported.

  17. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2-

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1AMEE Jump to:Ohio:Ads-tecInformation Circa 2007 Jumpand

  18. An apparatus for the measurement of thermal conductivity of liquid neon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Jerald Norman

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN APPARATUS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF LIQUID NEON A Thesis By JERALD NORMAN JENSEN Submitted. to the Graduate College of the Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1967 Ma)or Su'bisect: Physics AN APPAHATUS FOH THE J'lEASURENENT OF THEHiiLM CONDUCTIVITY OF LIQUID NEOiV A Thesis JEHALD NOLAN JENSEN Approved as to style and content by: tH *i *f D p tm~t (I"ember) , i~ember Nay 1967 !$ ~c g tg...

  19. Measurement of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and viscosity of TiO{sub 2}-water nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duangthongsuk, Weerapun; Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluid is an innovative heat transfer fluid with superior potential for enhancing the heat transfer performance of conventional fluids. Many attempts have been made to investigate its thermal conductivity and viscosity, which are important thermophysical properties. No definitive agreements have emerged, however, about these properties. This article reports the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids experimentally. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in water with volume concentration of 0.2-2 vol.% are used in the present study. A transient hot-wire apparatus is used for measuring the thermal conductivity of nanofluids whereas the Bohlin rotational rheometer (Malvern Instrument) is used to measure the viscosity of nanofluids. The data are collected for temperatures ranging from 15 C to 35 C. The results show that the measured viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased as the particle concentrations increased and are higher than the values of the base liquids. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased with increasing nanofluid temperatures and, conversely, the viscosity of nanofluids decreased with increasing temperature of nanofluids. Moreover, the measured thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids are quite different from the predicted values from the existing correlations and the data reported by other researchers. Finally, new thermophysical correlations are proposed for predicting the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. (author)

  20. The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU): Full Measurement of Wall Perform ance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonderegger, R.C.; Sherman, M.H.; Adams, J.W.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    March 30-April THE ENVELOPE THERMAL TEST UNIT (ETTU): FIELDFigure 1. Schematic of Envelope Thermal Test Unit (cross-the dvnami c thermal propert i es of envelope c~ponents. The

  1. The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU): Full Measurement of Wall Perform ance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, J.W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    March 30-April THE ENVELOPE THERMAL TEST UNIT (ETTU): FIELDFigure 1. Schematic of Envelope Thermal Test Unit (cross-the dvnami c thermal propert i es of envelope c~ponents. The

  2. Impact of parasitic thermal effects on thermoelectric property measurements by Harman method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Beomjin, E-mail: bkwon@kist.re.kr; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Keun Kim, Seong; Kim, Jin-Sang, E-mail: jskim@kist.re.kr [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Harman method is a rapid and simple technique to measure thermoelectric properties. However, its validity has been often questioned due to the over-simplified assumptions that this method relies on. Here, we quantitatively investigate the influence of the previously ignored parasitic thermal effects on the Harman method and develop a method to determine an intrinsic ZT. We expand the original Harman relation with three extra terms: heat losses via both the lead wires and radiation, and Joule heating within the sample. Based on the expanded Harman relation, we use differential measurement of the sample geometry to measure the intrinsic ZT. To separately evaluate the parasitic terms, the measured ZTs with systematically varied sample geometries and the lead wire types are fitted to the expanded relation. A huge discrepancy (?28%) of the measured ZTs depending on the measurement configuration is observed. We are able to separately evaluate those parasitic terms. This work will help to evaluate the intrinsic thermoelectric property with Harman method by eliminating ambiguities coming from extrinsic effects.

  3. MEASUREMENTS OF ANISOTROPIC ION TEMPERATURES, NON-THERMAL VELOCITIES, AND DOPPLER SHIFTS IN A CORONAL HOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, MC 5247, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)] [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, MC 5247, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new diagnostic allowing one to measure the anisotropy of ion temperatures and non-thermal velocities, as well as Doppler shifts with respect to the ambient magnetic field. This method provides new results, as well as an independent test for previous measurements obtained with other techniques. Our spectral data come from observations of a low-latitude, on-disk coronal hole. A potential field source surface model was used to calculate the angle between the magnetic field lines and the line of sight for each spatial bin of the observation. A fit was performed to determine the line widths and Doppler shifts parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. For each line width component we derived ion temperatures T {sub i,} and T {sub i, Parallel-To} and non-thermal velocities v {sub nt,} and v {sub nt, Parallel-To }. T {sub i,} was cooler than off-limb polar coronal hole measurements, suggesting increasing collisional cooling with decreasing height. T {sub i, Parallel-To} is consistent with a uniform temperature of (1.8 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K for each ion. Since parallel ion heating is expected to be weak, this ion temperature should reflect the proton temperature. A comparison between our results and others implies a large proton temperature gradient around 1.02 R {sub Sun }. The non-thermal velocities are thought to be proportional to the amplitudes of various waves. Our results for v {sub nt,} agree with Alfven wave amplitudes inferred from off-limb polar coronal hole line width measurements. Our v {sub nt, Parallel-To} results are consistent with slow magnetosonic wave amplitudes inferred from Fourier analysis of time-varying intensity fluctuations. Doppler shift measurements yield outflows of Almost-Equal-To 5 km s{sup -1} for ions formed over a broad temperature range. This differs from other studies that found a strong Doppler shift dependence on formation temperature.

  4. Study of laser megajoule calorimeter's thermal behaviour for energy measurement uncertainty optimisation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crespy, Charles; Villate, Denis; Lobios, Olivier [CEA, Cesta, BP 2, 33114 Le Barp (France)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For laser megajoule (LMJ) facility, an accurate procedure for laser pulse energy measurement is a crucial requirement. In this study, the influence of measurement procedure on LMJ calorimeter uncertainty is experimentally and numerically investigated. To this end, a 3D thermal model is developed and two experimental techniques are implemented. The metrological characteristics of both techniques are presented. As a first step, the model is validated by comparing numerical and experimental results. Then, the influence of a large number of parameters considered as likely uncertainty sources on calorimeter response is investigated: wavelength, pulse duration, ambient temperature, laser beam diameter Horizontal-Ellipsis . The post processing technique procedure is also examined. The paper provides some of the parameters required to allow a robust and efficient calibration procedure to be produced.

  5. Signal generation mechanisms, intracavity-gas thermal-diffusivity temperature dependence, and absolute infrared emissivity measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    , Canada Received 22 September 1997; accepted for publication 8 October 1997 The operating thermal power dominance of thermal-wave radiation power transfer in the phase channel of the thermal-wave signal at large produces an ac electrical signal proportional to the energy of the standing thermal-wave pattern

  6. Measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity of multi-layer insulation between 20 K and 90 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurd, Joseph A.; Van Sciver, Steven W. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory Tallahassee, FL 32310 USA and FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Department of M.E., Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    NASA has the need to efficiently store cryogenic propellants in space for long periods of time. One method to improve storage efficiency is to use multi-layer insulation (MLI), a technique that minimizes the boiling rate due to radiation heat transfer. Typically, the thermal performance of MLI is determined by measuring the rate of evaporation of liquid nitrogen from a calibrated cryostat. The main limitation with this method is that testing conditions are restricted by the boiling temperature of the LN{sub 2}, which may not match the requirements of the application. The Multi-Layer Insulation Thermal Conductivity Experiment (MIKE) at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is capable of measuring the effective thermal conductivity of MLI at variable boundary temperatures. MIKE uses cryo-refrigerators to control boundary temperatures in the calorimeter and a calibrated thermal link to measure the heat load. To make the measurements requested by NASA, MIKE needed to be recalibrated for the 20 K to 90 K range. Also, due to the expectation of a lower heat transfer rate, the heat load support rod material was changed to one with a lower thermal conductivity to ensure the temperature difference seen on the cold rod could be measurable at the estimated heat load. Presented are the alterations to MIKE including calibration data and heat load measurements on new load-bearing MLI supplied by NASA.

  7. A compact and miniaturized high resolution capacitance dilatometer for measuring thermal expansion and magnetostriction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuechler, R.; Bauer, T.; Brando, M.; Steglich, F. [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the design, construction, calibration, and two different applications of a miniature capacitance dilatometer. The device is suitable for thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements from 300 K down to about 25 mK, with a resolution of 0.02 A at low temperatures. The main body of the dilatometer is fabricated from a single block of a Be-Cu alloy by electrical discharge milling. This creates an extremely compact high-resolution measuring cell. We have successfully tested and operated dilatometers of this new type with the commonly used physical property measurement system by quantum design, as well as with several other cryogenic refrigeration systems down to 25 mK and in magnetic fields up to 20 T. Here, the capacitance is measured with a commercially available capacitance bridge. Using a piezoelectric rotator from Attocube Systems, the cell can be rotated at T= 25 mK inside of an inner vacuum chamber of 40 mm diameter. The miniaturized design for the one-axis rotation setup allows a rotation of 360 Degree-Sign .

  8. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  9. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Andrew T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.

  10. Measurement and control of a mechanical oscillator at its thermal decoherence rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. J. Wilson; V. Sudhir; N. Piro; R. Schilling; A. Ghadimi; T. J. Kippenberg

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In real-time quantum feedback protocols, the record of a continuous measurement is used to stabilize a desired quantum state. Recent years have seen highly successful applications in a variety of well-isolated micro-systems, including microwave photons and superconducting qubits. By contrast, the ability to stabilize the quantum state of a tangibly massive object, such as a nanomechanical oscillator, remains a difficult challenge: The main obstacle is environmental decoherence, which places stringent requirements on the timescale in which the state must be measured. Here we describe a position sensor that is capable of resolving the zero-point motion of a solid-state, nanomechanical oscillator in the timescale of its thermal decoherence, a critical requirement for preparing its ground state using feedback. The sensor is based on cavity optomechanical coupling, and realizes a measurement of the oscillator's displacement with an imprecision 40 dB below that at the standard quantum limit, while maintaining an imprecision-back-action product within a factor of 5 of the Heisenberg uncertainty limit. Using the measurement as an error signal and radiation pressure as an actuator, we demonstrate active feedback cooling (cold-damping) of the 4.3 MHz oscillator from a cryogenic bath temperature of 4.4 K to an effective value of 1.1$\\pm$0.1 mK, corresponding to a mean phonon number of 5.3$\\pm$0.6 (i.e., a ground state probability of 16%). Our results set a new benchmark for the performance of a linear position sensor, and signal the emergence of engineered mechanical oscillators as practical subjects for measurement-based quantum control.

  11. Intermttional Jourmtl ~/" Thermophysics. I,'ol. 18. No. I. 1997 Measurements of the Thermal Diffusivity of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    , transient, and novel hybrid heat-flow methods. In the periodic thermal-wave method, a sample of known

  12. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; Souza, Mariano de; Lang, Michael [Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt(M), SFB/TR49, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To T Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 250 MPa. Helium ({sup 4}He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

  13. Generalizing the flash technique in the front-face configuration to measure the thermal diffusivity of semitransparent solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pech-May, Nelson Wilbur [Departamento de Física Aplicada I, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, CINVESTAV Unidad Mérida, carretera Antigua a Progreso km6, A.P. 73 Cordemex, Mérida Yucatán 97310, México (Mexico); Mendioroz, Arantza; Salazar, Agustín, E-mail: agustin.salazar@ehu.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada I, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we have extended the front-face flash method to retrieve simultaneously the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of semitransparent plates. A complete theoretical model that allows calculating the front surface temperature rise of the sample has been developed. It takes into consideration additional effects, such as multiple reflections of the heating light beam inside the sample, heat losses by convection and radiation, transparency of the sample to infrared wavelengths, and heating pulse duration. Measurements performed on calibrated solids, covering a wide range of absorption coefficients (from transparent to opaque) and thermal diffusivities, validate the proposed method.

  14. A Correction Scheme for Thermal Conductivity Measurement Using the Comparative Cut-bar Technique Based on a 3D Numerical Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas W. Marshall; Changhu Xing; Charles Folsom; Colby Jensen; Heng Ban

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As an important factor affecting the accuracy of the thermal conductivity measurement, systematic (bias) error in the guarded comparative axial heat flow (cut-bar) method was mostly neglected by previous researches. This bias is due primarily to the thermal conductivity mismatch between sample and meter bars (reference), which is common for a sample of unknown thermal conductivity. A correction scheme, based on a finite element simulation of the measurement system, was proposed to reduce the magnitude of the overall measurement uncertainty. This scheme was experimentally validated by applying corrections on four types of sample measurements in which the specimen thermal conductivity is much smaller, slightly smaller, equal and much larger than that of the meter bar. As an alternative to the optimum guarding technique proposed before, the correction scheme can be used to minimize uncertainty contribution from the measurement system with non-optimal guarding conditions. It is especially necessary for large thermal conductivity mismatches between sample and meter bars.

  15. An optimal guarding scheme for thermal conductivity measurement using a guarded cut-bar technique, part 1 experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Changhu Xing [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Colby Jensen [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Charles Folsom [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Heng Ban [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Douglas W. Marshall [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the guarded cut-bar technique, a guard surrounding the measured sample and reference (meter) bars is temperature controlled to carefully regulate heat losses from the sample and reference bars. Guarding is typically carried out by matching the temperature profiles between the guard and the test stack of sample and meter bars. Problems arise in matching the profiles, especially when the thermal conductivitiesof the meter bars and of the sample differ, as is usually the case. In a previous numerical study, the applied guarding condition (guard temperature profile) was found to be an important factor in measurement accuracy. Different from the linear-matched or isothermal schemes recommended in literature, the optimal guarding condition is dependent on the system geometry and thermal conductivity ratio of sample to meter bar. To validate the numerical results, an experimental study was performed to investigate the resulting error under different guarding conditions using stainless steel 304 as both the sample and meter bars. The optimal guarding condition was further verified on a certified reference material, pyroceram 9606, and 99.95% pure iron whose thermal conductivities are much smaller and much larger, respectively, than that of the stainless steel meter bars. Additionally, measurements are performed using three different inert gases to show the effect of the insulation effective thermal conductivity on measurement error, revealing low conductivity, argon gas, gives the lowest error sensitivity when deviating from the optimal condition. The result of this study provides a general guideline for the specific measurement method and for methods requiring optimal guarding or insulation.

  16. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, Y., E-mail: shibata.yoshihide@jaea.go.jp; Manabe, T.; Ohno, N.; Takagi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Kajita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Tsuchiya, H.; Morisaki, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ?4 × 10{sup 19} m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  17. PREDICTIVE THERMAL MODEL FOR INDIRECT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT INSIDE ATOMIC CELL OF NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE GYROSCOPE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, William C

    , atomic MEMS, compact thermal model. INTRODUCTION We present a two-step process for predicting and the VCSEL, active heating and cooling was included in the presented prototype through an external heater

  18. Measuring shock-bang timing and R evolution of D3 implosions at OMEGAa...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 Received 30 October 2003; accepted 12 February 2004; published online 23 April 2004 New experimental results describing the dynamics energy spectra provided new results, such as shock-bang timing, shock-burn duration, evolution of the ion

  19. Cloning Hubble Deep Fields: A Model-Independent Measurement of Galaxy Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rychard J. Bouwens; Tom Broadhurst; Joseph Silk

    1998-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model-independent method of quantifying galaxy evolution in high- resolution images, which we apply to the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). Our procedure is to k-correct the pixels belonging to the images of a complete set of bright galaxies and then to replicate each galaxy image to higher redshift by the product of its space density, 1/V_{max}, and the cosmological volume. The set of bright galaxies is itself selected from the HDF because presently the HDF provides the highest quality UV images of a redshift-complete sample of galaxies (31 galaxies with I24) are much smaller, more numerous, and less regular than our ``no-evolution'' extrapolation, for any relevant geometry. A higher proportion of HDF galaxies ``dropout'' in both U and B, indicating that some galaxies were brighter at higher redshifts than our ``cloned'' z\\sim0.5 population. By simple image transformations we demonstrate that bolometric luminosity evolution generates galaxies which are too large and the contribution of any evolving dwarf population is uninterestingly small. A plausible fit is provided by `mass-conserving' density-evolution, consistent with hierarchical growth of small-scale structure. Finally, we show the potential for improvement using the Advanced Camera, with its superior UV and optical performance.

  20. THE THERMAL EVOLUTION OF ICES IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF NEWLY FORMED STARS: THE CO{sub 2} DIAGNOSTIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, A. M.; Whittet, D. C. B. [New York Center for Astrobiology and Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Shenoy, S. S. [Spitzer Science Center, Mail Code 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gerakines, P. A.; White, D. W. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 310 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Chiar, J. E. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Archival data from the Infrared Spectrometer of the Spitzer Space Telescope are used to study the 15 {mu}m absorption feature of solid CO{sub 2} toward 28 young stellar objects (YSOs) of approximately solar mass. Fits to the absorption profile using laboratory spectra enable categorization according to the degree of thermal processing of the ice matrix that contains the CO{sub 2}. The majority of YSOs in our sample (20 out of 28) are found to be consistent with a combination of polar (H{sub 2}O-rich) and nonpolar (CO-rich) ices at low temperature; the remainder exhibit profile structure consistent with partial crystallization as the result of significant heating. Ice-phase column densities of CO{sub 2} are determined and compared with those of other species. Lines of sight with crystallization signatures in their spectra are found to be systematically deficient in solid-phase CO, as expected if CO is being sublimated in regions where the ices are heated to crystallization temperatures. Significant variation is found in the CO{sub 2} abundance with respect to both H{sub 2}O (the dominant ice constituent) and total dust column (quantified by the extinction, A{sub V}). YSOs in our sample display typically higher CO{sub 2} concentrations (independent of evidence for thermal processing) in comparison to quiescent regions of the prototypical cold molecular cloud. This suggests that enhanced CO{sub 2} production is driven by photochemical reactions in proximity to some YSOs, and that photoprocessing and thermal processing may occur independently.

  1. Cloning Hubble Deep Fields I: A Model-Independent Measurement of Galaxy Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rychard J. Bouwens; Tom Broadhurst; Joseph Silk

    1998-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model-independent method of quantifying galaxy evolution in high-resolution images, which we apply to the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). Our procedure is to k-correct all pixels belonging to the images of a complete set of bright galaxies and then to replicate each galaxy image to higher redshift by the product of its space density, 1/V_{max}, and the cosmological volume. The set of bright galaxies is itself selected from the HDF, because presently the HDF provides the highest quality UV images of a redshift-complete sample of galaxies (31 galaxies with I24) are much smaller, more numerous, and less regular than our ``no-evolution'' extrapolation, for any interesting geometry. A higher proportion of HDF galaxies ``dropout'' in both U and B, indicating that some galaxies were brighter at higher redshifts than our ``cloned'' z\\sim0.5 population.

  2. An experimental measurement of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of a porous solid-liquid system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, James Elliott

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 6. The Relation of to SE for Values of K Calculated by the Heat Neter K SE Nethod 10 13 15 17 22 7. The Relation of the Thermal Conductivity of Fluid Saturated Sandstone to the Thermal Conductivity of the Saturating Fluid 8. The Variation... of pressures and temperatures and at flow and non-flow states (3)~(6), (7), The advent of widespread interest in increasing petroleum recovery from subterranean reservoirs by applying heat to an oil-bearing for- mation (8), (9), (10) has created a need...

  3. Thermal imaging measurement of lateral diffusivity and non-invasive material defect detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Jiangang (Westmont, IL); Deemer, Chris (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for determining lateral thermal diffusivity of a material sample using a heat pulse; a sample oriented within an orthogonal coordinate system; an infrared camera; and a computer that has a digital frame grabber, and data acquisition and processing software. The mathematical model used within the data processing software is capable of determining the lateral thermal diffusivity of a sample of finite boundaries. The system and method may also be used as a nondestructive method for detecting and locating cracks within the material sample.

  4. The material dependence of temperature measurement resolution in thermal scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiaowei; Hull, Robert [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal scanning electron microscopy is a recently developed temperature mapping technique based on thermal diffuse scattering in electron backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron microscope. It provides nano-scale and non-contact temperature mapping capabilities. Due to the specific temperature sensitive mechanism inherent to this technique, the temperature resolution is highly material dependent. A thorough investigation of what material properties affect the temperature resolution is important for realizing the inherent temperature resolution limit for each material. In this paper, three material dependent parameters-the Debye-Waller B-factor temperature sensitivity, backscatter yield, and lattice constant-are shown to control the temperature resolution.

  5. Measurement of the thermal expansion coefficients of ferroelectric crystals by a moire interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arie, Ady

    reserved. Keywords: Moire´ interferometry; Ferroelectric; Thermal expansion 1. Introduction Lithium niobate-phase-matched interactions [4­6]. Design of such devices requires accurate knowledge of the relevant physi- cal parameters properties, as the thermo-optic coefficients [7]. Further- more, in quasi-phase-match nonlinear processes

  6. On the information content of the thermal infrared cooling rate profile from satellite instrument measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    On the information content of the thermal infrared cooling rate profile from satellite instrument 2008; accepted 25 February 2008; published 13 June 2008. [1] This work investigates how remote sensing of the quantities required to calculate clear-sky cooling rate profiles propagates into cooling rate profile

  7. Development and validation of capabilities to measure thermal properties of layered monolithic U-Mo alloy plate-type fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkes, Douglas; Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Pool, Karl N.; Smith, Frances N.; Steen, Franciska H.

    2014-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy in a monolithic form has been proposed as one fuel design capable of converting some of the world’s highest power research reactors from the use of high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). One aspect of the fuel development and qualification process is to demonstrate appropriate understanding of thermal conductivity behavior of the fuel system as a function of temperature and expected irradiation conditions. The purpose of this paper is to verify and validate the functionality of equipment methods installed in hot cells for eventual measurements on irradiated uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel specimens, procedures to operate the equipment, and models to extract the desired thermal properties. The results presented here demonstrate the adequacy of the equipment, procedures and models that have been developed for this purpose based on measurements conducted on surrogate depleted uranium-molybdenum (DU-Mo) alloy samples containing a zirconium diffusion barrier and clad in aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061). The results are in excellent agreement with thermal property data reported in the literature for similar U-Mo alloys as a function of temperature.

  8. Photo-Thermal Transfer Function of Dielectric Mirrors for Precision Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan W. Ballmer

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The photo-thermal transfer function from absorbed power incident on a dielectric mirror to the effective mirror position is calculated using the coating design as input. The effect is found to change in amplitude and sign for frequencies corresponding to diffusion length comparable to the coating thickness. Transfer functions are calculated for the $Ti$-doped ${\\rm Ta_2O_5:SiO_2}$ coating used in Advanced LIGO and for a crystalline ${\\rm Al_xGa_{1-x}As}$ coating. The shape of the transfer function at high frequencies is shown to be a sensitive indicator of the effective absorption depth, providing a potentially powerful tool to distinguish coating-internal absorption from surface contamination related absorption. The sign change of the photo-thermal effect could also be useful to stabilize radiation pressure-based opto-mechanical systems. High frequency corrections to the previously published thermo-optic noise estimates are also provided. Finally, estimating the quality of the thermo-optic noise cancellation occurring in fine-tuned ${\\rm Al_xGa_{1-x}As}$ coatings requires the detailed heat flow analysis done in this paper.

  9. Measurements of continuous mix evolution in a high energy density shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, E., E-mail: loomis@lanl.gov; Doss, F.; Flippo, K.; Fincke, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the novel integration of streaked radiography into a counter-flowing High Energy Density (HED) shear environment that continually measures a growing mix layer of Al separating two low-density CH foams. Measurements of the mix width allow us to validate compressible turbulence models and with streaked imaging, make this possible with a minimal number of experiments on large laser facilities. In this paper, we describe how the HED counter-flowing shear layer is created and diagnosed with streaked radiography. We then compare the streaked data to previous two-dimensional, single frame radiography and radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment with inline compressible turbulent mix models.

  10. Statistical Measure of a Gene Evolution The Case of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chattopadhyay, S; Chakrabarti, J; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Sahoo, Satyabrata; Chakrabarti, Jayprokas

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enzyme Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyses the decomposition of glucose. The gene that produces the GAPDH is therefore present in a wide class of organisms. We show that for this gene the average value of the fluctuations in nucleotide distribution in the codons, normalized to strand bias, provides a reasonable measure of how the gene has evolved in time.

  11. Evolution Noonan Evolution 301

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulet, Denis C.

    Evolution Noonan Spring 08 Evolution 301 Instructor: Brice Noonan Office: 504 Shoemaker e-mail: bnoonan@olemiss.edu Class time: T,Th: 8:00 ­ 9:15 Office Hrs: T, Th: 9:15 ­ 10:45 Text: Evolution (Futuyma Week 3: Jan 29, 21 Chapter 3: Patterns of Evolution Week 4: Feb 5, 7 Chapter 4,5: Evolution

  12. Measurements of the spatial and energy distribution of thermal neutrons in uranium, heavy water lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Paul S. (Paul Sherman)

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intracell activity distributions were measured in three natural uranium, heavy water lattices of 1. 010 inch diameter, aluminum clad rods on triangular spacings of 4. 5 inches, 5. 0 inches, and 5. 75 inches, respectively, ...

  13. Note: A simple model for thermal management in solenoids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, E. M., E-mail: emb56@cam.ac.uk; Ellis, J. [The Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)] [The Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a model of the dynamical temperature evolution in a solenoid winding. A simple finite element analysis is calibrated by accurately measuring the thermally induced resistance change of the solenoid, thus obviating the need for accurate knowledge of the mean thermal conductivity of the windings. The model predicts quasi thermal runaway for relatively modest current increases from the normal operating conditions. We demonstrate the application of this model to determine the maximum current that can be safely applied to solenoids used for helium spin-echo measurements.

  14. Time-resolved measurements of double layer evolution in expanding plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scime, E. E.; Biloiu, I. A.; Carr, J. Jr.; Thakur, S. Chakraborty; Galante, M.; Hansen, A.; Houshmandyar, S.; Keesee, A. M.; McCarren, D.; Sears, S. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Biloiu, C. [Varian Associates, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States); Sun, X. [Tri-Alpha Corporation, Foothill Ranch, California 92610 (United States)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations in steady-state plasmas confirm predictions that formation of a current-free double layer in a plasma expanding into a chamber of larger diameter is accompanied by an increase in ionization upstream of the double layer. The upstream plasma density increases sharply at the same driving frequency at which a double layer appears. For driving frequencies at which no double layer appears, large electrostatic instabilities are observed. Time-resolved measurements in pulsed discharges indicate that the double layer initially forms for all driving frequencies. However, for particularly strong double layers, instabilities appear early in the discharge and the double layer collapses.

  15. Deflection Measurements of a Thermally Simulated Nuclear Core using a High-Resolution CCD-Camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanojev, B.J. [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Al, 35812 (United States); Houts, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States)

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space fission systems under consideration for near-term missions all use compact, fast-spectrum reactor cores. Reactor dimensional change with increasing temperature, which affects neutron leakage, is the dominant source of reactivity feedback in these systems. Accurately measuring core dimensional changes during realistic non-nuclear testing is therefore necessary in predicting the system 'nuclear' equivalent behavior. This paper discusses one key technique being evaluated for measuring such changes. The proposed technique is to use a Charged Couple Device (CCD) sensor to obtain deformation readings of electrically heated prototypic reactor core geometry. This paper introduces a technique by which a single high spatial resolution CCD camera is used to measure core deformation in Real-Time (RT). Initial system checkout results are presented along with a discussion on how additional cameras could be used to achieve a three-dimensional deformation profile of the core during test. (authors)

  16. Measurements of Carbonaceous Aerosols using Semi-Continuous Thermal-Optical Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous aerosols are major components in air pollution as a result of energy consumption, thus measurement of them is important to waste management. Increasing interest has been drawn to the identification, measurement, analysis, and modeling of carbon aerosols in the past decade. This book chapter will provide a review of current state-of-art techniques to determine carbonaceous aerosols in relation to air pollution and waste management. The chapter will be composed of four parts. The introduction will discuss why carbon aerosols including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and total carbon (TC=EC+OC) are important to energy consumption, air pollution, waste management, and global climate change. Key definitions will be introduced. Relevant terminologies will be provided. The second part will be a review of the current state-of the art measurement techniques that are used to determine carbon aerosols. Both on-line and off-line methods will be described. Comparisons of different techniques that provide the same physical quantity will be provided based on recent literature findings. Differences among the physical parameters determined by various techniques will be discussed. The third part will focus on data analysis and products obtained from carbon aerosol measurements. In addition to EC, OC, and TC, primary organic carbon (POC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC) are of interest to researchers to understand the source and sink of carbonaceous aerosols. Techniques used to determine POC and SOC, such as the EC tracer method and positive matrix factorization, will be described and their differences discussed. Examples will be provided showing field data comparison between the Sunset organic carbon and elemental carbon field analyzer and the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer, both of which are widely used for on-line aerosol measurements. The last part will report new trends and summarize future research needs in carbon aerosol measurement. Emerging problems will be identified and research priorities will be recommended.

  17. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF SOLAR FLARES WITH AIA/SDO. II. HYDRODYNAMIC SCALING LAWS AND THERMAL ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschwanden, Markus J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Org. ADBS, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover St., Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Shimizu, Toshifumi, E-mail: aschwanden@lmsal.com, E-mail: shimizu.toshifumi@isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we measure physical parameters of the same set of 155 M- and X-class solar flares observed with AIA/SDO as analyzed in Paper I, by performing a differential emission measure analysis to determine the flare peak emission measure EM{sub p} , peak temperature T{sub p} , electron density n{sub p} , and thermal energy E{sub th}, in addition to the spatial scales L, areas A, and volumes V measured in Paper I. The parameter ranges for M- and X-class flares are log (EM{sub p}) = 47.0-50.5, T{sub p} = 5.0-17.8 MK, n{sub p} = 4 × 10{sup 9}-9 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup –3}, and thermal energies of E{sub th} = 1.6 × 10{sup 28}-1.1 × 10{sup 32} erg. We find that these parameters obey the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) scaling law T{sub p}{sup 2}?n{sub p} L and H?T {sup 7/2} L {sup –2} during the peak time t{sub p} of the flare density n{sub p} , when energy balance between the heating rate H and the conductive and radiative loss rates is achieved for a short instant and thus enables the applicability of the RTV scaling law. The application of the RTV scaling law predicts power-law distributions for all physical parameters, which we demonstrate with numerical Monte Carlo simulations as well as with analytical calculations. A consequence of the RTV law is also that we can retrieve the size distribution of heating rates, for which we find N(H)?H {sup –1.8}, which is consistent with the magnetic flux distribution N(?)??{sup –1.85} observed by Parnell et al. and the heating flux scaling law F{sub H} ?HL?B/L of Schrijver et al.. The fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model in conjunction with the RTV scaling law reproduces the observed power-law distributions and their slopes for all geometrical and physical parameters and can be used to predict the size distributions for other flare data sets, instruments, and detection algorithms.

  18. Building design and thermal renovation measures proposal by means of regression models issued from dynamic simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    using their positions to exert political pressure" , "inadequate energy efficiency measures in Europe and China (and about 30­40% world-wide) [2]. Most of this energy is for supplying the energy for lighting comparison between different energy reduction strategies, like improving the insulation levels or increasing

  19. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  20. Research options for the development of sensors to measure the thermal state of solid steel bodies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaspar, T.A.; Lownie, H.W. Jr.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study reported here is to assist Battelle's Pcacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in planning a research and development program to develop temperature sensors for metal and ceramic industries. This study focuses on sensors to measure internal temperatures within bodies of hot steel. A series of literature surveys, interviews, field visits, and meetings with steel-industry organizations was conducted in seeking answers to questions posed by PNL. These questions, with responses, are summarized.

  1. Measurement of molecular motion in organic semiconductors by thermal diffuse electron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggeman, Alexander S; Illig, Steffen; Troisi, Alessandro; Sirringhaus, Henning; Midgley, Paul A

    2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    in localisation of the charge carriers (3). Recently, it has been reported that this dynamic disorder model provides a consistent framework for understanding the electrical and optical properties of charge carriers in crystalline, high mobility molecular... The final version of this article can be accessed at: Nature Materials 12, 1045-1049 (2013) http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nmat3710 1 Title: Direct Measurement of Molecular Motion in Organic Semiconductors Authors: Alexander S. Eggeman,1...

  2. A pressure gauge based on gas density measurement from analysis of the thermal noise of an atomic force microscope cantilever

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Dongjin; Ducker, William A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Paul, Mark R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a gas-density gauge based on the analysis of the thermally-driven fluctuations of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever. The fluctuations are modeled as a ring-down of a simple harmonic oscillator, which allows fitting of the resonance frequency and damping of the cantilever, which in turn yields the gas density. The pressure is obtained from the density using the known equation of state. In the range 10-220 kPa, the pressure readings from the cantilever gauge deviate by an average of only about 5% from pressure readings on a commercial gauge. The theoretical description we use to determine the pressure from the cantilever motion is based upon the continuum hypothesis, which sets a minimum pressure for our analysis. It is anticipated that the cantilever gauge could be extended to measure lower pressures given a molecular theoretical description. Alternatively, the gauge could be calibrated for use in the non-continuum range. Our measurement technique is similar to previous AFM cantilever measurements, but the analysis produces improved accuracy.

  3. Beneath the Surface of Giant Planets: Evolution, Structure, and Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly Miller, Neil L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    iii of Giant Expolanets 3.3.2 PlanetEvolution of Giant Planets . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Coupled3 Applications of Giant Planet Thermal Evolution Model 3.1

  4. Plant evolution The Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieseberg, Loren

    Plant evolution The Evolution of Plants by Kathy J. Willis and Jenny C. McElwain. Oxford University Press, 2002. $40.00/£22.99 pbk (378 pages) ISBN 0 19 850065 3 Developmental Genetics and Plant Evolution is observed for treatments of evolution and development. Titles of major monographs on the subject imply

  5. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, M.J.

    1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material is disclosed comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress. 3 figs.

  6. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, Martin J. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress.

  7. Measuring the Optical Performance of Evacuated Receivers via an Outdoor Thermal Transient Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Netter, J.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern parabolic trough solar collectors operated at high temperatures to provide the heat input to Rankine steam power cycles employ evacuated receiver tubes along the collector focal line. High performance is achieved via the use of a selective surface with a high absorptance for incoming short-wave solar radiation and a low emittance for outgoing long-wave infrared radiation, as well as the use of a hard vacuum to essentially eliminate convective and conductive heat losses. This paper describes a new method that determines receiver overall optical efficiency by exposing a fluid-filled, pre-cooled receiver to one sun outdoors and measuring the slope of the temperature curve at the point where the receiver temperature passes the glass envelope temperature (that is, the point at which there is no heat gain or loss from the absorber). This transient test method offers the potential advantages of simplicity, high accuracy, and the use of the actual solar spectrum.

  8. Sound speed and thermal property measurements of inert materials: laser spectroscopy and the diamond-anvil cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaug, J.M.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An indispensable companion to dynamical physics experimentation, static high-pressure diamond-anvil cell research continues to evolve, with laser diagnostic, as an accurate and versatile experimental deep planetary properties have bootstrapped each other in a process that has produced even higher pressures; consistently improved calibrations of temperature and pressure under static and dynamic conditions; and unprecedented data and understanding of materials, their elasticity, equations of state (EOS), and transport properties under extreme conditions. A collection of recent pressure and/or temperature dependent acoustic and thermal measurements and deduced mechanical properties and EOS data are summarized for a wide range of materials including H2, H2O, H2S, D2S, CO2, CH4, N2O, CH3OH,, SiO2, synthetic lubricants, PMMA, single crystal silicates, and ceramic superconductors. Room P&T sound speed measurements are presented for the first time on single crystals of beta-HMX. New high-pressure and temperature diamond cell designed and pressure calibrant materials are reviewed.

  9. Ageing of a granular pile induced by thermal cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thibaut Divoux; Ion Vassilief; Hervé Gayvallet; Jean-Christophe Géminard

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we show that variations of temperature, even of a few degrees in amplitude, induce the ageing of a granular pile. In particular, we report measurements of physical properties of a granular heap submitted to thermal cycles. Namely, we focus on the evolution of the thermal linear-expansion coefficient and of the thermal conductivity of the pile with the number of cycles. The present contribution nicely supplements a recent article we published elsewhere [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{101}, 148303 (2008)] and introduces a different and promising method to impose temperature cycles to a granular pile.

  10. Evolution integrals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocco Duvenhage

    2006-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A framework analogous to path integrals in quantum physics is set up for abstract dynamical systems in a W*-algebraic setting. We consider spaces of evolutions, defined in a specific way, of a W*-algebra A as an analogue of spaces of classical paths, and show how integrals over such spaces, which we call ``evolution integrals'', lead to dynamics in a Hilbert space on a ``higher level'' which is viewed as an analogue of quantum dynamics obtained from path integrals. The measures with respect to which these integrals are performed are projection valued.

  11. Quantum Evolution and Anticipation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans-Rudolf Thomann

    2010-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous paper we have investigated quantum states evolving into mutually orthogonal states at equidistant times, and the quantum anticipation effect exhibited by measurements at one half step. Here we extend our analyzes of quantum anticipation to general type quantum evolutions and spectral measures and prove that quantum evolutions possessing an embedded orthogonal evolution are characterized by positive joint spectral measure. Furthermore, we categorize quantum evolution, assess anticipation strength and provide a framework of analytic tools and results, thus preparing for further investigation and experimental verification of anticipation in concrete physical situations such as the H-atom, which we have found to exhibit anticipation.

  12. Measurements of Inter-and-Intra Device Transient Thermal Transport on SOI FETs P. M. Solomon, M. Shamsa*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to heat generation in the drain. Table 1: Thermal transport media Structure LM (nm) I (shallow trench wide FETs are placed back-to-back with a medium separating them. The different media and their lengths

  13. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  14. Feasibility study for measurement of insulation compaction in the cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks at Kennedy Space Center by fast/thermal neutron techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, R. A. [Materials Science and Engineering Dept., U. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Schweitzer, J. S. [Physics Dept., U. of Connecticut, Storrs (United States); Parsons, A. M. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt (United States); Arens, E. E. [John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) use expanded perlite as thermal insulation. Some of the perlite may have compacted over time, compromising the thermal performance and also the structural integrity of the tanks. Neutrons can readily penetrate through the 1.75 cm outer steel shell and through the entire 120 cm thick perlite zone. Neutrons interactions with materials produce characteristic gamma rays which are then detected. In compacted perlite the count rates in the individual peaks in the gamma ray spectrum will increase. Portable neutron generators can produce neutron simultaneous fluxes in two energy ranges: fast (14 MeV) and thermal (25 meV). Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scattering which is sensitive to Si, Al, Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by radiative capture in prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA), which is sensitive to Si, Al, Na, K and H among others. The results of computer simulations using the software MCNP and measurements on a test article suggest that the most promising approach would be to operate the system in time-of-flight mode by pulsing the neutron generator and observing the subsequent die away curve in the PGNA signal.

  15. Evaluation of DART 3D model in the thermal domain using satellite/airborne imagery and ground-based measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Evaluation of DART 3D model in the thermal domain using satellite/airborne imagery and ground ISSN0143-1161print/ISSN1366-5901, DOI:10.1080/01431161.2010.524672 jean to energy fluxes at the earth's surface. Its physical magnitude is defined as the effective kinetic

  16. Junction Temperature Measurements and Thermal Modeling of GaInN/GaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Christian M.

    quantum well (QW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on sapphire and bulk GaN substrate by micro efficiency in dies grown on GaN substrates with a thermal resistance of 75 K/W. For dies on sapphire of GaN-based blue and green LEDs grown on sapphire and GaN substrates using micro-Raman spectroscopy

  17. Low energy spectral index and E{sub p} evolution of quasi-thermal photosphere emission of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: deng@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2014-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations by the Fermi satellite suggest that a photosphere emission component is contributing to the observed spectrum of many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One important question is whether the photosphere component can interpret the typical 'Band' function of GRBs with a typical low energy photon spectral index ? ? –1. We perform a detailed study of the photosphere emission spectrum by progressively introducing several physical ingredients previously not fully incorporated, including the probability distribution of the location of a dynamically evolving photosphere, superposition of emission from an equal arrival time 'volume' in a continuous wind, the evolution of optical depth of a wind with finite but evolving outer boundary, as well as the effect of different top-hat wind luminosity (L{sub w} ) profiles. By assuming a comoving blackbody spectrum emerging from the photosphere, we find that for an outflow with a constant or increasing L{sub w} , the low-energy spectrum below the peak energy (E{sub p} ), can be modified to F {sub ?} ? ?{sup 1.5} (? ? +0.5). A softer (–1 < ? < +0.5) or flat (? = –1) spectrum can be obtained during the L{sub w} decreasing phase or high-latitude-emission-dominated phase. We also study the evolution of E{sub p} as a function of wind and photosphere luminosity in this photosphere model. An E{sub p} – L tracking pattern can be reproduced if a certain positive dependence between the dimensionless entropy ? and L{sub w} is introduced. However, the hard-to-soft evolution pattern cannot be reproduced unless a contrived condition is invoked. In order to interpret the Band spectrum, a more complicated photosphere model or a different energy dissipation and radiation mechanism is needed.

  18. Crystallization Behavior of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Measured Using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis with Liquid Nitrogen Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small IV, W; Wilson, T S

    2010-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber specimens was conducted. Two dynamic temperature sweep tests, 25 to -100 C and 25 to -70 to 0 C (ramp rate = 1 C/min), were conducted at a frequency of 6.28 rad/s (1 Hz) using a torsion rectangular test geometry. A strain of 0.1% was used, which was near the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic region of the material based on an initial dynamic strain sweep test. Storage (G{prime}) and loss (G{double_prime}) moduli, the ratio G{double_prime}/G{prime} (tan {delta}), and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion ({alpha}) were determined as a function of temperature. Crystallization occurred between -40 and -60 C, with G{prime} increasing from {approx}6 x 10{sup 6} to {approx}4 x 10{sup 8} Pa. The value of {alpha} was fairly constant before ({approx}4 x 10{sup -4} mm/mm- C) and after ({approx}3 x 10{sup -4} mm/mm- C) the transition, and peaked during the transition ({approx}3 x 10{sup -3} mm/mm- C). Melting occurred around -30 C upon heating.

  19. Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Discord of Two-Mode Gaussian States in a Thermal Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aurelian Isar

    2011-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting modes embedded in a thermal environment. Entanglement and discord are used to quantify the quantum correlations of the system. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. We study the time evolution of logarithmic negativity, which characterizes the degree of entanglement, and show that in the case of an entangled initial Gaussian state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place, for non-zero temperatures of the environment. Only for a zero temperature of the thermal bath the initial entangled state remains entangled for finite times. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that quantum discord decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath. This is contrast with the sudden death of entanglement. Before the suppression of the entanglement, the qualitative evolution of quantum discord is very similar to that of the entanglement. We describe also the time evolution of the degree of classical correlations and of quantum mutual information, which measures the total correlations of the quantum system.

  20. Experimental Measurement of the Interface Heat Conductance Between Nonconforming Beryllium and Type 316 Stainless Steel Surfaces Subjected to Nonuniform Thermal Deformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelson, Robert Dean; Abdou, Mohamed A. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2001-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In fusion blanket designs that employ beryllium as a neutron multiplier, the interface conductance h plays a key role in evaluating the blanket's thermal profile. Therefore, an extensive experimental program was conducted to measure the magnitude of h between nonconforming beryllium and Type 316 stainless steel surfaces subjected to nonuniform thermal deformations. The magnitude of h was measured as a function of relevant environmental, surface, and geometric parameters, including surface roughness, contact pressure, gas pressure, gas type, and magnitude and direction of heat flow. The results indicate the following: (a) Decreasing the interfacial surface roughness from 6.28 to 0.28 {mu}m, in 760 Torr of helium, increased the magnitude of h by up to 100%; however, increasing the surface roughness reduced the dependence of h on the magnitude of the contact pressure. (b) The interface conductance was significantly higher for measurements made in helium gas as opposed to air. Additionally, the sensitivity of h to the gas pressure was significantly greater for runs conducted in helium and/or with smoother surfaces. This sensitivity was reduced in air and/or with roughened surfaces, and it was essentially nonexistent for the 6.25-{mu}m specimen for air pressures exceeding 76 Torr. (c) For runs conducted in vacuum, the interface conductance was more sensitive to heat flux than when runs were conducted in 760 Torr of helium. (d) The interface conductance was found to be dependent on the direction of heat flux. When the specimens were arranged so that heat flowed from the steel to the beryllium disk, the magnitude of h was generally greater than in the opposite direction.

  1. Nonlocal probes of thermalization in holographic quenches with spectral methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Buchel; Robert C. Myers; Anton van Niekerk

    2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the application of pseudo-spectral methods to problems of holographic thermal quenches of relevant couplings in strongly coupled gauge theories. We focus on quenches of a fermionic mass term in a strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma, and the subsequent equilibration of the system. From the dual gravitational perspective, we study gravitational collapse of a massive scalar field in asymptotically anti-de-Sitter geometry with a prescribed boundary condition for its non-normalizable mode. Access to the full background geometry of the gravitational collapse allows for the study of nonlocal probes of the thermalization process. We discuss the evolution of the apparent and the event horizons, the two-point correlation functions of operators of large conformal dimensions, and the evolution of the entanglement entropy of the system. We compare the thermalization process from the viewpoint of local (the one-point) correlation functions and these nonlocal probes, finding that the thermalization time as measured by the probes is length dependent, and can exceed that of the one-point function. We further discuss how the different energy scales of the problem contribute to its thermalization.

  2. Measurement of the Fundamental Thermal Noise Limit in a Cryogenic Sapphire Frequency Standard Using Bimodal Maser Oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benmessai, Karim; Kersale, Yann; Giordano, Vincent [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS, Universite de Franche, Comte, 25044 Besancon (France); Creedon, Daniel Lloyd; Tobar, Michael Edmund [University of Western Australia, School of Physics M013, 35 Stirling Hwy., Crawley 6009 WA (Australia); Bourgeois, Pierre-Yves [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS, Universite de Franche, Comte, 25044 Besancon (France); University of Western Australia, School of Physics M013, 35 Stirling Hwy., Crawley 6009 WA (Australia)

    2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report observations of the Schawlow-Townes noise limit in a cryogenic sapphire secondary frequency standard. The effect causes a fundamental limit to the frequency stability, and was measured through the novel excitation of a bimodal maser oscillation of a Whispering Gallery doublet at 12.04 GHz. The beat frequency of 10 kHz between the oscillations enabled a sensitive probe for this measurement of fractional frequency instability of 10{sup -14}{tau}{sup -1/2} with only 0.5 pW of output power.

  3. Comparison of different experimental and analytical measures of the thermal annealing response of neutron-irradiated RPV steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.; Nanstad, R.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal annealing response of several materials as indicated by Charpy transition temperature (TT) and upper-shelf energy (USE), crack initiation toughness, K{sub Jc}, predictive models, and automated-ball indentation (ABI) testing are compared. The materials investigated are representative reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels (several welds and a plate) that were irradiated for other tasks of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program and are relatively well characterized in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions. They have been annealed at two temperatures, 343 and 454 C (650 and 850 F) for varying lengths of time. The correlation of the Charpy response and the fracture toughness, ABI, and the response predicted by the annealing model of Eason et al. for these conditions and materials appears to be reasonable. The USE after annealing at the temperature of 454 C appears to recover at a faster rate than the TT, and even over-recovers (i.e., the recovered USE exceeds that of the unirradiated material).

  4. Comparison of different experimental and analytical measures of the thermal annealing response of neutron-irradiated RPV steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.; Nanstad, R.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal annealing response of several materials as indicated by Charpy transition temperature (TT) and upper-shelf energy (USE), crack initiation toughness, K{sub Jc}, predictive models, and automated-ball indentation (ABI) testing are compared. The materials investigated are representative reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels (several welds and a plate) that were irradiated for other tasks of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program and are relatively well characterized in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions. They have been annealed at two temperatures, 343 and 454 C (650 and 850 F) for varying lengths of time. The correlation of the Charpy response and the fracture toughness, ABI, and the response predicted by the annealing model of Eason et al. for these conditions and materials appears to be reasonable. The USE after annealing at the temperature of 454 C appears to recover at a faster rate than the TT, and even over-recovers (i.e., the recovered USE exceeds that of the unirradiated material).

  5. A statistical method for estimating wood thermal diffusivity and probe geometry using in situ heat response curves from sap flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xingyuan; Miller, Gretchen R.; Rubin, Yoram; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat pulse method is widely used to measure water flux through plants; it works by inferring the velocity of water through a porous medium from the speed at which a heat pulse is propagated through the system. No systematic, non-destructive calibration procedure exists to determine the site-specific parameters necessary for calculating sap velocity, e.g., wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing. Such parameter calibration is crucial to obtain the correct transpiration flux density from the sap flow measurements at the plant scale; and consequently, to up-scale tree-level water fluxes to canopy and landscape scales. The purpose of this study is to present a statistical framework for estimating the wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing simutaneously from in-situ heat response curves collected by the implanted probes of a heat ratio apparatus. Conditioned on the time traces of wood temperature following a heat pulse, the parameters are inferred using a Bayesian inversion technique, based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The primary advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not require known probe spacing or any further intrusive sampling of sapwood. The Bayesian framework also enables direct quantification of uncertainty in estimated sap flow velocity. Experiments using synthetic data show that repeated tests using the same apparatus are essential to obtain reliable and accurate solutions. When applied to field conditions, these tests are conducted during different seasons and automated using the existing data logging system. The seasonality of wood thermal diffusivity is obtained as a by-product of the parameter estimation process, and it is shown to be affected by both moisture content and temperature. Empirical factors are often introduced to account for the influence of non-ideal probe geometry on the estimation of heat pulse velocity, and they are estimated in this study as well. The proposed methodology can be applied for the calibration of existing heat ratio sap flow systems at other sites. It is especially useful when an alternative transpiration calibration device, such as a lysimeter, is not available.

  6. Optical measurement of thermal transport in suspended carbon nanotubes I-Kai Hsu, Rajay Kumar, Adam Bushmaker, and Stephen B. Cronina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    - temperature thermal conductivities above 2500 W/m K.5,7 Chiu et al., using a self-heating approach, determined transport data with a Joule self-heating model, Pop et al. obtained thermal conductivities of sus- pended

  7. Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Discord of Two-Mode Gaussian States in a Thermal Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isar, Aurelian

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting modes embedded in a thermal environment. Entanglement and discord are used to quantify the quantum correlations of the system. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. We study the time evolution of logarithmic negativity, which characterizes the degree of entanglement, and show that in the case of an entangled initial Gaussian state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place, for non-zero temperatures of the environment. Only for a zero temperature of the thermal bath the initial entangled state remains entangled for finite times. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state,...

  8. Evolution of E2 transition strength in deformed hafnium isotopes from new measurements on $^{172}$Hf, $^{174}$Hf, and $^{176}$Hf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Rudigier; K. Nomura; M. Dannhoff; R-B. Gerst; J. Jolie; N. Saed-Samii; S. Stegemann; J-M. Régis; L. M. Robledo; R. Rodríguez-Guzmán; A. Blazhev; Ch. Fransen; N. Warr; K. O. Zell

    2015-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The available data for E2 transition strengths in the region between neutron-deficient Hf and Pt isotopes are far from complete. More and precise data are needed to enhance the picture of structure evolution in this region and to test state-of-the-art nuclear models. In a simple model, the maximum collectivity is expected at the middle of the major shell. However, for actual nuclei, this picture may no longer be the case, and one should use a more realistic nuclear-structure model. We address this point by studying the spectroscopy of Hf. We remeasure the 2^+_1 half-lives of 172,174,176Hf, for which there is some disagreement in the literature. The main goal is to measure, for the first time, the half-lives of higher-lying states of the rotational band. The new results are compared to a theoretical calculation for absolute transition strengths. The half-lives were measured using \\gamma-\\gamma and conversion-electron-\\gamma delayed coincidences with the fast timing method. For the determination of half-lives in the picosecond region, the generalized centroid difference method was applied. For the theoretical calculation of the spectroscopic properties, the interacting boson model is employed, whose Hamiltonian is determined based on microscopic energy-density functional calculations. The measured 2^+_1 half-lives disagree with results from earlier \\gamma-\\gamma fast timing measurements, but are in agreement with data from Coulomb excitation experiments and other methods. Half-lives of the 4^+_1 and 6^+_1 states were measured, as well as a lower limit for the 8^+_1 states. We show the importance of the mass-dependence of effective boson charge in the description of E2 transition rates in chains of nuclei. It encourages further studies of the microscopic origin of this mass dependence. New data on transition rates in nuclei from neighboring isotopic chains could support these studies.

  9. Investigation of buffer traps in AlGaN/GaN-on-Si devices by thermally stimulated current spectroscopy and back-gating measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shu; Zhou, Chunhua; Jiang, Qimeng; Chen, Kevin J., E-mail: eekjchen@ust.hk [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Lu, Jianbiao; Huang, Baoling [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy and high-voltage back-gating measurement are utilized to study GaN buffer traps specific to AlGaN/GaN lateral heterojunction structures grown on a low-resistivity Si substrate. Three dominating deep-level traps in GaN buffer with activation energies of ?E{sub T1}???0.54?eV, ?E{sub T2}???0.65?eV, and ?E{sub T3}???0.75?eV are extracted from TSC spectroscopy in a vertical GaN-on-Si structure. High back-gate bias applied to the Si substrate could influence the drain current in an AlGaN/GaN-on-Si high-electron-mobility transistor in a way that cannot be explained with a simple field-effect model. By correlating the trap states identified in TSC with the back-gating measurement results, it is proposed that the ionization/deionization of both donor and acceptor traps are responsible for the generation of buffer space charges, which impose additional modulation to the 2DEG channel.

  10. Microviscometric studies on thermal diffusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyna, Eddie

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for its improvement. This in~estigation was supported in part by the Convsir Division of General Dynamics Corporation. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter III INTRODUCTION EXPERINENTAL NETHODS AND PROCEDUPJIS Thermal Diffusion Column Viscosity Measurements.... The main interest of 6 tais work was the molecular weight dependence of the thermal diffusion coefficient and the suitability of thermal diffusion as a method of frac- tionation of polymers. Since the work of Debye and Bueche, applications of thermal...

  11. Thermal analysis of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and development of a powder aging model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Geoffrey W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandstrom, Mary M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giambra, Anna M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Jose G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Monroe, Deirde C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have applied a range of different physical and thermal analysis techniques to characterize the thermal evolution of the specific surface area of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders. Using atomic force microscopy we have determined that the mass transfer mechanism leading to powder coarsening is probably sublimation and redeposition of PETN. Using thermogravimetric analysis we have measured vapor pressures of PETN powders whose aging will be simulated in future work. For one specific powder we have constructed an empirical model of the coarsening that is fit to specific surface area measurements at 60 C to 70 C to provide predictive capability of that powder's aging. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectroscopy measurements highlight some of the thermal behavior of the powders and suggest that homologue-based eutectics and impurities are localized in the powder particles.

  12. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron : Origin and Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse; Jean Audouze

    1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin and evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron is a crossing point between different astrophysical fields : optical and gamma spectroscopy, non thermal nucleosynthesis, Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis and finally galactic evolution. We describe the production and the evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron from Big Bang up to now through the interaction of the Standard Galactic Cosmic Rays with the interstellar medium, supernova neutrino spallation and a low energy component related to supernova explosions in galactic superbubbles.

  13. Thermal Total Cross Sections of Europium from Neutron Capture and Transmission Measurements G.Leinweber, D.P. Barry, R.C. Block, M.J. Rapp, and J.G. Hoole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Thermal Total Cross Sections of Europium from Neutron Capture and Transmission Measurements G 14052 INTRODUCTION Europium is a fission product in the low-yield tail at the high end of the fission, europium is the most reactive in air, making it a challenge to prepare samples in metallic form. 151 Eu

  14. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  15. Thermal Conductivity of Coated Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Lei L [ORNL; Pan, Yun-Long [Smart Papers, Hamilton, OH 45013; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Peterson, Robert C. [Miami University, Oxford, OH

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we introduce a method for measuring the thermal conductivity of paper using a hot disk system. To the best of our knowledge, few publications are found discussing the thermal conductivity of a coated paper although it is important to various forms of today s digital printing where heat is used for imaging as well as for toner fusing. This motivates us to investigate the thermal conductivity of paper coating. Our investigation demonstrates that thermal conductivity is affected by the coat weight and the changes in the thermal conductivity affect ink gloss and density. As the coat weight increases, the thermal conductivity increases. Both the ink gloss and density decrease as the thermal conductivity increases. The ink gloss appears to be more sensitive to the changes in the thermal conductivity.

  16. Nanofluids for vehicle thermal management.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, S. U.-S.; Yu, W.; Hull, J. R.; Zhang, Z. G.; Lockwood, F. E.; Energy Technology; The Valvoline Co.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying nanotechnology to thermal engineering, ANL has addressed the interesting and timely topic of nanofluids. We have developed methods for producing both oxide and metal nanofluids, studied their thermal conductivity, and obtained promising results: (1) Stable suspensions of nanoparticles can be achieved. (2) Nanofluids have significantly higher thermal conductivities than their base liquids. (3) Measured thermal conductivities of nanofluids are much greater than predicted. For these reasons, nanofluids show promise for improving the design and performance of vehicle thermal management systems. However, critical barriers to further development and application of nanofluid technology are agglomeration of nanoparticles and oxidation of metallic nanoparticles. Therefore, methods to prevent particle agglomeration and degradation are required.

  17. advanced spaceborne thermal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from and is used to measure volcanic thermal radiance. ASTER provides relatively high spatial resolution (90 m Wright, Robert 6 Advanced nanofabrication of thermal emission...

  18. Pre-equilibrium evolution effects on heavy-ion collision observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia Liu; Chun Shen; Ulrich W. Heinz

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to investigate the importance of pre-equilibrium dynamics on relativistic heavy-ion collision observables, we match a highly non-equilibrium early evolution stage, modeled by free-streaming partons generated from the Monte Carlo Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi (MC-KLN) and Monte Carlo Glauber (MC-Glb) models, to a locally approximately thermalized later evolution stage described by viscous hydrodynamics, and study the dependence of final hadronic transverse momentum distributions, in particular their underlying radial and anisotropic flows, on the switching time between these stages. Performing a 3-parameter fit of the measured values for the average transverse momenta $\\langle p_\\perp \\rangle$ for pions, kaons and protons as well as the elliptic and triangular flows of charged hadrons $v_{2,3}^\\mathrm{ch}$, with the switching time $\\tau_s$, the specific shear viscosity $\\eta/s$ during the hydrodynamic stage, and the kinetic decoupling temperature $T_\\mathrm{dec}$ as free parameters, we find that the preferred "thermalization" times $\\tau_s$ depend strongly on the model of the initial conditions. MC-KLN initial conditions require an earlier transition to hydrodynamic behavior (at $\\tau_s \\approx$ 0.13 fm/$c$) , followed by hydrodynamic evolution with a larger specific shear viscosity $\\eta/s\\approx$ 0.2, than MC-Glb initial conditions which prefer switching at a later time ($\\tau_s\\approx$ 0.6 fm/$c$) followed by a less viscous hydrodynamic evolution with $\\eta/s\\approx$ 0.16. These new results including pre-equilibrium evolution are compared to fits without a pre-equilbrium stage where all dynamic evolution before the onset of hydrodynamic behavior is ignored. In each case, the quality of the dynamical descriptions for the optimized parameter sets, as well as the observables which show the strongest constraining power for the thermalization time, are discussed.

  19. Measurement Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Catch Composition - Pelagic codes M Male F Female I Indeterminate U Unknown (not inspected) #12;Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Photos Comment Length 1 Version 1.2 6/2011 HookNo. Species name

  20. Investigation and Analysis of Winter Classroom Thermal Environment in Chongqing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Li, B.; Yao, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the thermal sense value of the occupants, the winter classroom thermal environment was evaluated. Measures for improving the classroom indoor thermal environmental quality were also given. The lower limit air temperature of the non-air conditioned classrooms...

  1. Investigation and Analysis of Winter Classroom Thermal Environment in Chongqing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Li, B.; Yao, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the thermal sense value of the occupants, the winter classroom thermal environment was evaluated. Measures for improving the classroom indoor thermal environmental quality were also given. The lower limit air temperature of the non-air conditioned classrooms...

  2. Evaluation of the thermal resistance of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier for tropical and humid conditions: Experimental study from field measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranville, Frédéric; Guichard, Stéphane; Boyer, Harry; Praene, Jean Philippe; Bigot, Dimitri

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier (MRRB), installed according to the state of the art, on a dedicated test cell. An existing experimental device was completed with a specific system for the regulation of the airflow rate in the upper air layer included in a typical roof from Reunion Island. Several experimental sequences were conducted to determine the thermal resistance of the roof according to several parameters and following a specific method. The mean method, well known in international standards (ISO 9869 - 1994) for the determination of the thermal resistance using dynamic data, was used. The method was implemented in a building simulation code in order to allow the determination of the thermal indicator automatically. Experimental results are proposed according to different seasonal periods and for different values of the airflow rate in the upper air layer

  3. Evaluation of the thermal resistance of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier for tropical and humid conditions: Experimental study from field measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frédéric Miranville; Ali Hamada Fakra; Stéphane Guichard; Harry Boyer; Jean Philippe Praene; Dimitri Bigot

    2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier (MRRB), installed according to the state of the art, on a dedicated test cell. An existing experimental device was completed with a specific system for the regulation of the airflow rate in the upper air layer included in a typical roof from Reunion Island. Several experimental sequences were conducted to determine the thermal resistance of the roof according to several parameters and following a specific method. The mean method, well known in international standards (ISO 9869 - 1994) for the determination of the thermal resistance using dynamic data, was used. The method was implemented in a building simulation code in order to allow the determination of the thermal indicator automatically. Experimental results are proposed according to different seasonal periods and for different values of the airflow rate in the upper air layer.

  4. Vorlesung Biophysik Braun -Evolution In Vitro Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kersting, Roland

    Vorlesung Biophysik Braun - Evolution In Vitro Evolution #12;Vorlesung Biophysik Braun - Evolution Spiegelman: Evolution in the Q-virus model Spiegelman used Q-virus that attacks E.coli to demonstrate evolution in the lab. Upon infection, the virus first translates its RNA into a complemen- tary strand which

  5. Thermal Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass, to release hydrogen, which is part of their molecular structure. In other processes, heat, in...

  6. Thermal Shock Effects Modeling On A Globe Valve Body-Bonnet Bolted Flange Joint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Jean-Philippe; Ferrari, Jerome; Hersant, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper attends to show efforts made at EDF R&D to improve comprehension of valve parts loadings during operation. Thermal shock in a globe valve is represented and modeled using EDF R&D Finite Element Analysis code (Code_Aster). Choices of modeling are discussed and balanced on the basis of "what an engineer can obtain without becoming a researcher". First simulation results are presented. Attention is focused on the evolution of Body-Bonnet Bolted Flange Joint (BBBFJ) tightening forces which are simulated during the thermal shock. An experimental setup is also presented for the studied valve, which implies thermocouple implementation for comparison of the simulated thermal field and strain measurement on each threaded rod to validate the mechanical modeling.

  7. Modeling the thermal deformation of TATB-based explosives. Part 1: Thermal expansion of “neat-pressed” polycrystalline TATB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Darby J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We detail a modeling approach to simulate the anisotropic thermal expansion of polycrystalline (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) TATB-based explosives that utilizes microstructural information including porosity, crystal aspect ratio, and processing-induced texture. This report, the first in a series, focuses on nonlinear thermal expansion of “neat-pressed” polycrystalline TATB specimens which do not contain any binder; additional complexities related to polymeric binder and irreversible ratcheting behavior are briefly discussed, however detailed investigation of these aspects are deferred to subsequent reports. In this work we have, for the first time, developed a mesoscale continuum model relating the thermal expansion of polycrystal TATB specimens to their microstructural characteristics. A self-consistent homogenization procedure is used to relate macroscopic thermoelastic response to the constitutive behavior of single-crystal TATB. The model includes a representation of grain aspect ratio, porosity, and crystallographic texture attributed to the consolidation process. A quantitative model is proposed to describe the evolution of preferred orientation of graphitic planes in TATB during consolidation and an algorithm constructed to develop a discrete representation of the associated orientation distribution function. Analytical and numerical solutions using this model are shown to produce textures consistent with previous measurements and characterization for isostatic and uniaxial “die-pressed” specimens. Predicted thermal strain versus temperature for textured specimens are shown to be in agreement with corresponding experimental measurements. Using the developed modeling approach, several simulations have been run to investigate the influence of microstructure on macroscopic thermal expansion behavior. Results from these simulations are used to identify qualitative trends. Implications of the identified trends are discussed in the context of thermal deformation of engineered components whose consolidation process is generally more complex than isostatic or die-pressed specimens. Finally, an envisioned application of the modeling approach to simulating thermal expansion of weapon systems and components is outlined along with necessary future work to introduce the effects of binder and ratcheting behavior. Key conclusions from this work include the following. Both porosity and grain aspect ratio have an influence on the thermal expansion of polycrystal TATB considering realistic material variability. Thepreferred orientation of the single crystal TATB [001] poles within a polycrystal gives rise to pronounced anisotropy of the macroscopic thermal expansion. The extent of this preferred orientation depends on the magnitude of deformation, and consequently, is expected to vary spatially throughout manufactured components much like porosity. The modeling approach presented here has utility toward bringing spatially variable microstructural features into macroscale system engineering modelsAbstract Not Provided

  8. Beneath the Surface of Giant Planets: Evolution, Structure, and Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly Miller, Neil L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thermal evolution model, including energy-limited mass loss,Evaporative Mass Loss Model For energy-limited evaporativeradii. Using an energy-limited escape model, we estimate a

  9. Thermal Storage and Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids: measuring thermophysical properties, measuring fluid flow and heat transfer, and simulating flow of thermal energy and fluid.

  10. Lecture 25: Evolution & Human-caused evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lecture 25: Evolution & Humans · Human-caused evolution · Global climate change · Exploitation:1786 Final, 14 Dec, 8-10 Review session, 13 Dec, Wednesday, 11am, 201 Abelson Evolution ­ relevance? A better populations ­ Conservation of biodiversity ­ Pests ­ Diseases Global warming and evolution · Moderation

  11. Structural Evolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solid ... Strengthening a solid partnershipInfluenzaEvolution in

  12. Measurements of gas sorption from seawater and the influence of gas release on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penney, T.R.; Althof, J.A.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical community has questioned the validity and cost-effectiveness of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems because of the unknown effect of noncondensable gas on heat exchanger performance and the power needed to run vacuum equipment to remove this gas. To date, studies of seawater gas desorption have not been prototypical for system level analysis. This study gives preliminary gas desorption data on a vertical spout, direct contact evaporator and multiple condenser geometries. Results indicate that dissolved gas can be substantially removed before the seawater enters the heat exchange process, reducing the uncertainty and effect of inert gas on heat exchanger performance.

  13. Electron density measurements of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal N{sub 2} plasma jet by Stark broadening and irradiance intensity methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Dezhi; Shen, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xie, Hongbing; Shu, Xingsheng; Meng, Yuedong; Li, Jiangang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Cheng, Cheng, E-mail: chengcheng@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: chengcheng@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma jet excited by high frequency alternating current using nitrogen is developed and the electron density in the active region of this plasma jet is investigated by two different methods using optical emission spectroscopy, Stark broadening, and irradiance intensity method. The irradiance intensity method shows that the average electron density is about 10{sup 20}/m{sup 3} which is slightly smaller than that by the Stark broadening method. However, the trend of the change in the electron density with input power obtained by these two methods is consistent.

  14. Developing models of aerosol representation to investigate composition, evolution, optical properties, and CCN spectra using measurements of size-resolved hygroscopicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasparini, Roberto

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A Differential Mobility Analyzer/Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA/TDMA) was used to measure size distributions, hygroscopicity, and volatility during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operational Period at the Central Facility...

  15. Developing models of aerosol representation to investigate composition, evolution, optical properties, and CCN spectra using measurements of size-resolved hygroscopicity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasparini, Roberto

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A Differential Mobility Analyzer/Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA/TDMA) was used to measure size distributions, hygroscopicity, and volatility during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operational Period at the Central ...

  16. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  17. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  18. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"Proceed- ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop,

  19. THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: thermal hydraulics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    -fluid modeling of nuclear reactor systems. Thermal-hydraulic analysis codes such as RELAP5-3D ~Ref. 1! and FLICA regions of the system. In fact, the CFD code FLUENT has previously been coupled to RELAP5-3D ~Refs. 3

  20. Advanced thermal imaging of composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite materials were studied by Scanning Thermal Conductivity Microscope (STCM) and high speed thermography. The STCM is a qualitative technique which is used to study thermal conductivity variations on a sub-micrometer scale. High speed thermography is a quantitative technique for measuring thermal diffusivity with a variable spatial resolution from centimeters down to less than 25 gm. A relative thermal conductivity contrast map was obtained from a SiC/Si3N4 continuous fiber ceramic composite using the STCM. Temperature changes of a carbon/carbon composite after a heat pulse were captured by an IR camera to generate a thermal diffusivity map of the specimen. Line profiles of the temperature distribution showed significant variations as a result of fiber orientation.

  1. Evolution of quantum correlations in a two-atom system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryszard Tana?

    2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the evolution of quantum correlations for a system of two two-level atoms interacting with a common reservoir. The Markovian master equation is used to describe the evolution of various measures of quantum correlations.

  2. Measuring the Impact of Experimental Parameters upon the Estimated Thermal Conductivity of Closed-Cell Foam Insulation Subjected to an Accelerated Aging Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL] [ORNL; Bogdan, mary [Honeywell, Inc.] [Honeywell, Inc.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity of many closed-cell foam insulation products changes over time as production gases diffuse out of the cell matrix and atmospheric gases diffuse into the cells. Thin slicing has been shown to be an effective means of accelerating this process in such a way as to produce meaningful results. Recent efforts to produce a more prescriptive version of the ASTM standard test method have led to the initiation of a broad ruggedness test. This test includes the aging of full size insulation specimens for time periods up to five years for later comparison to the predicted results. Experimental parameters under investigation include: slice thickness, slice origin (at the surface or from the core of the slab), thin slice stack composition, product facings, original product thickness, product density, and product type. This paper will cover the structure of the ruggedness test and provide a glimpse of some early trends

  3. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has · STOP (Structural, Thermal, and Optical Performance) analyses of optical systems Thermal engineers lead evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

  4. The Evolution of Creationist Movements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matzke, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. Living with Darwin: evolution, design, and the future ofover creation and evolution. New York: Oxford Universityexample of darwinian evolution in action. Evolution:

  5. Microviscometric studies on thermal diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyna, Eddie

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    proportions until Clusiui and Dickel introduced a type of therrail diffusion column 4 which caused a thermal circul~tion in addition to thermal diffusion. With tni' equipment they were able to separate chlorine isotopes. Applying this same method..., it was decided to . onstruct equipment which could measure the viscosity and concentration of 0. 1 ml. samples. It was desired to have the reproduceability of the viscosimeter better than I'X since the dilute solutions to be studied had maximum viscosities...

  6. Abstract-Thermal resistance has been measured for high speed SiGe HBT's with various emitter widths and lengths. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieh, Jae-Sung

    , a compensation is made in order to account for the self-heating effect in the first measurement, since it related and the junction temperature, for which a temperature-sensitive electrical parameter (TSEP) is utilized in order

  7. Defect Structure and Evolution in Silicon Carbide Irradiated to 1 dpa-SiC at 1100 C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.J. Senor; G.E. Youngblood; L.R. Greenwood; D.V. Archer; D.L. Alexander; M.C. Chen; G.A. Newsome

    2002-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), swelling measurements, isochronal annealing, and thermal diffusivity testing were used to characterize the effects of radiation damage in SiC. Together, these techniques provided a comprehensive set of tools for observing and characterizing the structure and evolution of radiation-induced defects in SiC as a function of irradiation temperature and dose. In this study, two types of dense, crystalline, monolithic SiC were subjected to irradiation doses up to 1 dpa-SiC at a temperature of 1100 C, as well as post-irradiation annealing up to 1500 C. The microscopic defect structures observed by TEM were correlated to changes in the macroscopic dimensions, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. The results demonstrated the value of using ultrapure {beta}SiC as an effective reference material to characterize the nature of expected radiation damage in other, more complex, SiC-based materials such as SiC/SiC composites.

  8. Measurement of the rotational distribution for the OD product from the reaction ND3 D2O~ND4 OD under translationally thermal conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Measurement of the rotational distribution for the OD product from the reaction ND3 D2O~ND4 OD The state-to-state ion-molecule reaction ND3 2 1 D2OND4 OD(v 0,N) is investigated. A slowly flowing, 2 product buildup, the rotational distribution of the OD(v 0) product is measured by recording the OD A2 X2

  9. Evolution and Ethics Introduction to Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Aditya

    · Ethics and New Biology #12;Introduction to Evolution Darwinism is a monolithic theory? #12;www fact may be defined as a theory that has been repeatedly confirmed and never refuted. Evolution fits

  10. Wave Evolution On the Evolution of Curvelets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hart F.

    Curvelets Wave Evolution On the Evolution of Curvelets by the Wave Equation Hart F. Smith of Curvelets by the Wave Equation #12;Curvelets Wave Evolution Curvelets and the Second Dyadic Decomposition Curvelets A curvelet frame {} is a wave packet frame on L2(R2) based on second dyadic decomposition. f

  11. Thermal conductivity of sputtered amorphous Ge films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhan, Tianzhuo; Xu, Yibin; Goto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Kato, Ryozo; Sasaki, Michiko; Kagawa, Yutaka [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)] [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We measured the thermal conductivity of amorphous Ge films prepared by magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was significantly higher than the value predicted by the minimum thermal conductivity model and increased with deposition temperature. We found that variations in sound velocity and Ge film density were not the main factors in the high thermal conductivity. Fast Fourier transform patterns of transmission electron micrographs revealed that short-range order in the Ge films was responsible for their high thermal conductivity. The results provide experimental evidences to understand the underlying nature of the variation of phonon mean free path in amorphous solids.

  12. Study of electron temperature profile evolution during L-H transition with measurement of electron cyclotron emission on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z.; Hsieh, C.; Zhang, J. [Southwest Inst. of Physics, Sichuan, SC (China); Lohr, J.; Stockdale, R.E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Bell, G.L.; Wilgen, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Luo, J. [Inst. of Plasma Physics, Hefei, AH (China)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The L-H transition has been intensively investigated since it was discovered in the ASDEX tokamak in 1982. Considerable experimental evidence shows that the formation of the transport barrier at the plasma edge, during which the edge density and temperature gradients suddenly increase, is a common feature in the L-H transition discharge in all devices. Formation of the transport barrier is indicated by a sharp reduction in the D{alpha} radiation at the periphery of the plasma despite a simultaneous increase in the plasma density. A new heterodyne electron cyclotron emission radiometer, which had been built for the ATF device at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has been installed on DIII-D. The instrument features 32 channels with high temporal and spatial resolution and covers the outer half of DIII-D plasma at full magnetic field. Initial measurements with the instrument at the time of the L-H transition show that there is no T{sub e}, precursor to the transition and this is further supported by observations during dithering L-H transition where the transport barrier is immediately destroyed when the plasma briefly returns to the L-mode during process of the transition. Other applications of the new instrument have included T{sub e}, profile measurements during edge localized modes and during Ohmic and beam-heated sawteeth, which highlight the magnetic reconnection process. The instrument will be described and some of these results win be presented.

  13. Shell structure underlying the evolution of quadrupole collectivity in S-38 and S-40 probed by transient-field g-factor measurements on fast radioactive beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. E. Stuchbery; A. D. Davies; P. F. Mantica; P. M. Davidson; A. N. Wilson; A. Becerril; B. A. Brown; C. M. Campbell; J. M. Cook; D. C. Dinca; A. Gade; S. N. Liddick; T. J. Mertzimekis; W. F. Mueller; J. R. Terry; B. E. Tomlin; K. Yoneda; H. Zwahlen

    2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The shell structure underlying shape changes in neutron-rich nuclei between N=20 and N=28 has been investigated by a novel application of the transient field technique to measure the first-excited state g factors in S-38 and S-40 produced as fast radioactive beams. Details of the new methodology are presented. In both S-38 and S-40 there is a fine balance between the proton and neutron contributions to the magnetic moments. Shell model calculations which describe the level schemes and quadrupole properties of these nuclei also give a satisfactory explanation of the g factors. In S-38 the g factor is extremely sensitive to the occupation of the neutron p3/2 orbit above the N=28 shell gap as occupation of this orbit strongly affects the proton configuration. The g factor of deformed S-40 does not resemble that of a conventional collective nucleus because spin contributions are more important than usual.

  14. THE EVOLUTION OF RECOMBINATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Mark

    CHAPTER 7 THE EVOLUTION OF RECOMBINATION J. Maynard Smith INTRODUcnON Recombination depends responsible for the evolution of these genes? Typically, population geneticists explain the evolution the fitness (survival and fecundity) of that individual. Can the evolution of recombination genes be explained

  15. Earth's Mineral Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert T.

    Earth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research. Display Options: Earth's Mineral Evolution Based on a CIW news release Mineral Kingdom Has Co

  16. Wafer heating mechanisms in a molecular gas, inductively coupled plasma: in situ, real time wafer surface measurements and three-dimensional thermal modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titus, M. J.; Graves, D. B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report measurements and modeling of wafer heating mechanisms in an Ar/O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The authors employed a commercially available on-wafer sensor system (PlasmaTemp developed by KLA-Tencor) consisting of an on-board electronics module housing battery power and data storage with 30 temperature sensors embedded onto the wafer at different radial positions. This system allows for real time, in situ wafer temperature measurements. Wafer heating mechanisms were investigated by combining temperature measurements from the PlasmaTemp sensor wafer with a three-dimensional heat transfer model of the wafer and a model of the ICP. Comparisons between pure Ar and Ar/O{sub 2} discharges demonstrated that two additional wafer heating mechanisms can be important in molecular gas plasmas compared to atomic gas discharges. The two mechanisms are heating from the gas phase and O-atom surface recombination. These mechanisms were shown to contribute as much as 60% to wafer heating under conditions of low bias power. This study demonstrated how the 'on-wafer' temperature sensor not only yields a temperature profile distribution across the wafer, but can be used to help determine plasma characteristics, such as ion flux profiles or plasma processing temperatures.

  17. evolution genetics lab GENE 4230L: MECHANISMSAND INFERENCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    evolution genetics lab GENE 4230L: MECHANISMSAND INFERENCES OFEVOLUTIONARYPROCESSES Fall2006, 12 Selection 1. Aug. 28 Lab 4. Measuring Natural Selection 2. Aug. 30 LABOR DAY Sep. 4 Lab 5. Evolution. 30 Lab 20. Phylogenetics part 2 Nov. 1 Lab 21. Evolution of Development Nov. 6 Lab 22. Catch

  18. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  19. Elliptic flow of thermal dileptons as a probe of QCD matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payal Mohanty; Victor Roy; Sabyasachi Ghosh; Santosh K. Das; Bedangadas Mohanty; Sourav Sarkar; Jane Alam; Asis K. Chaudhuri

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the variation of elliptic flow of thermal dileptons with transverse momentum and invariant mass of the pairs for Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV. The dilepton productions from quark gluon plasma (QGP) and hot hadrons have been considered including the spectral change of light vector mesons in the thermal bath. The space time evolution has been carried out within the frame work of 2+1 dimensional ideal hydrodynamics with lattice+hadron resonance gas equation of state. We find that a judicious selection of invariant mass(M) and transverse momentum (p_T) windows can be used to extract the collective properties of quark matter, hadronic matter and also get a distinct signature of medium effects on vector mesons. Our results indicate a reduction of elliptic flow (v_2) for M beyond phi mass, which if observed experimentally would give the measure of v_2 of the partonic phase.

  20. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V. (Oakton, VA); Bak, Chan S. (Newbury Park, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  1. Multiscale thermal transport.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  2. On The Power Of Coherently Controlled Quantum Adiabatic Evolutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maria Kieferova; Nathan Wiebe

    2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A major challenge facing adiabatic quantum computing is that algorithm design and error correction can be difficult for adiabatic quantum computing. Recent work has considered addressing his challenge by using coherently controlled adiabatic evolutions in the place of classically controlled evolution. An important question remains: what is the relative power of controlled adiabatic evolution to traditional adiabatic evolutions? We address this by showing that coherent control and measurement provides a way to average different adiabatic evolutions in ways that cause their diabatic errors to cancel, allowing for adiabatic evolutions to combine the best characteristics of existing adiabatic optimizations strategies that are mutually exclusive in conventional adiabatic QIP. This result shows that coherent control and measurement can provide advantages for adiabatic state preparation. We also provide upper bounds on the complexity of simulating such evolutions on a circuit based quantum computer and provide sufficiency conditions for the equivalence of controlled adiabatic evolutions to adiabatic quantum computing.

  3. Heat transmission between a profiled nanowire and a thermal bath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanc, Christophe; Heron, Jean-Savin; Fournier, Thierry; Bourgeois, Olivier [Institut NÉEL, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Inst NEEL, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal transport through profiled and abrupt contacts between a nanowire and a reservoir has been investigated by thermal conductance measurements. It is demonstrated that above 1?K the transmission coefficients are identical between abrupt and profiled junctions. This shows that the thermal transport is principally governed by the nanowire itself rather than by the resistance of the thermal contact. These results are perfectly compatible with the previous theoretical models. The thermal conductance measured at sub-Kelvin temperatures is discussed in relation to the universal value of the quantum of thermal conductance.

  4. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  5. On admissible memory kernels for random unitary qubit evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filip A. Wudarski; Pawe? Nale?yty; Gniewomir Sarbicki; Dariusz Chru?ci?ski

    2015-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze random unitary evolution of the qubit within memory kernel approach. We provide su?cient conditions which guarantee that the corresponding memory kernel generates physically legitimate quantum evolution. Interestingly, we are able to recover several well known examples and generate new classes of nontrivial qubit evolution. Surprisingly, it turns out that quantum evolution with memory kernel generated by our approach gives rise to vanishing non-Markovianity measure based on the distinguishability of quantum states.

  6. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  7. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  8. Drilling and thermal gradient measurements at US Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Final report, October 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seven temperature gradient holes were drilled at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California, as part of a cooperative research and development program, jointly funded by the Navy and Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to assess geothermal resources at selected Department of Defense installations. Drill site selection was based on geophysical anomalies delineated by combined gravity, ground magnetic and aeromagnetic surveys. Temperature gradients ranged from 1.3/sup 0/C/100 m (1/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in hole No. 1 to 15.3/sup 0/C/100 m (8.3/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in temperature gradient hole No. 6. Large, positive geothermal gradients in temperature gradient holes 5 and 6, combined with respective bottom hole temperatures of 51.6/sup 0/C (125/sup 0/F) and 67/sup 0/C (153/sup 0/F), indicate that an extensive, moderate-temperature geothermal resource is located on the MCAGCC. The geothermal reservoir appears to be situated in old, unconsolidated alluvial material and is structurally bounded on the east by the Mesquite Lake fault and on the west by the Surprise Spring fault. If measured temperature gradients continue to increase at the observed rate, temperatures in excess of 80/sup 0/C (178/sup 0/F) can be expected at a depth of 2000 feet.

  9. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu (Albany, CA); Doughty, Christine A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  10. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the polycrystalline silicon test structures, as well as uncontrolled nonuniform changes in this quantity over time and during operation.

  11. The Evolution of Human Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gintis, Herbert; Doebeli, Michael; Flack, Jessica

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    684 Gintis, H. 2011. The Evolution of Human Cooperation.misunderstandings about cultural evolution. Human Nat. 19,Feldman, M. , 1981. Cultural Evolution. Princeton University

  12. Molecular Organic Geochemical Records of Late Ordovician Biospheric Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrssen, Megan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    distributions of marine source rock derived crude oilsect of thermal stress on source-rock quality as measured bydistributions of marine source rock derived crude oils

  13. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003–2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahill, David G., E-mail: d-cahill@illinois.edu; Braun, Paul V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Chen, Gang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Clarke, David R. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Fan, Shanhui [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Goodson, Kenneth E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Keblinski, Pawel [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); King, William P. [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Mahan, Gerald D. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Majumdar, Arun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Maris, Humphrey J. [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Phillpot, Simon R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainseville, Florida 32611 (United States); Pop, Eric [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Shi, Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas, Autin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces become increasingly important on small length scales. Research during the past decade has extended studies of interfaces between simple metals and inorganic crystals to interfaces with molecular materials and liquids with systematic control of interface chemistry and physics. At separations on the order of ?1?nm, the science of radiative transport through nanoscale gaps overlaps with thermal conduction by the coupling of electronic and vibrational excitations across weakly bonded or rough interfaces between materials. Major advances in the physics of phonons include first principles calculation of the phonon lifetimes of simple crystals and application of the predicted scattering rates in parameter-free calculations of the thermal conductivity. Progress in the control of thermal transport at the nanoscale is critical to continued advances in the density of information that can be stored in phase change memory devices and new generations of magnetic storage that will use highly localized heat sources to reduce the coercivity of magnetic media. Ultralow thermal conductivity—thermal conductivity below the conventionally predicted minimum thermal conductivity—has been observed in nanolaminates and disordered crystals with strong anisotropy. Advances in metrology by time-domain thermoreflectance have made measurements of the thermal conductivity of a thin layer with micron-scale spatial resolution relatively routine. Scanning thermal microscopy and thermal analysis using proximal probes has achieved spatial resolution of 10?nm, temperature precision of 50 mK, sensitivity to heat flows of 10 pW, and the capability for thermal analysis of sub-femtogram samples.

  14. STELLAR STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    STELLAR STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION O.R. Pols September 2009 #12;#12;Preface These lecture notes application to the theory of stellar structure and evolution, at a level appro- priate for a third and Evolution, 1990, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-50211-4 (KIPPENHAHN; K&W) Some sections of this book are still

  15. Thermalization of gluon matter including ggggg interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. El; C. Greiner; Z. Xu

    2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Within a pQCD inspired kinetic parton cascade we simulate the space time evolution of gluons which are produced initially in a heavy ion collision at RHIC energy. The inelastic gluonic interactions $gg \\leftrightarrow ggg$ do play an important role: For various initial conditions it is found that thermalization and the close to ideal fluid dynamical behaviour sets in at very early times. Special emphasis is put on color glass condensate initial conditions and the `bottom up thermalization' scenario. Off-equilibrium $3\\to 2$ processes make up the very beginning of the evolution leading to an initial decrease in gluon number and a temporary avalanche of the gluon momentum distribution to higher transversal momenta.

  16. Thermal structure of a protostellar envelope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlyuchenkov, Ya N; Vorobyov, E I; Fateeva, A M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical hydrodynamical model for the evolution of spherically symmetric collapsing clouds, designed for the calculation of the thermal structure of these objects in both the prestellar and protostellar stages of their evolution, is presented. Distinctive features of the model include the possibility of independently describing the temperatures of the gas and dust, which is extremely important when calculating the thermal structure of prestellar and protostellar clouds, and the account of the radiation flux from the central protostar. This model is used to compare the theoretical density and temperature distributions with observations for nearby sites of star formation obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory. Application of the diffusion approximation with a flux limiter describes well the radial density and temperature distributions in protostellar clouds. However, significant differences between the model and observational density profiles were found for prestellar stages, suggesting the presence of...

  17. An International Round-Robin Study, Part II: Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, J [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For bulk thermoelectrics, figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In recent years, the most significant improvements in ZT were mainly due to successful reduction of thermal conductivity. However, thermal conductivity cannot be measured directly at high temperatures. The combined measurements of thermal diffusivity and specific heat and density are required. It has been shown that thermal conductivity is the property with the greatest uncertainty and has a direct influence on the accuracy of the figure of merit. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) has conducted two international round-robins since 2009. This paper is Part II of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk bismuth telluride. The main focuses in Part II are on thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity.

  18. An Electromotive Force Measurement System for Alloy Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Changhu Xing; Colby Jensen; Heng Ban; Robert Mariani; J. Rory Kennedy

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of advanced nuclear fuels requires a better understanding of the transmutation and micro-structural evolution of the materials. Alloy fuels have the advantage of high thermal conductivity and improved characteristics in fuel-cladding chemical reaction. However, information on thermodynamic and thermophysical properties is limited. The objective of this project is to design and build an experimental system to measure the thermodynamic properties of solid materials from which the understanding of their phase change can be determined. The apparatus was used to measure the electromotive force (EMF) of several materials in order to calibrate and test the system. The EMF of chromel was measured from 100°C to 800°C and compared with theoretical values. Additionally, the EMF measurement of Ni-Fe alloy was performed and compared with the Ni-Fe phase diagram. The prototype system is to be modified eventually and used in a radioactive hot-cell in the future.

  19. Time-resolved temperature measurement and numerical simulation of millisecond laser irradiated silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zewen; Zhang Hongchao; Shen Zhonghua; Ni Xiaowu [School of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2013-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal process of 1064 nm millisecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiated silicon was time-resolved temperature measured by an infrared radiation pyrometer, temperature evolutions of the spot center for wide range of laser energy densities were presented. The waveforms of temperature evolution curves contained much information about phase change, melting, solidification and vaporization. An axisymmetric numerical model was established for millisecond laser heating silicon. The transient temperature fields were obtained by using the finite element method. The numerical results of temperature evolutions of the spot center are in good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, the axial temperature distributions of the numerical results give a better understanding of the waveforms in the experimental results. The melting threshold, vaporizing threshold, melting duration, and melting depth were better identified by analyzing two kinds of results.

  20. Geological and thermochronological evolution of the lower crust of southern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmitz, Mark D. (Mark David), 1972-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geochronological, thermochronological and isotopic studies of kimberlite-borne crustal xenoliths have been used to elucidate the architecture and thermal evolution of the continental lithosphere of southern Africa. U-Pb ...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Measurements of Thermal Stratification...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Optical Diagnostics, Transportation Energy Schematic of the optically accessible HCCI research engine. Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines use fuel mixed...

  2. Utility of transient testing to characterize thermal interface materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Smith; T. Brunschwiler; B. Michel

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes a transient method for the characterization of low-resistance thermal interfaces of microelectronic packages. The transient method can yield additional information about the package not available with traditional static methods at the cost of greater numerical complexity, hardware requirements, and sensitivity to noise. While the method is established for package-level thermal analysis of mounted and assembled parts, its ability to measure the relatively minor thermal impedance of thin thermal interface material (TIM) layers has not yet been fully studied. We combine the transient thermal test with displacement measurements of the bond line thickness to fully characterize the interface.

  3. Structural Evolution and Li Dynamics in Nanophase Li3PS4 by Solid-State and Pulsed Field Gradient NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gobet, Mallory [Hunter College of the City University of New York] [Hunter College of the City University of New York; Greenbaum, Steve [Hunter College of the City University of New York] [Hunter College of the City University of New York; Sahu, Gayatri [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ceramic lithium ion conductor -Li3PS4 has a disordered and nanoporous structure that leads to an enhancement in ionic conductivity by some three orders of magnitude compared to the crystalline phase. The phase is prepared by thermal treatment of an inorganic-organic complex based on Li3PS4 and THF. Multinuclear (1H, 6,7Li, 31P) solid state NMR spectroscopy is used to characterize the structural phase evolution of the starting material at various steps in the thermal treatment. The phase formed after high temperature treatment is recognized as spectroscopically distinct from the bulk -Li3PS4 compound. Also formed is an amorphous lithium thiophosphate phase that is metastable as verified by annealing over an extended period. Lithium ion self-diffusion coefficients are measurable by standard pulsed gradient NMR methods at 100oC and with values consistent with the high ionic conductivity previously reported for this material.

  4. Thermal transport properties of grey cast irons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecht, R.L. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research Lab.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Porter, W.D.; Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of grey cast iron have been measured as a function of graphite flake morphology, chemical composition, and position in a finished brake rotor. Cast iron samples used for this investigation were cut from ``step block`` castings designed to produce iron with different graphite flake morphologies resulting from different cooling rates. Samples were also machined from prototype alloys and from production brake rotors representing a variation in foundry practice. Thermal diffusivity was measured at room and elevated temperatures via the flash technique. Heat capacity of selected samples was measured with differential scanning calorimetry, and these results were used to calculate the thermal conductivity. Microstructure of the various cast iron samples was quantified by standard metallography and image analysis, and the chemical compositions were determined by optical emission spectroscopy.

  5. Electro thermal simulation of superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Marsili; Faraz Najafi; Charles Herder; Karl K. Berggren

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed an electro thermal model of NbN superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors (SNAPs) on sapphire substrates. SNAPs are single photon detectors consisting of the parallel connection of N superconducting nanowires. We extrapolated the physical constants of the model from experimental data and we simulated the time evolution of the device resistance, temperature and current by solving two coupled electrical and thermal differential equations describing the nanowires. The predictions of the model were in good quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  6. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  7. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  8. Thermal unobtainiums? The perfect thermal conductor and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    conduction · Heat conduction in Bose condensates ­ electronic superconductors ­ superfluid helium ­ Bose condensate of magnons #12;Outline--toward perfect thermal insulators · Einstein and minimum thermal directions #12;Gas kinetic equation is a good place to start · Anharmonicity (high T limit) · Point defect

  9. Non-thermal Plasma Chemistry Non-thermal Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    -thermal Plasma Chemical Flow Reactor #12;Werner von Siemens ,, ... construction of an apparatus generation (1857) pollution control volatile organic components, NOx reforming, ... radiation sources excimer;Leuchtstoffröhre Plasma-Bildschirm Energiesparlampe #12;electrical engineering light sources textile industry

  10. What determines galactic evolution?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesca Matteucci

    2002-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We are briefly introducing the most important ingredients to study galactic evolution. In particular the roles of star formation, nucleosynthesis and gas flows. Then we are discussing the two different approaches to galactic evolution: the stellar population approach (chemical evolution models) and the hierarchical clustering scenario for galaxy formation. It is shown that there are still some controversial points in the two approaches, as evident in the brief summary of the discussion.

  11. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  12. Thermal Evolution Models for the Valles Caldera with Reference...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by commercial interests seeking hydrothermal resources. In addition, a number of test wells have been drilled just outside the calderas west margin by the Los Alamos...

  13. Thermal evolution of cratonic roots Chloe Michaut a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    lithosphere adjusts slowly to in-situ heat production and basal heat supply. We show that, due to in-situ heat

  14. QCD Evolution Workshop: Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexei Prokudin

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The introduction talk given at the beginning of QCD Evolution workshop held in Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) on May 14 -17, 2012.

  15. The Evolution Matrix: Recovering Software Evolution using Software Visualization Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    The Evolution Matrix: Recovering Software Evolution using Software Visualization Techniques Michele - ABSTRACT One of the major problems in software evolution is coping with the complexity which stems from and effective way to visualize the evolution of software systems which helps to recover the evolution of object

  16. The evolution of hod mice The evolution of hod mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koellner, Peter

    The evolution of hod mice The evolution of hod mice Grigor Sargsyan UCLA Harvard Mamls February 20, 2011 Cambridge, Massachusetts The evolution of hod mice Grigor Sargsyan #12;The evolution of hod mice The beginnings CH in HOD Theorem (Harrington-Kechris) Assume V = L(R) + AD. Then HOD CH. The evolution of hod

  17. Cultural evolution is not equivalent to Darwinian evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reader, Simon

    Cultural evolution is not equivalent to Darwinian evolution Dwight W. Read Department://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/anthro/faculty/read/ Abstract: Darwinian evolution, defined as evolution arising from selection based directly on the properties. The difficulty with linking Darwinian evolution to structural properties of cultural constructs is exemplified

  18. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  19. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  20. Improvements of the Variable Thermal Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Székely, V; Kollar, E

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat mounting unit with electronically variable thermal resistance [1] has been presented in the last year [2]. The design was based on a Peltier cell and the appropriate control electronics and software. The device is devoted especially to the thermal characterization of packages, e.g. in dual cold plate arrangements. Although this design meets the requirements of the static measurement we are intended to improve its parameters as the settling time and dynamic thermal impedance and the range of realized thermal resistance. The new design applies the heat flux sensor developed by our team as well [3], making easier the control of the device. This development allows even the realization of negative thermal resistances.

  1. Improvements of the Variable Thermal Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Szekely; S. Torok; E. Kollar

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat mounting unit with electronically variable thermal resistance [1] has been presented in the last year [2]. The design was based on a Peltier cell and the appropriate control electronics and software. The device is devoted especially to the thermal characterization of packages, e.g. in dual cold plate arrangements. Although this design meets the requirements of the static measurement we are intended to improve its parameters as the settling time and dynamic thermal impedance and the range of realized thermal resistance. The new design applies the heat flux sensor developed by our team as well [3], making easier the control of the device. This development allows even the realization of negative thermal resistances.

  2. Evolution, Learning & Information Brian Skyrms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    SIGNALS Evolution, Learning & Information Brian Skyrms #12;Signals: Evolution, Learning. The Flow of Information 4. Evolution 5. Evolution in Lewis Signaling Games 6. Deception 7. Learning 8 of evolution by differential reproduction and natural variation. In particular we use models of replicator

  3. Thermal and Electrical Transport Study of One Dimensional Nanomaterials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Liang

    2013-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    concentration were measured using a MEMS micro-device consisting of two suspended silicon nitride membranes in the temperature range of 60 K ~450 K. The experimental results were obtained by “simultaneously” measuring thermal conductivity, electrical...

  4. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  5. Cultural evolution is not equivalent to Darwinian evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Dwight W

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rounds of microevolution. Evolution & Development, 2(2), 78-An assessment of cul- tural evolution and a new synthesis.variation, and the evolution of culture” by D. Rindos.

  6. Thermal Stability of Li-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.

    1999-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal stability of Li-ion cells with intercalating carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes was measured as a function of state of charge and temperature for two advanced cell chemistries. Cells of the 18650 design with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes (commercial SONY cells) and Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathodes were measured for thermal reactivity in the open circuit cell condition. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was used to measure cell thermal runaway as a function of state of charge (SOC). Microcalorimetry was used to measure the time dependence of heat generating side reactions also as a function of SOC. Components of cells were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the thermal reactivity of the individual electrodes to determine the temperature regimes and conditions of the major thermal reactions. Thermal decomposition of the SEI layer at the anodes was identified as the initiating source for thermal runaway. The cells with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes showed greater sensitivity to SOC and higher accelerating heating rates than seen for the cells with Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}cathodes. Lower temperature reactions starting as low as 40 C were also observed that were SOC dependent but not accelerating. These reactions were also measured in the microcalorimeter and observed to decay over time with a power-law dependence and are believed to result in irreversible capacity loss in the cells.

  7. Insights From Laboratory Experiments On Simulated Faults With Application To Fracture Evolution In Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Karner, Ph.D

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments provide a wealth of information related to mechanics of fracture initiation, fracture propagation processes, factors influencing fault strength, and spatio-temporal evolution of fracture properties. Much of the existing literature reports on laboratory studies involving a coupling of thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and/or chemical processes. As these processes operate within subsurface environments exploited for their energy resource, laboratory results provide insights into factors influencing the mechanical and hydraulic properties of geothermal systems. I report on laboratory observations of strength and fluid transport properties during deformation of simulated faults. The results show systematic trends that vary with stress state, deformation rate, thermal conditions, fluid content, and rock composition. When related to geophysical and geologic measurements obtained from engineered geothermal systems (e.g. microseismicity, wellbore studies, tracer analysis), laboratory results provide a means by which the evolving thermal reservoir can be interpreted in terms of physico-chemical processes. For example, estimates of energy release and microearthquake locations from seismic moment tensor analysis can be related to strength variations observed from friction experiments. Such correlations between laboratory and field data allow for better interpretations about the evolving mechanical and fluid transport properties in the geothermal reservoir – ultimately leading to improvements in managing the resource.

  8. Thermal metamorphism in the lesser Himalaya of Nepal determined from Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    Thermal metamorphism in the lesser Himalaya of Nepal determined from Raman spectroscopy of central and far-western Nepal, including data from near the MCT zone, where a comparison with conventional on the thermal evolution of the Himalaya in Nepal using the RSCM method. This emblematic geological setting

  9. Geometrical phase of thermal state in hydrogen atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo-Qiang Zhu

    2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the geometric phase of thermal state in hydrogen atom under the effects of external magnetic field is considered. Especially the effects of the temperature upon the geometric phase is discussed. Also we discuss the time evolution of entanglement of the system. They show some similar behaviors.

  10. The Evolution of Starburst Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2000-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    I review the properties of starburst galaxies in the nearby and distant universe to decipher their evolution as a distinct extragalactic class. The physical processes and environments of massive star-formation appear to be similar out to z = 4, although the modes of triggering are likely quite different, varied, and still evolving. This is argued with the use of a structural system that measures the physical conditions of galaxies. This system provides evidence that starbursts at high-z are triggered by merging, while nearby starbursts have a host of different triggering mechanisms, none of which, besides merging, are currently known to exist at z > 2.

  11. Evolution of ageing since Darwin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R; Burke, Molly K; Shahrestani, Parvin; Mueller, Laurence D

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. 1932 The causes of evolution. Longmans, London. HaldaneL. and Rose M. R. 2007 An evolution- ary heterogeneity modelDrosophila melanogaster. Evolution 46, 76–91. Pletcher S. D.

  12. Thermal behavior of {pi}-{pi} scattering lengths in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewe, M.; Ruiz, Jorge A.; Rojas, J. C. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile)

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the thermal evolution of {pi}-{pi} scattering lengths, in the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The thermal corrections were calculated at the one-loop level using thermofield dynamics. We present also results for the pion thermal mass. Our procedure implies the modeling of a propagating scalar meson as a resumation of chains of quark bubbles, which is presented explicitly. We compare our results with previous analysis of this problem in the framework of different theoretical approaches.

  13. Decoherence in time evolution of bound entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhe Sun; Xiaoguang Wang; Y. B. Gao; C. P. Sun

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a dynamic process of disentanglement by considering the time evolution of bound entanglement for a quantum open system, two qutrits coupling to a common environment. Here, the initial quantum correlations of the two qutrits are characterized by the bound entanglement. In order to show the universality of the role of environment on bound entanglement, both bosonic and spin environments are considered. We found that the bound entanglement displays collapses and revivals, and it can be stable against small temperature and time change. The thermal fluctuation effects on bound entanglement are also considered.

  14. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume (Sections 1 through 5).

  15. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  16. Intergrannular strain evolution in a zircaloy-4 alloy with Widmanstatten microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vogel, Sven C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garlea, Eena [UNIV OF TENNESSEE; Choo, Hahn [UNIV OF TENNESSEE; Pang, Judy W L [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Zircaloy-4 alloy with Widmanstatten-Basketweave microstructure and random texture has been used to study the deformation systems responsible for the polycrystalline plasticity at the grain level. The evolution of internal strain and bulk texture is investigated using neutron diffraction and an elasto-plastic self-consistent (EPSC) modeling scheme. The macroscopic stress-strain behavior and intergranular (hkil-specific) strain development, parallel and perpendicular to the loading direction, were measured in-situ during uniaxial tensile loading. Then, the EPSC model was employed to simulate the experimental results. This modeling scheme accounts for the thermal anisotropy; elastic-plastic properties of the constituent grains; and activation, reorientation, and stress relaxation associated with twinning. The agreement between the experiment and the model will be discussed as well as the critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) and the hardening coefficients obtained from the model.

  17. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing #12;0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4 and x-ray Ultraviolet Infrared Microwave and radio waves Wavelength in meters (m) Electromagnetic.77 700 red limit 30k0.041 2.48 green500 near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrare refers

  18. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined abovean Aquifer Used for Hot Water Storage: Digital Simulation ofof Aquifer Systems for Cyclic Storage of Water," of the Fall

  19. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eere.energy.gov * energy.govsunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving...

  20. Advanced Thermal Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Thermal Control Technologies Advanced Vehicle Systems Technology Transfer Jet Cooling Alternative Coolants TIM Low R Structure Phase Change Spray Cooling Air Cooling...

  1. Kawecki et al: Experimental Evolution 1 Experimental Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Kawecki et al: Experimental Evolution 1 Experimental Evolution Tadeusz J. Kawecki1 in Ecology and Evolution, 27: 547560 (2012) Except for a few changes made in proofs, the content of this preprint is identical with the published version of the paper 1 Department of Ecology and Evolution

  2. REFLECTIONS: PERSONAL ESSAYS ON EVOLUTION Use the Word Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, John N.

    REFLECTIONS: PERSONAL ESSAYS ON EVOLUTION Use the Word Evolution John N. Thompson Published online: 20 November 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007 Examples of rapid evolution abound that evolution is a glacially slow process that is almost impossible for humans to observe. This disconnection

  3. Evolution of birds uncovered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Evolution of birds uncovered 1998 Improved treatments for Parkinson's disease 2005 Smallpox-patented sewing machine 1851 Inaugural issue of Scientific American published 1845 1950 Solar power: ways to use

  4. The Evolution of War

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Ian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viking. Keeley, Lawrence. 1996. War Before Civilization. NewSocieties and the Origins of War. Ann Arbor: University ofPress. Morris: Evolution of War. Cliodynamics (2012) Vol. 3,

  5. Patenting Human Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrance, Andrew W.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to thorough analysis and debate prior to the imminent arrival of human genetic enhancement technologies. Otherwise, patent law may drive human evolution in directions either unplanned - or worse - undesired....

  6. Stochastic evolution inclusions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bocharov, Boris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is concerned with an evolution inclusion of a form, in a triple of spaces \\V -> H -> V*", where U is a continuous non-decreasing process, M is a locally square-integrable martingale and the operators A ...

  7. Representing Small Group Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wormald, Nicholas

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the dynamics of network evolution rests in part on the representation chosen to characterize the evolutionary process. We offer a simple, three-parameter representation based on subgraphs that capture three ...

  8. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  9. A RhxSy/C Catalyst for the Hydrogen Oxidation and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions in HBr

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Masud, Jahangir [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Nguyena, Trung V. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Singh, Nirala [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); McFarland, Eric [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Ikenberry, Myles [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Hohn, Keith [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Pan, Chun-Jern [National Taiwan University of Science & Technology, Tapei (Taiwan); Hwang, Bing-Joe [National Taiwan University of Science & Technology, Tapei (Taiwan)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rhodium sulfide (Rh2S3) on carbon support was synthesized by refluxing rhodium chloride with ammonium thiosulfate. Thermal treatment of Rh2S3 at high temperatures (600°C to 850°C) in presence of argon resulted in the transformation of Rh2S3 into Rh3S4, Rh17S15 and Rh which were characterized by TGA/DTA, XRD, EDX, and deconvolved XPS analyses. The catalyst particle size distribution ranged from 3 to 12 nm. Cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode measurements were used to evaluate the catalytic activity for hydrogen oxidation and evolution reactions in H2SO4 and HBr solutions. The thermally treated catalysts show high activity for the hydrogen reactions. The exchange current densities (io) of the synthesized RhxSy catalysts in H2-saturated 1M H2SO4 and 1M HBr for HER and HOR were 0.9 mA/cm2 to 1.0 mA/cm2 and 0.8 to 0.9 mA/cm2, respectively. The lower io values obtained in 1M HBr solution compared to in H2SO4 might be due to the adsorption of Br- on the active surface. Stable electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) of RhxSy catalyst was obtained for CV scan limits between 0 V and 0.65 V vs. RHE. Scans with upper voltage limit beyond 0.65 V led to decreased and unreproducible ECSA measurements.

  10. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffrey Winicour

    2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black spacetime. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to compute waveforms via Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

  11. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K.; Cuppett, D.; Dyer, D.

    2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with â??Kalwallâ?? building panels. An added feature of the â??Kalwallâ? system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  12. Thermal loading study for FY 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the results of sensitivity analyses designed to assist the test planners in focusing their in-situ measurements on parameters that appear to be important to waste isolation. Additionally, the study provides a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of certain thermal management options. A decision on thermal loading is a critical part of the scientific and engineering basis for evaluating regulatory compliance of the potential repository for waste isolation. To show, with reasonable assurance, that the natural and engineered barriers will perform adequately under expected repository conditions (thermally perturbed) will require an integrated approach based on thermal testing (laboratory, and in-situ), natural analog observations, and analytic modeling. The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management needed input to assist in the planning of the thermal testing program. Additionally, designers required information on the viability of various thermal management concepts. An approximately 18-month Thermal Loading Study was conducted from March, 1994 until September 30, 1995 to address these issues. This report documents the findings of that study. 89 refs., 71 figs., 33 tabs.

  13. angle distribution evolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (arXiv) Summary: We investigate the cosmological evolution of GRBs, using the total gamma ray fluence as a measure of the burst strength. This involves an understanding of the...

  14. Stellar Evolution A Statistical Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dyk, David

    Stellar Evolution A Statistical Model Statistical Computation Analysis of the Hyades Cluster Statistical Analysis of Stellar Evolution David A. van Dyk1 Steven DeGennaro2 Nathan Stein2 William H Statistical Analysis of Stellar Evolution #12;Stellar Evolution A Statistical Model Statistical Computation

  15. Master programme in Ecology & Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Master programme in Ecology & Evolution Jointly organized by the Institute of Ecology and Evolution at the University of Bern Selected specialisation within the MSc programme in Ecology & Evolution Programme start and conservation Plant ecology Behaviour Evolution autumn semester spring semester year: 20.. 3 semester 4 semester

  16. Stellar Evolution A Statistical Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dyk, David

    Stellar Evolution A Statistical Model Statistical Computation Analysis of the Hyades Cluster Embedding Computer Models for Stellar Evolution into a Coherent Statistical Analysis David A. van Dyk1 Analysis of Stellar Evolution #12;Stellar Evolution A Statistical Model Statistical Computation Analysis

  17. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi [Japan Aerospace Exploration and Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  18. Measurements of direct photons in Au+Au collisions with PHENIX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Bannier

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The PHENIX experiment has published direct photon yields and elliptic flow coefficients $v_2$ from Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies. These results have sparked much theoretical discussion. The measured yields and flow parameters are difficult to reconcile in current model calculations of thermal radiation based on hydrodynamic time evolution of the collision volume. Our latest analyses which use high statistics data from the 2007 and 2010 runs allow the determination of direct photon yields with finer granularity in centrality and photon momentum and down to $p_T$ as low as 0.4 GeV/$c$. We will summarize the current status and present new results from PHENIX.

  19. Interface and nanostructure evolution of cobalt germanides on Ge(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grzela, T., E-mail: grzela@ihp-microelectronics.com; Schubert, M. A. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Koczorowski, W. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH,United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Institute of Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13A, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Capellini, G. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Czajka, R. [Institute of Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13A, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Radny, M. W. [Institute of Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13A, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW, 2308 (Australia); Curson, N.; Schofield, S. R. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH,United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); BTU Cottbus, Konrad-Zuse Str. 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Cobalt germanide (Co{sub x}Ge{sub y}) is a candidate system for low resistance contact modules in future Ge devices in Si-based micro and nanoelectronics. In this paper, we present a detailed structural, morphological, and compositional study on Co{sub x}Ge{sub y} formation on Ge(001) at room temperature metal deposition and subsequent annealing. Scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction clearly demonstrate that room temperature deposition of approximately four monolayers of Co on Ge(001) results in the Volmer Weber growth mode, while subsequent thermal annealing leads to the formation of a Co-germanide continuous wetting layer which evolves gradually towards the growth of elongated Co{sub x}Ge{sub y} nanostructures. Two types of Co{sub x}Ge{sub y} nanostructures, namely, flattop- and ridge-type, were observed and a systematic study on their evolution as a function of temperature is presented. Additional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements allowed us to monitor the reaction between Co and Ge in the formation process of the Co{sub x}Ge{sub y} continuous wetting layer as well as the Co{sub x}Ge{sub y} nanostructures.

  20. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  1. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  2. Anomalous decoherence and absence of thermalization in a photonic many-body system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Jonas [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The intention of this work is twofold: first, to present a most simple system capable of simulating the intrinsic bosonic Josephson effect with photons and, second, to study various outcomes deriving from inherent or external decoherence. A qubit induces an effective coupling between two externally pumped cavity modes. Without cavity losses and in the dispersive regime, intrinsic Josephson oscillations of photons between the two modes occurs. In this case, contrary to regular Markovian decoherence, the qubit purity shows a Gaussian decay and recurrence of its coherence. Due to intrinsic nonlinearities, both the Josephson oscillations as well as the qubit properties display a rich collapse-revival structure, where, however, the complexity of the qubit evolution is in some sense stronger. The qubit as a meter of the photon dynamics is considered, and it is shown that qubit dephasing, originating, for example, from nondemolition measurements, results in an exponential destruction of the oscillations which manifests the collectiveness of the Josephson effect. Nonselective qubit measurements, on the other hand, render a Zeno effect seen in a slowing down of the Josephson oscillations. Contrary to dephasing, cavity dissipation results in a Gaussian decay of the scaled Josephson oscillations. Finally, following Ponomarev et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 010405 (2011)], we analyze aspects of thermalization. In particular, despite similarities with the generic model studied by Ponomarev et al., our system does not seem to thermalize.

  3. Microsecond switchable thermal antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe, E-mail: pba@institutoptique.fr; Benisty, Henri; Besbes, Mondher [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a thermal antenna that can be actively switched on and off at the microsecond scale by means of a phase transition of a metal-insulator material, the vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). This thermal source is made of a periodically patterned tunable VO{sub 2} nanolayer, which support a surface phonon-polariton in the infrared range in their crystalline phase. Using electrodes properly registered with respect to the pattern, the VO{sub 2} phase transition can be locally triggered by ohmic heating so that the surface phonon-polariton can be diffracted by the induced grating, producing a highly directional thermal emission. Conversely, when heating less, the VO{sub 2} layers cool down below the transition temperature, the surface phonon-polariton cannot be diffracted anymore so that thermal emission is inhibited. This switchable antenna could find broad applications in the domain of active thermal coatings or in those of infrared spectroscopy and sensing.

  4. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  5. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  6. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  7. Temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  8. Neutrino Physics with Thermal Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nucciotti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano Bicocca and INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigation of fundamental neutrino properties like its mass and its nature calls for the design of a new generation of experiments. High sensitivity, high energy resolution, and versatility together with the possibility of a simple multiplexing scheme are the key features of future detectors for these experiments. Thermal detectors can combine all these features. This paper reviews the status and the perspectives for what concerns the application of this type of detectors to neutrino physics, focusing on direct neutrino mass measurements and neutrinoless double beta decay searches.

  9. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  10. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffrey Winicour

    2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress in characteristic evolution is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to extend such simulations to null infinity where the waveform from the binary inspiral and merger can be unambiguously computed. This has now been accomplished by Cauchy-characteristic extraction, where data for the characteristic evolution is supplied by Cauchy data on an extraction worldtube inside the artificial outer boundary. The ultimate application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this outer boundary by constructing a global solution via Cauchy-characteristic matching. Progress in this direction is discussed.

  11. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Award Number: DE-EE00025828 Report Date: March 15, 2013 PI: Stephen Obrey * Technical approach is focused on...

  12. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franconi, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gabel and Andresen, HVAC Secondary Toolkil. Atlanta: ASHRAE,P_02 Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Designdesign and operation of the HVAC thermal distribution system

  13. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  14. Secular evolution in galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes

    2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    New observations in favour of a significant role of secular evolution are reviewed: central star formation boosted in pseudo-bulge barred galaxies, relations between bulge and disk, evidence for rejuvenated bulges. Numerical simulations have shown that secular evolution can occur through a cycle of bar formation and destruction, in which the gas plays a major role. Since bars are weakened or destroyed in gaseous disks, the high frequency of bars observed today requires external cold gas accretion, to replenish the disk and allow a new bar formation. The rate of gas accretion from external filaments is compatible with what is observed in cosmological simulations.

  15. Early maturation processes in coal.1 Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Early maturation processes in coal.1 Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the2 Morwell Brown Coal seam3 4 Elodie Salmon a, c , Françoise Behar a , François Lorant force21 field to simulate the thermal stress. The Morwell coal has been selected to study the thermal22

  16. Thermalization and Isotropization of Color-Electric Flux Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ruggieri; A. Puglisi; L. Oliva; S. Plumari; F. Scardina; V. Greco

    2015-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we model early times dynamics of the system produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions by an initial color electric field which then decays to a plasma by the Schwinger mechanism, coupling the dynamical evolution of the initial color field to the dynamics of the many particles system produced by the decay. The latter is described by relativistic kinetic theory in which we fix the ratio $\\eta/s$ rather than insisting on specific microscopic processes. We study isotropization and thermalization of the system produced by the field decay for a static box and for a $1+1$D expanding geometry. We find that regardless of the viscosity of the produced plasma, the initial color electric field decays within $1$ fm/c; however in the case $\\eta/s$ is large, oscillations of the field are effective along all the entire time evolution of the system, which affect the late times evolution of the ratio between longitudinal and transverse pressure. In case of small $\\eta/s$ ($\\eta/s\\lesssim0.3$) we find $\\tau_{isotropization}\\approx 0.8$ fm/c and $\\tau_{thermalization}\\approx 1$ fm/c in agreement with the common lore of hydrodynamics. Moreover we have investigated the effect of turning from the relaxation time approximation to the Chapman-Enskog one: we find that this improvement affects mainly the early times evolution of the physical quantities, the effect being milder in the late times evolution.

  17. Thermal insulations using vacuum panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Burke, Melissa S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

  18. Thermal Transport in Suspended and Supported Few-Layer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baowen

    Thermal Transport in Suspended and Supported Few-Layer Graphene Ziqian Wang,, Rongguo Xie,,,§, Cong few-layer graphene using a thermal-bridge configuration. The room temperature value of is comparable transport of the suspended graphene. The measured values of are generally lower than those from theoretical

  19. Processor Speed Control with Thermal Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almir Mutapcic

    2007-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Sep 29, 2007 ... Processor Speed Control with Thermal Constraints ... and we model the dissipated power of a processor as a positive and strictly increasing ... speeds based on the measured temperatures in the system. ... Category 2: Applications -- Science and Engineering (Optimization of Systems modeled by PDEs ).

  20. Measurement of core plasma temperature and rotation on W7-X made available by the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pablant, N A; Bitter, M; Burhenn, R; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Ellis, R; Gates, D; Goto, M; Hill, K W; Langenberg, A; Lazerson, S; Mardenfeld, M; Morita, S; Neilson, G H; Oishi, T; Pedersen, T S

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer diagnostic (XICS) is currently being built for installation on W7-X. This diagnostic will contribute to the study of ion and electron thermal transport and the evolution of the radial electric field by providing high resolution temperature and rotation measurements under many plasma conditions, including ECH heated plasmas. Installation is expected before the first experimental campaign (OP1.1), making an important set of measurements available for the first W7-X plasmas. This diagnostic will also work in concert with the HR-XCS diagnostic to provide an excellent diagnostic set for core impurity transport on W7-X.

  1. On The Thermal Consolidation Of Boom Clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a mass of saturated clay is heated, as in the case of host soils surrounding nuclear waste disposals at great depth, the thermal expansion of the constituents generates excess pore pressures. The mass of clay is submitted to gradients of pore pressure and temperature, to hydraulic and thermal flows, and to changes in its mechanical properties. In this work, some of these aspects were experimentally studied in the case of Boom clay, so as to help predicting the response of the soil, in relation with investigations made in the Belgian underground laboratory at Mol. Results of slow heating tests with careful volume change measurements showed that a reasonable prediction of the thermal expansion of the clay-water system was obtained by using the thermal properties of free water. In spite of the density of Boom clay, no significant effect of water adsorption was observed. The thermal consolidation of Boom clay was studied through fast heating tests. A simple analysis shows that the hydraulic and thermal trans...

  2. Thermal Insulation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, T. F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal insulation systems are receiving a high degree of attention in view of increasing energy cost. Industrial, commercial and residential energy users are all well aware of energy cost increases and great emphasis is being directed to energy...

  3. Thermally driven circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelken, Haim

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several problems connected by the theme of thermal forcing are addressed herein. The main topic is the stratification and flow field resulting from imposing a specified heat flux on a fluid that is otherwise confined to a ...

  4. Contact thermal lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

  5. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  6. Evolution of Photosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, John F.

    Evolution of Photosynthesis John F Allen, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK Wim FJ Vermaas, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA Photosynthesis is the conversion of radiant energy for the oxygenic photosynthesis that now dominates biological energy flow in the biosphere. The evolutionary origin

  7. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND OTHER PROPERTIES OF CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALLAN,M.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity and other properties cementitious grouts have been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. In addition to thermal conductivity, the cementitious grouts were also tested for bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the results for selected grout mixes. Relatively high thermal conductivities were obtained and this leads to reduction in predicted bore length and installation costs. Improvements in shrinkage resistance and bonding were achieved.

  8. Thermal characterization of Li-ion cells using calorimetric techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.

    2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal stability of Li-ion cells with intercalating carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes was measured as a function of state of charge and temperature for two advanced cell chemistries. Cells of the 18650 design with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes (commercial Sony cells) and Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathodes were measured for thermal reactivity. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was used to measure cell thermal runaway as a function of state of charge (SOC), microcalorimetry was used to measure the time dependence of thermal output, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the thermal reactivity of the individual components. Thermal decomposition of the anode solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer occurred at low temperatures and contributes to the initiation of thermal runaway. Low temperature reactions from 40 C--70 C were observed during the ARC runs that were SOC dependent. These reactions measured in the microcalorimeter decayed over time with power-law dependence and were highly sensitive to SOC and temperature. ARC runs of aged and cycled cells showed complete absence of these low-temperature reactions but showed abrupt exothermic spikes between 105--135 C. These results suggest that during aging the anode SEI layer is decomposing from a metastable state to a stable composition that is breaking down at elevated temperatures.

  9. Evolution of Life on Earth EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Yancy

    Evolution of Life on Earth #12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Earth ~4.5 billion years ago A bad day .... #12;Old (Archean) Rocks #12;4.4 Billion year old Zircon Earth was temperate and had water 4.4 billion years ago! #12;#12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Making Organic Molecules : Miller & Urey Famous

  10. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Bento, A. C., E-mail: acbento@uem.br [Departamento de Física, Grupo de Espectroscopia Fotoacústica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, Paraná (Brazil); Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S. [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho – UNESP, Av. Brasil 56, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (?7?min) and with similar thermal expansion (?12??strain/?°C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 ?m thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) ?m, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) ?l. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10{sup ?3} cm{sup 2}/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s{sup 0.5}/cm{sup 2} K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm{sup 3} K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 ?m using 57 ?l of distilled water)

  11. Effect of ligand on thermal dissipation from gold nanorods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alper, Joshua

    Thermal interface conductance was measured for soluble gold nanorods (NRs) coated with mercaptocarboxylic acids (HS-(CH[subscript 2])[subscript n]COOH, n = 5, 10, 15), thiolated polyethylene glycols (MW = 356, 1000, 5000), ...

  12. Designing a Thermal Energy Storage Program for Electric Utilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niehus, T. L.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric utilities are looking at thermal energy storage technology as a viable demand side management (DSM) option. In order for this DSM measure to be effective, it must be incorporated into a workable, well-structured utility program. This paper...

  13. Evolution and the Fossil Record

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammer, Thomas

    form proteins. #12;Evidence of Evolution · Homology · Analogous organs or Convergent Evolution of features. e.g. all primates have 5 fingers; apes and humans lack a tail; all tetrapods have similar limb

  14. MTSC735, Spring 2008 Electrical measurements 1 Electrical measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaisted, David A.

    " resistors Self-heating in any resistors Thermal EMF or other contact potential Contact resistance to Rx MTSC1 MTSC735, Spring 2008 Electrical measurements 1 Electrical measurements Critical to all measurements Worry about: Disturbing the system you study Adding extra electrical signals Eliminating

  15. Initial growth, refractive index, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition AlN films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Bui, Hao, E-mail: H.VanBui@utwente.nl; Wiggers, Frank B.; Gupta, Anubha; Nguyen, Minh D.; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Jong, Michel P. de; Kovalgin, Alexey Y., E-mail: A.Y.Kovalgin@utwente.nl [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have studied and compared the initial growth and properties of AlN films deposited on Si(111) by thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum and either ammonia or a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture as precursors. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to monitor the growth and measure the refractive index of the films during the deposition. The authors found that an incubation stage only occurred for thermal ALD. The linear growth for plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) started instantly from the beginning due to the higher nuclei density provided by the presence of plasma. The authors observed the evolution of the refractive index of AlN during the growth, which showed a rapid increase up to a thickness of about 30?nm followed by a saturation. Below this thickness, higher refractive index values were obtained for AlN films grown by PEALD, whereas above that the refractive index was slightly higher for thermal ALD films. X-ray diffraction characterization showed a wurtzite crystalline structure with a (101{sup ¯}0) preferential orientation obtained for all the layers with a slightly better crystallinity for films grown by PEALD.

  16. Microscopic thermal diffusivity mapping using an infrared camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard flash thermal diffusivity measurements utilize a single-point infrared detector to measure the average temperature rise of the sample surface after a heat pulse. The averaging of infrared radiation over the sample surface could smear out the microscopic thermal diffusivity variations in some specimens, especially in fiber-reinforced composite materials. A high-speed, high-sensitivity infrared camera was employed in this study of composite materials. With a special microscope attachment, the spatial resolution of the camera can reach 5.4 {micro}m. The images can then be processed to generate microscopic thermal diffusivity maps of the material. SRM 1462 stainless steel was tested to evaluate the accuracy of the system. Thermal diffusivity micrographs of carbon-carbon composites and SCS-6/borosilicate glass were generated. Thermal diffusivity values of the carbon fiber bundles parallel to the heat flow were found to be higher than the matrix material. A thermal coupling effect between SCS-6 fiber and matrix was observed. The thermal coupling and measured thermal diffusivity value of the fiber were also dependent upon the thickness of the specimen.

  17. Convergent Evolution in Livebearing Fishes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Troendle, Nicholas

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    CONVERGENT EVOLUTION IN LIVEBEARING FISHES A Thesis by NICHOLAS JOSEPH TROENDLE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 2012 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences Convergent Evolution in Livebearing Fishes Copyright 2012 Nicholas Joseph Troendle CONVERGENT EVOLUTION IN LIVEBEARING...

  18. Evolution equation for quantum entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Evolution equation for quantum entanglement THOMAS KONRAD1 , FERNANDO DE MELO2,3 , MARKUS of the time evolution of this resource under realistic conditions--that is, when corrupted by environment describes the time evolution of entanglement on passage of either component through an arbitrary noisy

  19. Evolving Evolution Steven P. Reiss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiss, Steven P.

    Evolving Evolution Steven P. Reiss Brown University Providence, RI 02912 401-863-7641, spr@cs.brown.edu Abstract Software is changing and software evolution is going to change with it. In considering software and the problems of software evolution today we make the tacit assumption that we control the software and hence

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of a Conduction Cooled Thermal Neutron Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heather Wampler; Adam Gerth; Heng Ban; Donna Post Guillen; Douglas Porter; Cynthia Papesch

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Installation of a conduction cooled thermal (low-energy) neutron filter in an existing domestic test reactor would provide the U.S. the capability to test new reactor fuels and materials for advanced fast (high-energy) reactor concepts. A composite consisting of Al3Hf-Al has been proposed for the neutron filter due to both the neutron filtering properties of hafnium and the conducting capabilities of aluminum. Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of the Al3Hf-Al composite is essential for the design of the filtering system. The present objectives are to identify a suitable fabrication technique and to measure the thermophysical properties of the Al3Hf intermetallic, which has not been done previous to this study. A centrifugal casting method was used to prepare samples of Al3Hf. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis were conducted to determine the structural make-up of each of the samples. Thermophysical properties were measured as follows: specific heat by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermal diffusivity by a laser flash thermal diffusivity measuring system, thermal expansion by a dilatometer, and thermal conductivity was calculated based on the previous measurements. All measurements were acquired over a temperature range of 90°C - 375°C with some measurements outside these bounds. The average thermal conductivity of the intermetallic Al3Hf (~7 at.% Hf) was found to be ~ 41 W/m-K for the given temperature range. This information fills a knowledge gap in the thermophysical properties of the intermetallic Al3Hf with the specified percentage of hafnium. A model designed to predict composite properties was used to calculate a thermal conductivity of ~177 W/m-K for an Al3Hf-Al composite with 23 vol% Al3Hf. This calculation was based upon the average thermal conductivity of Al3Hf over the specified temperature range.

  1. Role of Thermal Fluctuations in Nonlinear Thin Film Dewetting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesic, S; Moro, E; Kondic, L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spontaneous formation of droplets via dewetting of a thin fluid film from a solid substrate allows for materials nanostructuring, under appropriate experimental control. While thermal fluctuations are expected to play a role in this process, their relevance has remained poorly understood, particularly during the nonlinear stages of evolution. Within a stochastic lubrication framework, we show that thermal noise speeds up and substantially influences the formation and evolution of the droplet arrangement. As compared with their deterministic counterparts, for a fixed spatial domain, stochastic systems feature a smaller number of droplets, with a larger variability in sizes and space distribution. Finally, we discuss the influence of stochasticity on droplet coarsening for very long times.

  2. Thermal shock behavior of fiber-reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Singh, R.N. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Beecher, S.C.; Dinwiddie, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal shock behavior of three types of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites (Nextel{trademark} or Nicalon{trademark} fiber-reinforced chemical vapor infiltrated or polymer-derived SiC matrix composites) was studied using the water quench technique. The thermal shock induced damage was characterized by both destructive and nondestructive techniques. As compared with monolithic ceramics, the continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites were capable of preventing catastrophic failure caused by thermal shock and were able to retain a significant portion of their original strength at {Delta}{Tau} = 1000{degrees}C. The nondestructive techniques involved measuring the thermal diffusivity by the flash technique and determining the Young`s modulus by the dynamic resonance method. It has been demonstrated that these nondestructive techniques can detect damage induced by thermal shock and are more sensitive in detecting damage in the early stage than the conventional destructive technique of measuring the retained strength.

  3. Thermalization and decoherence in open Majorana systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earl T. Campbell

    2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling to a thermal bath leads to thermalisation and decoherence of stored quantum information. For a system of Gaussian fermions, the fermionic analog of linear or Gaussian optics, these dynamics can be elegantly and efficiently described by evolution of the system's covariance matrix. Taking both system and bath to be Gaussian fermionic, we observe that thermalization and decoherence occurs at a rate that is independent of the bath temperature. Furthermore, we also consider a weak coupling regime where the dynamics are Markovian. We present a microscopic derivation of Markovian master equations entirely in the language of covariance matrices, where temperature independence remains manifest. This is radically different from behaviour seen in other scenarios, such as when fermions interact with a bosonic bath. Our analysis applies to many Majorana fermion systems that have been heralded as very robust, topologically protected, qubits. In these systems, it has been claimed that thermal decoherence can be exponentially suppressed by reducing temperature, but we find Gaussian decoherence cannot be cooled away.

  4. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    2000-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  5. Holographic thermalization in noncommutative geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Xiong Zeng; Xian-Ming Liu; Wen-Biao Liu

    2015-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational collapse of a shell of dust in noncommutative geometry is probed by the renormalized geodesic length, which is dual to probe the thermalization by the two-point correlation function in the dual conformal field theory. We find that larger the noncommutative parameter is, longer the thermalization time is, which implies that the large noncommutative parameter delays the thermalization process. We also investigate how the noncommutative parameter affects the thermalization velocity and thermalization acceleration.

  6. Radially localized measurements of superthermal electrons using oblique electron cyclotron emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preische, S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kaye, S.M.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that radial localization of optically tin Electron Cyclotron Emission from superthermal electrons can be imposed by observation of emission upshifted from the thermal cyclotron resonance in the horizontal midplane of a tokamak. A new and unique diagnostic has been proposed and operated to make radially localized measurements of superthermal electrons during Lower Hybrid Current Drive on the PBX-M tokamak. The superthermal electron density profile as well as moments of the electron energy distribution as a function of radius are measured during Lower Hybrid Current Drive. The time evolution of these measurements after the Lower Hybrid power is turned off are given and the observed behavior reflects the collisional isotropization of the energy distribution and radial diffusion of the spatial profile.

  7. Cavitation and thermal photon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jitesh R. Bhatt; Hiranmaya Mishra; V. Sreekanth

    2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the thermal photon production-rates using one dimensional boost-invariant second order relativistic hydrodynamics to find proper time evolution of the energy density and the temperature. The effect of bulk-viscosity and non-ideal equation of state are taken into account in a manner consistent with recent lattice QCD estimates. It is shown that the \\textit{non-ideal} gas equation of state i.e $\\epsilon-3 P \

  8. Evolution of holographic entanglement entropy in an anisotropic system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ecker, Christian; Stricker, Stefan A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine holographically 2-point correlators of gauge invariant operators with large conformal weights and entanglement entropy of strips for a time-dependent anisotropic 5-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. At the early stage of evolution where geodesics and extremal surfaces can extend beyond the apparent horizon all observables vary substantially from their thermal value, but thermalize rapidly. At late times we recover quasi-normal ringing of correlators and holographic entanglement entropy around their thermal values, as expected on general grounds. We check the behaviour of holographic entanglement entropy and correlators as function of the separation length of the strip and find agreement with the exact expressions derived in the small and large temperature limits.

  9. Environment and Protostellar Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yichen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Even today in our Galaxy, stars form from gas cores in a variety of environments, which may affect the properties of resulting star and planetary systems. Here we study the role of pressure, parameterized via ambient clump mass surface density, on protostellar evolution and appearance, focussing on low-mass, Sun-like stars and considering a range of conditions from relatively low pressure filaments in Taurus, to intermediate pressures of cluster-forming clumps like the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), to very high pressures that may be found in the densest Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) or in the Galactic Center (GC). We present unified analytic and numerical models for collapse of prestellar cores, accretion disks, protostellar evolution and bipolar outflows, coupled to radiative transfer (RT) calculations and a simple astrochemical model to predict CO gas phase abundances. Prestellar cores in high pressure environments are smaller and denser and thus collapse with higher accretion rates and efficiencies, resulting...

  10. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in the combustion chamber Catalytic Subsequent Exhaust gas treatment SCR Non-Thermal Plasma AEA Technology Exhaust gas treatment outside the combustion chamber MEASURES Engine...

  11. Measurement-Measurement-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeong, Jaehoon "Paul"

    Internet Measurement- System A Measurement- System B Control System GPS Satellite GPS Satellite GPS Receiver GPS Receiver 2) measurement 3) data1) command Methodology for One-way IP Performance Measurement This paper proposes a methodology for measurement of one-way IP performance metrics such as one-way delay

  12. Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content (HHC) - Fueled Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumm, Daniel

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overarching goal of this research program has been to evaluate the potential impacts of coal-derived syngas and high-hydrogen content fuels on the degradation of turbine hot-section components through attack of protective oxides and thermal barrier coatings. The primary focus of this research program has been to explore mechanisms underpinning the observed degradation processes, and connections to the combustion environments and characteristic non-combustible constituents. Based on the mechanistic understanding of how these emerging fuel streams affect materials degradation, the ultimate goal of the program is to advance the goals of the Advanced Turbine Program by developing materials design protocols leading to turbine hot-section components with improved resistance to service lifetime degradation under advanced fuels exposures. This research program has been focused on studying how: (1) differing combustion environments – relative to traditional natural gas fired systems – affect both the growth rate of thermally grown oxide (TGO) layers and the stability of these oxides and of protective thermal barrier coatings (TBCs); and (2) how low levels of fuel impurities and characteristic non-combustibles interact with surface oxides, for instance through the development of molten deposits that lead to hot corrosion of protective TBC coatings. The overall program has been comprised of six inter-related themes, each comprising a research thrust over the program period, including: (i) evaluating the role of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) combustion environments in modifying component surface temperatures, heat transfer to the TBC coatings, and thermal gradients within these coatings; (ii) understanding the instability of TBC coatings in the syngas and high hydrogen environment with regards to decomposition, phase changes and sintering; (iii) characterizing ash deposition, molten phase development and infiltration, and associated corrosive/thermo-chemical attack mechanisms; (iv) developing a mechanics-based analysis of the driving forces for crack growth and delamination, based on molten phase infiltration, misfit upon cooling, and loss of compliance; (v) understanding changes in TGO growth mechanisms associated with these emerging combustion product streams; and (vi) identifying degradation resistant alternative materials (including new compositions or bi-layer concepts) for use in mitigating the observed degradation modes. To address the materials stability concerns, this program integrated research thrusts aimed at: (1) Conducting tests in simulated syngas and HHC environments to evaluate materials evolution and degradation mechanisms; assessing thermally grown oxide development unique to HHC environmental exposures; carrying out high-resolution imaging and microanalysis to elucidate the evolution of surface deposits (molten phase formation and infiltration); exploring thermo-chemical instabilities; assessing thermo-mechanical drivers and thermal gradient effects on degradation; and quantitatively measuring stress evolution due to enhanced sintering and thermo-chemical instabilities induced in the coating. (2) Executing experiments to study the melting and infiltration of simulated ash deposits, and identifying reaction products and evolving phases associated with molten phase corrosion mechanisms; utilizing thermal spray techniques to fabricate test coupons with controlled microstructures to study mechanisms of instability and degradation; facilitating thermal gradient testing; and developing new materials systems for laboratory testing; (3) Correlating information on the resulting combustion environments to properly assess materials exposure conditions and guide the development of lab-scale simulations of material exposures; specification of representative syngas and high-hydrogen fuels with realistic levels of impurities and contaminants, to explore differences in heat transfer, surface degradation, and deposit formation; and facilitating combustion rig testing of materials test coupons.

  13. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  14. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  15. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  16. STUDY OF THERMAL INTERACTION BETWEEN A 150 KW CW POWER COUPLER AND A SUPERCONDUCTING 704 MHZ ELLIPTICAL CAVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    us also to perform in-situ measurements of thermal parameters needed in the thermal model without degradation of its RF performance. · Determine, by in situ measurements, some unknown thermal) Specification Frequency (MHz) 704 RF power (kW) 150 - CW Impedance () 50 Outer Conductor (OC) material

  17. Thermal conductivity profile determination in proton-irradiated ZrC by spatial and frequency scanning thermal wave methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, C. [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France) [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States); Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Antoniow, J. S.; Pron, H. [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France)] [GRESPI, Multiscale Thermophysics Lab., Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne URCA, Moulin de la Housse BP 1039, Reims 51687 (France); Ban, H. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States)

    2013-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using complementary thermal wave methods, the irradiation damaged region of zirconium carbide (ZrC) is characterized by quantifiably profiling the thermophysical property degradation. The ZrC sample was irradiated by a 2.6 MeV proton beam at 600 °C to a dose of 1.75 displacements per atom. Spatial scanning techniques including scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), lock-in infrared thermography (lock-in IRT), and photothermal radiometry (PTR) were used to directly map the in-depth profile of thermal conductivity on a cross section of the ZrC sample. The advantages and limitations of each system are discussed and compared, finding consistent results from all techniques. SThM provides the best resolution finding a very uniform thermal conductivity envelope in the damaged region measuring ?52 ± 2 ?m deep. Frequency-based scanning PTR provides quantification of the thermal parameters of the sample using the SThM measured profile to provide validation of a heating model. Measured irradiated and virgin thermal conductivities are found to be 11.9 ± 0.5 W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1} and 26.7 ±1 W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}, respectively. A thermal resistance evidenced in the frequency spectra of the PTR results was calculated to be (1.58 ± 0.1) × 10{sup ?6} m{sup 2} K W{sup ?1}. The measured thermal conductivity values compare well with the thermal conductivity extracted from the SThM calibrated signal and the spatially scanned PTR. Combined spatial and frequency scanning techniques are shown to provide a valuable, complementary combination for thermal property characterization of proton-irradiated ZrC. Such methodology could be useful for other studies of ion-irradiated materials.

  18. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anCHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWERfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal

  19. Thermal test options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  20. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  1. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  2. Black Hole Thermodynamics Based on Unitary Evolutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Yu-Lei

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we try to construct black hole thermodynamics based on the fact that, the formation and evaporation of a black hole can be described by quantum unitary evolutions. First, we show that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy $S_{BH}$ cannot be a Boltzmann or thermal entropy. To confirm this statement, we show that the original black hole's "first law" cannot be treated as the first law of thermodynamics formally, due to some missing metric perturbations caused by matter. Then, by including those (quantum) metric perturbations, we show that the black hole formation and evaporation can be described in a unitary manner effectively, through a quantum channel between the exterior and interior of the event horizon. In this way, the paradoxes of information loss and firewall can be resolved effectively. Finally, we show that black hole thermodynamics can be constructed in an ordinary way, by constructing statistical mechanics.

  3. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During FY 1981, analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include estimates of both the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, an in-depth study evaluated thermal storage concepts for water/steam, organic fluid, and gas/Brayton solar thermal receivers. Promising and nonpromising concepts were identified. A study to evaluate thermal storage concepts for a liquid metal receiver was initiated. The value of thermal storage in a solar thermal industrial process heat application was analyzed. Several advanced concepts are being studied, including ground-mounted thermal storage for parabolic dishes with Stirling engines.

  4. Thermal X-ray emission of the remnants of ashperical Supernova explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Petruk

    2001-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Evolution of adiabatic remnants of an aspherical supernova explosion in uniform medium are considered. Thermal X-ray emission of such remnants are investigated. It is shown that integral thermal X-ray characteristics (X-ray luminosity and spectrum) of the objects do not allow us to reveal the assymetry in the explosion because these characteristics are close to their Sedov counterparts. Surface distribution of X-ray emission is sensitive to anisotropy of the explosion and nonuniformity of the interstellar medium.

  5. Thermal Tests of Undulator Quad

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Andrew; /SLAC; ,

    2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Running at the nominal temperature, the undulator quadrupole has a several degree temperature increase. This note describes the test used to determine the effect on the undulator integrals from the temperature gradient caused by the heat from the quadrupole conducting down the beam pipe. The undulator quadrupoles running at their nominal current of 4 amps heat up approximately 4 degrees Celsius; this magnet in turn heats up the beampipe which goes into the undulator. The heating ends up introducing a thermal gradient across the undulator which causes small changes in the magnetic field of the heated poles. By measuring the temperature change in the poles we can model the effects on the field and determine what the magnetic errors will be.

  6. CHAPTER 8CHAPTER 8CHAPTER 8:CHAPTER 8: Thermal InfraredThermal Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    measurable temperature variations of 1/10,000 °C.p · In World War I, S. O. Hoffman could detect men at 120 m remote sensor data were collected by the U. S. Television IR Operational Satellite (TIROS) launched a Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) that included a thermal infrared sensor for monitoring sea

  7. Numerical integration of thermal noise in relativistic hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clint Young

    2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal fluctuations affect the dynamics of systems near critical points, the evolution of the early universe, and two-particle correlations in heavy-ion collisions. For the latter, numerical simulations of nearly-ideal, relativistic fluids are necessary. The correlation functions of noise in relativistic fluids are calculated, stochastic integration of the noise in 3+1-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics is implemented, and the effect of noise on observables in heavy-ion collisions is discussed. Thermal fluctuations will cause significant variance in the event-by-event distributions of integrated v2 while changing average values even when using the same initial conditions, suggesting that including thermal noise will lead to refitting of the hydrodynamical parameters with implications for understanding the physics of hot QCD.

  8. Impulsive Spot Heating and Thermal Explosion of Interstellar Grains Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivlev, A V; Vasyunin, A; Caselli, P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of impulsive heating of dust grains in cold, dense interstellar clouds is revisited theoretically, with the aim to better understand leading mechanisms of the explosive desorption of icy mantles. It is rigorously shown that if the heating of a reactive medium occurs within a sufficiently localized spot (e.g., heating of mantles by cosmic rays), then the subsequent thermal evolution is characterized by a single dimensionless number $\\lambda$. This number identifies a bifurcation between two distinct regimes: When $\\lambda$ exceeds a critical value (threshold), the heat equation exhibits the explosive solution, i.e., the thermal (chemical) explosion is triggered. Otherwise, thermal diffusion causes the deposited heat to spread over the entire grain -- this regime is commonly known as the whole-grain heating. The theory allows us to find a critical combination of the physical parameters that govern the explosion of icy mantles due to impulsive spot heating. In particular, the calculations suggest tha...

  9. Nonclassicality of Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars M. Johansen

    2004-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    It is demonstrated that thermal radiation of small occupation number is strongly nonclassical. This includes most forms of naturally occurring radiation. Nonclassicality can be observed as a negative weak value of a positive observable. It is related to negative values of the Margenau-Hill quasi-probability distribution.

  10. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  11. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  12. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  13. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to us, like reflective ("nearreflective ("near--" infrared (0.7" infrared (0.7 -- 3.03.0 µµm)m) andand near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrared refers to region o EM spectrum from ~3 - 14 µm.landscape. IMPORTANT: NEARIMPORTANT: NEAR--INFRARED is short enough wavelength toINFRARED is short enough wavelength

  14. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  15. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 Q1 High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  16. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graded Nanocomposites with Interfacial Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graded Nanocomposites with Interfacial Thermal Resistance H Engineering, Newmark Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 4139 Engineering Gateway, University

  17. Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Sheldon X.-D.

    Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management Pu Liu, Zhenyu Qi, Hang Li, Lingling Jin, Wei Wu, Sheldon X.-D. Tan, Jun Yang Department of Electrical Engineering temperature by dynamic thermal managements becomes necessary. This paper proposes a novel approach

  18. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature underground thermal energy storage, inProceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:underground thermal energy storage, in ATES newsletter:

  19. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withconcept of thermal energy storage in aquifers was suggestedLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak Ridge

  20. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal...

  1. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftin Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology haveThe Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) 2rogrammatic

  2. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withAnnual Thermal Energy Storage Contractors' InformationLarge-Scale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and

  3. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1978, High temperature underground thermal energy storage,in Proceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:High temperature underground thermal energy storage, in ATES

  4. Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Sai Chun

    Thermal analysis of Lundell alternators used in automobiles is presented. An analytical thermal model for Lundell alternators is proposed, and procedures for acquiring the model parameters are elucidated. Based on the ...

  5. Jet Quenching and Holographic Thermalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elena Caceres; Arnab Kundu; Berndt Müller; Diana Vaman; Di-Lun Yang

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ the AdS/CFT correspondence to investigate the thermalization of the strongly-coupled plasma and the jet quenching of a hard probe traversing such a thermalizing medium.

  6. Morphological Evolution of Galaxies to z=4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Galaxies have clearly evolved since the universe was 1 Gyr old, but methods to trace and quantify this evolution are still in their infancy. In this paper I demonstrate that with the careful use of a `physical morphology' it is possible to determine quantitatively how the process of galaxy evolution is occurring out to z=4. Using a system of parameters that traces star formation and galaxy interactions, I show how distinct galaxy populations at high-z can be identified in deep high-resolution optical and NIR images. These tools are also used to measure a potential merger fraction of galaxies from 0

  7. Stochastic Master Equations in Thermal Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S Attal; C Pellegrini

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the stochastic master equations which describe the evolution of open quantum systems in contact with a heat bath and undergoing indirect measurements. These equations are obtained as a limit of a quantum repeated measurement model where we consider a small system in contact with an infinite chain at positive temperature. At zero temperature it is well-known that one obtains stochastic differential equations of jump-diffusion type. At strictly positive temperature, we show that only pure diffusion type equations are relevant.

  8. Jet Quenching with Parton evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luan Cheng; Enke Wang

    2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the evolution effects on jet energy loss with detailed balance. The initial conditions and parton evolution based on perturbative QCD in the chemical non-equilibrated medium and Bjorken expanding medium at RHIC are determined. The parton evolution affect the jet energy loss evidently. This will increase the energy and propagating distance dependence of the parton energy loss and will affect the shape of suppression of moderately high P_{T} hadron spectra.

  9. acceleration measurement system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are inherently tied to the growth and wavebreaking of the nonlinear plasma wave. This evolution is confirmed by numerical simulations, showing that these measurements provide...

  10. A RhxSy/C Catalyst for the Hydrogen Oxidation and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions in HBr

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Masud, Jahangir; Nguyena, Trung V.; Singh, Nirala; McFarland, Eric; Ikenberry, Myles; Hohn, Keith; Pan, Chun-Jern; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rhodium sulfide (Rh2S3) on carbon support was synthesized by refluxing rhodium chloride with ammonium thiosulfate. Thermal treatment of Rh2S3 at high temperatures (600°C to 850°C) in presence of argon resulted in the transformation of Rh2S3 into Rh3S4, Rh17S15 and Rh which were characterized by TGA/DTA, XRD, EDX, and deconvolved XPS analyses. The catalyst particle size distribution ranged from 3 to 12 nm. Cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode measurements were used to evaluate the catalytic activity for hydrogen oxidation and evolution reactions in H2SO4 and HBr solutions. The thermally treated catalysts show high activity for the hydrogen reactions. The exchangemore »current densities (io) of the synthesized RhxSy catalysts in H2-saturated 1M H2SO4 and 1M HBr for HER and HOR were 0.9 mA/cm2 to 1.0 mA/cm2 and 0.8 to 0.9 mA/cm2, respectively. The lower io values obtained in 1M HBr solution compared to in H2SO4 might be due to the adsorption of Br- on the active surface. Stable electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) of RhxSy catalyst was obtained for CV scan limits between 0 V and 0.65 V vs. RHE. Scans with upper voltage limit beyond 0.65 V led to decreased and unreproducible ECSA measurements.« less

  11. Chemical evolution in Sersic 159-03 observed with XMM-Newton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. de Plaa; N. Werner; A. M. Bykov; J. S. Kaastra; M. Mendez; J. Vink; J. A. M. Bleeker; M. Bonamente; J. R. Peterson

    2006-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a new long X-ray observation of the cluster of galaxies Sersic 159-03 with XMM-Newton, we derive radial temperature and abundance profiles using single- and multi-temperature models. The fits to the EPIC and RGS spectra prefer multi-temperature models especially in the core. The radial profiles of oxygen and iron measured with EPIC/RGS and the line profiles in RGS suggest that there is a dip in the O/Fe ratio in the centre of the cluster compared to its immediate surroundings. A possible explanation for the large scale metallicity distribution is that SNIa and SNII products are released in the ICM through ram-pressure stripping of in-falling galaxies. This causes a peaked metallicity distribution. In addition, SNIa in the central cD galaxy enrich mainly the centre of the cluster with iron. This excess of SNIa products is consistent with the low O/Fe ratio we detect in the centre of the cluster. We fit the abundances we obtain with yields from SNIa, SNII and Population-III stars to derive the clusters chemical evolution. We find that the measured abundance pattern does not require a Population-III star contribution. The relative contribution of the number of SNIa with respect to the total number of SNe which enrich the ICM is about 25-50%. Furthermore, we discuss the possible presence of a non-thermal component in the EPIC spectra. A potential source of this non-thermal emission can be inverse-Compton scattering between Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons and relativistic electrons, which are accelerated in bow shocks associated with ram-pressure stripping of in-falling galaxies.

  12. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  13. Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This Blend Plan documents the feed material items that are stored in 2736-2 vaults, the 2736-ZB 638 cage, the 192C vault, and the 225 vault that will be processed through the thermal stabilization furnaces. The purpose of thermal stabilization is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all water and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The stabilized material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI) or percent water. The stabilized material must meet water content or LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the water or LOI limits are met.

  14. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Robert P. (Kingwood, TX)

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  15. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  16. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  17. Quantum information processing and multiatom entanglement engineering with a thermal cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi-Biao Zheng

    2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a scheme for realizing two-qubit quantum phase gates with atoms in a thermal cavity. The photon-number dependent parts in the evolution operator are canceled with the assistant of a strong classical field. Thus the scheme is insensitive to the thermal field. In the scheme the detuning between the atoms and the cavity is equal to the atom-cavity coupling strength and thus the gates operate at a high speed, which is also important in view of decoherence. The scheme can be generalized to generate multiatom entangled states with a thermal cavity.

  18. Abstract--Eventually, prediction of transformer thermal performance for dynamic loading will be made using models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Abstract--Eventually, prediction of transformer thermal performance for dynamic loading will be made using models distilled from measure data, rather than models derived from transformer heat for measuring the acceptability of transformer thermal models. For a model to be acceptable, it must have

  19. Transformer Thermal Modeling: Improving Reliability Using Data Quality Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Transformer Thermal Modeling: Improving Reliability Using Data Quality Control Daniel J. Tylavsky--Eventually all large transformers will be dynamically loaded using models updated regularly from field measured data. Models obtained from measured data give more accurate results than models based on transformer

  20. Method to determine thermal profiles of nanoscale circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander K; Begtrup, Gavi E

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A platform that can measure the thermal profiles of devices with nanoscale resolution has been developed. The system measures the local temperature by using an array of nanoscale thermometers. This process can be observed in real time using a high resolution imagining technique such as electron microscopy. The platform can operate at extremely high temperatures.

  1. Storage and Retrieval of Thermal Light in Warm Atomic Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young-Wook Cho; Yoon-Ho Kim

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report slowed propagation and storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm rubidium vapor using the effect of electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT). We first demonstrate slowed-propagation of the probe thermal light beam through an EIT medium by measuring the second-order correlation function of the light field using the Hanbury-Brown$-$Twiss interferometer. We also report an experimental study on the effect of the EIT slow-light medium on the temporal coherence of thermal light. Finally, we demonstrate the storage and retrieval of thermal light beam in the EIT medium. The direct measurement of the photon number statistics of the retrieved light field shows that the photon number statistics is preserved during the storage and retrieval process.

  2. Electric Motor Thermal Management for Electric Traction Drives (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of material thermal properties and convective heat transfer coefficients. In this work, the thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. Also, convective heat transfer coefficients of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets were measured to better understand the heat transfer of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients.

  3. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  4. Spectroscopic measurement of ion temperature and ion velocity distributions in the flux-coil generated FRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, D.; Gota, H.; Hayashi, R.; Kiyashko, V.; Morehouse, M.; Primavera, S. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Bolte, N. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Marsili, P. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Roche, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Wessel, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One aim of the flux-coil generated field reversed configuration at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) is to establish the plasma where the ion rotational energy is greater than the ion thermal energy. To verify this, an optical diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure the Doppler velocity-shift and line-broadening using a 0.75 m, 1800 groves/mm, spectrometer. The output spectrum is magnified and imaged onto a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. The individual PMT outputs are coupled to high-gain, high-frequency, transimpedance amplifiers, providing fast-time response. The Doppler spectroscopy measurements, along with a survey spectrometer and photodiode-light detector, form a suite of diagnostics that provide insights into the time evolution of the plasma-ion distribution and current when accelerated by an azimuthal-electric field.

  5. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes ofof thermal loads resulting from the building envelope areThermal Test Facility, LhL-9653, prepared for the ASHRAE/DOE Conference-on"t:heThermal Performance the Exterior Envelope

  6. Structural stability vs. thermal performance: old dilemma, new solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many building envelopes, actual thermal performance falls quite a bit short of nominal design parameters given in standards. Very often only windows, doors, and a small part of the wall area meet standards requirements. In the other parts of the building envelope, unaccounted thermal bridges reduce the effective thermal resistance of the insulation material. Such unaccounted heat losses compromise the thermal performance of the whole building envelope. For the proper analysis of the thermal performance of most wall and roof details, measurements and three-dimensional thermal modeling are necessary. For wall thermal analysis the whole-wall R-value calculation method can be very useful. In ties method thermal properties of all wall details are incorporated as an area weighted average. For most wall systems, the part of the wall that is traditionally analyzed, is the clear wall, that is, the flat part of the wall that is uninterrupted by details. It comprises only 50 to 80% of the total area of the opaque wall. The remaining 20 to 50% of the wall area is not analyzed nor are its effects incorporated in the thermal performance calculations. For most of the wall technologies, traditionally estimated R-values are 20 to 30% higher than whole-wall R-values. Such considerable overestimation of wall thermal resistance leads to significant errors in building heating and cooling load estimations. In this paper several examples are presented of the use of the whole-wall R-value procedure for building envelope components. The advantages of the use of the whole wall R-value calculation procedure are also discussed. For several building envelope components, traditional clear-wall R-values are compared with the results of whole-wall thermal analysis to highlight significant limits on the use of the traditional methods and the advantages of advanced computer modeling.

  7. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, the effective thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets was also measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Ford's Mercon LV was the ATF evaluated in this study. The presentation provides an overview of prior work with a focus on describing future plans for research to be performed during FY15.

  8. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  9. Multipartite Quantum Entanglement Evolution in Photosynthetic Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jing Zhu; Sabre Kais; Alán Aspuru-Guzik; Sam Rodriques; Ben Brock; Peter J. Love

    2012-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the evolution of entanglement in the Fenna-Matthew-Olson (FMO) complex based on simulations using the scaled hierarchy equation of motion (HEOM) approach. We examine the role of multipartite entanglement in the FMO complex by direct computation of the convex roof optimization for a number of measures, including some that have not been previously evaluated. We also consider the role of monogamy of entanglement in these simulations. We utilize the fact that the monogamy bounds are saturated in the single exciton subspace. This enables us to compute more measures of entanglement exactly and also to validate the evaluation of the convex roof. We then use direct computation of the convex roof to evaluate measures that are not determined by monogamy. This approach provides a more complete account of the entanglement in these systems than has been available to date. Our results support the hypothesis that multipartite entanglement is maximum primary along the two distinct electronic energy transfer pathways.

  10. Chemical Evolution in Omega Centauri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verne V. Smith

    2003-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The globular cluster Omega Centauri displays evidence of a complex star formation history and peculiar internal chemical evolution, setting it apart from essentially all other globular clusters of the Milky Way. In this review we discuss the nature of the chemical evolution that has occurred within Omega Cen and attempt to construct a simple scenario to explain its chemistry.

  11. The Evolution of Stellar Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angeles Diaz; Eduardo Hardy

    2001-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarize the discussion section on ``Evolution of Stellar Populations'' we led on May 27, 2000 in Granada, Spain, as part of the Euroconference on The Evolution of Galaxies. I- Observational Clues. We also provide a partial comparison between the present knowledge of these topics and that which existed at the time of the Crete Conference of 1995.

  12. Optimal Control of Quantum Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel J. Egger; Frank K. Wilhelm

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulses to steer the time evolution of quantum systems can be designed with optimal control theory. In most cases it is the coherent processes that can be controlled and one optimizes the time evolution towards a target unitary process, sometimes also in the presence of non-controllable incoherent processes. Here we show how to extend the GRAPE algorithm in the case where the incoherent processes are controllable and the target time evolution is a non-unitary quantum channel. We perform a gradient search on a fidelity measure based on Choi matrices. We illustrate our algorithm by optimizing a phase qubit measurement pulse. We show how this technique can lead to large measurement contrast close to 99%. We also show, within the validity of our model, that this algorithm can produce short 1.4 ns pulses with 98.2% contrast.

  13. Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

  14. Minimal Fokker-Planck theory for the thermalization of mesoscopic subsystems Igor Tikhonenkov1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    - tonian evolution of quantum many-body systems, even when they are quite small and isolated. In this Letter we propose to leap over a significant barrier of under- standing, by using Hamiltonian results] and quantum effects [4­7]. The traditional anal- ysis of thermalization has nonetheless largely remained

  15. Minimal Fokker-Planck Theory for the Thermalization of Mesoscopic Subsystems Igor Tikhonenkov,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    the Hamiltonian evolution of quantum many-body systems, even when they are quite small and isolated. In this Letter, we propose to leap over a significant barrier of understanding, by using Hamiltonian results from into account dynamical chaos [3,4] and quantum effects [5­8]. The traditional analysis of thermalization has

  16. Evolution of Eukaryotic Transfer Ribonucleic Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Julie Baker

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.2.4. Evolution of Class Informative2.3.2. Patterns of Evolution in Class InformativeEarly studies in tRNA evolution . . . . . . . . 1.5. tRNA

  17. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  18. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  19. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  20. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  1. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  2. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  3. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Noninvasive Measurement of Ablation Crater Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    proportional to laser power, whereas crater width and the zone of thermal injury appear to be unrelatedORIGINAL RESEARCH Noninvasive Measurement of Ablation Crater Size and Thermal Injury After CO2 at 10 m resolution, and the thermal disruption after laser ablation were identified by OCT. OCT

  4. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  5. Thermal performance of steel-framed walls. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, E. [NAHB Research Center, Inc., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Goodrow, J. [Holometrix, Inc., Bedford, MA (United States); Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In wall construction, highly conductive members spaced along the wall, which allow higher heat transfer than that through less conductive areas, are referred to as thermal bridges. Thermal bridges in walls tend to increase heat loss and, under certain adverse conditions, can cause dust streaking (``ghosting``) on interior walls over studs due to temperature differentials, as well as condensation in and on walls. Although such adverse conditions can be easily avoided by proper thermal design of wall systems, these effects have not been well understood and thermal data has been lacking. Therefore, the present study was initiated to provide (1) a better understanding of the thermal behavior of steel-framed walls, (2) a set of R-values for typical wall constructions, and (3) information that could be used to develop improved methods of predicting R-values. An improved method for estimating R-value would allow an equitable comparison of thermal performance with other construction types and materials. This would increase the number of alternative materials for walls available to designers, thus allowing them to choose the optimum choice for construction. Twenty-three wall samples were tested in a calibrated hot box (ASTM C9761) to measure the thermal performance of steel-framed wall systems. The tests included an array of stud frame configurations, exterior sheathing and fiberglass batt insulations. Other studies have not included the use of insulating sheathing, which reduces the extent of the thermal bridges and improves total thermal performance. The purpose of the project was to provide measured R-values for commonly used steel-framed wall configurations and to improve R-value estimating methods. Test results were compared to R-value estimates using the parallel path method, the isothermal planes method and the ASHRAE Zone method. The comparison showed that the known procedures do not fully account for the three-dimensional effects created by steel framing in a wall.

  6. Radiation damage evolution in ceramics. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation damage evolution in ceramics. Radiation damage evolution in ceramics. Abstract: A review is presented of recent results on radiation damage production, defect...

  7. Project Profile: Helios: Understanding Solar Evolution through...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analytics Project Profile: Helios: Understanding Solar Evolution through Text Analytics Logo of SRI International. SRI International, under the Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion...

  8. Solar thermal power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  9. Thermal treatment of dyes from military munitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed thermal treatment equipment to treat Navy smoke and dye compounds. Navy smokes were burned in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) in the early 1980s. These test results were used in the development of a portable system consisting of a Thermal Treatment Unit (TTU), feed preparation and pumping skid, utility skid, and control trailer. This equipment was started up at Navy facilities at China Lake, CA where several destruction removal efficiency tests were completed in 1993 burning smoke compositions. The equipment was set up at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1996 where tests were completed burning green Navy spotting dyes. Operating and test results from the NTS efforts resulted in clearer understanding of equipment deficiencies, dye characteristics and composition, and secondary wastes generated. Future tests, scheduled for July, 1996 will demonstrate higher bum rates, better pH measurement and control, and stack emission test results for other colored dyes.

  10. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During FY80 analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include both estimates of the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, promising thermal storage concepts are being identified. A preliminary screening was completed in FY80 and a more in-depth study was initiated. Value studies are being conducted to establish cost goals. A ranking of storage concepts based on value in solar thermal electric plants was conducted for both diurnal and long duration applications. Ground mounted thermal storage concepts for a parabolic dish/Stirling systtem are also being evaluated.

  11. NLO evolution of color dipoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Balitsky; Giovanni Chirilli

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The small-x deep inelastic scattering in the saturation region is governed by the non-linear evolution of Wilson-lines operators. In the leading logarithmic approximation it is given by the BK equation for the evolution of color dipoles. In the next-to-leaing order the BK equation gets contributions from quark and gluon loops as well as from the tree gluon diagrams with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. We calculate the gluon contribution to small-x evolution of Wilson lines (the quark part was obtained earlier).

  12. NLO evolution of color dipoles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian Balitsky; Giovanni A. Chirilli

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The small-$x$ deep inelastic scattering in the saturation region is governed by the non-linear evolution of Wilson-line operators. In the leading logarithmic approximation it is given by the BK equation for the evolution of color dipoles. In the next-to-leading order the BK equation gets contributions from quark and gluon loops as well as from the tree gluon diagrams with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. We calculate the gluon contribution to small-x evolution of Wilson lines (the quark part was obtained earlier).

  13. Plasma-activated direct bonding of diamond-on-insulator wafers to thermal oxide grown silicon wafers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akin, Tayfun

    microscopy, profilometer and wafer bow measurements. Plasma-activated direct bonding of DOI wafers to thermalPlasma-activated direct bonding of diamond-on-insulator wafers to thermal oxide grown silicon (CMP) on the diamond surface makes a poor bonding to silicon wafers with thermal oxide. Our results

  14. Quality assurance with the ISFH-Input/Output-Procedure 6-year-experience with 14 solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quality assurance with the ISFH-Input/Output-Procedure 6-year-experience with 14 solar thermal the confidence in solar thermal energy. The so called Input/Output-Procedure is controlling the solar heat systems. The simulation model was validated with measured data and a lot of failures in 11 solar thermal

  15. The evolution of false vacuum bubbles in radiating metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, K.M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The equations of motion for false vacuum bubbles in Vaidya-Mallett metrics are derived and numerically solved. It is demonstrated that the evolution of the bubble differs from the standard Schwarzschild-de Sitter results. The luminosity as measured by an external observer is found to deviate from the normal Hawking luminosity, thus producing a signature for the existence of the child universe.

  16. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

  17. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  18. High-brightness electron beam evolution following laser-based cleaning of a photocathode

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, F.; Brachmann, A.; Decker, F-J.; Emma, P.; Gilevich, S.; Iverson, R.; Stefan, P.; Turner, J.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-based techniques have been widely used for cleaning metal photocathodes to increase quantum efficiency (QE). However, the impact of laser cleaning on cathode uniformity and thereby on electron beam quality are less understood. We are evaluating whether this technique can be applied to revive photocathodes used for high-brightness electron sources in advanced x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) facilities, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The laser-based cleaning was applied to two separate areas of the current LCLS photocathode on July 4 and July 26, 2011, respectively. The QE was increased by 8–10 times upon the laser cleaning. Since the cleaning, routine operation has exhibited a slow evolution of the QE improvement and comparatively rapid improvement of transverse emittance, with a factor of 3 QE enhancement over five months, and a significant emittance improvement over the initial 2–3 weeks following the cleaning. Currently, the QE of the LCLS photocathode is holding constant at about 1.2×10?4 , with a normalized injector emittance of about 0.3???m for a 150-pC bunch charge. With the proper procedures, the laser-cleaning technique appears to be a viable tool to revive the LCLS photocathode. We present observations and analyses for the QE and emittance evolution in time following the laser-based cleaning of the LCLS photocathode, and comparison to the previous studies, the measured thermal emittance versus the QE and comparison to the theoretical model.

  19. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHASE CHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLARChange Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in ConcentratedChange Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated

  20. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regnier, Cindy

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    including cost, energy and thermal comfort analysis, whichfor greatest energy benefits, prioritize thermal comfortSetting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use

  1. Optimisation of Quantum Evolution Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apoorva Patel

    2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Given a quantum Hamiltonian and its evolution time, the corresponding unitary evolution operator can be constructed in many different ways, corresponding to different trajectories between the desired end-points. A choice among these trajectories can then be made to obtain the best computational complexity and control over errors. As an explicit example, Grover's quantum search algorithm is described as a Hamiltonian evolution problem. It is shown that the computational complexity has a power-law dependence on error when a straightforward Lie-Trotter discretisation formula is used, and it becomes logarithmic in error when reflection operators are used. The exponential change in error control is striking, and can be used to improve many importance sampling methods. The key concept is to make the evolution steps as large as possible while obeying the constraints of the problem. In particular, we can understand why overrelaxation algorithms are superior to small step size algorithms.

  2. Optimisation of Quantum Evolution Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Apoorva

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given a quantum Hamiltonian and its evolution time, the corresponding unitary evolution operator can be constructed in many different ways, corresponding to different trajectories between the desired end-points. A choice among these trajectories can then be made to obtain the best computational complexity and control over errors. As an explicit example, Grover's quantum search algorithm is described as a Hamiltonian evolution problem. It is shown that the computational complexity has a power-law dependence on error when a straightforward Lie-Trotter discretisation formula is used, and it becomes logarithmic in error when reflection operators are used. The exponential change in error control is striking, and can be used to improve many importance sampling methods. The key concept is to make the evolution steps as large as possible while obeying the constraints of the problem. In particular, we can understand why overrelaxation algorithms are superior to small step size algorithms.

  3. Evolution of the Midwest ISO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    -Transmission Owning Members Marketers · Allegheny Energy Supply · American Electric Power Co. · Automated Power Transmission System Operator, Inc. MAPP Fall Conference August 28, 2002 #12;Overview · General Background Information · MISO Today · MISO Evolution #12;General Background Information #12;General Utility Background

  4. Agile Development and Software Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feitelson, Dror

    Agile Development and Software Evolution Dror Feitelson Basic Seminar on Software Engineering Hebrew University 2011 #12;Software Lifecycle Req's Analysis Design Construction Testing Transfer Maintenance Textbook view: #12;Software Lifecycle Req's Analysis Design Construction Testing Transfer

  5. Social evolution of pragmatic behaviour 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott?Phillips, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pragmatics is the branch of linguistics that addresses the relationship between language and its external environment – in particular the communicative context. Social evolution (or sociobiology) is the branch of the ...

  6. ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION SEMINAR SERIES*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION SEMINAR SERIES* WINTER 2013 ECL 296 (CRN 50337) / PBG 292 (CRN 64677 24 The Modern Ecology of Ice-Covered Lakes in Antarctica: A Journey Back JANUARY 31 Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation

  7. The mystery of language evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hauser, Marc D.

    Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable ...

  8. Dynamic modelling for thermal micro-actuators using thermal networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    electrical anal- ogy. However, current equivalent electrical models (thermal networks) are generally obtained - Universidad Aut´onoma de Nuevo Le´on, PIIT Monterrey, C.P. 66600, Nuevo Le´on, Mexico. Preprint submitted.2010.06.012 #12;are then proposed in this paper. The validities of both types of thermal net- works

  9. Thermal dileptons at SPS energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Damjanovic; for the NA60 Collaboration

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Clear signs of excess dileptons above the known sources were found at the SPS since long. However, a real clarification of these observations was only recently achieved by NA60, measuring dimuons with unprecedented precision in 158A GeV, In-In collisions. The excess mass spectrum in the region M rho -> mu+mu- annihilation. The associated rho spectral function shows a strong broadening, but essentially no shift in mass. In the region M>1 GeV, the excess is found to be prompt, not due to enhanced charm production. The inverse slope parameter Teff associated with the transverse momentum spectra rises with mass up to the rho, followed by a sudden decline above. While the initial rise, coupled to a hierarchy in hadron freeze-out, points to radial flow of a hadronic decay source, the decline above signals a transition to a low-flow source, presumably of partonic origin. The mass spectra show at low transverse momenta the steep rise towards low masses characteristic for Planck-like radiation. The polarization of the excess referred to the Collins Soper frame is found to be isotropic. All observations are consistent with the interpretation of the excess as thermal radiation.

  10. Stromswold, Evolution & Genetics of Language 1 Genetics and the Evolution of Language: What genetic studies reveal about the evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stromswold, Karin

    Stromswold, Evolution & Genetics of Language 1 Genetics and the Evolution of Language: What genetic studies reveal about the evolution of language Karin Stromswold Rutgers University ­ New Brunswick Abstract. In this paper I argue that genetic studies of language provide insights about the evolution

  11. On the thermal expansion of composite materials and cross-property connection between thermal expansion and thermal conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevostianov, Igor

    expansion and thermal conductivity Igor Sevostianov Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, NewOn the thermal expansion of composite materials and cross-property connection between thermal: Composite material Thermal expansion Cross-property Microstructure Thermal conductivity a b s t r a c

  12. Thermally stabilized heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J. (Littleton, CO)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement being characterized by an internal support structure within each mirror module and front and back sheets attached to the internal support structure, the front and back sheets having the same coefficient of thermal expansion such that no curvature is induced by temperature change, and a layer of adhesive adhering the mirror to the front sheet. The adhesive is water repellent and has adequate set strength to support the mirror but has sufficient shear tolerance to permit the differential expansion of the mirror and the front sheet without inducing stresses or currature effect. The adhesive also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and to protect the mirror backside against the adverse effects of weather. Also disclosed are specific details of the preferred embodiment.

  13. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  14. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  15. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

  16. Thermal-Hydrological Sensitivity Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, T A; Hao, Y; Morris, J P; Burton, E A

    2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents recent work from an ongoing project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a set of predictive tools for cavity/combustion-zone growth and to gain quantitative understanding of the processes and conditions (natural and engineered) affecting underground coal gasification (UCG). We discuss the application of coupled thermal-hydrologic simulation capabilities required for predicting UCG cavity growth, as well as for predicting potential environmental consequences of UCG operations. Simulation of UCG cavity evolution involves coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes in the host coal and adjoining rockmass (cap and bedrock). To represent these processes, the NUFT (Nonisothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport) code is being customized to address the influence of coal combustion on the heating of the host coal and adjoining rock mass, and the resulting thermal-hydrological response in the host coal/rock. As described in a companion paper (Morris et al. 2009), the ability to model the influence of mechanical processes (spallation and cavity collapse) on UCG cavity evolution is being developed at LLNL with the use of the LDEC (Livermore Distinct Element Code) code. A methodology is also being developed (Morris et al. 2009) to interface the results of the NUFT and LDEC codes to simulate the interaction of mechanical and thermal-hydrological behavior in the host coal/rock, which influences UCG cavity growth. Conditions in the UCG cavity and combustion zone are strongly influenced by water influx, which is controlled by permeability of the host coal/rock and the difference between hydrostatic and cavity pressure. In this paper, we focus on thermal-hydrological processes, examining the relationship between combustion-driven heat generation, convective and conductive heat flow, and water influx, and examine how the thermal and hydrologic properties of the host coal/rock influence those relationships. Specifically, we conducted a parameter sensitivity analysis of the influence of thermal and hydrological properties of the host coal, caprock, and bedrock on cavity temperature and steam production.

  17. VarPetrRef 1 VARIETY AND THE EVOLUTION OF REFINERY PROCESSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VarPetrRef 1 VARIETY AND THE EVOLUTION OF REFINERY PROCESSING Phuong NGUYEN*, Pier-Paolo SAVIOTTI, refinery processes, variety, niche theory, Weitzman measure. JEL classification : L15 -L93 -O3 1

  18. Thermal Conductivity of Thermally-Isolating Polymeric and Composite Structural Support Materials Between 0.3 and 4 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. Runyan; W. C. Jones

    2008-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of the low-temperature thermal conductivity of a number of polymeric and composite materials from 0.3 to 4 K. The materials measured are Vespel SP-1, Vespel SP-22, unfilled PEEK, 30% carbon fiber-filled PEEK, 30% glass-filled PEEK, carbon fiber Graphlite composite rod, Torlon 4301, G-10/FR-4 fiberglass, pultruded fiberglass composite, Macor ceramic, and graphite rod. These materials have moderate to high elastic moduli making them useful for thermally-isolating structural supports.

  19. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J. (Orchard Park, NY); Owens, William J. (Kenmore, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  20. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  1. 303:20130618.1036 Thermal Engineering Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    303:20130618.1036 Thermal Engineering Group LASP's Thermal Engineering Group is involved in all of the component, as well as on-orbit trending and operations planning. Design Experience The Thermal Engineering Systems Engineering The group has formulated general thermal design and thermal interface requirements

  2. Evolution of transcription networks in response to temporal fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hespanha, João Pedro

    Evolution of transcription networks in response to temporal fluctuations Journal: Evolution, Evolution & Marine Biology Keywords: Population Genetics, Epistasis, Genetic Networks, Transcription Evolution: For Review Only #12;EVOLUTION OF TRANSCRIPTION NETWORKS IN RESPONSE TO TEMPORAL FLUCTUATIONS

  3. The Fast Evolution of SN 2010bh associated with XRF 100316D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E., Felipe Olivares; Schady, Patricia; Rau, Arne; Klose, Sylvio; Krühler, Thomas; Afonso, Paulo M J; Updike, Adria C; Nardini, Marco; Filgas, Robert; Guelbenzu, Ana Nicuesa; Clemens, Christian; Elliott, Jonny; Kann, D Alexander; Rossi, Andrea; Sudilovsky, Vladimir

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About a decade ago the first observational evidence of the connection between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts was found. Since then, only half a dozen spectroscopically confirmed associations have been discovered and XRF 100316D/SN 2010bh lies among the latest. Starting observations at 12 hr and continuing until 80 days after the burst, GROND provided excellent photometric data of XRF 100316D/SN 2010bh in six filter bands from the optical to the near-infrared, significantly expanding the existing data set for this event. Combining GROND and Swift/UVOT+XRT data, the early SED is modelled with a blackbody and afterglow component attenuated by dust and gas absorption. The best-fit models imply a moderate host-galaxy extinction (A_V=1.2\\pm0.1 mag). Furthermore, temperature and radius evolution of the thermal component are combined with earlier measurements available from the literature. The analysis reveals a cooling envelope at an apparent initial radius of 7\\times10^11 cm, compatible with a dense wind surroundi...

  4. Selecting Thermal Storage Systems for Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, C. L.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measurement at six equally spaced elevations. Charged by chiller or hydronic vent cycle. B. Hot Water Storage Tank - Concrete lined steel 17,000 gallon with four headers arranged for dual temperature storage. C. Chiller - Variable frequency drive, 196... for Thermal Storage Projects since 1985: KW SCHOOL REDUCTION Kimball E.S. 7 1 Poteet H.S. 210 Phases I & I1 AC New M.S. 18 4 Pirrung E.S. 7 6 Poteet H.S. 14 0 Phase I11 Kimball E.S. 2 0 Phase I1 Black E.S. 3 7 Cannaday E.S. 9 0 Austin E.S. 94 N...

  5. A Fracture Mechanics Approach to Thermal Shock Investigation in Alumina-Based Refractory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov-Husovic, T.; Heinemann, R. Jancic; Mitrakovic, D. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal shock behavior of large grain size, alumina-based refractories was investigated experimentally using a standard water quench test. A mathematical model was employed to simulate the thermal stability behavior. Behavior of the samples under repeated thermal shock was monitored using ultrasonic measurements of dynamic Young's modulus. Image analysis was used to observe the extent of surface degradation. Analysis of the obtained results for the behavior of large grain size samples under conditions of rapid temperature changes is given.

  6. Thermally Fluctuating Second-Order Viscous Hydrodynamics and Heavy-Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Young; J. I. Kapusta; C. Gale; S. Jeon; B. Schenke

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The fluctuation-dissipation theorem requires the presence of thermal noise in viscous fluids. The time and length scales of heavy ion collisions are small enough so that the thermal noise can have a measurable effect on observables. Thermal noise is included in numerical simulations of high energy lead-lead collisions, increasing average values of the momentum eccentricity and contributing to its event by event fluctuations.

  7. WHO IS ANTI-EVOLUTION? 1. Who is anti-evolution?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Bethia H.

    WHO IS ANTI-EVOLUTION? 1. Who is anti-evolution? a. Although creationists and intelligent design theorists accept much of evolution, they repeatedly attack evolution. They are usually fundamentalists who%) of scientists 2. What is evolution? A change in the proportion of different genetic traits over time

  8. Noisy entanglement evolution for graph states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aolita, L; Chaves, R; Dhara, C; Davidovich, L; Acin, A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general method for the study of the entanglement evolution of graph states under the action of Pauli was recently proposed in [Cavalcanti, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 030502 (2009)]. This method is based on lower and upper bounds on the entanglement of the entire state as a function only of the state of a considerably-smaller subsystem, which undergoes an effective noise process. This provides a huge simplification on the size of the matrices involved in the calculation of entanglement in these systems. In the present paper we elaborate on this method in details and generalize it to other natural situations not described by Pauli maps. Specifically, for Pauli maps we introduce an explicit formula for the characterization of the resulting effective noise. Beyond Pauli maps, we show that the same ideas can be applied to the case of thermal reservoirs at arbitrary temperature. In the latter case, we discuss how to optimize the bounds as a function of the noise strength. We illustrate our ideas with explicit ...

  9. Noisy entanglement evolution for graph states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Aolita; D. Cavalcanti; R. Chaves; C. Dhara; L. Davidovich; A. Acin

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A general method for the study of the entanglement evolution of graph states under the action of Pauli was recently proposed in [Cavalcanti, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 030502 (2009)]. This method is based on lower and upper bounds on the entanglement of the entire state as a function only of the state of a considerably-smaller subsystem, which undergoes an effective noise process. This provides a huge simplification on the size of the matrices involved in the calculation of entanglement in these systems. In the present paper we elaborate on this method in details and generalize it to other natural situations not described by Pauli maps. Specifically, for Pauli maps we introduce an explicit formula for the characterization of the resulting effective noise. Beyond Pauli maps, we show that the same ideas can be applied to the case of thermal reservoirs at arbitrary temperature. In the latter case, we discuss how to optimize the bounds as a function of the noise strength. We illustrate our ideas with explicit exemplary results for several different graphs and particular decoherence processes. The limitations of the method are also discussed.

  10. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  11. Investigation of Thermal Interface Materials Using Phase-Sensitive Transient Thermoreflectance Technique: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; King, C.; DeVoto, D.; Mihalic, M.; Narumanchi, S.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With increasing power density in electronics packages/modules, thermal resistances at multiple interfaces are a bottleneck to efficient heat removal from the package. In this work, the performance of thermal interface materials such as grease, thermoplastic adhesives and diffusion-bonded interfaces are characterized using the phase-sensitive transient thermoreflectance technique. A multi-layer heat conduction model was constructed and theoretical solutions were derived to obtain the relation between phase lag and the thermal/physical properties. This technique enables simultaneous extraction of the contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity of the TIMs. With the measurements, the bulk thermal conductivity of Dow TC-5022 thermal grease (70 to 75 um bondline thickness) was 3 to 5 W/(m-K) and the contact resistance was 5 to 10 mm2-K/W. For the Btech thermoplastic material (45 to 80 ?m bondline thickness), the bulk thermal conductivity was 20 to 50 W/(m-K) and the contact resistance was 2 to 5 mm2-K/W. Measurements were also conducted to quantify the thermal performance of diffusion-bonded interface for power electronics applications. Results with the diffusion-bonded sample showed that the interfacial thermal resistance is more than one order of magnitude lower than those of traditional TIMs, suggesting potential pathways to efficient thermal management.

  12. Thermal resistance of composite panels containing superinsulation and urethane foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkes, K.E.; Graves, R.S.; Childs, K.W.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory data are presented on the thermal resistance of composite panels that incorporate superinsulation embedded in urethane foam. Composite panels were fabricated using four types of advanced insulations (three types of evacuated panel superinsulation and one type of gas-filled panel), and three foam blowing agents (CFC-11, HCFC-141b, and HCFC-142b/22 blend). Panels were also fabricated with only the urethane foam to serve as a baseline. Thermal measurements were performed using an ASTM C 518 Heat Flow Meter Apparatus. The thermal resistances of the panels were measured over a two-year period to detect whether any significant changes occurred. A computer model was used to analyze the data, adjusting for differences in size of the advanced insulations, and extrapolating to different sizes of composite panels.

  13. Thermal resistance of superinsulation/foam composite panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkes, K.E.; Graves, R.S.; Childs, K.W.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory data are presented on the thermal resistance of composite panels that incorporate superinsulation embedded in urethane foam. Composite panels were fabricated using four types of advanced insulations (three types of evacuated panel superinsulation and one type of gas-filled panel), and three foam blowing agents (CFC-11, HCFC-141b, and HCFC-142b/22 blend). Panels were also fabricated with only the urethane foam to serve as a baseline. Thermal measurements were performed using an ASTM C 518 Heat Flow Meter Apparatus. The thermal resistances of the panels were measured over a two-year period to detect whether any significant changes occurred. A computer model was used to analyze the data, normalizing for differences in size of the advanced insulations, and extrapolating to different sizes of composite panels.

  14. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy, geo-thermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wastedenergy, geothermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wasted heatthermal energy, geo/ocean-thermal energy, wasted heat in

  15. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demandsources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermal energy,

  16. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy,for efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

  17. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    geo-thermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wasted heat ingeothermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wasted heat inthermal energy, geo/ocean-thermal energy, wasted heat in

  18. Resonant-cavity enhanced thermal emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celanovic, Ivan

    In this paper we present a vertical-cavity enhanced resonant thermal emitter—a highly directional, narrow-band, tunable, partially coherent thermal source. This device enhances thermal emittance of a metallic or any other ...

  19. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and J. Schwarz, Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in AquifersLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak RidgeAquifers for Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage: An Overview of

  20. CALIFORNIA SOLAR INITIATIVE-THERMAL PROGRAMHANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA SOLAR INITIATIVE-THERMAL PROGRAMHANDBOOK CALIFORNIA PUBLIC UTILITIES California Solar Initiative Thermal Program Handbook i 1. Introduction to CSI-Thermal Program....................................................................................3 2.1.1 Host Customer