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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Measuring Upper Ocean Variability from an Array of Surface Moorings in the Subtropical Convergence Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of upper ocean variability were made in the subtropical convergence zone southwest of Bermuda from an array of five surface moorings set with spacings of 16 to 53 km. The intent was to observe oceanic fronts and to quantify the ...

Robert A. Weller; Daniel L. Rudnick; Nancy J. Pennington; Richard P. Trask; James R. Valdes

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Large Diurnal Sea Surface Temperature Variability: Satellite and In Situ Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data from a surface mooring located in the Sargasso Sea at 34°N, 70°W between May 1982 and May 1984 were compared with satellite data to investigate large diurnal sea surface temperature changes. Mooring and satellite measurements are in ...

Lothar Stramma; Peter Cornillon; Robert A. Weller; James F. Price; Melbourne G. Briscoe

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Variability and Trends in Antarctic Surface Temperatures from In Situ and Satellite Infrared Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The surface air temperatures observed from stations in Antarctica have been shown to have predominantly positive trends that are as high as 0.5°C decade?1 along the Antarctic Peninsula. To evaluate whether the trends are caused by a local or ...

Josefino C. Comiso

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Weather Noise Forcing of Surface Climate Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model-based method to evaluate the role of weather noise forcing of low-frequency variability of surface properties, including SST, surface currents, land surface temperature, and soil moisture, is presented. In this procedure, an “interactive ...

Edwin K. Schneider; Meizhu Fan

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Measurements of Sea Surface Height Variability in the Eastern South Atlantic from Pressure Sensor–Equipped Inverted Echo Sounders: Baroclinic and Barotropic Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variability in sea surface height (SSH) can be decomposed into two contributions: one from changes in mass in the water column (barotropic) and the other from purely steric changes (baroclinic). Both contributions can be determined from data ...

Sheekela Baker-Yeboah; D. Randolph Watts; Deirdre A. Byrne

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre Surface Variability (1895–2009)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface temperature, salinity, and density are examined in the northeastern part of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre over the last 115 years of measurements. This region presents coherent variability in space but also between different seasons, ...

G. Reverdin

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

ARM - Measurement - Surface condition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

condition condition ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface condition State of the surface, including vegetation, land use, surface type, roughness, and such; often provided in model output. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments NAV : Navigational Location and Attitude SURFLOG : SGP Surface Conditions Observations by Site Technicians S-TABLE : Stabilized Platform MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation

8

ARM - Measurement - Surface albedo  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

albedo albedo ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface albedo The fraction of incoming solar radiation at a surface (i.e. land, cloud top) that is effectively reflected by that surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer External Instruments ETA : Eta Model Runs ECMWFDIAG : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model

9

Stochastic Dynamics of Sea Surface Height Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea surface height anomalies measured by the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon satellite altimeter indicate high values of skewness and kurtosis. Except in a few regions, including the Gulf Stream, the Kuroshio Extension, and the ...

Philip Sura; Sarah T. Gille

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Modeling the Effect of Land Surface Evaporation Variability on Precipitation Variability. Part I: General Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the first of a two-part article that investigates the impact of land surface evaporation variability on the interannual variability of precipitation and compares it with the impact caused by sea surface temperature variability. Previous ...

Oreste Reale; Paul Dirmeyer

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Spatial Distribution of Surface Fluxes Estimated from Remotely Sensed Variables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study relates surface fluxes to remotely sensed variables over well-defined variations of surface wetness and vegetation. The surface fluxes are estimated from repeated Twin Otter aircraft flights at 33 m above the surface after correcting ...

Jielun Sun; L. Mahrt

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

surface temperature surface temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil surface temperature The temperature of the soil measured near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems SOIL : Soil Measurement from the SGP SWATS : Soil Water and Temperature System MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation

13

ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsSea surface temperature govMeasurementsSea surface temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Sea surface temperature The temperature of sea water near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model Data Field Campaign Instruments ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model Data MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai

14

Joint Variability of Global Runoff and Global Sea Surface Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global land surface runoff and sea surface temperatures (SST) are analyzed to identify the primary modes of variability of these hydroclimatic data for the period 1905–2002. A monthly water-balance model first is used with global monthly ...

Gregory J. McCabe; David M. Wolock

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

skin temperature skin temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface skin temperature The radiative surface skin temperature, from an IR thermometer measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface in its field of view. Categories Radiometric, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments IRT : Infrared Thermometer MFRIRT : Multifilter Radiometer and Infrared Thermometer External Instruments

16

Influence of Subgrid Variability on Surface Hydrology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 6.25-km resolution dataset of meteorology, vegetation type, and soil type for a domain covering a typical global climate model grid cell is used to drive a land surface physics model for a period of 6 months. Additional simulations are ...

S. J. Ghan; J. C. Liljegren; W. J. Shaw; J. H. Hubbe; J. C. Doran

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Land Surface Controls on Hydroclimatic Means and Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydroclimatic means and variability are determined in large part by the control of soil moisture on surface moisture fluxes, particularly evapotranspiration and runoff. This control is examined here using a simple water balance model and ...

Randal D. Koster; Sarith P. P. Mahanama

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Method for measuring surface temperature  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

19

Modeling the Variability of Sydney Harbor Wind Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The time-dependent behavior in the variability of wind measurements is investigated using bivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic models. These models express the current level of short-timescale wind variability in terms ...

Edward Cripps; William T. M. Dunsmuir

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

An Integrated Surface Radiation Measurement System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integrated surface radiation measurement system has been developed to measure the surface radiation exchange flux. The system employs upward- and downward-looking Eppley pyrgeometers and pyranometers to separately measure four components: ...

A. C. Delany; S. R. Semmer

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Temporal and spatial variability of surface temperature over Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface temperature is one of the most fundamental aspects of the climate system, and its study has been the focus of extensive research in the field of climatology for years. Examination of its temporal and spatial fluctuations can provide scientists with information on the behavior of the atmospheric circulation. Many researchers have also been interested in the physical processes and mechanisms at work in producing the observed distribution of the surface temperature field over the globe. Various analytical methods are used in the study of temperature variability on the Earth. White and Wallace (1978) documented the annual march of surface temperature by mapping amplitudes and phases of the seasonal cycle. The latter were obtained through Fourier analysis of the data. Kim and North (1991, 1992) routinely use second-moment statistics such as variance and spatial correlation to study the fluctuations of temperature in energy balance models as compared with observations. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis has become a popular and convenient method for representing the variability of climatic parameters since the groundbreaking work of Lorenz (1956). The first several EOFS, or patterns of covariability in a meteorological field, can sometimes be explained in a physical sense based on their shapes. While most previous efforts have concentrated on the global or hemispheric scale, this research examines the fluctuations of surface temperature on a regional scale, namely the state of Texas. Texas is an ideal location for a study of this type due to its vast areal extent, diverse topography, and expanse across different climatic regimes. Some of the methods used in the study of temperature variability are applied to the state of Texas.

Moninski, Anthony David

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Decadal Variability in an Idealized Ocean Model and Its Sensitivity to Surface Boundary Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variability in a three-dimensional ocean model of idealized geometry is analyzed. The variability is induced in the model by adding a stochastic component to the surface buoyancy forcing. The influence of the surface thermal forcing on the model ...

A. Capotondi; W. R. Holland

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Variability in Measured Space Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes David Roberts National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kerylyn Lay EnerNOC (formerly of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-58059 March 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes David Roberts National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kerylyn Lay EnerNOC (formerly of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

24

Technical Sessions Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Over Contrasting Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Over Contrasting Surfaces R. L. Coulter J. D. Shannon T. J. Martin Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL 60439 In a multilaboratory field study held near Boardman in northeastern Oregon in June 1991 and described in greater detail elsewhere (Doran et al. 1991), various properties of the surface and lower atmospheric boundary layer over heavily irrigated cropland and adjacent desert steppe were investigated. The locale was selected because its disparate characteristics over various spatial scales stress the ability of general circulation models (GCMs) to describe lower boundary conditions, particularly across the discontinuity between desert (in which turbulent flux of heat must be primarily as sensible heat) and large irrigated tracts (in which turbulent flux of latent heat should be the larger term).

25

Analysis of Cloud Variability and Sampling Errors in Surface and Satellite Mesurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Cloud Variability and Sampling Errors in Analysis of Cloud Variability and Sampling Errors in Surface and Satellite Measurements Z. Li, M. C. Cribb, and F.-L. Chang Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland A. P. Trishchenko and Y. Luo Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Introduction Radiation measurements have been widely employed for evaluating cloud parameterization schemes and model simulation results. As the most comprehensive program aiming to improve cloud parameteri- zation schemes, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has an essential goal to make observations on the scale of a general circulation model gridbox, so as to define the physics underlying some of the important parameterizations in the general circulation models used in climate change

26

Modeling the Effect of Land Surface Evaporation Variability on Precipitation Variability. Part II: Time- and Space-Scale structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the second of a two-part article investigating the impact of variations of land surface evaporability on the interannual variability of precipitation. The first goal of this part is to analyze the relationship between the atmospheric ...

Oreste Reale; Paul Dirmeyer; Adam Schlosser

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Determining Surface Solar Absorption from Broadband Satellite Measurements for Clear Skies: Comparison with Surface Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two separate datasets both of which provide measurements of net downward shortwave radiation have been combined, so as to provide a means of critically examining methods for transferring satellite measurements to the surface. This is further ...

Robert D. Cess; Ellsworth G. Dutton; John J. Deluisi; Feng Jiang

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

On the Northern Annular Mode Surface Signal Associated with Stratospheric Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The wintertime northern annular mode (NAM) at the surface is known to undergo slow intraseasonal variations in association with stratospheric variability, which leads the surface signal by up to several weeks. The relative contributions, however, ...

Torben Kunz; Richard J. Greatbatch

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper seeks to understand what temporal and spatial scales of variability in global horizontal radiation are important to a PV plants and what measurements are needed to be able to characterize them. As solar radiation measuring instruments are point receivers it is important to understand how those measurements translate to energy received over a larger spatial extent. Also of importance is the temporal natural of variability over large spatial areas. In this research we use high temporal and spatial resolution measurements from multiple sensors at a site in Hawaii to create solar radiation fields at various spatial and temporal scales. Five interpolation schemes were considered and the high resolution solar fields were converted to power production for a PV power plant. It was found that the interpolation schemes are robust and create ramp distributions close to what would be computed if the average solar radiation field was used. We also investigated the possibility of using time averaged solar data from 1 sensor to recreate the ramp distribution from the 17 sensors. It was found that the ramping distribution from using appropriately time averaged data from 1 sensor can reasonably match the distribution created using the 17 sensor network.

Sengupta, M.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper seeks to understand what temporal and spatial scales of variability in global horizontal radiation are important to a PV plants and what measurements are needed to be able to characterize them. As solar radiation measuring instruments are point receivers it is important to understand how those measurements translate to energy received over a larger spatial extent. Also of importance is the temporal natural of variability over large spatial areas. In this research we use high temporal and spatial resolution measurements from multiple sensors at a site in Hawaii to create solar radiation fields at various spatial and temporal scales. Five interpolation schemes were considered and the high resolution solar fields were converted to power production for a PV power plant. It was found that the interpolation schemes are robust and create ramp distributions close to what would be computed if the average solar radiation field was used. We also investigated the possibility of using time averaged solar data from 1 sensor to recreate the ramp distribution from the 17 sensors. It was found that the ramping distribution from using appropriately time averaged data from 1 sensor can reasonably match the distribution created using the 17 sensor network.

Sengupta, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Recent Climatology, Variability, and Trends in Global Surface Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ observations of surface air and dewpoint temperatures and air pressure from over 15 000 weather stations and from ships are used to calculate surface specific (q) and relative (RH) humidity over the globe (60°S–75°N) from December 1975 to ...

Aiguo Dai

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Plasma measurements with surface barrier detectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A surface barrier detector system for measuring the loss rate of protons from a hydrogen plasma and their energy spectrum is described. A full width at half maximum (FWHM) resolution of 1.4 keV for 15-keV hydrogen atoms was obtained using a selected detector having a sensitive area of 3 mm/sup 2/ and a depletion depth of 700 microns.

Futch, A.H. Jr.; Bradley, A.E.

1969-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

33

The Probability Distribution of Sea Surface Wind Speeds: Effects of Variable Surface Stratification and Boundary Layer Thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air–sea exchanges of momentum, energy, and material substances of fundamental importance to the variability of the climate system are mediated by the character of the turbulence in the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers. Sea surface winds ...

Adam Hugh Monahan

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability: Preprint  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Measurement and Modeling of Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability Preprint M. Sengupta To be presented at SOLAR 2011 Raleigh, North Carolina May 17-21, 2011 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5500-51105 April 2011 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and Alliance retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty,

35

Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Air Temperature Variability: 1840–2007  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meteorological station records and regional climate model output are combined to develop a continuous 168-yr (1840–2007) spatial reconstruction of monthly, seasonal, and annual mean Greenland ice sheet near-surface air temperatures. Independent ...

Jason E. Box; Lei Yang; David H. Bromwich; Le-Sheng Bai

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Surface Contribution to Planetary Albedo Variability in Cryosphere Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climatological planetary albedo obtained from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) D-series flux dataset is broken down into contributions from the surface and atmosphere in cryosphere regions. The atmosphere accounts for ...

Xin Qu; Alex Hall

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Meteorological Variability and the Annual Surface Pressure Cycle on Mars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is commonly admitted that the seasonal surface pressure cycle, observed on Mars by the two Viking landers, is due to condensation and sublimation of the atmospheric carbon dioxide in the polar caps. A three Martian year numerical simulation ...

Frédéric Hourdin; Phu Le Van; François Forget; Olivier Talagrand

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

New Surface Meteorological Measurements at SGP,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NM, March 22 - 26, 2004 NM, March 22 - 26, 2004 1 New Surface Meteorological Measurements at SGP, and Their Use for Assessing Radiosonde Measurement Accuracy L.M. Miloshevich National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado B.M. Lesht and M. Ritche Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Several recent ARM investigations have been directed toward characterizing and improving the accuracy of ARM radiosonde water vapor measurements. Tobin et al. (2002) showed that calculating the downwelling and outgoing longwave fluxes with a target accuracy of 1 W m -2 requires knowing the total-column precipitable water vapor (PW) with 2% absolute accuracy and knowing the upper troposphere (UT) water vapor with 10% absolute accuracy. Turner et al. (2003) used an empirical

39

Quantifying and relating land-surface and subsurface variability in permafrost environments using lidar and surface geophsical datasets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The complexity of permafrost dynamics and its critical impact on climate feedbacks warrant continued development of advanced high-latitude terrestrial ecosystem characterization and monitoring approaches. In this study, we explore the value of remote sensing and surface geophysical data for characterizing land surface and subsurface properties and their linkages in an Alaskan Coastal Plain ecosystem. We base our study on data collected at the end of the 2011 growing season in the Barrow Environmental Observatory, where a nested suite of measurements were collected within a polygon-dominated region including: surface ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic, and electrical resistance tomography data; thaw depth, soil temperature and moisture content, soil texture, soil carbon and nitrogen content, and major and trace cations. Previously-collected lidar data were also available for the study. Analysis of the datasets, individually and in combination, revealed the utility of the methods for characterizing critical land-surface and subsurface properties and associated spatial zonation. Lidar analysis was performed to extract geomorphic metrics (such as slope, curvature, and directed distance of polygons), which potentially indicate drainage potential and permafrost deformation state. Cluster analysis of these lidar-obtained attributes suggested that the land surface can be grouped into three spatially coherent zones, each having a dominant geomorphic expression including: a high centered polygon zone, a low centered polygon zone and a transitional zone. Comparison of the geophysical attributes from radar, electrical resistance tomography, and electromagnetic data with point measurements suggests that the surface geophysical data can provide very high-resolution information about subsurface properties that affect ecosystem feedbacks to climate, such as thaw depth and moisture content. Cluster analysis suggested that the geophysical attributes also varied spatially in a systematic way, suggesting the presence of three laterally distinct subsurface zones. Analysis of zone-based subsurface point measurements suggests that the geophysically-defined zones have unique distributions of hydrological, thermal, and geochemical properties and that the subsurface (geophysically-based) and land-surface (lidar-based) zonation is consistent. Although the close linkage between land surface (polygonal geomorphology) and subsurface (active layer) variability revealed through our study is not surprising, to our knowledge this is the first study to document such relationships using high resolution and non-invasive approaches. This study suggests the potential of using coincident lidar and surface geophysical measurements to quantify land surface and subsurface properties (respectively) and their linkages, which are likely to play a role in terrestrial ecosystem evolution and feedbacks to climate. These findings open the way for future research focused on using combined geophysical and remote sensing datasets to estimate subsurface and land-surface properties in high resolution and over large regions as is needed for process understanding and numerical model initialization in high latitude terrestrial ecosystems.

Hubbard, Susan S [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gangodagmage, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dafflon, B [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Wainwright, H [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Peterson, J [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gusmeroli, A [University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Ulrich, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Wu, Yuxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rowland, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tweedie, Craig [University of Texas, El Paso; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Impact of Subsurface Temperature Variability on Surface Air Temperature Variability: An AGCM Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anomalous atmospheric conditions can lead to surface temperature anomalies, which in turn can lead to temperature anomalies in the subsurface soil. The subsurface soil temperature (and the associated ground heat content) has significant memory—...

Sarith P. P. Mahanama; Randal D. Koster; Rolf H. Reichle; Max J. Suarez

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Interannual Variability of Surface Fields over the Indian Ocean during Recent Decades  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interannual variability of surface meteorological fields over the Indian Ocean during the period 1954–76 is studied using 2 million ship reports obtained from different sources. Monthly mean fields of wind, pressure, air temperature, mixing ...

Daniel L. Cadet; Bradley C. Diehl

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Interdecadal Variability of the Thermohaline Circulation in Box-Ocean Models Forced by Fixed Surface Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intrinsic modes of decadal variability are analyzed using box-geometry ocean models forced by constant surface fluxes. An extensive parameter sensitivity analysis of the oscillatory behavior is carried out with respect to the spherical/Cartesian ...

Thierry Huck; Alain Colin de Verdière; Andrew J. Weaver

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Joint Spatiotemporal Variability of Global Sea Surface Temperatures and Global Palmer Drought Severity Index Values  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dominant modes of individual and joint variability in global sea surface temperatures (SST) and global Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) values for the twentieth century are identified through a multivariate frequency domain singular value ...

Somkiat Apipattanavis; Gregory J. McCabe; Balaji Rajagopalan; Subhrendu Gangopadhyay

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Interannual and Seasonal Variability of the Surface Energy Balance and Temperature of Central Great Slave Lake  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses interannual and seasonal variability in the thermal regime and surface energy fluxes in central Great Slave Lake during three contiguous open-water periods, two of which overlap the Canadian Global Energy and Water Cycle ...

Wayne R. Rouse; Claire M. Oswald; Jacqueline Binyamin; Peter D. Blanken; William M. Schertzer; Christopher Spence

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

The Impact of North Atlantic–Arctic Multidecadal Variability on Northern Hemisphere Surface Air Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The twentieth-century Northern Hemisphere surface climate exhibits a long-term warming trend largely caused by anthropogenic forcing, with natural decadal climate variability superimposed on it. This study addresses the possible origin and ...

Vladimir A. Semenov; Mojib Latif; Dietmar Dommenget; Noel S. Keenlyside; Alexander Strehz; Thomas Martin; Wonsun Park

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Sea Surface Temperature and Wind Stress Curl Variability near a Cape  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coupling between sea surface temperature (SST), SST gradients, and wind stress curl variability near a cape off Brazil is investigated using satellite observations and several different SST high-resolution analyses. The cape is characterized ...

Renato M. Castelao

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Representation of Water Table Dynamics in a Land Surface Scheme. Part II: Subgrid Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lumped unconfined aquifer model has been developed and interactively coupled to a land surface scheme in a companion paper. Here, the issue of the representation of subgrid variability of water table depths (WTDs) is addressed. A statistical–...

Pat J-F. Yeh; Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Analysis of Near-Surface Atmospheric Variables: Validation of the SAFRAN Analysis over France  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Système d’analyse fournissant des renseignements atmosphériques à la neige (SAFRAN) is a mesoscale atmospheric analysis system for surface variables. It produces an analysis at the hourly time step using ground data observations. One of SAFRAN’s ...

P. Quintana-Seguí; P. Le Moigne; Y. Durand; E. Martin; F. Habets; M. Baillon; C. Canellas; L. Franchisteguy; S. Morel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Interannual Variability of Sea Surface Height over the Black Sea: Relation to Climatic Patterns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea surface height (SSH) variability is presented over the Black Sea during 1993–2005. The 1/4° × 1/4° resolution daily SSH fields are formed using optimal interpolation of available altimeter data. SSH variability reveals distinct maxima in the ...

A. Birol Kara; Charlie N. Barron; Alan J. Wallcraft; Temel Oguz

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Measurement of Elastic Moduli of Nano-Granular Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurement of Elastic Moduli of Nano-Granular Surfaces. Next-generation electronic devices, based on micro- and nanoelectromechanical ...

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Provisionally Corrected Surface Wind Data, Worldwide Ocean-Atmosphere Surface Fields, and Sahellan Rainfall Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Worldwide ship datasets of sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure (SLP), and surface vector wind are analyzed for a July-September composite of five Sabelian wet years (1950, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1958) minus five Sahelian dry years (1972, ...

M. Neil Ward

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Evaluation of a Surface/Vegetation Parameterization Using Satellite Measurements of Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares surface sensible heat flux and soil moisture values derived by inverting two boundary layers models with a surface/vegetation formulation, using surface temperature measurements made from NOAA-7 satellite (the AVHRR) with ...

O. Taconet; T. Carlson; R. Bernard; D. Vidal-Madjar

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Infrared Techniques for Measuring Ocean Surface Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ocean surface processes, and air–sea interaction in general, have recently received increased attention because it is now accepted that small-scale surface phenomena can play a crucial role in the air–sea fluxes of heat, mass, and momentum, with ...

Fabrice Veron; W. Kendall Melville; Luc Lenain

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE  

SciTech Connect

All of the technical goals of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) field program which were supported under the Department of Energy research grant ''Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' (DE-FG03-90ER60981) have been met. This has included the measurement of the partial pressures of carbon dioxide (C0{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in both the surface ocean and the atmosphere on 24 separate shipboard expedition legs of the WOCE Hydrographic Programme. These measurements were made in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans over a six-and-a-half year period, and over a distance of nearly 200,000 kilometers of ship track. The total number of measurements, including ocean measurements, air measurements and standard gas measurements, is about 136,000 for each gas, or about 34,000 measurements of each gas in the ocean and in the air. This global survey effort is directed at obtaining a better understanding of the role of the oceans in the global atmospheric budgets of two important natural and anthropogenic modulators of climate through the ''greenhouse effect'', CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O, and an important natural and anthropogenic modulator of the Earth's protective ozone layer through catalytic processes in the stratosphere, N{sub 2}O. For both of these compounds, the oceans play a major role in their global budgets. In the case of CO{sub 2}, roughly half of the anthropogenic production through the combustion of fossil fuels has been absorbed by the world's oceans. In the case of N{sub 2}O, roughly a third of the natural flux to the atmosphere originates in the oceans. As the interpretation of the variability in the oceanic distributions of these compounds improves, measurements such as those supported by this research project are playing an increasingly important role in improving our understanding of natural and anthropogenic influences on climate and ozone. (B204)

Weiss, R.F.

1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Identifying Signatures of Natural Climate Variability in Time Series of Global-Mean Surface Temperature: Methodology and Insights  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global-mean surface temperature is affected by both natural variability and anthropogenic forcing. This study is concerned with identifying and removing from global-mean temperatures the signatures of natural climate variability over the period ...

David W. J. Thompson; John M. Wallace; Phil D. Jones; John J. Kennedy

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Inferring Surface Solar Absorption from Broadband Satellite Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An atmospheric solar radiation model, in conjunction with a variety of surface albedo models, has been employed to address several issues related to inferring the surface solar radiation budget from satellite measurements. With reference to ...

Robert D. Cess; Inna L. Vulis

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Variability Common to Global Sea-Surface Temperatures and Runoff in the Conterminous United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to identify the variability common to global sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and water-balance-modeled water-year (WY) runoff in the conterminous United States (US) for the 1900 through 2012 period. Two ...

Gregory J. McCabe; David M. Wolock

58

Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the observed variability in indoor space temperature in a set of 60 homes located in Florida, New York, Oregon, and Washington. Temperature data were collected at 15-minute intervals for an entire year, including living room, master bedroom, and outdoor air temperature (Arena, et. al). The data were examined to establish the average living room temperature for the set of homes for the heating and cooling seasons, the variability of living room temperature depending on climate, and the variability of indoor space temperature within the homes. The accuracy of software-based energy analysis depends on the accuracy of input values. Thermostat set point is one of the most influential inputs for building energy simulation. Several industry standards exist that recommend differing default thermostat settings for heating and cooling seasons. These standards were compared to the values calculated for this analysis. The data examined for this report show that there is a definite difference between the climates and that the data do not agree well with any particular standard.

Roberts, D.; Lay, K.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Surface moisture measurement system electromagnetic induction probe calibration technique  

SciTech Connect

The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) is designed to measure the moisture concentration near the surfaces of the wastes located in the Hanford Site tank farms. This document describes a calibration methodology to demonstrate that the Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture probe meets relevant requirements in the `Design Requirements Document (DRD) for the Surface Moisture Measurement System.` The primary purpose of the experimental tests described in this methodology is to make possible interpretation of EMI in-tank surface probe data to estimate the surface moisture.

Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

60

Measuring Topological Insulator Surface State Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Reflection-high-energy-electron-diffraction (RHEED) measurements are used to monitor the quality ... 1(a)). Each oscillation of RHEED intensity in Fig ...

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

A Variable Sky-View Platform for the Measurement of Ultraviolet Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the more difficult tasks confronting atmospheric researchers today is the acquisition of long-term radiometric measurements that encapsulate variability in the sky hemisphere as well as time. High quality spatial measurements would allow ...

Christopher Kuchinke; Manuel Nunez

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

On Gaussian Random Measures Generated by Empirical Distributions of Independent Random Variables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Normalized fluctuations of empirical measures converge to a law of a random measure if and only if the underlying random variable is purely discrete with square-root-summable probabilities. 1

unknown authors

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

64

Global Retrospective Estimation of Soil Moisture Using the Variable Infiltration Capacity Land Surface Model, 1980–93  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A daily set of surface meteorological forcings, model-derived surface moisture fluxes, and state variables for global land areas for the period of 1979–93 is described. The forcing dataset facilitates global simulations and evaluation of land ...

Bart Nijssen; Reiner Schnur; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Measurements of Temperature Fluctuations in Breaking Surface Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of temperature fluctuations and air entrainment within the upper 1 m of the surface caused by breaking surface waves have been acquired with a novel surface-following sensor array. Brief temperature fluctuations of order 20 mK–100 mK ...

David M. Farmer; Johannes R. Gemmrich

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Crystal Structure of Neurotropism-Associated Variable Surface Protein 1 (VSP1) of Borrelia Turicatae  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vsp surface lipoproteins are serotype-defining antigens of relapsing fever spirochetes that undergo multiphasic antigenic variation to allow bacterial persistence in spite of an immune response. Two isogenic serotypes of Borrelia turicatae strain Oz1 differ in their Vsp sequences and in disease manifestations in infected mice: Vsp1 is associated with the selection of a neurological niche, while Vsp2 is associated with blood and skin infection. We report here crystal structures of the Vsp1 dimer at 2.7 and 2.2 Angstroms. The structures confirm that relapsing fever Vsp proteins share a common helical fold with OspCs of Lyme disease-causing Borrelia. The fold features an inner stem formed by highly conserved N and C termini and an outer 'dome' formed by the variable central residues. Both Vsp1 and OspC structures possess small water-filled cavities, or pockets, that are lined largely by variable residues and are thus highly variable in shape. These features appear to signify tolerance of the Vsp-OspC fold for imperfect packing of residues at its antigenic surface. Structural comparison of Vsp1 with a homology model for Vsp2 suggests that observed differences in disease manifestation may arise in part from distinct differences in electrostatic surface properties; additional predicted positively charged surface patches on Vsp2 compared to Vsp1 may be sufficient to explain the relative propensity of Vsp2 to bind to acidic glycosaminoglycans.

Lawson,C.; Yung, B.; Barbour, A.; Zuckert, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Variability of Aerosol Optical Properties at Four North American Surface Monitoring Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol optical properties measured over several years at surface monitoring stations located at Bondville, Illinois (BND); Lamont, Oklahoma (SGP); Sable Island, Nova Scotia (WSA); and Barrow, Alaska (BRW), have been analyzed to determine the ...

David J. Delene; John A. Ogren

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Long-Term Sea Surface Temperature Variability along the U.S. East Coast  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea surface temperature variations along the entire U.S. East Coast from 1875 to 2007 are characterized using a collection of historical observations from lighthouses and lightships combined with recent buoy and shore-based measurements. Long-...

R. Kipp Shearman; Steven J. Lentz

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms  

SciTech Connect

The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

ARM: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

Gary Hodges; Tom Stoffel; Mark Kutchenreiter; Bev Kay; Aron Habte; Michael Ritsche; Victor Morris; Mary Anderberg

71

Accurate Airborne Surface Temperature Measurements with Chopper-stabilized Radiometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of chopper-stabilized radiometers for the meteorological measurement of surface temperatures was investigated during a series of airborne trails, including tests at high altitude using a pressurized aircraft. The significant finding ...

Dieter Lorenz

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Meteorological Tower Measurements of a Surface Cold Front  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

measurements from the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory meteorological research tower are used to describe the structure and physical processes of a strong surface cold front. Analysis reveals that the horizontal gradients in temperature and wind ...

M. A. Shapiro

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Global, Seasonal Surface Variations from Satellite Radiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global, daily, visible, and infrared radiance measurements from the NOAA-5 Scanning Radiometer (SR) are analyzed for the months of January, April, July, and October 1977 to infer surface radiative properties A radiative transfer model that ...

William B. Rossow; Christopher L. Brest; Leonid C. Garder

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Microelectronic Thermal Anemometer for the Measurement of Surface Wind  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper describes the development and first prototype results of a microelectronic thermal anemometer without moving parts, for the measurement of velocity and direction of surface wind. The central part of the instrument is an integrated-...

B. W. Van Oudheusden; J. H. Huijsing

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Simulation of Radar Reflectivity and Surface Measurements of Rainfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raindrop size distributions (RSDs) are often estimated using surface raindrop sampling devices (e.g., disdrometers) or optical array (2D-PMS) probes. A number of authors have used these measured distributions to compute certain higher-order RSD ...

V. Chandrasekar; V. N. Bringi

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Optimal Measurement of Surface Shortwave Irradiance Using Current Instrumentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although most measurements of total downwelling shortwave irradiance are made with pyranometers, the World Climate Research Program’s Baseline Surface Radiation Network has recommended the use of the summation of shortwave components in which the ...

J. Michalsky; E. Dutton; M. Rubes; D. Nelson; T. Stoffel; M. Wesley; M. Splitt; J. DeLuisi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Estimating Maximum Surface Winds from Hurricane Reconnaissance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radial profiles of surface winds measured by the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) are compared to radial profiles of flight-level winds to determine the slant ratio of the maximum surface wind speed to the maximum flight-level wind ...

Mark D. Powell; Eric W. Uhlhorn; Jeffrey D. Kepert

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability and Associated Physical Controls of Near-Surface Soil Moisture in Different Hydro-Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near-surface soil moisture is a key state variable of the hydrologic cycle and plays a significant role in the global water and energy balance by affecting several hydrological, ecological, meteorological, geomorphologic, and other natural processes in the land-atmosphere continuum. Presence of soil moisture in the root zone is vital for the crop and plant life cycle. Soil moisture distribution is highly non-linear across time and space. Various geophysical factors (e.g., soil properties, topography, vegetation, and weather/climate) and their interactions control the spatio-temporal evolution of soil moisture at various scales. Understanding these interactions is crucial for the characterization of soil moisture dynamics occurring in the vadose zone. This dissertation focuses on understanding the spatio-temporal variability of near-surface soil moisture and the associated physical control(s) across varying measurement support (point-scale and passive microwave airborne/satellite remote sensing footprint-scale), spatial extents (field-, watershed-, and regional-scale), and changing hydro-climates. Various analysis techniques (e.g., time stability, geostatistics, Empirical Orthogonal Function, and Singular Value Decomposition) have been employed to characterize near-surface soil moisture variability and the role of contributing physical control(s) across space and time. Findings of this study can be helpful in several hydrological research/applications, such as, validation/calibration and downscaling of remote sensing data products, planning and designing effective soil moisture monitoring networks and field campaigns, improving performance of soil moisture retrieval algorithm, flood/drought prediction, climate forecast modeling, and agricultural management practices.

Joshi, Champa

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Measurement and QCD analysis of event shape variables in deep-inelastic electron-proton collisions at HERA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement and QCD analysis of event shape variables in deep-inelastic electron-proton collisions at HERA

Kluge, T

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Impact of Atmospheric Intraseasonal Variability in the Indian Ocean: Low-Frequency Rectification in Equatorial Surface Current and Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is used to investigate the low-frequency (period longer than 90 days) rectification of atmospheric intraseasonal variability (10–90-day periods) in zonal surface current and transport of the equatorial ...

Weiqing Han; Peter Webster; Roger Lukas; Peter Hacker; Aixue Hu

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Principal Modes of Atmospheric Variability in Model Atmospheres with and without Anomalous Sea Surface Temperature Forcing in the Tropical Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Principal modes of low-frequency atmospheric variability and the influence of sea surface temperature anomalies on such modes are investigated by examining the output from two general circulation model experiments. In the first experiment (the “...

In-Sik Kang; Ngar-Cheung Lau

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

joint Spatiotemporal Modes of Surface Temperature and Sea Level Pressure Variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the Last Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coherent spatiotemporal modes of climatic variability are isolated based on a multivariate frequency domain singular value decomposition (SVD) of nearly a century of monthly Northern Hemisphere sea level pressure (SLP) and surface temperature ...

Michael E. Mann; Jeffrey Park

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Influence of the Interannual Variability of Vegetation on the Surface Energy Balance—A Global Sensitivity Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The degree to which the interannual variability of vegetation phenology affects hydrological fluxes over land is investigated through a series of simulations with the Mosaic land surface model, run both offline and coupled to the NASA Seasonal-to-...

P. Guillevic; R. D. Koster; M. J. Suarez; L. Bounoua; G. J. Collatz; S. O. Los; S. P. P. Mahanama

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Land Surface Heterogeneity in the Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97). Part I: Comparing Modeled Surface Flux Maps with Surface-Flux Tower and Aircraft Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land surface heterogeneity over an area of 71 km × 74 km in the lower Walnut River watershed, Kansas, was investigated using models and measurements from the 1997 Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97) field experiment. As an ...

Fei Chen; David N. Yates; Haruyasu Nagai; Margaret A. LeMone; Kyoko Ikeda; Robert L. Grossman

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Disaggregating measurement uncertainty from population variability and Bayesian treatment of uncensored results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In making low-level radioactivity measurements of populations, it is commonly observed that a substantial portion of net results are negative. Furthermore, the observed variance of the measurement results arises from a combination of measurement uncertainty and population variability. This paper presents a method for disaggregating measurement uncertainty from population variability to produce a probability density function (PDF) of possibly true results. To do this, simple, justifiable, and reasonable assumptions are made about the relationship of the measurements to the measurands (the 'true values'). The measurements are assumed to be unbiased, that is, that their average value is the average of the measurands. Using traditional estimates of each measurement's uncertainty to disaggregate population variability from measurement uncertainty, a PDF of measurands for the population is produced. Then, using Bayes's theorem, the same assumptions, and all the data from the population of individuals, a prior PDF is computed for each individual's measurand. These PDFs are non-negative, and their average is equal to the average of the measurement results for the population. The uncertainty in these Bayesian posterior PDFs is all Berkson with no remaining classical component. The methods are applied to baseline bioassay data from the Hanford site. The data include 90Sr urinalysis measurements on 128 people, 137Cs in vivo measurements on 5,337 people, and 239Pu urinalysis measurements on 3,270 people. The method produces excellent results for the 90Sr and 137Cs measurements, since there are nonzero concentrations of these global fallout radionuclides in people who have not been occupationally exposed. The method does not work for the 239Pu measurements in non-occupationally exposed people because the population average is essentially zero.

Strom, Daniel J.; Joyce, Kevin E.; Maclellan, Jay A.; Watson, David J.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Antonio, Cheryl L.; Birchall, Alan; Anderson, Kevin K.; Zharov, Peter

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

86

Two-pulse rapid remote surface contamination measurement.  

SciTech Connect

This project demonstrated the feasibility of a 'pump-probe' optical detection method for standoff sensing of chemicals on surfaces. Such a measurement uses two optical pulses - one to remove the analyte (or a fragment of it) from the surface and the second to sense the removed material. As a particular example, this project targeted photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence (PF-LIF) to detect of surface deposits of low-volatility chemical warfare agents (LVAs). Feasibility was demonstrated for four agent surrogates on eight realistic surfaces. Its sensitivity was established for measurements on concrete and aluminum. Extrapolations were made to demonstrate relevance to the needs of outside users. Several aspects of the surface PF-LIF physical mechanism were investigated and compared to that of vapor-phase measurements. The use of PF-LIF as a rapid screening tool to 'cue' more specific sensors was recommended. Its sensitivity was compared to that of Raman spectroscopy, which is both a potential 'confirmer' of PF-LIF 'hits' and is also a competing screening technology.

Headrick, Jeffrey M.; Kulp, Thomas J.; Bisson, Scott E.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Farrow, Roger L.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Comparison of MTI Satellite-Derived Surface Water Temperatures and In-Situ Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Temperatures of the water surface of a cold, mid-latitude lake and the tropical Pacific Ocean were determined from MTI images and from in situ concurrent measurements. In situ measurements were obtained at the time of the MTI image with a floating, anchored platform, which measured the surface and bulk water temperatures and relevant meteorological variables, and also from a boat moving across the target area. Atmospheric profiles were obtained from concurrent radiosonde soundings. Radiances at the satellite were calculated with the Modtran radiative transfer model. The MTI infrared radiances were within 1 percent of the calculated values at the Pacific Ocean site but were 1-2 percent different over the mid-latitude lake.

Kurzeja, R.

2001-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

88

Variability of surface fluxes over a heterogeneous semi-arid grassland  

SciTech Connect

Efforts are increasing throughout the research community to improve the predictive capabilities of general circulation models (GCMs). The US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has stated its goals as improving the representation and parameterization of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in GCMs by a combined modeling and experimental approach. Along with ambient atmospheric conditions, including advection of water vapor and cloud nuclei from other regions, cloud dynamics depend on surface fluxes of heat and water vapor. The lower boundary of the GCM modeling domain, the earth's surface, exerts a strong influence on regional dynamics of heat and water vapor, and the heterogeneity in the surface features can be responsible for generating regional mesoscale circulation patterns. Changes in the surface vegetation due to anthropogenic activity can cause substantial changes in the ratio of sensible to latent heat flux and result in climate changes that may be irreversible. A broad variety of models for representing energy fluxes are in use, from individual leaf and canopy models to mesoscale atmospheric models and GCMs. Scaling-up a model is likely to result in significant errors, since biophysical responses often have nonlinear dependence on the abiotic environment. Thus, accurate and defensible methods for selecting measurement scales and modeling strategies are needed in the effort to improve GCMs. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Barnes, F.J.; Porch, W.; Cooper, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Kunkel, K.E. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)); Hipps, L.; Swiatek, E. (Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Surface photovoltage measurements and finite element modeling of SAW devices.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the course of a Summer 2011 internship with the MEMS department of Sandia National Laboratories, work was completed on two major projects. The first and main project of the summer involved taking surface photovoltage measurements for silicon samples, and using these measurements to determine surface recombination velocities and minority carrier diffusion lengths of the materials. The SPV method was used to fill gaps in the knowledge of material parameters that had not been determined successfully by other characterization methods. The second project involved creating a 2D finite element model of a surface acoustic wave device. A basic form of the model with the expected impedance response curve was completed, and the model is ready to be further developed for analysis of MEMS photonic resonator devices.

Donnelly, Christine

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Surface Temperatures of Insulated Glazing Units: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T. Griffith ASHRAE Member, Howdy Goudey, and Dariush Arasteh P.E. ASHRAE Member Building Technologies Program Environment Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley CA 94720 USA August 2, 2001 This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs, Office of Building Systems of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. Surface Temperatures of Window Specimens: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith 1 , Howdy Goudey, and Dariush Arasteh

91

Analysis and Evaluation For Equipment Performance by Surface Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many building owners and facility managers are deeply interested in both operation and maintenance costs related to a building's life cycle. Optimizing energy consumption and obtaining long equipment activity requires sophisticated management. If the data needed for this management are unavailable, then measures must be taken to augment them. We were able to lower power consumption in heat source equipment by ap-proximately 12% by means of analysis and evaluations as well as using optimum measurement features that al-low measuring operation data without stopping opera-tion of surface measurement equipment. More cost-effective renewal plans and designs were achieved by proposing equipment specifications based on the cooling and heating load during operation.

Ishizuka, K.; Aizawa, N.; Shibata, K.; Yonezawa, H.; Yamada, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

93

Variability in Large-Scale Water Balance with Land Surface-Atmosphere Interaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Persistent and prolonged periods of dry or moist conditions are often evident in the interannual variability of continental-type climates This variability appears as fluctuations around several distinct and preferred moisture states. These ...

Dara Entekhabi; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe; Rafael L. Bras

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

1980–2010 Variability in U.K. Surface Wind Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climate of the northeast Atlantic region comprises substantial decadal variability in storminess. It also exhibits strong inter- and intra-annual variability in extreme high and low wind speed episodes. Here the authors quantify and discuss ...

Nick Earl; Steve Dorling; Richard Hewston; Roland von Glasow

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Influence of South Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures on Rainfall Variability and Extremes over Southern Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is generally agreed that changing climate variability, and the associated change in climate extremes, may have a greater impact on environmentally vulnerable regions than a changing mean. This research investigates rainfall variability, ...

C. J. R. Williams; D. R. Kniveton; R. Layberry

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Relationships between gas-liquid interfacial surface area, liquid saturation, and light transmission in variably saturated porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relationships between gas-liquid interfacial surface area, liquid saturation, and light transmission in variably saturated porous media Abstract Liquid saturation and gas-liquid interfacial area the specific gas-liquid interfacial area from the area under the primarydrainage branch of the Seff -h

Weisbrod, Noam

97

Simulated Diurnal Range and Variability of Surface Temperature in a Global Climate Model for Present and Doubled C02 Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variability of surface temperature simulated by a global climate model with a simple mixed-layer ocean is analyzed. The simulated diurnal and seasonal ranges of temperature are compared with observation, as is the day-to-day and interannual ...

Hong Xing Cao; J. F. B. Mitchell; J. R. Lavery

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Free and Forced Variability of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean: Role of the Wind–Evaporation–Sea Surface Temperature Feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of the wind–evaporation–sea surface temperature (WES) feedback in the low-frequency natural variability of the tropical Atlantic is studied using an atmospheric global climate model—the NCAR Community Climate Model, version 3 (CCM3)—...

Salil Mahajan; R. Saravanan; Ping Chang

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Physical Mechanisms of the Wintertime Surface Air Temperature Variability in South Korea and the near-7-Day Oscillations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first three principal modes of wintertime surface temperature variability in Seoul, South Korea (37.33°N, 126.59°E), are extracted from the 1979–2008 observed records via cyclostationary EOF (CSEOF) analysis. The first mode represents the ...

Kwang-Yul Kim; Joon-Woo Roh

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Surface Measurements of Solar Irradiance: A Study of the Spatial Correlation between Simultaneous Measurements at Separated Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyranometers have been used for many years to measure broadband surface incoming solar irradiance, data that is necessary for surface energy budget, cloud forcing, and satellite validation research. Because such measurements are made at a ...

Charles N. Long; Thomas P. Ackerman

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Estimating Spatial Variability in Atmospheric Properties over Remotely Sensed Land Surface Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the spatial relationships between surface fluxes and near-surface atmospheric properties (AP), and the potential errors in flux estimation due to homogeneous atmospheric inputs over heterogeneous landscapes. A large-eddy ...

Giacomo Bertoldi; William P. Kustas; John D. Albertson

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Modeling spatial variability of 137Cs surface activity in a mountain zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on 137Cs surface activity field studies performed on a workshop zone, we succeeded in identifying the main criterion permitting surface activity modeling to be extended. Geomorphometric data derived from the Digital Elevation Model (slope, ...

J. M. Métivier; L. Pourcelot

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Recent Variability of the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation Inferred from Surface Heat and Freshwater Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An annual-mean surface-forced component of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) in density space, ?surf(?,?), is diagnosed from observed surface heat and freshwater fluxes. The climatological mean of ?surf over 1980–97 indicates ...

Robert Marsh

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Role of Antecedent Land Surface Conditions on North American Monsoon Rainfall Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Possible links between North American Monsoon System (NAMS) seasonal [June–July–August–September (JJAS)] precipitation and premonsoon seasonal land surface conditions including precipitation (P), surface air temperature (Ts), soil moisture (Sm), ...

Chunmei Zhu; Dennis P. Lettenmaier; Tereza Cavazos

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

The Impact of Tropical Indian Ocean Variability on Summer Surface Air Temperature in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence is presented that the boreal summer surface air temperature over south China and northeast China is remotely influenced by the Indian Ocean Basin mode (IOBM) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Above-normal temperature in south China ...

Kaiming Hu; Gang Huang; Ronghui Huang

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Investigation of Hydrological Variability in West Africa Using Land Surface Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The availability of freshwater is a particularly important issue in Africa where large portions of the continent are arid or semiarid and climate is highly variable. Sustainable water resource management requires the assessment of hydrological ...

K. Y. Li; M. T. Coe; N. Ramankutty

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Land Surface Hydrology Parameterization for Atmospheric General Circulation models Including Subgrid Scale Spatial Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parameterizations are developed for the representation of subgrid hydrologic processes in atmospheric general circulation models. Reasonable a priori probability density functions of the spatial variability of soil moisture and of precipitation ...

D. Entekhabi; P. S. Eagleson

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Phase Speed Spectra and the Latitude of Surface Westerlies: Interannual Variability and Global Warming Trend  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The extratropical annular-mode-like atmospheric responses to ENSO and global warming and the internal variability of annular modes are associated with similar, yet distinct, dynamical characteristics. In particular, La Niña, global warming, and ...

Gang Chen; Jian Lu; Dargan M. W. Frierson

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Linkages between Summer Rainfall Variability over South America and Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A reconstructed rainfall dataset, and satellite estimates are used to analyze interannual to decadal variability of austral summer precipitation over South America. Rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis is applied to isolate ...

Julia N. Paegle; Kingtse C. Mo

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Surface Energy Fluxes and Coupled Variability in the Tropics of a Coupled General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of wind-evaporative feedbacks upon ENSO, and the coupling of Pacific and Indian Ocean variability, is considered based upon a 110-yr simulation from a coupled ocean and atmosphere general circulation model.

R. L. Miller; X. Jiang

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Links between Snow Cover, Surface Skin Temperature, and Rainfall Variability in the North American Monsoon System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of land–atmosphere interactions on the variability of the North American monsoon system (NAMS) is investigated using the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) Pathfinder, the Climate ...

Toshi Matsui; Venkat Lakshmi; Eric Small

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Abstract--Heart rate variability (HRV) is frequently used to measure autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. However,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 of 4 Abstract--Heart rate variability (HRV) is frequently used to measure autonomic nervous frequency (HF) ratio with little change in mean heart rate. Results suggest that nicotine affects both components may yield erroneous results. Keywords--Autonomic regulation, heart rate variability, Lomb

113

An Evaluation of a Self-Calibrating Infrared Radiometer for Measuring Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite radiometer measurements of global sea surface temperature (SST) with an accuracy of 0.3 K are required for climate change monitoring. In order to validate that this accuracy can be achieved, in situ measurements of sea surface radiance ...

J. P. Thomas; R. J. Knight; H. K. Roscoe; J. Turner; C. Symon

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Measurement of Surface Energy Fluxes from Two Rangeland Sites and Comparison with a Multilayer Canopy Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rangelands are often characterized by a patchy mosaic of vegetation types, making measurement and modeling of surface energy fluxes particularly challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate surface energy fluxes measured using three eddy ...

Gerald N. Flerchinger; Michele L. Reba; Danny Marks

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Radar and Surface Measurement of Rainfall during CaPE: 26 July 1991 Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conventional usage of multiparameter radar measurements for rainfall estimation has been associated with tracking the variability of the raindrop size distribution. The use of multiparameter radar measurements in a statistical framework to ...

Eugenio Gorgucci; V. Chandrasekar; Gianfranco Scarchilli

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Measuring Surface Currents in Drake Passage from Altimetry and Hydrography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a new method for combining altimetry data with hydrography in order to produce absolute surface geostrophic currents from altimetry. This method is then applied to data from the Drake Passage allowing surface currents to be ...

P. G. Challenor; J. F. Read; R. T. Pollard; R. T. Tokmakian

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

On the Stochastic Forcing of Modes of Interannual Southern Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple linearized transport model of anomalous Southern Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) is studied to determine whether it can sustain anomalies of realistic amplitudes under a physically based stochastic forcing. As noted in previous ...

Christopher M. Aiken; Matthew H. England

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

The Temporal Variability of Soil Moisture and Surface Hydrological Quantities in a Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variance budget of land surface hydrological quantities is analyzed in the second Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP2) simulation made with the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) third-generation general ...

Vivek K. Arora; George J. Boer

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Fine Pattern of Natural Modes in Sea Surface Temperature Variability: 1985–2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A natural mode refers, in this study, to a periodic oscillation of sea surface temperature (SST) that is geophysically significant on a global, regional, or local scale. Using a newly developed harmonic extraction scheme by Chen, which has the ...

Ge Chen; Haitao Li

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Structure of SST and Surface Wind Variability during Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Events: COADS Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study of the detailed spatiotemporal characteristics of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) mode in SST and surface winds using available observations from 1958 till 1997 is reported. The analysis is used to address several of the controversial ...

N. H. Saji; T. Yamagata

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Precipitation Variability and Surface-Mine Reclamation in the Green, Powder and San Juan River Basins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Federal and state legislation requires the reclamation of surface-mined lands. Reclamation usually involves landscape shaping and revegetation. In arid and semiarid regions, climate exerts considerable influence on revegetation facility. This ...

Terrence J. Toy

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

A variable capacitor made from single crystal silicon fracture surface pairs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complementary and nano-smooth single-crystal-silicon surfaces have been fabricated by deliberately fracturing a weakened portion of a larger structure whose flexural mechanism refines and concentrates an externally applied ...

Sprunt, Alexander D. (Alexander Dalziel), 1977-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Quantifying Land Surface Temperature Variability for Two Sahelian Mesoscale Regions during the Wet Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land–atmosphere feedbacks play an important role in the weather and climate of many semiarid regions. These feedbacks are strongly controlled by how the surface responds to precipitation events, which regulate the return of heat and moisture to ...

Martin G. De Kauwe; Christopher M. Taylor; Philip P. Harris; Graham P. Weedon; Richard. J. Ellis

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Interannual Variability of Sea Surface Temperature off Java and Sumatra in a Global GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using results from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA), this study assesses the mixed layer heat budget to identify the mechanisms that control the interannual variation of sea surface temperature (SST) off Java and Sumatra. The analysis ...

Yan Du; Tangdong Qu; Gary Meyers

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Studies of El Niño and Interdecadal Variability in Tropical Sea Surface Temperatures Using a Nonnormal Filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamically based filter is used to separate tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) into three components: the evolving El Niño signal, the global tropical trend, and the background. The components thus isolated are not independent. On the ...

Cécile Penland; Ludmila Matrosova

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Sensitivity of Global Tropical Climate to Land Surface Processes: Mean State and Interannual Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the sensitivity of the global climate to land surface processes (LSP) using an atmospheric general circulation model both uncoupled (with prescribed SSTs) and coupled to an oceanic general circulation model. The emphasis is on ...

Hsi-Yen Ma; Heng Xiao; C. Roberto Mechoso; Yongkang Xue

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The Mean Surface Water Balance over Africa and Its Interannual Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents calculations of surface water balance for the African continent using a revised version of the Lettau climatonomy. Calculations are based on approximately 1400 rainfall stations, with records generally covering 60 yr or ...

S. E. Nicholson; J. Kim; M. B. Ba; A. R. Lare

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Mechanisms Controlling Variability of the Interhemispheric Sea Surface Temperature Gradient in the Tropical Atlantic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature (SST) fields in the tropical Atlantic is explored for composites of extremely STRONG and WEAK northward SST gradients, because these are known to control the basinwide pressure gradient, latitude ...

Richard G. Wagner

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

The Effect of Reflecting Surfaces on the Vertical Structure and Variability of Stratospheric Planetary Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of an upper-stratospheric reflecting surface on the vertical structure of stratospheric planetary waves are considered. A diagnostic of the basic-state wave propagation characteristics, which is particularly useful for determining the ...

Nili Harnik; Richard S. Lindzen

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Bubble behavior in subcooled flow boiling on surfaces of variable wettability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flow boiling is important in energy conversion and thermal management due to its potential for very high heat fluxes. By improving understanding of the conditions leading to bubble departure, surfaces can be designed that ...

Tow, Emily W

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Global Characteristics of Ocean Variability Estimated from Regional TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three years of altimetric data from the TOPEX/POSEIDON spacecraft have been used to study characteristics of eddy variability over the World Ocean. The nature of the variability and its spatial structure are characterized in terms of the ...

Detlef Stammer

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Drag Anemometer Measurements of Turbulence over a Vegetated Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turbulent fluctuations of vertical wind and fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat measured with a drag anemometer are compared to like data measured with other instruments. Means of the measured parameters agreed well with energy ...

T. Grayson Redford Jr.; Shashi B. Verma; Norman J. Rosenberg

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Quantifying Land Surface Temperature Variability for Two Sahelian Mesoscale Regions during the Wet Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land-atmosphere feedbacks play an important role in the weather and climate of many semi-arid regions. These feedbacks are strongly controlled by how the surface responds to precipitation events, which regulate the return of heat and moisture to ...

Martin G. De Kauwe; Christopher M. Taylor; Philip P. Harris; Graham P. Weedon; Richard J. Ellis

134

Global Modes of Sea Surface Temperature Variability in Relation to Regional Climate Indices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A century-long EOF analysis of global sea surface temperature (SST) was carried out and the first six modes, independent by construction, were found to be associated with well-known regional climate phenomena: the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (...

Monique Messié; Francisco Chavez

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Large-Scale Patterns and Variability of Snowmelt and Parameterized Surface Albedo in the Arctic Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visible-band satellite imagery is used to manually map surface brightness changes over sea ice throughout the Arctic Basin from May to mid-August over a 10-yr period. These brightness changes are primarily due to snowmelt atop the ice cover. ...

David A. Robinson; Mark C. Serreze; Roger G. Barry; Greg Scharfen; George Kukla

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Net Surface Solar Irradiance Variability in the Central Equatorial Pacific during 1982–1985  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the evolution of the net surface solar irradiance from March 1982 to October 1985 in an important region of the equatorial Pacific where the TROPIC HEAT Experiment took place (4.6°N to 7.4°S, 142.6° to 117.17°W). The ...

Catherine Gautier; Robert Frouin

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

MOISTURE AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To ensure safe storage, plutonium-bearing oxides are stabilized at 950 C for at least two hours in an oxidizing atmosphere. Stabilization conditions are expected to decompose organic impurities, convert metals to oxides, and result in moisture content below 0.5 wt%. During stabilization, the specific surface area is reduced, which minimizes readsorption of water onto the oxide surface. Plutonium oxides stabilized according to these criteria were sampled and analyzed to determine moisture content and surface area. In addition, samples were leached in water to identify water-soluble chloride impurity content. Results of these analyses for seven samples showed that the stabilization process produced low moisture materials (< 0.2 wt %) with low surface area ({le} 1 m{sup 2}/g). For relatively pure materials, the amount of water per unit surface area corresponded to 1.5 to 3.5 molecular layers of water. For materials with chloride content > 360 ppm, the calculated amount of water per unit surface area increased with chloride content, indicating hydration of hygroscopic salts present in the impure PuO{sub 2}-containing materials. The low moisture, low surface area materials in this study did not generate detectable hydrogen during storage of four or more years.

Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Scogin, J.; Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

138

Seasonally Resolved Surface Water (delta)14C Variability in the Lombok Strait: A Coralline Perspective  

SciTech Connect

We have explored surface water mixing in the Lombok Strait through a {approx}bimonthly resolved surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C time-series reconstructed from a coral in the Lombok Strait that spans 1937 through 1990. The prebomb surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C average is -60.5{per_thousand} and individual samples range from -72{per_thousand} to 134{per_thousand}. The annual average post-bomb maximum occurs in 1973 and is 122{per_thousand}. The timing of the post-bomb maximum is consistent with a primary subtropical source for the surface waters in the Indonesian Seas. During the post-bomb period the coral records regular seasonal cycles of 5-20{per_thousand}. Seasonal high {Delta}{sup 14}C occur during March-May (warm, low salinity), and low {Delta}{sup 14}C occur in September (cool, higher salinity). The {Delta}{sup 14}C seasonality is coherent and in phase with the seasonal {Delta}{sup 14}C cycle observed in Makassar Strait. We estimate the influence of high {Delta}{sup 14}C Makassar Strait (North Pacific) water flowing through the Lombok Strait using a two endmember mixing model and the seasonal extremes observed at the two sites. The percentage of Makassar Strait water varies between 16 and 70%, and between 1955 and 1990 it averages 40%. During La Nina events there is a higher percentage of Makassar Strait (high {Delta}{sup 14}C) water in the Lombok Strait.

Guilderson, T P; Fallon, S J; Moore, M D; Schrag, D P; Charles, C D

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

139

Surface Ocean Mixing Inferred from Different Multisatellite Altimetry Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two sea surface height (SSH) anomaly fields distributed by Archiving, Validation, and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic (AVISO) Altimetry are evaluated in terms of the effects that they produce on mixing. One SSH anomaly field, tagged REF,...

Francisco J. Beron-Vera; María J. Olascoaga; Gustavo J. Goni

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Evaluation of Sea Surface Temperature Measurements from Drifting Buoys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three drift-buoy designs have been deployed since 1988 in substantial numbers in the tropical Pacific Ocean by United States participants as part of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Pan Pacific Surface Current Study. These include the ...

David S. Bitterman; Donald V. Hansen

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

The Use of Limited Surface Networks to Measure Mesoscale Phenomena  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large mesonetworks have successfully demonstrated coupling of surface meteorological phenomena to convective activity. It is unrealistic however, to assume that such networks will be available for wide-area operational applications. This paper ...

James A. Heimbach Jr.; Thomas M. Engel

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Solid-State Radiometer Measurements of Sea Surface Skin Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite sea surface skin temperature (SSST) maps are readily available from precisely calibrated radiometer systems such as the ERS along-track scanning radiometer and, in the near future, from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer. ...

C. J. Donlon; S. J. Keogh; D. J. Baldwin; I. S. Robinson; I. Ridley; T. Sheasby; I. J. Barton; E. F. Bradley; T. J. Nightingale; W. Emery

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Investigation of the Sensitivity of Water Cycle Components Simulated by the Canadian Regional Climate Model to the Land Surface Parameterization, the Lateral Boundary Data, and the Internal Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the sensitivity of components of the hydrological cycle simulated by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) to lateral boundary forcing, the complexity of the land surface scheme (LSS), and the internal variability ...

Biljana Music; Daniel Caya

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Mechanisms of Summertime Subtropical Southern Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Variability: On the Importance of Humidity Anomalies and the Meridional Advection of Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well known that some austral summertime subtropical Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability correlates with rainfall over certain regions of Africa that depend on rainfall for their economic well-being. Recent studies have ...

A. M. Chiodi; D. E. Harrison

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

How Far is Far Enough?: The Fetch Requirements for Micrometeorological Measurement of Surface Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent model estimates of the flux footprint are used to examine the fetch requirements for accurate micro-meteorological measurement of surface fluxes of passive, conservative scalars within the surface flux layer. The required fetch is ...

T. W. Horst; J. C. Weil

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Estimates of Surface Heat Flux from Sodar and Laser Scintillation Measurements in the Unstable Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of acoustic backscatter in the lower planetary boundary layer and optical line-of-sight scintillation in the surface layer are each used to compute sensible heat fluxes in the unstable surface layer. Comparisons with simultaneous low-...

R. L. Coulter; M. L. Wesely

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

A Near-Surface Microstructure Sensor System Used during TOGA COARE. Part II: Turbulence Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New techniques developed for near-surface turbulence measurements during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) employ a difference in spatial scales of turbulence and surface waves. ...

A. Soloviev; R. Lukas; P. Hacker; H. Schoeberlein; M. Baker; A. Arjannikov

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Statistical Retrieval of Humidity Profiles from Precipitable Water Vapor and Surface Measurements of Humidity and Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method is presented of statistical retrieval of humidity profiles based on measurements of surface temperature ?1, surface dewpoint ?2, and integrated water vapor ?3. In this method the retrieved values of humidity depend nonlinearly on ...

Viatcheslav V. Tatarskii; Maia S. Tatarskaia; Ed R. Westwater

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Instrumentation for the Measurement of Sound Speed near the Ocean Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air bubbles entrained by breaking waves in the ocean surface layer can dramatically alter the velocity and attenuation of acoustic waves. The development of an effective technique for directly measuring the sound speed near the ocean surface is ...

Eric Lamarre; W. K. Melville

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

High-Spatial-Resolution Surface and Cloud-Type Classification from MODIS Multispectral Band Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for automated classification of surface and cloud types using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) radiance measurements has been developed. The MODIS cloud mask is used to define the training sets. Surface and cloud-...

Jun Li; W. Paul Menzel; Zhongdong Yang; Richard A. Frey; Steven A. Ackerman

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Enhancement in Surface Atmospheric Pressure Variability Associated with a Major Geomagnetic Storm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observational studies indicate that there is a close association between geomagnetic storm and meteorological parameters. Geomagnetic field lines follow closely the isobars of surface pressure . A Physical mechanism linking upper atmospheric geomagnetic storm disturbances with tropospheric weather has been proposed by the author and her group where it is postulated that vertical mixing by turbulent eddy fluctuations results in the net transport upward of positive charges originating from lower levels accompanied simultaneously by downward flow of negative charges from higher levels. The present study reports enhancement of high frequency (geomagnetic storm (Ap index = 246) on 13 march 1989.

A. M. Selvam; S. Fadnavis; S. U. Athale; M. I. R. Tinmaker

1998-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

152

Measurement of Semiconductor Surface Potential using the Scanning Electron Microscope  

SciTech Connect

We calibrate the secondary electron signal from a standard scanning electron microscope to voltage, yielding an image of the surface or near-surface potential. Data on both atomically abrupt heterojunction GaInP/GaAs and diffused homojunction Si solar cell devices clearly show the expected variation in potential with position and applied bias, giving depletion widths and locating metallurgical junctions to an accuracy better than 10 nm. In some images, distortion near the p-n junction is observed, seemingly consistent with the effects of lateral electric fields (patch fields). Reducing the tube bias removes this distortion. This approach results in rapid and straightforward collection of near-surface potential data using a standard scanning electron microscope.

Heath, J. T.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Preliminary Analysis of Surface Radiation Measurement Data Quality...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

primary radiation flux measurements at the SGP extended facilities are obtained from the Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS). In this study, we examine the radiation...

154

Retrographic sensing for the measurement of surface texture and shape  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a novel device that can be used as a 2.5D "scanner" for acquiring surface texture and shape. The device consists of a slab of clear elastomer covered with a reflective skin. When an object presses on the skin, ...

Adelson, Edward H.

155

Lagrangian Measurements of Surface Circulation near Puerto Rico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A satellite-tracked surface drifter was released October 1980 off the north coast of Puerto Rico and was observed for four months in the subtropical North Atlantic and for two months in the Caribbean. Although the drifter ranged as far north as ...

W. Gary Williams

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Effects of a Spectral Surface Reflectance on Measurements of Backscattered Solar Radiation: Application to the MOPITT Methane Retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of solar radiation emerging from the top of the atmosphere is strongly influenced by the reflectance of the underlying surface. For this reason, some information about the magnitude and the spectral variability of the surface ...

G. Pfister; J. C. Gille; D. Ziskin; G. Francis; D. P. Edwards; M. N. Deeter; E. Abbott

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Systems and Methods for Integrated Emissivity and Temperature Measurement of a Surface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

Poulsen, Peter

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

158

Measurement of GCM Skill in Predicting Variables Relevant for Hydroclimatological Assessments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations from general circulation models are now being used for a variety of studies and purposes. With up to 23 different GCMs now available, it is desirable to determine whether a specific variable from a particular model is representative ...

Fiona Johnson; Ashish Sharma

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Integrated measurement of the mass and surface charge of discrete microparticles using a suspended microchannel resonator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the mass and surface charge of microparticles are employed in the characterization of many types of colloidal dispersions. The suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) is capable of measuring individual ...

Dextras, Philip

160

Apparatus for Atmospheric Surface Layer Measurements over Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an apparatus developed for simultaneously measuring water elevation and static and dynamic pressure, momentum, and heat fluxes above waves close to the interface. The apparatus was used successfully at the Lake Ontario wave ...

Mark A. Donelan; Neils Madsen; Kimmo K. Kahma; Ioannis K. Tsanis; William M. Drennan

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Radiative Properties of Cirrus Clouds Derived from Surface Interferometric Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Beam transmittance, emittance, reflectance, and outgoing radiance are inferred from interferometric measurements in the infrared window region for 14 temperate continental and 12 subtropical cirrus cloud cash observed during FIRE II at Parsons, ...

Gordon H. Beck; John M. Davis; S. K. Cox

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Measurement of flow field and local heat transfer distribution on a scraped heat exchanger crystalliser surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement of flow field and local heat transfer distribution on a scraped heat exchanger.ravelet@laposte.net Geert-Jan Witkamp G.J.Witkamp@xs4all.nl Abstract In a cylindrical scraped heat exchanger crystallizer exchanger surface has been studied by direct measurements of the heat exchanger surface temperature

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

POST-SHOCK TEMPERATURE AND FREE SURFACE VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS OF BASALT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

POST-SHOCK TEMPERATURE AND FREE SURFACE VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS OF BASALT S. T. Stewart1 , G. B is the most common rock type on planetary surfaces. Post-shock temperature and particle velocity measurements River basalt released from a peak shock pressure of 28.9±0.2 GPa, the apparent post-shock temperature

Stewart, Sarah T.

164

Damage measurements on the NWTC direct-drive, variable-speed test bed  

SciTech Connect

The NWTC (National Wind Technology Center) Variable-Speed Test Bed turbine is a three-bladed, 10-meter, downwind machine that can be run in either fixed-speed or variable-speed mode. In the variable-speed mode, the generator torque is regulated, using a discrete-stepped load bank to maximize the turbine`s power coefficient. At rated power, a second control loop that uses blade pitch to maintain rotor speed essentially as before, i.e., using the load bank to maintain either generator power or (optionally) generator torque. In this paper, the authors will use this turbine to study the effect of variable-speed operation on blade damage. Using time-series data obtained from blade flap and edge strain gauges, the load spectrum for the turbine is developed using rainflow counting techniques. Miner`s rule is then used to determine the damage rates for variable-speed and fixed-speed operation. The results illustrate that the controller algorithm used with this turbine introduces relatively large load cycles into the blade that significantly reduce its service lifetime, while power production is only marginally increased.

Sutherland, H.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlin, P.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

165

Angular diameter measurements of evolved variables by lunar occultations at 2.2 and 3.8 micron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the angular diameters of two Mira variables (U Ari and Z Sco), three semiregular (SR) and irregular variables (SW Vir, eta Gem and mu Gem) and a supergiant SR variable (TV Gem) by lunar occultation observations in the near-IR broad K-band (2.2 micron). Lunar occultations of eta Gem and mu Gem were also observed for the first time simultaneously in both the K and L' bands, yielding angular diameters at 2.2 and 3.8 micron. Effective temperatures and linear radii are also derived for all the observed sources and compared with earlier measurements. The mode of pulsation of both Mira and SR sources in our sample is discussed.

Soumen Mondal; T. Chandrasekhar

2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

166

Angular diameter measurements of evolved variables by lunar occultations at 2.2 and 3.8 micron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the angular diameters of two Mira variables (U Ari and Z Sco), three semiregular (SR) and irregular variables (SW Vir, eta Gem and mu Gem) and a supergiant SR variable (TV Gem) by lunar occultation observations in the near-IR broad K-band (2.2 micron). Lunar occultations of eta Gem and mu Gem were also observed for the first time simultaneously in both the K and L' bands, yielding angular diameters at 2.2 and 3.8 micron. Effective temperatures and linear radii are also derived for all the observed sources and compared with earlier measurements. The mode of pulsation of both Mira and SR sources in our sample is discussed.

Mondal, S A; Mondal, Soumen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Control and Monitoring Instrumentation for the Continuous Measurement of Atmospheric CO2 and Meteorological Variables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NOAA/GMCC program was chartered to monitor the trends in those atmospheric constituents that can cause climate change. A four-observatory network was established, and a 15-year database has resulted for selected variables. At the inception, a ...

G. A. Herbert; E. R. Green; J. M. Harris; G. L. Koenig; S. J. Roughton; K. W. Thaut

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Surface Wind Direction Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Common large shifts of wind direction in the weak-wind nocturnal boundary layer are poorly understood and are not adequately captured by numerical models and statistical parameterizations. The current study examines 15 datasets representing a ...

Larry Mahrt

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Inferring Optical Depth of Broken Clouds above Green Vegetation Using Surface Solar Radiometric Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for inferring cloud optical depth ? is introduced and assessed using simulated surface radiometric measurements produced by a Monte Carlo algorithm acting on fields of broken, single-layer, boundary layer clouds derived from Landsat ...

Howard W. Barker; Alexander Marshak

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

The Application of Airborne Radar Altimetry to the Measurement of Height and Slope of Isobaric Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aeronautical use of electronic altimeters is to measure the absolute clearance of an aircraft above the earth's surface. In the support of atmospheric research, accurate high-range altimeters, in conjunction with accurate static pressure and ...

E. N. Brown; M. A. Shapiro; P. J. Kennedy; C. A. Friehe

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

A New Shadow-Ring Device for Measuring Diffuse Solar Radiation at the Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new shadow-ring device for measuring diffuse solar radiation at the surface is presented. In this device the seasonal variation of shadow is followed by moving the detector horizontally. This unique characteristic facilitates its application ...

Amauri P. de Oliveira; Antonio J. Machado; João F. Escobedo

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Examination of the Surface Energy Budget: A Comparison of Eddy Correlation and Bowen Ratio Measurement Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A reliable method for monitoring the surface energy budget is critical to the development and validation of numerical models and remote sensing algorithms. Unfortunately, closure of the energy budget remains difficult to achieve among measurement ...

Jerald A. Brotzge; Kenneth C. Crawford

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Hurricane Surface Wind Measurements from an Operational Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, the NOAA/Aircraft Operations Center (AOC) flew stepped frequency microwave radiometers (SFMRs) on both WP-3D research aircraft for operational hurricane surface wind speed measurement in 2005. An unprecedented number of major ...

Eric W. Uhlhorn; Peter G. Black; James L. Franklin; Mark Goodberlet; James Carswell; Alan S. Goldstein

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Surface Air Temperature and Humidity from Intersatellite-Calibrated HIRS Measurements in High Latitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-latitude ocean surface air temperature and humidity derived from intersatellite-calibrated High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) measurements are examined. A neural network approach is used to develop retrieval algorithms. HIRS ...

Lei Shi; Ge Peng; John J. Bates

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Location of the Antarctic Polar Front from AMSR-E Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The location of the Southern Ocean polar front (PF) is mapped from the first 3 yr of remotely sensed Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sea surface temperature (SST) measurements. In agreement with ...

Shenfu Dong; Janet Sprintall; Sarah T. Gille

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Accurate Radiometric Measurement of the Atmospheric Longwave Flux at theSea Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The errors in pyrgeometer measurements of the atmospheric longwave flux at the sea surface due to differential heating of the sensor dome relative to the body and to shortwave leakage through the dome are evaluated. Contrary to the findings of ...

Robin W. Pascal; Simon A. Josey

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Estimation and Model Validation of Surface Solar Radiation and Cloud Radiative Forcing Using TOGA COARE Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) radiation measurements in the western Pacific warm pool are used to estimate surface solar radiation budgets and to validate radiation model ...

Ming-Dah Chou; Wenzhong Zhao

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Characterization of Thermal Effects in Pyranometers: A Data Correction Algorithm for Improved Measurement of Surface Insolation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyranometers are reliable, economical radiometers commonly used to measure solar irradiances at the surface in a long-term, monitoring mode. This paper presents a discussion of the response of these instruments to varying environmental conditions,...

Brett C. Bush; Francisco P. J. Valero; A. Sabrina Simpson; Lionel Bignone

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Optical Depth of Overcast Cloud across Canada: Estimates Based on Surface Pyranometer and Satellite Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overcast cloud optical depths ? are inferred from hourly, broadband surface pyranometer measurements of global irradiance for 21 Canadian stations. A radiative transfer model that treats the atmosphere as plane-parallel and horizontally ...

H. W. Barker; T. J. Curtis; E. Leontieva; K. Stamnes

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Near-Surface Measurements of Quasi-Lagrangian Velocities in Open Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Near-surface water velocities have been measured in the coastal zone of Lake Huron and Cape Cod Bay by tracking drifters and drogues using acoustic travel time and compass sighting techniques. The near-surface current, defined as the velocity of ...

J. H. Churchill; G. T. Csanady

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF WATER AND SOLUTE FLUXES USING A PASSIVE SURFACE WATER FLUX METER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF WATER AND SOLUTE FLUXES USING A PASSIVE SURFACE WATER FLUX METER J Surface Water Flux Meter (PSFM). Current techniques for estimating contaminant mass inputs to impaired flux meter, MS Thesis, UF. This work was supported by the United States Department of Agriculture

Watson, Craig A.

183

Microstructure of Ocean Surface Roughness: A Study of Spatial Measurement and Laboratory Investigation of Modulation Analysis*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a technique to measure the spatial structure of short capillary–gravity waves on the water surface. The method is based on optical refraction of a single laser beam crossing the air–water interface to derive the surface slope ...

Paul A. Hwang

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Measurement Research of Borehole-to-Surface Electric Potential Gradient Method in Monitoring Hydraulic Fracture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the main measures to improve oil and gas production, hydraulic fracturing has been widely applied in modern oil industry. By means of lower resistance properties of fracturing fluid, borehole-to-surface electric potential gradient method analyses ... Keywords: borehole-to-surface electric method, Ab normal depth, launch current, polar distance, electric potential gradient

Tingting Li; Kaiguang Zhu; Jia Wang; Chunling Qiu; Jun Lin

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Application of optical remote sensing to the measurment of wave surface kinematics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research study focused on the development and application of a laboratory instrument utilizing real-time video in conjunction with image processing techniques to accurately measure 3-dimensional wave surface kinematics. This thesis presents the design and results of the instrument in its initial, 2-dimensional measurement, stage of development. The objective was to design a functioning laboratory instrument and use it to measure horizontal surface velocities on a series of waves. These results are compared to those of existing theoretical methods to determine both the accuracy and feasibility of the instrument. Measurement of horizontal surface velocities are conducted on a series of regular and irregular waves. Results of the regular wave measurements are compared to well established higher order wave theory to quantify the accuracy of the laboratory instrument. The results of the irregular wave measurements are compared to predicted velocity time series acquired from the Hybrid Wave Model, Wheeler Stretching and Linear Extrapolation. Adjustments are then made to the measured velocity time series to represent any drift currents that might be present in the flume that theory can not predict. Comparison of the adjusted time series are then made to those predicted by the three theoretical methods. Maximum and Minimum measured velocities for each wave set are also compared to predicted values. Comparisons between measured and theoretical values show that the instrument and the theoretical models are in agreement and thus the laboratory instrument is a capable means of accurately measuring wave surface kinematics. Results also show that considering the agreement between theory and measured values, when taking into account the excessive amount time required to produce velocities from the video images, the instrument, in its current form, is not a practical method for surface kinematic measurements. There is, however, enough evidence to show that expanding the instrument to include 3-dimensional measurement capabilities would produce a valuable laboratory tool.

Riedl, Stephen James

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Observing Local-Scale Variability of Near-Surface Temperature and Humidity Using a Wireless Sensor Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the influence of surface type, wind speed, and other environmental conditions on near-surface air temperature, specific humidity, and surface temperature is studied. A wireless sensor network consisting of 13 low-cost meteorological ...

Katharina Lengfeld; Felix Ament

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Hindcasting Ocean Climate Variability Using Time-Dependent Surface Data to Drive a Model: An Idealized Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the hindcasting of interdecadal climate events using an ocean circulation model driven by different combinations of time-varying surface flux, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS) data. Data are ...

Richard J. Greatbatch; Guoqing Li; Sheng Zhang

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Optimal measurement of surface shortwave irradiance using current instrumentation -- the ARM experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shortwave (solar) measurements of surface irradiance for clear sky conditions disagree with a number of different models. Betts used the European Center for Medium-range Forecasts (ECMWF) shortwave model to calculate surface irradiance that were 5-10 percent higher than measurements. Wild used a different formulation of the ECMWF shortwave model, but found that the model overpredicted clear-sky shortwave and average of 3 percent. Ding and Wang used data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and found that the GENESIS GCM shortwave model, likewise, overpredicted clear-sky irradiance by about 4 percent. To help resolve the measurement dilemma, reference instruments were deployed in April 1996 at the Southern Great Plains ARM site central facility very near the shortwave measurements. The rest of the paper describes the experiment undertaken to ascertain total horizontal shortwave irradiance at the surface, including a separation of the direct normal and diffuse horizontal components. Results and a discussion of same concludes the paper.

Michalsky, J. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center; Rubes, M. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences; Stoffel, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Wesley, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.; Splitt, M. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); DeLuisi, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Multiscale Temporal Variability of Warm-Season Precipitation over North America: Statistical Analysis of Radar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Directionally averaged time series of precipitation rates for eight warm seasons (1996–2003) over the continental United States derived from Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) measurements are analyzed using spectral decomposition methods. ...

Hsiao-ming Hsu; Mitchell W. Moncrieff; Wen-wen Tung; Changhai Liu

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Eddy Variability and Energetics from Direct Current Measurements in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current South of Australia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-year time series measurements of current velocity and temperature in the Subantarctic Front (SAF) south of Australia from 1993 to 1995 provide estimates of eddy fluxes of heat and momentum across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and ...

Helen E. Phillips; Stephen R. Rintoul

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

In-Situ Measurement of Chirality of Molecules and Molecular Assemblies with Surface Nonlinear Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Developments in quantitative measurement and analysis in nonlinear surface spectroscopy, namely, second harmonic generation linear dichroism (SHG-LD) and sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy linear dichroism (SFG-VS-LD), provide new opportunities for probing the surface chirality of monolayers and thin films. In this book chapter, the up-to-date theoretical background and experimental methodology, as well as examples and future perspectives on the developments with surface nonlinear spectroscopy in surface chirality studies are to be summarized and outlined for general readers.

Wang, Hongfei

2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

192

Surface topography measurements over the 1 meter to 10 micrometer spatial period bandwidth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recently-developed long-trace surface profiling instrument (LTP) is now in operation in our laboratory measuring surface profiles on grazing incidence aspheres and also conventional optical surface. The LTP characterizes surface height profiles in a non-contact manner over spatial periods ranging from 1 meter (the maximum scan length) to 2 mm (the Nyquist period for 1 mm sampling period) and complements the range of our WYKO NCP-1000 2.5X surface roughness profiler (5 mm to 9.8 {mu}m). Using these two instruments, we can fully characterize both figure and finish of an optical surface in the same way that we normally characterize surface finish, e.g., by means of the power spectral density function in the spatial frequency domain. A great deal of information about the distribution of figure errors over various spatial frequency ranges is available from this data, which is useful for process control and predicting performance at the desired wavelength and incidence angle. In addition, the LTP is able to measure the absolute radius of curvature on long-radius optics with high precision and accuracy. Angular errors in the optical head are measured in real time by an electronic autocollimator as the head traverses the linear air bearing slide. Measurements of kilometer radius optics can be made very quickly and the data analyzed in a format that is very easy to understand. 17 refs., 10 figs.

Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K.; DeBiasse, R.A.; Church, E.L. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Army Research and Development Command, Dover, NJ (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Satellite Measurements of Surface Albedo and Temperatures in Semi-Desert  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of surface parameters in an arid steppe (the semi-desert of the northern Sinai) were made from the NOAA-6 satellite to assess the effects of the vegetation recovery in a fenced-off area. The radiances measured in the solar ...

J. Otterman; C. J. Tucker

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Autonomous Measurements of Sea Surface Temperature Using In Situ Thermal Infrared Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ and autonomous measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) have been performed with a thermal infrared radiometer mounted on a fixed oil rig. The accuracy limit was established at ±0.3 K for these SST measurements in order to meet the ...

Raquel Niclòs; Vicente Caselles; César Coll; Enric Valor; Eva Rubio

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement  

SciTech Connect

To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Method and apparatus for measuring surface contour on parts with elevated temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a method and apparatus for measuring the surface contour of a test piece, such as the bow of a radioactive fuel rod, which is completely immersed in water. The invention utilizes ultrasonic technology and is capable of measuring surface contours of test pieces which are at a higher temperature than the surrounding water. The presence of a test piece at a higher temperature adversely affects the distance measurements by causing thermal variations in the water near the surface of the test piece. The contour measurements depend upon a constant temperature of the water in the path of the ultrasonic wave to provide a constant acoustical velocity (the measurement is made by the time of flight measurement for an ultrasonic wave). Therefore, any variations of water temperature near the surface will introduce errors degrading the measurement. The present invention overcomes these problems by assuring that the supply of water through which the ultrasonic waves travel is at a predetermined and constant temperature. 3 figs.

Horvath, M.S.; Nance, R.A.; Cohen, G.H.; Fodor, G.E.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

Method and apparatus for measuring surface contour on parts with elevated temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a method and apparatus for measuring the surface contour of a test piece, such as the bow of a radioactive fuel rod, which is completely immersed in water. The invention utilizes ultrasonic technology and is capable of measuring surface contours of test pieces which are at a higher temperature than the surrounding water. The presence of a test piece at a higher temperature adversely affects the distance measurements by causing thermal variations in the water near the surface of the test piece. The contour measurements depend upon a constant temperature of the water in the path of the ultrasonic wave to provide a constant acoustical velocity (the measurement is made by the time of flight measurement for an ultrasonic wave). Therefore, any variations of water temperature near the surface will introduce errors degrading the measurement. The present invention overcomes these problems by assuring that the supply of water through which the ultrasonic waves travel is at a predetermined and constant temperature. 3 figs.

Horvath, M.S.; Nance, R.A.; Cohen, G.H.; Fodor, G.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

New Insights into North European and North Atlantic Surface Pressure Variability, Storminess, and Related Climatic Change since 1830  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present initial results of a new pan-European and international storminess since 1800 as interpreted from European and North Atlantic barometric pressure variability (SENABAR) project. This first stage analyzes results of a new daily ...

Edward Hanna; John Cappelen; Rob Allan; Trausti Jónsson; Frank Le Blancq; Tim Lillington; Kieran Hickey

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures in the Twentieth Century: An Evolution-Centric Analysis of Variability and Trend  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A consistent analysis of natural variability and secular trend in Pacific SSTs in the twentieth century is presented. By focusing on spatial and temporal recurrence, but without imposition of periodicity constraints, this single analysis ...

Bin Guan; Sumant Nigam

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Dynamical Response of the Oceanic Circulation and Temperature to Interdecadal Variability in the Surface Winds over the Indian Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is used to investigate the sensitivity of the circulation and temperature fields to observed interdecadal variability in Indian Ocean winds for the austral summer (January, February, March). Focus ...

C. J. C. Reason; R. J. Allan; J. A. Lindesay

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Measurement range of phase retrieval in optical surface and wavefront metrology  

SciTech Connect

Phase retrieval employs very simple data collection hardware and iterative algorithms to determine the phase of an optical field. We have derived limitations on phase retrieval, as applied to optical surface and wavefront metrology, in terms of the speed of beam (i.e., f-number or numerical aperture) and amount of aberration using arguments based on sampling theory and geometrical optics. These limitations suggest methodologies for expanding these ranges by increasing the complexity of the measurement arrangement, the phase-retrieval algorithm, or both. We have simulated one of these methods where a surface is measured at unusual conjugates.

Brady, Gregory R.; Fienup, James R

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

202

Methods for the Reconstruction of Vertical Profiles from Surface Data: Multivariate Analyses, Residual GEM, and Variable Temporal Signals in the North Pacific Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different methods for the extrapolation of vertical profiles from sea surface measurements have been tested on 14 yr of conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) data collected within the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program at A Long-Term ...

Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli; Rosalia Santoleri

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Measurements of Ocean Surface Currents from a Moving Ship Using VHF Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shore-based, high-frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) radar systems for measuring ocean surface currents have been well detailed in the literature. The use of these systems has been limited to coastal ocean applications since both of the ...

Nicholas J. Peters; Richard A. Skop

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Measured and Estimated Water Vapor Advection in the Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flux of water vapor due to advection is measured using high resolution Raman lidar that was orientated horizontally across a land-lake transition. At the same time, a full surface energy balance is performed to assess the impact of scalar ...

Chad W. Higgins; Eric Pardyjak; Martin Froidevaux; Valentin Simeonov; Marc B. Parlange

205

A Near-Surface Microstructure Sensor System Used during TOGA COARE. Part I: Bow Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution probes mounted on the bow of the vessel at a 1.7-m depth in an undisturbed region ahead of the moving vessel were used for microstructure and turbulence measurements in the near-surface layer of the ocean during TOGA COARE. The ...

Alexander Soloviev; Roger Lukas; Sharon DeCarlo; Jefrey Snyder; Anatoli Arjannikov; Vyacheslav Turenko; Mark Baker; Dmitry Khlebnikov

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Sequence of surface meteorological variables with the passage of winter cold fronts in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to the 80-year-old Norwegian cyclone model, fronts are pressure troughs, extensions of a mid-latitude cyclone. Thus, a cold frontal passage is evidenced at the surface by a minimum in air pressure and a corresponding wind shift. In addition, decreases in both temperature and humidity also occur. This conceptual model assumes that these changes are nearly coincident in time; however, this is usually not the case. Strict adherence to the model is the basis for the highly subjective single line drawn on a synoptic chart to indicate a front. To evaluate the behavior of meteorological variables with cold frontal passage, data was collected for seven American cities east of the Rocky Mountains, including NMC/NCEP 3-hourly surface analyses and NCDC archived hourly surface observations during three consecutive winters (October 1-March 31). Surface analyses were used to estimate the time of frontal passage. Using these estimates as a guide, the hourly observations were employed to determine the specific hours at which each meteorological variable demonstrated a change that could be conclusively attributed to the frontal passage. The four meteorological variables scrutinized include temperature, moisture (dew point), wind (direction), and pressure. Significance of means tests were applied to assess the statistical significance of the differences between the timing of each pair of variables (temperature vs. wind, dew point vs. pressure, etc.). Statistically significant differences mathematically validate the sequence of the means and suggest the likely repeatability of the sequence. At all locations and for all subsets of fronts, the pressure rise and the wind shift consistently precede the decreases in temperature and dew point. The timing of the pressure rise, however, is nearly indistinguishable from the wind shift, and likewise, there is rarely any significant difference between the decrease in temperature and the decrease in dew point. While all the variables are essentially coincident in time for some fronts, there is a frequent disparity between the pressure rise/wind shift and the temperature/dew point decrease. The data thus suggest a double-boundary frontal zone, a surface pressure trough/wind shift line followed by a temperature/moisture boundary.

Huckaby, Daniel Dale

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

The Prediction of Nearshore Wind-induced Surface Currents from Wind Velocities Measured at Nearby Land Stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper aims to find a fast and efficient way to predict the wind-induced components of surface currents in a nearshore coastal area of several hundred square kilometers from wind velocities measured at nearby land stations. Ocean Surface ...

Betty Ng

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Surface Solar Irradiance in the Central Pacific during Tropic Heat: Comparisons between in Situ Measurements and Satellite Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the first results concerning solar radiation at the ocean surface during the Tropic Heat experiment. Using calibrated GOES visible brightness measurements, a simple radiative transfer model calculates hourly and daily surface solar ...

Catherine Gautier

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Spectral longwave emission in the tropics: FTIR measurements at the sea surface and comparison with fast radiation codes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Longwave emission by the tropical western Pacific atmosphere has been measured at the ocean surface by a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroradiometer deployed aboard the research vessel John Vickers as part of the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment. The instrument operated throughout a Pacific Ocean crossing, beginning on 7 March 1993 in Honiara, Solomon Islands, and ending on 29 March 1993 in Los Angeles, and recorded longwave emission spectra under atmospheres associated with sea surface temperatures ranging from 291.0 to 302.8 K. Precipitable water vapor abundances ranged from 1.9 to 5.5 column centimeters. Measured emission spectra (downwelling zenith radiance) covered the middled infrared (5-20 {mu}m) with one inverse centimeter spectral resolution. FTIR measurements made under an entirely clear field of view are compared with spectra generated by LOWTRAN 7 and MODTRAN 2, as well as downwelling flux calculated by the NCAR COmmunity Climate Model (CCM-2) radiation code, using radiosonde profiles as input data for these calculations. In the spectral interval 800-1000 cm{sup -1}, these comparisons show a discrepance between FTIR data and MODTRAN 2 having an overall variability of 6-7 mW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} cm and a concave shape that may be related to the representation of water vapor continuum emission in MODTRAN 2. Another discrepancy appears in the spectral interval 1200-1300 cm{sup -1}, whether MODTRAN 2 appears to overestimate zenith radiance by 5 mW m{sup -2} sr-1 cm. These discrepancies appear consistently; however, they become only slightly larger at the highest water vapor abundances. Because these radiance discrepancies correspond to broadband (500-2000 cm{sup -1}) flux uncertainties of around 3 W m{sup -2}, there appear to be no serious inadequacies with the performance of MODTRAN 2 or LOWTRAN 7 at high atmospheric temperatures and water vapor abundances. 23 refs., 10 figs.

Lubin, D.; Cutchin, D.; Conant, W. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States); Grassl, H. [Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Schmid, U.; Biselli, W. [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)] [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

SEY and Surface Analysis Measurements on FNAL Main Injector Ring S/S Beam Chamber Material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Material was provided by Dr. Weiren Chou, FNAL. Both mildly-activated used, and new sections of stainless steel (type 316L) beam chamber were measured. Centimeter-sized coupons were cleanly dry-cut from the large flat surface (called ''flat side'' in the plots) and from the ID end (inside diameter of the ring, in the case of the used material) and narrow end (in the case of the new material). The unused material was ultra-soniced in acetone (to remove storage residue), then rinsed with ethanol and blown dry with filtered N{sub 2}-gas, to simulate new chamber installation final rinse. Used material was installed, as cut. Surface chemistry was measured using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sometimes called ''ESCA''). With this technique, soft x-rays (1486 eV) illuminate the sample, penetrating into the surface ten microns. Photoelectrons are generated from energy levels of the constituent compounds/elements present. Those electrons, within 5 nm or so of the surface, escape without energy loss and preserve valence information about the atomic levels from which they were generated. An electron energy analyzer, of good energy resolution, measures the photoelectron energy, thereby yielding both valence (chemical) information and relative atomic abundances in the top 5 nm of surface. Using appropriate sensitivity factors, these intensities are converted to a semi-quantitative (surface atom %) concentration in the analyzed layer. As a benchmark, the limit for carbon contamination on vacuum components for UHV use at SLAC is 50 at%. That corresponds to about 8-10 monolayers of elemental carbon. XPS does not detect hydrogen because it has no electrons after bonding. Generally, hydrides do not show evidence of ''chemical shift'' of the binding energy of the metal lines.

Kirby, Robert E.; /SLAC

2006-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

211

Climatic Variability of Near-Surface Turbulent Kinetic Energy over the United States: Implications for Fire-Weather Predictions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research suggests that high levels of ambient near-surface atmospheric turbulence are often associated with rapid and sometimes erratic wildland fire spread that may eventually lead to large burn areas. Previous research has also examined ...

Warren E. Heilman; Xindi Bian

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Urban Modifications in a Mesoscale Meteorological Model and the Effects on Near-Surface Variables in an Arid Metropolitan Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A refined land cover classification for the arid Phoenix (Arizona) metropolitan area and some simple modifications to the surface energetics were introduced in the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric ...

Susanne Grossman-Clarke; Joseph A. Zehnder; William L. Stefanov; Yubao Liu; Michael A. Zoldak

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Large Scale, Low Frequency Variability of the 1979 FGGE Surface Buoy Drifts and Winds over the Southern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The surface response of the Southern Hemisphere's oceans to the large spatial scale, interseasonal changes in wind forcing during the FGGE year of 1979 is investigated. The primary data are the analyzed daily wind fields, and the trajectories of ...

W. G. Large; H. Van Loon

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Surface Heat Budgets and Sea Surface Temperature in the Pacific Warm Pool during TOGA COARE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The daily mean heat and momentum fluxes at the surface derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager and Japan’s Geostationary Meteorological Satellite radiance measurements are used to study the temporal and spatial variability of the surface ...

Shu-Hsien Chou; Wenzhong Zhao; Ming-Dah Chou

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Postirradiation examination of Pressure Tubes 2755 and 1054 Part 1: Dimensional, hydride, inner surface defects, and corrosion measurements: Addendum 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This addendum is issued to document additional postirradiation examinations that were conducted on Pressure Tubes 2755 and 1054 for evaluation of inner surface defects, corrosion and hydride measurements.

Chastain, S.A.; Trimble, D.J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Modeling Soil Moisture and Surface Flux Variability with an Untuned Land Surface Scheme: A Case Study from the Southern Great Plains 1997 Hydrology Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Parameterization for Land–Atmosphere–Cloud Exchange (PLACE), a typical surface–vegetation–atmosphere transfer (SVAT) parameterization, was used in a case study of a 2500 km2 area in southwestern Oklahoma for 9–16 July 1997. The research ...

Karen I. Mohr; James S. Famiglietti; Aaron Boone; Patrick J. Starks

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Measurements of the summer surface heat budget of the Northeast Water Polynya. USCGC Polar Sea cruise, July 15--August 15, 1992  

SciTech Connect

A research cruise of the USCGC Polar Sea to the Northeast Water Polynya, off the eastern coast of Greenland (77--81{degree}N, 6--17{degree}W), was made from mid-July to mid-August of 1992 (NEWP `92) as the first field component of the multi-disciplinary study of a high-Arctic polynya funded by the NSF as part of the Arctic Systems Science program. Instruments to measure the components of the surface heat budget of the polynya were installed on a foremast at the bow of the ship. This report presents the measured variables and derived surface fluxes in graphical and tabulated form. Profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity were taken using radiosondes, and these are also presented.

Minnett, P.J.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger  

SciTech Connect

This study presents ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical properties and corresponding shortwave surface radiative effect calculations for the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger during 2006. Aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP) were derived from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurements during the two dry seasons (Jan-Apr and Oct-Dec) at Niamey. The vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from the collocated micropulse lidar (MPL). The aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution of extinction varied significantly throughout the year, with higher AOD, lower SSA, and deeper aerosol layers during the Jan-Apr time period, when biomass burning aerosol layers were more frequent. Using the retrieved aerosol properties and vertical extinction profiles, broadband shortwave surface fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles were calculated. Corresponding calculations with no aerosol were used to estimate the aerosol direct radiative effect at the surface. Comparison of the calculated surface fluxes to observed fluxes for non-cloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W/m2 and RMS differences less than 25 W/m2. Sensitivity tests for a particular case study showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of < 10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. We estimated the daily-averaged aerosol radiative effect at the surface by subtracting the clear calculations from the aerosol calculations. The average daily SW aerosol radiative effect over the study period was -27 W/m2, which is comparable to values estimated from satellite data and from climate models with sophisticated dust parameterizations.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

219

Control of polymer gel surface pattern formation and its three dimensional measurement method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the controllability of a gelation surface pattern formation. Recently, we have found and studied a novel kind of pattern formation that occurs during a radical polymerization (gelation) process. The pattern formation is observed in an open top boundary of quasi two dimensional gelation. In previous studies, we have used two dimensional photo based image processing to analyze the patterns. However, the actual pattern is a three dimensional surface deformation. Thus we develop a three dimensional measurement system using a line laser displacement sensor and an automatic x-stage. Patterns measured by the system are analyzed and discussed by means of pattern controllability. In particular, we focus on the possibility of the pattern control using an external temperature field. As a result, we reveal that the global structure can be controlled, whereas the characteristic length scales (wavelength and amplitude) are not controllable.

T. Mizoue; Y. Aoki; M. Tokita; H. Honjo; H. J. Barraza; H. Katsuragi

2011-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

220

Method And Apparatus For Two Dimensional Surface Property Analysis Based On Boundary Measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining properties of a conductive film is disclosed. A plurality of probe locations selected around a periphery of the conductive film define a plurality of measurement lines between each probe location and all other probe locations. Electrical resistance may be measured along each of the measurement lines. A lumped parameter model may be developed based on the measured values of electrical resistance. The lumped parameter model may be used to estimate resistivity at one or more selected locations encompassed by the plurality of probe locations. The resistivity may be extrapolated to other physical properties if the conductive film includes a correlation between resistivity and the other physical properties. A profile of the conductive film may be developed by determining resistivity at a plurality of locations. The conductive film may be applied to a structure such that resistivity may be estimated and profiled for the structure's surface.

Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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221

Surface probe measurements in ISX-B and EBT-S  

SciTech Connect

Surface deposition probe techniques have been shown to be an effective means of determining the characteristics of the plasma edge region of magnetic confinement devices. Experimental results on ISX-B and EBT-S have led to a consistent picture of the edge plasma and the dominant impurity introduction mechanisms. This picture is supported by numerous other measurements and emphasizes the importance of concentrating several techniques on the complex problems of plasma fusion.

Zuhr, R.A.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Measuring Near-Surface Meteorology over the Ocean from an Array of Surface Moorings in the Subtropical Convergence Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An array of five surface moorings was set in the subtropical convergence zone southwest of Bermuda with spacings of 16 to 53 km. Meteorological instrumentation on each of the surface buoys recorded wind velocity, barometric pressure, solar ...

Robert A. Weller; Daniel L. Rudnick; Richard E. Payne; Jerome P. Dean; Nancy J. Pennington; Richard P. Trask

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Comparison of Radiation Budget at the TOA and Surface in the Antarctic from ERBE and Ground Surface Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface were compared at two Antarctic stations, Syowa and the South Pole, using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data and surface observations. Fluxes at both sites were plotted ...

Takashi Yamanouchi; Thomas P. Charlock

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Global Monitoring of Net Solar Irradiance at the Ocean Surface: Climatological Variability and the 1982–1983 El Niño  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method has been used to generate the first satellite-based long-term climatology of surface solar irradiance over the world oceans. These monthly mean data cover the period November 1978 through October 1985 on a global, 9° latitude-...

Beth Chertock; Robert Frouin; Richard C. J. Somerville

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Ground-Based and Satellite-Derived Measurements of Surface Albedo on the North Slope of Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spatial and temporal variations of surface albedo on the North Slope of Alaska were investigated using both ground-based tower measurements and satellite remote sensing data. Ground-based measurements of incident and reflected solar radiation at ...

T. Zhang; T. Scambos; T. Haran; L. D. Hinzman; Roger G. Barry; D. L. Kane

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

A Relaxed Eddy Accumulator for Surface Flux Measurements on Ground-Based Platforms and Aboard Research Vessels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method has become a standard tool for scalar flux measurements near the surface during field experiments. With this technique, turbulent fluxes of relatively slowly reacting species are measured using the ...

A. Brut; D. Legain; P. Durand; P. Laville

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

First measurement of the small-scale spatial variability of the rain drop size distribution: Results from a crucial experiment and maximum entropy modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main challenges of measuring precipitation are related to the spatio-temporal variability of the drop-size distribution, to the uncertainties that condition the modeling of that distribution, and to the instrumental errors present in the in situ estimations. This PhD dissertation proposes advances in all these questions. The relevance of the spatial variability of the drop-size distribution for remote sensing measurements and hydro-meteorology field studies is asserted by analyzing the measurement of a set of disdrometers deployed on a network of 5 squared kilometers. This study comprises the spatial variability of integral rainfall parameters, the ZR relationships, and the variations within the one moment scaling method. The modeling of the drop-size distribution is analyzed by applying the MaxEnt method and comparing it with the methods of moments and the maximum likelihood. The instrumental errors are analyzed with a compressive comparison of sampling and binning uncertainties that affect actual device...

Checa-Garcia, Ramiro

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Effects of an RTG power source on neutron spectroscopy measurements on the martian surface.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A continuing goal of Mars science is to identify the exact locations of near-surface water and/or hydrated minerals using in situ measurements. Recent data from the Mars Odyssey mission has used both neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy to measure large amounts of water ice near both polar regions . Furthermore, these data have also determined that in the mid-latitude regions, there likely exist relatively large amounts of hydrogen (-4-7 equivalent H2O wt.%), although it is not certain in which form this hydrogen exists . While these are exciting results, one drawback of these measurements is that they are averaged over a large (-400 km) footp ri nt and do not reflect any small (<1 km) inhomogenieties in hydrogen abundance that likely exist on the Martian surface. For any future in situ mission (e g, Mars Smart Lander (MSL)) that seeks to measure and characterize nearsurface H 2O, especially in the mid-latitude regions, is will be necessary to know th e locati ons of the H20.

Lawrence, David J. (David Jeffery),; Elphic, R. C. (Richard C.); Wiens, R. C. (Roger C.)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Measurement of the curvature of a surface using parallel light beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for measuring curvature of a surface wherein a beam of collimated light is passed through means for producing a plurality of parallel light beams each separated by a common distance which then reflect off the surface to fall upon a detector that measures the separation of the reflected beams of light. This means can be an etalon and the combination of a diffractive element and a converging lens. The curvature of the surface along the line onto which the multiple beams fall can be calculated from this information. A two-dimensional map of the curvature can be obtained by adding a second etalon (or a second combination of a diffractive element and a converging lens) which is rotated 90.degree. about the optical axis relative to the first etalon and inclined at the same angle. The second etalon creates an individual set of parallel light beams from each of the individual beams created by the first etalon with the sets of parallel light beams from the second etalon rotated 90.degree. relative to the line onto which the single set of parallel beams from the first etalon would have fallen.

Chason, Eric H. (Sandia Park, NM); Floro, Jerrold A. (Edgewood, NM); Seager, Carleton H. (Albuquerque, NM); Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Surface tension measurements of coal ash slags under reducing conditions at atmospheric pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global demand for reduced CO{sub 2} emission from power plants can be answered by coal gasification techniques. To develop integrated gasification combined cycles that incorporate hot syngas cleaning facilities, detailed knowledge of the thermophysical properties of coal ashes is imperative. Currently, the surface tension of liquid coal ash slags in a reducing environment was studied by means of the sessile drop method. Three different algorithms were employed to analyze the acquired drop images. The slags under consideration were obtained from black and brown coals as well as from an experimental gasification reactor. Typically, a sharp surface tension decrease with temperature was found in the melting interval of the ashes. This was followed by a temperature range of smooth drop contours during which a slight rise of the surface tension could mostly be observed. Bubbles at the circumference of the drops started to appear when approaching the measurement temperature limit of 1550{sup o}C. With regard to the temperature regime of uncorrugated drop profiles, coal ash slags exhibited surface tension values between 400 and 700 mN/m. 32 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Tobias Melchior; Gunther Putz; Michael Mueller [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany). Institute of Energy Research

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interfeometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

Schultz, Thomas J. (Maumee, OH); Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interferometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

233

Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

1997-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

235

Comparison of Meteorological Measurements from Sparse and Dense Surface Observation Networks in the U.S. Southern Great Plains  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of temperature and relative humidity across Kansas (KS) and Oklahoma (OK) for sparse and dense networks by comparing data from (1) the Surface Meteorological Observing System (SMOS) installations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM; Peppler et al. 2008) Program’s Southern Great Plains site and (2) the Oklahoma Mesonet (OKM; McPherson et al. 2007). Given the wealth of observations available from these networks, this study provided the unique opportunity to determine, within a quantifiable statistical limit, an optimal distance between stations deployed for observation of the climatological values of temperature and relative humidity. Average distances between a given station and its closest neighboring station for the ARM SMOS (~ 70 km) and the OKM (~ 30 km; Brotzge and Richardson 2003) networks provided an excellent framework for comparisons of sparse and dense observations (Figure 1). This study further lays groundwork for a future investigation to determine the necessary spacing between observations for initialization of gridded numerical models.

JW Monroe; MT Ritsche; M Franklin; KE Kehoe

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

236

Measurement of the surface wavelength distribution of narrow-band radiation by a colorimetric method  

SciTech Connect

A method is suggested for determining the wavelength of narrow-band light from a digital photograph of a radiating surface. The digital camera used should be appropriately calibrated. The accuracy of the wavelength measurement is better than 1 nm. The method was tested on the yellow doublet of mercury spectrum and on the adjacent continuum of the incandescent lamp radiation spectrum. By means of the method suggested the homogeneity of holographic sensor swelling was studied in stationary and transient cases. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Kraiskii, A V; Mironova, T V; Sultanov, T T [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

237

Estimating Clear-Sky Regional Surface Fluxes in the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site with Ground Measurements and Satellite Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors compared methods for estimating surface fluxes under clear-sky conditions over a large heterogeneous area from a limited number of ground measurements and from satellite observations using data obtained from the southern Great Plains ...

W. Gao; R. L. Coulter; B. M. Lesht; J. Qiu; M. L. Wesely

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Estimating Regional Surface Heat and Moisture Fluxes above Prairie Cropland from Surface and Upper-Air Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper-air budget methods can be used to estimate the surface sensible and latent heat flux densities on a regional scale. This study assesses the application of radiosonde-based budget methods above homogeneous cropland. Serial daytime soundings ...

Alan G. Barr; G. S. Strong

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

240

Rainfall Estimation from Polarimetric Radar Measurements: Composite Algorithms Immune to Variability in Raindrop Shape–Size Relation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polarization diversity radar measurements such as reflectivity factor, differential reflectivity, and differential propagation phase are extensively used in rainfall estimation. Algorithms to estimate rainfall from polarimetric radar measurements ...

Eugenio Gorgucci; Gianfranco Scarchilli; V. Chandrasekar; V. N. Bringi

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Aerosol Radiative Impact on Spectral Solar Flux at the Surface, Derived from Principal-Plane Sky Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate measurements of the spectral solar flux reaching the surface in cloud-free conditions are required to determine the aerosol radiative impact and to test aerosol models that are used to calculate radiative forcing of climate. Spectral ...

Y. J. Kaufman; D. Tanré; B. N. Holben; S. Mattoo; L. A. Remer; T. F. Eck; J. Vaughan; Bernadette Chatenet

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Error Estimates for Passive Satellite Measurement of Surface Pressure Using Absorption in the A Band of Oxygen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the feasibility of satellite remote sensing of surface pressure using radiometric measurements in the oxygen A band. It is shown out the primary sources of error are the uncertainties in the temperature profile, the ...

R. M. Mitchell; D. M. O'Brien

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

A Free-Floating PIV System: Measurements of Small-Scale Turbulence under the Wind Wave Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An in situ free-floating underwater miniature particle image velocimetry (UWMPIV) system is developed and applied to measure the structure of turbulence in the aqueous side of the wind wave surface boundary layer. The UWMPIV system provides a ...

Binbin Wang; Qian Liao; Jianen Xiao; Harvey A. Bootsma

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Relationships between Radar Properties at High Elevations and Surface Rain Rate: Potential Use for Spaceborne Rainfall Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground-based radar data have been used to investigate the relationship between reflectivity at high elevations and surface rain rates. Such relations are useful for rainfall measurements by spaceborne radars at attenuating wavelength such as the ...

Eyal Amitai

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Surface Measurements of Precipitation from an Ocean Mooring: The Underwater Acoustic Log from the South China Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface measurements of precipitation in oceanic environments have proven especially difficult to obtain because traditional technologies such as tipping-bucket rain gauges are unsuitable for deployment from oceanic platforms such as ships and ...

Jeffrey A. Nystuen; Michael J. McPhaden; H. Paul Freitag

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Spectral Longwave Emission in the Tropics: FTIR Measurement at the Sea Surface and Comparison with Fast Radiation Codes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Longwave emission by the tropical western Pacific atmosphere has been measured at the ocean surface by a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroradiometer deployed aboard the research vessel John Vickers as part of the Central Equatorial ...

Dan Lubin; David Cutchin; William Conant; Hartmut Grassl; Ulrich Schmid; Werner Biselli

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

This study aims to quantify the effects of topographic vari-ability (measured by coefficient variation of elevation, CV) and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and topographic variability. Introduction As defined by the U.S. Geological Survey, a grid Digital Elevation Model transmission of a laser PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING & REMOTE SENSING June 2010 1 Sierra Nevada Research). The use of airborne lidar sensors for topographic mapping is rapidly becoming a standard practice

Guo, Qinghua

248

On Sub-ENSO Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) of surface zonal wind, sea surface temperature (SST), 20° isotherm depth, and surface zonal current observations (between 1990 and 2004) identifies three coupled ocean–atmosphere modes of variability ...

Noel S. Keenlyside; Mojib Latif; Anke Dürkop

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Performance Variability  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Variability Variability of Highly Parallel Architectures William T.C. Kramer 1 and Clint Ryan 2 1 Department of Computing Sciences, University of California at Berkeley and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2 Department of Computing Sciences, University of California at Berkeley Abstract. The design and evaluation of high performance computers has concentrated on increasing computational speed for applications. This performance is often measured on a well configured dedicated sys- tem to show the best case. In the real environment, resources are not always dedicated to a single task, and systems run tasks that may influ- ence each other, so run times vary, sometimes to an unreasonably large extent. This paper explores the amount of variation seen across four large distributed memory systems in a systematic manner. It then

250

High-Resolution Atmospheric Sensing of Multiple Atmospheric Variables Using the DataHawk Small Airborne Measurement System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DataHawk small airborne measurement system provides in situ atmospheric measurement capabilities for documenting scales as small as 1 m and can access reasonably large volumes in and above the atmospheric boundary layer at low cost. The design ...

Dale A. Lawrence; Ben B. Balsley

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Surface Temperature Determination from an Amalgamation of GOES and TIROS-N Radiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to depict quasi-continuous surface temperature features is presented. Half-hourly GOES window channel brightness temperature determinations are employed to monitor time changes in the surface temperature field. TIROS-N water vapor ...

J. A. Zandlo; W. L. Smith; W. P. Menzel; C. M. Hayden

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Surface Emissivity Impact on Temperature and Moisture Soundings from Hyperspectral Infrared Radiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An accurate land surface emissivity (LSE) is critical for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles along with land surface temperature from hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounder radiances; it is also critical to assimilating IR ...

Zhigang Yao; Jun Li; Jinlong Li; Hong Zhang

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Documentation of Uncertainties and Biases Associated with Surface Temperature Measurement Sites for Climate Change Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to determine whether poorly sited long-term surface temperature monitoring sites have been adjusted in order to provide spatially representative independent data for use in regional and global surface temperature ...

Roger Pielke Sr.; John Nielsen-Gammon; Christopher Davey; Jim Angel; Odie Bliss; Nolan Doesken; Ming Cai; Souleymane Fall; Dev Niyogi; Kevin Gallo; Robert Hale; Kenneth G. Hubbard; Xiaomao Lin; Hong Li; Sethu Raman

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

High-Resolution Atmospheric Sensing of Multiple Atmospheric Variables Using the DataHawk Small Airborne Measurement System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DataHawk small airborne measurement system provides in-situ atmospheric measurement capabilities for documenting scales as small as 1 m and can access reasonably large volumes in and above the atmospheric boundary layer at low cost. The design ...

Dale A. Lawrence; Ben B. Balsley

255

Rock Joint Surfaces Measurement and Analysis of Aperture Distribution under Different Normal and Shear Loading Using GIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geometry of the rock joint is a governing factor for joint mechanical and hydraulic behavior. A new method of evaluating aperture distribution based on measurement of joint surfaces and three dimensional characteristics of each surface is developed. Artificial joint of granite surfaces are measured,processed, analyzed and three dimensional approaches are carried out for surface characterization. Parameters such as asperity's heights, slope angles, and aspects distribution at micro scale,local concentration of elements and their spatial localization at local scale are determined by Geographic Information System (GIS). Changes of aperture distribution at different normal stresses and various shear displacements are visualized and interpreted. Increasing normal load causes negative changes in aperture frequency distribution which indicates high joint matching. However, increasing shear displacement causes a rapid increase in the aperture and positive changes in the aperture frequency distribution which could be ...

Sharifzadeh, Mostafa; Esaki, Tetsuro

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Measurement and analysis of the surface energy budget for ARM field experiments. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to conduct experiments to investigate the scaling properties of surface-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks as they relate to regional fluxes of heat and water vapor. This is part of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program. To achieve this objective, two field campaigns were conducted in northeastern Oregon during June 1991 and June 1992. Analysis of the data collected during these campaigns revealed the following: (1) fluxes over a dry, semi-arid grass/brush area show only small spatial heterogeneity; (2) fluxes over an irrigated farm were dependent on crop type and stage of development. In particular, fluxes over row crops such as potatoes and corn were very similar to each other, but somewhat different than fluxes over wheat and alfalfa. In general, higher latent and lower sensible heat fluxes were experienced over wheat and alfalfa compared to corn and potatoes; (3) meteorological factors had a major influence on fluxes. In particular, significantly higher latent heat fluxes were experienced on days with moderate winds compared to days with light winds over the irrigated farm. This was presumably due to the advection of sensible heat from the surrounding dry rangeland.

Kunkel, K.E. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Reco level Smin and subsystem Smin: improved global inclusive variables for measuring the new physics mass scale in MET events at hadron colliders  

SciTech Connect

The variable {radical}s{sub min} was originally proposed in [1] as a model-independent, global and fully inclusive measure of the new physics mass scale in missing energy events at hadron colliders. In the original incarnation of {radical}s{sub min}, however, the connection to the new physics mass scale was blurred by the effects of the underlying event, most notably initial state radiation and multiple parton interactions. In this paper we advertize two improved variants of the {radical}s{sub min} variable, which overcome this problem. First we show that by evaluating the {radical}s{sub min} variable at the RECO level, in terms of the reconstructed objects in the event, the effects from the underlying event are significantly diminished and the nice correlation between the peak in the {radical}s{sub min}{sup (reco)} distribution and the new physics mass scale is restored. Secondly, the underlying event problem can be avoided altogether when the {radical}s{sub min} concept is applied to a subsystem of the event which does not involve any QCD jets. We supply an analytic formula for the resulting subsystem {radical}s{sub min}{sup (sub)} variable and show that its peak exhibits the usual correlation with the mass scale of the particles produced in the subsystem. Finally, we contrast {radical}s{sub min} to other popular inclusive variables such as H{sub T}, M{sub Tgen} and M{sub TTgen}. We illustrate our discussion with several examples from supersymmetry, and with dilepton events from top quark pair production.

Konar, Partha; /Florida U.; Kong, Kyoungchul; /SLAC; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun; /Florida U.

2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

258

A new approach for simultaneously retrieving cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based shortwave radiation measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 8 (2013) 044023 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/044023 A new approach for simultaneously retrieving cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based shortwave radiation measurements Yu Xie and Yangang Liu Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA E-mail: yxie@bnl.gov Received 27 June 2013 Accepted for publication 8 October 2013 Published 30 October 2013 Online at stacks.iop.org/ERL/8/044023 Abstract Surface-based measurements of shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes contain valuable information on cloud properties, but have not been fully used to infer those properties. Here a new analytical approach is presented that simultaneously infers cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based measurements of total and direct radiative fluxes. An inspection of the

259

Suborbital Measurements of Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth and Its Variability at Subsatellite Grid Scales in Support of CLAMS 2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) experiment, 10 July–2 August 2001, off the central East Coast of the United States, the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was ...

J. Redemann; B. Schmid; J. A. Eilers; R. Kahn; R. C. Levy; P. B. Russell; J. M. Livingston; P. V. Hobbs; W. L. Smith Jr.; B. N. Holben

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Healthy transportation - healthy communities: developing objective measures of built-environment using GIS and testing significance of pedestrian variables on walking to transit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Walking to transit stations is proposed as one of the strategies to increase the use of transit. Urban planners, transportation planners, environmentalists, and health professionals encourage and support environmental interventions that can reduce the use of cars for all kinds of trips and use alternative modes of travel such as walking, biking, and mass-transit. This study investigates the influence of the built-environment on walking to transit stations. Transit-oriented communities at quarter and half-mile distances from the Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) station in Dallas, Texas, were analyzed to identify the relation of various constructs of built-environment on walking to the DART stations. Twenty-one pedestrian indices were reviewed to develop a comprehensive list of 73 built-environment variables used to measure the suitability to walk. This study aims to objectively measure built-environment using spatial data. Based on this criterion the total number of variables was narrowed to 32. Walking to transit, calculated as a percentage of transit users who walk to the DART LRT stations, was used as the dependent variable. The number of stations in operation and used for analysis in this study is 20(n). Therefore, bootstrapping was used to perform the statistical analysis for this study. The final pattern of variable grouping for the quarter-mile and the half-mile analysis revealed four principal components: Vehicle-Oriented Design, Density, Diversity, and Walking-Oriented Design. Bootstrap regression revealed that density ( = -0.767) was the only principal component that significantly (p<0.05) explained walking to transit station at quarter-mile distance from the station. At half-mile distance built-environment variables did not report any significant relation to walking to transit. The present study revealed that mere increase of density should not be taken as a proxy of increase in walking. Environmental interventions that can promote walking should be identified even at locations with high density. Further studies should use advanced statistical techniques such as Hierarchical Linear Modeling or Structural Equation Modeling to test the relationship of both the principal components and the individual variables that define the principal component to clearly understand the relationship of built-environment with walking to transit station.

Maghelal, Praveen Kumar

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A Relaxed Eddy Accumulation System for Measuring Surface Fluxes of Total Gaseous Mercury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system was designed to continuously measure total gaseous mercury (TGM) fluxes over a forest canopy. TGM concentration measurements were measured at 5-min intervals with a Tekran model 2537A mercury analyzer ...

Jesse O. Bash; David R. Miller

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

CDIAC Climate Data: Available Variables  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate Variables Available in CDIAC Data Products Temperature Precipitation Cloudiness Sunshine Duration Snowfall and Snow Depth Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Moisture Surface...

263

Surface Net Solar Radiation Estimated from Satellite Measurements: Comparisons with Tower Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net ...

Zhanqing Li; H. O. Leighton; Robert D. Cess

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

NEC Hazardous classification and compliance regarding the surface moisture monitor measurement system  

SciTech Connect

The National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, and National Fire Protection Association requirements for use of Surface Moisture Monitor Systems in classified locations are discussed. The design and configuration of the surface moisture monitor are analyzed with respect to how they comply with requirements of the National Electrical Code requirements, articles 500-504.

Bussell, J.H., WHC

1996-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

265

H/sup -/ beam emittance measurements for the Penning and the asymmetric, grooved magnetron surface-plasma sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Beam intensity and emittance measurements show that the H/sup -/ beam from our Penning surface-plasma source (SPS) has twice the intensity and ten times the brightness of the H/sup -/ beam from an asymmetric, grooved magnetron SPS. H/sup -/ ion temperatures of 5 eV for the Penning SPS and 22 eV for the asymmetric, grooved magnetron are deduced by using a simple emittance theory and the present emittance measurements.

Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Comparison of meteorological measurements from sparse and dense surface observational networks in the U.S. southern Great Plains.  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of temperature and relative humidity across Kansas (KS) and Oklahoma (OK) for sparse and dense networks by comparing data from (1) the Surface Meteorological Observing System (SMOS) installations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM; Peppler et al. 2007) Program's Southern Great Plains site and (2) the Oklahoma Mesonet (OKM; McPherson et al. 2007). Given the wealth of observations available from these networks, this study provided the unique opportunity to determine, within a quantifiable statistical limit, an optimal distance between stations deployed for observation of the climatological values of temperature and relative humidity. Average distances between a given station and its closest neighboring station for the ARM SMOS ({approx} 70 km) and the OKM ({approx} 30 km; Brotzge and Richardson 2003) networks provided an excellent framework for comparisons of sparse and dense observations (Figure 1). This study further lays groundwork for a future investigation to determine the necessary spacing between observations for initialization of gridded numerical models. The spatial variability of temperature and relative humidity was examined over KS and OK by comparing observations between station pairs located in three primary domains: (1) a sparse domain in KS, consisting only of ARM SMOS stations; (2) a dense domain centered in northern OK, consisting of both ARM SMOS and OKM stations; and (3) a dense domain centered in central OK, also consisting of both ARM SMOS and OKM stations (Figure 2). In addition, the ARM SMOS stations in OK were utilized to create two secondary sparse domains. Before the observations were compared, quality control (QC) beyond the standard ARM range test was added through implementation of tighter range tests specified by data quality objectives (DQOs). Furthermore, instances of poor-quality data were removed from the data set on the basis of ARM data quality reports (DQRs). Finally, to account for spatial differences in terrain, temperature observations were corrected to mean sea level by using a standard lapse rate of 6.5 C km{sup -1} and the elevation of each observing station. For the comparison, a central station was chosen in each domain. Observations during the time period 2004-2006 from each of the other stations within a respective domain were compared to those from this central station. The Pearson correlation coefficient ({rho}) and root-mean-square difference (RMSD) were the statistics used to quantify the relationship between station pairs. For each domain, the {rho} and RMSD values were plotted against the distance separating each station pair, and a least-squares (LS) regression line was fitted to the values. The regression slopes and intercepts were compared between the various domains. The results of this analysis demonstrated positive correlations between all individual station pairs for both temperature and relative humidity. In addition, the {rho} and RMSD values for both temperature and relative humidity exhibited, in general, a linear relationship with distance from a central station. The calculated slope and intercept values were comparable across most domains, and spatial differences in temperature were smaller than those for relative humidity. The findings suggest that although the sparse networks studied might provide an accurate spatial representation for climatological values of temperature and relative humidity over the specific distances between stations, the relative importance of the temperature and relative humidity observations is a critical consideration in network design.

Monroe, J. W.; Ritsche, M. T.; Franklin, M.; Kehoe, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; Univ.of Oklahoma

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

267

Fast surface temperature measurement of Teflon propellant-in-pulsed ablative discharges using HgCdTe photovoltaic cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-speed mercury cadmium telluride photovoltaic detectors, sensitive to infrared emission, are investigated as a means of measuring surface temperature on a microsecond time frame during pulsed ablative discharges with Teflon trade mark sign as the ablated material. Analysis is used to derive a governing equation for detector output voltage for materials with wavelength dependent emissivity. The detector output voltage is experimentally calibrated against thermocouples embedded in heated Teflon. Experimental calibration is performed with Teflon that has been exposed to {approx}200 pulsed discharges and non-plasma-exposed Teflon and is compared to theoretical predictions to analyze emissivity differences. The diagnostic capability is evaluated with measurements of surface temperature from the Teflon propellant of electric micropulsed plasma thrusters. During the pulsed current discharge, there is insufficient information to claim that the surface temperature is accurately measured. However, immediately following the discharge, the postpulse cooling curve is measured. The statistical spread of postpulse surface temperature from shot to shot, most likely due to arc constriction and localization, is investigated to determine an operational envelope for postpulse temperature and mass ablation. This information is useful for determining postpulse ablation contributions to mass loss as well as evaluation of theoretical discharge models currently under development.

Antonsen, Erik L.; Burton, Rodney L.; Reed, Garrett A.; Spanjers, Gregory G. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); ERC Inc., Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States)

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

The Effect of Intraseasonal Circulation Variability on Winter Temperature Forecast Skill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The prediction of winter in the United States from Pacific sea surface temperatures was examined using a jackknifed regression scheme and a measure of intraseasonal atmospheric circulation variability. Employing a jackknifed regression ...

Keith W. Dixon; Robert P. Harnack

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Surface-Layer Fluxes, Profiles, and Turbulence Measurements over Uniform Terrain under Near-Neutral Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An atmospheric surface-layer experiment over a nearly uniform plowed field was performed to determine the constants in the flux-profile similarity formulas, particularly the von Kármán constant. New instruments were constructed to minimize flow ...

Steven P. Oncley; Carl A. Friehe; John C. Larue; Joost A. Businger; Eric C. Itsweire; Sam S. Chang

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

A New Parameterization for the Determination of Solar Flux Absorbed at the Surface from Satellite Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An earlier parameterization that relates the outgoing solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the flux absorbed at the surface is modified and extended to allow for variations in atmospheric properties that were not considered in the original ...

Kazuhiko Masuda; H. G. Leighton; Zhanqing Li

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Laser Scintillation Measurements of the Temperature Spectrum in the Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The locally stationary temperature spectrum in the atmospheric surface layer is estimated using laser scintillation. The fluctuations of the parameters of the turbulence spectrum (the structure constant CT2 and inner scale l0) have a lognormal ...

Rod Frehlich

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Toward Improved Validation of Satellite Sea Surface Skin Temperature Measurements for Climate Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A poor validation strategy will compromise the quality of satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) products because confidence limits cannot be quantified. This paper addresses the question of how to provide the best operational strategy ...

C. J. Donlon; P. J. Minnett; C. Gentemann; T. J. Nightingale; I. J. Barton; B. Ward; M. J. Murray

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Airborne Measurements of the Wavenumber Spectra of Ocean Surface Waves. Part II: Directional Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An airborne scanning lidar system acquires three-dimensional (3D) spatial topography of ocean surface waves. From the spatial data, wavenumber spectra are computed directly. The spectral properties in terms of the spectral slope and dimensionless ...

Paul A. Hwang; David W. Wang; Edward J. Walsh; William B. Krabill; Robert N. Swift

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Transmission of Solar Radiation by Clouds over Snow and Ice Surfaces. Part II: Cloud Optical Depth and Shortwave Radiative Forcing from Pyranometer Measurements in the Southern Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Downward solar irradiance at the sea surface, measured on several voyages of an icebreaker in the Southern Ocean, is used to infer transmittance of solar radiation by clouds. Together with surface albedo estimated from coincident hourly sea ice ...

Melanie F. Fitzpatrick; Stephen G. Warren

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Field Results from a Second-Generation Ocean/Lake Surface Contact Heat Flux, Solar Irradiance, and Temperature Measurement Instrument—The Multisensor Float  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes results from two field programs that support development of a wave-following surface contact multisensor float (MSF) designed to simultaneously measure net surface heat flux, net solar irradiance, and water temperature. The ...

J. P. Boyle

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Infrared Interferometric Measurements of the Near-Surface Air Temperature over the Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiometric measurement of the marine air temperature using a Fourier transform infrared spectroradiometer is described. The measurements are taken by the Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) that has been deployed on ...

P. J. Minnett; K. A. Maillet; J. A. Hanafin; B. J. Osborne

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)-based elongation measurements in Advanced Test Reactor high temperature irradiation testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. These materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high temperature irradiations. Currently, such changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The labor and time to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To resolve these issues, an instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated in pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant conditions in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop this testing capability. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper focuses on efforts to design and evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL).

D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)-based elongation measurements in Advanced Test Reactor high temperature irradiation testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. These materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high temperature irradiations. Currently, such changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The labor and time to remove, examine and return irradiated samples for each measurement make this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To resolve these issues, an instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated under pressurized water reactor coolant conditions in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop this testing capability. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper focuses on efforts to design and evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory.

D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Dopant profiling and surface analysis of silicon nanowires using capacitancevoltage measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­90 (1964). 20. Ilani, S., Donev, L. A. K., Kindermann, M. & McEuen, P. L. Measurement of the quantum

Wu, Junqiao

280

Method and apparatus for measuring surface density of explosive and inert dust in stratified layers  

SciTech Connect

A method for determining the surface density of coal dust on top of rock dust or rock dust on top of coal dust is disclosed which comprises directing a light source at either a coal or rock dust layer overlaying a substratum of the other, detecting the amount of light reflected from the deposit, generating a signal from the reflected light which is converted into a normalized output (V), and calculating the surface density from the normalized output. The surface density S.sub.c of coal dust on top of rock dust is calculated according to the equation: S.sub.c =1/-a.sub.c ln(V) wherein a.sub.c is a constant for the coal dust particles, and the surface density S.sub.r of rock dust on top of coal dust is determined by the equation: ##EQU1## wherein a.sub.r is a constant based on the properties of the rock dust particles. An apparatus is also disclosed for carrying out the method of the present invention.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Perlee, Henry E. (Bethel Park, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Ocean Surface Wave Measurement Using a Steerable High-Frequency Narrow-Beam Ground Wave Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground wave radar is emerging as an important tool for routine monitoring of ocean surface conditions and for ship and sea-ice surveillance at ranges well beyond the line-of-sight horizon that limits conventional systems. A major Canadian advance ...

E. W. Gill; M. L. Khandekar; R. K. Howell; J. Walsh

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Validation of an UV inversion algorithm using satellite and surface measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada Abstract. Ultraviolet radiation in the spectral-based estimation of surface UV-B supplements the sparsely distributed ground-based UV-B monitoring networks.02 mW/m2 (mean) and 12.0 mW/m2 (s.d.) for EUV radiation. The large standard deviations are attributed

Li, Zhanqing

283

Error Structure of Multiparameter Radar and Surface Measurements of Rainfall. Part III: Specific Differential Phase  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parts I and II of this three part paper dealt with the error structure of differential reflectivity and X-band specific attenuation in rainfall as estimated by radar and surface disdrometers. In this Part III paper we focus on the error structure ...

V. Chandrasekar; V. N. Bringi; N. Balakrishnan; D. S. Zrni?

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Spatial and Temporal Correlation among Oklahoma Mesonet and OASIS Surface-Layer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major challenge in meteorology is determining the manner and scale at which the land surface interacts with the atmosphere. A majority of field programs, designed to address this issue, have been limited in space and time and thus have been ...

Jerald A. Brotzge; Scott J. Richardson

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite observations of CO2 from TES and surface flask measurements  

SciTech Connect

We infer CO2 surface fluxes using satellite observations of mid-tropospheric CO2 from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and measurements of CO2 from surface flasks in a time-independent inversion analysis based on the GEOS-Chem model. Using TES CO2 observations over oceans, spanning 40 S 40 N, we find that the horizontal and vertical coverage of the TES and flask data are complementary. This complementarity is demonstrated by combining the datasets in a joint inversion, which provides better constraints than from either dataset alone, when a posteriori CO2 distributions are evaluated against independent ship and aircraft CO2 data. In particular, the joint inversion offers improved constraints in the tropics where surface measurements are sparse, such as the tropical forests of South America. Aggregating the annual surface-to-atmosphere fluxes from the joint inversion for the year 2006 yields 1.13 0.21 PgC for the global ocean, 2.77 0.20 PgC for the global land biosphere and 3.90 0.29 PgC for the total global natural flux (defined as the sum of all biospheric, oceanic, and biomass burning contributions but excluding CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion). These global ocean and global land fluxes are shown to be near the median of the broad range of values from other inversion results for 2006. To achieve these results, a bias in TES CO2 in the Southern Hemisphere was assessed and corrected using aircraft flask data, and we demonstrate that our results have low sensitivity to variations in the bias correction approach. Overall, this analysis suggests that future carbon data assimilation systems can benefit by integrating in situ and satellite observations of CO2 and that the vertical information provided by satellite observations of mid-tropospheric CO2 combined with measurements of surface CO2, provides an important additional constraint for flux inversions.

Nassar, Ray [University of Toronto; Jones, DBA [University of Toronto; Kulawik, SS [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Worden, JR [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Bowman, K [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Suntharalingam, P [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Chen, j. [University of Toronto; Brenninkmeijer, CAM [Max Planck Institut fur Chemie, Mainz; Schuck, TJ [Max Planck Institut fur Chemie, Mainz; Conway, T.J. [NOAA, Boulder, CO; Worthy, DE [Environment Canada

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Investigation of Pre- and Post-Flight Radiometric Calibration Uncertainties from Surface Based Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new technique has been developed for inferring column ozone amounts and aerosol optical depths from zenith sky observations. A new radiometric calibration technique for large aperture remote sensing instruments observing the earth through space has been validated which subsequently increased the accuracy of remote sensing measurements of ozone and vertical profiles using measurements of back-scattered ultraviolet solar radiation.

Heath, D.F.; Wei, Z.Y.; Ahman, Z.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Surface-Layer Fluxes Measured Using the CT2-Profile Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first experimental test of obtaining heat and momentum fluxes from measurements of the profile of the temperature structure parameter CT2 is performed. The parameter CT2 is obtained from resistance-wire thermometers as well as from optical-...

Reginald J. Hill; Gerard R. Ochs; James J. Wilson

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Airborne Measurements of Surface, Layer Turbulence over the Ocean during Cold Air Outbreaks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne measurements of atmospheric turbulence spectra and cospectra made at the 50 m level above the western Atlantic Ocean during cold air outbreaks have been studied. The data cover nearshore areas of cloud streets or roll vortices. In the ...

Shu-Hsien Chou; Eueng-Nan Yeh

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

A Practical Approach to Flux Measurements of Long Duration in the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The practical limitations imposed by the marine environment on the principal flux-measurement methods for experiments requiring more than a few days’ duration are examined. Reservations are presented as to the suitability of the bulk method as a ...

Theodore V. Blanc

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Land Surface Pressure Estimate from Measurements in the Oxygen A Absorption Band  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The POLDER (polarization and directionality of the earth reflectances) instrument to be launched in 1996 carries two channels that cover the oxygen A absorption band (near IR). The authors investigate the possibility of using these measurements ...

François-Marie Bréon; Sophie Bouffiés

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Quantitative Microwave Backscatter Measurements from the Ocean Surface Using Digital Marine Radar Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The capabilities for quantitative measurements of the ocean backscatter at low grazing angles of a conventional low-budget X-band marine radar associated with a commercial digital capture board are investigated. Details are given of the external ...

C. P. Gommenginger; N. P. Ward; G. J. Fisher; I. S. Robinson; S. R. Boxall

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Measuring High-Frequency Humidity, Temperature and Radio Refractive Index in the Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three different instrument systems are compared in their ability to either directly or indirectly measure humidity, temperature, and refractive-index fluctuations. Each system consists of a basic instrument—a Lyman-? hygrometer, an infrared ...

J. T. Priestley; R. J. Hill

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Satellite Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature in the Presence of Volcanic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulation studies have shown that volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere, such as those produced by the eruption of El Chichón, significantly affect satellite measurements in the three AVHRR thermal window channels centered at 3.7, 11 and 12 ?m. ...

Charles Walton

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Production and measurement of engineered surfaces for inertial confinement fusion research  

SciTech Connect

Inertial Confinement Fusion uses the optical energy from a very high power laser to implode spherical capsules that contain a fuel mixture of deuterium and tritium. The capsules are made of either Beryllium, plastic, or glass and range from 0.1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. As a capsule implodes, thereby compressing the fuel to reach nuclear fusion conditions, it achieves temperatures of millions of degrees Centigrade and very high pressures. In this state, the capsule materials act like fluids and often a low density fluidic material will push on a higher density material which can be a very unstable condition depending upon the smoothness of the interface between the two materials. This unstable condition is called a hydrodynamic instabillity which results in the mixing of the two materials. If the mixing occurs between the fuel and a non-fuel material, it can stop the fusion reaction just like adding significant amounts of water to gasoline can stop the operation of an automobile. Another region in the capsule where surface roughness can cause capsule performance degradation is at a joint. For instance, many capsules are made of hemispheres that are joined together. If the joint surfaces are too rough, then there will an effective reduction in density at the joint. This density reduction can cause a non-uniform implosion which will reduce the fusion energy coming out of the capsule.

Day, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hatch, Douglas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

295

Full surface local heat transfer coefficient measurements in a model of an integrally cast impingement cooling geometry  

SciTech Connect

Cast impingement cooling geometries offer the gas turbine designer higher structural integrity and improved convective cooling when compared to traditional impingement cooling systems, which rely on plate inserts. In this paper, it is shown that the surface that forms the jets contributes significantly to the total cooling. Local heat transfer coefficient distributions have been measured in a model of an engine wall cooling geometry using the transient heat transfer technique. The method employs temperature-sensitive liquid crystals to measure the surface temperature of large-scale perspex models during transient experiments. Full distributions of local Nusselt number on both surfaces of the impingement plate, and on the impingement target plate, are presented at engine representative Reynolds numbers. The relative effects of the impingement plate thermal boundary condition and the coolant supply temperature on the target plate heat transfer have been determined by maintaining an isothermal boundary condition at the impingement plate during the transient tests. The results are discussed in terms of the interpreted flow field.

Gillespie, D.R.H.; Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering Science; Kohler, S.T. [Rolls Royce, Bristol (United Kingdom)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

A BOLOMETRIC TECHNIQUE FOR BROADBAND MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE RESISTANCE AND APPLICATION TO SINGLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as an ohmic heater and a UBC made temperature controller (model 85-003) permits bath regulation stable to less by a Drude model over the majority of the frequency range. Variations between measurements have been observed Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.4 Two Fluid Model Interpretation

British Columbia, University of

297

Surface Temperature Related Variations in Tropical Cirrus Cloud as Measured by SAGE II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) solar occultation satellite instrument have been used to study the properties of tropical cloud over the altitude range 10.5–18.5 km. By virtue of its limb viewing measurement ...

G. S. Kent; E. R. Williams; P-H. Wang; M. P. McCormick; K. M. Skeens

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Validation of Atlantic Ocean Sea Surface Temperatures Measured by the ERS-1 Along Track Scanning Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the period from October 1991 to May 1992 the royal research ship Bransfield made its annual voyage from the United Kingdom to Antarctica and back. Whenever the measurement swath of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) on the ERS-1 ...

J. P. Thomas; J. Turner

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

300

Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

Schultz, Thomas J. (Maumee, OH); Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Spatial Variability of Soil Surface Properties and Consequences for the Annual and Monthly Water Balance of a Semiarid Environment (EFEDA Experiment)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the second phase of the European International Project on Climatic and Hydrological Interactions between Vegetation, Atmosphere, and Land Surface (ECHIDA) Field Experiment in a Desertification Threatened Area (EFEDA) the spatial ...

Isabelle Braud; Randel Haverkamp; J. L. Arrúe; M. V. López

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Spatially Distributed Sensible Heat Flux over a Semiarid Watershed. Part II: Use of a Variable Resistance Approach with Radiometric Surface Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiometric surface temperature images from aircraft observations over the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, a semiarid rangeland watershed, were used with ground-based meteorological data at a reference site for extrapolating estimates of ...

William P. Kustas; Karen S. Humes

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Representing Twentieth-Century Space–Time Climate Variability. Part II: Development of 1901–96 Monthly Grids of Terrestrial Surface Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe the construction of a 0.5° lat–long gridded dataset of monthly terrestrial surface climate for the period of 1901–96. The dataset comprises a suite of seven climate elements: precipitation, mean temperature, diurnal ...

Mark New; Mike Hulme; Phil Jones

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Multiscale Variability of the River Runoff System in China and Its Long-Term Link to Precipitation and Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is an exploratory study to investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of east China’s (EC) river runoff and their relationship with precipitation and sea surface temperature (SST) at the continental scale. Monthly mean data from 72 ...

Yongkang Xue; Jinjun Ji; Shufen Sun; Guoxiong Wu; K-M. Lau; Isabelle Poccard; Hyun-Suk Kang; Renhe Zhang; John C. Schaake; Jian Yun Zhang; Yanjun Jiao

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Interdecadal Sea Surface Temperature Variability in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Part I: The Role of Off-Equatorial Wind Stresses and Oceanic Rossby Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Australian Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre CGCM and a linear first baroclinic-mode ocean shallow-water model (SWM) are used to investigate ocean dynamic forcing mechanisms of the equatorial Pacific Ocean interdecadal sea surface ...

Shayne McGregor; Neil J. Holbrook; Scott B. Power

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

TransCom model simulations of CH? and related species: linking transport, surface flux and chemical loss with CH? variability in the troposphere and lower stratosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A chemistry-transport model (CTM) intercomparison experiment (TransCom-CH?) has been designed to investigate the roles of surface emissions, transport and chemical loss in simulating the global methane distribution. Model ...

Patra, P. K.

307

Surface Solar Radiation Flux and Cloud Radiative Forcing for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP): A Satellite, Surface Observations, and Radiative Transfer Model Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents surface solar radiation flux and cloud radiative forcing results obtained by using a combination of satellite and surface observations interpreted by means of a simple plane-parallel radiative transfer model called 2001. This ...

Catherine Gautier; Martin Landsfeld

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

A new experimental setup for high-pressure catalytic activity measurements on surface deposited mass-selected Pt clusters  

SciTech Connect

A new experimental setup to study catalytic and electronic properties of size-selected clusters on metal oxide substrates from the viewpoint of cluster-support interaction and to formulate a method for the development of heterogeneous catalysts such as automotive exhaust catalysts has been developed. The apparatus consists of a size-selected cluster source, a photoemission spectrometer, a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), and a high-pressure reaction cell. The high-pressure reaction cell measurements provided information on catalytic properties in conditions close to practical use. The authors investigated size-selected platinum clusters deposited on a TiO{sub 2}(110) surface using a reaction cell and STM. Catalytic activity measurements showed that the catalytic activities have a cluster-size dependency.

Watanabe, Yoshihide; Isomura, Noritake [Toyota Central R and D Labs. Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193, Japan and Toyota Central R and D Labs. Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Variable Screw Compressor, Variable Screw Compressor Suppliers ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Variable Screw Compressor Suppliers & air compressor Manufacturers Directory. Source Top Quality Variable Screw Compressor Suppliers, air ...

310

Method of normalizing the measured scattered light from a surface defect located arbitrarily in a Gaussian intensity distribution incident on the surface  

SciTech Connect

The intensity distribution of the beam from a laser operated in the TEM/sub infinity/ mode is Gaussian in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the beam. In some applications it is desirable to have a uniform intensity over a certain region in space. For example, when a Gaussian beam is incident on a smooth surface containing small isolated defects the light scattered by a defect will depend on the position of the defect relative to the center of the beam. In the past, several techniques have been devised to convert a Gaussian intensity profile into a uniform intensity over a specified region in space. In the present work a different approach is taken. A method of normalization is described which makes direct use of the Gaussian intensity distribution of the TEM/sub infinity/ mode. By this method, the amount of light scattered by a defect can be normalized to the value which would be observed if the defect were located at the center of the beam, for a defect small in size compared with the l/e/sup 2/ diameter of the Gaussian profile. The normalization requires that three measurements be made of the scattering by the defect for an arbitrary location of the defect relative to the center of the beam. Experimental data was obtained which verifies the theory.

Klingsporn, P.E.

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Heat Budget Calculation in the Convective Boundary Layer on a 4 × 4 Vertical versus Time Grid from Aircraft and Surface Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft, portable tower, and radiosonde measurements from 4 August 1989 (day 68) of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), over fairly flat terrain in Kansas, are used for the ...

John C. Lukas

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

One-Dimensional Soil Moisture Profile Retrieval by Assimilation of Near-Surface Measurements: A Simplified Soil Moisture Model and Field Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Kalman filter assimilation technique is applied to a simplified soil moisture model for retrieval of the soil moisture profile from near-surface soil moisture measurements. First, the simplified soil moisture model is developed, based on an ...

Jeffrey P. Walker; Garry R. Willgoose; Jetse D. Kalma

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Experimental Measurements of Concentration Fluctuations and Scales in a Dispersing Plume in the Atmospheric Surface Layer Obtained Using a Very Fast Response Concentration Detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-frequency fluctuations of concentration in a plume dispersing in the atmospheric surface layer have been measured with high-resolution concentration detectors (approximately 270 Hz at the ?6-dB point) to extract various concentration ...

Eugene Yee; R. Chan; P. R. Kosteniuk; G. M. Chandler; C. A. Biltoft; J. F. Bowers

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

A Comparison of ECMWF, NCEP–NCAR, and SOC Surface Heat Fluxes with Moored Buoy Measurements in the Subduction Region of the Northeast Atlantic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of surface heat flux estimates from the NCEP–NCAR and ECMWF atmospheric model reanalyses is assessed by comparison with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute research buoy measurements made during the Subduction Experiment in the ...

S. A. Josey

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Yield Surface Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Prof. Frederic Barlat (POSTECH). Prof. Toshihiko Kuwabara (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology). Dr. Lou Hector (GM). ...

2013-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

316

ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: • Winds: 10 meters • Temperature and Relative Humidity: 2 meters • Barometric Pressure: 1 meter. Depending upon the geographical location, different models and types of sensors may be used to measure the core variables due to the conditions experienced at those locations. Most sites have additional sensors that measure other variables that are unique to that site or are well suited for the climate of the location but not at others.

Ritsche, MT

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

317

The Study of Measuring Surface Energy of Liquid Crystals by Owen-Wendt-Rabel and Kaelble Method.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study is based on the Owen-Wendt-Rabel and Kaelble method¡Aand we using several substrates which's surface energy is already known to determind the surface eneygy… (more)

Huang, Yao-Nan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Temporal Variations of Land Surface Microwave Emissivities over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land surface microwave emissivities are important geophysical parameters for atmospheric, hydrological, and biospheric studies. This study estimates land surface microwave emissivity using an atmospheric microwave radiative transfer model and a ...

Bing Lin; Patrick Minnis

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Assessment of the Global Monthly Mean Surface Insolation Estimated from Satellite Measurements Using Global Energy Balance Archive Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global datasets of surface radiation budget (SRB) have been obtained from satellite programs. These satellite-based estimates need validation with ground-truth observations. This study validates the estimates of monthly mean surface insolation ...

Zhanqing Li; Charles H. Whitlock; Thomas P. Charlock

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Remote Synoptic Surface Current Measurements by Gravity Waves; A Method and its Test in a Small Body of Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synoptic surface current data in a lagoon have been obtained utilizing a new approach that evolved from the kinematics of wave-current interaction. Surface current at a position was determined from wavelength and direction of two monochromatic ...

David Sheres

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients for H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} incident upon spacecraft surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients were made for gas-surface interactions between the Space Shuttle reaction control jet plume gases and the solar panel array materials to be used on the International Space Station. Actual conditions were simulated using a supersonic nozzle source to produce beams of the gases with approximately the same average velocities as the gases have in the Shuttle plumes. Samples of the actual solar panel materials were mounted on a torsion balance that was used to measure the force exerted on the surfaces by the molecular beams. Measurements were made with H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} incident upon the solar array material, Kapton, SiO{sub 2}-coated Kapton, and Z93-coated Al. The measurements showed that molecules scatter from the surfaces more specularly as the angle of incidence increases and that scattering behavior has a strong dependence upon both the incident gas and velocity. These results show that for some technical surfaces the simple assumption of diffuse scattering with complete thermal accommodation is entirely inadequate. It is clear that additional measurements are required to produce models that more accurately describe the gas-surface interactions encountered in rarefied flow regimes.

Cook, S.R.; Hoffbauer, M.A.

1997-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

322

Evaluation of a Regional Atmospheric Model Using Measurements of Surface Heat Exchange Processes from a Site in Antarctica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A regional atmospheric climate model with a horizontal grid spacing of 55 km has been used to simulate the Antarctic atmosphere during an austral summer period. ECMWF reanalyses were used to force the atmospheric prognostic variables from the ...

Nicole P. M. van Lipzig; Erik van Meijgaard; Johannes Oerlemans

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

On the Space–Time Scales of the Surface Solar Radiation Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characteristic space–time scales of surface solar radiation fields measured by the 111-instrument MESONET in Oklahoma are estimated after removal of the diurnal cycle. These estimates of “within-day” variability are used to deduce the ...

T. P. Barnett; J. Ritchie; J. Foat; G. Stokes

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

A Review of Antarctic Surface Snow Isotopic Composition: Observations, Atmospheric Circulation, and Isotopic Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A database of surface Antarctic snow isotopic composition is constructed using available measurements, with an estimate of data quality and local variability. Although more than 1000 locations are documented, the spatial coverage remains uneven ...

V. Masson-Delmotte; S. Hou; A. Ekaykin; J. Jouzel; A. Aristarain; R. T. Bernardo; D. Bromwich; O. Cattani; M. Delmotte; S. Falourd; M. Frezzotti; H. Gallée; L. Genoni; E. Isaksson; A. Landais; M. M. Helsen; G. Hoffmann; J. Lopez; V. Morgan; H. Motoyama; D. Noone; H. Oerter; J. R. Petit; A. Royer; R. Uemura; G. A. Schmidt; E. Schlosser; J. C. Simões; E. J. Steig; B. Stenni; M. Stievenard; M. R. van den Broeke; R. S. W. van de Wal; W. J. van de Berg; F. Vimeux; J. W. C. White

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

The Influence of Variations in Surface Treatment on 24-Hour Forecasts with a Limited Area Model, Including a Comparison of Modeled and Satellite-Measured Surface Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of variations in surface parameters on 24-hour limited area forecasts has been examined on a day in July 1981. The vehicle for the study is a ten-level primitive equation model covering most of the continental United States. Variations ...

George Diak; Stacey Heikkinen; John Rates

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a mixed forest from tall tower mixing ratio measurements,vapor measurements from a tall tower, Journal of Geophysical

Riley, W. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Cloud Cover over the South Pole from Visual Observations, Satellite Retrievals, and Surface-Based Infrared Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates of cloud cover over the South Pole are presented from five different data sources: routine visual observations (1957–2004; Cvis), surface-based spectral infrared (IR) data (2001; CPAERI), surface-based broadband IR data (1994–2003; Cpyr)...

Michael S. Town; Von P. Walden; Stephen G. Warren

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Effect of Surface Sublayer on Surface Skin Temperature and Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The surface sublayer is the layer of air adjacent to the surface where the transfer of momentum and heat by molecular motion becomes important. Equations are derived to incorporate this surface sublayer (or the variable ratio of the roughness ...

Xubin Zeng; Robert E. Dickinson

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

High Range Resolution Radar Measurements of the Speed Distribution of Breaking Events in Wind-Generated Ocean Waves: Surface Impulse and Wave Energy Dissipation Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of X-band radar measurements, backscattered from the sea surface at near grazing incidence with very high spatial and temporal resolution (30 cm in range and 2000-Hz pulse repetition frequency) in moderate wind conditions, are dominated by ...

O. M. Phillips; F. L. Posner; J. P. Hansen

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Ten Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ten years (1994–2004) of measurements of tropical upper-tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) are investigated over three regions—the tropical Atlantic, tropical Africa, ...

Zhengzhao Luo; Dieter Kley; Richard H. Johnson; Herman Smit

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Sources of Errors in Rainfall Measurements by Polarimetric Radar: Variability of Drop Size Distributions, Observational Noise, and Variation of Relationships between R and Polarimetric Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a set of long-term disdrometric data and of actual radar measurements from the McGill S-band operational polarimetric radar, several sources of errors in rain measurement with polarimetric radar are explored in order to investigate their ...

Gyu Won Lee

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

False negative rate and other performance measures of a sponge-wipe surface sampling method for low contaminant concentrations.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces is known to vary due to sampling methodology, techniques, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. A series of tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge-wipe method. Specific factors evaluated were the effects of contaminant concentrations and surface materials on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD) - and the uncertainties of these quantities. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show a roughly linear dependence of surface roughness on RE, where the smoothest surfaces have the highest mean RE values. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.86 CFU/cm{sup 2}). The FNR data were consistent with RE data, showing a trend of smoother surfaces resulting in higher REs and lower FNRs. Stainless steel generally had the lowest mean FNR (0.123) and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD{sub 90} varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm{sup 2} on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. Selecting sampling locations on the basis of surface roughness and using roughness to interpret spore recovery data can improve sampling. Further, FNR values, calculated as a function of concentration and surface material, can be used pre-sampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance, and post-sampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

Einfeld, Wayne; Krauter, Paula A.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Amidan, Brett G. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Piepel, Greg F. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

System for measuring the coordinates of tire surfaces in transient conditions when rolling over obstacles: Description of the system and performance analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of a system for measuring surface coordinates (commonly known as ''shape measurements'') which is able to give the temporal evolution of the position of the tire sidewall in transient conditions (such as during braking, when there are potholes or when the road surface is uneven) which may or may not be reproducible. The system is based on the well-known technique of projecting and observing structured light using a digital camera with an optical axis which is slanted with respect to the axis of the projector. The transient nature of the phenomenon has led to the development of specific innovative solutions as regards image processing algorithms. This paper briefly describes the components which make up the measuring system and presents the results of the measurements carried out on the drum bench. It then analyses the performance of the measuring system and the sources of uncertainty which led to the development of the system for a specific dynamic application: impact with an obstacle (cleat test). The measuring system guaranteed a measurement uncertainty of 0.28 mm along the Z axis (the axial direction of the tire) with a measurement range of 250(X)x80(Y)x25(Z) mm{sup 3}, with the tire rolling at a speed of up to 30 km/h.

Castellini, Paolo; Di Giuseppe, Andrea [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Calculating Reynolds Stresses from ADCP Measurements in the Presence of Surface Gravity Waves Using the Cospectra-Fit Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, the velocity observations of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) have been successfully used to estimate turbulent Reynolds stresses in estuaries and tidal channels. However, the presence of surface gravity waves can ...

Anthony R. Kirincich; Steven J. Lentz; Gregory P. Gerbi

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Wind Measurement and Archival under the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS): User Concerns and Opportunity for Improvement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Weather Service, as a part of its modernization effort, is implementing the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS). Much discussion has occurred about various aspects of ASOS versus the current system of manual and automated ...

Mark D. Powell

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

The Impact of Clouds on the Shortwave Radiation Budget of the Surface-Atmosphere System: Interfacing Measurements and Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two datasets have been combined to demonstrate how the availability of more comprehensive datasets could serve to elucidate the shortwave radiative impact of clouds on both the atmospheric column and the surface. These datasets consist of two ...

Robert D. Cess; Seth Nemesure; Ellsworth G. Dutton; John J. Deluisi; Gerald L. Potter; Jean-Jacques Morcrette

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Airborne Measurements of the Wavenumber Spectra of Ocean Surface Waves. Part I: Spectral Slope and Dimensionless Spectral Coefficient  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An airborne scanning lidar system acquires 3D spatial topography of ocean surface waves. From the spatial data, wavenumber spectra are computed directly. The spectral analyses of two distinctively different wave fields are presented. The first ...

Paul A. Hwang; David W. Wang; Edward J. Walsh; William B. Krabill; Robert N. Swift

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

The Determination of Surface-Layer Stability and Eddy Fluxes Using Wind Speed and Vertical Temperature Gradient Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analytical relations are developed that relate the Monin-Obukhov parameter to a modified bulk Richardson number expressed in terms of measured wind speed and vertical temperature difference. Measured Monin-Obukhov parameters and Richardson ...

I. T. Wang

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

U.S. Economic Sensitivity to Weather Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To estimate the economic effects of weather variability in the United States, the authors define and measure weather sensitivity as the variability in economic output that is attributable to weather variability, accounting for changes in technology and ...

Jeffrey K. Lazo; Megan Lawson; Peter H. Larsen; Donald M. Waldman

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Measurements of Surface Seawater fCO2 from Volunteer Commercial Ships: Techniques and Experiences from Skaugran  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical measurements made in the northern North Pacific from a commercial volunteer observing ship (VOS) program during March 1995–March 1998 are presented. Quasi-continuous measurements of the fugacity of CO2 (fCO2, which takes into account the ...

Paulette P. Murphy; Y. Nojiri; Y. Fujinuma; C. S. Wong; J. Zeng; T. Kimoto; H. Kimoto

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Surface Properties of Biomaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 29, 2011 ... Surface charge and surface energy measurements ... The Multiple Uses of Carbon Nanotubes in Regenerative Medicine · The Role of Bacterial ...

342

Field Measurement of Am241 and Total Uranium at a Mixed Oxide Fuel Facility with Variable Uranium Enrichments Ranging from 0.3% to 97% U235  

SciTech Connect

The uranium and transuranic content of site soils and building rubble can be accurately measured using a NaI(Tl) well counter, without significant soil preparation. Accurate measurements of total uranium in uranium-transuranic mixtures can be made, despite a wide range (0.3% to 97%) of uranium enrichment, sample mass, and activity concentrations. The appropriate uranium scaling factors needed to include the undetected uranium isotopes, particularly U 234 can be readily determined on a sample by sample basis as a part of the field analysis, by comparing the relative response of the U 235 186 keV peak versus the K shell X rays of U 238 , U 235, and their immediate ingrowth daughters. The ratio of the two results is a sensitive and accurate predictor of the uranium enrichment and scaling factors. The case study will illustrate how NaI(Tl) gamma spectrometry was used to provide rapid turnaround uranium and transuranic activity levels for soil and building rubble with sample by sample determination of the appropriate scaling factor to include the U234 and Uranium238 content.

Conway, K. C.

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

343

Humidity Fluctuations over a Vegetated Surface Measured with a Lyman-Alpha Hygrometer and a Fine-Wire Thermocouple Psychrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurements of humidity fluctuations over a crop made with a specially modified Lyman-alpha hygrometer and a fine-wire thermocouple psychrometer are compared. Standard deviations of the two sets of data are comparable except ...

T. Grayson Redford Jr.; Shashi B. Verma; Norman J. Rosenberg

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Annual Forcing of the Surface Radiation Balance Diurnal Cycle Measured from a High Tower near Boulder, Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation balance consisting of upward and downward components of solar and thermal infrared broadband irradiances is continuously measured from the top of a 300-m tower situated on the Colorado high plains. The data are representative of a ...

Ellsworth G. Dutton

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Solar Irradiance Variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

Solanki, Sami K

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

LLOYD, E.R.

2006-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

347

Surface profiling interferometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The design of a long-trace surface profiler for the non-contact measurement of surface profile, slope error and curvature on cylindrical synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The optical system is based upon the concept of a pencil-beam interferometer with an inherent large depth-of-field. The key feature of the optical system is the zero-path-difference beam splitter, which separates the laser beam into two colinear, variable-separation probe beams. A linear array detector is used to record the interference fringe in the image, and analysis of the fringe location as a function of scan position allows one to reconstruct the surface profile. The optical head is mounted on an air bearing slide with the capability to measure long aspheric optics, typical of those encountered in SR applications. A novel feature of the optical system is the use of a transverse "outrigger" beam which provides information on the relative alignment of the scan axis to the cylinder optic symmetry axis.

Takacs, Peter Z. (P.O. Box 385, Upton, NY 11973); Qian, Shi-Nan (Hefei Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and, Hefei, Anhui, CN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Role of the Indian and Pacific Oceans in the Indian Summer Monsoon Variability .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The role of the Indian and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the intraseasonal and interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall is… (more)

Achuthavarier, Deepthi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Surface Soil  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface Soil Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal Laboratory operations. April 12, 2012 Farm soil sampling Two LANL environmental field team members take soil samples from a farm. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Measurements are compared to samples from the regional sites and compared to averages over time to see if there are changes in concentrations. Monitoring surface soil LANL has monitored surface soils since the early 1970s. Institutional surface soil samples are collected from 17 on-site, 11 perimeter, and six regional (background) locations every three years.

350

Accounting for Surface Wave Distortion of the Marine Wind Profile in Low-Level Ocean Storms Wind Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Marine wind measurements at three heights (3.0,4.5, and 5.0 m) from both moored and drifting buoys during the Ocean Storms Experiment are described. These winds are compared with each other, with winds from ships, from subsurface ambient acoustic ...

W. G. Large; J. Morzel; G. B. Crawford

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Atmosphere–Land Surface Interactions over the Southern Great Plains: Characterization from Pentad Analysis of DOE ARM Field Observations and NARR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site data are analyzed to provide insight into atmosphere–land surface interactions generating summertime precipitation variability. Pentad-...

Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas; Sumant Nigam

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

H sup 0 temperature and density measurements in a Penning surface-plasma H sup minus ion source. I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using vacuum ultraviolet laser-absorption spectroscopy, the H{sup 0} density and temperature are measured as a function of discharge current and H{sub 2}-gas flow in both the plasma column and the drift region between the plasma column and the emitter in the 4X source. For typical source operating parameters, the atom temperature is 1.5 eV in the plasma column and 0.6 eV in the drift region; the atom density 7{times}10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3} in the plasma column and 4{times}10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3} in the drift region. Separate measurements give 2% for the ratio of H{sub 2} molecules in the first vibrational level to the total H{sub 2} density.

Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.; Pitcher, E.J.; Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Worth, G.T. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (US)); Stutzin, G.C.; Young, A.T.; Schlachter, A.S.; Leung, K.N.; Kunkel, W.B. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Snowpack spatial variability: towards understanding its effect on remote sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Snowpack spatial variability: towards understanding its effect on remote sensing measurements spatial variability: towards understanding its effect on remote sensing mea- surements and snow slope large errors in these basin estimates. Remote sensing measurements offer a promising alternative, due

Marshall, Hans-Peter

354

Seasonal-to-Interannual Variability of Ethiopia/Horn of Africa Monsoon. Part I: Associations of Wavelet-Filtered Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation and Global Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Horn of Africa rainfall varies on multiple time scales, but the underlying climate system controls on this variability have not been examined comprehensively. This study therefore investigates the linkages between June–September Horn of Africa (...

Zewdu T. Segele; Peter J. Lamb; Lance M. Leslie

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Icelandic Coastal Sea Surface Temperature Records Constructed: Putting the Pulse on Air–Sea–Climate Interactions in the Northern North Atlantic. Part I: Comparison with HadISST1 Open-Ocean Surface Temperatures and Preliminary Analysis of Long-Term Patterns and Anomalies of SSTs around Iceland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new comprehensive record of long-term Icelandic sea surface temperature measurements, which have been updated and filled in with reference to air temperature records, is presented. The new SST series reveal important features of the variability ...

Edward Hanna; Trausti Jónsson; Jon Ólafsson; Hedinn Valdimarsson

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

MEASUREMENTS OF PAST 14C LEVELS AND 13C/12C RATIOS IN THE SURFACE WATERS OF THE WORLD'S SUBPOLAR OCEANS.  

SciTech Connect

Under this project we have developed methods that allow the reconstruction of past {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean by measuring the {sup 14}C contents of archived salmon scales. The overall goal of this research was to reduce of the uncertainty in the uptake of fossil CO{sub 2} by the oceans and thereby improve the quantification of the global carbon cycle and to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs), with their three dimensional global spatial coverage and temporal modeling capabilities, provide the best route to accurately calculating the total uptake of CO{sub 2} by the oceans and, hence, to achieving the desired reduction in uncertainty. {sup 14}C has played, and continues to play, a central role in the validation of the OGCMs calculations, particularly with respect to those model components which govern the uptake of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and the transport of this carbon within the oceans. Under this project, we have developed time-series records of the {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of three areas of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean. As the previously available data on the time-history of oceanic surface water {sup 14}C levels are very limited, these time-series records provide significant new {sup 14}C data to constrain and validate the OGCMs.

Brown, T A

2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

357

Compact range for variable-zone measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector. 2 figs.

Burnside, W.D.; Rudduck, R.C.; Yu, J.S.

1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

358

Compact range for variable-zone measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector.

Burnside, Walter D. (Columbus, OH); Rudduck, Roger C. (Columbus, OH); Yu, Jiunn S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Evolution Dynamics of Tropical Ocean-Atmosphere Annual Cycle Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structure of ocean-atmosphere annual cycle variability is extracted from the revised Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set SSTs, surface winds, and the latent heat (LH) and net shortwave (SW) surface fluxes using the covariance-based ...

Sumant Nigam; Yi Chao

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Radiosonde measurements of turbulence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at Cranwell, Lincolnshire, W. H. Pick and G. A. Bull, 1926. 3 Talk structure * Geomagnetic sensors to measure orientation * Orientation variability as a turbulence measure *...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Internal Versus SST-Forced Atmospheric Variability as Simulated by an Atmospheric General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variability of atmospheric flow is analyzed by separating it into an internal part due to atmospheric dynamics only and an external (or forced) part due to the variability of sea surface temperature forcing. The two modes of variability are ...

Ali Harzallah; Robert Sadourny

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Surface Properties of Biomaterials IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and surface energy measurements • Degradation of resorbable biomaterials ... Development of Regenerative Biomaterials to Promote Bone Regeneration.

363

length measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A greased steel surface coming in contact with newspaper, wrapping paper ... on Measurement and Inspection in Industry by Computer Aided Laser ...

2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

364

Surface Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the Surface Analysis group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we use surface analytical techniques help to determine the chemical, elemental, and molecular composition, and electronic structure of material surfaces and interfaces. The properties of the surface and outer few micrometers of a material often control the electrical, chemical, or mechanical properties of that material--hence, this region is of extreme importance. Our techniques use ions, electrons, and X-ray or ultraviolet photons in high vacuum to probe surfaces and interfaces of a material. We map the elemental and chemical composition of specimens, study impurities and grain boundaries, gather bonding and chemical-state information, measure surface electronic properties, and perform depth profiles to determine doping and elemental distributions. We have analyzed a wide range of materials, including photovoltaics, microelectronics, polymers, and biological specimens. We work collaboratively with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet describes our major technique capabilities.

Not Available

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Wafer heating mechanisms in a molecular gas, inductively coupled plasma: in situ, real time wafer surface measurements and three-dimensional thermal modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors report measurements and modeling of wafer heating mechanisms in an Ar/O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The authors employed a commercially available on-wafer sensor system (PlasmaTemp developed by KLA-Tencor) consisting of an on-board electronics module housing battery power and data storage with 30 temperature sensors embedded onto the wafer at different radial positions. This system allows for real time, in situ wafer temperature measurements. Wafer heating mechanisms were investigated by combining temperature measurements from the PlasmaTemp sensor wafer with a three-dimensional heat transfer model of the wafer and a model of the ICP. Comparisons between pure Ar and Ar/O{sub 2} discharges demonstrated that two additional wafer heating mechanisms can be important in molecular gas plasmas compared to atomic gas discharges. The two mechanisms are heating from the gas phase and O-atom surface recombination. These mechanisms were shown to contribute as much as 60% to wafer heating under conditions of low bias power. This study demonstrated how the 'on-wafer' temperature sensor not only yields a temperature profile distribution across the wafer, but can be used to help determine plasma characteristics, such as ion flux profiles or plasma processing temperatures.

Titus, M. J.; Graves, D. B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Measuring the structure of thin soft matter films under confinement: A surface-force type apparatus for neutron reflection, based on a flexible membrane approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A unique surface force type apparatus that allows the investigation of a confined thin film using neutron reflection is described. The central feature of the setup consists of a solid substrate (silicon) and a flexible polymer membrane (Melinex{sup Registered-Sign }). We show that inflation of the membrane against the solid surface provides close and even contact between the interfaces over a large surface area. Both heavy water and air can be completely squeezed out from between the flexible film and the solid substrate, leaving them in molecular contact. The strength of confinement is controlled by the pressure used to inflate the membrane. Dust provides a small problem for this approach as it can get trapped between membrane and substrate to prevent a small part of the membrane from making good contact with the substrate. This results in the measured neutron reflectivity containing a small component of an unwanted reflection, between 10% and 20% at low confining pressures (1 bar) and between 1% and 5% at high confining pressures (5 bar). However, we show that this extra signal does not prevent good and clear information on the structure of thin films being extracted from the neutron reflectivity. The effects of confinement are illustrated with data from a poly(vinyl pyrollidone) gel layer in water, a polyelectrolyte multilayer in water, and with data from a stack of supported lipid-bilayers swollen with D{sub 2}O vapor. The data demonstrates the potential of this apparatus to provide information on the structure of thin films under confinement for a known confining pressure.

Vos, Wiebe M. de [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's close, BS8 1TS Bristol (United Kingdom); School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom); Mears, Laura L. E.; Richardson, Robert M. [School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom); Cosgrove, Terence; Prescott, Stuart W. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's close, BS8 1TS Bristol (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, Robert M. [ISIS Neutron Source, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Development and use of an apparatus to measure the dynamic surface properties of coal-water slurry fuels for applications to atomization characteristics. Final report, September 1, 1992--December 31, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to measure the dynamic surface tension of coal-water slurry (CWS) mixtures containing various types of surfactants and with varied coal loadings. The dynamic properties will affect CWS fuel atomization, which constitutes highly dynamic processes. A maximum air bubble pressure technique measured the dynamic surface tension. The dynamic surface tension, which can be much higher than the corresponding static surface tension, was measured for the CWS made from the coal mined from the Upper Elkhorn seam in Virginia. The coal had 50 {mu}m volume mean diameter (VMD). Five surfactants were selected for the study: one nonionic Alkylphenol Ethoxylate (NP-100), and four anionic surfactants; Branched Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (DDBS-hard), Linear Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (DDBS-soft), a Sodium Salt of a Branched Alkylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (1223H), and a Sodium Salt of Sulfonated Fatty Acid (1840X). A du-Nouy ring tensiometer measured the static surface tension to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Measured values of dynamic surface tension are presented for 40% and 50% CWS mixtures with surfactant concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 5.0% in weight. The experiment found that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of CWS was considerably higher than an aqueous solution because of the absorption of surfactant by coal particles. In addition, the dynamic surface tension continuously decreased beyond the CMC because suspended coal particles retarded the surfactant migration. The CWS dynamic surface tension showed wide variations of up to a factor of two depending on the type of surfactant whilst all the selected surfactants exhibited a same range of static surface tension values. The dynamic surface tension increased with increasing coal loadings in CWS. The primary reason for this is believed to be because of the increased absorption and physical blockings of coal particles.

Kihm, K.D.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Electron Emission from Slightly Oxidized Depleted Uranium Generated by its Own Radioactivity Measured by Electron Spectroscopy, and Electron-Induced Dissociation and Ionization of Hydrogen Near its Surface.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy dependent electron emission (counts per second) between zero and 1.4 keV generated by the natural reactivity of uranium was measured by an electrostatic spectrometer with known acceptance angle and acceptance area. The electron intensity decreases continuously with energy, but at different rates in different energy regimes, suggesting that a variety of processes may be involved in producing the observed electron emission. The spectrum was converted to energy dependent electron flux (e-/cm{sup 2} s) using the assumption that the emission has a cosine angular distribution. The flux decreased rapidly from {approx}10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2}s to {approx}10{sup 5}/cm{sup 2}s in the energy range from zero to 200 eV, and then more slowly from {approx}10{sup 5}/cm{sup 2}s to {approx}3*10{sup 4}/cm{sup 2} s in the range from 200 to 1400 eV. The energy dependent electron mean free path in gases together with literature cross sections for electron induced reactions were used to determine the number of ionization and dissociation reactions per cm{sup 2}s within the inelastic mean free path of electrons, and found to be about 1.3*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.5*10{sup 7}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively, for hydrogen. An estimate of the number of ionization and dissociation reactions occurring within the total range, rather than the mean free path of electrons in gases resulted in 6.2*10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.3*10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively. The total energy flux carried by electrons from the surface is suspiciously close to the total possible energy generated by one gram of uranium. A likely source of error is the assumption that the electron emission has a cosine distribution. Angular distribution measurements of the electron emission would check that assumption, and actual measurement of the total current emanating from the surface are needed to confirm the value of the current calculated in section II. These results must therefore be used with caution - until they are confirmed by other measurements.

Siekhaus, W J; Nelson, A J

2011-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

369

Modeling Carbon Sequestration over the Large-Scale Amazon Basin, Aided by Satellite Observations. Part I: Wet- and Dry-Season Surface Radiation Budget Flux and Precipitation Variability Based on GOES Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this first part of a two-part investigation, large-scale Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) analyses over the Amazônia region have been carried out for March and October of 1999 to provide detailed information on surface ...

Jiujing Gu; Eric A. Smith; Harry J. Cooper; Andrew Grose; Guosheng Liu; James D. Merritt; Maarten J. Waterloo; Alessandro C. de Araújo; Antonio D. Nobre; Antonio O. Manzi; Jose Marengo; Paulo J. de Oliveira; Celso von Randow; John Norman; Pedro Silva Dias

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Tropical Convective Variability as 1/f Noise  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence is presented that the tropical convective variability behaves as 1/f noise for a 1–30-day period. This behavior is shown by analyzing the time series of convective available potential energy, which measures the degree of convective ...

Jun-Ichi Yano; Klaus Fraedrich; Richard Blender

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

Clemensen, R.E.

1959-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Nonferromagnetic linear variable differential transformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nonferromagnetic linear variable differential transformer for accurately measuring mechanical displacements in the presence of high magnetic fields is provided. The device utilizes a movable primary coil inside a fixed secondary coil that consists of two series-opposed windings. Operation is such that the secondary output voltage is maintained in phase (depending on polarity) with the primary voltage. The transducer is well-suited to long cable runs and is useful for measuring small displacements in the presence of high or alternating magnetic fields.

Ellis, James F. (Powell, TN); Walstrom, Peter L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1977-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

373

Measurements of Ocean Surface Backscattering Using an Airborne 94-GHz Cloud Radar—Implication for Calibration of Airborne and Spaceborne W-Band Radars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Backscattering properties of the ocean surface have been widely used as a calibration reference for airborne and spaceborne microwave sensors. However, at millimeter-wave frequencies, the ocean surface backscattering mechanism is still not well ...

Lihua Li; Gerald M. Heymsfield; Lin Tian; Paul E. Racette

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Acoustic Tomography as a Remote Sensing Method to Investigate the Near-Surface Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Comparison with In Situ Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The acoustic tomography method is applied in the atmospheric surface layer to observe near-surface temperature fields. Important advantages of this technique are the remote sensing capacity and the possibility of directly deriving area-average ...

Astrid Ziemann; Klaus Arnold; Armin Raabe

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Estimated Global Hydrographic Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An estimate is made of the three-dimensional global oceanic temperature and salinity variability, omitting the seasonal cycle, both as a major descriptive element of the ocean circulation and for use in the error estimates of state estimation. ...

Gaël Forget; Carl Wunsch

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability  

SciTech Connect

If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Nanoscale Measurements of the Surface Photovoltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se2, Cu2ZnSn4, and Cu2ZnSnSe4 Thin Films: The Role of the Surface Electronics on the Efficiency of Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report on recent advances in the development of nanoscale measurements of the surface photovoltage (SPV) based on scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and its application to the kesterites Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe). One critical aspect of the electronic structure of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) that has yet to be determined in their related kesterite compounds is the character of the surface electronics. In CIGS, spontaneous deviations in the stoichiometry of the surface cause a depletion (or even a type inversion) region that reinforces the CIGS homojunction. First-principle calculations predict that this inversion region will be more difficult to form in CZTS. In this contribution, the characteristics of the surface space charge region for both CIGS and CZTS(e) are investigated by STM. The implications of the results of these measurements on the future development of CZTS solar cells will be discussed.

Du, H.; Romero, M. J.; Repins, I.; Teeter, G.; Noufi, R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Surface Temperature of IGUs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

117 117 Surface Temperatures of Insulated Glazing Units: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith, Daniel Türler, and Dariush Arasteh Building Technologies Program Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Fax: 510-486-6046, email: D_Arasteh@lbl.gov Abstract Data are presented for the distribution of surface temperatures on the warm-side surface of seven different insulated glazing units. Surface temperatures are measured using infrared thermography and an external referencing technique. This technique allows detailed mapping of surface temperatures that is non-intrusive. The glazings were placed between warm and cold environmental chambers that were operated at conditions

379

Surface and Nanostructure Metrology Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Surface and Nanostructure Metrology Group in the Semiconductor & Dimensional Metrology Division of the Physical Measurement Laboratory ...

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

380

Blocking response surface designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of experiments involving more than one blocking factor and quantitative explanatory variables is discussed, the focus being on two key aspects of blocked response surface designs: optimality and orthogonality. First, conditions for orthogonally ... Keywords: D-optimality, Exchange algorithm, Fixed blocks, Orthogonality, Random blocks

P. Goos; A. N. Donev

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Enhanced MJO-like Variability at High SST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors report a significant increase in Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO)–like variability in a superparameterized version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model run with high sea surface temperatures (SSTs). A series of aquaplanet simulations ...

Nathan P. Arnold; Zhiming Kuang; Eli Tziperman

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Simulation of North Atlantic Low-Frequency SST Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of atmospheric circulation anomalies in generating midlatitude sea surface temperature (SST) variability is investigated by means of ocean general circulation model (OGCM) experiments, in which observed winds are prescribed during the ...

Ute Luksch

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Global Variability of the Wavenumber Spectrum of Oceanic Mesoscale Turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The wavenumber spectra of sea surface height from satellite altimeter observations have revealed complex spatial variability that cannot be explained by a universal theory of mesoscale turbulence. Near the edge of the core regions of high eddy ...

Yongsheng Xu; Lee-Lueng Fu

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Groundwater Constraints on Simulated Transpiration Variability over Southeastern Australian Forests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A land surface scheme with and without groundwater–vegetation interactions is used to explore the impact of rainfall variability on transpiration over drought-vulnerable regions of southeastern Australia. The authors demonstrate that if ...

M. Decker; A. J. Pitman; J. P. Evans

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Mesoscale Weather Effects of Variable Snow Cover over Northeast Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data from the PROFS (Program for Regional Observing and Forecasting Services) surface mesonetwork have been used to document the effect of variable snow cover on atmospheric boundary layer properties cloudiness and weather conditions over north ...

Richard H. Johnson; George S. Young; James J. Toth; Raymond M. Zehr

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Indian Ocean Intraseasonal Variability in an Ocean General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of atmospheric intraseasonal variability on the tropical Indian Ocean is examined with an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). The model is forced by observation-based wind stresses and surface heat fluxes from an atmospheric ...

A. Schiller; J. S. Godfrey

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Variable residence time vortex combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable residence time vortex combustor including a primary combustion chamber for containing a combustion vortex, and a plurality of louvres peripherally disposed about the primary combustion chamber and longitudinally distributed along its primary axis. The louvres are inclined to impel air about the primary combustion chamber to cool its interior surfaces and to impel air inwardly to assist in driving the combustion vortex in a first rotational direction and to feed combustion in the primary combustion chamber. The vortex combustor also includes a second combustion chamber having a secondary zone and a narrowed waist region in the primary combustion chamber interconnecting the output of the primary combustion chamber with the secondary zone for passing only lower density particles and trapping higher density particles in the combustion vortex in the primary combustion chamber for substantial combustion.

Melconian, Jerry O. (76 Beaver Rd., Reading, MA 01867)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Georeactor Variability and Integrity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a deep-Earth energy source, the planetocentric nuclear-fission georeactor concept is on a more secure scientific footing than the previous idea related to the assumed growth of the inner core. Unlike previously considered deep-Earth energy sources, which are essentially constant on a human time-scale, variability in nuclear fission reactors can arise from changes in composition and/or position of fuel, moderators, and neutron absorbers. Tantalizing circumstantial evidence invites inquiry into the possibility of short-term planetocentric nuclear fission reactor variability. This brief communication emphasizes the importance of scientific integrity and highlights the possibility of variable georeactor power output so that these might be borne in mind in future investigations, especially those related to the Earth's heat flux.

J. Marvin Herndon

2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

389

Georeactor Variability and Integrity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a deep-Earth energy source, the planetocentric nuclear-fission georeactor concept is on a more secure scientific footing than the previous idea related to the assumed growth of the inner core. Unlike previously considered deep-Earth energy sources, which are essentially constant on a human time-scale, variability in nuclear fission reactors can arise from changes in composition and/or position of fuel, moderators, and neutron absorbers. Tantalizing circumstantial evidence invites inquiry into the possibility of short-term planetocentric nuclear fission reactor variability. This brief communication emphasizes the importance of scientific integrity and highlights the possibility of variable georeactor power output so that these might be borne in mind in future investigations, especially those related to the Earth's heat flux.

Herndon, J M

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

A Single-Channel, Double-Viewing Angle Method for Sea Surface Temperature Determination from Coincident METEOSAT and TIROS-N Radiometric Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental simulation of a single-channel, double-angle viewing technique for the determination of sea surface temperature from satellite is presented. This method relies upon the fact that the same area can be viewed simultaneously at two ...

A. Chedin; N. A. Scott; A. Berroir

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Evaluation of Surface Temperature and Emissivity Derived from ASTER Data: A Case Study Using Ground-Based Measurements at a Volcanic Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity (LSE) derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data were evaluated in a low spectral contrast volcanic site at an altitude of 2000 m on the island of ...

África Barreto; Manuel Arbelo; Pedro A. Hernández-Leal; Laia Núñez-Casillas; María Mira; César Coll

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Surface structure of CdSe Nanorods revealed by combined X-ray absorption fine structure measurements and ab-initio calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A) and relaxed (B) 2.4 nm diameter CdSe nanowire structuresSurface Structure of CdSe Nanorods Revealed by Combined X-underestimate of the bulk CdSe lattice constant predicted by

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Retrieving the Root-Zone Soil Moisture from Surface Soil Moisture or Temperature Estimates: A Feasibility Study Based on Field Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bulk soil water content must be estimated accurately for short- and medium-term meteorological modeling. A method is proposed to retrieve the total soil moisture content as well as the field capacity from observed surface parameters such as ...

J-C. Calvet; J. Noilhan; P. Bessemoulin

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Decadal Climate Variability in the North Pacific during the Recent Decades  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decadal wintertime variability in the North Pacific climate system observed over the last few decades is documented. The decadal sea surface temperature (SST) variability is found to be concentrated around two major oceanic fronts. The ...

H. Nakamura; G. Lin; T. Yamagata

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Observations of the Infrared Radiative Properties of the Ocean—Implications for the Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature via Satellite Remote Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) was used to measure the infrared radiative properties and the temperature of the Gulf of Mexico during a 5-day oceanographic cruise in January 1995. The ocean skin temperature was measured ...

William L. Smith; R. O. Knuteson; H. E. Revercomb; W. Feltz; N. R. Nalli; H. B. Howell; W. P. Menzel; Otis Brown; James Brown; Peter Minnett; Walter McKeown

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Modeling 18° Water Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variability of 18° Water formation is investigated with an isopycnic-coordinate model of the North Atlantic. A 30-year spinup integration is used as a “control” experiment in which the upper water column in the Sargasso Sea is shown to be in ...

Robert Marsh; Adrian L. New

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Distributions of Surface-Layer Buoyancy Versus Lifting Condensation Level over a Heterogeneous Land Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Onset and coverage of small cumulus clouds depend on the relative abundance of surface-layer air parcels possessing favourable buoyancy and moisture—two variables that are coupled through the surface energy budget. This abundance is described ...

Kelly Schrieber; Roland Stull; Qing Zhang

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Temperature Variability over Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variation of near-surface air temperature anomalies in Africa between 1979 and 2010 is investigated primarily using Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) total lower-tropospheric temperature data from the Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) and the ...

Jennifer M. Collins

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Overview of observations from the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger: Meteorology and thermodynamic variables  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the meteorological and thermodynamic data obtained during the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger, in 2006. RADAGAST (Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile Facility, GERB data and AMMA STations), combined data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Mobile Facility (AMF) at Niamey airport with broadband satellite data from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on Meteosat-8. The experiment was conducted in collaboration with the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) project. The focus in this paper is on the variations through the year of key surface and atmospheric variables. The seasonal advance and retreat of the InterTropical Front (ITF) and the seasonal changes in near-surface variables and precipitation in 2006 are discussed and contrasted with the behavior in 2005 and with long-term averages. Observations from the AMF at Niamey airport are used to document the evolution of near-surface variables and of the atmosphere above the site. There are large seasonal changes in these variables, from the arid and dusty conditions typical of the dry season to the much moister and more cloudy wet season accompanying the arrival and intensification of the West African monsoon. Back trajectories show the origin of the air sampled at Niamey and profiles for selected case studies from rawinsondes and from a MicroPulse Lidar at the AMF site reveal details of typical atmospheric structures. Radiative fluxes and divergences are discussed in the second part of this overview and the subsequent papers in this special section explore other aspects of the measurements and of the associated modeling.

Slingo, A.; Bharmal, N.; Robinson, G. J.; Settle, Jeff; Allan, R. P.; White, H. E.; Lamb, Peter J.; Lele, M.; Turner, David D.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Miller, Mark

2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

400

Simultaneous Measurement of Condensation and Thermal Accommodation Coefficients for Cloud Droplet Growth in Due Consideration of a New Moving Surface-Boundary Effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A droplet growth theory that describes a new effect of vapor and temperature field shift due to the growth-based movement of droplet surface boundary (moving boundary effect) was derived and found to enhance the growth rate as a function of ...

Norihiko Fukuta; Marcus N. Myers

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Variable percentage sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A remotely operable sampler is provided for obtaining variable percentage samples of nuclear fuel particles and the like for analyses. The sampler has a rotating cup for a sample collection chamber designed so that the effective size of the sample inlet opening to the cup varies with rotational speed. Samples of a desired size are withdrawn from a flowing stream of particles without a deterrent to the flow of remaining particles.

Miller, Jr., William H. (Knoxville, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Variable laser attenuator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

Foltyn, S.R.

1987-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

403

Variable laser attenuator  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Solar-type Variables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rich acoustic oscillation spectrum in solar-type variables make these stars particularly interesting for studying fluid-dynamical aspects of the stellar interior. I present a summary of the properties of solar-like oscillations, how they are excited and damped and discuss some of the recent progress in using asteroseismic diagnostic techniques for analysing low-degree acoustic modes. Also the effects of stellar-cycle variations in low-mass main-sequence stars are addressed.

Houdek, Gunter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Errors in all variables  

SciTech Connect

We present a thorough derivation of the posterior for the straight line fit employing the hyper-plane prior. For the example of the parabola we enlarge the scope to nonlinear problems, however simplify it to be solved resembling the straight line solution. Finally we come to the problem of determining the exponents of a scaling law, where in logarithmic form the scaling exponents are linear coefficients of logarithmic variables.

Preuss, R.; Dose, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2005-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

406

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

407

Sharp Frontal Interfaces in the Near-Surface Layer of the Ocean in the Western Equatorial Pacific Warm Pool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the TOGA COARE rich horizontal temperature and salinity variability of the near-surface layer of the ocean in the western Pacific warm pool was observed. High-resolution measurements were made by probes mounted on the bow of the vessel in ...

Alexander Soloviev; Roger Lukas

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen: Surface Temperatures Title Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen: Surface...

409

Variable loading roller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

Williams, D.M.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

410

Observed and Simulated Soil Moisture Variability over the Lower Mississippi Delta Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To better understand error and spatial variability sources of soil moisture simulated with land surface models, observed and simulated values of soil moisture (using offline simulations with the Noah land surface model with four soil layers and ...

Georgy V. Mostovoy; Valentine G. Anantharaj

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

The Influence of Potential Evaporation on the Variabilities of Simulated Soil Wetness and Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An atmospheric general circulation model with prescribed sea surface temperature and cloudiness was integrated for 50 years in order to study atmosphere-land surface interactions. The temporal variability of model soil moisture and precipitation ...

Thomas L. Delworth; Syukuro Manabe

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The SST Multidecadal Variability in the Atlantic–Mediterranean Region and Its Relation to AMO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two sea surface temperature (SST) time series, the Extended Reconstructed SST version 3 (ERSST.v3) and the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset (HadISST), are used to investigate SST multidecadal variability in the ...

Salvatore Marullo; Vincenzo Artale; Rosalia Santoleri

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Measurements of Aerodynamic Roughness, Bowen Ratio, and Atmospheric Surface Layer Height by Eddy Covariance and Tethersonde Systems Simultaneously over a Heterogeneous Rice Paddy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aerodynamic roughness, Bowen ratio, and friction velocity were measured over a rice paddy using tethersonde and eddy covariance (EC) systems. In addition, the height ranges of the atmospheric inertial sublayer (ISL) were derived using the ...

Jeng-Lin Tsai; Ben-Jei Tsuang; Po-Sheng Lu; Ken-Hui Chang; Ming-Hwi Yao; Yuan Shen

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Jets with Variable R  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a new class of jet algorithms designed to return conical jets with a variable Delta R radius. A specific example, in which Delta R scales as 1/pT, proves particularly useful in capturing the kinematic features of a wide variety of hard scattering processes. We implement this Delta R scaling in a sequential recombination algorithm and test it by reconstructing resonance masses and kinematic endpoints. These test cases show 10-20% improvements in signal efficiency compared to fixed Delta R algorithms. We also comment on cuts useful in reducing continuum jet backgrounds.

David Krohn; Jesse Thaler; Lian-Tao Wang

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

415

Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Overseeing Organization United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Beam(m) 0.6 Depth(m) 0.6 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features The 2-Foot Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel is a vertical plane, closed recirculating, variable-speed, variable-pressure, open jet test section, closed jet test section, and semi-rectangular test section. Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Velocity(m/s) 17 Recirculating Yes

416

Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Overseeing Organization United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Beam(m) 0.7 Depth(m) 0.7 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features The 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel is a vertical plane, closed recirculating with resorber, variable-speed, variable-pressure, two interchangeable circular test sections. Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Velocity(m/s) 25.8 Recirculating Yes Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None

417

Mechanisms of Monsoon Low-Frequency Variability: Surface Hydrological Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations indicate that monsoon systems are characterized by orderly large-scale and low-frequency variations. With a time scale of two weeks and sometimes longer, regions of ascending motion are observed to form to the north of the equator ...

Peter J. Webster

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Variability of Surface Air Temperature over Gently Sloped Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Temperature and wind data from a rural micronet and nearby site of the Oklahoma Mesonet are analyzed to study the frequency, strength, and formation processes of cold-pool events in a region with gentle terrain. Spatial analyses were performed ...

David Bodine; Petra M. Klein; Sean C. Arms; Alan Shapiro

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Climate Variability, Fish, and Fisheries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fish population variability and fisheries activities are closely linked to weather and climate dynamics. While weather at sea directly affects fishing, environmental variability determines the distribution, migration, and abundance of fish. ...

P. Lehodey; J. Alheit; M. Barange; T. Baumgartner; G. Beaugrand; K. Drinkwater; J.-M. Fromentin; S. R. Hare; G. Ottersen; R. I. Perry; C. Roy; C. D. van der Lingen; F. Werner

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Colorado River Basin Hydroclimatic Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of annual hydroclimatic variability in the Upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) for the period of 1906–2006 was performed to understand the dominant modes of multidecadal variability. First, wavelet-based spectral analysis was employed ...

Kenneth Nowak; Martin Hoerling; Balaji Rajagopalan; Edith Zagona

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Surface Area and Microporosity of Carbon Aerogels from Gas Adsorption and Small- and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A carbon aerogel was obtained by carbonization of an organic aerogel prepared by sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol and formaldehyde in water. The carbon aerogel was then CO2 activated at 800 °C to increase its surface area and widen its microporosity. Evolution of these parameters was followed by gas adsorption and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS, respectively) with contrast variation by using dry and wet (immersion in benzene and m-xylene) samples. For the original carbon aerogel, the surface area, SSAXS, obtained by SAXS, is larger than that obtained by gas adsorption (Sads). The values become nearly the same as the degree of activation of the carbon aerogel increases. This feature is due to the widening of the narrow microporosity in the carbon aerogel as the degree of activation is increased. In addition, WAXS results show that the short-range spatial correlations into the assemblies of hydrocarbon molecules confined inside the micropores are different from those existing in the liquid phase. 1.

David Fairén-jiménez; Francisco Carrasco-marín; David Djurado; Françoise Bley; Françoise Ehrburger-dolle; Carlos Moreno-castilla

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Scalable analysis of variable software  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The advent of variability management and generator technology enables users to derive individual variants from a variable code base based on a selection of desired configuration options. This approach gives rise to the generation of possibly billions ... Keywords: C Preprocessor, Liveness Analysis, Software Product Lines, Type Checking, Variability-aware Analysis

Jörg Liebig; Alexander von Rhein; Christian Kästner; Sven Apel; Jens Dörre; Christian Lengauer

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Variability within Modeling Language Definitions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a taxonomy of the variability mechanisms offered by modeling languages. The definition of a formal language encompasses a syntax and a semantic domain as well as the mapping that relates them, thus language variabilities are classified according ... Keywords: Modeling languages, UML, formal semantics, variability

María Victoria Cengarle; Hans Grönniger; Bernhard Rumpe

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Symmetrization Of Binary Random Variables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A random variable Y is called an independent symmetrizer of a given random variable X if (a) it is independent of X and (b) the distribution of X Y is symmetric about 0. In cases where the distribution of X is symmetric about its mean, it is easy to see that the constant random variable Y is a minimum-variance independent symmetrizer. Taking

Abram Kagan; Colin Mallows; Larry Shepp; Robert J. Vanderbei; Yehuda Vardi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Results of the ROTOR-program. I. The long-term photometric variability of classical T Tauri stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a unique, homogeneous database of photometric measurements for Classical T Tauri stars extending up to 20 years. The database contains more than 21,000 UBVR observations of 72 CTTs. All the data were collected within the framework of the ROTOR-program at Mount Maidanak Observatory (Uzbekistan) and together they constitute the longest homogeneous, accurate record of TTS variability ever assembled. We characterize the long term photometric variations of 49 CTTs with sufficient data to allow a robust statistical analysis and propose an empirical classification scheme. Several patterns of long term photometric variability are identified. The most common pattern, exhibited by a group of 15 stars which includes T Tau itself, consists of low level variability (Delta(V)<=0.4mag) with no significant changes occurring from season to season over many years. A related subgroup of 22 stars exhibits a similar stable long term variability pattern, though with larger amplitudes (up to Delta(V)~1.6 mag). Besides these representative groups, we identify three smaller groups of 3-5 stars each which have distinctive photometric properties. The long term variability of most CTTs is fairly stable and merely reflects shorter term variability due to cold and hot surface spots. Only a small fraction of CTTs undergo significant brightness changes on the long term (months, years), which probably arise from slowly varying circumstellar extinction.

K. N. Grankin; S. Yu. Melnikov; J. Bouvier; W. Herbst; V. S. Shevchenko

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Direct Determination of Surface Albedos from Satellite Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An empirical method to measure the spectral surface albedo of surfaces from LANDSAT imagery is presented and analyzed.

Yuri Mekler; Joachim H. Joseph

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Infrared Continental Surface Emissivity Spectra and Skin Temperature Retrieved from IASI Observations over the Tropics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land surface temperature and emissivity spectra are essential variables for improving models of the earth surface–atmosphere interaction or retrievals of atmospheric variables such as thermodynamic profiles, chemical composition, cloud and aerosol ...

Virginie Capelle; Alain Chédin; Eric Péquignot; Peter Schlüssel; Stuart M. Newman; Noelle A. Scott

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Methods for Measuring Friction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Selected solid friction tests per ASTM standards...for Coefficient of Friction Vinyl and wool tiles (preparation only) Any apparatus E 303 (E-17 on traveled surfaces) Measuring Surface

429

Structure and Variability of the Kuroshio Current in Tokara Strait  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four years of mooring array measurements in Tokara Strait, south of Kyushu, Japan, from 1992 to 1996 are used to analyze the structure and temporal variability of the Kuroshio Current. The mean Kuroshio current in Tokara Strait shows a nearly ...

Ming Feng; Humio Mitsudera; Yasushi Yoshikawa

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Heart rate variability in mice with coronary heart disease  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat fluctuation of the heart rate, is a non-invasive test that measures the autonomic regulation of the heart. Assessment of HRV has been shown to predict the risk of mortality ...

Zapanta, Laurence (Laurence F.)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Interannual Variability of Trace Gases in the Subtropical Winter Stratosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of water vapor and methane from the Halogen Occultation Experiment instrument on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are used to study the interannual variability of trace gas distributions in the atmosphere. Particular ...

L. J. Gray; J. M. Russell Jr.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Intraseasonal Variability of the West African Monsoon and Atlantic ITCZ  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intraseasonal variability of boreal summer rainfall and winds in tropical West Africa and the east Atlantic is examined using daily Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation and the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis during 1998–2006. ...

Eric D. Maloney; Jeffrey Shaman

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Statistical Quality of Spectral Polarimetric Variables for Weather Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spectral polarimetry for weather radar capitalizes on both Doppler and polarimetric measurements to reveal polarimetric variables as a function of radial velocity through spectral analysis. For example, spectral differential reflectivity at a ...

Tian-You Yu; Xiao Xiao; Yadong Wang

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Estimation of Ultraviolet-B Irradiance under Variable Cloud Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods to estimate the irradiance of ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280–320 nm) radiation are needed to assess biological effects of changes in atmospheric composition. Measurements of the spatial distribution of sky cloud cover, temporal variability of ...

Richard H. Grant; Gordon M. Heisler

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

VARIABLE TIME-INTERVAL GENERATOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a pulse generator and more particularly to a time interval generator wherein the time interval between pulses is precisely determined. The variable time generator comprises two oscillators with one having a variable frequency output and the other a fixed frequency output. A frequency divider is connected to the variable oscillator for dividing its frequency by a selected factor and a counter is used for counting the periods of the fixed oscillator occurring during a cycle of the divided frequency of the variable oscillator. This defines the period of the variable oscillator in terms of that of the fixed oscillator. A circuit is provided for selecting as a time interval a predetermined number of periods of the variable oscillator. The output of the generator consists of a first pulse produced by a trigger circuit at the start of the time interval and a second pulse marking the end of the time interval produced by the same trigger circuit.

Gross, J.E.

1959-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

437

Variability of PV on Distribution Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2010, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) along with several utilities began collecting high-resolution monitoring data on distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) systems throughout the United States. Included in these monitoring data are single-module PV systems distributed along selected feeders as well as several larger PV systems (up to 1.4 MW). Utilizing data from these sites, this report focuses specifically on examining the measured variability of solar PV distributed throughout a ...

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

438

Variability in Skill in 120 h FNOC 500 mb Height Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variability of the 120 h 500 mb height forecasts of the Navy's Operational global model was examined for two winters. The forecasts displayed evidence of marked variability in the quality of forecasts as measured by anomaly correlations ...

J. Curtis; J. S. Boyle; C. H. Wash

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

South China Sea Isopycnal-Surface Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the seasonal variabilities of the South China Sea isopycnal-surface circulations and of the Kuroshio intrusion through the Luzon Strait using the U.S. Navy’s climatological temperature and salinity dataset (public domain) ...

Peter C. Chu; Rongfeng Li

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

A Comparative Analysis of Two Land Surface Heterogeneity Representations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two contrasting representations of land surface variability used in general circulation models (GCMS) are compared through an analysis of their corresponding surface energy balance equations. In one representation (the “mixture” approach), ...

Randal D. Koster; Max J. Suarez

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Intraseasonal Surface Cooling in the Equatorial Western Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three idealized models for the surface structure of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) were summarized from observations, numerical simulations, and theories, which demonstrate contrasting phase relationships of surface variables. To explore ...

Chidong Zhang; Michael J. McPhaden

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Interfacial temperature measurements, high-speed visualization and finite-element simulations of droplet impact and evaporation on a solid surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to investigate the coupling of fluid dynamics, heat transfer and mass transfer during the impact and evaporation of droplets on a heated solid substrate. A laser-based thermoreflectance method is used to measure the temperature at the solid-liquid interface, with a time and space resolution of 100 {\\mu}s and 20 {\\mu}m, respectively. Isopropanol droplets with micro- and nanoliter volumes are considered. A finite-element model is used to simulate the transient fluid dynamics and heat transfer during the droplet deposition process, considering the dynamics of wetting as well as Laplace and Marangoni stresses on the liquid-gas boundary. For cases involving evaporation, the diffusion of vapor in the atmosphere is solved numerically, providing an exact boundary condition for the evaporative flux at the droplet-air interface. High-speed visualizations are performed to provide matching parameters for the wetting model used in the simulations. Numerical and experimental results are compar...

Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Attinger, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Surface Soil  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

operations Why we sample surface soil Soil sampling is performed to: Determine radionuclide and chemical concentrations in soil and compare these results to regional...

444

Dual surface interferometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarterwave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

Pardue, R.M.; Williams, R.R.

1980-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

445

Dual surface interferometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarter-wave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

Pardue, Robert M. (Knoxville, TN); Williams, Richard R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Decadal Variability of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool and Its Association with Atmospheric and Oceanic Variability in the NCEP–NCAR and SODA Reanalyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decadal variability of the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) sea surface temperature (SST) and its association with atmospheric and oceanic circulations are investigated with observed 50-yr (1952–2001) SST, and the NCEP–NCAR atmospheric and Simple ...

Hui Wang; Vikram M. Mehta

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Climatic variability within an equilibrium greenhouse simulation  

SciTech Connect

A simulation of the possible consequences of a doubling of the CO{sub 2} content of the atmosphere has been performed with a low resolution global climatic model. The model included the diurnal and seasonal computed sea ice amount and cloud cover, and used implied oceanic heat fluxes to represent transport processes in the oceans. A highly responsive 2-layer soil moisture formulation was also incorporated. Twenty year equilibrated simulations for control (1xCO{sub 2}) and greenhouse (2xCO{sub 2}) conditions were generated. The major emphasis of the analysis presented here is on the intra-annual and interannual variability of the greenhouse run with respect to the control run. This revealed considerable differences from the time-averaged results with occasions of marked positive and negative temperature deviations. Of particular interest were the periods of negative temperature departures compared to the control run which were identified, especially over the Northern Hemisphere continents. Temporal and spatial precipitation and soil moisture anomalies also occurred, some of which were related to the surface temperature changes. Substantial sea surface temperature anomalies were apparent in the greenhouse run, indicating that a source of climatic forcing existed in addition to that due to doubling of the CO{sub 2}. Comparison of the intra-annual and interannual variability of the control run with that of the greenhouse run suggests that, in many situations, it will be difficult to identify a greenhouse signal against the intrinsic natural variability of the climatic system. 35 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

Gordon, H.B.; Hunt, B.G. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Victoria (Austria)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Trends and Interannual Variability of Wind Speed Distributions in Minnesota  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Near-surface wind speed variability is investigated at seven stations in and surrounding Minnesota for recent climate records of 22–35 yr in length. Analyses focus on mean annual wind speeds and on the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles ...

Katherine Klink

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Regional Dynamics of Seasonal Variability in the South China Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamics of the seasonal cycle of sea surface height (SSH) in the South China Sea (SCS) are studied using observations as well as numerical and theoretical models. Seasonal variability of the SCS is interpreted in light of large-scale dynamics ...

Zhengyu Liu; Haijun Yang; Qinyu Liu

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Estimation of Surface Turbulent Fluxes through Assimilation of Radiometric Surface Temperature Sequences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model of land surface energy balance is used as a constraint on the estimation of factors characterizing land surface influences on evaporation and turbulent heat transfer from sequences of radiometric surface temperature measurements. The ...

Francesca Caparrini; Fabio Castelli; Dara Entekhabi

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Convective–Stratiform Precipitation Variability at Seasonal Scale from 8 Yr of TRMM Observations: Implications for Multiple Modes of Diurnal Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the variability of convective and stratiform rainfall from 8 yr (1998–2005) of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) measurements, focusing on seasonal diurnal ...

Song Yang; Eric A. Smith

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Surface Integrity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...inclusions introduced Plastically deformed debris as a result of grinding Voids, pits, burrs, or foreign material inclusions in surface Metallurgical Transformation of phases Grain size and distribution Precipitate size and distribution Foreign inclusions in material Twinning Recrystallization...

453

Programmable surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Surface Heat Flux Variations across the Kuroshio Extension as Observed by Surface Flux Buoys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wintertime sea surface heat flux variability across the Kuroshio Extension (KE) front is analyzed using data from the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO) buoy in the Kuroshio recirculation gyre south of the KE front and from the Japan Agency for ...

Masanori Konda; Hiroshi Ichikawa; Hiroyuki Tomita; Meghan F. Cronin

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

A Conjunctive Surface–Subsurface Flow Representation for Mesoscale Land Surface Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most current land surface models used in regional weather and climate studies capture soil-moisture transport in only the vertical direction and are therefore unable to capture the spatial variability of soil moisture and its lateral transport. ...

Hyun Il Choi; Xin-Zhong Liang; Praveen Kumar

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

A Conjunctive Surface-Subsurface Flow Representation for Mesoscale Land Surface Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most current land surface models used in regional weather and climate studies capture soil-moisture transport in only the vertical direction and are therefore unable to capture the spatial variability of soil-moisture and its lateral transport. ...

Hyun Il Choi; Xin–Zhong Liang; Praveen Kumar

457

Vision-Based Surface Strain Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the accuracy of these points is compared to the original data set. This is accomplished by fitting the calculated point set to the original point set by rotating and ...

458

Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, Officeof Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Engineering (NA-22)of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, Office of Nuclear

Janecek, Martin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office ofby the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of

Janecek, Martin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AC02-05CH11231, grant number NNSA LB06-316-PD05 / NN2001000.AC02-05CH11231, grant number NNSA LB06-316-PD05 / NN2001000.

Janecek, Martin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carlo program simulating light propagation in isotropic orTerms—Lambertian reflection, light collection, Monte Carloy-axis) and fraction specular light (right y- axis) for a

Janecek, Martin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

A Climatology of Surface Cloud Radiative Effects at the ARM Tropical Western Pacific Sites  

SciTech Connect

Cloud radiative effects on surface downwelling fluxes are investigated using long-term datasets from the three Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The Nauru and Darwin sites show significant variability in sky cover, downwelling radiative fluxes, and surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) due to El Niño and the Australian monsoon, respectively, while the Manus site shows little intra-seasonal or interannual variability. Cloud radar measurement of cloud base and top heights are used to define cloud types so that the effect of cloud type on the surface CRE can be examined. Clouds with low bases contribute 71-75% of the surface shortwave (SW) CRE and 66-74% of the surface longwave (LW) CRE at the three TWP sites, while clouds with mid-level bases contribute 8-9% of the SW CRE and 12-14% of the LW CRE, and clouds with high bases contribute 16-19% of the SW CRE and 15-21% of the LW CRE.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flaherty, Julia E.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Choosing the best set of variables in regression analysis using integer programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with an algorithm for selecting the best set of s variables out of k(> s) candidate variables in a multiple linear regression model. We employ absolute deviation as the measure of deviation and solve ... Keywords: 0-1 integer programming, Cardinality constraint, Least absolute deviation, Linear regression, Variable selection

Hiroshi Konno; Rei Yamamoto

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Measuring Cost Variability in Provision of Transit Service  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W. , and S. R. Mundle. Peak-Base Cost Allocation Models. In29–33. Reilly, J. M. Transit Costs During Peak and Off-PeakHow to Allocate Bus Route Costs. Transit, Vol. 5, No. 2,

Taylor, Brian D.; Garrett, Mark; Iseki, Hiroyuki

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability:...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cover Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites in Utah and Arizona Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing 2012 Reliability & Markets Peer Review - Full Presentations USVI Energy...

466

Measuring Cost Variability in Provision of Transit Service  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pro- vide separate cost estimates for two periods—the peakvehicle-hour unit-cost estimates for the peak and base= vehicle-hour unit-cost estimate for peak, U BVH = vehicle-

Taylor, Brian D.; Garrett, Mark; Iseki, Hiroyuki

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

2011-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

468

Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Pend Oreille River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water logs  

SciTech Connect

Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Pend Oreille River valley were investigated in a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water well logs. The Box Canyon Dam area north of Ione is judged to have very high favorability. Thick-bedded conglomerates interbedded with sandstones and silty sandstones compose the Tiger Formation in this area, and high radioactivity levels are found near the base of the formation. Uranophane is found along fracture surfaces or in veins. Carbonaceous material is present throughout the Tiger Formation in the area. Part of the broad Pend Oreille valley surrounding Cusick, Washington, is an area of high favorability. Potential host rocks in the Tiger Formation, consisting of arkosic sandstones interbedded with radioactive shales, probably extend throughout the subsurface part of this area. Carbonaceous material is present and some samples contain high concentrations of uranium. In addition, several other possible chemical indicators were found. The Tiger-Lost Creek area is rated as having medium favorability. The Tiger Formation contains very hard, poorly sorted granite conglomerate with some beds of arkosic sandstone and silty sandstone. The granite conglomerate was apparently derived from source rocks having relatively high uranium content. The lower part of the formation is more favorable than the upper part because of the presence of carbonaceous material, anomalously high concentrations of uranium, and other possible chemical indicators. The area west of Ione is judged to have low favorability, because of the very low permeability of the rocks and the very low uranium content. (auth)

Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Greenhouse Warming, Decadal Variability, or El Niño? An Attempt to Understand the Anomalous 1990s  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dominant variability modes in the Tropics are investigated and contrasted with the anomalous situation observed during the last few years. The prime quantity analyzed is anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) in the region 30°S–60°N. ...

M. Latif; R. Kleeman; C. Eckert

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Local Regimes of Atmospheric Variability: A Case Study of Southern California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary regimes of local atmospheric variability are examined in a 6-km regional atmospheric model of the southern third of California, an area of significant land surface heterogeneity, intense topography, and climate diversity. The model ...

Sebastien Conil; Alex Hall

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Monitoring North Pacific Heat Content Variability: An Indicator of Fish Quantity?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fields of modeled sea surface heights and temperatures are used to develop an algorithm to monitor the low-frequency heat content variability of the North Pacific's midlatitudes associated with regime shifts in the circulation patterns of the ...

R. Tokmakian

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Recent Climate Variability in Antarctica from Satellite-Derived Temperature Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent Antarctic climate variability on month-to-month to interannual time scales is assessed through joint analysis of surface temperatures from satellite thermal infrared observations (TIR) and passive microwave brightness temperatures (TB). ...

David P. Schneider; Eric J. Steig; Josefino C. Comiso

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

CO2-Induced Changes in Interannual Temperature and Precipitation Variability in 19 CMIP2 Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CO2-induced changes in the interannual variability of monthly surface air temperature and precipitation are studied using 19 model experiments participating in the second phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2). The magnitude ...

Jouni Räisänen

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

A Model for the Estimation of Global Solar Radiation Using Fuzzy Random Variables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the concept of fuzzy random variables is applied for the estimation of global solar radiation on a surface at ground level. The cloudiness index is defined as the fraction of extraterrestrial radiation that reaches the earth's ...

Nalin K. Gautam; N. D. Kaushika

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Mechanisms for the Interannual Variability of SST in the East Pacific Warm Pool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In comparison with the western and equatorial Pacific Ocean, relatively little is known about the east Pacific warm pool (EPWP). Observations indicate that the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) in the EPWP is highly ...

Kristopher B. Karnauskas; Antonio J. Busalacchi

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Observed Variability of Ocean Wave Stokes Drift, and the Eulerian Response to Passing Groups  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Waves and currents interact via exchanges of mass and momentum. The mass and momentum fluxes associated with surface waves are closely linked to their Stokes drift. Both the variability of the Stokes drift and the corresponding response of the ...

Jerome A. Smith

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

North Atlantic Interannual Variability in a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary mode of sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic on interannual timescales during winter is examined in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. The model, developed at die Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, is global in ...

Thomas L. Delworth

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Using Relative Humidity as a State Variable in Climate Feedback Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An approach to climate change feedback analysis is described in which tropospheric relative humidity replaces specific humidity as the state variable that, along with the temperature structure, surface albedos, and clouds, controls the magnitude ...

Isaac M. Held; Karen M. Shell

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Decadal Variability of Thermocline and Intermediate Waters at 24°S in the South Atlantic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New data are presented from 24°S in the South Atlantic in an investigation of the decadal variability of the intermediate and thermocline water masses at this latitude. Variation of salinity on neutral density surfaces is investigated with three ...

Gerard McCarthy; Elaine McDonagh; Brian King

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Subseasonal and Interannual Temperature Variability in Relation to Extreme Temperature Occurrence over East Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates interannual variability in the frequency of occurrence of daily surface air temperature (SAT) extremes over East Asia in summer and winter between 1979 and 2009. We examine the dominant seasonal SAT patterns, as obtained ...

Hiroyuki Ito; Nathaniel C. Johnson; Shang-Ping Xie

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481

Changes in the Spread of the Variability of the Seasonal Mean Atmospheric States Associated with ENSO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For a fixed sea surface temperature (SST) forcing, the variability of the observed seasonal mean atmospheric states in the extratropical latitudes can be characterized in terms of probability distribution functions (PDFs). Predictability of the ...

Arun Kumar; Anthony G. Barnston; Peitao Peng; Martin P. Hoerling; Lisa Goddard

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Modeling the Biosphere–Atmosphere System: The Impact of the Subgrid Variability in Rainfall Interception  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Subgrid variability in rainfall distribution has been widely recognized as an important factor to include in the representation of land surface hydrology within climate models. In this paper, using West Africa as a case study, the impact of the ...

Guiling Wang; Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Observations of Variability on Synoptic Timescales in the East Pacific ITCZ  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data obtained in the eastern Pacific intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) during the Tropical Eastern Pacific Process Study (TEPPS) show a 3–6-day variability. The NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown collected surface meteorological observations, C-band ...

Yolande L. Serra; Robert A. Houze Jr.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Interannual Variability of Tropical Cyclones in the Australian Region: Role of Large-Scale Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the role of large-scale environmental factors, notably sea surface temperature (SST), low-level relative vorticity, and deep-tropospheric vertical wind shear, in the interannual variability of November–April tropical ...

Hamish A. Ramsay; Lance M. Leslie; Peter J. Lamb; Michael B. Richman; Mark Leplastrier

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

North Pacific Decadal Variability and Climate Change in the IPCC AR4 Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two leading modes of North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP), as well as their connections to tropical variability, are explored in the 24 coupled climate models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ...

Jason C. Furtado; Emanuele Di Lorenzo; Niklas Schneider; Nicholas A. Bond

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Estimating Central Equatorial Pacific SST Variability over the Past Millennium. Part I: Methodology and Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Constraining the low-frequency (LF) behavior of general circulation models (GCMs) requires reliable observational estimates of LF variability. This two-part paper presents multiproxy reconstructions of Niño-3.4 sea surface temperature over the ...

Julien Emile-Geay; Kimberly M. Cobb; Michael E. Mann; Andrew T. Wittenberg

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Interannual Variability in the Mid- and Low-Latitude Western North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Twenty-two years (1967–88) of hydrographic data collected by the Japan Meteorological Agency along the 137°E meridian and surface wind data compiled by Florida State University (FSU) were analyzed to study the interannual variability in the ...

Bo Qiu; Terrence M. Joyce

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Ensemble Atmospheric GCM Simulation of Climate Interannual Variability from 1979 to 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climate interannual variability is examined using the general circulation model (GCM) developed at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique. The model is forced by the observed sea surface temperature for the period 1979–94. An ensemble of ...

Zhao-Xin Li

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Probabilistic Estimates of Transient Climate Sensitivity Subject to Uncertainty in Forcing and Natural Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the authors address the impact of uncertainty on estimates of transient climate sensitivity (TCS) of the globally averaged surface temperature, including both uncertainty in past forcing and internal variability in the climate ...

Lauren E. Padilla; Geoffrey K. Vallis; Clarence W. Rowley

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Interannual Variability of the Global Radiation Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interannual variability of the global radiation budget, regions that contribute to its variability, and what limits albedo variability are investigated using Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) data taken from March 2000 through ...

Seiji Kato

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Variable focal length deformable mirror  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

Headley, Daniel (Albuquerque, NM); Ramsey, Marc (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Jens (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

492

Improved sample size determination for attributes and variables sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Earlier INMM papers have addressed the attributes/variables problem and, under conservative/limiting approximations, have reported analytical solutions for the attributes and variables sample sizes. Through computer simulation of this problem, we have calculated attributes and variables sample sizes as a function of falsification, measurement uncertainties, and required detection probability without using approximations. Using realistic assumptions for uncertainty parameters of measurement, the simulation results support the conclusions: (1) previously used conservative approximations can be expensive because they lead to larger sample sizes than needed; and (2) the optimal verification strategy, as well as the falsification strategy, are highly dependent on the underlying uncertainty parameters of the measurement instruments. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of thermal history. All of the normalized boron releases were less than 1 g/L. While all of the targeted glass compositions were predictable with respect to the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, a small number of the measured glass compositions were located outside of the lower prediction limit indicating poorer durability than what was actually measured. These unpredictable glasses were in the same lithium metaborate (LM) preparation block during the chemical analyses, which resulted in measured compositions that were not representative of the target compositions. A review of the data did not indicate a clear cause for the problem. Re-digestion and re-measurement of three glasses from this preparation block yielded glass compositions closer to the target values and predicted PCT responses within the PCCS model uncertainty. Therefore, it is believed that the glasses were correctly fabricated and the targeted compositions are closer representations of the true compositions. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable for the SB6/Frit 418 glass system. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable and/or acceptable with respect to the DWPF PCCS models. In addition, the inclusion of ThO{sub 2} was shown to have minimal impact on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses.

Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

494

Strategies for Detecting Hidden Geothermal Systems by Near-Surface Gas Monitoring  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

''Hidden'' geothermal systems are those systems above which hydrothermal surface features (e.g., hot springs, fumaroles, elevated ground temperatures, hydrothermal alteration) are lacking. Emissions of moderate to low solubility gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, He) may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. Detection of anomalous gas emissions related to hidden geothermal systems may therefore be an important tool to discover new geothermal resources. This study investigates the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring in the subsurface and above ground in the near-surface environment to serve as a tool to discover hidden geothermal systems. We focus the investigation on CO2 due to (1) its abundance in geothermal systems, (2) its moderate solubility in water, and (3) the wide range of technologies available to monitor CO2 in the near-surface environment. However, monitoring in the near-surface environment for CO2 derived from hidden geothermal reservoirs is complicated by the large variation in CO2 fluxes and concentrations arising from natural biological and hydrologic processes. In the near-surface environment, the flow and transport of CO2 at high concentrations will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration show that CO2 concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are primarily controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, and microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include (1) the infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) for measurement of concentrations at point locations, (2) the accumulation chamber (AC) method for measuring soil CO2 fluxes at point locations, (3) the eddy covariance (EC) method for measuring net CO2 flux over a given area, (4) hyperspectral imaging of vegetative stress resulting from elevated CO2 concentrations, and (5) light detection and ranging (LIDAR) that can measure CO2 concentrations over an integrated path. Technologies currently in developmental stages that have the potential to be used for CO2 monitoring include tunable lasers for long distance integrated concentration measurements and micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) that can make widespread point measurements. To address the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring methodologies with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. Within the area targeted for geothermal exploration, point measurements of soil CO2 fluxes and concentrations using the AC method and a portable IRGA, respectively, and measurements of net surface flux using EC should be made. Also, the natural spatial and temporal variability of surface CO2 fluxes and subsurface CO2 concentrations should be quantified within a background area with similar geologic, climatic, and ecosystem characteristics to the area targeted for geothermal exploration. Statistical analyses of data collected from both areas should be used to guide sampling strategy, discern spatial patterns that may be indicative of geothermal CO2 emissions, and assess the presence (or absence) of geothermal CO2 within the natural background variability with a desired confidence level. Once measured CO2 concentrations and fluxes have been determined to be of anomalous geothermal origin with high confidence, more expensive vertical subsurface gas sampling and chemical and isotopic analyses can be undertaken. Integrated analysis of all measurements will d

Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

495

A Mechanism for Observed Interannual Variabilities over the Equatorial Indian Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mechanism is proposed that can give rise to a sustained interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and other variables even over an ocean basin of small zonal extent such as the Indian Ocean, as observed. A simple one-dimensional ...

Prashant Goswami; Nandini Harinath

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

The TAOS Project Stellar Variability II. Detection of 15 Variable Stars  

SciTech Connect

The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey data - covering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred days - are a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (RA = 17{sup h} 30{sup m} 6.67{sup s}, Dec = 27 degrees, 17 minutes, 30 seconds, J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 square degree field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the lightcurves, 32 variables, 18 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, {delta} Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular and eclipsing binaries.

Mondal, S; Lin, C C; Zhang, Z W; Alcock, C; Axelrod, T; Bianco, F B; Byun, Y I; Coehlo, N K; Cook, K H; Dave, R; Kim, D W; King, S K; Lee, T; Lehner, M J; Lin, H C; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, J H; Wang, S Y; Wen, C Y

2010-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

497

Continuous variable tangle, monogamy inequality, and entanglement sharing in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For continuous-variable systems, we introduce a measure of entanglement, the continuous variable tangle ({\\em contangle}), with the purpose of quantifying the distributed (shared) entanglement in multimode, multipartite Gaussian states. This is achieved by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity. We prove that the contangle satisfies the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality in all three--mode Gaussian states, and in all fully symmetric $N$--mode Gaussian states, for arbitrary $N$. For three--mode pure states we prove that the residual entanglement is a genuine tripartite entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication. We show that pure, symmetric three--mode Gaussian states allow a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite residual entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. These states are thus simultaneous continuous-variable analogs of both the GHZ and the $W$ states of three qubits: in continuous-variable systems monogamy does not prevent promiscuity, and the inequivalence between different classes of maximally entangled states, holding for systems of three or more qubits, is removed.

Gerardo Adesso; Fabrizio Illuminati

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

498

ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil moisture The moisture of the soil measured near the surface. This includes soil wetness and soil water potential. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems SOIL : Soil Measurement from the SGP SWATS : Soil Water and Temperature System SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System

499

Quantifying decoherence in continuous variable systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed report on the decoherence of quantum states of continuous variable systems under the action of a quantum optical master equation resulting from the interaction with general Gaussian uncorrelated environments. The rate of decoherence is quantified by relating it to the decay rates of various, complementary measures of the quantum nature of a state, such as the purity, some nonclassicality indicators in phase space and, for two-mode states, entanglement measures and total correlations between the modes. Different sets of physically relevant initial configurations are considered, including one- and two-mode Gaussian states, number states, and coherent superpositions. Our analysis shows that, generally, the use of initially squeezed configurations does not help to preserve the coherence of Gaussian states, whereas it can be effective in protecting coherent superpositions of both number states and Gaussian wave packets. 1

A. Serafini; M. G. A. Paris; F. Illuminati; S. De Siena

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Quantifying decoherence in continuous variable systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed report on the decoherence of quantum states of continuous variable systems under the action of a quantum optical master equation resulting from the interaction with general Gaussian uncorrelated environments. The rate of decoherence is quantified by relating it to the decay rates of various, complementary measures of the quantum nature of a state, such as the purity, some nonclassicality indicators in phase space and, for two-mode states, entanglement measures and total correlations between the modes. Different sets of physically relevant initial configurations are considered, including one- and two-mode Gaussian states, number states, and coherent superpositions. Our analysis shows that, generally, the use of initially squeezed configurations does not help to preserve the coherence of Gaussian states, whereas it can be effective in protecting coherent superpositions of both number states and Gaussian wave packets.

A. Serafini; M. G. A. Paris; F. Illuminati; S. De Siena

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z