National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for measures miec oxides

  1. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Top: Single-chamber solid-oxide electrochemical cell for AP-XPS measurements with two thin-film CeO2-x working electrode with an Au current collector and a Pt counter electrode...

  2. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See Energy Level79AJ01)19^560AMERICA'S, . -1AP-XPS Measures

  3. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficient processes for H2 production from steam using renewable solar and wind energy. The unique capabilities of the ambient-pressure XPS stations on Beamlines 9.3.2 and...

  4. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See Energy Level79AJ01)19^560AMERICA'S, . -1 LosAP-XPS

  5. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See Energy Level79AJ01)19^560AMERICA'S, . -1 LosAP-XPSAP-XPS

  6. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See Energy Level79AJ01)19^560AMERICA'S, . -1

  7. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See Energy Level79AJ01)19^560AMERICA'S, . -1AP-XPS

  8. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 NewsUsers' Executive09 I N D U S T R I A L SAP-XPS

  9. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 NewsUsers' Executive09 I N D U S T R I A L

  10. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 NewsUsers' Executive09 I N D U S T R I A LAP-XPS

  11. NEMI MEASUREMENT OF AURORAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulich, Thomas

    NEMI MEASUREMENT OF AURORAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION Carl-Fredrik Enell1 Esa Turunen1 Antti Kero1 measurements for a sodium emission experiment. The main purpose of SGO in the NEMI project is in-situ quantification of the auroral production of nitric oxide (NO). The retrieval requires inverse modelling

  12. Direct measurement and analysis of cyclohexadienyl oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James Wagner

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation of cyclohexadienyl radical (c-C?H?) and similar resonantly stabilized radicals are important in an astonishing array of processes in nature. Cyclohexadienyl radical has been postulated to be significant in a ...

  13. Photo-oxidation of Ge Nanocrystals: Kinetic Measurements by In Situ Raman Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Photo-oxidation of Ge Nanocrystals: Kinetic Measurements byrate enhancement is due to a photo-chemical process. Thenanocrystals can be rapidly photo-oxidized. This oxidation

  14. Hydrogen pickup measurements in zirconium alloys: Relation to oxidation kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    Hydrogen pickup measurements in zirconium alloys: Relation to oxidation kinetics Adrien Couet a to reduce hydrogen pickup during operation, and the associated cladding degradation. The present study focuses on precisely and accurately measuring hydrogen pickup fraction for a set of alloys to specifically

  15. On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling On-Board Measurement of...

  16. Neutron and gamma-ray cross-correlation measurements of plutonium oxide powder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    Neutron and gamma-ray cross-correlation measurements of plutonium oxide powder S.D. Clarke a,Ã, M: Cross-correlation Plutonium oxide Special nuclear material Liquid scintillator MCNP-PoliMi a b s t r a c t For the first time, measurements of the time-dependent cross-correlation distributions of plutonium oxide have

  17. Electrocatalytic Measurement Methodology of Oxide Catalysts Using a Thin-Film Rotating Disk Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suntivich, Jin

    Transition-metal oxides can exhibit high electrocatalytic activity for reactions such as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. It is often difficult to measure and compare the activities of oxide catalysts ...

  18. Acoustic Measurements of the Elastic Properties and Quality of Plutonium and Uranium Based Oxide Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acoustic Measurements of the Elastic Properties and Quality of Plutonium and Uranium Based Oxide ranged from depleted uranium oxide to mixtures of plutonium and depleted uranium oxide (MOX) and mixed.8Pu0.2 92 121 152.6 63.3 281Plutonium Futures -- The Science 2010, September 19-23, 2010, Keystone, CO

  19. Kinetics of visible light photo-oxidation of Ge nanocrystals:Theory and in situ measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, I.D.; Xu, Q.; Yuan, C.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Ager III, J.W.; Chrzan, D.C.; Haller, E.E.

    2006-11-14

    Photo-oxidation of Ge nanocrystals illuminated with visible laser light under ambient conditions was investigated. The photo-oxidation kinetics were monitored by in situ measurement of the crystalline Ge volume fraction by Raman spectroscopy. The effects of laser power and energy on the extent of oxidation were measured using both in situ and ex situ Raman scattering techniques. A mechanistic model in which the tunneling of photo-excited carriers to the oxide surface for electron activated molecular oxygen dissociation is proposed. This quantitative model successfully describes all experimental photo-oxidation observations using physical parameters.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of R{sub 2}MnTiO{sub 7} (R = Y and Er) pyrochlores oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martínez-Coronado, R.; Alonso, J.A.; Fernández, M.T.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: New pyrochlore-like phases of composition R{sub 2}MnTiO{sub 7} (R = Er and Y) have been synthesized by a soft-chemistry procedure involving citrates of the different metal ions followed by thermal treatments at moderate temperatures (850 °C for 12 h in air). A characterization by X-ray diffraction and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) has been carried out in order to determine the crystal structure features: these phyrochlores are cubic, space group Fd-3m, defining an intrinsically frustrated three-dimensional system. The Rietveld-refinement from NPD data at room temperature evidences an antisite cation disorder (distribution of Mn between A and B positions) that is accompanied by an increment of the oxygen-vacancy concentration due to the reduction of Mn{sup 4+} at the B position to Mn{sup 2+} at the A position. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was useful to evaluate the stability of these oxides in reducing conditions up to 500 °C. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate a ferromagnetic behavior, due to the random distribution of Mn{sup 4+} ions in the octahedral sublattice. At lower temperatures there is a polarization of the R{sup +3} magnetic moments, which also participate in the magnetic structure. Aiming to evaluate these materials as possible electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) we determined that the thermal expansion coefficients between 100 and 900 °C perfectly match with those of the usual electrolytes; however, these pyrochlore oxides display a semiconductor-like behavior with poor conductivity values, e.g. 6 × 10{sup ?3} cm{sup ?1} at 850 °C for Er, which would prevent its use as MIEC (mixed ionic-electronic conductors) oxides in SOFC devices.

  1. Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

    2014-08-12

    Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

  2. Hydrogen pickup measurements in zirconium alloys: Relation to oxidation kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    , Vacuum Hot Extraction, and a non-destructive one, Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, indicating that, if transport of charged species is rate limiting, oxide transport properties such as oxide transport. Ó 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Uniform corrosion of zirconium alloy

  3. Diurnal patterns of denitrification, oxygen consumption and nitrous oxide production in rivers measured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    Diurnal patterns of denitrification, oxygen consumption and nitrous oxide production in rivers Dame, Notre Dame, IN, U.S.A. SUMMARY 1. Denitrification, net oxygen consumption and net nitrous oxide. Denitrification, oxygen consumption and N2O flux were measured based on net changes in dissolved gas

  4. Photo-oxidation of Ge Nanocrystals: Kinetic Measurements by In Situ Raman Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Photo-oxidation of Ge Nanocrystals: Kinetic Measurements byBerkeley, CA, 94720 ABSTRACT Ge nanocrystals are formed inthe Raman spectra of the Ge nanocrystals in-situ. The

  5. Evaluating two experimental approaches for measuring ecosystem carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masiello, C. A; Gallagher, M. E; Randerson, J. T; Deco, R. M; Chadwick, O. A

    2008-01-01

    error on measurements (0.045 C ox units). Accuracy inOR units), with the most accurate measurements resultingmost accurate OR measurement technique (±0.011 OR units). 4.

  6. Micro-PIXE measurement of Ni distribution over supported nickel oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, M.; Rahman, A.; Nickel, J. [King Fahd Univ., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Supported nickel oxide catalysts have a wide range of applications in petrochemical industry. This work reports the results of a micro-PIXE measurement of Ni distribution in a supported nickel oxide catalyst over individual silica base particles, 60-200 {mu}m in size. These catalysts were synthesized with 1% and 5% then calcined at 400 {degrees}C. A 2.5 MeV proton microbeam was used to scan the samples of individual grains. Two dimensional distribution maps of Ni and Si have been measured. This paper discusses the important effects of the process of calcination on the distribution of Ni. The effects of different nickel loading and other synthesis conditions will also be discussed.

  7. Measurements of the oxidation state and concentration of plutonium in interstitial waters of the Irish Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, D.M.; Lovett, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The question of plutonium movement in interstitial waters resulting from diffusion along concentration gradients or from advective flow is addressed. The results of measurements of both the concentration and the oxidation state of plutonium in interstitial water collected from sediments near the Windscale discharge, in the solid phases of these sediments and in seawater and suspended solids collected at the coring locations are discussed. (ACR)

  8. Extent of Reduction of Vanadium Oxides during Catalytic Oxidation of Alkanes Measured by in-Situ UV-Visible Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    of Chemical Engineering, UniVersity of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1462 ReceiVed: August 19, 2003 of active centers in VOx/- Al2O3 during oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane. Prevalent extents+ suboxides. Surface oxygen atoms are the most abundant reactive intermediates during propane ODH

  9. O/M RATIO MEASUREMENT IN PURE AND MIXED OXIDE FULES - WHERE ARE WE NOW?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. RUBIN; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio is one of the most critical parameters of nuclear fuel fabrication, and its measurement is closely monitored for manufacturing process control and to ensure the service behavior of the final product. Thermogravimetry is the most widely used method, the procedure for which has remained largely unchanged since its development some thirty years ago. It was not clear to us, however, that this method is still the optimum one in light of advances in instrumentation, and in the current regulatory environment, particularly with regard to waste management and disposal. As part of the MOX fuel fabrication program at Los Alamos, we conducted a comprehensive review of methods for O/M measurements in UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2} and mixed oxide fuels for thermal reactors. A concerted effort was made to access information not available in the open literature. We identified approximately thirty five experimental methods that (a) have been developed with the intent of measuring O/M, (b) provided O/M indirectly by suitable reduction of the measured data, or (c) could provide O/M data with suitable data reduction or when combined with other methods. We will discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods in their application to current routine and small-lot production environment.

  10. Oxide thickness measurement technique for duplex-layer Zircaloy-4 cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClelland, R.G.; O'Leary, P.M. (Siemens Nuclear Power Corp., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Siemens Nuclear Power Corporation (SNP) is investigating the use of duplex-layer Zircaloy-4 tubing to improve the waterside corrosion resistance of cladding for high-burnup pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel designs. Standard SNP PWR cladding is typically 0.762-mm (0.030-in.)-thick Zircaloy-4. The SNP duplex cladding is nominally 0.660-mm (0.026-in.)-thick Zircalloy-4 with an [approximately]0.102-mm (0.004-in.) outer layer of another, more corrosion-resistant, zirconium-based alloy. It is common industry practice to monitor the in-reactor corrosion behavior of Zircaloy cladding by using an eddy-current lift-off' technique to measure the oxide thickness on the outer surface of the fuel cladding. The test program evaluated three different cladding samples, all with the same outer diameter and wall thickness: Zircaloy-4 and duplex clad types D2 and D4.

  11. Evaluation and Comparison of Test Methods to Measure the Oxidation Stability of Neat Biodiesel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, S. R.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare and evaluate several candidate test methods for evaluating oxidation stability of biodiesel.

  12. A method for measuring methane oxidation rates using low levels of 14C-labeled methane and accelerator mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    the anaerobic oxidation of methane. Environ. Microbiol. 10(Field observations of methane concentra- tions and oxidationAnaerobic oxidation of methane above gas hydrates at Hydrate

  13. Oxidation kinetics of methylphosphonic acid in supercritical water : experimental measurements and model development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Patricia A. (Patricia Ann), 1978-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) at well-defined operating conditions and to develop. both microscopic and macroscopic models, ranging from regressed global models to an elementary reaction mechanism, to quantify MPA oxidation kinetics in supercritical ...

  14. Measurement of Nitric Oxide Production from Lymphatic Entothelial Cells Under Mechanical Stimuli 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jafarnejad, Mohammad 1987-

    2012-11-16

    mechanisms to pump lymph. Intrinsic pumping involves the active contraction of vessels, a phenomenon that is regulated in part by nitric oxide (NO) produced by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). NO production by arterial endothelial cells has been shown...

  15. Interagency nitric oxide measurement investigation: AEDC results for phase III (comparison of optical and probe measurements of nitric oxide concentration in combustors). Final report, October 1979-January 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Few, J.D.; Lowry, H.S. III; McGregor, W.K.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of Phase III of this program was to measure NO concentration on three successively more complicated combustion systems using both optical and probe techniques. The results of all measurements, both probe and optical, were compared and analyzed. Generally, the NO concentrations determined by the optical method were no larger than 30 percent above the values obtained with probes for a methane/air flat-frame burner, a propane/air swirl combustor, and a liquid-fueled simulated jet engine combustor. Close examination of the data revealed that probe results were influenced by some chemical reaction. The probes were designed for subsonic, atmospheric pressure flows, and arguments are presented to show that the agreement found in these experiments need not be expected in near sonic or supersonic flow using the same probe designs.

  16. Fundamental studies of perovskite related oxide thin films for oxygen electrocatalysis at intermediate temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongkyu, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Discovering highly active and stable catalysts for electrochemical energy conversion and storage is essential to envision a new generation of renewable energy applications. Mixed ionic and electronic conductors (MIECs) ...

  17. In situ UV-Visible Spectroscopic Measurements of Kinetic Parameters and Active Sites for Catalytic Oxidation of Alkanes on Vanadium Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Engineering, UniVersity of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1462 ReceiVed: March 30, 2004 In situ and oxidation during propane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) on VOx/-Al2O3. Transients in UV-visible intensity the dynamics of redox cycles for catalytically active centers involved in propane ODH on alumina

  18. Characterization of aluminum oxide tunnel barriers by combining transport measurements and transmission electron microscopy imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aref, T.; Averin, A.; Nguyend, H. Q.; Pekola, J. P.; Dijken, S. van; Yao, L. D.; Ferring, A.; Koberidze, M.; Nieminen, R. M.

    2014-08-21

    We present two approaches for studying the uniformity of a tunnel barrier. The first approach is based on measuring single-electron and two-electron tunneling in a hybrid single-electron transistor. Our measurements indicate that the effective area of a conduction channel is about one order of magnitude larger than predicted by theoretical calculations. With the second method, transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that variations in the barrier thickness are a plausible explanation for the larger effective area and an enhancement of higher order tunneling processes.

  19. Direct Determination of Equilibrium Potentials for Hydrogen Oxidation/Production by Open Circuit Potential Measurements in Acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, John A.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-03-14

    Open circuit potentials were measured for acetonitrile solutions of a variety of acids and their conjugate bases under 1 atm H2. Acids examined include triethylammonium, dimethylformamidium, 2,6-dichloroanilinium, 4-cyanoanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-anisidinium salts. These potentials, together with the pKa values of the acids, establish the value of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) potential in acetonitrile as ?0.028(4) V vs the ferrocenium/ferrocene couple. Dimethylformamidium is shown to form homoconjugates and other aggregates with dimethylformamide; open circuit potentials are used to quantify the extent of these reactions. Overpotentials for electrocatalytic hydrogen production and oxidation were determined from open circuit potentials and voltammograms of acidic or basic catalyst solutions under H2. This method requires neither pKa values, homoconjugation constants, nor an estimate for the SHE potential and thus allows direct comparison of catalytic systems in different media.

  20. Thermodynamic behavior of high-T sub c oxide systems via EMF and related measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tetenbaum, M.; Tumidajaski, P.; Bloom, I.D.; Brown, D.L.; Blander, M.

    1991-01-01

    EMF measurements of oxygen fugacities as a function of stoichiometry have been made in the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}, and NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}, and Nd{sub 1.81}Ce{sub 0.19}CuO{sub x} superconducting systems in the temperature range 400--750{degree}C by means of an oxygen titration technique with an yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte. The object of our current measurements is to investigate the effect of ionic size of Y, Gd and Nd on the thermodynamic behavior and structural transition in the LnBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} system. The shape of the 400{degree}C isotherm for NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} suggests the presence of a miscibility gap at lower temperatures, at values of x that are higher than those in the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} system. The locations of the miscibility gaps are consistent with the effects of ionic radii on the composition dependence of {Tc} for these systems. Our results explain the two plateaus in measured value of {Tc} as a function of composition for the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} system and appear to be consistent with the less pronounced {Tc} plateaus found for the NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} system higher stoichiometry values. For a given oxygen stoichiometry, partial pressures of oxygen above NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} are higher than for the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} system in accord with calculated partial molar thermodynamic quantities. The results of limited measurements on the n-type (electron-doped) superconducting Nd{sub 1.81}Ce{sub 0.19}CuO{sub x} system will be presented. A thermodynamic assessment and intercomparison of our oxygen partial pressure measurements with the results of other measurements will be presented. 34 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents for Diesel Emission Control Using Online Measurement of SO2 and SO3 in the Effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2004-07-21

    Upcoming regulations regarding diesel engine emissions require substantial reduction in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides through aftertreatment methods. Since sulfur oxides in the exhaust greatly reduce the performance of the aftertreatment system, a dedicated trap for removal of sulfur oxides has been considered. Most adsorbents are more effective in removing SO{sub 3} than SO{sub 2}; hence oxidation catalysts have been employed to maximize the concentration of SO{sub 3} in the effluent. Although SO{sub 2} concentrations are easily measured, SO3 is less easily quantified. As a result, the only figure of merit for the SOx trap performance has been total capacity, provided by post-characterization. In this paper we describe a chromatographic method for measurement of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption in real time, which provides adsorbent performance data on breakthrough capacities and sulfur slip, especially important when operating at high space velocities. We also provide experimental measurements of break through capacities for SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption for some common metal oxide adsorbents using this analytical system.

  2. Application of high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry measurements to estimate volatility distributions of ?-pinene and naphthalene oxidation products

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chhabra, P. S.; Lambe, A. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Stark, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Kimmel, J. R.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-01-05

    Recent developments in high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) have made it possible to directly detect atmospheric organic compounds in real time with high sensitivity and with little or no fragmentation, including low-volatility, highly oxygenated organic vapors that are precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, using ions identified by high-resolution spectra from an HR-ToF-CIMS with acetate reagent ion chemistry, we develop an algorithm to estimate the vapor pressures of measured organic acids. The algorithm uses identified ion formulas and calculated double bond equivalencies, information unavailable in quadrupole CIMS technology, as constraints for the number of possible oxygen-containing functionalmore »groups. The algorithm is tested with acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry (acetate-CIMS) spectra of O3 and OH oxidation products of ?-pinene and naphthalene formed in a flow reactor with integrated OH exposures ranged from 1.2 × 1011 to 9.7 × 1011 molec s cm?3, corresponding to approximately 1.0 to 7.5 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Measured gas-phase organic acids are similar to those previously observed in environmental chamber studies. For both precursors, we find that acetate-CIMS spectra capture both functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) as a function of OH exposure. The level of fragmentation is observed to increase with increased oxidation. The predicted condensed-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) average acid yields and O/C and H/C ratios agree within uncertainties with previous chamber and flow reactor measurements and ambient CIMS results. While acetate reagent ion chemistry is used to selectively measure organic acids, in principle this method can be applied to additional reagent ion chemistries depending on the application.« less

  3. Chemistry of ?-pinene and naphthalene oxidation products generated in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber as measured by acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chhabra, P. S.; Lambe, A. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Stark, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Kimmel, J. R.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2014-07-01

    Recent developments in high resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) have made possible the direct detection of atmospheric organic compounds in real-time with high sensitivity and with little or no fragmentation, including low volatility, highly oxygenated organic vapors that are precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, for the first time, we examine gas-phase O3 and OH oxidation products of ?-pinene and naphthalene formed in the PAM flow reactor with an HR-ToF-CIMS using acetate reagent ion chemistry. Integrated OH exposures ranged from 1.2 × 1011 to 9.7 × 1011 molec cm?3 s, corresponding to approximately 1.0 to 7.5 daysmore »of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Measured gas-phase organic acids are similar to those previously observed in environmental chamber studies. For both precursors, we find that acetate-CIMS spectra capture both functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) as a function of OH exposure. The level of fragmentation is observed to increase with increased oxidation. We present a method that estimates vapor pressures of organic molecules using the measured O/C ratio, H/C ratio, and carbon number for each compound detected by the CIMS. The predicted condensed-phase SOA average acid yields and O/C and H/C ratios agree within uncertainties with previous AMS measurements and ambient CIMS results. While acetate reagent ion chemistry is used to selectively measure organic acids, in principle this method can be applied to additional reagent ion chemistries depending on the application.« less

  4. High-Precision Measurements of [superscript 33]S and [superscript 34]S Fractionation during SO[subscript 2] Oxidation Reveal Causes of Seasonality in SO[subscript 2] and Sulfate Isotopic Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Eliza

    This study presents high-precision isotope ratio-mass spectrometric measurements of isotopic fractionation during oxidation of SO[subscript 2] by OH radicals in the gas phase and H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] and transition ...

  5. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

    2006-12-31

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the absorption measurements are less susceptible to the effects of transient fluctuations in the properties of the coal combustor exhaust stream. Gas cell measurements were performed using the NO sensor with the new ECDL, and a few spectra were acquired from the coal exhaust stream. However, the laser diode in the new ECDL failed during the coal combustor tests. In Year 3, however, we obtained a new GaN laser diode for our ECDL system, installed it, and completed an extensive series of measurements in the Texas A&M coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The combustor was operated with coal and coal/biomass as fuels, with and without reburn, and with and without ammonia injection. Several different fuel equivalence ratios were investigated for each operating condition.

  6. The combustion chemistry of a fuel tracer: Measured flame speeds and ignition delays and a detailed chemical kinetic model for the oxidation of acetone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichon, S.; Black, G.; Simmie, J.M.; Curran, H.J.; Chaumeix, N.; Yahyaoui, M.; Donohue, R.

    2009-02-15

    Acetone ignition delay and stretch-free laminar flame speed measurements have been carried out and a kinetic model has been developed to simulate these and literature data for acetone and for ketene, which was found to be an important intermediate in its oxidation. The mechanism has been based on one originally devised for dimethyl ether and modified through validation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane sub-mechanisms. Acetone oxidation in argon was studied behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 1340-1930 K, at 1 atm and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1 and 2; it is also shown that the addition of up to 15% acetone to a stoichiometric n-heptane mixture has no effect on the measured ignition delay times. Flame speeds at 298 K and 1 atm of pure acetone in air were measured in a spherical bomb; a maximum flame speed of {proportional_to}35 cm s{sup -1} at {phi}=1.15 is indicated. (author)

  7. Time-Resolved Quantitative Measurement of OH HO2 and CH2O in Fuel Oxidation Reactions by High Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Haifeng; Rotavera, Brandon; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-08-01

    Combined with a Herriott-type multi-pass slow flow reactor, high-resolution differential direct absorption spectroscopy has been used to probe, in situ and quantitatively, hydroxyl (OH), hydroperoxy (HO 2 ) and formaldehyde (CH 2 O) molecules in fuel oxidation reactions in the reactor, with a time resolution of about 1 micro-second. While OH and CH 2 O are probed in the mid-infrared (MIR) region near 2870nm and 3574nm respectively, HO 2 can be probed in both regions: near-infrared (NIR) at 1509nm and MIR at 2870nm. Typical sensitivities are on the order of 10 10 - 10 11 molecule cm -3 for OH at 2870nm, 10 11 molecule cm -3 for HO 2 at 1509nm, and 10 11 molecule cm -3 for CH 2 O at 3574nm. Measurements of multiple important intermediates (OH and HO 2 ) and product (CH 2 O) facilitate to understand and further validate chemical mechanisms of fuel oxidation chemistry.

  8. An improved characterization method for international accountancy measurements of fresh and irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: helping achieve continual monitoring and safeguards through the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Louise G; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, S. J.; Boyer, B. D.; Menlove, H. O.; Schear, M. A.; Worrall, Andrew

    2010-11-24

    Nuclear fuel accountancy measurements are conducted at several points through the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure continuity of knowledge (CofK) of special nuclear material (SNM). Non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements are performed on fresh fuel (prior to irradiation in a reactor) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) post-irradiation. We have developed a fuel assembly characterization system, based on the novel concept of 'neutron fingerprinting' with multiplicity signatures to ensure detailed CofK of nuclear fuel through the entire fuel cycle. The neutron fingerprint in this case is determined by the measurement of the various correlated neutron signatures, specific to fuel isotopic composition, and therefore offers greater sensitivity to variations in fissile content among fuel assemblies than other techniques such as gross neutron counting. This neutron fingerprint could be measured at the point of fuel dispatch (e.g. from a fuel fabrication plant prior to irradiation, or from a reactor site post-irradiation), monitored during transportation of the fuel assembly, and measured at a subsequent receiving site (e.g. at the reactor site prior to irradiation, or reprocessing facility post-irradiation); this would confirm that no unexpected changes to the fuel composition or amount have taken place during transportation and/or reactor operations. Changes may indicate an attempt to divert material for example. Here, we present the current state of the practice of fuel measurements for both fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and SNF (both MOX and uranium dioxide). This is presented in the framework of international safeguards perspectives from the US and UK. We also postulate as to how the neutron fingerprinting concept could lead to improved fuel characterization (both fresh MOX and SNF) resulting in: (a) assured CofK of fuel across the nuclear fuel cycle, (b) improved detection of SNM diversion, and (c) greater confidence in safeguards of SNF transportation.

  9. An improved characterization method for international accountancy measurements of fresh and irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: helping achieve continual monitoring and safeguards through the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Louise G; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, S. J.; Menlove, H. O.; Schear, M. A.; Worrall, Andrew

    2011-01-13

    Nuclear fuel accountancy measurements are conducted at several points through the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure continuity of knowledge (CofK) of special nuclear material (SNM). Non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements are performed on fresh fuel (prior to irradiation in a reactor) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) post-irradiation. We have developed a fuel assembly characterization system, based on the novel concept of 'neutron fingerprinting' with multiplicity signatures to ensure detailed CofK of nuclear fuel through the entire fuel cycle. The neutron fingerprint in this case is determined by the measurement of the various correlated neutron signatures, specific to fuel isotopic composition, and therefore offers greater sensitivity to variations in fissile content among fuel assemblies than other techniques such as gross neutron counting. This neutron fingerprint could be measured at the point of fuel dispatch (e.g. from a fuel fabrication plant prior to irradiation, or from a reactor site post-irradiation), monitored during transportation of the fuel assembly, and measured at a subsequent receiving site (e.g. at the reactor site prior to irradiation, or reprocessing facility post-irradiation); this would confirm that no unexpected changes to the fuel composition or amount have taken place during transportation and/ or reactor operations. Changes may indicate an attempt to divert material for example. Here, we present the current state of the practice of fuel measurements for both fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and SNF (both MOX and uranium dioxide). This is presented in the framework of international safeguards perspectives from the US and UK. We also postulate as to how the neutron fingerprinting concept could lead to improved fuel characterization (both fresh MOX and SNF) resulting in: (a) assured CofK of fuel across the nuclear fuel cycle, (b) improved detection of SNM diversion, and (c) greater confidence in safeguards of SNF transportation.

  10. Characterization and analysis methods for the examination of the heterogeneous solid oxide fuel cell electrode microstructure: Part 2. Quantitative measurement of the microstructure and contributions to transport losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Chiu, W. K. S.

    2010-12-15

    Advanced characterization and analysis of multifunctional materials, such as the materials found in heterogeneous solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrode architectures, can help to provide a qualitative and quantitative understanding of how these structures respond to different manufacturing and operating practices. Dense, opaque materials, which have large X-ray mass absorption coefficients and features on sub-micrometer length scales, can make characterization difficult. Advances in tomographic X-ray imaging can permit this level of detailed characterization, and complement stereographic scanning electron microscope measurements that have also been reported. In this second part of a two-part study, details regarding quantitative characterization methods that have been used to examine the SOFC anode microstructure are reported. The detailed formulation and validation of a phase size distributions for the three constitutive phases, as well as resistive loss microstructure-induced resistive loss distributions in the nickel (Ni) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) phases are provided in this section.

  11. Journal of the European Ceramic Society 25 (2005) 13131324 High temperature elasticity measurements on oxides by Brillouin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    for determining the elastic moduli at high temperatures, using both electric resistive heating (to 1800 K) and CO2 by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: Spectroscopy; Mechanical properties; High-temperature elasticity measurements by Brillouin scattering 1. Introduction Knowledge of the high-temperature elastic properties is fundamental

  12. Measurement of the high-field Q-drop in a high-purity large-grain niobium cavity for different oxidation processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel; alex gurevich

    2007-06-01

    The most challenging issue for understanding the performance of superconducting radio-frequency (rf) cavities made of high-purity (residual resistivity ratio > 200) niobium is due to a sharp degradation (“Q-drop”) of the cavity quality factor Q0(Bp) as the peak surface magnetic field (Bp) exceeds about 90 mT, in the absence of field emission. In addition, a low-temperature (100 – 140 ?C) “in-situ” baking of the cavity was found to be beneficial in reducing the Q-drop. In this contribution, we present the results from a series of rf tests at 1.7 K and 2.0 K on a single-cell cavity made of high-purity large (with area of the order of few cm2) grain niobium which underwent various oxidation processes, after initial buffered chemical polishing, such as anodization, baking in pure oxygen atmosphere and baking in air up to 180 °C, with the objective of clearly identifying the role of oxygen and the oxide layer on the Q-drop. During each rf test a temperature mapping system allows measuring the local temperature rise of the cavity outer surface due to rf losses, which gives information about the losses location, their field dependence and space distribution. The results confirmed that the depth affected by baking is about 20 – 30 nm from the surface and showed that the Q-drop did not re-appear in a previously baked cavity by further baking at 120 °C in pure oxygen atmosphere or in air up to 180 °C. These treatments increased the oxide thickness and oxygen concentration, measured on niobium samples which were processed with the cavity and were analyzed with Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). Nevertheless, the performance of the cavity after air baking at 180 °C degraded significantly and the temperature maps showed high losses, uniformly distributed on the surface, which could be completely recovered only by a post-purification treatment at 1250 °C. A statistic of the position of the “hot-spots” on the cavity surface showed that grain-boundaries are not the preferred location. An interesting correlation was found between the Q-drop onset, the quench field and the low-field energy gap, which supports the hypothesis of thermo-magnetic instability governing the Q-drop and the baking effect.

  13. High sensitivity measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra in water with an improved hydrous titanium oxide technique at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Aharmim; B. T. Cleveland; X. Dai; G. Doucas; J. Farine; H. Fergani; R. Ford; R. L. Hahn; E. D. Hallman; N. A. Jelley; R. Lange; S. Majerus; C. Mifflin; A. J. Noble; H. M. O'Keeffe; R. Rodriguez-Jimenez; D. Sinclair; M. Yeh

    2009-02-01

    The existing hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO) technique for the measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra in the water at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has been changed to make it faster and less sensitive to trace impurities in the HTiO eluate. Using HTiO-loaded filters followed by cation exchange adsorption and HTiO co-precipitation, Ra isotopes from 200-450 tonnes of heavy water can be extracted and concentrated into a single sample of a few millilitres with a total chemical efficiency of 50%. Combined with beta-alpha coincidence counting, this method is capable of measuring 2.0x10^3 uBq/kg of 224Ra and 3.7x10^3 uBq/kg of 226Ra from the 232Th and 238U decay chains, respectively, for a 275 tonne D2O assay, which are equivalent to 5x10^16 g Th/g and 3x10^16 g U/g in heavy water.

  14. Development of Metal Oxide Nanostructure-based Optical Sensors for Fossil Fuel Derived Gases Measurement at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    This final technical report details research works performed supported by a Department of Energy grant (DE-FE0003859), which was awarded under the University Coal Research Program administrated by National Energy Technology Laboratory. This research program studied high temperature fiber sensor for harsh environment applications. It developed two fiber optical sensor platform technology including regenerative fiber Bragg grating sensors and distributed fiber optical sensing based on Rayleigh backscattering optical frequency domain reflectometry. Through the studies of chemical and thermal regenerative techniques for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fabrication, high-temperature stable FBG sensors were successfully developed and fabricated in air-hole microstructured fibers, high-attenuation fibers, rare-earth doped fibers, and standard telecommunication fibers. By optimizing the laser processing and thermal annealing procedures, fiber grating sensors with stable performance up to 1100oC have been developed. Using these temperature-stable FBG gratings as sensor platform, fiber optical flow, temperature, pressure, and chemical sensors have been developed to operate at high temperatures up to 800oC. Through the integration of on-fiber functional coating, the use of application-specific air-hole microstructural fiber, and application of active fiber sensing scheme, distributed fiber sensor for temperature, pressure, flow, liquid level, and chemical sensing have been demonstrated with high spatial resolution (1-cm or better) with wide temperature ranges. These include the demonstration of 1) liquid level sensing from 77K to the room temperature, pressure/temperature sensing from the room temperature to 800C and from the 15psi to 2000 psi, and hydrogen concentration measurement from 0.2% to 10% with temperature ranges from the room temperature to 700C. Optical sensors developed by this program has broken several technical records including flow sensors with the highest operation temperature up to 750oC, first distributed chemical measurements at the record high temperature up to 700oC, first distributed pressure measurement at the record high temperature up to 800oC, and the fiber laser sensors with the record high operation temperature up to 700oC. The research performed by this program dramatically expand the functionality, adaptability, and applicability of distributed fiber optical sensors with potential applications in a number of high-temperature energy systems such as fossil-fuel power generation, high-temperature fuel cell applications, and potential for nuclear energy systems.

  15. Characterization and Analysis Methods for the Examination of the Heterogeneous Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Microstructure, Part 1: Volumetric Measurements of the Heterogeneous Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Izzo, Jr., John R.; Chiu, W. K. S.

    2010-12-15

    Advanced imaging and characterization methods have permitted the 3-D and phase-specific reconstruction of dense and opaque samples with features that have a length scale on the order of tens of nanometers and comprised of materials with large X-ray mass absorption coefficients. Engineered materials, like those found in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes, use complex materials that have often limited opportunities to perform 3-D characterization and analysis. Still, characterization and analysis methods are needed to better understand these structures and their functional impact. The development, verification, and validation of methods used by the authors for the characterization and analysis of the heterogeneous SOFC anode are discussed in this work. These methods include the measurement of the volume fractions of the individual phases, contiguity or volumetric connectivity, tortuosity, and interfacial properties. A second and complementary part of this work will examine quantitative methods that provide detailed descriptions of the structure and its relations to the transport processes that it must support. These efforts are intended to describe the formulation of methods developed to provide insight into the SOFC anode nano/microstructure.

  16. Probing Hot Electron Flow Generated on Pt Nanoparticles with Au/TiO2 Schottky Diodes during Catalytic CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.

    2009-01-01

    Schottky Diodes during Catalytic CO Oxidation Jeong Y. Parkwere measured during catalytic CO oxidation at pressures ofexothermic catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation was directly

  17. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  18. Metal oxide composite dosimeter method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of measuring a radiation dose wherein a radiation responsive material consisting essentially of metal oxide is first exposed to ionizing radiation. The metal oxide is then stimulating with light thereby causing the radiation responsive material to photoluminesce. Photons emitted from the metal oxide as a result of photoluminescence may be counted to provide a measure of the ionizing radiation.

  19. Overall Rate Constant Measurements of the Reaction of Hydroxy-and Chloroalkylperoxy Radicals Derived from Methacrolein and Methyl Vinyl Ketone with Nitric Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elrod, Matthew J.

    Overall Rate Constant Measurements of the Reaction of Hydroxy- and Chloroalkylperoxy Radicals separate measurement, as were the chloroalkylperoxy + NO rate constants for both methacrolein [(1.17 ( 0) is the dominant non- methane hydrocarbon present in the atmosphere. Isoprene is biogenic in origin (it is emitted

  20. On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A first set of results has found that LASAR and VLPS data in the laboratory closely correlate with real-time, in-use measurement of NH3 and NO under various driving conditions.

  1. BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUDA,S.

    1999-09-20

    This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

  2. Stratospheric sulfur oxidation kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayne, J.T.; Worsnop, D.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Oxidation of SO2 to H2SO4 in the atmosphere is believed to involve the reaction of SO3 with water. It is commonly assumed that this is an important step leading to homogeneous nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol particles. Heterogeneous chemistry on sulfuric acid aerosols regulate much of the ozone photochemistry in the lower stratosphere and are also believed to have significant effect on the climate. Understanding aerosol loading requires a detailed knowledge of the stratospheric sulfur budget, including its oxidation kinetics. Here we present results of a laboratory project studying a key step in the oxidation process, the homogeneous reaction between SO3 and H2O vapor. Kinetic measurements are performed in a high-pressure turbulent fast-flow reactor (fabricated at MIT) which minimizes heterogeneous loss of SO3 on reactorwalls. The rate of decay of SO3 and the appearance of H2SO4 is monitored in the presence of excess water vapor. Gas phase reactants and products are detected via an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer which is coupled to the exit of the flow reactor. Sulfuric acid nucleation studies can also be performed using the turbulent flow reactor. Initial measurements using a particle detector (based on Mie scattering) showed that aerosol formation and particle size distribution are controlled by varying the SO3/H2O gas ratio and the reactor temperature. Results for the reaction SO3J+ H2O show a second order dependence in water vapor density and a strong negative temperature dependence. The results, measured in the range -30C to +95C, imply that an SO3.H2O adduct and/or a water dimer species is likely involved in the reaction mechanism. Results of recent theoretical calculations on the SO3 + H2O system also support the finding that two water molecules are involved. Implications for the gas phase production of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere will be discussed.

  3. Accurate Measurement of 5-Methylcytosine and 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Human Cerebellum DNA by Oxidative Bisulfite on an Array (OxBS-Array)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Field, Sarah F.; Beraldi, Dario; Bachman, Martin; Stewart, Sabrina K.; Beck, Stephan; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2015-02-23

    , the average loss of material (as measured by Qubit after bisulfite treatment, according to the manufacturers specifications) for oxBS was 44% and for BS was 38%. The samples were then run on the Infinium 450K chip by Genome Services at the Department... to the manufacturers specifica- tions (http://www.zymoresearch.com/downloads/dl/file/id/126/e2026i.pdf). Analysis The raw idat files produced by the Illumina platform were analysed with the R/Bioconductor package minfi[25]. The applied normalization method...

  4. Observation of a Large Magnetic Anisotropy in the New 2H-Perovskite Related Oxide Ba8CoRh6O21: Magnetic Measurements on Aligned Single Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    Observation of a Large Magnetic Anisotropy in the New 2H-Perovskite Related Oxide Ba8CoRh6O21 of the A3n+3mAnB3m+nO9m+6n family of 2H hexagonal perovskite related oxides and contains chains consisting, perovskite and perovskite-related oxides in particular have long provided excellent candidates for structural

  5. Colloidally Synthesized Monodisperse Rh Nanoparticles Supported on SBA-15 for Size- and Pretreatment-Dependent Studies of CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grass, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    1 . 2.3 CO Oxidation measurements Catalytic measurementsand catalytic properties for CO oxidation of a series of PVP3: Summary of catalytic results for CO oxidation Apparent E

  6. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  7. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron...

  8. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award In order to produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power plant boilers, turbines, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other essential equipment...

  9. Ferroelectricity in undoped hafnium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polakowski, Patrick; Müller, Johannes

    2015-06-08

    We report the observation of ferroelectric characteristics in undoped hafnium oxide thin films in a thickness range of 4–20?nm. The undoped films were fabricated using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and embedded into titanium nitride based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors for electrical evaluation. Structural as well as electrical evidence for the appearance of a ferroelectric phase in pure hafnium oxide was collected with respect to film thickness and thermal budget applied during titanium nitride electrode formation. Using grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis, we observed an enhanced suppression of the monoclinic phase fraction in favor of an orthorhombic, potentially, ferroelectric phase with decreasing thickness/grain size and for a titanium nitride electrode formation below crystallization temperature. The electrical presence of ferroelectricity was confirmed using polarization measurements. A remanent polarization P{sub r} of up to 10??C?cm{sup ?2} as well as a read/write endurance of 1.6?×?10{sup 5} cycles was measured for the pure oxide. The experimental results reported here strongly support the intrinsic nature of the ferroelectric phase in hafnium oxide and expand its applicability beyond the doped systems.

  10. Characterization of low-temperature microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide formed by plasma oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Chunqing, E-mail: cdeng@uwaterloo.ca; Otto, M.; Lupascu, A., E-mail: alupascu@uwaterloo.ca [Institute for Quantum Computing, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-27

    We report on the characterization of microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide films at low temperatures using superconducting lumped resonators. The oxide films are fabricated using plasma oxidation of aluminum and have a thickness of 5?nm. We measure the dielectric loss versus microwave power for resonators with frequencies in the GHz range at temperatures from 54 to 303?mK. The power and temperature dependence of the loss are consistent with the tunneling two-level system theory. These results are relevant to understanding decoherence in superconducting quantum devices. The obtained oxide films are thin and robust, making them suitable for capacitors in compact microwave resonators.

  11. Methane oxidation rates by AMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pack, M; Heintz, M; ReeburGh, WS; Trumbore, SE; Valentine, DL; Xu, X

    2009-01-01

    second case. Number of cases Methane oxidation rates by AMSIn the marine environment methane (CH 4 ) oxidation consumes

  12. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Doshi, Rajiv (Downers Grove, IL)

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  13. Nondestructive evaluation of the oxidation stresses through thermal barrier coatings using Cr3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, David R.

    Nondestructive evaluation of the oxidation stresses through thermal barrier coatings using Cr3 The stresses in the aluminum oxide formed during high-temperature oxidation of a bond-coated superalloy are shown to be measurable through zirconia thermal barrier coatings. The basis for the measurements

  14. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  15. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  16. Near-ambient X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and kinetic approach to the mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation over lanthanum substituted cobaltites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hueso, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    XPS measurements 2.3. Catalytic oxidation tests of CO 2.4.background [27] and [28]. 2.3. Catalytic oxidation testsof CO Catalytic oxidation experiments of CO were carried out

  17. Corporate Performance Measures Definitions | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Corporate Performance Measures Plutonium Metal or Oxide packaged for long-term storage (number of containers): Certified DOE storagetreatmentdisposal (STD) 3013 containers (or...

  18. Validation Testing for the PM-PEMS Measurement Allowance Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, K; Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Khan, M Y

    2010-01-01

    measurements such as exhaust temperature, total hydrocarbon,hydrocarbons NTE.Not-to-exceed NO x .nitrogen oxides OC organic carbon OEMoriginal equipment manufacturer PEMS .portable emissions measurement

  19. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

  20. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  1. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  2. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  3. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  4. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  5. Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide catalytic systems.12,13 On the other hand, the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is functionalized graphene Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO

  6. Stress dependent oxidation of sputtered niobium and effects on superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Henry, M. Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Clark, Blythe G.; Shaner, Eric; Jarecki, Robert

    2014-02-28

    We report on the suppression of room temperature oxidation of DC sputtered niobium films and the effects upon the superconductive transition temperature, T{sub c}. Niobium was sputter-deposited on silicon dioxide coated 150?mm wafers and permitted to oxidize at room temperature and pressure for up to two years. Resistivity and stress measurements indicate that tensile films greater than 400?MPa resist bulk oxidation with measurements using transmission electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry confirming this result. Although a surface oxide, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, consumed the top 6–10?nm, we measure less than 1 at. % oxygen and nitrogen in the bulk of the films after the oxidation period. T{sub c} measurements using a SQUID magnetometer indicate that the tensile films maintained a T{sub c} approaching the dirty superconductive limit of 8.4?K after two years of oxidation while maintaining room temperature sheet resistance. This work demonstrates that control over niobium film stress during deposition can prevent bulk oxidation by limiting the vertical grain boundaries ability to oxidize, prolonging the superconductive properties of sputtered niobium when exposed to atmosphere.

  7. NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, J; Watkins, R; Hensel, S

    2009-05-27

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty nine cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. The neptunium campaign was divided into two parts: Part 1 which consisted of oxide made from H-Canyon neptunium solution which did not require any processing prior to conversion into an oxide, and Part 2 which consisted of oxide made from additional H-Canyon neptunium solutions which required processing to purify the solution prior to conversion into an oxide. The neptunium was received as a nitrate solution and converted to oxide through ion-exchange column extraction, precipitation, and calcination. Numerous processing challenges were encountered in order make a final neptunium oxide product that could be shipped in a 9975 shipping container. Among the challenges overcome was the issue of scale: translating lab scale production into full facility production. The balance between processing efficiency and product quality assurance was addressed during this campaign. Lessons learned from these challenges are applicable to other processing projects.

  8. Spin and orbital ordering in ternary transition metal oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimber, Simon A. J.

    Spin and orbital orderings are amongst the most important phenomena in the solid state chemistry of oxides. Physical property and powder neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements are reported for a range of mostly low ...

  9. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  10. Growth of tungsten oxide on carbon nanowalls templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hua; Su, Yan; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ? Tungsten oxide deposited on carbon nanowalls by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. ? This composite has two-dimensional uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. ? Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. - Abstract: In the present work we present a simple approach for coupling tungsten oxide with carbon nanowalls. The two-dimensional carbon nanowalls with open boundaries were grown using plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition, and the subsequent tungsten oxide growth was performed in the same equipment by direct heating of a tungsten filament. The tungsten oxide coating is found to have uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. The method of synthesis described here provides an operable route to the production of two-dimensional tungsten oxide nanocomposites.

  11. The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India* A.L. Ganesan of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India A. L. Ganesan1, A. Chatterjee2, R. G-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluo- ride (SF6) from Darjeeling

  12. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  13. Methane oxidation in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean water column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    PACK ET AL. EASTERN PACIFIC METHANE OXIDATIONA method for measuring methane oxidation rates using low-levels of C-labeled methane and accelerator mass

  14. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic formmore »and thereby activates hydrogen.« less

  15. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

    1997-06-10

    Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

  16. Oxidation of Pdn (n=17, 10) clusters supported on alumina/NiAl(110) R. Robles and S. N. Khanna*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Roberto

    .5 One could thus regard the oxide layer as consider- ably reduced. A realistic model of atomic positions selected clusters were deposited on the oxide layer and they measured the shift in the XPS levels

  17. PM PEM’s Pre-Measurement Allowance – On-Road Evaluation and Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

    2009-01-01

    hydrocarbons NTE.Not-to-exceed NO x .nitrogen oxides OC organic carbon PEMS .portable emissions measurement

  18. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14

    Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

  19. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  20. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de; Wagner, Manfred H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de

    2014-05-15

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  1. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  2. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  3. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  4. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  5. Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

    1998-01-01

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  6. Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

    1998-10-06

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  7. Temperature estimates from zircaloy oxidation kinetics and microstructures. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1982-10-01

    This report reviews state-of-the-art capability to determine peak zircaloy fuel rod cladding temperatures following an abnormal temperature excursion in a nuclear reactor, based on postirradiation metallographic analysis of zircaloy microstructural and oxidation characteristics. Results of a comprehensive literature search are presented to evaluate the suitability of available zircaloy microstructural and oxidation data for estimating anticipated reactor fuel rod cladding temperatures. Additional oxidation experiments were conducted to evaluate low-temperature zircaloy oxidation characteristics for postirradiation estimation of cladding temperature by metallographic examination. Results of these experiments were used to calculate peak cladding temperatures of electrical heater rods and nuclear fuel rods that had been subjected to reactor temperature transients. Comparison of the calculated and measured peak cladding temperatures for these rods indicates that oxidation kinetics is a viable technique for estimating peak cladding temperatures over a broad temperature range. However, further improvement in zircaloy microstructure technology is necessary for precise estimation of peak cladding temperatures by microstructural examination.

  8. Preparation and Comparison of Supported Gold Nanocatalysts on Anatase, Brookite, Rutile, and P25 Polymorphs of TiO2 for Catalytic Oxidation of CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Polymorphs of TiO2 for Catalytic Oxidation of CO Wenfu Yan, Bei Chen, S. M. Mahurin, V. Schwartz, D. R to an identical sequence of treatment and measurements of catalytic CO oxidation activity. The as on selected metal oxides exhibit surprisingly high catalytic activity for CO oxidation even at 200 K.6,7 Now

  9. Nanostructured transition metal oxides useful for water oxidation catalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz M; Jiao, Feng

    2013-12-24

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H.sub.2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix.

  10. Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    molybdenum dioxide displays excellent behavior as catalytic material for the oxidative reforming of bothOxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide Jessica Whalen, Oscar Marin Flores, Su candidate as an effective catalyst for biodiesel. Few papers have been published on the topic of catalytic

  11. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  12. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  13. Conformations of Organophosphine Oxides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2015-07-29

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P–C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 forcemore »field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes—an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. The predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3.« less

  14. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  15. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  16. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  17. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

  18. Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-02-18

    A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

  19. Oxidation of some intermetallic compounds and intermetallic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.R.; Rowe, R.G.; Skelly, D.W. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Corporate Research and Development Center

    1995-07-01

    Oxidation resistance (1,000--1,400 C) was characterized for intermetallics M{sub 2}Al, M{sub 3}Al, M{sub 2}Cr, and M{sub 5}Si{sub 3} (M = Nb, Nb+Ti), and metal-toughened intermetallic composite systems. Aluminides were poorest in oxidation, and Laves phases were best. Substitution of Ti for Nb was beneficial for each intermetallic. Addition of metal to produce two-phase castings had differing effects on oxidation, depending on the metal and intermetallic. Modulus and expansion were also measured.

  20. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); Hoch, Martin M. (Webster, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Method for controlling the supply of air to a PROX reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference therebetween correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference.

  1. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project whose goal is to commercialize a production process for propylene and acrylic acid from propane using a catalytic auto-thermal oxydehydrogenation process operating at short contact times. Auto-thermal oxidation for conversion of propane to propylene and acrylic acid promises energy savings of 20 trillion Btu per year by 2020. In addition to reducing energy consumption, this technology can reduce manufacturing costs by up to 25 percent, and reduce a variety of greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Nonisostructural complex oxide heteroepitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Franklin J. Ramanathan, Shriram

    2014-07-01

    The authors present an overview of the fundamentals and representative examples of the growth of epitaxial complex oxide thin films on structurally dissimilar substrates. The authors will delineate how the details of particular crystal structures and symmetry of different oxide surfaces can be employed for a rational approach to the synthesis of nonisostructural epitaxial heterostructures. The concept of oxygen eutaxy can be widely applied. Materials combinations will be split into three categories, and in all cases the films and substrates occur in different crystal structures: (1) common translational and rotational symmetry between the film and substrate planes; (2) translational symmetry mismatch between the substrates and films that is distinct from a simple mismatch in lattice parameters; and (3) rotational symmetry mismatch. In case (1), in principle single-crystalline thin films can be attained despite the films and substrates possessing different crystal structures. In case (2), antiphase boundaries will be prevalent in the thin films. In case (3), thin-film rotational variants that are joined by tilt boundaries will be present. Diffraction techniques to determine crystallographic alignment and epitaxial variants are discussed, and transmission electron microscopy studies to investigate extended defects in the thin films will also be reviewed. The authors end with open problems in this field regarding the structure of oxide interfaces that can be topics for future research.

  3. Hysteresis-free high rate reactive sputtering of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Särhammar, Erik, E-mail: erik.sarhammar@angstrom.uu.se; Berg, Sören; Nyberg, Tomas [Department of Solid State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    This work reports on experimental studies of reactive sputtering from targets consisting of a metal and its oxide. The composition of the targets varied from pure metal to pure oxide of Al, Ta, and Nb. This combines features from both the metal target and oxide target in reactive sputtering. If a certain relation between the metal and oxide parts is chosen, it may be possible to obtain a high deposition rate, due to the metal part, and a hysteresis-free process, due to the oxide part. The aim of this work is to quantify the achievable boost in oxide deposition rate from a hysteresis-free process by using a target consisting of segments of a metal and its oxide. Such an increase has been previously demonstrated for Ti using a homogeneous substoichiometric target. The achievable gain in deposition rate depends on transformation mechanisms from oxide to suboxides due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. Such mechanisms are different for different materials and the achievable gain is therefore material dependent. For the investigated materials, the authors have demonstrated oxide deposition rates that are 1.5–10 times higher than what is possible from metal targets in compound mode. However, although the principle is demonstrated for oxides of Al, Ta, and Nb, a similar behavior is expected for most oxides.

  4. Microstructure of amorphous indium oxide and tin oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauf, I.A.; Brown, L.M. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1994-03-15

    Indium oxide, tin oxide, and some other doped and undoped oxide semiconductors show an interesting and technologically important combination of properties. They have high luminous transparency, good electrical conductivity and high infrared reflectivity. Numerous techniques for depositing these materials have been developed and have undergone a number of changes during last two decades. An understanding of the basic physics of these materials has begun to dawn. Most of the literature on transparent conducting oxides consists of studying the dependence of the properties on the composition, preparation conditions, such as deposition rate, substrate temperature or post-deposition heat treatment. In this paper the authors have employed the transmission electron microscopy to study the microstructure of reactively evaporated, electron beam evaporated, ion-beam sputtered amorphous indium oxide and reactively evaporated amorphous tin oxide thin films. These films, which have received little attention in the past, can have enormous potential as transparent conductive coatings on heat-sensitive substrates and inexpensive solar cells.

  5. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

  6. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunning, John S. (Corvallis, OR); Alman, David E. (Salem, OR)

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

  7. Polaron absorption in amorphous tungsten oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, Lars; Azens, Andris; Niklasson, Gunnar A.

    2001-08-15

    Amorphous thin films of tungsten oxide were deposited by sputtering onto glass substrates covered by conductive indium--tin oxide. The density and stoichiometry were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Lithium ions were intercalated electrochemically into the films. The optical reflectance and transmittance were measured in the wavelength range from 0.3 to 2.5 {mu}m, at a number of intercalation levels. The polaron absorption peak becomes more symmetric and shifts to higher energies until an intercalation level of 0.25 to 0.3 Li{sup +}/W, where a saturation occurs. The shape of the polaron peak is in very good agreement with the theory of Bryksin [Fiz. Tverd. Tela 24, 1110 (1982)]. Within this model, the shift of the absorption peak is interpreted as an increase in the Fermi level of the material as more Li ions are inserted. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  9. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  10. ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSA Related LinksOxides of Nitrogen Outreach Home

  11. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  12. CO oxidation on gold-supported iron oxides: New insights into strong oxide–metal interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Liang; Liu, Yun; Yang, Fan; Evans, Jaime; Rodriguez, José A.; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-14

    Very active FeOx–Au catalysts for CO oxidation are obtained after depositing nanoparticles of FeO, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 on a Au(111) substrate. Neither FeO nor Fe2O3 is stable under the reaction conditions. Under an environment of CO/O2, they undergo oxidation (FeO) or reduction (Fe2O3) to yield nanoparticles of Fe3O4 that are not formed in a bulk phase. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we show a strong oxide–metal interaction (SOMI) between Fe3O4 nanostructures and Au(111), which gives the oxide special properties, allows the formation of an active phase, and provides a unique interface to facilitate a catalytic reaction. This workmore »highlights the important role that the SOMI can play in enhancing the catalytic performance of the oxide component in metal–oxide catalysts.« less

  13. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  14. Arsenite Oxidation by a Poorly Crystalline Manganese-Oxide 1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    N J . L A F F E R T Y , * M A T T H E W G I N D E R - V O G E L , A N D D O N A L D L . S P A R KArsenite Oxidation by a Poorly Crystalline Manganese-Oxide 1. Stirred-Flow Experiments B R A N D O

  15. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L. (Baltimore, MD); Hung, Cheng-Hung (Baltimore, MD)

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

  16. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  17. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofOxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

  18. Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  19. Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser- based- strumentation Engineers. DOI: 10.1117/1.2747608 Keywords: breath analysis; nitric oxide; carbon dioxide sampling, NO is measured over time during exhalation. Offline sampling has the advantages of remote

  20. OH-initiated oxidation of benzene Part I. Phenol formation under atmospheric conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OH-initiated oxidation of benzene Part I. Phenol formation under atmospheric conditions Rainer-radical initiated oxidation of benzene was studied in two simulation chambers: (1) the large-volume outdoor chamber-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to simultaneously measure phenol and benzene. The second study used only FTIR

  1. Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    1 Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV Richard L. Sandberg, David D. Allred.byu.edu ABSTRACT We present the measured reflectances (beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) of naturally oxidized uranium incidence. These show that uranium, as UO2, can fulfill its promise as the highest known single surface

  2. Ethane oxidative dehydrogenation pathways on vanadium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyle, Morris; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-12-10

    Kinetic and isotopic tracer and exchange measurements were used to determine the identity and reversibility of elementary steps involved in ethane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) on VOx/Al2O3 and VOx/ZrO2. C2H6-C2D6-O2 and C2H6-D2O-O2 react to form alkenes and COx without concurrent formation of C2H6-xDx orC2H4-xDx isotopomers, suggesting that C-H bond cleavage in ethane and ethene is an irreversible and kinetically relevant step in ODH and combustion reactions. Primary ethane ODH reactions show normal kinetic isotopic effects (kC-H/kC-D 2.4); similar values were measured for ethane and ethene combustion(1.9 and 2.8, respectively). 16O2-18O2-C2H6 reactions on supported V16Ox domains led to the initial appearance of 16O from the lattice in H2O, CO, and CO2, consistent with the involvement of lattice oxygen in C-H bond activation steps. Isotopic contents are similar in H2O, CO, and CO2, suggesting that ODH and combustion reactions use similar lattice oxygen sites. No 16O-18O isotopomer s were detected during reactions of 16O2-18O2-C2H6 mixtures, as expected if dissociative O2 chemisorption steps were irreversible. The alkyl species formed in these steps desorb irreversibly as ethene and the resulting O-H groups recombine to form H2O and reduced V centers in reversible desorption steps. These reduced V centers reoxidize by irreversible dissociative chemisorption of O2. A pseudo-steady state analysis of these elementary steps together with these reversibility assumptions led to a rate expression that accurately describes the observed inhibition of ODH rates by water and the measured kinetic dependence of ODH rates on C2H6 and O2 pressures. This kinetic analysis suggests that surface oxygen, OH groups, and oxygen vacancies are the most abundant reactive intermediates during ethane ODH on active VOx domains.

  3. Ethane oxidative dehydrogenation pathways on vanadium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyle, Morris; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-12-10

    Kinetic and isotopic tracer and exchange measurements were used to determine the identity and reversibility of elementary steps involved in ethane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) on VOx/Al2O3 and VOx/ZrO2. C2H6-C2D6-O2 and C2H6-D2O-O2 react to form alkenes and COx without concurrent formation of C2H6-xDx orC2H4-xDx isotopomers, suggesting that C-H bond cleavage in ethane and ethene is an irreversible and kinetically relevant step in ODH and combustion reactions. Primary ethane ODH reactions show normal kinetic isotopic effects (kC-H/kC-D) 2.4; similar values were measured for ethane and ethene combustion(1.9 and 2.8, respectively). 16O2-18O2-C2H6 reactions on supported V16Ox domains led to the initial appearance of 16O from the lattice in H2O, CO, and CO2, consistent with the involvement of lattice oxygen in C-H bond activation steps. Isotopic contents are similar in H2O, CO, and CO2, suggesting that ODH and combustion reactions use similar lattice oxygen sites. No 16O-18O isotopomer s were detected during reactions of 16O2-18O2-C2H6 mixtures, as expected if dissociative O2 chemisorption steps were irreversible. The alkyl species formed in these steps desorb irreversibly as ethene and the resulting O-H groups recombine to form H2O and reduced V centers in reversible desorption steps. These reduced V centers reoxidize by irreversible dissociative chemisorption of O2. A pseudo-steady state analysis of these elementary steps together with these reversibility assumptions led to a rate expression that accurately describes the observed inhibition of ODH rates by water and the measured kinetic dependence of ODH rates on C2H6 and O2 pressures. This kinetic analysis suggests that surface oxygen, OH groups, and oxygen vacancies are the most abundant reactive intermediates during ethane ODH on active VOx domains.

  4. SOOT-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    and T. Novakov, "Catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbon inThe mechanism of catalytic oxidation on activated carbon;of water in the catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbonaceous

  5. Detection of oxidation in human serum lipoproteins 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Christine Lee

    2006-04-12

    A method for the oxidation of lipoproteins in vitro was developed using the free radical initiator, 2,2?-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Following in vitro oxidation, the susceptibility to oxidation of the serum samples...

  6. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  7. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone J O H N T . W A L K E R , * , C R A I,thoughlargenitrogeninputsanddeoxygenation typical of these systems create the potential for large N2O emissions. We report the first N2O emission measurements from the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone (GOMHZ), including an estimate of the emission "pulse

  8. Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, Gene H. (Downers Grove, IL); Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

  9. Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, G.H.; Smith, J.L.; Sim, J.W.

    1983-11-10

    This invention pertains to a high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

  10. Interfacial electron transfer dynamics of photosensitized zinc oxide nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murakoshi, Kei; Yanagida, Shozo; Capel, M.

    1997-06-01

    The authors have prepared and characterized photosensitized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoclusters, dispersed in methanol, using carboxylated coumarin dyes for surface adsorption. Femtosecond time-resolved emission spectroscopy allows the authors to measure the photo-induced charge carrier injection rate constant from the adsorbed photosensitizer to the n-type semiconductor nanocluster. These results are compared with other photosensitized semiconductors.

  11. Loss of Conformational Stability in Calmodulin upon Methionine Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jun; Yin, Daniel H.; Yao, Yihong; Sun, Hongye; Qin, Zhihai; Schoeneich, Christian; Williams, Todd D.; Squier, Thomas C.

    1998-03-01

    in wheat germ calmodulin (CaM), and prevent activation of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase. Using ESI-MS, we have measured rates of modification and molecular mass distributions of oxidatively modified CaM species (CaMox) resulting from exposure to H2O2. From...

  12. Gold catalyst Styrene Benzaldehyde Styrene oxide Acetophenone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouyer, Francois

    O O O + + O2 Gold catalyst Styrene Benzaldehyde Styrene oxide Acetophenone studies. However styrene. The reaction chiefly yielded benzaldehyde, with smaller amounts of styrene oxide and acetophenone

  13. New manganese catalyst for light alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durante, Vincent A. (West Chester, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Walker, Darrell W. (Visalia, CA); Marcus, Bonita K. (Radnor, PA)

    1994-01-01

    Aluminophosphates containing manganese in the structural framework are employed for the oxidation of alkanes, for example the vapor phase oxidation of methane to methanol.

  14. Variations in organic aerosol optical and hygroscopic properties upon heterogeneous OH oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappa, Christopher D.

    Measurements of the evolution of organic aerosol extinction cross sections (?[subscript ext]) and subsaturated hygroscopicity upon heterogeneous OH oxidation are reported for two model compounds, squalane (a C30 saturated ...

  15. Femtosecond pump-probe studies of reduced graphene oxide thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruzicka, Brian Andrew; Werake, Lalani Kumari; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Shuai; Loh, Kian Ping

    2010-04-01

    The dynamics of photocarriers in reduced graphene oxide thin films is studied by using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. Time dependent differential transmissions are measured with sample temperatures ranging from 9 to 300 K. At each sample...

  16. Electrical properties and defect structures of praseodymium-cerium oxide solid solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanik, Todd Stanley, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    A defect chemistry model consistent with observed trends in the pO2 and temperature dependence of electrical conductivity in praseodymium cerium oxide (PCO) was developed. Four point DC conductivity measurements were made ...

  17. Heavy-Ion Irradiation of Thulium(III) Oxide Targets Prepared by Polymer-Assisted Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Mitch A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy-Ion Irradiation of Thulium(III) Oxide Targets PreparedRMS) roughness prior to irradiation is 1.1 nm for a ~250roughness of 2.0 nm after irradiation was measured by atomic

  18. Quantitative NDA Measurements of Advanced Reprocessing Product Materials Containing U, NP, PU, and AM 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard, Braden

    2013-04-05

    of this first principle technique have been identified: (1) quantitative measurement of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium materials; (2) quantitative measurement of mixed oxide (MOX) materials; (3) quantitative measurement of uranium materials; and (4...

  19. Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Karim, Ayman M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Tran, Diana N.; Herling, Darrell R.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Qi, Gongshin; Li, Wei

    2014-12-09

    The oxidation of engine-generated NO to NO2 is an important step in the reduction of NOx in lean engine exhaust because NO2 is required for the performance of the LNT technology [2], and it enhances the activities of ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts [1]. In particular, for SCR catalysts an NO:NO2 ratio of 1:1 is most effective for NOx reduction, whereas for LNT catalysts, NO must be oxidized to NO2 before adsorption on the storage components. However, NO2 typically constitutes less than 10% of NOx in lean exhaust, so catalytic oxidation of NO is essential. Platinum has been found to be especially active for NO oxidation, and is widely used in DOC and LNT catalysts. However, because of the high cost and poor thermal durability of Pt-based catalysts, there is substantial interest in the development of alternatives. The objective of this project, in collaboration with partner General Motors, is to develop mixed metal oxide catalysts for NO oxidation, enabling lower precious metal usage in emission control systems. [1] M. Koebel, G. Madia, and M. Elsener, Catalysis Today 73, 239 (2002). [2] C. H. Kim, G. S. Qi, K. Dahlberg, and W. Li, Science 327, 1624 (2010).

  20. Impact of Biodiesel on the Oxidation Kinetics and Morphology of Diesel Particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We compare the oxidation characteristics of four different diesel particulates generated with a modern light-duty engine. The four particulates represent engine fueling with conventional ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), biodiesel, and two intermediate blends of these fuels. The comparisons discussed here are based on complementary measurements implemented in a laboratory micro-reactor, including temperature programmed desorption and oxidation, pulsed isothermal oxidation, and BET surface area. From these measurements we have derived models that are consistent with the observed oxidation reactivity differences. When accessible surface area effects are properly accounted for, the oxidation kinetics of the fixed carbon components were found to consistently exhibit an Arrhenius activation energy of 113 6 kJ/mol. Release of volatile carbon from the as-collected particulate appears to follow a temperaturedependent rate law.

  1. Pulse-height distributions of neutron and gamma rays from plutonium-oxide S.A. Pozzi a,, S.D. Clarke a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    Pulse-height distributions of neutron and gamma rays from plutonium-oxide samples S.A. Pozzi a,Ã, S Digital data processing Plutonium oxide 252 Cf a b s t r a c t We present new results on neutron and gamma-ray pulse-height distributions (PHDs) measured with liquid scintillators from five plutonium-oxide samples

  2. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-05-01

    This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

  3. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  4. Structure of graphene oxide dispersed with ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Rishikesh Pandey, Devendra K.; Khare, P. S.

    2014-10-15

    Graphene has been proposed as a promising two-dimensional nanomaterial with outstanding electronic, optical, thermal and mechanical properties for many applications. In present work a process of dispersion of graphene oxide with ZnO nanoparticles in ethanol solution with different pH values, have been studied. Samples have been characterized by XRD, SEM, PL, UV-visible spectroscopy and particles size measurement. The results analysis indicates overall improved emission spectrum. It has been observed that the average diameter of RGO (Reduced Graphene Oxide) decreases in presence of ZnO nanoparticles from 3.8?m to 0.41?m.

  5. Introduction Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    , In3 , Ga3 , and Sn4 ). Four of these form TCOs as single-cation oxides (ZnO, CdO, In2O3, and SnO2 for more than 50 years, pri- marily in the form of doped single-cation oxides such as In2O3 and SnO2) when appro- priately doped, whereas Ga2O3 is a wide- bandgap insulator. There are 10 binary, 10 ternary

  6. Plutonium Oxidation and Subsequent Reduction by Mn (IV) Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KAPLAN, DANIEL

    2005-09-13

    Plutonium sorbed to rock tuff was preferentially associated with manganese oxides. On tuff and synthetic pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}), Pu(IV) or Pu(V) was initially oxidized, but over time Pu(IV) became the predominant oxidation state of sorbed Pu. Reduction of Pu(V/VI), even on non-oxidizing surfaces, is proposed to result from a lower Gibbs free energy of the hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species versus that of the Pu(V) or Pu(VI) surface species. This work suggests that despite initial oxidation of sorbed Pu by oxidizing surfaces to more soluble forms, the less mobile form of Pu, Pu(IV), will dominate Pu solid phase speciation during long term geologic storage. The safe design of a radioactive waste or spent nuclear fuel geologic repository requires a risk assessment of radionuclides that may potentially be released into the surrounding environment. Geochemical knowledge of the radionuclide and the surrounding environment is required for predicting subsurface fate and transport. Although difficult even in simple systems, this task grows increasingly complicated for constituents, like Pu, that exhibit complex environmental chemistries. The environmental behavior of Pu can be influenced by complexation, precipitation, adsorption, colloid formation, and oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions (1-3). To predict the environmental mobility of Pu, the most important of these factors is Pu oxidation state. This is because Pu(IV) is generally 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less mobile than Pu(V) in most environments (4). Further complicating matters, Pu commonly exists simultaneously in several oxidation states (5, 6). Choppin (7) reported Pu may exist as Pu(IV), Pu(V), or Pu(VI) oxic natural groundwaters. It is generally accepted that plutonium associated with suspended particulate matter is predominantly Pu(IV) (8-10), whereas Pu in the aqueous phase is predominantly Pu(V) (2, 11-13). The influence of the character of Mn-containing minerals expected to be found in subsurface repository environments on Pu oxidation state distributions has been the subject of much recent research. Kenney-Kennicutt and Morse (14), Duff et al. (15), and Morgenstern and Choppin (16) observed oxidation of Pu facilitated by Mn(IV)-bearing minerals. Conversely, Shaughnessy et al. (17) used X-ray Absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to show reduction of Pu(VI) by hausmannite (Mn{sup II}Mn{sub 2}{sup III}O{sub 4}) and manganite ({gamma}-Mn{sup III}OOH) and Kersting et al., (18) observed reduction of Pu(VI) by pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}). In this paper, we attempt to reconcile the apparently conflicting datasets by showing that Mn-bearing minerals can indeed oxidize Pu, however, if the oxidized species remains on the solid phase, the oxidation step competes with the formation of Pu(IV) that becomes the predominant solid phase Pu species with time. The experimental approach we took was to conduct longer term (approximately two years later) oxidation state analyses on the Pu sorbed to Yucca Mountain tuff (initial analysis reported by Duff et al., (15)) and measure the time-dependant changes in the oxidation state distribution of Pu in the presence of the Mn mineral pyrolusite.

  7. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, Howard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  8. Electronic Transitions in Perovskite Oxide Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Franklin

    2011-01-01

    perovskite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 i The distorted perovskite . . . . . . . .Basic Aspects of Correlated Perovskite Oxides The Perovskite

  9. Evaluating two experimental approaches for measuring ecosystem carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masiello, C. A; Gallagher, M. E; Randerson, J. T; Deco, R. M; Chadwick, O. A

    2008-01-01

    Water Pollution Control Plant Water Quality Laboratory,Water Pollution Control Plant Water Quality Laboratory,

  10. Measurement of fragmentation and functionalization pathways in the heterogeneous oxidation of oxidized organic aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Jesse

    The competition between the addition of polar, oxygen-containing functional groups (functionalization) and the cleavage of C–C bonds (fragmentation) has a governing influence on the change in volatility of organic species ...

  11. Evaluating two experimental approaches for measuring ecosystem carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masiello, C. A; Gallagher, M. E; Randerson, J. T; Deco, R. M; Chadwick, O. A

    2008-01-01

    District, Joint Water Pollution Control Plant Water QualityDistrict Joint Water Pollution Control Plant Water Quality

  12. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Han

    2011-09-30

    This project was undertaken in response to the Department of Energy's call to research and develop technologies 'that will reduce energy consumption, enhance economic competitiveness, and reduce environmental impacts of the domestic chemical industry.' The current technology at the time for producing 140 billion pounds per year of propylene from naphtha and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) relied on energy- and capital-intensive steam crackers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units. The propylene is isolated from the product stream in a costly separation step and subsequently converted to acrylic acid and other derivatives in separate production facilities. This project proposed a Short Contact Time Reactor (SCTR)-based catalytic oxydehydrogenation process that could convert propane to propylene and acrylic acid in a cost-effective and energy-efficient fashion. Full implementation of this technology could lead to sizeable energy, economic and environmental benefits for the U. S. chemical industry by providing up to 45 trillion BTUs/year, cost savings of $1.8 billion/year and a combined 35 million pounds/year reduction in environmental pollutants such as COx, NOx, and SOx. Midway through the project term, the program directive changed, which approval from the DOE and its review panel, from direct propane oxidation to acrylic acid at millisecond contact times to a two-step process for making acrylic acid from propane. The first step was the primary focus, namely the conversion of propane to propylene in high yields assisted by the presence of CO2. The product stream from step one was then to be fed directly into a commercially practiced propylene-to-acrylic acid tandem reactor system.

  13. Ambient Measurements of the NOx Reservoir Species N2O5 using Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geidosch, Justine Nicole

    2012-10-19

    to the occurrence of asthma. Ozone is formed through reactions of oxidized volatile organic compounds with nitrogen oxides, and the accurate modeling of the process is necessary for smart and effective regulations. Ambient measurements are important to understanding...

  14. Study of O/Ni(100) with LEED (low-energy electron diffraction) and AES (auger electron spectroscopy) from chemisorption to oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wen-Di.

    1990-11-16

    The structures formed on the Ni(100) surface during oxygen adsorption, leading to oxidation, are studied with Video-LEED (low-energy electron diffraction) and AES (Auger electron spectroscopy). The temperature- and exposure-dependence in the development of LEED patterns observed during oxidation of Ni(100), at oxidation temperatures of 80 to 400 K, are investigated extensively. Integrated diffraction spot intensities and fractional spot profiles are measured quantitatively and continuously, allowing unambiguous correlation of various surface processes. AES is used to measure the oxidation onset during adsorption and the final relative thickness of the oxide. 48 figs., 79 refs.

  15. In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM A. Faes1. C. Singhal, K. Kendall, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Fundamentals, Design, Denmark antonin.faes@epfl.ch Keywords: In situ ETEM, nickel oxide, reduction, RedOx, SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel

  16. On-board Measurement of NO and NO2 using Non-dispersive Ultraviolet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling LNT + SCR...

  17. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-08-23

    A method is disclosed of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate. 1 fig.

  18. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH); Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH)

    1994-08-23

    A method of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate.

  19. Size-reduction of nanodiamonds via air oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaebel, T; Chen, J; Hemmer, P; Rabeau, J R

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the size reduction and effects on nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by air oxidation using a combined atomic force and confocal microscope. The average height reduction of individual crystals as measured by atomic force microscopy was 10.6 nm/h at 600 {\\deg}C air oxidation at atmospheric pressure. The oxidation process modified the surface including removal of non-diamond carbon and organic material which also led to a decrease in background fluorescence. During the course of the nanodiamond size reduction, we observed the annihilation of nitrogen-vacancy centres which provided important insight into the formation of colour centres in small crystals. In these unirradiated samples, the smallest nanodiamond still hosting a stable nitrogen-vacancy centre observed was 8 nm.

  20. Size-reduction of nanodiamonds via air oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Gaebel; C. Bradac; J. Chen; P. Hemmer; J. R. Rabeau

    2011-04-27

    Here we report the size reduction and effects on nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by air oxidation using a combined atomic force and confocal microscope. The average height reduction of individual crystals as measured by atomic force microscopy was 10.6 nm/h at 600 {\\deg}C air oxidation at atmospheric pressure. The oxidation process modified the surface including removal of non-diamond carbon and organic material which also led to a decrease in background fluorescence. During the course of the nanodiamond size reduction, we observed the annihilation of nitrogen-vacancy centres which provided important insight into the formation of colour centres in small crystals. In these unirradiated samples, the smallest nanodiamond still hosting a stable nitrogen-vacancy centre observed was 8 nm.

  1. Oxidation behaviour of uranium and neptunium in stabilised zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, Marcus; Somers, Joseph; Bouexiere, Daniel; Gaczynski, Piotr; Brendebach, Boris

    2009-12-15

    Yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) based (Zr,Y,U)O{sub 2-x} and (Zr,Y,Np)O{sub 2-x} solid solutions with 6 and 20 mol% actinide were prepared with Y/Zr ratios ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 to investigate uranium and neptunium oxidation behaviour depending on the oxygen vacancies in the defect fluorite lattice. Sintering at 1600 deg. C in Ar/H{sub 2} yields a cubic, fluorite-type structure with U(IV) and Np(IV). Annealing (Zr,Y,U)O{sub 2-x} with Y/Zr=0.2 at 800 deg. C in air results in a tetragonal phase, whereas (Zr,Y,U)O{sub 2-x} with higher Y/Zr ratios and (Zr,Y,Np)O{sub 2-x} retain the cubic structure. XANES and O/M measurements indicate mixed U(V)-U(VI) and Np(IV)-Np(V) oxidation states after oxidation. Based on X-ray diffraction, O/M and EXAFS measurements, different oxidation mechanisms are identified for U- and Np-doped stabilised zirconia. In contrast to U, excess oxygen vacancies are needed to oxidise Np in (Zr,Y,Np)O{sub 2-x} as the oxidation process competes with Zr for oxygen vacancies. As a consequence, U(VI) and Np(V) can only be obtained in stabilised zirconia with Y/Zr=1 but not in YSZ with Y/Zr=0.2. - Graphical abstract: The O/U ratio in oxidised (Zr,Y,U)O{sub 2-x} depends on the Y/U ratio, whereas O/Np in (Zr,Y,Np)O{sub 2-x} correlates with the Y/(Zr+Np) ratio. This indicates that both Zr and Np compete for oxygen vacancies, which hinders the Np oxidation at low Y/Zr ratios. Display Omitted

  2. Portable Emission Measurements of Yellowstone Park Snowcoaches and Snowmobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    ], and oxides of nitrogen [NOx]). Large emissions variability was still observed despite using a standardized characterized by large emission ranges in CO (5­630 g/mi), HC (1­50 g/mi), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx; 1­49 gPortable Emission Measurements of Yellowstone Park Snowcoaches and Snowmobiles Gary A. Bishop, Ryan

  3. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01

    Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason Dalefor Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications Copyright 2007 byFilms for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason Dale

  4. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P.; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J.

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  5. Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballard, Ambrose H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mowery, Erb H. (Clinton, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

  6. Patterning by area selective oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nam, Chang-Yong; Kamcev, Jovan; Black, Charles T.; Grubbs, Robert

    2015-12-29

    Technologies are described for methods for producing a pattern of a material on a substrate. The methods may comprise receiving a patterned block copolymer on a substrate. The patterned block copolymer may include a first polymer block domain and a second polymer block domain. The method may comprise exposing the patterned block copolymer to a light effective to oxidize the first polymer block domain in the patterned block copolymer. The method may comprise applying a precursor to the block copolymer. The precursor may infuse into the oxidized first polymer block domain and generate the material. The method may comprise applying a removal agent to the block copolymer. The removal agent may be effective to remove the first polymer block domain and the second polymer block domain from the substrate, and may not be effective to remove the material in the oxidized first polymer block domain.

  7. Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

    1993-04-06

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  10. SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    module Gas turbine module (compressor and turbine sub-modules) Combustor module Catalytic oxidizer module, MCFC, PEM, Gas Turbine General Model Assumptions · 1D process flow · Well-stirred within nodal volume Nerst Potential · Ideal operating voltage with respect to partial pressures of cell reactants Steam

  11. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, Sang Hoon

    2011-01-01

    sensitivity The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO)stabilizer. The catalytic activity of CO oxidation overintriguing catalytic behavior for CO oxidation 5-15 ; while

  12. Biomimetic C-H Oxidation Catalysis in Aqueous Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Djernes, Katherine Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Y. ; Breslow, R. "Catalytic Oxidations of Steroid Substratesapplicable catalytic methods for hydrocarbon oxidation haveof hydrocarbon oxidation catalysts 1.7 and 1.8 The catalytic

  13. Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gongming

    2013-01-01

    be good catalysts for catalytic oxidation of small organicsolution, indicative of catalytic oxidation of urea presentactive catalytic species for water oxidation. The catalytic

  14. Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah [Department of Physics , College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq); Mansour, Hazim Louis [Department of Physics , College of Education, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-12-16

    This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A. Michael (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  17. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Kenneth D. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01

    Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  18. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, K.D.

    1991-06-25

    Perovskites of the structure A[sub 2]B[sub 2]C[sub 3]O[sub 10] are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  19. Genomic consequences of DNA oxidation by peroxynitrite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neeley, William Louis

    2006-01-01

    The radicals nitric oxide and superoxide are produced endogenously by activated macrophages and neutrophils and combine in a diffusion-limited reaction to form peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidizing and nitrating agent capable ...

  20. Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arunava (Orinda, CA); Ramesh, Ramamoorthy (Moraga, CA); Yu, Choongho (College Station, TX); Scullin, Matthew L. (Berkeley, CA); Huijben, Mark (Enschede, NL)

    2012-07-17

    The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  1. Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Print Friday, 26 September 2014 14:37 Jian ware (or Tenmoku) ceramic bowls, famous for their...

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Manufacturing R Reserved. 3 The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry #12;Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems. All Rights

  3. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-01-01

    post-Doping of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes,? P.h.D.and Technology of Ceramic Fuel Cells, p. 209, Elsevier, NewI. Birss, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C. Singhal

  4. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-01-01

    in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C. Singhal and J.create connected nanostructured SOFC electrodes is reviewed.of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently

  5. Standard specification for nuclear-grade zirconium oxide powder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements for zirconium oxide powder intended for fabrication into shapes, either entirely or partially of zirconia, for use in a nuclear reactor core. 1.2 The material described herein shall be particulate in nature. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  6. Mechanism-Based Design of Green Oxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rybak-Akimova, Elena

    2015-03-16

    In modern era of scarce resources, developing chemical processes that can eventually generate useful materials and fuels from readily available, simple, cheap, renewable starting materials is of paramount importance. Small molecules, such as dioxygen, dinitrogen, water, or carbon dioxide, can be viewed as ideal sources of oxygen, nitrogen, or carbon atoms in synthetic applications. Living organisms perfected the art of utilizing small molecules in biosynthesis and in generating energy; photosynthesis, which couples carbohydrate synthesis from carbon dioxide with photocatalytic water splitting, is but one impressive example of possible catalytic processes. Small molecule activation in synthetic systems remains challenging, and current efforts are focused on developing catalytic reactions that can convert small molecules into useful building blocks for generating more complicated organic molecules, including fuels. Modeling nature is attractive in many respects, including the possibility to use non-toxic, earth-abundant metals in catalysis. Specific systems investigated in our work include biomimetic catalytic oxidations with dioxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and related oxygen atom donors. More recently, a new direction was been also pursued in the group, fixation of carbon dioxide with transition metal complexes. Mechanistic understanding of biomimetic metal-catalyzed oxidations is critical for the design of functional models of metalloenzymes, and ultimately for the rational synthesis of useful, selective and efficient oxidation catalysts utilizing dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide as terminal oxidants. All iron oxidases and oxygenases (both mononuclear and dinuclear) utilize metal-centered intermediates as reactive species in selective substrate oxidation. In contrast, free radical pathways (Fenton chemistry) are common for traditional inorganic iron compounds, producing hydroxyl radicals as very active, non-selective oxidants. Recent developments, however, changed this situation. Growing families of synthetic iron complexes that resemble active sites of metalloenzymes produce metal-based intermediates (rather than hydroxyl radicals) in reactions with oxygen donors. These complexes are very promising for selective oxygen and peroxide activation. In order to understand the mechanisms of metal-based small molecule activation, kinetically competent metal-oxygen intermediates must be identified. One of the grand challenges identified by the Department of Energy workshop "Catalysis for Energy" is understanding mechanisms and dynamics of catalyzed reactions. The research summarized herein focuses on detailed characterization of the formation and reactivity of various iron-peroxo- and iron-oxo intermediates that are involved in catalysis. Rates of rapid reactions were studied at low temperatures by a specialized technique termed cryogenic stopped-flow spectrophotometry. These measurements identified reaction conditions which favor the formation of catalytically competent oxidants. Chemical structures of reactive complexes was determined, and new, efficient catalysts for hydrocarbon oxidation were synthesized. Importantly, these catalysts are selective, they promote oxidation of hydrocarbons at a specific site. The catalysts are also efficient and robust, hundreds of cycles of substrate oxidation occur within minutes at room temperature. Furthermore, they enable utilization of environmentally friendly oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, which produces water as the only byproduct. Mechanistic insights uncovered the role of various acid-containing additives in catalytic oxidations. Proton delivery to the active catalytic sites facilitated oxidations, similarly to the catalytic pathways in metal-containing enzymes. Under certain conditions, two metals in one complex can act in concert, modeling the reactivity of a bacterial enzyme which converts methane into methanol. In related studies, a family of nickel complexes that react with carbon dioxide at the rates comparable to enzyme carbonic anhydrase, was discovered. Sequestration and che

  7. High quality oxide films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruckman, Mark W. (Middle Island, NY); Strongin, Myron (Center Moriches, NY); Gao, Yong L. (Henrietta, NY)

    1994-01-01

    A method for providing an oxide film of a material on the surface of a substrate using a reactive deposition of the material onto the substrate surface in the presence of a solid or liquid layer of an oxidizing gas. The oxidizing gas is provided on the substrate surface in an amount sufficient to dissipate the latent heat of condensation occurring during deposition as well as creating a favorable oxidizing environment for the material.

  8. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  9. High quality oxide films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Gao, Y.L.

    1994-02-01

    A method is described for providing an oxide film of a material on the surface of a substrate using a reactive deposition of the material onto the substrate surface in the presence of a solid or liquid layer of an oxidizing gas. The oxidizing gas is provided on the substrate surface in an amount sufficient to dissipate the latent heat of condensation occurring during deposition as well as creating a favorable oxidizing environment for the material. 4 figures.

  10. Photometric on-line monitor for total oxidants in the ports purge cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, W.L.

    1990-12-01

    A proposed scheme for the continuous, on-line monitoring of the total concentration of oxidizing (fluorinating) gases in the top purge section of a gaseous diffusion cascade was evaluated using simulated process conditions in a laboratory. The scheme involves the reaction of the oxidizing gases in a sample stream with sodium chloride to produce chlorine, which is then measured with an ultraviolet photometer to yield a value for total oxidant concentration. This report describes the experimental apparatus used in studying this method and presents the resulting data and conclusions. The study found that the technique would work under some conditions, but would be troublesome and probably undependable if implemented as a real-time process monitor. During the study, it was discovered that the photometric approach could provide a measurement of total oxidant concentration without resorting to the salt reaction. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

  12. Comment on "Catalytic Activity of the Rh Surface Oxide: CO Oxidation over Rh(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    . Obviously, heating Rh in pure oxygen to T ) 230 °C and above will lead to the formation of surface Rh oxideComment on "Catalytic Activity of the Rh Surface Oxide: CO Oxidation over Rh(111) under Realistic suggest the importance of a surface oxide phase for high CO2 formation in CO-O2 reactions. However

  13. Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kik, Pieter

    Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by micelle encapsulation and supported on -Al2O3 during the oxidation of methanol the pretreatment. KEYWORDS: platinum, methanol oxidation, operando, XAFS, EXAFS, XANES, alumina, nanoparticle, size

  14. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1993-10-12

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  15. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  16. Fluidized-bed copper oxide process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, P.P.; Takahashi, G.S.; Leshock, D.G.

    1991-10-14

    The fluidized-bed copper oxide process was developed to simultaneously remove sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide contaminants from the flue gas of coal-fired utility boilers. This dry and regenerable process uses a copper oxide sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. Contaminants are removed without generating waste material. (VC)

  17. Kinetics and dynamics of oxidation reactions involving adsorbed CO species on bulk supported Pt and copper oxides. Final project report, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, Wm.C.; Harold, M.

    1995-02-01

    This research was an integrated experimental and modeling study of oxidation reactions involving CO as a key player - be it a reactant, adsorbed intermediate, and/or partial oxidation product - in the catalytic sequence and chemistry. The reaction systems of interest in the project include CO, formaldehyde, and methanol oxidation by O{sub 2}, and CO oxidation by NO, on both Pt and copper oxide catalysts. These reactions are of importance in automobile exhaust catalysis. There is a paucity of rate data in the literature for these important environmental control reactions. A complicating factor is the propensity of these reactions to exhibit complex steady state and dynamic behavior, including multiple rate controlling steps, steady state multiplicity, and oscillatory phenomena. Such phenomena are rooted in some of the central issues of catalysis, including adsorbate interactions, and catalyst structural instabilities, such as surface reconstruction and surface chemical changes by oxidation- reduction. The goal of this research is to better understand the catalytic chemistry and kinetics of oxidations reactions involving CO as an adsorbed intermediate. Successfully meeting this goal requires an integration of basic kinetic measurements, in situ catalyst surface monitoring, kinetic modeling, and nonlinear mathematical tools. While the kinetics experiments have standard microreactor design, the potential for multiple and periodic rate states demands detailed procedures to pinpoint the bifurcation (ignition, extinction, Hopf) points. Kinetic models are constructed from rational mechanistic sequences and sound surface chemistry.

  18. Effect of morphology and solvent on two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kavitha, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); Haripadmam, P.C.; Gopinath, Pramod; Krishnan, Bindu [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? ZnO nanospheres and triangular structures synthesis by novel precipitation technique. ? The effect of precursor concentration on the size and shape of nano ZnO. ? Open aperture Z-scan measurements of the ZnO nanoparticle dispersions. ? Nanospheres exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than triangular nanostructures. ? Nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than its dispersion in 2-propanol. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the effect of morphology and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Zinc oxide nanoparticles in two different morphologies like nanospheres and triangular nanostructures are synthesized by novel precipitation technique and their two-photon absorption coefficient is measured using open aperture Z-scan technique. Experimental results show that the zinc oxide nanospheres exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than the zinc oxide triangular nanostructures. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than that of its dispersion in 2-propanol. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water shows a decrease in two-photon absorption coefficient with an increase in on-axis irradiance. The result confirms the dependence of shape and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide.

  19. Electrochemistry, Photoelectrochemistry And Photoelectron Spectroscopy Of Nanostructured Metal Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Södergren, S

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemistry, Photoelectrochemistry And Photoelectron Spectroscopy Of Nanostructured Metal Oxides

  20. Electronic structure of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutar, D. S.; Singh, Gulbagh; Divakar Botcha, V.

    2012-09-03

    Graphene oxide (GO) monolayers obtained by Langmuir Blodgett route and suitably treated to obtain reduced graphene oxide (RGO) monolayers were studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. Upon reduction of GO to form RGO C1s x-ray photoelectron spectra showed increase in graphitic carbon content, while ultraviolet photoelectron spectra showed increase in intensity corresponding to C2p-{pi} electrons ({approx}3.5 eV). X-ray excited Auger transitions C(KVV) and plasmon energy loss of C1s photoelectrons have been analyzed to elucidate the valence band structure. The effective number of ({pi}+{sigma}) electrons as obtained from energy loss spectra was found to increase by {approx}28% on reduction of GO.

  1. Standardization and Application of Spectrophotometric Method for Reductive Capacity Measurement of Nanomaterials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Wonjoong

    2011-10-21

    measurement and Raman spectroscopy. For some nanoparticles, the reductive capacity was measured for both the pristine form and the form treated by oxidization or grinding. All carbon-based nanomaterials, except for pristine C60, have a significant reductive...

  2. Specific Visualization of Nitric Oxide in the Vasculature with Two-Photon Microscopy Using a Copper Based Fluorescent Probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Mitrajit

    To study the role and (sub) cellular nitric oxide (NO) constitution in various disease processes, its direct and specific detection in living cells and tissues is a major requirement. Several methods are available to measure ...

  3. Observational constraints on the contribution of isoprene oxidation to ozone production on the western slope of the Sierra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    measurements of isoprene and its oxi- dation products formaldehyde (HCHO), methyl vinyl ketone (MVKObservational constraints on the contribution of isoprene oxidation to ozone production products methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) are used to quantify the impact of isoprene

  4. Nitrous oxide (N?O) isotopic composition in the troposphere : instrumentation, observations at Mace Head, Ireland, and regional modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potter, Katherine Ellison

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N?O) is a significant greenhouse gas and main contributor to stratospheric ozone destruction. Surface measurements of N?O mole fractions have been used to attribute source and sink strengths, but large ...

  5. THE ROLE OF ACTIVE ELEMENTS AND OXIDE DISPERSIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OXIDATION-RESISTANT ALLOYS AND COATINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allam, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    rate, and sec- ondly this oxide layer must remain adherentFormation of a compound oxide layer (11) between scale andof Y- or Hf-rich compound oxide layers at the oxide/alloy

  6. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part I. Estimation of the rate constants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Technological Center

    2008-12-15

    A new ironmaking concept using iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets has been proposed, which involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) and an iron bath smelter. This part of the research focuses on studying the two primary chemical kinetic steps. Efforts have been made to experimentally measure the kinetics of the carbon gasification by CO{sub 2} and wustite reduction by CO by isolating them from the influence of heat- and mass-transport steps. A combined reaction model was used to interpret the experimental data and determine the rate constants. Results showed that the reduction is likely to be influenced by the chemical kinetics of both carbon oxidation and wustite reduction at the temperatures of interest. Devolatilized wood-charcoal was observed to be a far more reactive form of carbon in comparison to coal-char. Sintering of the iron-oxide at the high temperatures of interest was found to exert a considerable influence on the reactivity of wustite by virtue of altering the internal pore surface area available for the reaction. Sintering was found to be predominant for highly porous oxides and less of an influence on the denser ores. It was found using an indirect measurement technique that the rate constants for wustite reduction were higher for the porous iron-oxide than dense hematite ore at higher temperatures (> 1423 K). Such an indirect mode of measurement was used to minimize the influence of sintering of the porous oxide at these temperatures.

  7. Catalytic oxidizers and Title V requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberoi, M.; Rach, S.E.

    1999-07-01

    Catalytic oxidizers have been used to reduce VOC emissions from various industries including printing, chemical, paint, coatings, etc. A catalytic oxidizer uses a catalyst to reduce the operating temperature for combustion to approximately 600 F, which is substantially lower than thermal oxidation unit. Title V requirements have renewed the debate on the best methods to assure compliance of catalytic oxidizers, with some suggesting the need for continuous emission monitoring equipment. This paper will discuss the various aspects of catalytic oxidation and consider options such as monitoring inlet/outlet temperatures, delta T across the catalyst, periodic laboratory testing of catalyst samples, and preventive maintenance procedures as means of assuring continuous compliance.

  8. Oxide Film and Porosity Defects in Magnesium Alloy AZ91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Liang [Mississippi State University (MSU); Rhee, Hongjoo [Mississippi State University (MSU); Felicelli, Sergio D. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Berry, John T. [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2009-01-01

    Porosity is a major concern in the production of light metal parts. This work aims to identify some of the mechanisms of microporosity formation in magnesium alloy AZ91. Microstructure analysis was performed on several samples obtained from gravity-poured ingots in graphite plate molds. Temperature data during cooling was acquired with type K thermocouples at 60 Hz at three locations of each casting. The microstructure of samples extracted from the regions of measured temperature was then characterized with optical metallography. Tensile tests and conventional four point bend tests were also conducted on specimens cut from the cast plates. Scanning electron microscopy was then used to observe the microstructure on the fracture surface of the specimens. The results of this study revealed the existence of abundant oxide film defects, similar to those observed in aluminum alloys. Remnants of oxide films were detected on some pore surfaces, and folded oxides were observed in fracture surfaces indicating the presence of double oxides entrained during pouring.

  9. THE ROLE OF ACTIVE ELEMENTS AND OXIDE DISPERSIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OXIDATION-RESISTANT ALLOYS AND COATINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allam, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    of the oxide and alloy and these lead to spallation of theleads to a uniform distribution of fine internal oxide

  10. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  11. Comparative Informatics Analysis to Evaluate Site-Specific Protein Oxidation in Multidimensional LC-MS/MS Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, Carlee; Parks, Jerry M; Bern, Marshall; Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2013-01-01

    Redox proteomics has yielded molecular insight into diseases of protein dysfunction attributable to oxidative stress, underscoring the need for robust detection of protein oxidation products. Additionally, oxidative protein surface mapping techniques utilize hydroxyl radicals to gain structural insight about solvent exposure. Interpretation of tandem mass spectral data is a critical challenge for such investigations, because reactive oxygen species target a wide breadth of amino acids. Additionally, oxidized peptides may be generated in a wide range of abundances since the reactivity of hydroxyl radicals with different amino acids spans three orders of magnitude. Taken together, these attributes of oxidative footprinting pose both experimental and computational challenges to detecting oxidized peptides that are naturally less abundant than their unoxidized counterparts. In this study, three model proteins were oxidized electrochemically and analyzed at both the intact protein and peptide levels. A multidimensional chromatographic strategy was utilized to expand the dynamic range of oxidized peptides measurements. Peptide mass spectral data were searched by the hybrid software packages Inspect and Byonic, which incorporate de novo elements of spectral interpretation into a database search. This dynamic search capacity accommodates the challenge of searching for more than forty oxidative mass shifts that can occur in a staggering variety of possible combinatorial occurrences. A prevailing set of oxidized residues was identified with this comparative approach, and evaluation of these sites was informed by solvent accessible surface area gleaned through molecular dynamics simulations. Along with increased levels of oxidation around highly reactive hotspot sites as expected, the enhanced sensitivity of these measurements uncovered a surprising level of oxidation on less reactive residues.

  12. Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfidegraphene nanocomposites with small crystal size for high performance lithium ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfide­graphene nanocomposites with small September 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2jm34864k This study reports a novel strategy of preparing graphene composites by employing graphene oxide as precursor and oxidizer. It is demonstrated that graphene oxide can oxidize

  13. Method and apparatus for detecting the presence and thickness of carbon and oxide layers on EUV reflective surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinowski, Michael E.

    2005-01-25

    The characteristics of radiation that is reflected from carbon deposits and oxidation formations on highly reflective surfaces such as Mo/Si mirrors can be quantified and employed to detect and measure the presence of such impurities on optics. Specifically, it has been shown that carbon deposits on a Mo/Si multilayer mirror decreases the intensity of reflected HeNe laser (632.8 nm) light. In contrast, oxide layers formed on the mirror should cause an increase in HeNe power reflection. Both static measurements and real-time monitoring of carbon and oxide surface impurities on optical elements in lithography tools should be achievable.

  14. Measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willis, W.L.

    1980-10-01

    The discussion will be restricted to measurements of voltage and current. Also, although the measurements themselves should be as quantitative as possible, the discussion is rather nonquantitative. Emphasis is on types of instruments, how they may be used, and the inherent advantages and limitations of a given technique. A great deal of information can be obtained from good, clean voltage and current data. Power and impedance are obviously inherent if the proper time relationships are preserved. Often an associated, difficult-to-determine, physical event can be evaluated from the V-I data, such as a time-varying load characteristic, or the time of light emission, etc. The lack of active high voltage devices, such as 50-kV operational amplifiers, restricts measurement devices to passive elements, primarily R and C. There are a few more exotic techniques that are still passive in nature. There are several well-developed techniques for voltage measurements. These include: spark gaps; electrostatic meters; capacitive dividers; mixed RC dividers; and the electro-optic effect. Current is measured by either direct measurement of charge flow or by measuring the resulting magnetic field.

  15. Tribological interaction between polytetrafluoroethylene and silicon oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uçar, A.; Çopuro?lu, M.; Suzer, S.; Baykara, M. Z.; Ar?kan, O.

    2014-10-28

    We investigated the tribological interaction between polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and silicon oxide surfaces. A simple rig was designed to bring about a friction between the surfaces via sliding a piece of PTFE on a thermally oxidized silicon wafer specimen. A very mild inclination (?0.5°) along the sliding motion was also employed in order to monitor the tribological interaction in a gradual manner as a function of increasing contact force. Additionally, some patterns were sketched on the silicon oxide surface using the PTFE tip to investigate changes produced in the hydrophobicity of the surface, where the approximate water contact angle was 45° before the transfer. The nature of the transferred materials was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XPS results revealed that PTFE was faithfully transferred onto the silicon oxide surface upon even at the slightest contact and SEM images demonstrated that stable morphological changes could be imparted onto the surface. The minimum apparent contact pressure to realize the PTFE transfer is estimated as 5 kPa, much lower than reported previously. Stability of the patterns imparted towards many chemical washing processes lead us to postulate that the interaction is most likely to be chemical. Contact angle measurements, which were carried out to characterize and monitor the hydrophobicity of the silicon oxide surface, showed that upon PTFE transfer the hydrophobicity of the SiO{sub 2} surface could be significantly enhanced, which might also depend upon the pattern sketched onto the surface. Contact angle values above 100° were obtained.

  16. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  17. Kinetics of the carbon monoxide oxidation reaction under microwave heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, W.L.; Katz, J.D.; Rees, D.; Paffett, M.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Datye, A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    915 MHz microwave heating has been used to drive the CO oxidation reaction over Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with out significantly affecting the reaction kinetics. As compared to an identical conventionally heated system, the activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and reaction order with respect to CO were unchanged. Temperature was measured using a thermocouple extrapolation technique. Microwave-induced thermal gradients were found to play a significant role in kinetic observations. The authors chose the CO oxidation reaction over a supported metal catalyst because the reaction kinetics are well known, and because of the diverse dielectric properties of the various elements in the system: CO is a polar molecule, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are non-polar, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a dielectric, and Pt and Pd are conductors.

  18. Plasmonic transparent conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-01-28

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a doped oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the doped oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The doped metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.18/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at a temperature of 25.degree. C. The optical response of the doped oxide materials results from the high carrier concentration of the doped metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration. These changes in effective carrier densities of conducting metal oxide nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary doped metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  19. Electronically conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-09-16

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a conducting oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the conducting oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The conducting metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.17/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.-1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at the gas stream temperature. The optical response of the conducting oxide materials is proposed to result from the high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity of the conducting metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity. These changes in effective carrier densities and electronic conductivity of conducting metal oxide films and nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary conducting metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  20. High-temperature oxidation of Zircaloy in hydrogen-steam mixtures. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Thomas, G.R.

    1982-09-01

    Oxidation rates of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes have been measured in hydrogen-steam mixtures at 1200 to 1700/sup 0/C. For a given isothermal oxidation temperature, the oxide layer thicknesses have been measured as a function of time, steam supply rate, and hydrogen overpressure. The oxidation rates in the mixtures were compared with similar data obtained in pure steam and helium-steam environments under otherwise identical conditions. The rates in pure steam and helium-steam mixtures were equivalent and comparable to the parabolic rates obtained under steam-saturated conditions and reported in the literature. However, when the helium was replaced with hydrogen of equivalent partial pressure, a significantly smaller oxidation rate was observed. For high steam-supply rates, the oxidation kinetics in a hydrogen-steam mixture were parabolic, but the rate was smaller than for pure steam or helium-steam mixtures. Under otherwise identical conditions, the ratio of the parabolic rate for hydrogen-steam to that for pure steam decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing steam-supply rate.

  1. Software Productivity Measurement Using Multiple Size Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Doo-Hwan

    Software Productivity Measurement Using Multiple Size Measures Software Productivity MeasurementContents Introduction Background Related work Motivation Productivity measurement - Measurement model - Productivity measure construction - Productivity analysis Conclusion Discussion #12;Software Engineering Lab, KAIST 3

  2. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  3. Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2014-08-15

    Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method for fabricating conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals that provide a lower cost, less toxic, earth-abundant alternative to the widely used transparent conductive oxide (TCO) indium tin oxide while offering comparable optical and electronic properties. TCOs are used in devices such as flat screen displays, photovoltaic cells, photochromic windows, chemical sensors, and biosensors....

  4. Predicting the radiation tolerance of oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickafus, K. (Kurt E.); Grimes, R. W. (Robin W.)

    2001-01-01

    We have used atomistic computer simulations and ion beam irradiations to examine radiation damage accumulation in multicomponent oxides, We have developed contour energy maps via computer simulations to predict the effects of oxide structure and chemical composition on radiation-induced atomic disorder, defect migration, and swelling. Ion irradiation damage experiments have been perfonned on, pyrochlore and fluorite-structured oxide ceramics to test the predictions from computer models.

  5. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  6. Radiation induced leakage current and stress induced leakage current in ultra-thin gate oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceschia, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Cester, A.; Scarpa, A.; Ghidini, G.

    1998-12-01

    Low-field leakage current has been measured in thin oxides after exposure to ionizing radiation. This Radiation Induced Leakage Current (RILC) can be described as an inelastic tunneling process mediated by neutral traps in the oxide, with an energy loss of about 1 eV. The neutral trap distribution is influenced by the oxide field applied during irradiation, thus indicating that the precursors of the neutral defects are charged, likely being defects associated to trapped holes. The maximum leakage current is found under zero-field condition during irradiation, and it rapidly decreases as the field is enhanced, due to a displacement of the defect distribution across the oxide towards the cathodic interface. The RILC kinetics are linear with the cumulative dose, in contrast with the power law found on electrically stressed devices.

  7. Correlation of Chemical and Mechanical Property Changes During Oxidative Degradation of Neoprene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celina, M.; Wise, J.; Ottesen, D.K.; Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1999-07-01

    The thermal degradation of a commercial, stabilized, unfilled neoprene (chloroprene) rubber was investigated at temperatures up to 140 C. The degradation of this material is dominated by oxidation rather than dehydrochlorination. Important heterogeneous oxidation effects were observed at the various temperatures investigated using infrared micro-spectroscopy and modulus profiling. Intensive degradation-related spectral changes in the IR occurred in the conjugated carbonyl and hydroxyl regions. Quantitative analysis revealed some differences in the development of the IR oxidation profiles, particularly towards the sample surface. These chemical degradation profiles were compared with modulus profiles (mechanical properties). It is concluded that the profile development is fundamentally described by a diffusion-limited autoxidation mechanism. Oxygen consumption measurements showed that the oxidation rates display non-Arrhenius behavior (curvature) at low temperatures. The current results, when compared to those of a previously studied, clay-filled commercial neoprene formulation, indicate that the clay filler acts as an antioxidant, but only at low temperatures.

  8. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne, David M.

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  9. Characterization and oxidation states of Cu and Pd in Pd?CuO/ZnO/ZrO[subscript 2] catalysts for hydrogen production by methanol partial oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuyten, S.; Guerrero, S.; Miller, J.T.; Shibatae, T.; Wolf, E.E.

    2009-01-30

    Copper and zinc oxide based catalysts prepared by coprecipitation were promoted with palladium and ZrO{sub 2}, and their activity and selectivity for methanol oxidative reforming was measured and characterized by N{sub 2}O decomposition, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, BET, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and temperature programmed reduction. Addition of ZrO{sub 2} increased copper dispersion and surface area, with little effect on activity, while palladium promotion significantly enhanced activity with little change of the catalytic structure. A catalyst promoted with both ZrO{sub 2} and palladium yielded hydrogen below 150 C. EXAFS results under reaction conditions showed that the oxidation state of copper was influenced by palladium in the catalyst bulk. A palladium promoted catalyst contained 90% Cu{sup 0}, while the copper in an unpromoted catalyst was 100% Cu{sup 1+} at the same temperature. Palladium preferentially forms an unstable alloy with copper instead of zinc during reduction, which persists during reaction regardless of copper oxidation state. A 100-h time on stream activity measurement showed growth in copper crystallites and change in copper oxidation state resulting in decreasing activity and selectivity. A kinetic model of the reaction pathway showed that palladium and ZrO{sub 2} promoters lower the activation energy of methanol combustion and steam reforming reactions.

  10. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane on Vanadium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane on Vanadium, Molybdenum catalysts confirmed that oxidative dehydrogenation of propane occurs via similar pathways, which involve for propane dehydrogenation and for propene combustion increase in the sequence VOx/ZrO2

  11. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofare provided to the fuel cell, electrons are constantly

  12. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the...

  13. Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using Tobacco mosaic virus for micro-supercapacitors in solid Nafion electrolyte Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  14. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  15. Double perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Kenneth D. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01

    Alkali metal doped double perovskites containing manganese and at least one of cobalt, iron and nickel are useful in the oxidative coupling of alkane to higher hydrocarbons.

  16. Siderite, oxidation, and neutralization potential determination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, Elizabeth Brooke

    2001-01-01

    in the soil. However, dissolution of minerals other than FeCO? may increase NP if 0.5 M HCl is for digestion before oxidation....

  17. Lanthanide doped barium phosphorous oxide scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borade, Ramesh B; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Denzo, Stephen E

    2013-02-26

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a lanthanide-doped barium phosphorous oxide useful for detecting nuclear material.

  18. Photochemical Water Oxidation by Crystalline Polymorphs of Manganese Oxides: Structural Requirements for Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    potential (1.23 V vs SHE). Commercial water electrolyzers are typically limited by the oxidation reaction

  19. Measuring Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter By SarahMODELING CLOUD1 H( 7Measurements ofMeasurement

  20. Distribution and speciation of trace elements in iron and manganese oxide cave deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Catalano, Jeffrey G. (WU)

    2012-10-24

    Fe and Mn oxide minerals control the distribution and speciation of heavy metals and trace elements in soils and aquatic systems through chemical mechanisms involving adsorption, incorporation, and electron transfer. The Pautler Cave System in Southwest Illinois, an analog to other temperate carbonate-hosted karst systems, contains Fe and Mn oxide minerals that form in multiple depositional environments and have high concentrations of associated trace elements. Synchrotron-based micro-scanning X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) shows unique spatial distributions of Fe, Mn, and trace elements in mineral samples. Profile maps of Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings show Fe- and As-rich laminations, indicating dynamic redox conditions in the cave stream. {mu}-SXRF maps demonstrate that Ni, Cu, and Zn correlate primarily with Mn whereas As correlates with both Mn and Fe; As is more enriched in the Fe phase. Zn is concentrated in the periphery of Mn oxide stream pebble coatings, and may be an indication of recent anthropogenic surface activity. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements reveal that As(V) occurs as surface complexes on Mn and Fe oxides whereas Zn(II) associated with Mn oxides is adsorbed to the basal planes of phyllomanganates in a tetrahedral coordination. Co(III) and Se(IV) are also observed to be associated with Mn oxides. The observation of Fe, Mn, and trace element banding in Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings suggests that these materials are sensitive to and document aqueous redox conditions, similar to ferromanganese nodules in soils and in marine and freshwater sediments. Furthermore, speciation and distribution measurements indicate that these minerals scavenge trace elements and limit the transport of micronutrients and contaminants in karst aquifer systems while also potentially recording changes in anthropogenic surface activity and land-use.

  1. Quantitative room-temperature mineralization of airborne formaldehyde using manganese oxide catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidheswaran, Meera A.

    2012-01-01

    temperature thermo-catalytic oxidation reactor. Proceedingsarea. Room temperature catalytic oxidation of airborneand their catalytic activity for formaldehyde oxidation.

  2. The oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane with nitrous oxide by molybdenum oxide supported on silica gel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Tsong-Jen

    1979-01-01

    or indirectly from 02, thus tne difference between the two oxidants becomes less sig- nificant. Both rates of formation for C2H4 and C0 were enhanced in the presence of a very small amount of oxygen in the mixture of C2B& and N 0. A radical mechanism... process because of the large and expanding demand for alkenes and dialkenes which are used in the manufacture of various chemical prod- ucts such as detergents, plastics, synthetic rubber, anc high octane gasoline. One example of this type of reaction...

  3. Polysaccharide Nanocomposites Reinforced with Graphene Oxide and Keratin-Grafted Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polysaccharide Nanocomposites Reinforced with Graphene Oxide and Keratin-Grafted Graphene Oxide, chitosan-starch, and carboxymethyl cellulose-starch reinforced with graphene oxide and graphene grafted with keratin were developed. Composites films had been prepared for the casting/solvent evaporation method

  4. Comparison of a thermospheric photochemical model with Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) observations of nitric oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Scott

    and of time. There are two principal energy sources that lead to the production of nitric oxideComparison of a thermospheric photochemical model with Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) observations of nitric oxide C. A. Barth Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado

  5. Book: Aging and Oxidants in Animals and Plants Aging and oxidants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gems, David

    Book: Aging and Oxidants in Animals and Plants Aging and oxidants in the nematode Caenorhabditis;1.1 Testing the oxidative damage theory of aging in C. elegans The biology of aging remains poorly understood. For example, it remains unclear what sort of biological processes are the primary determinants of aging

  6. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project was to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involved both experimental and modeling efforts. The team was comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective was to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. The results suggested that homogeneous mercury oxidation is below 10% which is not consistent with previous data of others and work which was completed early in this research program. Previous data showed oxidation above 10% and up to 100%. However, the previous data are suspect due to apparent oxidation occurring within the sampling system where hypochlorite ion forms in the KCl impinger, which in turn oxidized mercury. Initial tests with entrained iron oxide particles injected into a flame reactor suggest that iron present on fly ash particle surfaces can promote heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in the presence of HCl under entrained flow conditions. Using the data generated above, with homogeneous reactions accounting for less than 10% of the oxidation, comparisons were made to pilot- and full-scale data. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions, as with the case of iron oxide, and adsorption on solid carbon must be taking place in the full-scale system. Modeling of mercury oxidation using parameters from the literature was conducted to further study the contribution of homogeneous pathways to Hg oxidation in coal combustion systems. Calculations from the literature used rate parameters developed in different studies, in some cases using transition state theory with a range of approaches and basis sets, and in other cases using empirical approaches. To address this, rate constants for the entire 8-step homogeneous Hg oxidation sequence were developed using an internally consistent transition state approach. These rate constants when combined with the appropriate sub-mechanisms produced lower estimates of the overall extent of homogeneous oxidation, further suggesting that heterogeneous pathways play an important role in Hg oxidation in coal-fired systems.

  7. Durability Evaluation of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoyu Zhang; James E. O'Brien; Robert C. O'Brien; Gregory K. Housley

    2013-11-01

    An experimental investigation on the performance and durability of single solid oxide cells (SOCs) is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory. Reversible operation of SOCs includes electricity generation in the fuel cell mode and hydrogen generation in the electrolysis mode. Degradation is a more significant issue when operating SOCs in the electrolysis mode. In order to understand and mitigate the degradation issues in high temperature electrolysis, single SOCs with different configurations from several manufacturers have been evaluated for initial performance and long-term durability. A new test apparatus for single cell and small stack tests has been developed for this purpose. Cells were obtained from four industrial partners. Cells from Ceramatec Inc. and Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI) showed improved durability in electrolysis mode compared to previous stack tests. Cells from Saint Gobain Advanced Materials Inc. (St. Gobain) and SOFCPower Inc. demonstrated stable performance in the fuel cell mode, but rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode, especially at high current density. Electrolyte-electrode delamination was found to have a significant impact on degradation in some cases. Enhanced bonding between electrolyte and electrode and modification of the electrode microstructure helped to mitigate degradation. Polarization scans and AC impedance measurements were performed during the tests to characterize cell performance and degradation.

  8. Steam Oxidation of FeCrAl and SiC in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2015-08-01

    Numerous research projects are directed towards developing accident tolerant fuel (ATF) concepts that will enhance safety margins in light water reactors (LWR) during severe accident scenarios. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of ATF solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012 [1-3] and this facility continues to support those efforts in the ATF community. Compared to the current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system, alternative cladding materials can offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation that can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident [4-5]. Thus, steam oxidation behavior is a key aspect of the evaluation of ATF concepts. This report summarizes recent work to measure steam oxidation kinetics of FeCrAl and SiC specimens in the SATS.

  9. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  10. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  11. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  12. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  13. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-12-13

    A method is described for depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates. 1 figure.

  14. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH); Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH)

    1994-12-13

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  15. Vitiated ethane oxidation in a high-pressure flow reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, K.M.; Bowman, C.T.

    2009-10-15

    Vitiated combustion processes offer the potential to improve the thermodynamic efficiency in hydrocarbon-fueled combustion systems, providing a subsequent decrease in energy-specific CO{sub 2} emissions along with a decrease in the emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter. The present work comprises an experimental and modeling study of vitiated ethane oxidation in a high-pressure flow reactor, with pressures of 1-6 bar, O{sub 2} mole fractions of 3.5-7.0%, temperatures of 1075-1100 K and 15-18 mole.% H{sub 2}O. Time-history measurements of species are used to characterize the overall rate of reaction and track the fuel-carbon through intermediate and product species. A one-dimensional mixing-reacting model that accounts for partial oxidation during reactant mixing is used in conjunction with a detailed kinetic mechanism. Changes in competing pathways due to variations in pressure and O{sub 2} mole fraction give rise to the complex pressure dependence seen in the experiments. (author)

  16. Measurement of \

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A A; Bazarko, A O; Brice, S J; Brown, B C; Bugel, L; Cao, J; Coney, L; Conrad, J M; Cox, D C; Curioni, A; Djurcic, Z; Finley, D A; Fleming, B T; Ford, R; Garcia, F G; Garvey, G T; Gonzales, J; Grange, J; Green, C; Green, J A; Hart, T L; Hawker, E; Imlay, R; Johnson, R A; Karagiorgi, G; Kasper, P; Katori, T; Kobilarcik, T; Kourbanis, I; Koutsoliotas, S; Laird, E M; Linden, S K; Link, J M; Liu, Y; Louis, W C; Mahn, K B M; Marsh, W; Mauger, C; McGary, V T; McGregor, G; Metcalf, W; Meyers, P D; Mills, F; Mills, G B; Monroe, J; Moore, C D; Mousseau, J; Nelson, R H; Nienaber, P; Nowak, J A; Osmanov, B; Ouedraogo, S; Patterson, R B; Pavlovic, Z; Perevalov, D; Polly, C C; Prebys, E; Raaf, J L; Ray, H; Roe, B P; Russell, A D; Sandberg, V; Schirato, R; Schmitz, D; Shaevitz, M H; Shoemaker, F C; Smith, D; Soderberg, M; Sorel, M; Spentzouris, P; Spitz, J; Stancu, I; Stefanski, R J; Sung, M; Tanaka, H A; Tayloe, R; Tzanov, M; Van de Water, R G; Wascko, M O; White, D H; Wilking, M J; Yang, H J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2009-01-01

    MiniBooNE reports the first absolute cross sections for neutral current single \\pi^0 production on CH_2 induced by neutrino and antineutrino interactions measured from the largest sets of NC \\pi^0 events collected to date. The principal result consists of differential cross sections measured as functions of \\pi^0 momentum and \\pi^0 angle averaged over the neutrino flux at MiniBooNE. We find total cross sections of (4.76+/-0.05_{stat}+/-0.40_{sys})*10^{-40} cm^2/nucleon at a mean energy of =808 MeV and (1.48+/-0.05_{stat}+/-0.14_{sys})*10^{-40} cm^2/nucleon at a mean energy of =664 MeV for \

  17. Packaging and Transportation of Additional Neptunium Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, R.; Jordan, J.; Hensel, S.

    2010-05-05

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a second neptunium oxide production campaign in which nine (9) additional cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. These additional cans were from a different feed solution than the first fifty (50) cans of neptunium oxide that were previously produced and shipped via a Letter of Amendment to the 9975 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) content table. This paper will address the challenges associated with demonstrating the neptunium oxide produced from the additional feed solution was equivalent to the original neptunium oxide and within the content description of the Letter of Amendment.

  18. Electro-deposition of superconductor oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

    2001-01-01

    Methods for preparing high quality superconducting oxide precursors which are well suited for further oxidation and annealing to form superconducting oxide films. The method comprises forming a multilayered superconducting precursor on a substrate by providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a substrate electrode, and providing to the bath a plurality of precursor metal salts which are capable of exhibiting superconducting properties upon subsequent treatment. The superconducting precursor is then formed by electrodepositing a first electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the substrate electrode, followed by depositing a layer of silver onto the first electrodeposited (ED) layer, and then electrodepositing a second electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the Ag layer. The multilayered superconducting precursor is suitable for oxidation at a sufficient annealing temperature in air or an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form a crystalline superconducting oxide film.

  19. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    using this beamline were able to chart the rate of oxidation of silicon in the gate oxide layer for the first time. Understanding the rate of oxidation in this crucial layer...

  20. Regular paper Search for intermediates of photosynthetic water oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junge, Wolfgang

    II of cyanobacteria and plants incorporates the catalytic centre of water oxidation. PoweredRegular paper Search for intermediates of photosynthetic water oxidation Juergen Clausen & Wolfgang Key words: intermediate, photosynthesis, Photosystem II, S-state, water oxidation Abstract Photosystem

  1. THE STRUCTURE OF ULTRA-THIN OXIDE ON SILICON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivanek, Ondrej L.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-thin (10-lOOA) silicon oxide layers on silicon are ofcrystalline silicon. The oxide layer is seen to be sharplyundulation of the whole oxide layer with ~300A wavelength.

  2. Physiology and Diversity of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Torre, José R.

    -oxidizing archaea (AOA), now generally recog- nized to exert primary control over ammonia oxidation in terrestrial, the unusually high affinity of marine and terrestrial AOA for ammonia indicates that this group may determine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Kinetics and Stoichiometry of Ammonia Oxidation

  3. Oxidized film structure and method of making epitaxial metal oxide structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gan, Shupan [Richland, WA; Liang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-02-25

    A stable oxidized structure and an improved method of making such a structure, including an improved method of making an interfacial template for growing a crystalline metal oxide structure, are disclosed. The improved method comprises the steps of providing a substrate with a clean surface and depositing a metal on the surface at a high temperature under a vacuum to form a metal-substrate compound layer on the surface with a thickness of less than one monolayer. The compound layer is then oxidized by exposing the compound layer to essentially oxygen at a low partial pressure and low temperature. The method may further comprise the step of annealing the surface while under a vacuum to further stabilize the oxidized film structure. A crystalline metal oxide structure may be subsequently epitaxially grown by using the oxidized film structure as an interfacial template and depositing on the interfacial template at least one layer of a crystalline metal oxide.

  4. Catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons and alcohols by carbon dioxide on oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krylov, O.V. . N.N. Semenov Inst. of Chemical Physics); Mamedov, A.Kh.; Mirzabekova, S.R. . Yu.G. Mamedaliev Inst. of Petrochemical Processes)

    1995-02-01

    The great interest displayed lately in heterogeneous catalytic reactions of carbon dioxide is caused by two reasons: (1) the necessity to fight the greenhouse effect and (2) the exhaust of carbon raw material sources. Reactions of oxidative transformation of organic compounds of different classes (alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols) with a nontraditional oxidant, carbon dioxide, were studied on oxide catalysts Fe-O, Cr-O, Mn-O and on multicomponent systems based on manganese oxide. The supported manganese oxide catalysts are active, selective, and stable in conversion of the CH[sub 4] + CO[sub 2] mixture into synthesis gas and in oxidative dehydrogenation of C[sub 2] [minus] C[sub 7] hydrocarbons and the lower alcohols. Unlike metal catalysts manganese oxide based catalysts do not form a carbon layer during the reaction.

  5. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  6. Low-temperature magnetic properties of pelagic carbonates: Oxidation of biogenic magnetite and identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    -temperature magnetic measurements on biogenic magnetite-bearing sediments from the Southern Ocean (Ocean DrillingLow-temperature magnetic properties of pelagic carbonates: Oxidation of biogenic magnetite cells. We document a range of low-temperature magnetic properties, including reversible humped low

  7. Screening method for selecting semiconductor substrates having defects below a predetermined level in an oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, W.L.; Vanheusden, K.J.R.; Schwank, J.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Devine, R.A.B.

    1998-07-28

    A method is disclosed for screening or qualifying semiconductor substrates for integrated circuit fabrication. The method comprises the steps of annealing at least one semiconductor substrate at a first temperature in a defect-activating ambient (e.g. hydrogen, forming gas, or ammonia) for sufficient time for activating any defects within on oxide layer of the substrate; measuring a defect-revealing electrical characteristic of at least a portion of the oxide layer for determining a quantity of activated defects therein; and selecting substrates for which the quantity of activated defects is below a predetermined level. The defect-revealing electrical characteristic may be a capacitance-versus voltage (C-V) characteristic or a current-versus-voltage (I-V) characteristic that is dependent on an electrical charge in the oxide layer generated by the activated defects. Embodiments of the present invention may be applied for screening any type of semiconductor substrate or wafer having an oxide layer formed thereon or therein. This includes silicon-on-insulator substrates formed by a separation by the implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) process or the bond and etch back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) process, as well as silicon substrates having a thermal oxide layer or a deposited oxide layer. 5 figs.

  8. Screening method for selecting semiconductor substrates having defects below a predetermined level in an oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, William L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vanheusden, Karel J. R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schwank, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleetwood, Daniel M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shaneyfelt, Marty R. (Albuquerque, NM); Winokur, Peter S. (Albuquerque, NM); Devine, Roderick A. B. (St. Martin le Vinoux, FR)

    1998-01-01

    A method for screening or qualifying semiconductor substrates for integrated circuit fabrication. The method comprises the steps of annealing at least one semiconductor substrate at a first temperature in a defect-activating ambient (e.g. hydrogen, forming gas, or ammonia) for sufficient time for activating any defects within on oxide layer of the substrate; measuring a defect-revealing electrical characteristic of at least a portion of the oxide layer for determining a quantity of activated defects therein; and selecting substrates for which the quantity of activated defects is below a predetermined level. The defect-revealing electrical characteristic may be a capacitance-versus-voltage (C-V) characteristic or a current-versus-voltage (I-V) characteristic that is dependent on an electrical charge in the oxide layer generated by the activated defects. Embodiments of the present invention may be applied for screening any type of semiconductor substrate or wafer having an oxide layer formed thereon or therein. This includes silicon-on-insulator substrates formed by a separation by the implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) process or the bond and etch back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) process, as well as silicon substrates having a thermal oxide layer or a deposited oxide layer.

  9. Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  10. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Presentation from the...

  11. Water oxidation using a cobalt monolayer prepared by underpotential...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water oxidation using a cobalt monolayer prepared by underpotential deposition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water oxidation using a cobalt monolayer prepared by...

  12. Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration Effects of Diesel Exhaust Emissions on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration DPF regeneration experiments verified the...

  13. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Search Title: Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation The invention is directed to a method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles, the method...

  14. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials | OSTI, US...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials Re-direct Destination: Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The...

  15. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

  16. Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Nanowires for High-Capacity, High...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Nanowires for High-Capacity, High-Rate, Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Nanowires...

  17. 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis...

  18. High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

    2014-03-04

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

  19. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New Medical Innovations Technology available for licensing: novel nanometer-sized metal oxide semiconductors that allow...

  20. Nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials for solid fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Kyle S

    2015-05-05

    Disclosed are solid fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells and PEM fuel cells that include nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials as a component of the fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can include nanocrystalline cerium oxide as a cathode component and microcrystalline cerium oxide as an electrolyte component, which can prevent mechanical failure and interdiffusion common in other fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can also include nanocrystalline cerium oxide in the anode. A PEM fuel cell can include cerium oxide as a catalyst support in the cathode and optionally also in the anode.

  1. National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies What does this project do? For more information on DOE's efforts to make solid oxide fuel cells an efficient and economically compelling...

  2. Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

  3. Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Title Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication...

  4. Global kinetics for a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kinetics for a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst with two exhaust hydrocarbons Global kinetics for a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst with two exhaust hydrocarbons...

  5. A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol-Gel Process Employing Heterometallic Alkoxides A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol-Gel...

  6. Something for Nothing: Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gururangan, Karthik

    2015-01-01

    A. (2001). Materials for fuel cell technologies. Nature,Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell in Hydrocarbon-Airin solid-oxide fuel cell. Letters to Nature,404. Retrieved

  7. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode DesigngovCampaignsSpring SinglegovField CampaignsMidlatitudegovMeasurementsCloud

  8. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotalgovMeasurementsVisibility

  9. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach HomepolarizationMeasurements Related Links RACORO Home AAF

  10. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach HomepolarizationMeasurements Related Links RACORO Home

  11. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach HomepolarizationMeasurements Related Links RACORO

  12. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonforsupernovae2GatheringARMHistory and StatusgovMeasurements

  13. Polarization properties of real aluminum mirrors; I. Influence of the aluminum oxide layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Harten, G; Keller, C U

    2009-01-01

    In polarimetry it is important to characterize the polarization properties of the instrument itself to disentangle real astrophysical signals from instrumental effects. This article deals with the accurate measurement and modeling of the polarization properties of real aluminum mirrors, as used in astronomical telescopes. Main goals are the characterization of the aluminum oxide layer thickness at different times after evaporation and its influence on the polarization properties of the mirror. The full polarization properties of an aluminum mirror are measured with Mueller matrix ellipsometry at different incidence angles and wavelengths. The best fit of theoretical Mueller matrices to all measurements simultaneously is obtained by taking into account a model of bulk aluminum with a thin aluminum oxide film on top of it. Full Mueller matrix measurements of a mirror are obtained with an absolute accuracy of ~1% after calibration. The determined layer thicknesses indicate logarithmic growth in the first few hou...

  14. Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

    2005-07-01

    Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at PFP. Samples varied in appearance depending on the original source of material. Rocky Flats items were mostly dark olive green with clumps that crushed easily with a mortar and pestle. PRF/RMC items showed more variability. These items were mostly rust colored. One sample contained white particles that were difficult to crush, and another sample was a dark grey with a mixture of fines and large, hard fragments. The appearance and feel of the fragments indicated they might be an alloy. The color of the solution samples was indicative of the impurities in the sample. The double-pass filtrate solution was a brown color indicative of the iron impurities in the sample. The other solution sample was light gray in color. Radiochemical analyses, including thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha and gamma energy analysis (AEA and GEA), and kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA), indicate that these materials are all weapons-grade plutonium with consistent plutonium isotopics. A small amount of uranium (<0.14 wt%) is also present in these samples. The isotopic composition of the uranium varied widely but was consistent among each category of material. The primary water-soluble anions in these samples were Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and PO43-. The only major anion observed in the Rocky Flats materials was Cl-, but the PRF/RMC samples had significant quantities of all of the primary anions observed. Prompt gamma measurements provide a representative analysis of the Cl- concentration in the bulk material. The primary anions observed in the solution samples were NO3-, and PO43-. The concentration of these anions did not exceed the mixed oxide (MOX) specification limits. Cations that exceeded the MOX specification limits included Cr, Fe, Ni, Al, Cu, and Si. All of the samples exceeded at least the 75% specification limit in one element.

  15. High-Affinity and Cooperative Binding of Oxidized Calmodulin by Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Yijia; Chen, Baowei; Smallwood, Heather S.; Urbauer, Ramona J.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Galeva, Nadezhda A.; Williams, Todd D.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2006-12-12

    Methionines play an important role in modulating protein-protein interactions associated with intracellular signaling, and their reversible oxidation to form methionine sulfoxides [Met(O)] in calmodulin (CaM) and other signaling proteins has been suggested to couple cellular redox changes to protein function changes through the action of methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr). Prior measurements indicate the full recovery of target protein activation upon the stereospecific reduction of oxidized CaM by MsrA, where the formation of the S-stereoisomer of Met(O) selectively inhibits the CaM-dependent activation of the Ca-ATPase. However, the physiological substrates of MsrA remain unclear, as neither the binding specificities nor affinities of protein targets have been measured. To assess the specificity of binding and its possible importance in the maintenance of CaM function, we have measured the kinetics of repair and the binding affinity between oxidized CaM and MsrA. Reduction of Met(O) in fully oxidized CaM by MsrA is sensitive to protein folding, as repair of the intact protein is incomplete, with > 6 Met(O) remaining in each CaM following MsrA reduction. In contrast, following proteolytic digestion, MsrA is able to fully reduce one-half of the oxidized methionines, indicating that Met(O) within folded proteins are not substrates for MsrA repair. Further, in comparison to free Met(O), the turnover number and Km for oxidized CaM (CaMox) are substantially smaller, indicating that the binding interaction retards Msr recycling to reduce steady-state enzyme activity. Mutation of the active site (i.e., C72S) in MsrA permitted equilibrium-binding measurements using both ensemble and single-molecule measurements obtained by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Multiple MsrA bind tightly to CaMox (Kd = 70 +- 10 nM) with an affinity that is three orders of magnitude greater than the Michaelis constant (KM = 71 +- 8 micromolar). These results indicate that MsrA selectively reduces surface-exposed Met(O) within unstructured sequences and suggest that only a small subset of oxidized proteins are substrates for MsrA, which may selectively modulate the function of key signaling proteins as part of an adaptive response to oxidative stress.

  16. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-02-16

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r {yields} -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t {yields} -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function {Psi} is given by the phase factor e{sup -iEt/{h_bar}} with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the spin operator changes sign with T-operation. (iii) Gauge symmetry (G), which is associated with a change in the phase of the wave-function as {Psi} {yields} e{sup i{theta}}{Psi}. Gauge symmetry is connected to the law of charge conservation, and broken G-symmetry corresponds to superconductivity/superfluidity. To summarize, the interplay among these electronic degrees of freedom produces various forms of symmetry breaking patterns of I, T, and G, leading to novel emergent phenomena, which can appear only by the collective behavior of electrons and cannot be expected from individual electrons. Figure 1 shows this schematically by means of several representative phenomena. From this viewpoint, the interfaces of TMOs offer a unique and important laboratory because I is already broken by the structure itself, and the detailed form of broken I-symmetry can often be designed. Also, two-dimensionality usually enhances the effects of electron correlations by reducing their kinetic energy. These two features of oxide interfaces produce many novel effects and functions that cannot be attained in bulk form. Given that the electromagnetic responses are a major source of the physical properties of solids, and new gauge structures often appear in correlated electronic systems, we put 'emergent electromagnetism' at the center of Fig. 1.

  17. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

  18. Evaluation of Oxidation and Hydrogen Permeation of Al Containing Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Thad M.; Korinko, Paul; Duncan, Andrew

    2005-06-17

    As the National Hydrogen Economy continues to develop and evolve the need for structural materials that can resist hydrogen assisted degradation will become critical. To date austenitic stainless steel materials have been shown to be mildly susceptible to hydrogen attack which results in lower mechanical and fracture strengths. As a result, hydrogen permeation barrier coatings are typically applied to these steel to retard hydrogen ingress. The focal point of the reported work was to evaluate the potential for intentional alloying of commercial 300-series stainless steels to promote hydrogen permeation resistant oxide scales. Previous research on the Cr- and Fe-oxide scales inherent to 300-series stainless steels has proven to be inconsistent in effecting permeation resistance. The approach undertaken in this research was to add aluminum to the 300-series stainless steels in an attempt to promote a pure Al-oxide or and Al-rich oxide scale. Aloxide had been previously demonstrated to be an effective hydrogen permeation barrier. Results for 304L and 347H alloys doped with Al in concentration from 0.5-3.0 wt% with respect to oxidation kinetic studies, cyclic oxidation and characterization of the oxide scale chemistry are reported herein. Gaseous hydrogen permeation testing of the Al-doped alloys in both the unoxidized and oxidized (600 C, 30 mins) conditions are reported. A critical finding from this work is that at concentration as low as 0.5 wt% Al, the Al stabilizes the ferrite phase in these steels thus producing duplex austenitic-ferritic microstructures. As the Al-content increases the amount of measured ferrite increases thus resulting in hydrogen permeabilities more closely resembling ferritic steels.

  19. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  20. Synthesis of transparent conducting oxide coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Pellin, Michael J.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2010-05-04

    A method and system for preparing a light transmitting and electrically conductive oxide film. The method and system includes providing an atomic layer deposition system, providing a first precursor selected from the group of cyclopentadienyl indium, tetrakis (dimethylamino) tin and mixtures thereof, inputting to the deposition system the first precursor for reaction for a first selected time, providing a purge gas for a selected time, providing a second precursor comprised of an oxidizer, and optionally inputting a second precursor into the deposition system for reaction and alternating for a predetermined number of cycles each of the first precursor, the purge gas and the second precursor to produce the oxide film.

  1. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Mendoza, Daniel (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-15

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  2. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation in fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, Radoslav R.; Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.

    2001-01-01

    Binary and ternary electrocatalysts are provided for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. The binary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate selected from the group consisting of NiWO.sub.4 or CoWO.sub.4 or a combination thereof, and 2) Group VIII noble metal catalyst supported on the substrate. The ternary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate as described above, and 2) a catalyst comprising Group VIII noble metal, and ruthenium oxide or molybdenum oxide or a combination thereof, said catalyst being supported on said substrate.

  3. A Big Response to a “Small” Problem: Identifying the Oxidative Potential of Nanomaterials and the Physicochemical Characteristics That Play a Role 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg, James Michael

    2012-02-14

    of nanoparticles influential in toxicological studies, surface properties of metal oxide and carbonaceous nanoparticles were measured. These properties include zeta potential, dissolution and surface-bound chemical components. Subsequently, the role...

  4. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  5. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  6. PERFORMANCE OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE COULOMETER FOR NEPTUNIUM PROCESSACCOUNTABILITY AND NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PRODUCT CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, M; Patterson Nuessle, P; Sheldon Nichols, S; Joe Cordaro, J; George Reeves, G

    2008-06-04

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) H-Area B-Line (HB-Line) nuclear facility is processing neptunium solutions for stabilization as an oxide. The oxide will eventually be reprocessed and fabricated into target material and the 237Np irradiated to produce {sup 238}Pu in support of National Aeronautics and Space Administration space program missions. As part of nuclear materials accountability, solution concentrations were measured using a high-precision controlled-potential coulometer developed and manufactured at the SRS for plutonium accountability measurements. The Savannah River Site Coulometer system and measurement methodology for plutonium meets performance standards in ISO 12183-2005, 'Controlled-Potential Coulometric Assay of Plutonium'. The Department of Energy (DOE) does not produce or supply a neptunium metal certified reference material, which makes qualifying a measurement method and determining accuracy and precision difficult. Testing and performance of the Savannah River Site Coulometer indicates that it can be used to measure neptunium process solutions and dissolved neptunium oxide without purification for material control and accountability purposes. Savannah River Site's Material Control and Accountability organization has accepted the method uncertainty for accountability and product characterization measurements.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jong Woung

    2012-01-01

    nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devicesnanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devices

  8. Kinetic study of the oxidation of n-butane on vanadium oxide supported on Al/Mg mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dejoz, A.; Vazquez, I.; Nieto, J.M.L.; Melo, F.

    1997-07-01

    The reaction kinetics of the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of n-butane over vanadia supported on a heat-treated Mg/Al hydrotalcite (37.3 wt % of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was investigated by both linear and nonlinear regression techniques. A reaction network including the formation of butenes (1-, 2-cis-, and 2-trans-butene), butadiene, and carbon oxides by parallel and consecutive reactions, at low and high n-butane conversions, has been proposed. Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) models can be used as suitable models which allows reproduction of the global kinetic behavior, although differences between oxydehydrogenation and deep oxidation reactions have been observed. Thus, the formation of oxydehydrogenation products can be described by a LH equation considering a dissociative adsorption of oxygen while the formation of carbon oxides is described by a LH equation with a nondissociative adsorption of oxygen. Two different mechanisms operate on the catalyst: (i) a redox mechanism responsible of the formation of olefins and diolefins and associated to vanadium species, which is initiated by a hydrogen abstraction; (ii) a radical mechanism responsible of the formation of carbon oxides from n-butane and butenes and associated to vanadium-free sites of the support. On the other hand, the selectivity to oxydehydrogenation products increases with the reaction temperature. This catalytic performance can be explained taking into account the low reducibility of V{sup 5+}-sites and the higher apparent activation energies of the oxydehydrogenation reactions with respect to deep oxidation reactions.

  9. Structure and Reactivity of Surface Oxides on Pt(110) during Catalytic CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, M.D.; Pedersen, T.M.; Hammer, B.; Hendriksen, B.L.M.; Bobaru, S.C.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Robach, O.; Quiros, C.

    2005-12-16

    We present the first structure determination by surface x-ray diffraction during the restructuring of a model catalyst under reaction conditions, i.e., at high pressure and high temperature, and correlate the restructuring with a change in catalytic activity. We have analyzed the Pt(110) surface during CO oxidation at pressures up to 0.5 bar and temperatures up to 625 K. Depending on the O{sub 2}/CO pressure ratio, we find three well-defined structures: namely, (i) the bulk-terminated Pt(110) surface, (ii) a thin, commensurate oxide, and (iii) a thin, incommensurate oxide. The commensurate oxide only appears under reaction conditions, i.e., when both O{sub 2} and CO are present and at sufficiently high temperatures. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the commensurate oxide is stabilized by carbonate ions (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). Both oxides have a substantially higher catalytic activity than the bulk-terminated Pt surface.

  10. Assessor Training Measurement Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NVLAP Assessor Training Measurement Uncertainty #12;Assessor Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty 3 Measurement Uncertainty ·Calibration and testing labs performing Training 2009: Measurement Uncertainty 4 Measurement Uncertainty ·When the nature of the test precludes

  11. Oxidation of methionine residues in protein pharmaceuticals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Jhih-Wei, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) of free methionine. Therefore, the environments surrounding different methionine sites in G-CSF mainly provide spatial restriction to the access to the solvent but do not affect oxidation in a specific manner, ...

  12. Deoxyribose oxidation chemistry and endogenous DNA adducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xinfeng

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous and exogenous oxidants react with cellular macromolecules to generate a variety of electrophiles that react with DNA produce cytotoxic and mutagenic adducts. One source of such electrophiles is deoxyribose in ...

  13. Photodissociation Dynamics of Halogen Oxide Species 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Kristin S.

    2010-07-14

    The focus of this dissertation is the study of the photodissociation dynamics of halogen oxide species (XO, X = Cl, Br, I). These radical species are known to be important in stratospheric and tropospheric ozone depletion ...

  14. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  15. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  16. Assessment of Oxidation in Carbon Foam 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Min

    2010-07-14

    Carbon foams exhibit numerous unique properties which are attractive for light weight applications such as aircraft and spacecraft as a tailorable material. Carbon foams, when exposed to air, oxidize at temperatures as low ...

  17. Mechanical Properties of Monolayer Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for high-temperature process- ing,22 in electrical energy storage systems,23,24 and as discussed in several on silicon carbide,9,10 chemical reduction of graphene oxide (G O) in colloidal suspension,11 13 and plasma

  18. The biogeochemistry of marine nitrous oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frame, Caitlin H

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide N?O concentrations have been rising steadily for the past century as a result of human activities. In particular, human perturbation of the nitrogen cycle has increased the N?O production rates ...

  19. Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

    2014-04-08

    A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

  20. Control of regioselectivity:oxidation and deprotection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Joseph A

    2002-01-01

    Palladium is a highly versatile metal, capable of catalysing oxidations, reductions and a myriad of organic transformations. The inorganic chemistry of palladium, and the relation of this to the catalytic activity of the metal, is briefly discussed...

  1. Nitrogen oxide delivery systems for biological media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skinn, Brian Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo are associated with a variety of cellular modifications thought to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. These processes are likely mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as ...

  2. Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)s is developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance and to examine the underlying ...

  3. Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1999-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  4. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palm, B. B.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Ortega, A. M.; Day, D. A.; Kaser, L.; Jud, W.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.; Hunter, J. F.; Cross, E. S.; et al

    2015-11-04

    Ambient air was oxidized by OH radicals in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) located in a montane pine forest during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and aging. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semi-continuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative time scales of condensation of low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles, condensational loss to the walls, and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. Moremore »SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 4 ?g m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 1 ?g m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene + p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 LT. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic compounds, and net production at lower ages followed by net consumption of terpenoid oxidation products as photochemical age increased. New particle formation was observed in the reactor after oxidation, especially during times when precursor gas concentrations and SOA formation were largest. Approximately 6 times more SOA was formed in the reactor from OH oxidation than could be explained by the VOCs measured in ambient air. Several recently-developed instruments quantified ambient semi- and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) that were not detected by a PTR-TOF-MS. An SOA yield of 24–80 % from those compounds can explain the observed SOA, suggesting that these typically unmeasured S/IVOCs play a substantial role in ambient SOA formation. Our results allow ruling out condensation sticking coefficients much lower than 1. Our measurements help clarify the magnitude of SOA formation in forested environments, and demonstrate methods for interpretation of ambient OFR measurements.« less

  5. Preparation of silver nanoparticles/graphene nanosheets as a catalyst for electrochemical oxidation of methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Kun; Miao, Peng; Tang, Yuguo, E-mail: tangyg@sibet.ac.cn [Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215163 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tong, Hui; Zhu, Xiaoli [Laboratory of Biosensing Technology, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Tao; Cheng, Wenbo [Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215163 (China)

    2014-02-03

    In this report, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated graphene nanosheets have been prepared based on the reduction of Ag ions by hydroquinone, and their catalytic performance towards the electrochemical oxidation of methanol is investigated. The synthesis of the nano-composite is confirmed by transmission electron microscope measurements and UV-vis absorption spectra. Excellent electrocatalytic performance of the material is demonstrated by cyclic voltammograms. This material also contributes to the low peak potential of methanol oxidation compared with most of the other materials.

  6. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, E.A.; Fegley, M.B. Jr.; Bowen, H.K.

    1985-09-24

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 microns can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed. 6 figs.

  7. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

  8. Mixed oxide nanoparticles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN); Zhang, Chuanlun (Columbia, MO); Roh, Yul (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-09-03

    Methods and apparatus for producing mixed oxide nanoparticulates are disclosed. Selected thermophilic bacteria cultured with suitable reducible metals in the presence of an electron donor may be cultured under conditions that reduce at least one metal to form a doped crystal or mixed oxide composition. The bacteria will form nanoparticles outside the cell, allowing easy recovery. Selection of metals depends on the redox potentials of the reducing agents added to the culture. Typically hydrogen or glucose are used as electron donors.

  9. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  10. Electrochemical Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Nanostructured Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    microstructures called aerogels in the case of supercritical or freeze-drying and ambigels in the case of solvent for intercalated ions.7 When cycled between 4.0 and 1.5 V, vanadium oxide aerogels achieved capaci- ties of 410 mAh/g at C/40.6 Baudrin et al. have used the vanadium oxide aerogel structure to access a metastable phase

  11. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Julia (Albuquerque, NM); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA)

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  12. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  13. High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Duenow, Joel N. (Golden, CO); Barnes, Teresa (Evergreen, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO)

    2012-08-28

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

  14. Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Greenbelt, MD); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure.

  15. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

    1988-10-11

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  16. Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2005-06-28

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  17. Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-08-12

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  18. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droege, Michael W. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Hair, Lucy M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

  19. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

    1995-03-07

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

  20. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  1. Apparatus for making cathodo- and photo- luminescent measurements of thin film phosphors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babuchna, Paul Michael

    1998-01-01

    the understanding of the thin film phosphor, tungsten doped zinc oxide. Principally, a vacuum system is constructed and provides for both photo-and cathode-phosphor excitations. A measurement capability is then included. Finally, additions are mentioned...

  2. In Situ CO, Oxygen, and Opacity Measurement for Optimizing Combustion Control System Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molloy, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    detailed review of the latest state-of-the-art In Situ measurement techniques is provided, including: gas filter correlation spectroscopy (CO), zirconium oxide fuel cell (oxygen), and glass fiber optics based transmissometers (opacity). Recent...

  3. On the Design of Oxide Films, Nanomaterials, and Heterostructures for Solar Water Oxidation Photoanodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kronawitter, Coleman

    2012-01-01

    metal oxides for solar energy conversion applications. Therenotably those for solar energy conversion devices, have ledphotoactive components of solar energy conversion devices.

  4. On the Design of Oxide Films, Nanomaterials, and Heterostructures for Solar Water Oxidation Photoanodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kronawitter, Coleman

    2012-01-01

    conceptual framework for the design of solar water oxidationpromising tandem designs for solar hydrogen generation. 1,2conceptual framework for the design of solar water oxidation

  5. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01

    a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, a lanthanumsystems such Mg doped zirconia [42]. Unfortunately, thesupported yttria stabilized zirconia solid oxide fuel cells,

  6. Cupric oxide inclusions in cuprous oxide crystals grown by the floating zone method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frazer, Laszlo; Chang, Kelvin B.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Ketterson, John B.

    2015-05-08

    Phase-pure cuprous oxide (Cu2O) crystals are difficult to grow since cupric oxide can form within the crystal as the crystal is cooled to ambient conditions. Vacancies are the solute which causes precipitation of macroscopic defects. Therefore, even when a mostly phase-pure single crystal is used as a feed rod, cupric oxide inclusions persist in the recrystallized solid. Control of the thermal profile during crystal growth, however, can improve phase-purity; a slow counter-rotation rate of the feed and seed rods results in fewer inclusions. Cupric oxide can be removed by annealing, which produces a factor of 540 ± 70 increase inmore »phase-purity.« less

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

    1988-08-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

  8. Oxidative particle mixtures for groundwater treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegrist, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Murdoch, Lawrence C. (Clemson, SC)

    2000-01-01

    The invention is a method and a composition of a mixture for degradation and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater. The oxidative particle mixture and method includes providing a material having a minimal volume of free water, mixing at least one inorganic oxidative chemical in a granular form with a carrier fluid containing a fine grained inorganic hydrophilic compound and injecting the resulting mixture into the subsurface. The granular form of the inorganic oxidative chemical dissolves within the areas of injection, and the oxidative ions move by diffusion and/or advection, therefore extending the treatment zone over a wider area than the injection area. The organic contaminants in the soil and groundwater are degraded by the oxidative ions, which form solid byproducts that can sorb significant amounts of inorganic contaminants, metals, and radionuclides for in situ treatment and immobilization of contaminants. The method and composition of the oxidative particle mixture for long-term treatment and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater provides for a reduction in toxicity of contaminants in a subsurface area of contamination without the need for continued injection of treatment material, or for movement of the contaminants, or without the need for continuous pumping of groundwater through the treatment zone, or removal of groundwater from the subsurface area of contamination.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, Charles C. (Plainfield, IL); Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

  10. Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    oxidation in limestone slurry scrubbing. Introduction Limestone (CaCO3) slurry scrubbing and lime (Ca

  11. Complement receptor type 2conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Judith G.

    ). Cross-linked iron oxide (CLIO) and other iron oxide formulations affect T2 primarily and lead+), accelerate T1 relaxation and lead to brighter contrast images. The superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIOComplement receptor type 2­conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles [CR2-Fc-SPIO] Kam

  12. High carrier concentration p-type transparent conducting oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yan, Yanfa; Zhang, Shengbai

    2005-06-21

    A p-type transparent conducting oxide film is provided which is consisting essentially of, the transparent conducting oxide and a molecular doping source, the oxide and doping source grown under conditions sufficient to deliver the doping source intact onto the oxide.

  13. Domain Transformation Problems in 2-D Oxidation Pavlin B. Entchev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    algorithms for simulating two dimensional oxide layer formation at an internal wedge tip. Two numerical algorithms for computing oxide layer growth are presented. The first algorithm is based on transforming of oxidation it is possible for titanium to diffuse through the oxide layer. However, the physical nature

  14. Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA); Bierl, Thomas W. (West Chester, PA)

    1998-01-01

    The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol.

  15. Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhinde, M.V.; Bierl, T.W.

    1998-03-03

    The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol. 1 fig.

  16. Copper accumulation and lipid oxidation precede inflammation and myelin lesions in N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate peripheral myelinopathy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viquez, Olga M.; Valentine, Holly L.; Amarnath, Kalyani [Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States); Milatovic, Dejan [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States); Valentine, William M. [Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States); Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States); Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States)], E-mail: bill.valentine@vanderbilt.edu

    2008-05-15

    Dithiocarbamates have a wide spectrum of applications in industry, agriculture and medicine with new applications being actively investigated. One adverse effect of dithiocarbamates is the neurotoxicity observed in humans and experimental animals. Results from previous studies have suggested that dithiocarbamates elevate copper and promote lipid oxidation within myelin membranes. In the current study, copper levels, lipid oxidation, protein oxidative damage and markers of inflammation were monitored as a function of N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDC) exposure duration in an established model for DEDC-mediated myelinopathy in the rat. Intra-abdominal administration of DEDC was performed using osmotic pumps for periods of 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Metals in brain, liver and tibial nerve were measured using ICP-MS and lipid oxidation assessed through HPLC measurement of malondialdehyde in tibial nerve, and GC/MS measurement of F{sub 2} isoprostanes in sciatic nerve. Protein oxidative injury of sciatic nerve proteins was evaluated through quantification of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts using immunoassay, and inflammation monitored by quantifying levels of IgGs and activated macrophages using immunoassay and immunohistochemistry methods, respectively. Changes in these parameters were then correlated to the onset of structural lesions, determined by light and electron microscopy, to delineate the temporal relationship of copper accumulation and oxidative stress in peripheral nerve to the onset of myelin lesions. The data provide evidence that DEDC mediates lipid oxidation and elevation of total copper in peripheral nerve well before myelin lesions or activated macrophages are evident. This relationship is consistent with copper-mediated oxidative stress contributing to the myelinopathy.

  17. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  18. Ethane ignition and oxidation behind reflected shock waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Vries, Jaap; Hall, Joel M.; Simmons, Stefanie L.; Kalitan, Danielle M.; Petersen, Eric L.; Rickard, Matthew J.A.

    2007-07-15

    Several diluted C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures of varying concentrations and equivalence ratios (0.5<{phi}<2.0) were studied at temperatures between 1218 and 1860 K and at pressures between 0.57 and 3.0 atm using a shock tube. The argon dilution ranged from 91 to 98% by volume. Reaction progress was monitored using chemiluminescence emission from OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} at 307 and 431 nm, respectively. The dependence of ignition delay time on temperature, activation energy, and reactant concentrations is given in a master correlation of all the experimental data. The overall activation energy was found to be 39.6 kcal/mol over the range of conditions studied. For the first time in a shock-tube C{sub 2}H{sub 6} oxidation study, detailed species profile data and quantitative OH{sup *} time histories were documented, in addition to ignition delay times, and compared against modern detailed mechanisms. Because of the comprehensive scope of the present study and the high precision of the experimental data, several conclusions can be drawn that could not have been reached from earlier studies. Although there is some discrepancy among previous ethane oxidation data, the present work clearly shows the convergence of ignition delay time measurements to those herein and the remarkable accuracy of current kinetics models over most of the parameter space explored, despite the variation in the literature data. However, two areas shown to still need more measurements and better modeling are those of higher pressures and fuel-rich ethane-air mixtures. After appropriate OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} submechanisms are added, two modern chemical kinetics mechanisms containing high-temperature ethane chemistry are compared to the data to gauge the current state of C{sub 2}H{sub 6} oxidation modeling over the conditions of this study. The reproduction of the OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} profiles, together with {tau}{sub ign} predictions by these models, are compared against the profiles and ignition times found in the experimental data. The models are then used to identify some key reactions in ethane oxidation and CH formation under the conditions of this study. (author)

  19. Measurement and Characterization of Nuclear Material at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; S. A. Pozzi; D. L. Chichester

    2009-07-01

    A measurement plan and preliminary Monte Carlo simulations are presented for the investigation of well-defined mixed-oxide fuel pins. Measurement analysis including pulse-height distributions and time-dependent cross-correlation functions will be performed separately for neutrons and gamma rays. The utilization of Monte Carlo particle transport codes, specifically MCNP-PoliMi, is discussed in conjunction with the anticipated measurements. Four EJ-309 liquid scintillation detectors with an accurate pulse timing and digital, offline, optimized pulse-shape discrimination method will be used to prove the dependency of pulse-height distributions, cross-correlation functions, and material multiplicities upon fuel pin composition, fuel pin quantity, and detector geometry. The objective of the measurements and simulations is to identify novel methods for describing mixed-oxide fuel samples by relating measured quantities to fuel characteristics such as criticality, mass quantity, and material composition. This research has applications in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation.

  20. Kinetics of solid-gas reactions characterized by scanning AC nano-calorimetry with application to Zr oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Kechao; Lee, Dongwoo; Vlassak, Joost J., E-mail: vlassak@esag.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Scanning AC nano-calorimetry is a recently developed experimental technique capable of measuring the heat capacity of thin-film samples of a material over a wide range of temperatures and heating rates. Here, we describe how this technique can be used to study solid-gas phase reactions by measuring the change in heat capacity of a sample during reaction. We apply this approach to evaluate the oxidation kinetics of thin-film samples of zirconium in air. The results confirm parabolic oxidation kinetics with an activation energy of 0.59?±?0.03 eV. The nano-calorimetry measurements were performed using a device that contains an array of micromachined nano-calorimeter sensors in an architecture designed for combinatorial studies. We demonstrate that the oxidation kinetics can be quantified using a single sample, thus enabling high-throughput mapping of the composition-dependence of the reaction rate.

  1. An experimental and kinetic modelling study of the oxidation of the four isomers of butanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moss, J T; Oehlschlaeger, M A; Biet, Joffrey; Warth, Valérie; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; 10.1021/jp806464p

    2008-01-01

    Butanol, an alcohol which can be produced from biomass sources, has received recent interest as an alternative to gasoline for use in spark ignition engines and as a possible blending compound with fossil diesel or biodiesel. Therefore, the autoignition of the four isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol) has been experimentally studied at high temperatures in a shock tube and a kinetic mechanism for description of their high-temperature oxidation has been developed. Ignition delay times for butanol/oxygen/argon mixtures have been measured behind reflected shock waves at temperatures and pressures ranging from approximately 1200 to 1800 K and 1 to 4 bar. Electronically excited OH emission and pressure measurements were used to determine ignition delay times. A detailed kinetic mechanism has been developed to describe the oxidation of the butanol isomers and validated by comparison to the shock tube measurements. Reaction flux and sensitivity analysis indicate that the consumpti...

  2. Electrical characterization of native-oxide InAlPGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrical characterization of native-oxide InAlPÕGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures 8 December 2003; accepted 20 January 2004 InAIP native oxide/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS of Schottky gates can lead to excessive gate leakage current and also restrict the forward gate bias to only

  3. Kinetics and Mechanism of Ethane Oxidation to Acetic Acid on Catalysts Based on Mo-V-Nb Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Mechanism of Ethane Oxidation to Acetic Acid on Catalysts Based on Mo-V-Nb Oxides and isotopic studies showed that C-H bond activation in ethane by surfaces essentially saturated with lattice oxygens is the sole kinetically relevant step in ethane oxidation on Mo-V-NbOx mixed oxides

  4. Start | Author Index 742-3 Rates and Mechanisms of Arsenite Oxidation by Nano-Mn(IV) Oxide Mineral Phases.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Start | Author Index 742-3 Rates and Mechanisms of Arsenite Oxidation by Nano-Mn(IV) Oxide Mineral is thought to generally occur through either biologically or mineral-surface mediated Mn(II) oxidation. These two oxidation pathways result in the formation of nanometer-size Mn(IV) minerals. Compared

  5. ENVR Dionysios Dionysiou Wednesday, August 22, 2012 261 -Arsenic mobilization in the critical zone: Oxidation by manganese oxide minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    with the two most reactive Mn oxides, HMO and acid birnessite. Only higher arsenic concentrations decreased

  6. Synthesis and Lanthanide Coordination Chemistry of Phosphine Oxide Decorated Dibenzothiophene and Dibenzothiophene Sulfone Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosario-Amorin, Daniel; Ouizem, Sabrina; Dickie, D. A.; Paine, Robert T.; Cramer, Roger E.; Hay, Benjamin; Podair, Julien; Delmau, Laetitia Helene

    2014-01-01

    Syntheses for new ligands based upon dibenzothiophene and dibenzothiophene sulfone platforms, decorated with phosphine oxide and methylphosphine oxide donor groups, are described. Coordination chem. of 4, 6- bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethyl) dibenzothiophene (8) , 4, 6- bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethyl) dibenzothiophene- 5, 5- dioxide (9) and 4, 6- bis(diphenylphosphinoyl) dibenzothiophene- 5, 5- dioxide (10) with lanthanide nitrates, Ln(NO3) 3 (H2O) n is outlined, and crystal structure detns. reveal a range of chelation interactions on Ln(III) ions. The HNO3 dependence of the solvent extn. performance of 9 and 10 in 1, 2- dichloroethane for Eu(III) and Am(III) is described and compared against the extn. behavior of related dibenzofuran ligands (2, 3; R = Ph) and n- octyl(phenyl) - N, N- diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (4) measured under identical conditions.

  7. Ionizing radiation induced leakage current on ultra-thin gate oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpa, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Montera, F.; Ghibaudo, G.; Pananakakis, G.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1997-12-01

    MOS capacitors with a 4.4 nm thick gate oxide have been exposed to {gamma} radiation from a Co{sup 60} source. As a result, the authors have measured a stable leakage current at fields lower than those required for Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. This Radiation Induced Leakage Current (RILC) is similar to the usual Stress Induced Leakage Currents (SILC) observed after electrical stresses of MOS devices. They have verified that these two currents share the same dependence on the oxide field, and the RILC contribution can be normalized to an equivalent injected charge for Constant Current Stresses. They have also considered the dependence of the RILC from the cumulative radiation dose, and from the applied bias during irradiation, suggesting a correlation between RILC and the distribution of trapped holes and neutral levels in the oxide layer.

  8. Reaction kinetics for the high temperature oxidation of Pu--1wt%Ga in water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stakebake, J L; Saba, M A

    1988-01-01

    Oxidation of plutonium metal is greatly accelerated by the presence of water vapor. The magnitude of the effect of water vapor on oxidation kinetics is determined by temperature, water concentration, and oxygen concentration. Most of the previous work has been directed toward evaluating the effect of moisture on the atmospheric oxidation of plutonium. Work on the isolation and characterization of the water reaction with plutonium has been very limited. The present work was undertaken to determine the kinetics of the plutonium--water reaction over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Reaction kinetics were measured using a vacuum microbalance system. The temperature range investigated was 100--500/degree/C. The effect of water vapor pressure on reaction kinetics was determined at 300/degree/C by varying the water pressure from 0.1 to 15 Torr. 2 figs.

  9. Multi-wavelength Raman scattering of nanostructured Al-doped zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, V.; Ghidelli, M.; Gondoni, P. [Dipartimento di Energia and NEMAS, Center for Nanoengineered Materials and Surfaces, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Casari, C. S.; Li Bassi, A. [Dipartimento di Energia and NEMAS, Center for Nanoengineered Materials and Surfaces, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology PoliMI, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-02-21

    In this work we present a detailed Raman scattering investigation of zinc oxide and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films characterized by a variety of nanoscale structures and morphologies and synthesized by pulsed laser deposition under different oxygen pressure conditions. The comparison of Raman spectra for pure ZnO and AZO films with similar morphology at the nano/mesoscale allows to investigate the relation between Raman features (peak or band positions, width, relative intensity) and material properties such as local structural order, stoichiometry, and doping. Moreover Raman measurements with three different excitation lines (532, 457, and 325?nm) point out a strong correlation between vibrational and electronic properties. This observation confirms the relevance of a multi-wavelength Raman investigation to obtain a complete structural characterization of advanced doped oxide materials.

  10. THERMAL EFFECTS ON MASS AND SPATIAL RESOLUTION DURING LASER PULSE ATOM PROBE TOMOGRAPHY OF CERIUM OXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rita Kirchhofer; Melissa C. Teague; Brian P. Gorman

    2013-05-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) is an ideal surrogate material for trans-uranic elements and fission products found in nuclear fuels due to similarities in their thermal properties; therefore, cerium oxide was used to determine the best run condition for atom probe tomography (APT). Laser pulse APT is a technique that allows for spatial resolution in the nm scale and isotopic/elemental chemical identification. A systematic study of the impact of laser pulse energy and specimen base temperature on the mass resolution, measurement of stoichiometry, multiples, and evaporation mechanisms are reported in this paper. It was demonstrated that using laser pulse APT stoichiometric field evaporation of cerium oxide was achieved at 1 pJ laser pulse energy and 20 K specimen base temperature.

  11. Growth and properties of crystalline barium oxide on the GaAs(100) substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasir, M.; Dahl, J.; Lång, J.; Tuominen, M.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Laukkanen, P., E-mail: pekka.laukkanen@utu.fi; Kokko, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Kuzmin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland) [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Korpijärvi, V.-M.; Polojärvi, V.; Guina, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)] [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2013-11-04

    Growing a crystalline oxide film on III-V semiconductor renders possible approaches to improve operation of electronics and optoelectronics heterostructures such as oxide/semiconductor junctions for transistors and window layers for solar cells. We demonstrate the growth of crystalline barium oxide (BaO) on GaAs(100) at low temperatures, even down to room temperature. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal that the amount of interface defects is reduced for BaO/GaAs, compared to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs, suggesting that BaO is a useful buffer layer to passivate the surface of the III-V device material. PL and photoemission data show that the produced junction tolerates the post heating around 600?°C.

  12. Molybdenum as a contact material in zinc tin oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, W.; Peterson, R. L., E-mail: blpeters@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

    2014-05-12

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors are of increasing interest for a variety of thin film electronics applications. Here, the contact properties of different source/drain electrode materials to solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors are studied using the transmission line method. The width-normalized contact resistance between ZTO and sputtered molybdenum is measured to be 8.7 ?-cm, which is 10, 20, and 600 times smaller than that of gold/titanium, indium tin oxide, and evaporated molybdenum electrodes, respectively. The superior contact formed using sputtered molybdenum is due to a favorable work function lineup, an insulator-free interface, bombardment of ZTO during molybdenum sputtering, and trap-assisted tunneling. The transfer length of the sputtered molybdenum/ZTO contact is 0.34??m, opening the door to future radio-frequency sub-micron molybdenum/ZTO thin film transistors.

  13. Structure and Electronic Configurations of the Intermediates of Water Oxidation in Blue Ruthenium Dimer Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moonshiram, Dooshaye; Jurss, Jonah W.; Concepcion, Javier J.; Zakharova, Taisiya; Alperovich, Igor; Meyer, Thomas J.; Pushkar, Yulia

    2013-04-08

    Catalytic O{sub 2} evolution with cis,cis-[(bpy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)Ru{sup III}ORu{sup III}(OH{sub 2})(bpy){sub 2}]{sup 4+} (bpy is 2,2-bipyridine), the so-called blue dimer, the first designed water oxidation catalyst, was monitored by UV-vis, EPR, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with ms time resolution. Two processes were identified, one of which occurs on a time scale of 100 ms to a few seconds and results in oxidation of the catalyst with the formation of an intermediate, here termed [3,4]'. A slower process occurring on the time scale of minutes results in the decay of this intermediate and O{sub 2} evolution. Spectroscopic data suggest that within the fast process there is a short-lived transient intermediate, which is a precursor of [3,4]'. When excess oxidant was used, a highly oxidized form of the blue dimer [4,5] was spectroscopically resolved within the time frame of the fast process. Its structure and electronic state were confirmed by EPR and XAS. As reported earlier, the [3,4]' intermediate likely results from reaction of [4,5] with water. While it is generated under strongly oxidizing conditions, it does not display oxidation of the Ru centers past [3,4] according to EPR and XAS. EXAFS analysis demonstrates a considerably modified ligand environment in [3,4]'. Raman measurements confirmed the presence of the O-O fragment by detecting a new vibration band in [3,4]' that undergoes a 46 cm{sup -1} shift to lower energy upon {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O exchange. Under the conditions of the experiment at pH 1, the [3,4]' intermediate is the catalytic steady state form of the blue dimer catalyst, suggesting that its oxidation is the rate-limiting step.

  14. Methane and methanol oxidation in supercritical water: Chemical kinetics and hydrothermal flame studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeper, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an emerging technology for the treatment of wastes in the presence of a large concentration of water at conditions above water`s thermodynamic critical point. A high-pressure, optically accessible reaction cell was constructed to investigate the oxidation of methane and methanol in this environment. Experiments were conducted to examine both flame and non-flame oxidation regimes. Optical access enabled the use of normal and shadowgraphy video systems for visualization, and Raman spectroscopy for in situ measurement of species concentrations. Flame experiments were performed by steadily injecting pure oxygen into supercritical mixtures of water and methane or methanol at 270 bar and at temperatures from 390 to 510{degrees}C. The experiments mapped conditions leading to the spontaneous ignition of diffusion flames in supercritical water. Above 470{degrees}C, flames spontaneously ignite in mixtures containing only 6 mole% methane or methanol. This data is relevant to the design and operation of commercial SCWO processes that may be susceptible to inadvertent flame formation. Non-flame oxidation kinetics experiments measured rates of methane oxidation in supercritical water at 270 bar and at temperatures from 390 to 442{degrees}C. The initial methane concentration was nominally 0.15 gmol/L, a level representative of commercial SCWO processes. The observed methane concentration histories were fit to a one-step reaction rate expression indicating a reaction order close to two for methane and zero for oxygen. Experiments were also conducted with varying water concentrations (0 to 8 gmol/L) while temperature and initial reactant concentrations were held constant. The rate of methane oxidation rises steadily with water concentration up to about 5 gmol/L and then abruptly falls off at higher concentrations.

  15. Epitaxially Aligned Cuprous Oxide Nanowires for All-Oxide, Single-Wire Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    oxide that can absorb visible light, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is an attractive material for solar energy, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United States Materials Science Division, Lawrence,3 Cu2O is of interest for studying excitonic behavior as well as for solar energy conversion

  16. Direct-Coupling O? Bond Forming Pathway in Cobalt Oxide Water Oxidation Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lee-Ping

    We report a catalytic mechanism for water oxidation in a cobalt oxide cubane model compound, in which the crucial O–O bond formation step takes place by direct coupling between two CoIV(O) metal oxo groups. Our results are ...

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of nitric oxide reductase gene homologues from aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Bess

    -oxidizing bacteria Karen L. Casciotti *,1 , Bess B. Ward Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton) are climatically important trace gases that are produced by both nitrifying and den- itrifying bacteria-oxidizing bacteria, including Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus species (i.e., both b- and c-Proteobacterial ammonia

  18. Isotopic Tracer Studies of Reaction Pathways for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Isotopic Tracer Studies of Reaction Pathways for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Molybdenum of propane over ZrO2-supported MoOx catalysts. Competitive reactions of C3H6 and CH3 13 CH2CH3 showed combustion of propene, or by direct combustion of propane. A mixture of C3H8 and C3D8 undergoes oxidative

  19. Kinetics and Mechanism of Dimethyl Ether Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Supported Molybdenum Oxide Domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Mechanism of Dimethyl Ether Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Supported Molybdenum Oxide to formaldehyde (HCHO) on MoOx/Al2O3. The reaction intermediates and elementary steps established a redox to alkenes and oxygenates too costly for practical implementation. Oxygenates, such as formaldehyde (HCHO

  20. Method for facilitating catalyzed oxidation reactions, device for facilitating catalyzed oxidation reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beuhler, Robert J. (East Moriches, NY); White, Michael G. (Blue Point, NY); Hrbek, Jan (Rocky Point, NY)

    2006-08-15

    A catalytic process for the oxidation of organic. Oxygen is loaded into a metal foil by heating the foil while in contact with an oxygen-containing fluid. After cooling the oxygen-activated foil to room temperature, oxygen diffuses through the foil and oxidizes reactants exposed to the other side of the foil.

  1. Effect of Substrate Thickness on Oxide Scale Spallation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of the ferritic substrate's thickness on the delamination/spallation of the oxide scale was investigated experimentally and numerically. At the high-temperature oxidation environment of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a combination of growth stress with thermal stresses may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during SOFC stack cooling, even leading to serious degradation of cell performance. The growth stress is induced by the growth of the oxide scale on the scale/substrate interface, and thermal stress is induced by a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide scale and the substrate. The numerical results show that the interfacial shear stresses, which are the driving force of scale delamination between the oxide scale and the ferritic substrate, increase with the growth of the oxide scale and also with the thickness of the ferritic substrate; i.e., the thick ferritic substrate can easily lead to scale delamination and spallation. Experimental observation confirmed the predicted results of the delamination and spallation of the oxide scale on the ferritic substrate.

  2. Comparative study of metal or oxide capped indiumtin oxide anodes for organic light-emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1556184 I. INTRODUCTION Organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs 1 are challengingComparative study of metal or oxide capped indium­tin oxide anodes for organic light as anodes in organic light-emitting diodes based on N,N -diphenyl-N,N bis 3-methyl-phenyl-1,1 -biphenyl-4

  3. Thermally evaporated mechanically hard tin oxide thin films for opto-electronic apllications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathy, Sumanta K.; Rajeswari, V. P. [Centre for Nano Science and Technology, GVP College of Engineering (Autonomous), Visakhapatnam- 530048 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Tungsten doped tin oxide (WTO) and Molybdenum doped tin oxide (MoTO) thin film were deposited on corn glass by thermal evaporation method. The films were annealed at 350°C for one hour. Structural analysis using Xray diffraction data shows both the films are polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of tin oxide, Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, corresponding to JCPDS card number 01-078-6064. SEM photograph showed that both the films have spherical grains with size in the range of 20–30 nm. Compositional analysis was carried out using EDS which reveals the presence of Sn, O and the dopant Mo/W only thereby indicating the absence of any secondary phase in the films. The films are found to contain nearly 6 wt% of Mo, 8 wt% of W as dopants respectively. The transmission pattern for both the films in the spectral range 200 – 2000 nm shows that W doping gives a transparency of nearly 80% from 380 nm onwards while Mo doping has less transparency of 39% at 380nm. Film hardness measurement using Triboscope shows a film hardness of about 9–10 GPa for both the films. It indicates that W or M doping in tin oxide provides the films the added advantage of withstanding the mechanical wear and tear due to environmental fluctuations By optimizing the optical and electrical properties, W/Mo doped tin oxide films may be explored as window layers in opto-electronic applications such as solar cells.

  4. Electrical conductivity in oxygen-deficient phases of transition metal oxides from first-principles calculations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondi, Robert James; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Marinella, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Density-functional theory calculations, ab-initio molecular dynamics, and the Kubo-Greenwood formula are applied to predict electrical conductivity in Ta2Ox (0x5) as a function of composition, phase, and temperature, where additional focus is given to various oxidation states of the O monovacancy (VOn; n=0,1+,2+). Our calculations of DC conductivity at 300K agree well with experimental measurements taken on Ta2Ox thin films and bulk Ta2O5 powder-sintered pellets, although simulation accuracy can be improved for the most insulating, stoichiometric compositions. Our conductivity calculations and further interrogation of the O-deficient Ta2O5 electronic structure provide further theoretical basis to substantiate VO0 as a donor dopant in Ta2O5 and other metal oxides. Furthermore, this dopant-like behavior appears specific to neutral VO cases in both Ta2O5 and TiO2 and was not observed in other oxidation states. This suggests that reduction and oxidation reactions may effectively act as donor activation and deactivation mechanisms, respectively, for VO0 in transition metal oxides.

  5. IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

    2012-06-05

    During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

  6. Sustainable Steelmaking Using Biomass and Waste Oxides (TRP9902)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard J. Fruehan

    2004-09-30

    A new process for ironmaking was proposed to employ renewable energy in the form of wood charcoal to produce hot metal. The process was aimed at the market niche of units ranging from 400,000 to 1 million tons of hot metal a year. In the new process, a Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF) would be combined with a smelter to produce hot metal. This combination was proposed to overcome the technical hurdles of energy generation in smelters and the low productivity of RHFs, and also allow the use of wood charcoal as energy source and reductant. In order to assess the feasibility of the new process, it was necessary to estimate the productivity of the two units involved, the RHF and the smelter. This work concentrated on the development of a productivity model for the RHF able to predict changes in productivity according to the type of carbon and iron oxides used as feed materials. This model was constructed starting with the most fundamental aspect of reduction in composites measuring intrinsic rates of oxidation of different carbons in CO{sub 2}-CO atmospheres and reduction of different oxides in the same atmospheres. After that, a model was constructed considering the interplay of intrinsic kinetics and the transfer of heat to and within pellets such as used in the RHF. Finally, a productivity model for the RHF was developed based on the model developed for a pellet and the differences in heat transfer conditions between the laboratory furnace and the actual RHF. The final model produced for the RHF predicts production rates within 30% of actual plant data reported with coal and indicates that productivity gains as high as 50% could be achieved replacing coal with wood charcoal in the green balls owing to the faster reaction rates achieved with the second carbon. This model also indicates that an increase of less than 5% in total carbon consumption should take place in operations using wood charcoal instead of coal.

  7. Synthesis and characterizations of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkanna, M., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Amit K., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com [Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, M.G. Avenue, Durgapur - 713209 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Interest in graphene on its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, it’s very high specific surface area, and our ability to influence these properties through chemical functionalization. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide is one of the main routes of preparation for large quantities of graphenes. Hydrazine hydrate used as reducing agent to prepare for the reduced graphene oxide (RGO). There are a number of methods for generating graphene and chemically modified graphene from natural graphite flakes, graphite derivative (such as graphite oxide) and graphite interaction compounds (i.e. expandable graphite). Here we review the use of colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with large scalable, and is adaptable to a wide variety of applications. The graphene oxide (GO) and the reduced material (RGO) were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and Field emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc.

  8. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  9. The Statistical Evolution of Multiple Generations of Oxidation Products in the Photochemical Aging of Chemically Reduced Organic Aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Kevin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kessler, Sean; Kroll, Jesse H.

    2011-10-03

    The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with squalane and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (BES) particles are used as model systems to examine how distributions of reactionproducts evolve during the oxidation of chemically reduced organic aerosol. A kinetic model of multigenerational chemistry, which is compared to previously measured (squalane) and new(BES) experimental data, reveals that it is the statistical mixtures of different generations of oxidation products that control the average particle mass and elemental composition during thereaction. The model suggests that more highly oxidized reaction products, although initially formed with low probability, play a large role in the production of gas phase reaction products.In general, these results highlight the importance of considering atmospheric oxidation as a statistical process, further suggesting that the underlying distribution of molecules could playimportant roles in aerosol formation as well as in the evolution of key physicochemical properties such as volatility and hygroscopicity.

  10. Inhibition of Oxidation in Nuclear Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phil Winston; James W. Sterbentz; William E. Windes

    2013-10-01

    Graphite is a fundamental material of high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactors, providing both structure and neutron moderation. Its high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, thermal heat capacity, and high thermal structural stability under normal and off normal conditions contribute to the inherent safety of these reactor designs. One of the primary safety issues for a high temperature graphite reactor core is the possibility of rapid oxidation of the carbon structure during an off normal design basis event where an oxidizing atmosphere (air ingress) can be introduced to the hot core. Although the current Generation IV high temperature reactor designs attempt to mitigate any damage caused by a postualed air ingress event, the use of graphite components that inhibit oxidation is a logical step to increase the safety of these reactors. Recent experimental studies of graphite containing between 5.5 and 7 wt% boron carbide (B4C) indicate that oxidation is dramatically reduced even at prolonged exposures at temperatures up to 900°C. The proposed addition of B4C to graphite components in the nuclear core would necessarily be enriched in B-11 isotope in order to minimize B-10 neutron absorption and graphite swelling. The enriched boron can be added to the graphite during billet fabrication. Experimental oxidation rate results and potential applications for borated graphite in nuclear reactor components will be discussed.

  11. Cr(OH)?(s) Oxidation Induced by Surface Catalyzed Mn(II) Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Namgung, Seonyi; Kwon, M.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lee, Gie Hyeon

    2014-09-16

    This study examined the feasibility of Cr(OH)?(s) oxidation mediated by surface catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation under common groundwater pH conditions as a potential pathway of natural Cr(VI) contaminations. Dissolved Mn(II) (50 ?M) was reacted with or without synthesized Cr(OH)?(s) (1.0 g/L) at pH 7 – 9 under oxic or anoxic conditions. In the absence of Cr(OH)?(s), homogeneous Mn(II) oxidation by dissolved O? was not observed at pH ? 8.0 for 50 d. At pH 9.0, by contrast, dissolved Mn(II) was completely removed within 8 d and precipitated as hausmannite. When Cr(OH)?(s) was present, this solid was oxidized and released substantial amounts of Cr(VI) as dissolved Mn(II) was added into the suspension at pH ? 8.0 under oxic conditions. Our results suggest that Cr(OH)?(s) was readily oxidized by a newly formed Mn oxide as a result of Mn(II) oxidation catalyzed on Cr(OH)?(s) surface. XANES analysis of the residual solids after the reaction between 1.0 g/L Cr(OH)?(s) and 204 ?M Mn(II) at pH 9.0 for 22 d revealed that the product of surface catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation resembled birnessite. The rate and extent of Cr(OH)?(s) oxidation was likely controlled by those of surface catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation as the production of Cr(VI) increased with increasing pH and initial Mn(II) concentrations. This study evokes the potential environmental hazard of sparingly soluble Cr(OH)?(s) that can be a source of Cr(VI) in the presence of dissolved Mn(II).

  12. Resonant Ultrasound Studies of Complex Transition Metal Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Henry Bass; Dr. J. R. Gladden

    2008-08-18

    Department of Energy EPSCoR The University of Mississippi Award: DE-FG02-04ER46121 Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy Studies of Complex Transition Metal Oxides The central thrust of this DOE funded research program has been to apply resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS), an elegant and efficient method for determining the elastic stiffness constants of a crystal, to the complex and poorly understood class of materials known as transition metal oxides (TMOs). Perhaps the most interesting and challenging feature of TMOs is their strongly correlated behavior in which spin, lattice, and charge degrees of freedom are strongly coupled. Elastic constants are a measure of the interatomic potentials in a crystal and are thus sensitive probes into the atomic environment. This sensitivity makes RUS an ideal tool to study the coupling of phase transition order parameters to lattice strains. The most significant result of the project has been the construction of a high temperature RUS apparatus capable of making elastic constant measurements at temperatures as high as 1000 degrees Celsius. We have designed and built novel acoustic transducers which can operate as high as 600 degrees Celsius based on lithium niobate piezoelectric elements. For measurement between 600 to 1000 C, a buffer rod system is used in which the samples under test and transducers are separated by a rod with low acoustic attenuation. The high temperature RUS system has been used to study the charge order (CO) transition in transition metal oxides for which we have discovered a new transition occurring about 35 C below the CO transition. While the CO transition exhibits a linear coupling between the strain and order parameter, this new precursor transition shows a different coupling indicating a fundamentally different mechanism. We have also begun a study, in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to study novel thermoelectric materials at elevated temperatures. These materials include silicon germanium with various doping and Zintl phase materials. Such materials show promise for increased figures of merit, vital to making thermolectrics competitive with traditional power generation mechanisms.

  13. Method for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide gels and spherules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L.

    2003-08-05

    Methods for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials, zirconium oxide fiber materials, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium zirconate. The hydrous zirconium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process are useful as inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  14. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish (Thornton, CO); Bai, Chuansheng (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  15. In situ oxidation of subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Li, Busheng (Houston, TX); Shen, Chonghui (Calgary, CA)

    2011-01-11

    Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

  16. Water Clustering on Nanostructured Iron Oxide Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merte, L. R.; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, Guowen; Rieboldt, Felix; Farberow, Carrie A.; Zeuthen, Helene; Knudsen, Jan; Laegsgaard, E.; Wendt, Stefen; Mavrikakis, Manos; Besenbacher, Fleming

    2014-06-30

    The adhesion of water to solid surfaces is characterized by the tendency to balance competing molecule–molecule and molecule–surface interactions. Hydroxyl groups form strong hydrogen bonds to water molecules and are known to substantially influence the wetting behaviour of oxide surfaces, but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire´-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer islands form on the are film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous water are found to coexist at adjacent hydroxylated and hydroxyl-free domains of the moire´ structure.

  17. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiken, Alison (Fremont, CA); Michel, Richard P. (Bloomington, MN)

    1998-01-01

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bia layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200.degree. C., the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 .ANG./sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous.

  18. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  19. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1998-07-21

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bias layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200 C, the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 {angstrom}/sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous. 4 figs.

  20. Method for fluorination of uranium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petit, George S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Highly pure uranium hexafluoride is made from uranium oxide and fluorine. The uranium oxide, which includes UO.sub.3, UO.sub.2, U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and mixtures thereof, is introduced together with a small amount of a fluorine-reactive substance, selected from alkali chlorides, silicon dioxide, silicic acid, ferric oxide, and bromine, into a constant volume reaction zone. Sufficient fluorine is charged into the zone at a temperature below approximately 0.degree. C. to provide an initial pressure of at least approximately 600 lbs/sq. in. at the ambient atmospheric temperature. The temperature is then allowed to rise in the reaction zone until reaction occurs.

  1. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  2. Anaerobic oxidation of short-chain alkanes in hydrothermal sediments: potential influences on sulfur cycling and microbial diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, MM; Hoarfrost, AL; Bose, A; Joye, SB; Girguis, PR

    2013-05-14

    Short-chain alkanes play a substantial role in carbon and sulfur cycling at hydrocarbon-rich environments globally, yet few studies have examined the metabolism of ethane (C-2), propane (C-3), and butane (C-4) in anoxic sediments in contrast to methane (C-1). In hydrothermal vent systems, short-chain alkanes are formed over relatively short geological time scales via thermogenic processes and often exist at high concentrations. The sediment-covered hydrothermal vent systems at Middle Valley (MV Juan de Fuca Ridge) are an ideal site for investigating the anaerobic oxidation of C-1-C-4 alkanes, given the elevated temperatures and dissolved hydrocarbon species characteristic of these metalliferous sediments. We examined whether MV microbial communities oxidized C-1-C-4 alkanes under mesophilic to thermophilic sulfate-reducing conditions. Here we present data from discrete temperature (25, 55, and 75 degrees C) anaerobic batch reactor incubations of MV sediments supplemented with individual alkanes. Co-registered alkane consumption and sulfate reduction (SR) measurements provide clear evidence for C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation linked to SR over time and across temperatures. In these anaerobic batch reactor sediments, 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing revealed that Deltaproteobacteria, particularly a novel sulfate-reducing lineage, were the likely phylotypes mediating the oxidation of C-2-C-4 alkanes. Maximum C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation rates occurred at 55 degrees C, which reflects the mid-core sediment temperature profile and corroborates previous studies of rate maxima for the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Of the alkanes investigated, C-3 was oxidized at the highest rate over time, then C-4, C-2, and C-1, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the potential competition between the anaerobic oxidation of C-2-C(4)alkanes with AOM for available oxidants and the influence on the fate of C-1 derived from these hydrothermal systems.

  3. Nanoscale Au-In alloy-oxide core-shell particles as electrocatalysts for efficient hydroquinone detection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sutter, E.; Tong, X.; Medina-Plaza, C.; Rodriguez-Mendez, M. L.; Sutter, P.

    2015-10-09

    The presence of hydroquinone (HQ), a phenol ubiquitous in nature and widely used in industry, needs to be monitored because of its toxicity to the environment. Here we demonstrate efficient detection of HQ using simple, fast, and noninvasive electrochemical measurements on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes modified with nanoparticles comprising bimetallic Au–In cores and mixed Au–In oxide shells. Whereas bare ITO electrodes show very low activity for the detection of HQ, their modification with Au–In core–shell nanoparticles induces a pronounced shift of the oxidation peak to lower potentials, i.e., facilitated oxidation. The response of the different electrodes was correlated withmore »the initial composition of the bimetallic nanoparticle cores, which in turn determined the amount of Au and In stabilized on the surface of the amorphous Au–In oxide shells available for the electrochemical reaction. While adding core–shell nanostructures with different compositions of the alloy core facilitates the electrocatalytic (reduction-) oxidation of HQ, the activity is highest for particles with AuIn cores (i.e., a Au:In ratio of 1). This optimal system is found to follow a single pathway, the two-electron oxidation of the quinone–hydroquinone couple, which gives rise to high oxidation peaks and is most effective in facilitating the electrode-to-analyte charge transfer and thus detection. The limits of detection (LOD) decreased when increasing the amount of Au exposed on the surface of the amorphous Au–In oxide shells. As a result the LODs were in the range of 10–5 – 10–6 M and were lower than those obtained using bulk Au.« less

  4. Real-Time Redox Measurements during Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Reveal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullins, Dyche

    Real-Time Redox Measurements during Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Reveal Interlinked Protein Folding.10.011 SUMMARY Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes unfolded proteins to accumu is active. Because ER redox po- tential is optimized for oxidative protein folding, we reasoned

  5. On-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    - equippedvehiclesarenotbelievedtobesignificant(1).Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission rates from light-duty gasoline vehicles have been shown to be rapidly decreasing across the United States, but total NOx emissions are decreasing at a slower rate dueOn-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from Three California Cities G A R Y

  6. MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM DURING VOLOXIDATION OF ZIRCALOY-2 FUEL HULLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowder, M.; Laurinat, J.; Stillman, J.

    2010-10-14

    A straightforward method to evaluate the tritium content of Zircaloy-2 cladding hulls via oxidation of the hull and capture of the volatilized tritium in liquids has been demonstrated. Hull samples were heated in air inside a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TGA was rapidly heated to 1000 C to oxidize the hulls and release absorbed tritium. To capture tritium, the TGA off-gas was bubbled through a series of liquid traps. The concentrations of tritium in bubbler solutions indicated that tritiated water vapor was captured nearly quantitatively. The average tritium content measured in the hulls was 19% of the amount of tritium produced by the fuel, according to ORIGEN2 isotope generation and depletion calculations. Published experimental data show that Zircaloy-2 oxidation follows an Arrhenius model, and that an initial, nonlinear oxidation rate is followed by a faster, linear rate after 'breakaway' of the oxide film. This study demonstrates that the linear oxidation rate of Zircaloy samples at 974 C is faster than predicted by the extrapolation of data from lower temperatures.

  7. Effect of oxidant concentration, exposure time, and seed particles on secondary organic aerosol chemical composition and yield

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lambe, A. T.; Chhabra, P. S.; Onasch, T. B.; Brune, W. H.; Hunter, J. F.; Kroll, J. H.; Cummings, M. J.; Brogan, J. F.; Parmar, Y.; Worsnop, D. R.; et al

    2015-03-18

    We performed a systematic intercomparison study of the chemistry and yields of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from OH oxidation of a common set of gas-phase precursors in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) continuous flow reactor and several environmental chambers. In the flow reactor, SOA precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2.0 × 108 to 2.2 × 1010 molec cm-3 over exposure times of 100 s. In the environmental chambers, precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2 × 106 to 2 × 107 molec cm-3 over exposure times of several hours. The OH concentration in themore »chamber experiments is close to that found in the atmosphere, but the integrated OH exposure in the flow reactor can simulate atmospheric exposure times of multiple days compared to chamber exposure times of only a day or so. In most cases, for a specific SOA type the most-oxidized chamber SOA and the least-oxidized flow reactor SOA have similar mass spectra, oxygen-to-carbon and hydrogen-to-carbon ratios, and carbon oxidation states at integrated OH exposures between approximately 1 × 1011 and 2 × 1011 molec cm-3 s, or about 1–2 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. This observation suggests that in the range of available OH exposure overlap for the flow reactor and chambers, SOA elemental composition as measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer is similar whether the precursor is exposed to low OH concentrations over long exposure times or high OH concentrations over short exposure times. This similarity in turn suggests that both in the flow reactor and in chambers, SOA chemical composition at low OH exposure is governed primarily by gas-phase OH oxidation of the precursors rather than heterogeneous oxidation of the condensed particles. In general, SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than measured in chambers for the range of equivalent OH exposures that can be measured in both the flow reactor and chambers. The influence of sulfate seed particles on isoprene SOA yield measurements was examined in the flow reactor. The studies show that seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in flow reactors by a factor of 3 to 5 and may also account in part for higher SOA yields obtained in the chambers, where seed particles are routinely used.« less

  8. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Miquel, P.F.

    1997-07-22

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity. 24 figs.

  9. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L. (Baltimore, MD); Miquel, Philippe F. (Towson, MD)

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity.

  10. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  11. Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

    1993-11-16

    A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure. 7 figures.

  12. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell demonstration activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, E.R.; Veyo, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    This reports on a solid oxide fuel cell demonstration program in which utilities are provided fully integrated, automatically controlled, packaged solid oxide fuel cell power generation systems. These field units serve to demonstrate to customers first hand the beneficial attributes of the SOFC, to expose deficiencies through experience in order to guide continued development, and to garner real world feedback and data concerning not only cell and stack parameters, but also transportation, installation, permitting and licensing, start-up and shutdown, system alarming, fault detection, fault response, and operator interaction.

  13. Shot-Peening of Pre-Oxidized Plates of Zirconium: Influence of Residual Stress on Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raceanu, Laura; Montesin, Tony; Montay, Guillaume; Francois, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with oxidation behavior under residual stress of shot-peened plates of "commercially pure" zirconium exposed for 30 min at 650 C. The influence of the shot-peening on a pre-oxidized material is presented. The results have been used to determine the influences of these chemical (preoxidation) and mechanical (shot-peening) treatments on the high temperature oxidation of zirconium. The oxygen profile was revealed using micro-hardness techniques and confirmed by SEM-EDS techniques. After pre-oxidation the samples were first resurfaced then shot-peened in order to introduce residual stress. A significant increase of the hardness of about 400 HV was observed on pre-oxidized shot-peened samples. Thermogravimetric analysis for 30 min at 650 C under 200 mbar O2 showed a significantly slower oxidation rate for shot-peened samples. A comparison with our computations points out the role of the residual stresses on the diffusion and, consequently, on the oxidation.

  14. INVARIANT RADON MEASURES ON MEASURED LAMINATION SPACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamenstädt, Ursula

    INVARIANT RADON MEASURES ON MEASURED LAMINATION SPACE URSULA HAMENST¨ADT Abstract. Let S be an oriented surface of genus g 0 with m 0 punctures and 3g - 3 + m 2. We classify all Radon measures class group MCG(S) naturally acts on ML as a group of homeomorphisms preserving a Radon measure

  15. Fundamental Studies of the Durability of Materials for Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

    2006-06-30

    Ferritic stainless steels are a leading candidate material for use as an SOFC interconnect, but have the problem of forming volatile chromia species that lead to cathode poisoning. This project has focused both on optimization of ferritic alloys for SOFC applications and evaluating the possibility of using alternative materials. The initial efforts involved studying the oxidation behavior of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels in the temperature range 700-900 C in atmospheres relevant to solid oxide fuel cell operation. The alloys exhibited a wide variety of oxidation behavior based on composition. A method for reducing the vaporization is to add alloying elements that lead to the formation of a thermally grown oxide layer over the protective chromia. Several commercial steels form manganese chromate on the surface. This same approach, combined with observations of TiO{sub 2} overlayer formation on the chromia forming, Ni-based superalloy IN 738, has resulted in the development of a series of Fe-22 Cr-X Ti alloys (X=0-4 wt%). Oxidation testing has indicated that this approach results in significant reduction in chromia evaporation. Unfortunately, the Ti also results in accelerated chromia scale growth. Fundamental thermo-mechanical aspects of the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect alloys have also been investigated. A key failure mechanism for interconnects is the spallation of the chromia scale that forms on the alloy, as it is exposed to fuel cell environments. Indentation testing methods to measure the critical energy release rate (Gc) associated with the spallation of chromia scale/alloy systems have been evaluated. This approach has been used to evaluate the thermomechanical stability of chromia films as a function of oxidation exposure. The oxidation of pure nickel in SOFC environments was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the NiO scaling kinetics and a four-point probe was used to measure the area-specific resistance (ASR) to estimate the electrical degradation of the interconnect. In addition to the baseline study of pure nickel, steps were taken to decrease the ASR through alloying and surface modifications. Finally, high conductivity composite systems, consisting of nickel and silver, were studied. These systems utilize high conductivity silver pathways through nickel while maintaining the mechanical stability that a nickel matrix provides.

  16. Kinetic Consequences of Chemisorbed Oxygen Atoms during Methane Oxidation on Group VIII Metal Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Ya Huei

    2011-01-01

    Chin, Y-H. ; Resasco, D.E. Catalytic Oxidation of methane onreactions in catalytic partial oxidation, reforming, andoccurrence of direct catalytic partial oxidation of methane

  17. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation Jeong Y.that the catalytic activity under CO oxidation with partiallayers on catalytic activity during CO oxidation is not

  18. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation Jeong Y.that the catalytic activity under CO oxidation with partiallayers on catalytic activity during CO oxidation is not

  19. Hydrogen Oxidation-Driven Hot Electron Flow Detected by Catalytic Nanodiodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    In conclusion, the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen on a Pt/chemicurrent from catalytic CO oxidation at atmosphericchemicurrent in catalytic hydrogen oxidation on Pt. Hydrogen

  20. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) ON ACTIVATED CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSION: KINETICS AND MECHANISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, Richard

    2012-01-01

    and Mechanism for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxidekinetic study of the catalytic oxidation on carbon particlesthe kinetics of the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide on

  1. Palladium-coated zirconium membranes for oxidative extraction of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.; Buxbaum, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Palladium-coated metal membranes are attractive choices for low pressure, high temperature hydrogen and hydrogen isotope extractions, e.g. from fusion blanket fluids. The authors present experimental data on hydrogen transport through palladium-coated zirconium membranes at 600 - 700/sup 0/K. The upstream hydrogen pressure range is 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup -6/ torr and an oxygen-containing gas flows over the downstream side of the membrane. Thus, the irreversible oxidation reaction drives the flux. Deuterium permeabilities in zirconium are 2.00x10/sup -6/exp(59/T)+-20% g-mol/m.s.Pa/sup 1/2/, similar to the values obtained from diffusivity and solubility measurements. Extrapolated deuterium absorptive sticking coefficients on palladium are about .05.

  2. Voltage oxide removal for plating: A new method of electroplating oxide coated metals in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutfeld, R. J. von; West, A. C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    A novel in situ method for electroplating oxide coated metals is described. Termed VORP, for voltage oxide removal for plating, the process utilizes a voltage pulse {approx}20-200 V, {approx}2 ms in duration, applied between working and counterelectrodes while both are immersed in a copper electrolyte. The pulse is almost immediately followed by galvanostatic plate-up. Adherent copper deposits up to {approx}4 {mu}m in height on stainless steel 316 coupons have been obtained. Temperature testing up to 260 deg. C in air does not affect the copper adhesion. A preliminary model for oxide removal is proposed utilizing concepts of dielectric breakdown.

  3. Investigation of the oxidation states of Cu additive in colored borosilicate glasses by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Guang Cheng, Shaodong; Li, Chao; Ma, Chuansheng; Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Wang, Zhao

    2014-12-14

    Three optically transparent colorful (red, green, and blue) glasses were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Nano-sized precipitates were found in scanning electron microscopy images. The precipitates were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The measured lattice parameters of these precipitates were found to fit the metallic copper in red glass but deviate from single valenced Cu oxides in green and blue glasses. The chemistry of these nano-sized particles was confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). By fitting the EELS spectra obtained from the precipitates with the linear combination of reference spectra from Cu reference compounds, the oxidation states of Cu in the precipitates have been derived. First principle calculations suggested that the Cu nano-particles, which are in the similar oxidation states as our measurement, would show green color in the visible light range.

  4. The electrodynamics of oxide superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anlage, S.M.; Pambianchi, M.; Findikoglu, A.T.

    1994-12-31

    The authors present a brief review of results on the surface impedance of cuprate superconductors, focusing mainly on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) and evidence of d-wave superconductivity in that material. They then discuss the recent results on BaK-Bi-O thin films, and the effects of DC electric fields on the surface impedance of YBCO films. A summary of their data on high quality thin films and single crystals of the electron-doped Nd{sub 1.85}Ce{sub 0.15}Ce{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4{minus}{delta}} (NCCO) cuprate superconductor follows. Surprisingly, the measurements on NCCO are consistent with the behavior of an s-wave BCS superconductor, in striking contrast to recent results on YBCO. Finally they discuss some of the interesting potential implications of d-wave superconductivity for microwave applications of the cuprates.

  5. Process for catalytically oxidizing cycloolefins, particularly cyclohexene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizuno, Noritaka (Sapporo, JP); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Finke, Richard G. (Eugene, OR)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a process for catalytically oxidizing cycloolefins, particularly cyclohexenes, to form a variety of oxygenates. The catalyst used in the process is a covalently bonded iridium-heteropolyanion species. The process uses the catalyst in conjunction with a gaseous oxygen containing gas to form 2-cyclohexen-1-ol and also 2-cyclohexen-1-one.

  6. Catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brook James

    1995-01-01

    and pressure conditions which translate into a safe and cost effective process that does not create a new waste stream. The objective of this study was to evaluate catalyst activity and kinetic parameters for the oxidation of phenol to C02 and water with a...

  7. Oxide strengthened molybdenum-rhenium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianco, Robert (Cleveland, OH); Buckman, Jr., R. William (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01

    Provided is a method of making an ODS molybdenum-rhenium alloy which includes the steps of: (a) forming a slurry containing molybdenum oxide and a metal salt dispersed in an aqueous medium, the metal salt being selected from nitrates or acetates of lanthanum, cerium or thorium; (b) heating the slurry in the presence of hydrogen to form a molybdenum powder comprising molybdenum and an oxide of the metal salt; (c) mixing rhenium powder with the molybdenum powder to form a molybdenum-rhenium powder; (d) pressing the molybdenum-rhenium powder to form a molybdenum-rhenium compact; (e) sintering the molybdenum-rhenium compact in hydrogen or under a vacuum to form a molybdenum-rhenium ingot; and (f) compacting the molybdenum-rhenium ingot to reduce the cross-sectional area of the molybdenum-rhenium ingot and form a molybdenum-rhenium alloy containing said metal oxide. The present invention also provides an ODS molybdenum-rhenium alloy made by the method. A preferred Mo--Re-ODS alloy contains 7-14 weight % rhenium and 2-4 volume % lanthanum oxide.

  8. Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Kai

    2000-01-01

    of metal clusters on well-defined oxide surfaces. In this work, the nucleation and growth modes of Ag on TiO?(110)(1x1) and (1x2) surfaces, Ag on ultra-thin Al?O? films, and Au on ultra-thin SiO? films were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM...

  9. Research Articles Potential for Microbial Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Clark M.

    research has suggested that Fe(II) in BG can serve as an energy source for chemolithotrophic microbial that may have served or may serve as energy sources for chemolithotrophic microbial activity. This specResearch Articles Potential for Microbial Oxidation of Ferrous Iron in Basaltic Glass Mai Yia Xiong

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.; Young, J.E.

    1983-10-12

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

  11. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1994-01-18

    Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or [beta]-pyrrolic positions.

  12. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1992-01-01

    Alkanes are oxidized by contact with oxygen-containing gas in the presence as catalyst of a metalloporphyrin in which hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring have been replaced with one or more nitro groups. Hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring may also be substituted with halogen atoms.

  13. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  14. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1994-01-01

    Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

  15. Pd-Catalyzed Cyclizations Direct Oxidative Heck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    events: 1) halogenation of an aryl or vinyl precursor and 2) palladium(0)-catalyzed CÀC bond formation to develop palladium(ii)-catalyzed dehydrogenation as a general oxidation method,[6,7] we recently described with subsequent olefin insertion and b-hydrogen elimina- tion.[9] Importantly, this mechanism is analogous

  16. Molybdenum oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film comprising molybdenum oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  17. Manganese Oxidation In A Natural Marine Environment- San Antonio Bay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neyin, Rosemary Ogheneochuko

    2013-04-12

    the San Antonio Bay. In this study area, the formaldoxime assay was utilized to determine that manganese oxidation is catalyzed via multiple pathways utilizing various catalysts and proximal oxidants. The contribution of catalysts such as colloidal matter...

  18. Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Evaluation of CSI catalyst for NOx...

  19. Characterization and production metrology of thin transistor gate oxide lms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Review Characterization and production metrology of thin transistor gate oxide ®lms Alain C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 4. XRR and NR characterization of thin oxide ®lms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 5.2. Optical models of thin gate ®lms

  20. Oxidation Tube Furnace (Lindberg/Blue 1100C)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Oxidation Tube Furnace (Lindberg/Blue 1100C) Basic User Manual 1st Edition Jan 2013 NR #12;Logon Oxidation Tube Furnace on FOM System Sign Log Book #12;Example Program: Room temperature to 1100C

  1. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 range (1-2...

  2. Ovarian nitric oxide synthase gene expression during peripubertal development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Benjamin James

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated from L-arginine by different isoforms of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase. (NOS) and is known to be involved in mediating several biological functions, some of which are associated with ...

  3. Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-08-10

    A system and method are disclosed for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom. 2 figs.

  4. Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yang, Wen-Ching (Export, PA); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom.

  5. Porous anodic aluminum oxide scaffolds; formation mechanisms and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun

    2010-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) can be created with pores that self-assemble into ordered configurations. Nanostructured metal oxides have proven to be very useful as scaffolds for growth of nanowires and nanotubes ...

  6. MICROSTRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williama, Pamela Louise

    2011-01-01

    barium, cobalt. and rare earth metal oxides, which exhibitthat the barium and rare earth metals concentrate into small2 o , Ti0 2 and even rare earth metal oxides Pr 2 o and La 2

  7. In Situ Iron Oxide Emplacement for Groundwater Arsenic Remediation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abia, Thomas Sunday

    2012-02-14

    Iron oxide-bearing minerals have long been recognized as an effective reactive media for arsenic-contaminated groundwater remediation. This research aimed to develop a technique that could facilitate in situ oxidative precipitation of Fe3+ in a soil...

  8. Manganese Based Oxidative Technologies For Water/Wastewater Treatment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Ishan

    2013-08-27

    is yet to be fully developed. This research work explores the reactivity of manganese oxide to degrade OP in aqueous systems. The rate equation has been determined by conducting experiments at various conditions of oxide and organic loading as well...

  9. ORNL researchers make strides toward a copper oxide solar cell...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researchers make strides toward a copper oxide solar cell (hi-res image) Amit Goyal and his team of research scientists are using copper oxide to redesign the face of solar power....

  10. The tropospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulfide: A new source of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, I.; Becker, K.H.; Patroescu, I. [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany)] [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany)

    1994-11-01

    The authors present the results of laboratory measurements of the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}) mediated by OH. They observe the formation of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and carbonyl sulfide. The latter branching ratio represents a previously unreported source of carbonyl sulfide (OCS). It is significant because OCS is the major reservoir of gaseous sulfur in the earth`s atmosphere.

  11. CO oxidation on gold-supported iron oxides: New insights into...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is stable under the reaction conditions. Under an environment of COO2, they undergo oxidation (FeO) or reduction (Fe2O3) to yield nanoparticles of Fe3O4 that are not formed...

  12. Complex catalytic behaviors of CuTiOx mixed-oxide during CO oxidation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reactivity, and selectivity. Here, the activity and stability of the CuTiOx monolayer film supported on Cu(111), CuTiOxCu(111), during CO oxidation was explored using density...

  13. On the Design of Oxide Films, Nanomaterials, and Heterostructures for Solar Water Oxidation Photoanodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kronawitter, Coleman

    2012-01-01

    of high-surface-area SnO 2 aerogels, Kucheyev et al. 39previously in SnO 2 aerogels 39 and nanoribbons. 41 It isstudy of titanium oxide aerogels, and through comparisons

  14. Filled glass composites for sealing of solid oxide fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tandon, Rajan; Widgeon, Scarlett Joyce; Garino, Terry J.; Brochu, Mathieu; Gauntt, Bryan D.; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.

    2009-04-01

    Glasses filled with ceramic or metallic powders have been developed for use as seals for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program. The composites of glass (alkaline earth-alumina-borate) and powders ({approx}20 vol% of yttria-stabilized zirconia or silver) were shown to form seals with SOFC materials at or below 900 C. The type and amount of powder were adjusted to optimize thermal expansion to match the SOFC materials and viscosity. Wetting studies indicated good wetting was achieved on the micro-scale and reaction studies indicated that the degree of reaction between the filled glasses and SOFC materials, including spinel-coated 441 stainless steel, at 750 C is acceptable. A test rig was developed for measuring strengths of seals cycled between room temperature and typical SOFC operating temperatures. Our measurements showed that many of the 410 SS to 410 SS seals, made using silver-filled glass composites, were hermetic at 0.2 MPa (2 atm.) of pressure and that seals that leaked could be resealed by briefly heating them to 900 C. Seal strength measurements at elevated temperature (up to 950 C), measured using a second apparatus that we developed, indicated that seals maintained 0.02 MPa (0.2 atm.) overpressures for 30 min at 750 C with no leakage. Finally, the volatility of the borate component of sealing glasses under SOFC operational conditions was studied using weight loss measurements and found by extrapolation to be less than 5% for the projected SOFC lifetime.

  15. Graphite Oxidation Simulation in HTR Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Massive air and water ingress, following a pipe break or leak in steam-generator tubes, is a design-basis accident for high-temperature reactors (HTRs). Analysis of these accidents in both prismatic and pebble bed HTRs requires state-of-the-art capability for predictions of: 1) oxidation kinetics, 2) air ?helium gas mixture stratification and diffusion into the core following the depressurization, 3) transport of multi-species gas mixture, and 4) graphite corrosion. This project will develop a multi-dimensional, comprehensive oxidation kinetics model of graphite in HTRs, with diverse capabilities for handling different flow regimes. The chemical kinetics/multi-species transport model for graphite burning and oxidation will account for temperature-related changes in the properties of graphite, oxidants (O2, H2O, CO), reaction products (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and other gases in the mixture (He and N2). The model will treat the oxidation and corrosion of graphite in geometries representative of HTR core component at temperatures of 900°C or higher. The developed chemical reaction kinetics model will be user-friendly for coupling to full core analysis codes such as MELCOR and RELAP, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes such as CD-adapco. The research team will solve governing equations for the multi-dimensional flow and the chemical reactions and kinetics using Simulink, an extension of the MATLAB solver, and will validate and benchmark the model's predictions using reported experimental data. Researchers will develop an interface to couple the validated model to a commercially available CFD fluid flow and thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor , and will perform a simulation of a pipe break in a prismatic core HTR, with the potential for future application to a pebble-bed type HTR.

  16. Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth

    2011-01-01

    cients. UV-visible transmission and re?ection measurementsUV-Visible transmission and re?ection measurements wereUV-Visible (UV- Vis) transmission and re?ection measurements

  17. Method for producing high quality oxide films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruckman, Mark W. (Middle Island, NY); Strongin, Myron (Center Moriches, NY); Gao, Yong L. (Henrietta, NY)

    1993-01-01

    A method for providing an oxide film of a material on the surface of a substrate using a reactive deposition of the material onto the substrate surface in the presence of a solid or liquid layer of an oxidizing gas. The oxidizing gas is provided on the substrate surface in an amount sufficient to dissipate the latent heat of condensation occurring during deposition as well as creating a favorable oxidizing environment for the material.

  18. Process Modeling of Global Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikawa, E.

    2011-09-01

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and is a major ozone-depleting substance. To understand and

  19. Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions Surface-immobilized heterogeneous organometallic compounds have varying activity compared to homogeneous analogues -...

  20. Shock-tube and modeling study of ethane pyrolysis and oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hidaka, Yoshiaki; Sato, Kazutaka; Hoshikawa, Hiroki; Nishimori, Toshihide; Takahashi, Rie; Tanaka, Hiroya; Inami, Koji; Ito, Nobuhiro

    2000-02-01

    Pyrolysis and oxidation of ethane were studied behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 950--1,900 K at pressures of 1.2--4.0 atm. Ethane decay rates in both pyrolysis and oxidation were measured using time-resolved infrared (IR) laser absorption at 3.39 {micro}m, and CO{sub 2} production rates in oxidation were measured by time-resolved thermal IR emission at 4.24 {micro}m. The product yields were also determined using a single-pulse method. The pyrolysis and oxidation of ethane were modeled using a reaction mechanism with 157 reaction steps and 48 species including the most recent submechanisms for formaldehyde, ketene, methane, acetylene, and ethylene oxidation. The present and previously reported shock tube data were reproduced using this mechanism. The rate constants of the reactions C{sub 2}H{sub 6} {yields} CH{sub 3} + CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + H {yields} H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + O{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + HO{sub 2} were evaluated. These reactions were important in predicting the previously reported and the present data, which were for mixture compositions ranging from ethane-rich (including ethane pyrolysis) to ethane-lean. The evaluated rate constants of the reactions C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + H {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + O{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + HO{sub 2} were found to be significantly different from currently accepted values.

  1. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Anindita; Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 ; Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 ?m (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ? Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on cardiovascular health was investigated. ? Serum markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress were studied. ? Biomass using women had increased systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. ? Indoor air pollution and observed changes were positively associated.

  2. Plasma-activated direct bonding of diamond-on-insulator wafers to thermal oxide grown silicon wafers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akin, Tayfun

    Plasma-activated direct bonding of diamond-on-insulator wafers to thermal oxide grown silicon microscopy, profilometer and wafer bow measurements. Plasma-activated direct bonding of DOI wafers to thermal September 2010 Keywords: Diamond-on-insulator Plasma activation Ultrananocrystalline diamond Direct bonding

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 37, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2009 2303 Nitric Oxide Formation in a Premixed Flame With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 37, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2009 2303 Nitric Oxide Formation in a Premixed Flame With High-Level Plasma Energy Coupling Xing Rao, Igor B. Matveev, and Tonghun Lee Abstract) in a transient-arc direct-current plasmatron igniter using premixed air/fuel mixtures. Quantitative measurements

  4. BIOAVAILABILITY OF BERYLLIUM OXIDE PARTICLES: AN IN VITRO STUDY IN THE MURINE J774A.1 MACROPHAGE CELL LINE MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    BIOAVAILABILITY OF BERYLLIUM OXIDE PARTICLES: AN IN VITRO STUDY IN THE MURINE J774A.1 MACROPHAGE/04/10 Forpersonaluseonly. #12;Ronald C. Scripsick & Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA & Beryllium is assessed through measurement of beryllium aerosol mass con- centration. Compliance with the current mass

  5. Oxidation of alpha-tocopherol in micelles and liposomes by the hydroxyl, perhydroxyl, and superoxide free radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuzawa, K.; Gebicki, J.M.

    1983-10-01

    Rates of oxidation of alpha-tocopherol by the hydroxyl- and superoxide free radicals were measured. The radicals were produced in known yields by radiolysis of aqueous solutions with gamma rays. Two main systems were used to dissolve the tocopherol; micelles, made up from charged and uncharged amphiphiles, and membranes made from dimyristyl phosphatidylcholine which could be charged by addition of stearyl amine or dicetyl phosphate. The HO. radicals were efficient oxidants of alpha-tocopherol in all systems, with up to 83% of radicals generated in micelle and 32% in membrane suspensions initiating the oxidation. The HO/sub 2/ radical was an even more effective oxidant, but when most of it was in the O/sub 2/ form at neutral or alkaline pH, the oxidation rates became low. Tocopherol held in positively charged micelles or membranes was oxidized at a higher rate by the O/sub 2/ than in uncharged or negative particles. Possible biological significance of these results is discussed.

  6. Interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism, the generation of oxidative stress and the mitigative oxidative stress response

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Busch, Andrea W.U.; Montgomery, Beronda L.

    2015-04-01

    Tetrapyrroles are involved in light harvesting and light perception, electron-transfer reactions, and as co-factors for key enzymes and sensory proteins. Under conditions in which cells exhibit stress-induced imbalances of photosynthetic reactions, or light absorption exceeds the ability of the cell to use photoexcitation energy in synthesis reactions, redox imbalance can occur in photosynthetic cells. Such conditions can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with alterations in tetrapyrrole homeostasis. ROS accumulation can result in cellular damage and detrimental effects on organismal fitness, or ROS molecules can serve as signals to induce a protective or damage-mitigating oxidative stressmore »signaling response in cells. Induced oxidative stress responses include tetrapyrrole-dependent and -independent mechanisms for mitigating ROS generation and/or accumulation. Thus, tetrapyrroles can be contributors to oxidative stress, but are also essential in the oxidative stress response to protect cells by contributing to detoxification of ROS. In this review, we highlight the interconnection and interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism with the occurrence of oxidative stress and protective oxidative stress signaling responses in photosynthetic organisms.« less

  7. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Hafnium-Praseodymium-Indium Oxide System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.L.; Griffin, C.W.; Weber, W.J.

    1988-06-01

    The HfO/sub 2/-PrO/sub 1.83/-In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ system has been studied at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop alternative, highly electrically conducting oxides as electrode and interconnection materials for solid oxide fuel cells. A coprecipitation process was developed for synthesizing single-phase, mixed oxide powders necessary to fabricate powders and dense oxides. A ternary phase diagram was developed, and the phases and structures were related to electrical transport properties. Two new phases, an orthorhombic PrInO/sub 3/ and a rhombohedral Hf/sub 2/In/sub 2/O/sub 7/ phase, were identified. The highest electronic conductivity is related to the presence of a bcc, In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ solid solution (ss) containing HfO/sub 2/ and PrO/sub 1.83/. Compositions containing more than 35 mol % of the In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ss have electrical conductivities greater than 10/sup /minus/1/ (ohm-cm)/sup /minus/1/, and the two or three phase structures that contain this phase appear to exhibit mixed electronic-ionic conduction. The high electrical conductivities and structures similar to the Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stabilized ZrO/sub 2/(HfO/sub 2/) electrolyte give these oxides potential for use as cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells. 21 refs.

  8. Anodic aluminium oxide catalytic membranes for asymmetric epoxidation{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anodic aluminium oxide catalytic membranes for asymmetric epoxidation{ So-Hye Cho, Nolan D. Walther, the catalytic membrane reactor configuration confers a significant advantage to oxidation reactions--the use of a catalytic membrane can provide a reactive interface for the oxidation to take place while avoiding long

  9. Catalytic Oxidation Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201400134

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Catalytic Oxidation Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201400134 Trinuclear Pd3O2 Intermediate in Aerobic* Abstract: The activation of O2 is a key step in selective catalytic aerobic oxidation reactions mediated aerobic oxidation of alcohols. The formation and catalytic activity of the trinuclear Pd3O2 species

  10. Fe(III) Oxide Reactivity Toward Biological versus Chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    size, surface area, and solubility of the mineral. Such variations lead to a continuum of Fe(III) oxideFe(III) Oxide Reactivity Toward Biological versus Chemical Reduction E R I C E . R O D E N of synthetic Fe(III) oxides with a broad range of crystallinity and specific surface area were examined

  11. Characterization of Oxide Layers Formed During Corrosion in Supercritical Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    characteristic oxide structures lead to protective behavior and a lower corrosion rate. A review is presentedCharacterization of Oxide Layers Formed During Corrosion in Supercritical Water A.T.Motta1 , J of the protective oxide formed, such that small alloying content differences cause significant differences

  12. Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

  13. Materials Selection for Oxide-based Resistive Random Access Memories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2014-12-05

    and interstitials in four key oxides used for RRAM; HfO2, TiO2, Ta2O5 and Al2O3, so as to understand which properties are critical for memory operation. An oxide-based RRAM consists of an oxide layer between two electrodes and with a thin metal layer next...

  14. Bimetallic Cluster Provides a Higher Activity Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Bimetallic Cluster Provides a Higher Activity Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation* Brenda L:Ru nanoparticles on carbon (PtRu/C) for use as an electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. This bimetallic carbonyl support particles. Cyclic voltammo- grams of methanol oxidation from the two catalysts showed

  15. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Ugur Pasaogullari and Chao-dimensional model has been developed to simulate solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The model fully couples current density operation. INTRODUCTION Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are among possible candidates

  16. Review article Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleixner, Stacy

    of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components is given and the fabrication techniques of ceramic components Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Components manufacturingReview article Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells F. Tietz *, H.-P. Buchkremer, D

  17. Metal oxide/organic interface investigations for photovoltaic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pachoumi, Olympia

    2014-10-07

    the performance and stability of interfacial charge extraction layers for organic solar cells. Two novel ternary metal oxides, zinc-strontrium- oxide (ZnSrO) and zinc-barium-oxide (ZnBaO), were fabricated and their use as electron extraction layers in inverted...

  18. Study of the Low Temperature Oxidation of Propane Maximilien Cord

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Study of the Low Temperature Oxidation of Propane Maximilien Cord , Benoit Husson , Juan of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029, P. R. China Abstract The lowtemperature oxidation of propane oxidation of propane in the gas phase has been the subject of very few experimental studies, mainly

  19. "Metal-oxide gas sensors have been around for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    Publishing "Metal-oxide gas sensors have been around for over 40 years, but only now we have: Surface Studies of Gas Sensing Metal Oxides 21 February 2007 1. Could you explain the significance of your article to the non-specialist? Metal oxide-gas sensors are practical devices used in a variety of every

  20. A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts From fuels to renewable energy sources. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have enormous potential in this area A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts Rob Usiskin In partnership