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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Measurements of Sea Surface Height Variability in the Eastern South Atlantic from Pressure Sensor-Equipped Inverted Echo Sounders: Baroclinic and Barotropic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Variability in sea surface height (SSH) can be decomposed into two contributions: one from changes in mass in the water column (barotropic) and the other from purely steric changes (baroclinic). Both contributions can be ...

Baker-Yeboah, Sheekela

2

ARM - Measurement - Surface condition  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

condition condition ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface condition State of the surface, including vegetation, land use, surface type, roughness, and such; often provided in model output. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments NAV : Navigational Location and Attitude SURFLOG : SGP Surface Conditions Observations by Site Technicians S-TABLE : Stabilized Platform MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation

3

Surface cleanliness measurement procedure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

ARM - Measurement - Surface albedo  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

albedo albedo ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface albedo The fraction of incoming solar radiation at a surface (i.e. land, cloud top) that is effectively reflected by that surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer External Instruments ETA : Eta Model Runs ECMWFDIAG : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model

5

Instantaneous Measurement of Nonlocal Variables Lev Vaidman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Instantaneous Measurement of Nonlocal Variables Lev Vaidman 1 School of Physics and Astronomy variables related to two or more separate sites can be measured instantaneously, except for a finite time of the measurement. It is a verification measurement: it yields reliably the eigenvalues of the nonlocal variables

Vaidman, Lev

6

Detection of surface mobility of poly (2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorostyrene) films by in situ variable-temperature ToF-SIMS and contact angle measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Poly (2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorostyrene) (5FPS) was prepared by bulk radical polymerization. The spin-cast films of this polymer were analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) at various temperatures ranging from room temperature to 120 °C. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the ToF-SIMS data revealed a transition temperature (TT) at which the surface structure of 5FPS was rearranged. A comparison between the results of the PCA of ToF-SIMS spectra obtained on 5FPS and polystyrene (PS) indicate that the pendant groups of 5FPS and PS moved in exactly opposite directions as the temperature increased. More pendant groups of 5FPS and PS migrated from the bulk to the surface and verse versa, respectively, as the temperature increased. These results clearly support the view that the abrupt changes in the normalized principal component 1 value was caused by the surface reorientation of the polymers and not by a change in the ion fragmentation mechanism at temperatures above the TT. Contact angle measurement, which is another extremely surface sensitive technique, was used to monitor the change in the surface tension as a function of temperature. A clear TT was determined by the contact angle measurements. The TT values determined by contact angle measurements and ToF-SIMS were very similar.

Yi Fu; Yiu-Ting R. Lau; Lu-Tao Weng; Kai-Mo Ng; Chi-Ming Chan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface temperature surface temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil surface temperature The temperature of the soil measured near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems SOIL : Soil Measurement from the SGP SWATS : Soil Water and Temperature System MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation

8

A Climatological measurement methods This appendix describes the methods of climatological variable measurement at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the total energy received as radiation per unit surface area tangential to the earths surface. As mentioned-wave A sensor used to measure the energy flux density of short-wave radiation is referred to as a pyranometerA Climatological measurement methods This appendix describes the methods of climatological variable

9

Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sawyer, J. Wayne (Hampton, VA); Hess, John R. (Ashton, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsSea surface temperature govMeasurementsSea surface temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Sea surface temperature The temperature of sea water near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model Data Field Campaign Instruments ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model Data MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai

11

Tools for measuring surface cleanliness  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

skin temperature skin temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface skin temperature The radiative surface skin temperature, from an IR thermometer measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface in its field of view. Categories Radiometric, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments IRT : Infrared Thermometer MFRIRT : Multifilter Radiometer and Infrared Thermometer External Instruments

13

Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...HICKS, B.B., A SIMULATION OF THE EDDY ACCUMULATION...CLOSURES IN 2ND-ORDER MODELING, JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC...Their advantag-es are rapid response, linear output...the measurement and modeling of surface fluxes are...the appli-cation of automated conditional sampling...

W. F. Dabberdt; D. H. Lenschow; T. W. Horst; P. R. Zimmerman; S. P. Oncley; A. C. Delany

1993-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

14

Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

15

Method for measuring surface temperature  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

16

Turbocharger with variable nozzle having vane sealing surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable nozzle for a turbocharger includes a plurality of vanes rotatably mounted on a nozzle ring and disposed in a nozzle flow path defined between the nozzle ring and an opposite nozzle wall. Either or both of the faces of the nozzle ring and nozzle wall include(s) at least one step that defines sealing surfaces positioned to be substantially abutted by airfoil surfaces of the vanes in the closed position of the vanes and to be spaced from the airfoil surfaces in positions other than the closed position. This substantial abutment between the airfoil surfaces and the sealing surfaces serves to substantially prevent exhaust gas from leaking past the ends of the airfoil portions. At the same time, clearances between the nozzle ring face and the end faces of the airfoil portions can be sufficiently large to prevent binding of the vanes under all operating conditions.

Arnold, Philippe (Hennecourt, FR); Petitjean, Dominique (Julienrupt, FR); Ruquart, Anthony (Thaon les Vosges, FR); Dupont, Guillaume (Thaon les Vosges, FR); Jeckel, Denis (Thaon les Vosges, FR)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

Implementing Rational Surface Locations Measured From Thomson...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rational Surface Locations Measured From Thomson Scattering Into MSTfit by Curtis A. Johnson Senior Thesis (Physics) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison 2014 i Abstract...

18

Measuring the Surface Roughness of Stream Stones  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measuring the fine-scale heterogeneity of stones and other substrates is a challenge for benthic ecologists. I describe a method for measuring the roughness of stones that is based on the ratio of two surface ...

Elizabeth A. Bergey

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Technical Sessions Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Over Contrasting Surfaces  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Over Contrasting Surfaces R. L. Coulter J. D. Shannon T. J. Martin Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL 60439 In a multilaboratory field study held near Boardman in northeastern Oregon in June 1991 and described in greater detail elsewhere (Doran et al. 1991), various properties of the surface and lower atmospheric boundary layer over heavily irrigated cropland and adjacent desert steppe were investigated. The locale was selected because its disparate characteristics over various spatial scales stress the ability of general circulation models (GCMs) to describe lower boundary conditions, particularly across the discontinuity between desert (in which turbulent flux of heat must be primarily as sensible heat) and large irrigated tracts (in which turbulent flux of latent heat should be the larger term).

20

Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Variability in Measured Space Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes David Roberts National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kerylyn Lay EnerNOC (formerly of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-58059 March 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes David Roberts National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kerylyn Lay EnerNOC (formerly of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Analysis of Cloud Variability and Sampling Errors in Surface and Satellite Mesurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Analysis of Cloud Variability and Sampling Errors in Analysis of Cloud Variability and Sampling Errors in Surface and Satellite Measurements Z. Li, M. C. Cribb, and F.-L. Chang Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland A. P. Trishchenko and Y. Luo Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Introduction Radiation measurements have been widely employed for evaluating cloud parameterization schemes and model simulation results. As the most comprehensive program aiming to improve cloud parameteri- zation schemes, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has an essential goal to make observations on the scale of a general circulation model gridbox, so as to define the physics underlying some of the important parameterizations in the general circulation models used in climate change

22

Variability Analysis of Complex Networks Measures based on Stochastic Distances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Complex networks can model the structure and dynamics of different types of systems. It has been shown that they are characterized by a set of measures. In this work, we evaluate the variability of complex networks measures face to perturbations and, for this purpose, we impose controlled perturbations and quantify their effect. We analyze theoretical models (random, small-world and scale-free) and real networks (a collaboration network and a metabolic networks) along with the shortest path length, vertex degree, local cluster coefficient and betweenness centrality measures. In such analysis, we propose the use of three stochastic quantifiers: the Kullback-Leibler divergence and the Jensen-Shannon and Hellinger distances. The sensitivity of these measures was analyzed with respect to the following perturbations: edge addition, edge removal, edge rewiring and node removal, all of them applied at different intensities. The results reveal that the evaluated measures are influenced by these perturbations. Additio...

Cabral, Raquel; Ramírez, Jaime

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

The variability of high-frequency acoustic backscatter from the region near the sea surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The temporal variability of acoustic backscattering from the region near the sea surface is examined for frequencies in the 30–70 kHz range. A variance spectrum of the scattering strength exhibits effects associated with three different processes. Below about 0.1 Hz the spectrum contains a large contribution associated with temporal variations in the advection of bubble clouds through the measurement volume by large-scale processes. At high frequencies the spectrum asymptotes to a level characteristic of a Gaussian backscatteredpressure field from randomly moving bubbles within the scattering volume. The overall variability is treated as a slow modulation of this Gaussian process by larger-scale processes and a probability density function is derived for the scattering strength using Bayes’ theorem. Finally in some cases the spectrum exhibits a peak at the frequency of the dominant surface waves. Attempts to compute coherence functions between the backscattered acoustic power and surface wave orbital velocities measured by a microwave system observing the same spot as the acoustic system resulted in very low values. This leads to the belief that the wave-induced peak in the acoustic backscatter variance spectrum is caused by highly nonlinear processes. A time series of acoustic backscatter from a vertically pointing system confirms the existence of this modulation at the dominant wave frequency and also suggests its nonlinear character.

Peter H. Dahl; William J. Plant

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Retrieval of hourly records of surface hydrometeorological variables using satellite remote sensing data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new algorithm is formulated for retrieving hourly time-series of surface hydrometeorological variables including net radiation, sensible heat flux, and near-surface air temperature aided by hourly visible images from the Geostationary ...

Sanaz Moghim; Andrew Jay Bowen; Sepideh Sarachi; Jingfeng Wang

25

New Surface Meteorological Measurements at SGP,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NM, March 22 - 26, 2004 NM, March 22 - 26, 2004 1 New Surface Meteorological Measurements at SGP, and Their Use for Assessing Radiosonde Measurement Accuracy L.M. Miloshevich National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado B.M. Lesht and M. Ritche Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Several recent ARM investigations have been directed toward characterizing and improving the accuracy of ARM radiosonde water vapor measurements. Tobin et al. (2002) showed that calculating the downwelling and outgoing longwave fluxes with a target accuracy of 1 W m -2 requires knowing the total-column precipitable water vapor (PW) with 2% absolute accuracy and knowing the upper troposphere (UT) water vapor with 10% absolute accuracy. Turner et al. (2003) used an empirical

26

Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability: Preprint  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Measurement and Modeling of Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability Preprint M. Sengupta To be presented at SOLAR 2011 Raleigh, North Carolina May 17-21, 2011 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5500-51105 April 2011 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and Alliance retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty,

27

Distance transforms on anisotropic surfaces for surface roughness measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Distance Transform on Curved Space (DTOCS) calculates distances along a gray-level height map surface In this article, the DTOCS is generalized for surfaces represented as real altitude data in an anisotropic grid The distance transform combined ...

Leena Ikonen; Toni Kuparinen; Eduardo Villanueva; Pekka Toivanen

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Numerical simulation of interannual and interdecadal variability of surface wind over the tropical Pacific  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A global atmospheric general circulation model (L9R15 AGCMs) forced by COADS SST was integrated from 1945 to 1993. Interannual and interdecadal variability of the simulated surface wind over the tropical Pacific ...

Wu Ai-ming; Zhao Yong-ping; Bai Xue-zhi…

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Annual Variability of Sea Surface Height and Upper Layer Thickness in the Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The annual variabilities of the sea surface height in the Pacific Ocean were investigated by analyzing the TOPEX/POSEIDON ... the model results suggests that the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean is relatively cal...

Yoshinobu Wakata; Shouko Kitaya

30

Submitted to Journal of Physical Oceanography Sea Surface Temperature Variability Along the Path of the Antarctic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

level pressure and air-sea heat fluxes. It is found that a significant fraction of SST variability) and remote forcing by ENSO. The physical mechanisms rely on the interplay between atmospheric variability the South Pa- cific, inducing surface heat fluxes (Fs) and Ekman heat advection (Fek) anomalies. A simple

Czaja, Arnaud

31

String method in collective variables: Minimum free energy paths and isocommittor surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

York University, New York, New York 10012 Giovanni Ciccottid INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica in the free energy. Provided that the number of collective variables is large enough, the new techniqueString method in collective variables: Minimum free energy paths and isocommittor surfaces Luca

Van Den Eijnden, Eric

32

Robust Shot Noise Measurement for Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study a practical method to monitor in real-time the behavior of a Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution (CVQKD) system, and especially the shot noise measurement procedure, for the presence of an eavesdropper. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics of a CVQKD system depends strongly on a shot noise estimate since this quantity affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e. noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks rely on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept-and-resend eavesdropping strategy, notably by targeting the calibration of the system, the saturation of the homodyne detection device or the wavelength dependency of some optical components. We describe a new countermeasure that consists in fairly general statistical tests build on top of an existing real-time shot-noise measurement technique and show that it is able to defeat all these attacks.

Sébastien Kunz-Jacques; Paul Jouguet

2014-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

33

A Variable-resolution Surface Wave Dispersion Study of Eurasia, North Africa, and Surrounding Regions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a large-scale study of surface wave dispersion performed across Eurasia and North Africa. Improvements were made to previous surface wave work by enlarging the study region, increasing path density, improving spatial resolution, and expanding the period range. This study expands the coverage area northwards and eastwards relative to a previous dispersion analysis, which covered only North Africa and the Middle East. We have significantly increased the number of seismograms examined and group velocity measurements made. We have now made good quality dispersion measurements for about 30,000 Rayleigh wave and 20,000 Love wave paths, and have incorporated measurements from several other researchers into the study. A conjugate gradient method was employed for the group velocity tomography, which improved the inversion from the previous study by adopting a variable smoothness. This technique allows us to go to higher resolution where the data allow without producing artifacts. The current results include both Love and Rayleigh wave inversions across the region for periods from 7 to 100 seconds at 1{sup o} resolution. Short period group velocities are sensitive to slow velocities associated with large sedimentary features such as the Caspian Sea, West Siberian Platform, Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Bengal, Tarim Basin, and Persian Gulf. Intermediate periods are sensitive to differences in crustal thickness, such as those between oceanic and continental crust or along orogenic zones and continental plateaus. At longer periods, fast velocities are consistently found beneath cratons while slow upper mantle velocities occur along rift systems, subduction zones, and collision zones such as the Tethys Belt. We have compared the group velocities at various periods with features such as sediment thickness, topographic height, crustal thickness, proximity to plate boundaries, lithospheric age and lithospheric thickness, and find significant correlations. We don't find any similar correlation between the longest period surface waves and hot spots.

Pasyanos, M E

2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

34

Host Range and Variability of Calcium Binding by Surface Loops in the Capsids of Canine and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Host Range and Variability of Calcium Binding by Surface Loops in the Capsids of Canine and Feline, consisting of residues 359 to 375 of the capsid protein. This loop binds a divalent calcium ion in FPV and in the presence or absence of Ca2 . The largest structural difference was found to occur in a ÂŻexible surface loop

Rossmann, Michael G.

35

Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability (1988-2004) from calibrated Polar MM5 output*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability (1988-2004) from calibrated Polar MM5 output in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA 4 National Snow and Ice Data Center, University coherent regional patterns of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB) change over a 17-year period

Howat, Ian M.

36

On the Use of QuikSCAT Scatterometer Measurements of Surface Winds for Marine Weather Prediction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and ECMWF global numerical weather prediction models considerably underestimated the spatial variability Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global numerical weather prediction (NWP) modelsOn the Use of QuikSCAT Scatterometer Measurements of Surface Winds for Marine Weather Prediction

Kurapov, Alexander

37

NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Surface Analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

analysis, surface electronic properties NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Dynamic SIMS Cameca IMS- 5F & IMS-3F Trace-element contaminant and dopant analysis Ions (Cs, O, Ar)...

38

The Surface Measure and Cone Measure on the sphere of `np Assaf Naor *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Surface Measure and Cone Measure on the sphere of `np of Schechtman and Zinn, is used to s* *tudy the distance between the cone measure and surface measure Introduction For every star shaped body K Rn, one can define two natural measures on the b* *oundary of K

Naor, Assaf

39

Measurement of normal contact stiffness of fractal rough surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the effects of roughness and fractality on the normal contact stiffness of rough surfaces. Samples of isotropically roughened aluminium surfaces are considered. The roughness and fractal dimension were altered through blasting using different sized particles. Subsequently, surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was applied to the surfaces in order to modify the surface at the microscale. The surface topology was characterised by interferometry based profilometry. The normal contact stiffness was measured through nanoindentation with a flat tip utilising the partial unloading method. We focus on establishing the relationships between surface stiffness and roughness, combined with the effects of fractal dimension. The experimental results, for a wide range of surfaces, showed that the measured contact stiffness depended very closely on surfaces' root mean squared (RMS) slope and their fractal dimension, with correlation coefficients of around 90\\%, whilst a relatively weak correlation coefficient of 57\\% was found between the contact stiffness and RMS roughness.

Chongpu Zhai; Sébastien Bevand; Yixiang Gan; Dorian Hanaor; Gwénaëlle Proust; Bruno Guelorget; Delphine Retraint

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

40

Improved Precision Measurement of the Casimir Force Using Gold Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report an improved precision measurement of the Casimir force using metallic gold surfaces. The force is measured between a large gold coated sphere and flat plate using an Atomic Force Microscope. The use of gold surfaces removes some theoretical uncertainties in the interpretation of the measurement. The forces are also measured at smaller surface separations. The complete dielectric spectrum of the metal is used in the comparison of theory to the experiment. The average statistical precision remains at the same 1% of the forces measured at the closest separation. These results should lead to the development of stronger constraints on hypothetical forces.

B. W. Harris; F. Chen; U. Mohideen

2000-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

What measures climate? A variety of variables including their variability and extreme values determine climate for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

climate zones? The sun is the ultimate power source for the climate "machine". The uneven distribution conditions. Typical variables to consider are temperature (maximum, miniumum), precipitation (includes rain, sleet, snow, hail, etc), sunlight/cloudiness, wind, humidity, ice cover, sea temperature, etc... Many

Allan, Richard P.

42

Variability in surface ozone background over the United States: Implications for air quality policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Variability in surface ozone background over the United States: Implications for air quality policy background over the United States: Implications for air quality policy, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D24), 4787, doi Agency (EPA) accounts for a background O3 level above which risk to human health is assessed. Since

Liu, Hongyu

43

Control of surface gravity waves by variable fluid injection in a model of a copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control of surface gravity waves by variable fluid injection in a model of a copper converter splashing appears in copper converters when air is injected into the molten matte in order to carry out to the opposite extreme to where the nozzle injection is placed. Key words: Copper converter, gravity waves

Osses, Axel

44

ARM: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

Hodges, Gary; Stoffel, Tom; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Kay, Bev; Habte, Aron; Ritsche, Michael; Morris, Victor; Anderberg, Mary

45

SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

A software framework for developing measurement applications under variable requirements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A framework for easily developing software for measurement and test applications under highly and fast-varying requirements is proposed. The framework allows the software quality in terms of flexibility usability and maintainability to be maximized. Furthermore the development effort is reduced and finalized by relieving the test engineer of development details. The framework can be configured for satisfying a large set of measurement applications in a generic field for an industrial test division a test laboratory or a research center. As an experimental case study the design the implementation and the assessment inside the application to a measurement scenario of magnettesting at the European Organization for Nuclear Research is reported.

Pasquale Arpaia; Marco Buzio; Lucio Fiscarelli; Vitaliano Inglese

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Global Surface Temperature Measurement for Hypersonic Flight Vehicles.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation describes the use of permanent-change thermal paints as a technique for global surface temperature measurements on short-duration hypersonic flight vehicles. The thermal paints… (more)

Choudhury, Rishabh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Goniometric measurement of power scattered from wind driven water surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A recently constructed 11?ft 3?axis semiautomatic underwater goniometer has made possible precision measurement of acoustic power scattered from the statistically stationary wind driven water surface at Yale. Measurements have been made over 180° of azimuth and at several grazing angles. These measurements have been corrected for beam patterns and pulse shape to give a scattering cross section for the surfaces and geometries studied. The results of these measurements indicate that current mathematical models of the scattering process are not able to predict spatial distribution of scattered power in all cases.

J. G. Zornig

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Experience in Measuring Backbone Traffic Variability: Models, Metrics, Measurements and Meaning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was specifically motivated by the question: to what extent does traffic variability justify the M. Roughen, A

Fisher, Kathleen

50

Experimental Verification of a Mass Measurement Device under Zero Gravity with a Prismatic Variable Stiffness Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new method to measure the mass of an object in microgravity is proposed in this paper. The proposed method uses a new system that consists of a prismatic variable stiffness mechanism and an actuator. The obj...

Ryota Ishibashi; Ryuta Ozawa; Sadao Kawamura

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

A comparison of several surface finish measurement methods as applied to ground ceramic and metal surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface finish is one of the most common measures of surface quality of ground ceramics and metal parts and a wide variety of methods and parameters have been developed to measure it. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the surface roughness parameters obtained on the same two specimens from three different types of measuring instruments: a traditional mechanical stylus system, a non-contact laser scanning system, and the atomic force microscope (two different AFM systems were compared). The same surface-ground silicon nitride and Inconel 625 alloy specimens were used for all measurements in this investigation. Significant differences in arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square roughness, and peak-to-valley roughness were obtained when comparing data from the various topography measuring instruments. Non-contact methods agreed better with the others on the metal specimen than on the ceramic specimen. Reasons for these differences include the effective dimensions and geometry of the probe with respect to the surface topography; the reflectivity of the surface, and the type of filtering scheme Results of this investigation emphasize the importance of rigorously specifying the manner of surface roughness measurement when either reporting roughness data or when requesting that roughness data be provided.

Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Riester, L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

EPR-Steering measure for two-mode continuous variable states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steering is a manifestation of quantum correlations that embodies the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. While there have been recent attempts to quantify steering, continuous variable systems remained elusive. We introduce a steering measure for two-mode continuous variable systems that is valid for arbitrary states. The measure is based on the violation of an optimized variance test for the EPR paradox, and admits a computable and experimentally friendly lower bound only depending on the second moments of the state, which reduces to a recently proposed quantifier of steerability by Gaussian measurements. We further show that Gaussian states are extremal with respect to our measure, minimizing it among all continuous variable states with fixed second moments. As a byproduct of our analysis, we generalize and relate well-known EPR-steering criteria. Finally an operational interpretation is provided, as the proposed measure is shown to quantify the optimal guaranteed key rate in semi-device independent qua...

Kogias, Ioannis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

EPR-Steering measure for two-mode continuous variable states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steering is a manifestation of quantum correlations that embodies the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. While there have been recent attempts to quantify steering, continuous variable systems remained elusive. We introduce a steering measure for two-mode continuous variable systems that is valid for arbitrary states. The measure is based on the violation of an optimized variance test for the EPR paradox, and admits a computable and experimentally friendly lower bound only depending on the second moments of the state, which reduces to a recently proposed quantifier of steerability by Gaussian measurements. We further show that Gaussian states are extremal with respect to our measure, minimizing it among all continuous variable states with fixed second moments. As a byproduct of our analysis, we generalize and relate well-known EPR-steering criteria. Finally an operational interpretation is provided, as the proposed measure is shown to quantify the optimal guaranteed key rate in semi-device independent quantum key distribution.

Ioannis Kogias; Gerardo Adesso

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

54

Surface pressure measurements for CFD code validation in hypersonic flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive surface pressure measurements were obtained on a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. All of the experimental results were obtained in the Sandia National Laboratories Mach 8 hypersonic wind tunnel for laminar boundary layer conditions. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted 10{degrees} half-angle cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. The bluntness ratio of the geometry is 10% and the slice begins at 70% of the length of the vehicle. Surface pressure measurements were obtained for angles of attack from {minus}10 to + 18{degrees}, for various roll angles, at 96 locations on the body surface. A new and innovative uncertainty analysis was devised to estimate the contributors to surface pressure measurement uncertainty. Quantitative estimates were computed for the uncertainty contributions due to the complete instrumentation system, nonuniformity of flow in the test section of the wind tunnel, and variations in the wind tunnel model. This extensive set of high-quality surface pressure measurements is recommended for use in the calibration and validation of computational fluid dynamics codes for hypersonic flow conditions.

Oberkampf, W.L.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Henfling, J.F.; Larson, D.E.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Application of surface energy measurements to evaluate moisture susceptibility of asphalt and aggregates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is assessed using surface energy measurements and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Surface energy is defined as the energy needed to create a new unit surface area of material in vacuum condition. Surface energy measurements are used to compute the adhesive...

Zollinger, Corey James

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

56

Front surface thermal property measurements of air plasma spray coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A front-surface measurement for determining the thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings has been applied to air plasma spray coatings. The measurement is used to determine all independent thermal properties of the coating simultaneously. Furthermore, with minimal requirements placed on the sample and zero sample preparation, measurements can be made under previously impossible conditions, such as on serviceable engine parts. Previous application of this technique was limited to relatively thin coatings, where a one-dimensional heat transfer model is applied. In this paper, the influence of heat spreading on the measurement of thicker coatings is investigated with the development of a two-dimensional heat transfer model.

Bennett, Ted; Kakuda, Tyler [University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5070 (United States); Kulkarni, Anand [Siemens Energy, Orlando, Florida 32826-2399 (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability and Associated Physical Controls of Near-Surface Soil Moisture in Different Hydro-Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-surface soil moisture is a key state variable of the hydrologic cycle and plays a significant role in the global water and energy balance by affecting several hydrological, ecological, meteorological, geomorphologic, and other natural processes...

Joshi, Champa

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

58

Response of tropical sea surface temperature, precipitation, and tropical cyclone-related variables to changes in global and local forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A single-column model is used to estimate the equilibrium response of sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation, and several variables related to tropical cyclone (TC) activity to changes in both local and global forcing. ...

Sobel, Adam

59

Sea Surface Temperature Variability at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Pier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sea surface temperature (SST) has been measured from near the end of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) pier daily since 1916. It is one of the world’s longest instrumental time series of SST. It is widely used in studies of climate and ...

David M. Checkley Jr.; Martin Lindegren

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Surface photovoltage measurements and finite element modeling of SAW devices.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the course of a Summer 2011 internship with the MEMS department of Sandia National Laboratories, work was completed on two major projects. The first and main project of the summer involved taking surface photovoltage measurements for silicon samples, and using these measurements to determine surface recombination velocities and minority carrier diffusion lengths of the materials. The SPV method was used to fill gaps in the knowledge of material parameters that had not been determined successfully by other characterization methods. The second project involved creating a 2D finite element model of a surface acoustic wave device. A basic form of the model with the expected impedance response curve was completed, and the model is ready to be further developed for analysis of MEMS photonic resonator devices.

Donnelly, Christine

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Vibration Analysis of Wiresaw Manufacturing Processes and Wafer Surface Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vibration Analysis of Wiresaw Manufacturing Processes and Wafer Surface Measurements I. Kao (PI), S the yield per crystal and to reduce the cost. In this paper, the vibration model of wiresaw system of vibration indicate the interference of excitation and natural frequencies in the vibration patterns

Kao, Imin

62

Surface Temperatures of Insulated Glazing Units: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T. Griffith ASHRAE Member, Howdy Goudey, and Dariush Arasteh P.E. ASHRAE Member Building Technologies Program Environment Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley CA 94720 USA August 2, 2001 This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs, Office of Building Systems of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. Surface Temperatures of Window Specimens: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith 1 , Howdy Goudey, and Dariush Arasteh

63

Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

64

System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

Vargo, G.F.

1996-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

65

ECG-Derived Respiration: Comparison and New Measures for Respiratory Variability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ECG-Derived Respiration: Comparison and New Measures for Respiratory Variability Devy Widjaja1 During ECG recording, several methods can be applied to derive a respiratory signal from the ECG (EDR signal). In this paper 4 EDR methods, including ECG filtering, R and RS amplitude based techniques

66

3 Canopy microclimate measurement This chapter presents methods general to the measurement of climate variables at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to maximize data capture and improve signal quality assessment. Duplicate measurements were usually recorded.1. For measurements that did not vary spatially (e.g. incoming solar radiation on a clear day), a single measurement-2 s-1 72 24 Air temperature 0.243 1.5 °C 2 3 Net Radiation 5.174 12 W m-2 14 3 Global short-wave 1

67

Multiple Time Scales in Diffraction Measurements of Diffusive Surface Relaxation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We grew SrTiO3 on SrTiO3(001) by pulsed laser deposition, using x-ray scattering to monitor the growth in real time. The time-resolved small-angle scattering exhibits a well-defined length scale associated with the spacing between unit-cell high surface features. This length scale imposes a discrete spectrum of Fourier components and rate constants upon the diffusion equation solution, evident in multiple exponential relaxation of the “anti-Bragg” diffracted intensity. An Arrhenius analysis of measured rate constants confirms that they originate from a single activation energy.

Aaron Fleet; Darren Dale; A. R. Woll; Y. Suzuki; J. D. Brock

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

68

1980–2010 Variability in U.K. Surface Wind Climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The climate of the northeast Atlantic region comprises substantial decadal variability in storminess. It also exhibits strong inter- and intra-annual variability in extreme high and low wind speed episodes. Here the authors quantify and discuss ...

Nick Earl; Steve Dorling; Richard Hewston; Roland von Glasow

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Surface contact potential patches and Casimir force measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present calculations of contact potential surface patch effects that simplify previous treatments. It is shown that, because of the linearity of Laplace's equation, the presence of patch potentials does not affect an electrostatic calibration of a two-plate Casimir measurement apparatus. Using models that include long-range variations in the contact potential across the plate surfaces, a number of experimental observations can be reproduced and explained. For these models, numerical calculations show that if a voltage is applied between the plates which minimizes the force, a residual electrostatic force persists, and that the minimizing potential varies with distance. The residual force can be described by a fit to a simple two-parameter function involving the minimizing potential and its variation with distance. We show the origin of this residual force by use of a simple parallel capacitor model. Finally, the implications of a residual force that varies in a manner different from 1/d on the accuracy of previous Casimir measurements is discussed.

Kim, W. J.; Sushkov, A. O.; Lamoreaux, S. K. [Yale University, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8120 (United States); Dalvit, D. A. R. [Theoretical Division MS B213, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Measurement of Surface Energy Fluxes from Two Rangeland Sites and Comparison with a Multilayer Canopy Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rangelands are often characterized by a patchy mosaic of vegetation types, making measurement and modeling of surface energy fluxes particularly challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate surface energy fluxes measured using three eddy ...

Gerald N. Flerchinger; Michele L. Reba; Danny Marks

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

SOLAR CYCLE VARIABILITY AND SURFACE DIFFERENTIAL ROTATION FROM Ca II K-LINE TIME SERIES DATA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis of over 36 yr of time series data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program elucidates 5 components of the variation of the 7 measured chromospheric parameters: (a) the solar cycle (period {approx} 11 yr), (b) quasi-periodic variations (periods {approx} 100 days), (c) a broadband stochastic process (wide range of periods), (d) rotational modulation, and (e) random observational errors, independent of (a)-(d). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these parameters. Time-frequency analysis illuminates periodic and quasi-periodic signals, details of frequency modulation due to differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the rather complex harmonic structure (a) and (b) at timescales in the range {approx}0.1-10 yr. These results using only full-disk data suggest that similar analyses will be useful for detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light curves such as those being produced by NASA's Kepler observatory. Component (c) consists of variations over a range of timescales, in the manner of a 1/f random process with a power-law slope index that varies in a systematic way. A time-dependent Wilson-Bappu effect appears to be present in the solar cycle variations (a), but not in the more rapid variations of the stochastic process (c). Component (d) characterizes differential rotation of the active regions. Component (e) is of course not characteristic of solar variability, but the fact that the observational errors are quite small greatly facilitates the analysis of the other components. The data analyzed in this paper can be found at the National Solar Observatory Web site http://nsosp.nso.edu/cak{sub m}on/, or by file transfer protocol at ftp://ftp.nso.edu/idl/cak.parameters.

Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Worden, Simon P. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 (United States); Keil, Stephen L. [National Solar Observatory, P.O. Box 57, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

CLUMPING AND THE INTERPRETATION OF kpc-SCALE MAPS OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: SMOOTH H I AND CLUMPY, VARIABLE H{sub 2} SURFACE DENSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many recent models consider the structure of individual interstellar medium (ISM) clouds as a way to explain observations of large parts of galaxies. To compare such models to observations, one must understand how to translate between surface densities observed averaging over large ({approx}kpc) scales and surface densities on the scale of individual clouds ({approx}pc scale), which are treated by models. We define a ''clumping factor'' that captures this translation as the ratio of the mass-weighted surface density, which is often the quantity of physical interest, to the area-weighted surface density, which is observed. We use high spatial resolution (sub-kpc) maps of CO and H I emission from nearby galaxies to measure the clumping factor of both atomic and molecular gas. The molecular and atomic ISM exhibit dramatically different degrees of clumping. As a result, the ratio H{sub 2}/H I measured at {approx}kpc resolution cannot be trivially interpreted as a cloud-scale ratio of surface densities. H I emission appears very smooth, with a clumping factor of only {approx}1.3. Based on the scarce and heterogeneous high-resolution data available, CO emission is far more clumped with a widely variable clumping factor, median {approx}7 for our heterogeneous data. Our measurements do not provide evidence for a universal mass-weighted surface density of molecular gas, but also cannot conclusively rule out such a scenario. We suggest that a more sophisticated treatment of molecular ISM structure, one informed by high spatial resolution CO maps, is needed to link cloud-scale models to kpc-scale observations of galaxies.

Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observtory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Lee, Cheoljong [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Schruba, Andreas [California Institute for Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bolatto, Alberto [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Hughes, Annie; Sandstrom, Karin; Schinnerer, Eva; Walter, Fabian [Max Planck Institute fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pety, Jerome [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d'Heres (France)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

73

Abstract--Heart rate variability (HRV) is frequently used to measure autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. However,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 of 4 Abstract--Heart rate variability (HRV) is frequently used to measure autonomic nervous frequency (HF) ratio with little change in mean heart rate. Results suggest that nicotine affects both components may yield erroneous results. Keywords--Autonomic regulation, heart rate variability, Lomb

74

Centennial-Scale Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity Variability in the Florida Straits During the Early Holocene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

variability in the Florida Straits. Here, we combine Mg/Ca-paleothermometry and stable oxygen isotope measurements on the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white variety) from Florida Straits sediment core KNR166-2 JPC 51 (24 degrees 24.70? N, 83...

Weinlein, William

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

75

Surface excess properties from energy transport measurements during water evaporation Fei Duan and C. A. Ward*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface excess properties from energy transport measurements during water evaporation Fei Duan condi- tions, accounts for as little as 50% of the energy required to evaporate water at the measured moles per unit surface area , surface in- ternal energy uLV excess energy per excess mole , and spe

Ward, Charles A.

76

Relationships between Pacific and Atlantic ocean sea surface temperatures and U.S. streamflow variability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relationships between Pacific and Atlantic ocean sea surface temperatures and U.S. streamflow March 2006; published 19 July 2006. [1] An evaluation of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean sea surface by an interdecadal-temporal evaluation for the Pacific (Atlantic) Ocean based on the phase of the Pacific Decadal

Piechota, Thomas C.

77

Intraseasonal variability in sea surface height over the South Wei Zhuang,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Zhuang, W., S.P. Xie, D. Wang, B. Taguchi, H. Aiki, and H. Sasaki (2010), Intraseasonal variability through baroclinic Rossby waves [Z. Liu et al., 2001; Gan et al., 2006]. In the NSCS, the circulation Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) [Xie et al., 2003; Liu et al., 2004; Wu and Chang, 2005; Fang et

Xie, Shang-Ping

78

MOISTURE AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To ensure safe storage, plutonium-bearing oxides are stabilized at 950 C for at least two hours in an oxidizing atmosphere. Stabilization conditions are expected to decompose organic impurities, convert metals to oxides, and result in moisture content below 0.5 wt%. During stabilization, the specific surface area is reduced, which minimizes readsorption of water onto the oxide surface. Plutonium oxides stabilized according to these criteria were sampled and analyzed to determine moisture content and surface area. In addition, samples were leached in water to identify water-soluble chloride impurity content. Results of these analyses for seven samples showed that the stabilization process produced low moisture materials (< 0.2 wt %) with low surface area ({le} 1 m{sup 2}/g). For relatively pure materials, the amount of water per unit surface area corresponded to 1.5 to 3.5 molecular layers of water. For materials with chloride content > 360 ppm, the calculated amount of water per unit surface area increased with chloride content, indicating hydration of hygroscopic salts present in the impure PuO{sub 2}-containing materials. The low moisture, low surface area materials in this study did not generate detectable hydrogen during storage of four or more years.

Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Scogin, J.; Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

79

Development of a surface conductivity measurement system for ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface conductivity measurement system using a micro-four-point probe (M4PP) had been developed for the ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscope (UHV-TEM). Since the current distribution in the sample crystals during the current voltage measurement by the M4PP is localized within the depth of several micrometers from the surface, the system is sensitive to the surface conductivity, which is related with the surface superstructure. It was installed in the main chamber of the TEM and the surface conductivity can be measured in situ. The surface structures were observed by reflection electron microscopy and diffraction (REM-RHEED). REM-RHEED enables us to observe the surface superstructures and their structure defects such as surface atomic steps and domain boundaries of the surface superstructure. Thus the effects of the defects on the surface conductivity can be investigated. In the present paper we present the surface conductivity measurement system and its application to the Si(111)-{radical}(3)x{radical}(3)-Ag surface prepared on the Si(111) vicinal surfaces. The result clearly showed that the surface conductivity was affected by step configuration.

Minoda, H. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Hatano, K.; Yazawa, H. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Sample mounting and transfer for coupling an ultrahigh vacuum variable temperature beetle scanning tunneling microscope with conventional surface probes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber for surface analysis and microscopy at controlled, variable temperatures. The new instrument allows surface analysis with Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, quadrupole mass spectrometer, argon ion sputtering gun, and a variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope (VT-STM). In this system, we introduce a novel procedure for transferring a sample off a conventional UHV manipulator and onto a scanning tunneling microscope in the conventional ''beetle'' geometry, without disconnecting the heating or thermocouple wires. The microscope, a modified version of the Besocke beetle microscope, is mounted on a 2.75 in. outer diameter UHV flange and is directly attached to the base of the chamber. The sample is attached to a tripod sample holder that is held by the main manipulator. Under UHV conditions the tripod sample holder can be removed from the main manipulator and placed onto the STM. The VT-STM has the capability of acquiring images between the temperature range of 180--500 K. The performance of the chamber is demonstrated here by producing an ordered array of island vacancy defects on a Pt(111) surface and obtaining STM images of these defects.

Nafisi, Kourosh; Ranau, Werner; Hemminger, John C.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Comparison of instruments for measuring step heights and surface profiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Data for step heights and surface profiles obtained using two commercially available instruments are compared. It is shown that step height data obtained with the Dektak IIA are good...

Bennett, Jean M

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

NASA’s Space Lidar Measurements of Earth and Planetary Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This presentation will give an overview of history, ongoing work, and plans for using space lidar for measurements of planetary surfaces.

Abshire, James B

83

Measurement accuracy verification of aspheric surface test with computer-generated hologram  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A convex aspheric surface using a computer-generated hologram (CGH) test plate fabricated with novel techniques and equipment is tested. However, the measurement result is not...

Liu, Hua

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

A new measure of acceleration of heart rate: dependence on age and comparison with time domain conventional heart rate variability measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new measure of acceleration of heart rate: dependence on age and comparison with time domain conventional heart rate variability measures Giuseppe Germanò, M.D., Gianfranco Piccirillo, M.D., *Camillo We introduce a new index, Acceleration Ratio (AR), in order to investigate the dependence of Heart

Cammarota, Camillo

85

Systems and Methods for Integrated Emissivity and Temperature Measurement of a Surface  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

Poulsen, Peter

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

86

Laboratory Scale Seismic Analysis of a Spatially Variable Hydrological Surface in Unconfined, Unconsolidated Sand.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The ability to measure the depth to the water table can provide information such as reservoir characteristics, soil conditions for agriculture, and actions to be… (more)

Smolkin, David E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Laser surface-contouring and spline data-smoothing for residual stress measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe non-contact scanning with a confocal laser probe to measure surface contours for application to residual stress measurement. (In the recently introduced contour method, a part is cut in two with a ...

M. B. Prime; R. J. Sebring; J. M. Edwards; D. J. Hughes…

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Measurement of Semiconductor Surface Potential using the Scanning Electron Microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We calibrate the secondary electron signal from a standard scanning electron microscope to voltage, yielding an image of the surface or near-surface potential. Data on both atomically abrupt heterojunction GaInP/GaAs and diffused homojunction Si solar cell devices clearly show the expected variation in potential with position and applied bias, giving depletion widths and locating metallurgical junctions to an accuracy better than 10 nm. In some images, distortion near the p-n junction is observed, seemingly consistent with the effects of lateral electric fields (patch fields). Reducing the tube bias removes this distortion. This approach results in rapid and straightforward collection of near-surface potential data using a standard scanning electron microscope.

Heath, J. T.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

Measurement of surface tension and viscosity by open capillary techniques  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An open-channel capillary is provided, having preferably a v-shaped groove in a flat wettable surface. The groove has timing marks and a source marker in which the specimen to be tested is deposited. The time of passage between the timing marks is recorded, and the ratio of surface tension .gamma. to viscosity .mu. is determined from the equation given below: ##EQU1## where h.sub.0 is the groove depth, .alpha. is the groove angle, .theta. is the liquid/solid contact angle, and t is the flow time. It has been shown by the

Rye,Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM), Yost,Frederick G. (Cedar Crest, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Sensitivity of Global Tropical Climate to Land Surface Processes: Mean State and Interannual Variability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be made in a system that allows for atmosphere­ocean interactions. 1. Introduction Future projections influence on the surface energy and water budgets. The sensitivity to those processes is represented in the intensity of equatorial Pacific trades modified by convection over land. The results further demonstrate

Xue, Yongkang

91

Scales of temporal and spatial variability of midlatitude land surface temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high spatial resolution infrared satellite observation of LST is possible only during clearsky weather for developing a new approach to assimilation of satellite observed clearsky LST into weather analysis evaluated using data from satellite and land surface observations. We consider separately the timedependent

Vinnikov, Konstantin

92

Simultaneous Retreival of Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate using Radar and Radiometer Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to simultaneously retrieve the vertical profile of precipitation and the near-surface wind speed. ResultsSimultaneous Retreival of Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate using Radar and Radiometer Measurements simultaneously estimates the over ocean near-surface wind speed and rain rate profile using data from a 10.7 GHz

Ruf, Christopher

93

Ris-R-1074(EN) Surface Activity Distribution Measure-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inside the Destroyed Chernobyl Re- actor A.V. Chesnokov, V.I. Fedin, A.A. Gulyaev, V.N. Potapov, S designed for contamination survey inside the re- actor hall of the 4th unit of Chernobyl NNP has been of the Detectors 15 3.3 Test Measurements Inside the Chernobyl Reactor Unit 4 17 4 Measurements Inside the Reactor

94

Sensitivity of global tropical climate to land surface processes: Mean state and interannual variability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines the sensitivity of global tropical climate to land surface processes (LSP) using an atmospheric general circulation model both uncoupled (with prescribed SSTs) and coupled to an oceanic general circulation model. The emphasis is on the interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes, which have first order influence on the surface energy and water budgets. The sensitivity to those processes is represented by the differences between model simulations, in which two land surface schemes are considered: 1) a simple land scheme that specifies surface albedo and soil moisture availability, and 2) the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model (SSiB), which allows for consideration of interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical process. Observational datasets are also employed to assess the reality of model-revealed sensitivity. The mean state sensitivity to different LSP is stronger in the coupled mode, especially in the tropical Pacific. Furthermore, seasonal cycle of SSTs in the equatorial Pacific, as well as ENSO frequency, amplitude, and locking to the seasonal cycle of SSTs are significantly modified and more realistic with SSiB. This outstanding sensitivity of the atmosphere-ocean system develops through changes in the intensity of equatorial Pacific trades modified by convection over land. Our results further demonstrate that the direct impact of land-atmosphere interactions on the tropical climate is modified by feedbacks associated with perturbed oceanic conditions ("indirect effect" of LSP). The magnitude of such indirect effect is strong enough to suggest that comprehensive studies on the importance of LSP on the global climate have to be made in a system that allows for atmosphere-ocean interactions.

Ma, Hsi-Yen; Xiao, Heng; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Seasonally Resolved Surface Water (delta)14C Variability in the Lombok Strait: A Coralline Perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have explored surface water mixing in the Lombok Strait through a {approx}bimonthly resolved surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C time-series reconstructed from a coral in the Lombok Strait that spans 1937 through 1990. The prebomb surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C average is -60.5{per_thousand} and individual samples range from -72{per_thousand} to 134{per_thousand}. The annual average post-bomb maximum occurs in 1973 and is 122{per_thousand}. The timing of the post-bomb maximum is consistent with a primary subtropical source for the surface waters in the Indonesian Seas. During the post-bomb period the coral records regular seasonal cycles of 5-20{per_thousand}. Seasonal high {Delta}{sup 14}C occur during March-May (warm, low salinity), and low {Delta}{sup 14}C occur in September (cool, higher salinity). The {Delta}{sup 14}C seasonality is coherent and in phase with the seasonal {Delta}{sup 14}C cycle observed in Makassar Strait. We estimate the influence of high {Delta}{sup 14}C Makassar Strait (North Pacific) water flowing through the Lombok Strait using a two endmember mixing model and the seasonal extremes observed at the two sites. The percentage of Makassar Strait water varies between 16 and 70%, and between 1955 and 1990 it averages 40%. During La Nina events there is a higher percentage of Makassar Strait (high {Delta}{sup 14}C) water in the Lombok Strait.

Guilderson, T P; Fallon, S J; Moore, M D; Schrag, D P; Charles, C D

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

96

THE DE GIORGI MEASURE AND AN OBSTACLE PROBLEM RELATED TO MINIMAL SURFACES IN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE DE GIORGI MEASURE AND AN OBSTACLE PROBLEM RELATED TO MINIMAL SURFACES IN METRIC SPACES JUHA of a set with minimal perime- ter that separates two disjoint sets in a metric measure space equipped with a doubling measure and supporting a Poincar´e in- equality. A measure constructed by De Giorgi is used

Kinnunen, Juha

97

Towards an extension of 1905 relativistic dynamics with a variable rest mass measuring potential energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From a rigorous historic analysis of 1686 I. Newton and 1905 A. Einstein works where the last derived the universal mass-energy relationship, it is concluded that rest mass measures potential energy. From the same formula used to obtain that relation, it is derived the ratio Total Energy/Potential Energy is equal to the gamma relativistic factor. It is derived a formula for the variation of a body rest mass with its position in a gravity field, explaining with it the behavior of an atomic clock. It is revised the bodies free fall in a gravitational field, finding that a constant total mass is equal to the gravitational mass, while the variable rest mass is equal to the inertial mass, maintaining all an identical behavior independent of their masses. A revision of the E\\"otv\\"os experiment concludes that it is unable to detect the found difference between inertial and gravitational mass. Applying the extended 1905 relativistic dynamics to Mercury, its perihelion shift is determined; it is concluded with the convenience to continue its development, what can imply a revision of Physics since 1905 with important results in the unification of natural forces and other open problems.

Rafael A. Valls Hidalgo-Gato

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Free and forced tropical variability: role of the wind-evaporation-sea surface temperature (WES) feedback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11 3 Spatial distribution of the ocean mixed layer depth used in the Slab Ocean Model. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 22 4 Annual mean (a) SST (contour interval: 2 K) and (b) latent heat ux (contour interval: 40 W/m2...) as simulated in CCM3-SOM. : : : : 27 5 Annual mean (a) surface winds and (b) convective precipitation (contour interval: 2 mm/day) as simulated in CCM3-SOM. : : : : : : 28 6 Di erence in annual mean (a) SST (contour interval: 0.2 K): WES-o -SOM - CCM3-SOM...

Mahajan, Salil

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Greenland ice sheet surface mass-balance variability: 19912003 Byrd Polar Research Center, The Ohio State University, 1090 Carmack Road, Columbus, OH 43210-1002, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenland ice sheet surface mass-balance variability: 1991­2003 J.E. BOX Byrd Polar Research Center. There is little evidence for a total ice-sheet surface mass-balance trend, although the meltwater runoff has a positive trend and, combined with iceberg discharge and basal melting estimates, suggests the ice sheet

Box, Jason E.

100

Advances in surface magnetic field measurement technique for detection and sizing of surface-breaking cracks in offshore structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In detecting and sizing cracks in metal structures, the two common techniques of eddy-current and potential-drop, suffer from a number of problems which may not be acceptable in offshore environments. This paper describes recent advances in the surface magnetic field measurement (SMFM) technique as an alternative method for integrity evaluation of offshore metal structures.

Mirshekar-Syahkal, D. [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom); Sadeghi, S.H.H. [Amirkabir Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Determining the effects of surface elasticity and surface stress by measuring the shifts of resonant frequencies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...186105 ) 25 Huang, DW . 2008 Size-dependent response of ultra-thin films with surface effects. Int. J. Solids Struct...vibrations. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing. 46 Ghatkesar, MK , V Barwich, T Braun, J Ramseyer, Ch Gerber, M Hegner, HP...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Assessing the Accuracy of Contact Angle Measurements for Sessile Drops on Liquid-Repellent Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravity-induced sagging can amplify variations in goniometric measurements of the contact angles of sessile drops on super-liquid-repellent surfaces. The very large value of the effective contact angle leads to increased ...

Srinivasan, Siddarth

103

Examination of the Surface Energy Budget: A Comparison of Eddy Correlation and Bowen Ratio Measurement Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A reliable method for monitoring the surface energy budget is critical to the development and validation of numerical models and remote sensing algorithms. Unfortunately, closure of the energy budget remains difficult to achieve among measurement ...

Jerald A. Brotzge; Kenneth C. Crawford

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Damage measurements on the NWTC direct-drive, variable-speed test bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The NWTC (National Wind Technology Center) Variable-Speed Test Bed turbine is a three-bladed, 10-meter, downwind machine that can be run in either fixed-speed or variable-speed mode. In the variable-speed mode, the generator torque is regulated, using a discrete-stepped load bank to maximize the turbine`s power coefficient. At rated power, a second control loop that uses blade pitch to maintain rotor speed essentially as before, i.e., using the load bank to maintain either generator power or (optionally) generator torque. In this paper, the authors will use this turbine to study the effect of variable-speed operation on blade damage. Using time-series data obtained from blade flap and edge strain gauges, the load spectrum for the turbine is developed using rainflow counting techniques. Miner`s rule is then used to determine the damage rates for variable-speed and fixed-speed operation. The results illustrate that the controller algorithm used with this turbine introduces relatively large load cycles into the blade that significantly reduce its service lifetime, while power production is only marginally increased.

Sutherland, H.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlin, P.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Long range constant force profiling for measurement of engineering surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new instrument bridging the gap between atomic force microscopes (AFMs) and stylus profiling instruments is described. The constant force profiler is capable of subnanometer resolution over a 15??m vertical range with a horizontal traverse length of 50 mm. This long traverse length coupled with the possibilities of utilizing standard radius diamondmeasurement styli make the force profiler more compatible with existing profiling instrument standards. The forces between the specimen and a diamond stylus tipped cantilever spring are sensed as displacements using a capacitance bridge. This displacement signal is then fed through a proportional plus integral controller to a high stability piezoelectric actuator to maintain a constant tip?to?sample force of approximately 100 nN. Much of the sensor head and traverse mechanism is made of Zerodur glass?ceramic to provide the thermal stability needed for long travel measurements. Profiles of a 30?nm silica step height standard and an 8.5??m step etched on Zerodur are presented.

L. P. Howard; S. T. Smith

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Method and apparatus for monitoring and measuring the surface tension of a fluid using fiber optics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-contact method and apparatus are described for measuring and monitoring the surface of a fluid using fiber optics and interferometric detection to permit measurement of mechanical characteristics of fluid surfaces. The apparatus employs an alternating electric field gradient for generating a capillary wave on the surface of the fluid. A fiber optic coupler and optical fiber directs a portion of a laser beam onto the surface of the fluid, another portion of the laser beam onto the photo sensor, and directs light reflected from the surface of the fluid onto the photo sensor. The output of the photo sensor is processed and coupled to a phase sensitive detector to permit measurement of phase shift between the drive signal creating the capillary wave and the detected signal. This phase shift information is then used to determine mechanical properties of the fluid surface such as surface tension, surface elasticity, and surface inhomogeneity. The resulting test structure is easily made compact, portable, and easy to align and use. 4 figures.

Abraham, B.M.; Ketterson, J.B.; Bohanon, T.M.; Mikrut, J.M.

1994-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

107

Measuring the period of the delta Scuti variable U1425-01208594 in Cassiopeia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The variability of U1425-01208594 was recently discovered by Schmidtobreick et al, who suggested that it is a member of the delta Scuti family of pulsating stars. Photometry conducted by the authors revealed a period of 0.06695(8) d and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.014 mag.

Jeremy Shears; David Boyd; Steve Brady; Ian Miller; Roger Pickard

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

108

A KNOWLEDGE BASED FRAMEWORK FOR THE DETECTION OF MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTIES IN DERIVED SEA SURFACE CURRENT FIELDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A KNOWLEDGE BASED FRAMEWORK FOR THE DETECTION OF MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTIES IN DERIVED SEA SURFACE University of Technology, STS Institute, Hamburg, Germany 3 University of Hamburg, Centre for Marine with the currents to be measured. Optical flow due to other image features, e.g. ship wakes, does not correspond

Hamburg,.Universität

109

A noncontacting technique for measuring surface tension of liquids C. Cinbis and B. T. Khuri-Yakub  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A noncontacting technique for measuring surface tension of liquids C. Cinbis and B. T. Khuri is the surface tension which acts to minimize the surface area of the liquid. Therefore, capillary wavesin of capillary wavesin order to mea- sure in siiu the surface tension of liquids. Current tech- niques of surface

Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

110

Surface Wind Direction Variability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Common large shifts of wind direction in the weak-wind nocturnal boundary layer are poorly understood and are not adequately captured by numerical models and statistical parameterizations. The current study examines 15 datasets representing a ...

Larry Mahrt

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Mode-locking external-cavity laser-diode sensor for displacement measurements of technical surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel laser sensor for position measurements of technical solid-state surfaces is proposed. An external Fabry-Perot laser cavity is assembled by use of an antireflection-coated laser diode together with the technical surface. Mode locking results from pumping the laser diode synchronously to the mode spacing of the cavity. The laser cavity length, i.e., the distance to the measurement object, is determined by evaluation of the modulation transfer function of the cavity by means of a phase-locked loop. The mode-locking external-cavity laser sensor incorporates a resonance effect that results in highly resolving position and displacement measurements. More than a factor-of-10 higher resolution than with conventional nonresonant sensing principles is achieved. Results of the displacement measurements of various technical surfaces are reported. Experimental and theoretical investigations are in good agreement.

Czarske, Juergen; Moebius, Jasper; Moldenhauer, Karsten

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING (MANUSCRIPT TBME-00741-2012R1) 1 Spatial Variability of the 12-Lead Surface ECG as a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the 12-Lead Surface ECG as a Tool for Noninvasive Prediction of Catheter Ablation Outcome in Persistent electrocardiogram (ECG) have been analyzed in previous works to predict AF termination by CA, such as fibrillatory-invasive predictor of CA outcome is adopted by exploring ECG inter-lead spatial variability. An automatic procedure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Effects of surface voids on burning rate measurements of pulverized coal at diffusion-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research explores the effects of voids (pores on the particle surface that are deeper than their surface radius) on burning area at diffusion-limited combustion conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and digital processing of images of quenched particles were used to quantify surface void area, perimeter, and reacting void wall area for voids with diameters larger than 1 {micro}m. After careful analysis, the most accurate determination of particle burning area at diffusion-limited conditions was achieved by measuring particle surface area using the technique of discrete revolution, subtracting surface void area, and adding reacting void wall area. In situ measurements of reacting coal particle temperatures and images were taken for three coals and spherocarb particles at conditions that limit the formation of CO{sub 2} from reacting carbon under various oxygen concentrations and heating rates. The results of these experiments indicate that correcting the measured surface area for void area and reacting void wall area produces calculated burning rates closely matching diffusion-limited burning rates for all conditions and all coals investigated. These results suggest that void area effects should be included for accurate determination of burning area at diffusion-limited conditions.

Bayless, D.J.; Schroeder, A.R.; Peters, J.E.; Buckius, R.O. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Dose measurements behind reduced shielding at the Texas A&M University variable energy cyclotron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the relative count rates of the detectors after irradiation can be used to estimate the spectral dis- tribution of the neutron field, while the absolute activity of the detector is a measure of exposure (Ce69). This technique is useful in measuring neutron... be measured simultaneously in high flux areas in the vault and in low flux areas outside the reduced shielding. The detector normally utilized in the spherical remmeter is a lithium iodide, europium activated (LiI(Eu)) scintillation type thermal neutron...

Kay, Douglas Carey

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

115

Dimension Reduction with Gene Expression Data Using Targeted Variable Importance Measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and we refer to it as the TMLE-VIM procedure. 1. Obtain theResults: We propose a TMLE-VIM dimension reduction procedureimportance measurement (VIM) in the frame work of targeted

Wang, Hui; van der Laan, Mark J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Measurement of the orbital and superhump periods of the eclipsing cataclysmic variable SDSS J170213.26+322954.1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The orbital period of the eclipsing cataclysmic variable SDSS J170213.26+322954.1 has been measured as 0.10008215+/-0.00000001d using observations of eclipses during the first recorded superoutburst in October 2005 together with eclipses observed in quiescence in July 2003. This period puts the system in the centre of the period gap. Observation of superhumps during the October 2005 outburst with a period of 0.10496+/-0.00015d confirms this to be a UGSU-type system with a period excess of 4.9%.

David Boyd; Arto Oksanen; Arne Henden

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

The Variability of LateType Stars' Diameters Measured Using MidInfrared Interferometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a , D. D. S. Hale b , and C. H. Townes a a Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 b and a narrow bandpass appear to be optimum for penetrating the dust and gas and obtaining a representative description can be found in Hale et al. (2000). 2 Baselines up to 56 m were used to measure visibilities of ff

California at Berkeley, University of

118

Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

84 CEREAL CHEMISTRY Technique to Measure Surface-Fouling Tendencies of Steepwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- filtered light steepwater (FSW) from corn wet-milling were studied using an annular fouling probe% decrease in fouling rate using microfiltration to remove 19% of solids. In the corn wet-milling process84 CEREAL CHEMISTRY Technique to Measure Surface-Fouling Tendencies of Steepwater from Corn Wet

120

Preliminary Surface Pressure Measurements of Transitional, Hypersonic Shock Boundary Layer Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

96-4541 M P Re rms X (T Preliminary Surface Pressure Measurements of Transitional, Hypersonic Shock moves into the hypersonic realm. A critical aspect in designing an airbreathing hy- personic vehicle a number of recent investigations in un- derstanding hypersonic, laminar and turbulent, shock wave

Texas at Arlington, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Compound pendant drop tensiometry for surface tension measurement at zero Bond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is stationary, the net force acting on it must be zero. The net force is the sum of three forces: (iCompound pendant drop tensiometry for surface tension measurement at zero Bond number of the particle Fweight acting downwards. We now calculate each of these components separately, adopting

Chan, Derek Y C

122

Measurement of building foundation and ground-borne vibrations due to surface trains and subways  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Buildings located near surface trains and subways are subjected to surface train and subway-induced vibrations. Cutting edge technologies in laboratories and precision manufacturing facilities often include operation of vibration sensitive equipment. Human comfort in the form of feelable vibrations and audible noise in residential and office buildings is also a concern. It is thus imperative to reduce these vibrations inside buildings to acceptable levels with the design of an efficient vibration mitigation system. Incorporation of a vibration mitigation system in a building in design phase requires prior understanding and characterization of subway and surface train-induced base excitations of buildings before and after the construction of a structure to meet serviceability criteria. The vibrations measured at the foundation slab of buildings serve as the base excitation for the building and transmit to the to upper floor levels through columns. The focus of this paper is to quantify the amplitudes and frequency contents of vibration level measured at foundation slab and compare these vibration measurements inside the building at foundation level with the open field measurements. In this context, an exploration of ground-borne vibration characteristics was performed at six sites in the Boston area. Three sites were selected for measuring train-induced vibration and another three were considered for subway-induced vibration study. Vibration measurements were performed on the building foundation slab as well as in open fields adjacent to the building. These vibration measurements were quantified and compared. It was found that in the case of surface train-induced building vibrations, open field vibration levels can be conservatively used in the design of buildings. However due to inconsistency in observations, a similar conclusion was not drawn for the case of subway-induced building vibration. This paper also provides the bases that would allow the designer to estimate the vibration levels in sensitive locations within the building. These estimated levels determine the extent to which mitigation is required to meet vibration criteria.

Masoud Sanayei; Pradeep Maurya; James A. Moore

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Kinematic measures and stroke rate variability in elite female 200-m swimmers in the four swimming techniques: Athens 2004 Olympic semi-finalists and French National  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Kinematic measures and stroke rate variability in elite female 200-m swimmers in the four of this work was to study stroke rate variability in elite female swimmers (200-m events, all four techniques semi-finalists (group N, n=64). Since swimming speed (V) is the product of stroke rate (SR) and stroke

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

Radiative transfer effects on Doppler measurements as sources of surface effects in sunspot seismology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the use of Doppler shifts of Zeeman sensitive spectral lines to observe wavesn in sunspots is subject to measurement specific phase shifts arising from, (i) altered height range of spectral line formation and the propagating character of p mode waves in penumbrae, and (ii) Zeeman broadening and splitting. We also show that these phase shifts depend on wave frequencies, strengths and line of sight inclination of magnetic field, and the polarization state used for Doppler measurements. We discuss how these phase shifts could contribute to local helioseismic measurements of 'surface effects' in sunspot seismology.

S. P. Rajaguru; K. Sankarasubramanian; R. Wachter; P. H. Scherrer

2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

125

Method And Apparatus For Two Dimensional Surface Property Analysis Based On Boundary Measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for determining properties of a conductive film is disclosed. A plurality of probe locations selected around a periphery of the conductive film define a plurality of measurement lines between each probe location and all other probe locations. Electrical resistance may be measured along each of the measurement lines. A lumped parameter model may be developed based on the measured values of electrical resistance. The lumped parameter model may be used to estimate resistivity at one or more selected locations encompassed by the plurality of probe locations. The resistivity may be extrapolated to other physical properties if the conductive film includes a correlation between resistivity and the other physical properties. A profile of the conductive film may be developed by determining resistivity at a plurality of locations. The conductive film may be applied to a structure such that resistivity may be estimated and profiled for the structure's surface.

Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Ion-trap measurements of electric-field noise near surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric-field noise near surfaces is a common problem in diverse areas of physics, and a limiting factor for many precision measurements. There are multiple mechanisms by which such noise is generated, many of which are poorly understood. Laser-cooled, trapped ions provide one of the most sensitive systems to probe electric-field noise at MHz frequencies and over a distance range 30 - 3000 $\\mu$m from the surface. Over recent years numerous experiments have reported spectral densities of electric-field noise inferred from ion heating-rate measurements and several different theoretical explanations for the observed noise characteristics have been proposed. This paper provides an extensive summary and critical review of electric-field noise measurements in ion traps, and compares these experimental findings with known and conjectured mechanisms for the origin of this noise. This reveals that the presence of multiple noise sources, as well as the different scalings added by geometrical considerations, complicate the interpretation of these results. It is thus the purpose of this review to assess which conclusions can be reasonably drawn from the existing data, and which important questions are still open. In so doing it provides a framework for future investigations of surface-noise processes.

M. Brownnutt; M. Kumph; P. Rabl; R. Blatt

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

127

Measurement of Ocean Surface Currents by the CRL HF Ocean Surface Radar of FMCW Type. Part 2. Current Vector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has been developing high-frequency ocean surface radars (HFOSRs). The CRL dual ... HFOSR system can clarify the distribution of surface currents with a nominal range o...

Akitsugu Nadai; Hiroshi Kuroiwa; Masafumi Mizutori…

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Seasonal and ENSO variability in global ocean phytoplankton chlorophyll derived from 4 years of SeaWiFS measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a possible 184 modes, which explain 67% of the total temporal variability associated with the global meanSeasonal and ENSO variability in global ocean phytoplankton chlorophyll derived from 4 years of Sea and other sources of phytoplankton variability on global scales, which is an important component

Yoder, James S.

129

Measurement of the curvature of a surface using parallel light beams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for measuring curvature of a surface wherein a beam of collimated light is passed through means for producing a plurality of parallel light beams each separated by a common distance which then reflect off the surface to fall upon a detector that measures the separation of the reflected beams of light. This means can be an etalon and the combination of a diffractive element and a converging lens. The curvature of the surface along the line onto which the multiple beams fall can be calculated from this information. A two-dimensional map of the curvature can be obtained by adding a second etalon (or a second combination of a diffractive element and a converging lens) which is rotated 90.degree. about the optical axis relative to the first etalon and inclined at the same angle. The second etalon creates an individual set of parallel light beams from each of the individual beams created by the first etalon with the sets of parallel light beams from the second etalon rotated 90.degree. relative to the line onto which the single set of parallel beams from the first etalon would have fallen.

Chason, Eric H. (Sandia Park, NM); Floro, Jerrold A. (Edgewood, NM); Seager, Carleton H. (Albuquerque, NM); Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Measurement of the curvature of a surface using parallel light beams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus is disclosed for measuring curvature of a surface wherein a beam of collimated light is passed through a means for producing a plurality of parallel light beams each separated by a common distance which then reflect off the surface to fall upon a detector that measures the separation of the reflected beams of light. This means can be an etalon and the combination of a diffractive element and a converging lens. The curvature of the surface along the line onto which the multiple beams fall can be calculated from this information. A two-dimensional map of the curvature can be obtained by adding a second etalon (or a second combination of a diffractive element and a converging lens) which is rotated 90[degree] about the optical axis relative to the first etalon and inclined at the same angle. The second etalon creates an individual set of parallel light beams from each of the individual beams created by the first etalon with the sets of parallel light beams from the second etalon rotated 90[degree] relative to the line onto which the single set of parallel beams from the first etalon would have fallen. 5 figs.

Chason, E.H.; Floro, J.A.; Seager, C.H.; Sinclair, M.B.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interferometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

132

Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interfeometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

Schultz, Thomas J. (Maumee, OH); Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

1997-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

135

Wind Speed Retrieval Based on Sea Surface Roughness Measurements from Spaceborne Microwave Radiometers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wind speed is the main factor responsible for the increase in ocean thermal emission because sea surface emissivity strongly depends on surface roughness. An alternative approach to estimate the surface wind speed (SWS) as a function of surface ...

Sungwook Hong; Inchul Shin

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Seasonal variability in coastal fronts and its influence on sea surface wind in the Northern South China Sea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High-resolution reanalysis data of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) show pronounced seasonal variations in oceanic fronts in the coastal area of the Northern South China Sea (NSCS), which are accompanied by the seasonality of monsoons. The NSCS oceanic fronts cover a wider area of the coastal sea in winter than in summer as strong winter monsoons progress. Nonetheless, the average SST gradients of the frontal area in both seasons are comparable. The response of surface wind to SST perturbations attributed to oceanic fronts in the NSCS coastal area has also been investigated by the observation data of satellite borne scatterometers and the simulation data of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Both the satellite observations and the simulations of the WRF model show apparent positive linear SST-wind coupling for most months in 2008, indicating the local influence of coastal SST fronts on the sea surface wind in the NSCS. The SST-wind coupling coefficients in the NSCS coastal sea are larger than those observed at mid-latitude oceans but smaller than those observed near equatorial oceans. It is also found that the influence of topography on the sea surface wind could be more important than that of the SST front at the southern end of the Taiwan Strait in winter. The transition of the monsoon could also affect the SST-wind coupling in the NSCS.

Rui Shi; Xinyu Guo; Dongxiao Wang; LiLi Zeng; Ju Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Reactive ion etching-assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements on the single nanoparticle level  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-nanoparticle surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurement is of essential importance for both fundamental research and practical applications. In this work, we develop a class of single-particle SERS approaches, i.e., reactive ion etching (RIE)-assisted SERS measurements correlated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) strategy (RIE/SERS/SEM), enabling precise and high-resolution identification of single gold nanoparticle (AuNP) in facile and reliable manners. By using AuNP-coated silicon wafer and quartz glass slide as models, we further employ the developed RIE/SERS/SEM method for interrogating the relationship between SERS substrates and enhancement factor (EF) on the single particle level. Together with theoretical calculation using an established finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method, we demonstrate silicon wafer as superior SERS substrates, facilitating improvement of EF values.

Wang, Si-Yi; Jiang, Xiang-Xu; Wei, Xin-Pan; Lee, Shuit-Tong, E-mail: apannale@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: yaohe@suda.edu.cn; He, Yao, E-mail: apannale@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: yaohe@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials - FUNSOM, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, and Devices Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Xu, Ting-Ting [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials - FUNSOM, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, and Devices Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

138

Studies on the Use of Liquid Surface Passivation for Lifetime Measurements on Good-Quality Silicon Wafers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We evaluated several liquid passivants, viz. solutions of iodine ethanol (IE), quinhydrone methanol (QHM), and potassium cyanide (KCN), for measuring minority-carrier lifetime. Lifetime was measured by the WCT-100 (Sinton Instruments) and WT-2000 (Semilab). Our results show that both IE and QHM passivation are reliable mechanisms. We also find that the KCN solution is moderately passivating on oxidized surfaces, but is only minimally effective on bare Si surfaces. This paper presents details of our studies. In particular, the effect of illumination on IE-passivated surfaces and possible reasons for variations in lifetime measurement are discussed.

Devayajanam, S.; Rupnowski, P.; Shet, S.; Sopori, B. L.; Ravindra, N. M.; Caskey, D.; Chang, J.; Covington, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

A theory for calculating the surface-adsorbate bond dissociation energy from collision-induced desorption threshold measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-induced desorption measurements. D, is calculated from the minimum collision energy required for desorption. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS ) is the current technique used for measuring surface bond energies.' As with all thermal methods, a TDS ex- periment is constrained to measure the activation energy of the pathway

Levis, Robert J.

140

Measuring surface ocean wave height and directional spectra using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler from an autonomous underwater vehicle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) is a proven technology which is capable of measuring surface wave height and directional information, however it is generally limited to rigid, bottom mounted applications which ...

Haven, Scott

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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141

Ten Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). 1. Introduction Water vapor is the key atmosphericTen Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to Deep Convection ZHENGZHAO LUO, DIETER KLEY,* AND RICHARD H. JOHNSON

Lombardi, John R.

142

GAMS program used to estimate capacity with the hyperbolic graph efficiency measure, with variable returns to scale and undesirable outputs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. "Estimating Capacity and Efficiency in Fisheries with Undesirable Outputs." VIMS Marine resource Report N(obs) weights gamma(obs,var) ; POSITIVE Variable weight, gamma; EQUATIONS CONSTR1(GOUTPUT, OBS) DEA constraint

143

Surface Impedance Measurements of Single Crystal MgB2 Films for Radiofrequency Superconductivity Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report microstructure analyses and superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) measurements of large scale epitaxial MgB{sub 2} films. MgB{sub 2} films on 5 cm dia. sapphire disks were fabricated by a Hybrid Physical Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) technique. The electron-beam backscattering diffraction (EBSD) results suggest that the film is a single crystal complying with a MgB{sub 2}(0001) {parallel} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) epitaxial relationship. The SRF properties of different film thicknesses (200 nm and 350 nm) were evaluated under different temperatures and applied fields at 7.4 GHz. A surface resistance of 9 {+-} 2 {mu}{Omega} has been observed at 2.2 K.

Binping Xiao, Xin Zhao, Joshua Spradlin, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley, Teng Tan, Xi Xiaoxing

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Surface summertime radiative forcing by shallow cumuli at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although shallow cumuli are common over large areas of the globe, their impact on the surface radiative forcing has not been carefully evaluated. This study addresses this shortcoming by analyzing data from days with shallow cumuli collected over eight summers (2000-2007) at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (collectively ACRF) Southern Great Plains site. During periods with clouds, the average shortwave and longwave radiative forcings are 45.5 W m-2 and +11.6 W m-2, respectively. The forcing has been defined so that a negative (positive) forcing indicates a surface cooling (warming). On average, the shortwave forcing is negative, however, instances with positive shortwave forcing are observed approximately 20% of the time. These positive values of shortwave forcing are associated with three-dimensional radiative effects of the clouds. The three-dimensional effects are shown to be largest for intermediate cloud amounts. The magnitude of the three-dimensional effects decreased with averaging time, but it is not negligibly small even for large averaging times as long as four hours.

Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Mills Jr., David L.

2011-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

145

Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

2003-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

146

Reconstruction of drought variability in North China and its association with sea surface temperature in the joining area of Asia and Indian–Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Using tree-ring data from the northernmost marginal area of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) in North China, May–July mean Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) was reconstructed back to 1767 AD. The reconstruction captured 52.8% of the variance over the calibration period from 1945 to 2005 AD and showed pronounced pluvial periods during 1850–1905, 1803–1811 and 1940–1961 and dry periods during 1814–1844, 1916–1932 and 1984–2012. These anomalous periods have previously been reported in other parts of North China. Spatial correlation analyses and comparisons with other hydroclimatic indices in North China indicated that our new PDSI reconstruction could represent spatial and temporal drought variability in this region well. Our work also suggested that the drying tendency currently observed in the northern part of North China (including the study area) is consistent with the weakening of the EASM. Meanwhile the drying trend was seemingly restrained at present in the southern part of North China. Spatial correlation patterns with global sea surface temperature (SST) indicated that the regional hydroclimatic variability in North China was tightly linked to SST over the joining area of Asia and Indian–Pacific Ocean (AIPO), especially over the tropical western Pacific. When SST from prior November to current July (NJ-SST) in the AIPO area was anomalously high (low), the thermal contrast between Asian land and ocean was weakened (strengthened), and the EASM was correspondingly weakened (strengthened), thereby causing droughts (pluvials) in North China. The results of this study do not only provide useful information for assessing the long-term climate change in North China, but also suggest that abnormal variability in NJ-SST over the AIPO area could be used to forecast hydroclimatic conditions in North China.

Qiufang Cai; Yu Liu; Han Liu; Junli Ren

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Rock Joint Surfaces Measurement and Analysis of Aperture Distribution under Different Normal and Shear Loading Using GIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geometry of the rock joint is a governing factor for joint mechanical and hydraulic behavior. A new method of evaluating aperture distribution based on measurement of joint surfaces and three dimensional characteristics of each surface is developed. Artificial joint of granite surfaces are measured,processed, analyzed and three dimensional approaches are carried out for surface characterization. Parameters such as asperity's heights, slope angles, and aspects distribution at micro scale,local concentration of elements and their spatial localization at local scale are determined by Geographic Information System (GIS). Changes of aperture distribution at different normal stresses and various shear displacements are visualized and interpreted. Increasing normal load causes negative changes in aperture frequency distribution which indicates high joint matching. However, increasing shear displacement causes a rapid increase in the aperture and positive changes in the aperture frequency distribution which could be ...

Sharifzadeh, Mostafa; Esaki, Tetsuro

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Feasibility of measuring surface electron spin dynamics by inelastic scattering of metastable helium atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

helium atoms M. El-Batanouny, G. Murthy, and C. R. Willis Department of Physics, Boston University atoms (He*) from surfaces of magnetic insulators to study the dynamical properties of surface electron a metastable He atom and the surface electron spins are determined by a configuration interaction calculation

Kais, Sabre

149

A new approach for simultaneously retrieving cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based shortwave radiation measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 8 (2013) 044023 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/044023 A new approach for simultaneously retrieving cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based shortwave radiation measurements Yu Xie and Yangang Liu Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA E-mail: yxie@bnl.gov Received 27 June 2013 Accepted for publication 8 October 2013 Published 30 October 2013 Online at stacks.iop.org/ERL/8/044023 Abstract Surface-based measurements of shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes contain valuable information on cloud properties, but have not been fully used to infer those properties. Here a new analytical approach is presented that simultaneously infers cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based measurements of total and direct radiative fluxes. An inspection of the

150

Direct measurement of energy barriers on rough and heterogeneous solid surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper will deal with the phenomenon of energy barriers to the spread of liquids on solids. These barriers often manifest themselves as a {open_quotes}pinning{close_quotes} of a sessile drop as liquid is added to it. That is, the volume of the drop increases, but the diameter does not. Thus the advancing contact angle ({theta}{sub a}) increases to a maximum. At the point where the hydrostatic pressure in the drop overcomes the {open_quotes}pinning{close_quotes} force the diameter suddenly increases and the drop relaxes to a metastable configuration which has a lower {theta}{sub a}. Energy barriers should be considered in many applications such as the spreading of liquid adhesives where thorough wetting is the goal. The interfacial forces involved are both long-range Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) forces and short-range acid-base (AB) forces. The authors will describe how they measure the energy barriers on real surfaces directly and resolve them into their LW and AB components.

Lloyd, T.B. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); LaGow, J. [Boeing Commercial Airplane Co., Seattle, WA (United States); Connelly, G.M. [Connelly Applied Research, Nazareth, PA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

Performance Variability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Variability Variability of Highly Parallel Architectures William T.C. Kramer 1 and Clint Ryan 2 1 Department of Computing Sciences, University of California at Berkeley and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2 Department of Computing Sciences, University of California at Berkeley Abstract. The design and evaluation of high performance computers has concentrated on increasing computational speed for applications. This performance is often measured on a well configured dedicated sys- tem to show the best case. In the real environment, resources are not always dedicated to a single task, and systems run tasks that may influ- ence each other, so run times vary, sometimes to an unreasonably large extent. This paper explores the amount of variation seen across four large distributed memory systems in a systematic manner. It then

152

Optical measurement of the rms (root-mean-square) roughness of ion-bombarded surfaces. Final report, 1986-1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion-implantation and related ion-beam-processing techniques are used to modify the surface of materials and produce certain desirable properties. However, these methods sometimes roughen the surfaces to which they are applied. If undetected, such roughness can lead to erroneous interpretation of data gathered by most standard surface-analysis techniques. Many surface profilometers and scanning electron microscopes lack sufficient spatial resolution to detect fine-scale roughness that can complicate the data interpretation. A simple optical instrument was constructed to measure the root-mean-square (rms) roughness, below about 100 nm, of ion bombarded surfaces. This instrument measures the total integrated scatter (TIS) of almost normally incident laser light, which (under conditions specified by scalar scattering (theory)) is simply related to the rms surface roughness. This paper describes the construction and calibration of the TIS instrument. In addition, it presents results on the rms roughness of several ion-beam-processed systems, including TiN films on Si and Cr and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films on AISI 52100 steel, ion beam mixed Mo in Al, Si(x)N(1-x) refractive layers, and GaAs/AlAs superlattices.

Ferguson, C.D.

1987-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

153

Validation of Surface Retrieved Cloud Optical Properties with in situ Measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) South Great Plains Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface inferred cloud optical properties from a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer have been validated against the in situ measurements during the second ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE II) field campaign at the ARM South Great Plains (SGP) site. On the basis of eight effective radius profiles measured by the in situ Forward Spectra Scattering Probe (FSSP), our retrieved cloud effective radii for single-layer warm water clouds agree well with in situ measurements, within 5.5%. The sensitivity study also illustrates that for this case a 13% uncertainty in observed liquid water path (LWP, 20 g/m2) results in 1.5% difference in retrieved cloud optical depth and 12.7% difference in referred cloud effective radius, on average. The uncertainty of the LWP measured by the microwave radiometer (MWR) is the major contributor to the uncertainty of retrieved cloud effective radius. Further, we conclude that the uncertainty of our inferred cloud optical properties is better than 5% for warm water clouds based on a surface closure study, in which cloud optical properties inferred from narrowband irradiances are applied to a shortwave model and the modeled broadband fluxes are compared to a surface pyranometer.

Min, Qilong; Duan, M.; Marchand, Roger T.

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

154

Contact angle measurements and wetting behavior of inner surfaces of pipelines exposed to heavy crude oil and water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alternative for the transportation of heavy crude oils. The lubricating effect of the aqueous film leads of such surfaces by crude oils through contact angle measurements in systems containing heavy oil/aqueous phase Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Heavy oil; Asphaltenes; Naphthenic acids; Wettability; Oil

Loh, Watson

155

Fast surface temperature measurement of Teflon propellant-in-pulsed ablative discharges using HgCdTe photovoltaic cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-speed mercury cadmium telluride photovoltaic detectors, sensitive to infrared emission, are investigated as a means of measuring surface temperature on a microsecond time frame during pulsed ablative discharges with Teflon trade mark sign as the ablated material. Analysis is used to derive a governing equation for detector output voltage for materials with wavelength dependent emissivity. The detector output voltage is experimentally calibrated against thermocouples embedded in heated Teflon. Experimental calibration is performed with Teflon that has been exposed to {approx}200 pulsed discharges and non-plasma-exposed Teflon and is compared to theoretical predictions to analyze emissivity differences. The diagnostic capability is evaluated with measurements of surface temperature from the Teflon propellant of electric micropulsed plasma thrusters. During the pulsed current discharge, there is insufficient information to claim that the surface temperature is accurately measured. However, immediately following the discharge, the postpulse cooling curve is measured. The statistical spread of postpulse surface temperature from shot to shot, most likely due to arc constriction and localization, is investigated to determine an operational envelope for postpulse temperature and mass ablation. This information is useful for determining postpulse ablation contributions to mass loss as well as evaluation of theoretical discharge models currently under development.

Antonsen, Erik L.; Burton, Rodney L.; Reed, Garrett A.; Spanjers, Gregory G. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); ERC Inc., Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States)

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Measurement of charged-particle event shape variables in inclusive ?(s)=7??TeV proton-proton interactions with the ATLAS detector  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The measurement of charged-particle event shape variables is presented in inclusive inelastic pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The observables studied are the transverse thrust, thrust minor, and transverse sphericity, each defined using the final-state charged particles’ momentum components perpendicular to the beam direction. Events with at least six charged particles are selected by a minimum-bias trigger. In addition to the differential distributions, the evolution of each event shape variable as a function of the leading charged-particle transverse momentum, charged-particle multiplicity, and summed transverse momentum is presented. Predictions from several Monte Carlo models show significant deviations from data.

Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Ĺkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Ĺsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarăes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, A. K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bittner, B.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Standoff reflection–absorption spectra of surface adsorbed explosives measured with pulsed quantum cascade lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We demonstrate a standoff detection scheme of surface adsorbed explosives based on the broadband quantum cascade laser (QCL) infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy and ultraviolet laser photodecomposition. We utilized a sub-second rapid-scan data acquisition scheme to record continuously scanned spectra which revealed the broad-band absorption features of surface adsorbed explosive molecules such as cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and trinitrotoluene with a surface concentration of 1 ?g/cm2. The standoff QCL spectra perfectly reproduce the reflectance spectra obtained with a conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy instrument. The conformation conversion of RDX molecules is also observed and studied.

Xunchen Liu; Charles W. Van Neste; Manisha Gupta; Ying Y. Tsui; Seonghwan Kim; Thomas Thundat

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Measurable energy savings of installing variable frequency drives for cooling towers’ fans, compared to dual speed motors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In recent years the building management system (BMS) controllers have been used to control the operation of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system in addition to lighting and some electrical equipment in order to save energy. In the water cooled system, the BMS controls the operation process of the cooling towers (CTs) fans of dual speed motors to maintain a constant leaving water temperature for different cooling loads and different ambient wet bulb temperature (WBT). This paper presents the effect of installing variable frequency drives (VFDs) for \\{CTs\\} fans in Kuwait during summer season on energy savings compared to dual speed control. The results have shown that with VFD mode, the reduction in water consumption was over 13% compared to the commonly used dual speed mode. More importantly, the combined power for the chillers and the \\{CTs\\} fans for the same amount of cooling produced were reduced by 5.8% in the VFD mode.

E. Al-Bassam; R. Alasseri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Apparatus and procedure to characterize the surface quality of conductors by measuring the rate of cathode emission as a function of surface electric field strength  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device and method for characterizing quality of a conducting surface. The device including a gaseous ionizing chamber having centrally located inside the chamber a conducting sample to be tested to which a negative potential is applied, a plurality of anode or "sense" wires spaced regularly about the central test wire, a plurality of "field wires" at a negative potential are spaced regularly around the sense, and a plurality of "guard wires" at a positive potential are spaced regularly around the field wires in the chamber. The method utilizing the device to measure emission currents from the conductor.

Mestayer, Mac; Christo, Steve; Taylor, Mark

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

160

The development and application of a questionnaire designed to measure pre-existing, process, and outcome variables in the productivity measurement and enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurement: 1. Takes guesswork out of observation about productivity 2. Assists in the efficient conduct of operations. 3. Facilitates communication between members of the organization. 4. Aids in evaluating progress toward improving productivity. 5...

Decuir, Arlette Desha

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Measurement of the variance of water surface slopes by a radar: Verification of algorithms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A full-scale experiment is carried out to study backscattering of a microwave radar signal by a rough water surface during flight over the Gorky water storage. A centimeter-wavelength Doppler radar with a knif...

V. Yu. Karaev; M. B. Kanevsky; E. M. Meshkov…

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Characterizing Surface Temperature and Clarity of Kuwait's Seawaters Using Remotely Sensed Measurements and GIS Analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kuwait sea surface temperature (SST) and water clarity are important water characteristics that influence the entire Kuwait coastal ecosystem. The aim of this project was to study the spatial and temporal distributions of Kuwait SST using MODIS...

Alsahli, Mohammad M. M.

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

Simulation and detection of tsunami signatures in ocean surface currents measured by HF radar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-frequency (HF) surface wave radars provide the unique capability to continuously monitor the coastal environment far beyond the range of conventional microwave radars. Bragg-resonant backscattering by ocean ...

Klaus-Werner Gurgel; Anna Dzvonkovskaya; Thomas Pohlmann; Thomas Schlick…

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Meso-scale eddies affect near-surface turbulent exchange: evidence from lidar and tower measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The eddy-covariance technique tends to underestimate the turbulent heat fluxes, which results in the non-closure of the surface energy balance. This study shows experimental evidence that meso-scale turbulent organized structures, which are ...

Fabian Eder; Marius Schmidt; Thomas Damian; Katja Träumner; Matthias Mauder

165

Integrated Measurement of the Mass and Surface Charge of Discrete Microparticles Using a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

averages over multiple particles. Hence, accuracy in estimating the particle's charge, which is dependent measurement and that of the size measure- ment, because they have inherently different optimum orifice lengths

Manalis, Scott

166

Stress-dependent surface reactions and implications for a stress measurement technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to roughen. This phenomenon has recently led to a novel experimental technique to determine the stress state is also known to change the mobility of a reaction. By this mechanism, the stress may either roughen at the troughs than at the crests, so that the wave amplitude grows over time, and the surface roughens. When

Suo, Zhigang

167

Autonomous Surface Vehicle Measurements of the Ocean’s Response to Tropical Cyclone Freda  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On 31 December 2012, an instrumented autonomous surface vehicle (ASV; Wave Glider) transiting across the Pacific from Hawaii to Australia as part of the Pacific Crossing (PacX) project came very close (46 km) to the center of a category 3 Tropical ...

Luc Lenain; W. Kendall Melville

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Dynamic surface displacement measurement in 1-3 and 1-1-3 piezocomposites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stimulus. The deformation of each constituent depends on the relative compliance of the ceramic and matrix results in a composite with 1-1-3 connectivity. In the current investigation, dynamic surface hydrostatic performance over a homogeneous piezo- ceramic. In a 1-3 piezocomposite, the piezoceramic rod

Sottos, Nancy R.

169

Validation of satellite observed thermal emission with in-situ measurements over an urban surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for analysis of the urban surface heat island (USHI) during the BUBBLE Experiment. Primarily, this Remote Gergely Rigo a,, Eberhard Parlow a , David Oesch b a Institute of Meteorology, Climatology and Remote Sensing, University of Basel, Switzerland b Remote Sensing Research Group, University of Berne

Wunderle, Stefan

170

Calorimetric Measurement of the Energy Difference Between Two Solid Surface Phases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for continuing support of this...4X2) low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern (11). Confirmation is provided...1 X 1) to hex has been determined by LEED intensity measure-ments (15) as 115...

Y. Y. Yeo; C. E. Wartnaby; D. A. King

1995-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

171

Relation between surface adsorption states and emf in a solid electrolyte concentration cell during carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum studied by local current measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of measuring adsorption during surface catalysis has been emphasized often. This is true for the oxidation of carbon monoxide on a platinum surface. Surface adsorption states during the reaction under steady states can be learned from electromotive force (emf) measurement with appropriate assumptions. Two mechanisms for emf generation have been proposed, one is that only oxygen activity generates emf, the other is that both oxygen and CO adsorption generates emf.

Okamoto, H.; Kawamura, G.; Kudo, T.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Measuring High-Frequency Humidity, Temperature and Radio Refractive Index in the Surface Layer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three different instrument systems are compared in their ability to either directly or indirectly measure humidity, temperature, and refractive-index fluctuations. Each system consists of a basic instrument—a Lyman-? hygrometer, an infrared ...

J. T. Priestley; R. J. Hill

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Time dependence of FEL-induced surface photovoltage on semiconductor interfaces measured with synchroton radiation photoemission spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the last year, the first surface science experiments simultaneously using a Free Electron Laser (FEL) and Synchrotron Radiation (SR) have been performed on SuperACO at LURE (Orsay, France). These {open_quotes}two color{close_quotes} experiments studied the surface photovoltage (SPV) induced on semiconductor surfaces and interfaces by the SuperACO FEL, a storage ring FEL delivering 350 nm photons which am naturally synchronized with the SR; the SPV was measured by synchrotron radiation core-level photoemission spectroscopy on the high-resolution SU3 undulator beamline. We will describe the experimental setup, which allowed us to convey the FEL light onto the samples sitting in the SU3 experimental station by means of a series of mirrors, and show the results we obtained for prototypical systems such as Ag/GaAs(110) and Si(111) 2 x 1. The dependence of the SPV was studied in function of various parameters, changing sample doping and photon flux; but our efforts were mainly devoted to studying its dependence on the time delay between the FEL pump and the SR probe. On SuperACO, such delay can be varied between 1 and 120 ns, the limits being given by the time duration of a SR pulse and by the interval between two consecutive positron bunches, respectively. The results show a clear temporal dependence of the amount of SPV on cleaved Si surfaces, where as the Ag/GaAs(110) does not show any difference on the ns time scale. We will discuss these results in terms of the role of surface recombination in the dynamics of the photoinduced electron-hole pairs. These studies follow the evolution of the density of electrostatic charge at surfaces and interfaces on a nanosecond time scale, and might pave the way for a new series of experiments: for example, one might explore what are the physical mechanisms limiting the time response of Schottky diodes.

Marsi, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Delboulbe, A.; Garzella, D. [Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Is Salinity Variability a Benthic Disturbance?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

include: salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, and depth (Monatgna and Kalke 1992, 1995). Measurements were collected both at depth (0.1 m above bay bottom) and at the surface using a sonde... IS SALINITY VARIABILITY A BENTHIC DISTURBANCE? A Thesis by AMANDA D. VAN DIGGELEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University and the Graduate Faculty of The Texas A&M University – Corpus...

Van Diggelen, Amanda

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

175

Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characterizing net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) of CO{sub 2} and sensible and latent heat fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes is difficult, yet critical given expected changes in climate and land use. We report here a measurement and modeling study designed to improve our understanding of surface to atmosphere gas exchanges under very heterogeneous land cover in the mostly agricultural U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP). We combined three years of site-level, eddy covariance measurements in several of the dominant land cover types with regional-scale climate data from the distributed Mesonet stations and Next Generation Weather Radar precipitation measurements to calibrate a land surface model of trace gas and energy exchanges (isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM)). Yearly variations in vegetation cover distributions were estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index and compared to regional and subregional vegetation cover type estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture census. We first applied ISOLSM at a 250 m spatial scale to account for vegetation cover type and leaf area variations that occur on hundred meter scales. Because of computational constraints, we developed a subsampling scheme within 10 km 'macrocells' to perform these high-resolution simulations. We estimate that the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility SGP region net CO{sub 2} exchange with the local atmosphere was -240, -340, and -270 gC m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (positive toward the atmosphere) in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, with large seasonal variations. We also performed simulations using two scaling approaches at resolutions of 10, 30, 60, and 90 km. The scaling approach applied in current land surface models led to regional NEE biases of up to 50 and 20% in weekly and annual estimates, respectively. An important factor in causing these biases was the complex leaf area index (LAI) distribution within cover types. Biases in predicted weekly average regional latent heat fluxes were smaller than for NEE, but larger than for either ecosystem respiration or assimilation alone. However, spatial and diurnal variations of hundreds of W m{sup -2} in latent heat fluxes were common. We conclude that, in this heterogeneous system, characterizing vegetation cover type and LAI at the scale of spatial variation are necessary for accurate estimates of bottom-up, regional NEE and surface energy fluxes.

Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S.C.; Torn, M.S.; Fischer, M.L.; Billesbach, D.P.; Berry, J.A.

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

New models for wind noise measured in a flat surface under turbulent flow.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have previously developed models for predicting the power spectral density of the wind noisepressuremeasured in a flat plate outdoors from the measured power spectral density of the turbulence and the measured wind velocity profile above the plate [Yu et al. Proceedings of NCAD 2008 NoiseCon2008?ASME NCAD]. Recently we have corrected an error in the model for the logarithmic profile wind velocity gradient results and have developed an improved integration method. Also we have developed a prediction for arbitrary wind velocity profiles using the previous single exponential model. Typical results comparing our predictions with our measurements are presented and analyzed. A simple algebraic fit to the prediction for the logarithmic profile fit form is also provided for use by others. [Research supported by the U.S. Army TACOM?ARDEC at Picatinny Arsenal NJ.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Production and measurement of engineered surfaces for inertial confinement fusion research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inertial Confinement Fusion uses the optical energy from a very high power laser to implode spherical capsules that contain a fuel mixture of deuterium and tritium. The capsules are made of either Beryllium, plastic, or glass and range from 0.1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. As a capsule implodes, thereby compressing the fuel to reach nuclear fusion conditions, it achieves temperatures of millions of degrees Centigrade and very high pressures. In this state, the capsule materials act like fluids and often a low density fluidic material will push on a higher density material which can be a very unstable condition depending upon the smoothness of the interface between the two materials. This unstable condition is called a hydrodynamic instabillity which results in the mixing of the two materials. If the mixing occurs between the fuel and a non-fuel material, it can stop the fusion reaction just like adding significant amounts of water to gasoline can stop the operation of an automobile. Another region in the capsule where surface roughness can cause capsule performance degradation is at a joint. For instance, many capsules are made of hemispheres that are joined together. If the joint surfaces are too rough, then there will an effective reduction in density at the joint. This density reduction can cause a non-uniform implosion which will reduce the fusion energy coming out of the capsule.

Day, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hatch, Douglas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

178

Measurement of flow field and local heat transfer distribution on a scraped heat exchanger crystalliser surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of flow field and local heat transfer distribution on a scraped heat exchanger geometry the flow field influence on the local heat transfer distribution on an evenly cooled scraped heat loss heat loss to the surroundings stst stainless steel plate lc thermo-chromic liquid crystal

Boyer, Edmond

179

Diagnostic technique for measuring plasma parameters near surfaces in radio frequency discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of an inductively coupled plasma reactor which has an rf biased substrate. Although any three disjoint sets of measurements can ideally be used, a sensitivity analysis is used to show that certain sets may be more suitable reliability and performance. One ideally wants sensors that are nonobtrusive, simple to implement and which

Kushner, Mark

180

Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

Schultz, Thomas J. (Maumee, OH); Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Hort-Range Wetting at Liquid Gallium-Bismuth Alloy Surfaces: X-ray Measurements and Square-Gradient Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an x-ray reflectivity study of wetting at the free surface of the binary liquid metal alloy gallium-bismuth (Ga-Bi) in the region where the bulk phase separates into Bi-rich and Ga-rich liquid phases. The measurements reveal the evolution of the microscopic structure of the wetting films of the Bi-rich, low-surface-tension phase along several paths in the bulk phase diagram. The wetting of the Ga-rich bulk's surface by a Bi-rich wetting film, the thickness of which is limited by gravity to only 50 Angstroms, creates a Ga-rich/Bi-rich liquid/liquid interface close enough to the free surface to allow its detailed study by x rays. The structure of the interface is determined with Angstromsngstrem resolution, which allows the application of a mean-field square gradient model extended by the inclusion of capillary waves as the dominant thermal fluctuations. The sole free parameter of the gradient model, the influence parameter K, that characterizes the influence of concentration gradients on the interfacial excess energy, is determined from our measurements. This, in turn, allows a calculation of the liquid/liquid interfacial tension, and a separation of the intrinsic and capillary wave contributions to the interfacial structure. In spite of expected deviations from MF behavior, based on the upper critical dimensionality (Du = 3 ) of the bulk, we find that the capillary wave excitations only marginally affect the short-range complete wetting behavior. A critical wetting transition that is sensitive to thermal fluctuations appears to be absent in this binary liquid-metal alloy.

Huber, P.; Shpyrko, O; Pershan, P; Ocko, B; DiMasi, E; Deutsch, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Multiscale Variability of the River Runoff System in China and Its Long-Term Link to Precipitation and Sea Surface Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Sea Surface Temperature YONGKANG XUE,*, SHUFEN SUN,# K.-M. LAU,@ JINJUN JI,*, ISABELLE POCCARD,* RENHE with precipitation and sea surface temperature (SST) at the continental scale. Monthly mean data from 72 runoff­north dipole anomaly patterns for the first two runoff EOF's spatial distributions have been identified

Xue, Yongkang

184

Revealing the surface and bulk regimes of isothermal graphene growth on Ni with in situ kinetic measurements and modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ optical diagnostics are used to reveal the isothermal nucleation and growth mechanisms of graphene on Ni across a wide temperature range (560 C < T < 840 C) by chemical vapor deposition from single, sub-second pulses of acetylene. An abrupt, two-orders of magnitude change in growth times (~ 100s to 1s) is revealed at T = 680 C. Below and above this temperature, similar sigmoidal kinetics are measured and attributed to autocatalytic growth reactions but by two different mechanisms, surface assembly and dissolution/precipitation, respectively. These data are used to develop a simple and general kinetic model for graphene growth that includes the nucleation phase and includes the effects of carbon solubility in metals, describes delayed nucleation, and allows the interpretation of the competition between surface and bulk growth modes. The sharp transition in growth kinetics at T = 680 C is explained by a change in defect site density required for nucleation due to a transition in the carbon-induced mobility of the Ni surface. The easily-implemented optical reflectivity diagnostics and the simple kinetic model described here allow a pathway to optimize the growth of graphene on metals with arbitrary carbon solubility.

Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Merkulov, Igor A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Acoustic method for measurements of the coolant boiling on heat generating surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acoustic method for determining the period of different duties of the coolant boiling is presented. The foundation of this method is the damping phenomenon of ultrasonic waves travelling through the boundary between different media (steam–liquid) differing widely in their acoustic properties. The experimental setup and the results of the investigations into the period of water film boiling on spherical samples are also presented. The emphasis is on aluminum and copper samples differing in their diameter (4 5 and 8 mm) for temperature interval ?t=180–690°C at atmospheric pressure and different surrounding water temperatures (?t=15–75°C). By analyzing the result it is illustrated that the precision of the method is well above that of thermocouples. It is demonstrated that the measurements using this acoustic method excludes the errors typical of traditional methods. ?

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Introduction to special section on Recent Advances in the Study of Optical Variability in the Near-Surface and Upper Ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as greater scales. This variability is caused by solar, meteorological, and other physical forcing as well Columbia, Canada. 16 Mer Molécules, Facultés des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France. 17 Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada. 18

Stramski, Dariusz

187

Phototransformation of Triclosan in Surface Waters:? A Relevant Elimination Process for This Widely Used BiocideLaboratory Studies, Field Measurements, and Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phototransformation of Triclosan in Surface Waters:? A Relevant Elimination Process for This Widely Used BiocideLaboratory Studies, Field Measurements, and Modeling ... The phototransformation of the widely used biocide triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) was quantified for surface waters using artificial UV light and sunlight irradiation. ... The pH of surface waters, commonly ranging from 7 to 9, determines the speciation of triclosan (pKa = 8.1) and therefore its absorption of sunlight. ...

Céline Tixier; Heinz P. Singer; Silvio Canonica; Stephan R. Müller

2002-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

188

TransCom model simulations of CH? and related species: linking transport, surface flux and chemical loss with CH? variability in the troposphere and lower stratosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A chemistry-transport model (CTM) intercomparison experiment (TransCom-CH?) has been designed to investigate the roles of surface emissions, transport and chemical loss in simulating the global methane distribution. Model ...

Patra, P. K.

189

Monitoring variability of multivariate processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper focuses on determining changes in process variability of multivariate processes. The problem is compounded by the fact that any of the elements in the variance-covariance matrix of variables could change, leading to a change in the process variability. While it may not be feasible to maintain individual control charts for each element of the variance-covariance matrix, some aggregate measure of the variability criteria could be monitored to initially determine if a change has occurred in the process variability. A couple of aggregate measures are proposed and the performance of these suggested measures is explored through a simulation procedure. Compared to the traditional method, which monitors the determinant of the variance-covariance matrix, these alternatives perform well. The performance measure used is the mean time to first detection of a change in the process variability.

Amitava Mitra; Mark Clark

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Sequence of surface meteorological variables with the passage of winter cold fronts in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and dramatically alter weather conditions. Since these surface boundaries often mark distinct weather changes, locating their positions and forecasting their movement is critical to accurate forecasting. By analyzing the timing of changes in meteorological... than synoptic-scale processes, depend upon accurate synoptic analysis. As Bosart (1989) so appropriately stated, "the evolution of mesoscale features is critically dependent upon the configuration of the synoptic-scale flow. " Therefore, forecasting...

Huckaby, Daniel Dale

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

localization that limits the present measurements. The knowledge thus gained will have input not only to fusion research, but to may ques- tions of basic plasma physics....

192

Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the Department of Physics & Astronomy. Chapel Hill 2005 Approved: A. E. Champagne, Advisor J. C. Blackmon, Reader C. Iliadis, Reader ABSTRACT Ryan P. Fitzgerald: Measurement of...

193

Contribution of seasonal sub-Antarctic surface water variability to millennial-scale changes in atmospheric CO2over the last deglaciation and Marine Isotope Stage 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. bulloides (dark red) and N. pachyderma (s.) (dark blue) based on the eferences to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version ronology between 68 and 27 ka BP strongly depend on the tie- int density and amount to about 1600 ± 500... and the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean: a) surface ocean currents eterson and Stramma, 1991; Stramma and England, 1999) and the position of major fronts (from south to north: Polar Front (dark grey line), sub-Antarctic Front (grey e), sub-Tropical Front...

Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C.; Waelbroeck, Claire

2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

194

Variable path length spectrophotometric probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact, variable pathlength, fiber optic probe for spectrophotometric measurements of fluids in situ. The probe comprises a probe body with a shaft having a polished end penetrating one side of the probe, a pair of optic fibers, parallel and coterminous, entering the probe opposite the reflecting shaft, and a collimating lens to direct light from one of the fibers to the reflecting surface of the shaft and to direct the reflected light to the second optic fiber. The probe body has an inlet and an outlet port to allow the liquid to enter the probe body and pass between the lens and the reflecting surface of the shaft. A linear stepper motor is connected to the shaft to cause the shaft to advance toward or away from the lens in increments so that absorption measurements can be made at each of the incremental steps. The shaft is sealed to the probe body by a bellows seal to allow freedom of movement of the shaft and yet avoid leakage from the interior of the probe.

O'Rourke, Patrick E. (157 Greenwood Dr., Martiney, GA 30907); McCarty, Jerry E. (104 Recreation Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Haggard, Ricky A. (1144 Thornwood Drive, North Augusta, SC 29891)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Prediction of lateral variability in fracture intensity using multicomponent shear-wave surface seismic as a precursor to horizontal drilling in the Austin Chalk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......represents the horizontal borehole. The open square boxes on the horizontal borehole are mudlogger determined...lines intersecting the borehole represent fractures...measurable, even if y is large. However, the differencein...support of a horizontal drilling program. This method......

Michael C. Mueller

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Measuring near-field nanoparticle concentration profiles by correlating surface plasmon resonance reflectance with effective refractive index of nanofluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time-dependent and near-field nanoparticle concentrations are determined by correlating the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) reflectance intensities with the effective refractive...

Kim, Iltai; Kihm, Kenneth D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Quantifying the flux of CaCO3 and organic carbon from the surface ocean using in situ measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) determined from in situ measurements of oxygen and nitrogen gas concentrations measured on the same mooring; Wong et al., 1999] and by sediment water dissolution and burial measurements [Hales and Emerson, 1997

198

Precision of Surface Measurements for Below-Knee Residua Paul K. Commean, BEE, Kirk E. Smith, AAS, James M. Cheverud, PhD, Michael W. Vannier, MD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) residua and their BK plaster positive casts using calipers, electromag- netic digitizer, optical surface digitizer; residuum was scanned using three- dimensional(3D) OSS; a negative plaster cast of subject's resid measurement session. Plaster positive casts were constructed and subsequently mea- sured using the same

Cheverud, James M.

199

Upper-ocean variability in Drake Passage and the Weddell Sea : Measuring the oceanic response to air-sea and ice-ocean interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

blocks melting into a salinity gradient. J. Fluid Mech. ,with depth, but a salinity gradient near the surface is notW) (Fig. 2.4d-f), the salinity gradient is much weaker, and

Stephenson, Gordon Ronald

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Measurements of Heats of Adsorption of Organic Vapours on Adsorbents of High Surface Area using a Continuous Flow Calorimeter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... gel. It has been reported3 that heats of adsorption of this magnitude are obtained on adsorbents of this type when the surface coverage is low. This probably explains the very ...

G. H. BELL; A. J. GROSZEK

1961-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Wind Measurement and Archival under the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS): User Concerns and Opportunity for Improvement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The National Weather Service, as a part of its modernization effort, is implementing the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS). Much discussion has occurred about various aspects of ASOS versus the current system of manual and automated ...

Mark D. Powell

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

TIME-DISTANCE HELIOSEISMOLOGY WITH f MODES AS A METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF NEAR-SURFACE FLOWS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

600­1200. In this range the f -mode kinetic energy is concentrated within 2 Mm of the solar photosphere. There are several advantages to using the f mode as a tracer of flows near the solar surface. DUVALL JR.1 and L. GIZON2 1Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Gizon, Laurent

203

Imaging System to Measure Kinetics of Material Cluster Ejection During Exit-Surface Damage Initiation and Growth in Fused Silica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser-induced damage on the surface of optical components typically is manifested by the formation of microscopic craters that can ultimately degrade the optics performance characteristics. It is believed that the damage process is the result of the material exposure to high temperatures and pressures within a volume on the order of several cubic microns located just below the surface. The response of the material following initial localized energy deposition by the laser pulse, including the timeline of events and the individual processes involved during this timeline, is still largely unknown. In this work we introduce a time-resolved microscope system designed to enable a detailed investigation of the sequence of dynamic events involved during surface damage. To best capture individual aspects of the damage timeline, this system is employed in multiple imaging configurations (such as multi-view image acquisition at a single time point and multi-image acquisition at different time points of the same event) and offers sensitivity to phenomena at very early delay times. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated with preliminary results from the study of exit-surface damage in fused silica. The time-resolved images provide information on the material response immediately following laser energy deposition, the processes later involved during crater formation or growth, the material ejecta kinetics, and overall material motion and transformation. Such results offer insight into the mechanisms governing damage initiation and growth in the optical components of ICF class laser systems.

Raman, R N; Negres, R A; Demos, S G

2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

204

ARM - CLASIC Measurement Platforms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

provide spaceborne measurements, including surface albedo, surface fluxes, soil moisture remote sensing (Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer), vegetation indices and derived...

205

Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform in Houston, Texas: Trends and Tracers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and traffic counts except during variable working hours. To assign measured fluxes to local sources, we tested a bulk flux footprint model (Kormann and Meixner model) designed for uniform emission surface areas in this urban, heterogeneous landscape. Tracer...

Hale, Martin C

2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

206

On the practice of dichotomization of quantitative variables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The authors examine the practice of dichotomization of quantitative measures, wherein relationships among variables are examined after 1 or more variables have been converted to dichotomous variables by splitting the sample ...

MacCallum, R. C.; Zhang, S.; Preacher, K. J.; Rucker, D. D.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Surface Soil  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface Soil Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal Laboratory operations. April 12, 2012 Farm soil sampling Two LANL environmental field team members take soil samples from a farm. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Measurements are compared to samples from the regional sites and compared to averages over time to see if there are changes in concentrations. Monitoring surface soil LANL has monitored surface soils since the early 1970s. Institutional surface soil samples are collected from 17 on-site, 11 perimeter, and six regional (background) locations every three years.

208

OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

LLOYD, E.R.

2006-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

209

Acoustic radiation due to surface wave breaking.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While wave breaking is continually occurring at the sea surface its transient and sporadic nature makes it difficult to measure. Experimental results are presented that show how acoustic methods can be used as a remote sensor of this fundamental process. Sea surface?generated acoustic radiation (40 to 4000 Hz) is directly related to a quantitative measure of the boundary dynamics; i.e. the Toba variable. The frequency spectrum of the radiation remains remarkably unchanged over a wide range of environmental conditions but the correlation between the sound pressure level and the Toba variable undergoes an abrupt change when spilling breakers start to occur. Results support the use of acoustics to remotely measure the rate of energy being dissipated by wave breaking and the wavelength of the dominant gravity wave component. Theoretical studies have related the field measurements to analytical and laboratory results cited in the literature indicating that remote monitoring of the rate of occurrence and size distribution of ‘‘infant’’ (freshly entrained) bubbles may be possible if splashes on the surface do not radiate significant sound. Signal processing algorithms for the remote measurements discussed above are enhanced by eigenstructure analysis of the measured cross?spectral density matrix. [Work sponsored by ONR and NUSC.

Robert M. Kennedy; Stewart A. L. Glegg

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Variable Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EMSL's ultra-high vacuum, variable-temperature scanning probe microscope system, or UHV VT SPM, is a state-of-the-art surface science tool comprising multiple complementary...

211

MEASUREMENTS OF PAST 14C LEVELS AND 13C/12C RATIOS IN THE SURFACE WATERS OF THE WORLD'S SUBPOLAR OCEANS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under this project we have developed methods that allow the reconstruction of past {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean by measuring the {sup 14}C contents of archived salmon scales. The overall goal of this research was to reduce of the uncertainty in the uptake of fossil CO{sub 2} by the oceans and thereby improve the quantification of the global carbon cycle and to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs), with their three dimensional global spatial coverage and temporal modeling capabilities, provide the best route to accurately calculating the total uptake of CO{sub 2} by the oceans and, hence, to achieving the desired reduction in uncertainty. {sup 14}C has played, and continues to play, a central role in the validation of the OGCMs calculations, particularly with respect to those model components which govern the uptake of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and the transport of this carbon within the oceans. Under this project, we have developed time-series records of the {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of three areas of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean. As the previously available data on the time-history of oceanic surface water {sup 14}C levels are very limited, these time-series records provide significant new {sup 14}C data to constrain and validate the OGCMs.

Brown, T A

2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

212

Measurement of Desorption Rates from Octadecylsilyl Bonded-Phase HPLC Particles and Its Characterization in Terms of Pore, Surface, and Film Diffusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This correction was accomplished by also measuring the desorption rate curve for an “impulse response function marker” (IRF marker), which is a compound that is not sorbed by, and does not enter, the particles. ... The fit lines in Figure 7 are the result of nonlinear regression of eq 8 to the data points from runs 1?3, performed with the Solver macro in Microsoft Excel software, utilizing the Newton gradient search method with forward derivatives and tangent-based estimates. ... Intraparticle diffusion in Luna C-18 occurs by means of a combination of pore diffusion and surface diffusion, as expressed, respectively, by the first and second terms on the right-hand side of eq 7. Inserting the values of DM,DMNB, Hind, ?M, and RDMNB from above yields a value of (6 ± 2) × 10-8 cm2/s for the pore diffusion term. ...

Robert Bujalski; Frederick F. Cantwell

2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

213

Electron Emission from Slightly Oxidized Depleted Uranium Generated by its Own Radioactivity Measured by Electron Spectroscopy, and Electron-Induced Dissociation and Ionization of Hydrogen Near its Surface.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy dependent electron emission (counts per second) between zero and 1.4 keV generated by the natural reactivity of uranium was measured by an electrostatic spectrometer with known acceptance angle and acceptance area. The electron intensity decreases continuously with energy, but at different rates in different energy regimes, suggesting that a variety of processes may be involved in producing the observed electron emission. The spectrum was converted to energy dependent electron flux (e-/cm{sup 2} s) using the assumption that the emission has a cosine angular distribution. The flux decreased rapidly from {approx}10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2}s to {approx}10{sup 5}/cm{sup 2}s in the energy range from zero to 200 eV, and then more slowly from {approx}10{sup 5}/cm{sup 2}s to {approx}3*10{sup 4}/cm{sup 2} s in the range from 200 to 1400 eV. The energy dependent electron mean free path in gases together with literature cross sections for electron induced reactions were used to determine the number of ionization and dissociation reactions per cm{sup 2}s within the inelastic mean free path of electrons, and found to be about 1.3*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.5*10{sup 7}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively, for hydrogen. An estimate of the number of ionization and dissociation reactions occurring within the total range, rather than the mean free path of electrons in gases resulted in 6.2*10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.3*10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively. The total energy flux carried by electrons from the surface is suspiciously close to the total possible energy generated by one gram of uranium. A likely source of error is the assumption that the electron emission has a cosine distribution. Angular distribution measurements of the electron emission would check that assumption, and actual measurement of the total current emanating from the surface are needed to confirm the value of the current calculated in section II. These results must therefore be used with caution - until they are confirmed by other measurements.

Siekhaus, W J; Nelson, A J

2011-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

214

Compact range for variable-zone measurements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector.

Burnside, Walter D. (Columbus, OH); Rudduck, Roger C. (Columbus, OH); Yu, Jiunn S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Compact range for variable-zone measurements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector. 2 figs.

Burnside, W.D.; Rudduck, R.C.; Yu, J.S.

1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

216

Singularity of projections of 2-dimensional measures invariant under the geodesic flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that on any compact Riemann surface with variable negative curvature there exists a measure which is invariant and ergodic under the geodesic flow and whose projection to the base manifold is 2-dimensional and singular with respect to the 2-dimensional Lebesgue measure.

Risto Hovila; Esa Järvenpää; Maarit Järvenpää; François Ledrappier

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

217

Modeling Carbon Sequestration over the Large-Scale Amazon Basin, Aided by Satellite Observations. Part I: Wet- and Dry-Season Surface Radiation Budget Flux and Precipitation Variability Based on GOES Retrievals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this first part of a two-part investigation, large-scale Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) analyses over the Amazônia region have been carried out for March and October of 1999 to provide detailed information on surface ...

Jiujing Gu; Eric A. Smith; Harry J. Cooper; Andrew Grose; Guosheng Liu; James D. Merritt; Maarten J. Waterloo; Alessandro C. de Araújo; Antonio D. Nobre; Antonio O. Manzi; Jose Marengo; Paulo J. de Oliveira; Celso von Randow; John Norman; Pedro Silva Dias

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Computer aided surface representation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

Barnhill, R E

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Surface Temperature of IGUs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

117 117 Surface Temperatures of Insulated Glazing Units: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith, Daniel TĂĽrler, and Dariush Arasteh Building Technologies Program Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Fax: 510-486-6046, email: D_Arasteh@lbl.gov Abstract Data are presented for the distribution of surface temperatures on the warm-side surface of seven different insulated glazing units. Surface temperatures are measured using infrared thermography and an external referencing technique. This technique allows detailed mapping of surface temperatures that is non-intrusive. The glazings were placed between warm and cold environmental chambers that were operated at conditions

220

Longwave thermal infrared spectral variability in individual rocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A hyperspectral imaging spectrometer measuring in the longwave thermal infrared (7.6-11.6 {micro}m) with a spatial resolution less than 4 mm was used in the field to observe the variability of emissivity spectra within individual rocks. The rocks were obtained commercially, were on the order of 20 cm in size and were selected to have distinct spectral features: they include alabaster (gypsum), soapstone (steatite with talc), obsidian (volcanic glass), norite (plagioclase and orthopyroxene), and 'jasper' (silica with iron oxides). The advantages of using an imaging spectrometer to spectrally characterize these rocks are apparent. Large spectral variations were observed within individual rocks that may be attributed to roughness, surface geometry, and compositional variation. Non-imaging spectrometers would normally miss these variations as would small samples used in laboratory measurements, spatially averaged spectra can miss the optimum spectra for identification materials and spatially localized components of the rock can be obscured.

Balick, Lee K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gillespie, Alan [UN. WASHINGTON; French, Andrew [USDA-ARS; Danilina, Iryna [UN. WASHINGTON

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

8, 215243, 2008 Enhanced variability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for assessing the impact of ozone on human health, vegetation, and climate. Long- term measurements from East Introduction Ozone is one of the key species in the atmosphere. It absorbs both solar UV and terres-20 trial IR radiation, therefore protects living organisms at the Earth's surface against the harmful solar UV radiation

Boyer, Edmond

222

The Sun is an active, variable,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Sun is an active, variable, magnetic star with oscillations on its surface and deep within its the physical processes of the Sun-Earth connection. Visit Us on the Web: Solar Terrestrial Probes Program: http://stp.gsfc.nasa.gov For More Information, See: Sun-Earth Connection: http://sec.gsfc.nasa.gov Living With a Star: http

Christian, Eric

223

Late Holocene Radiocarbon Variability in Northwest Atlantic Slope Waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deep-sea gorgonian corals secrete a 2-part skeleton of calcite, derived from dissolved inorganic carbon at depth, and gorgonin, derived from recently fixed and exported particulate organic matter. Radiocarbon contents of the calcite and gorgonin provide direct measures of seawater radiocarbon at depth and in the overlying surface waters, respectively. Using specimens collected from Northwest Atlantic slope waters, we generated radiocarbon records for surface and upper intermediate water layers spanning the pre- and post bomb-{sup 14}C eras. In Labrador Slope Water (LSW), convective mixing homogenizes the pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C signature (-67 {+-} 4{per_thousand}) to at least 1000 m depth. Surface water bomb-{sup 14}C signals were lagged and damped (peaking at {approx} +45{per_thousand} in the early 1980s) relative to other regions of the northwest Atlantic, and intermediate water signals were damped further. Off southwest Nova Scotia, the vertical gradient in {Delta}{sup 14}C is much stronger. In surface water, pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C averaged -75 {+-} 5{per_thousand}. At 250-475 m depth, prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C oscillated quasi-decadally between -80 and -100{per_thousand}, likely reflecting interannual variability in the presence of Labrador Slope Water vs. Warm Slope Water (WSW). Finally, subfossil corals reveal no systematic changes in vertical {Delta}{sup 14}C gradients over the last 1200 years.

Sherwood, O; Edinger, E; Guilderson, T P; Ghaleb, B; Risk, M J; Scott, D B

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Thigpen, Larry T. (Angier, NC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Direct measurement of the Hall effect in a free-electron-like surface state Toru Hirahara, Iwao Matsuda,* Canhua Liu, Rei Hobara, Shinya Yoshimoto, and Shuji Hasegawa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a number of reports on the Hall effect and magnetoresistance at metal or metal silicide ultrathin films- or alkali-metal atoms on the surface, the electron pocket becomes larger because electrons are doped

Hasegawa, Shuji

226

Lorentzian Metrics from Characteristic Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The following issue is raised and discussed; when do families of foliations by hypersurfaces on a given four dimensional manifold become the null surfaces of some unknown, but to be determined, metric $g_{ab}(x)$? It follows from these results that one can use these surfaces as fundamental variables for GR.

Simonetta Frittelli; Carlos Kozameh; Ted Newman

1995-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

227

Understanding Recent Eastern Horn of Africa Rainfall Variability and Change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations and sea surface temperature (SST)-forced ECHAM5 simulations are examined to study the seasonal cycle of eastern Africa rainfall and its SST sensitivity during 1979–2012, focusing on interannual variability and trends. The eastern Horn ...

Brant Liebmann; Martin P. Hoerling; Chris Funk; Ileana Bladé; Randall M. Dole; Dave Allured; Xiaowei Quan; Philip Pegion; Jon K. Eischeid

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Variable Frequency Drives  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How BPA Supports VFDs Rebates are available from your utility for Variable Frequency Drives on pumps 20hp or greater and storage fans.. Energy savings from VFDs vary and can...

229

6, 1205712120, 2006 Surface tension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 12057­12120, 2006 Surface tension: measurement, modelling and cloud activation D. O a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Surface tensions of multi­12120, 2006 Surface tension: measurement, modelling and cloud activation D. O. Topping et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

Measuring bubble nucleation temperature on the surface of a rapidly heated thermal ink-jet heater immersed in a pool of water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nucleation is appropriate to the physics of the surface boiling process...Analysis To better understand the physics of the bubble nucleation process...June 16. Lide, D. R. 1992 Handbook of chemistry and physics, 72nd edn, pp. 1234. Boston...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Density measurements Viscosity measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density measurements Viscosity measurements Temperature measurements Pressure measurements Flow rate measurements Velocity measurements Sensors How to measure fluid flow properties ? Am´elie Danlos Ravelet Experimental methods for fluid flows: an introduction #12;Density measurements Viscosity

Ravelet, Florent

232

Variable Frequency Pump Drives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-frequency electric motor drive. What is happenin9 with variable frequency driven pun,ps is a classical illustration that evolution in technical products takes place not only because of changes in the processes served by these products, or because of innovations...-pole 3550 rpm squirrel caqe induction motor became available in the early 1930s that high pressure pumps operating at that speed could be buil t. And now, in the 1980s, the development of the solid-state, variable frequency electric motor drive...

Karassik, I. J.; Petraccaro, L. L.; McGuire, J. T.

233

Surfacers change their dive tactics depending on the aim of the dive: evidence from simultaneous measurements of breaths and energy expenditure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...simultaneously to reveal the energy expended during...turtles manage their energy expenditure during...taking physical measurements of the turtles...embedded. A logger unit was affixed to...underestimation of energy expenditure per unit body weight. Consequently...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Variables Affecting Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation of High-Velocity Flyer Plate Impact Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes our work to characterize the variables affecting the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method in the LS-DYNA package for simulating high-velocity flyer plate impact experiments. LS-DYNA simulations are compared with one-dimensional experimental data of an oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper flyer plate impacting another plate of the same material. The comparison is made by measuring the velocity of a point on the back surface of the impact plate using the velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) technique.

Somasundaram, Deepak S [UNLV; Trabia, Mohamed [UNLV; O'Toole, Brendan [UNLV; Hixson, Robert S [NSTec

2014-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

235

Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Overseeing Organization United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Beam(m) 0.6 Depth(m) 0.6 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features The 2-Foot Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel is a vertical plane, closed recirculating, variable-speed, variable-pressure, open jet test section, closed jet test section, and semi-rectangular test section. Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Velocity(m/s) 17 Recirculating Yes

236

Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Overseeing Organization United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Beam(m) 0.7 Depth(m) 0.7 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features The 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel is a vertical plane, closed recirculating with resorber, variable-speed, variable-pressure, two interchangeable circular test sections. Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Velocity(m/s) 25.8 Recirculating Yes Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None

237

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

239

Surface premelting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The most important results obtained in the theory of surface premelting of crystals are briefly discussed on the basis of the vibration-positional model, the quasiliquid layer model, the surface roughness model, and in the case of ice, the model of the oriented dipoles at the surface. A review of the existing experimental results on surface premelting is presented, these results being obtained by investigating the crystal morphology, the polar diagram of the specific surface energy, the surface self-diffusion, the thermal emissivity, as well as upon application of LEED, NMR, Rutherford backscattering at proton channeling and ellipsometry. The agreement between theoretical and experimental data is discussed.

D. Nenow

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Variable depth core sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Variable laser attenuator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

Foltyn, S.R.

1987-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

242

Variable depth core sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

243

Variable magnetic field geometry of the young sun HN Peg (HD 206860)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The large-scale magnetic field of solar-type stars reconstructed from their spectropolarimetric observations provide important insight into their underlying dynamo processes.We aim to investigate the temporal variability of the large-scale surface magnetic field and chromospheric activity of a young solar analogue, the G0 dwarf HN Peg.The large-scale surface magnetic field topology is reconstructed using Zeeman Doppler Imaging at six observational epochs covering seven years.We also investigated the chromospheric activity variations by measuring the flux in the line cores of the three chromospheric activity indicators: Ca II H&K, H alpha, and the Ca II IRT lines.The magnetic topology of HN Peg shows a complex and variable geometry. While the radial field exhibits a stable positive polarity magnetic region at the poles at each observational epoch, the azimuthal field is strongly variable in strength, where a strong band of positive polarity magnetic field is present at equatorial latitudes. This field disa...

Saikia, S Boro; Petit, P; Marsden, S; Morin, J; Folsom, C P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Variable loading roller  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

Williams, D.M.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

245

Rotating disk electrode measurements on the CO tolerance of a high-surface area Pt/Vulcan carbon fuel cell catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors examine the electrocatalytic properties of a Pt/Vulcan carbon catalyst toward the electro-oxidation of CO and CO/H{sub 2} mixtures under proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) relevant conditions (60 to 80 C, continuous reactant flow), employing rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements. They demonstrate that the recently introduced thin-film RDE technique can be applied to predict the performance of real fuel cell anodes operating on CO-contaminated H{sub 2}. The method involves attaching the catalyst particles to a glassy carbon RDE via a thin Nafion film. The thin-film RDE technique opens the possibility for the mass-transport-free determination of the electrode kinetics at 100% catalyst utilization. At identical mass-specific current densities, the overpotentials for CO/H{sub 2} oxidation measured with the thin-film RDE technique are in excellent agreement with performance data from PEMFC anodes. The kinetics of pure CO oxidation were investigated with CO/N{sub 2} mixtures, revealing that the CO oxidation activity increases with decreasing CO partial pressure (negative reaction order). The observed ignition potential for CO oxidation was the same for both the CO/N{sub 2} and the CO/H{sub 2} mixtures. Two H{sub 2} oxidation mechanisms in the presence of CO can be distinguished: (1) a high Tafel slope region at low overpotentials, where H{sub 2} oxidation occurs in vacancies of the CO adlayer; and (2) a low Tafel slope region at high overpotentials where H{sub 2} and CO oxidation occur simultaneously.

Schmidt, T.J.; Behm, R.J. [Univ. Ulm (Germany). Abteilung Oberflaechenchemie und Katalyse] [Univ. Ulm (Germany). Abteilung Oberflaechenchemie und Katalyse; Gasteiger, H.A. [Adam Opel AG, Ruesselsheim (Germany). Global Alternative Propulsion Center] [Adam Opel AG, Ruesselsheim (Germany). Global Alternative Propulsion Center

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Dual surface interferometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarterwave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

Pardue, R.M.; Williams, R.R.

1980-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

247

PHP: Constructs and Variables Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHP: Constructs and Variables Introduction This document describes: 1. the syntax and types of variables, 2. PHP control structures (i.e., conditionals and loops), 3. mixed-mode processing, 4. how to use one script from within another, 5. how to define and use functions, 6. global variables in PHP, 7

Vander Zanden, Brad

248

Heart rate variability in mice with coronary heart disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat fluctuation of the heart rate, is a non-invasive test that measures the autonomic regulation of the heart. Assessment of HRV has been shown to predict the risk of mortality ...

Zapanta, Laurence (Laurence F.)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Parameters and variables appearing in repository-siting models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Included in this report is a summary of data characterizing the parameters and variables appearing in repository siting models. These data cover the processes of saturates flow, unsaturated flow, surface water flow, geochemistry, heat transport, solute transport, and geomechanical response. Definitions and ranges of values are provided for equation parameters, source terms, dependent variables, boundary conditions, and initial conditions for the equations that are solved in the repository siting models. The data were compiled to help guide the selection of values of parameters and variables to be used in benchmark problems.

Mercer, J.W.; Thomas, S.D.; Ross, B.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

A Climatology of Surface Cloud Radiative Effects at the ARM Tropical Western Pacific Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cloud radiative effects on surface downwelling fluxes are investigated using long-term datasets from the three Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The Nauru and Darwin sites show significant variability in sky cover, downwelling radiative fluxes, and surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) due to El Nińo and the Australian monsoon, respectively, while the Manus site shows little intra-seasonal or interannual variability. Cloud radar measurement of cloud base and top heights are used to define cloud types so that the effect of cloud type on the surface CRE can be examined. Clouds with low bases contribute 71-75% of the surface shortwave (SW) CRE and 66-74% of the surface longwave (LW) CRE at the three TWP sites, while clouds with mid-level bases contribute 8-9% of the SW CRE and 12-14% of the LW CRE, and clouds with high bases contribute 16-19% of the SW CRE and 15-21% of the LW CRE.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flaherty, Julia E.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element of one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities is disclosed. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels. 19 figures.

Smither, R.K.

1991-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

252

15 - Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the various methods and equipments used in the measurement of liquids and gases in pipelines. Streams that transport mixed natural gas liquids require the use of mass measurement to accurately account for the volume of the components, which make up the mix. Mass measurement eliminates the effects of non-ideal mixing and the need for compressibility factors. The measurement system that provides basic simplicity, reliability, wide acceptance, and the capability of handling variable mix streams without breaking new frontiers in measurement methods is the orifice flow measuring element with online density meter and microprocessor flow computer. The orifice is a static device generally inert to the measured fluid conditions, and calibration consists of simple dimensional measurement and conformance to specified physical tolerances. The second element, the density meter, is an external unit that is easily isolated from the flowing stream for calibration, inspection, and maintenance. The relative insensitivity of CO2 density to small changes in pressure in the primary flow to the orifice meters permits locating the density meter upstream of the meter manifold, thereby serving several meters. The microprocessor flow computer, or third element of the system, is essential to achieve the advantages of integrated mass flow, which comes from the ability of the computer to make computations in essentially "real time." A development program to improve the overall uncertainty of orifice metering was initiated by Shell Pipeline Corporation. The program's goal was to develop an economical method for proving ethylene orifice meters under actual operating conditions. Shell's ethylene systems are operated in the dense phase fluid region due to lower transportation costs. The ethylene meter stations operate in two regions, the dense-phase fluid and single-phase gas regions.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

2011-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

254

Stability in the Plant Communities of the Park Grass Experiment: The Relationships between Species Richness, Soil pH and Biomass Variability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...between Species Richness, Soil pH and Biomass Variability Mike E. Dodd Jonathan Silvertown...of species number and soil reaction on biomass variability in a suite of comparable plant communities. Biomass variability was measured by calculating...

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Programmable surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Measurement-Measurement-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internet Measurement- System A Measurement- System B Control System GPS Satellite GPS Satellite GPS Receiver GPS Receiver 2) measurement 3) data1) command Methodology for One-way IP Performance Measurement This paper proposes a methodology for measurement of one-way IP performance metrics such as one-way delay

Jeong, Jaehoon "Paul"

257

Triclosan: Source Attribution, Urinary Metabolite Levels and Temporal Variability in Exposure Among Pregnant Women in Canada .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??OBJECTIVE: To measure urinary triclosan levels and their variability across pregnancy, and to identify sources of triclosan exposure among Canadian pregnant women. METHODS: Single spot… (more)

Weiss, Lorelle D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Intraseasonal Variability of Equatorial Indian Ocean Zonal Currents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New satellite and in situ observations show large intraseasonal (10–60 day) variability of surface winds and upper-ocean current in the equatorial Indian Ocean, particularly in the east. An ocean model forced by the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) ...

Debasis Sengupta; Retish Senan; B. N. Goswami; Jérôme Vialard

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office ofby the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of

Janecek, Martin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

THE GALEX TIME DOMAIN SURVEY. I. SELECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF OVER A THOUSAND ULTRAVIOLET VARIABLE SOURCES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the selection and classification of over a thousand ultraviolet (UV) variable sources discovered in {approx}40 deg{sup 2} of GALEX Time Domain Survey (TDS) NUV images observed with a cadence of 2 days and a baseline of observations of {approx}3 years. The GALEX TDS fields were designed to be in spatial and temporal coordination with the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, which provides deep optical imaging and simultaneous optical transient detections via image differencing. We characterize the GALEX photometric errors empirically as a function of mean magnitude, and select sources that vary at the 5{sigma} level in at least one epoch. We measure the statistical properties of the UV variability, including the structure function on timescales of days and years. We report classifications for the GALEX TDS sample using a combination of optical host colors and morphology, UV light curve characteristics, and matches to archival X-ray, and spectroscopy catalogs. We classify 62% of the sources as active galaxies (358 quasars and 305 active galactic nuclei), and 10% as variable stars (including 37 RR Lyrae, 53 M dwarf flare stars, and 2 cataclysmic variables). We detect a large-amplitude tail in the UV variability distribution for M-dwarf flare stars and RR Lyrae, reaching up to |{Delta}m| = 4.6 mag and 2.9 mag, respectively. The mean amplitude of the structure function for quasars on year timescales is five times larger than observed at optical wavelengths. The remaining unclassified sources include UV-bright extragalactic transients, two of which have been spectroscopically confirmed to be a young core-collapse supernova and a flare from the tidal disruption of a star by dormant supermassive black hole. We calculate a surface density for variable sources in the UV with NUV < 23 mag and |{Delta}m| > 0.2 mag of {approx}8.0, 7.7, and 1.8 deg{sup -2} for quasars, active galactic nuclei, and RR Lyrae stars, respectively. We also calculate a surface density rate in the UV for transient sources, using the effective survey time at the cadence appropriate to each class, of {approx}15 and 52 deg{sup -2} yr{sup -1} for M dwarfs and extragalactic transients, respectively.

Gezari, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Martin, D. C.; Forster, K.; Neill, J. D.; Morrissey, P.; Wyder, T. K. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Huber, M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Tonry, J. L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)] [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Heckman, T.; Bianchi, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Neff, S. G. [Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Seibert, M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 90095 (United States)] [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 90095 (United States); Schiminovich, D. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Price, P. A., E-mail: suvi@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil moisture The moisture of the soil measured near the surface. This includes soil wetness and soil water potential. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems SOIL : Soil Measurement from the SGP SWATS : Soil Water and Temperature System SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System

262

Selection automatique de variables pertinentes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S´election automatique de variables pertinentes Vers la d´ecouverte de nouvelles modalit´es sensori-motrices corr´elations entre ses variables sensori-motrices afin d'apprendre `a r´esoudre sa t^ache d

Boyer, Edmond

263

Application of a highly variable gauge stabilizer at Wytch Farm to extend the ERD envelope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wytch Farm operations have demonstrated that downhole adjustable, highly variable gauge stabilizers (HVGSs) can cost-effectively extend the reach of extended-reach-drilling (ERD) wells. This paper will describe the operation and benefits of using an HVGS at the Wytch Farm ERD project to control hole inclination while minimizing time consuming oriented drilling. The first Wytch Farm well drilled with an HVGS had a Reach/TVD ratio of 4.22 at a true vertical depth (TVD) of 1603 m. The total depth was 7522 m with a reach of 6732 m, which set a new world record for reach at the subject reservoir depth. The second well drilled with an HVGS had a Reach/TVD ratio of 4.28 at a TVD of 1592 m. The HVGS was used in conjunction with an instrumented steerable motor with near-bit inclination sensor. The HVGS is controlled from the surface through a series of mud pump flow sequences, and communicates the blades` commanded and measured positions to the surface with mud pulse telemetry. Wytch Farm operations required that the HVGS telemetry be modified to Cow compatibility with previously contracted measurement-while-drilling/logging-while-drilling (MWD/LWD) systems. This paper will describe the new telemetry scheme and will document the success of the HVGS in receiving commands and in actuating to desired positions at measured depths in excess of 7300 m and departures beyond 6100 m.

Odell, A.C. II; Payne, M.L.; Cocking, D.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

264

Biosurfactant Production by Bacteria in the Phyllosphere: Relieving the Tension of Life on a Surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analyzed mass spectra and surface tension measurements, A.B.by liquids: dependence on surface tension, wettability, andby liquids: dependence on surface tension, wettability, and

Burch, Adrien Yuan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

A distinctive feature of the surface structure of quasicrystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews a feature of atomically-clean quasicrystal surfaces that distinguishes them from surfaces of crystalline materials. That feature is a high degree of heterogeneity among different terraces, and among structurally-identical adsorption sites. The heterogeneity can be both structural and chemical in origin. A large variability is expected even for a surface which is perfectly bulk-terminated, and we call this intrinsic heterogeneity. Additional variability can derive from the surface preparation process, which can yield metastable structures. We call this extrinsic heterogeneity. Experimental evidence is given for both cases. This heterogeneity can be an important factor in understanding and predicting surface phenomena such as chemisorption.

Thiel, Patricia; Unal, Baris; Jenks, Cynthia; Goldman, Alan; Lograsso, Thomas; Canfield, Paul; Evans, James; Quiquandon, Marianne; Gratias, Denis; Van Hove, Michel

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

266

Local origins of interdecadal Pacific variability in the tropical and North Pacific Ocean: evidence from a comparative study of coral oxygen isotope records  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interdecadal Pacific variability (IPV) is commonly observed in both the tropical and mid-latitude Pacific Ocean, and has a widespread influence on surface climate in the Pan-Pacific Basin. This variability is rec...

Wenfeng Deng; Gangjian Wei

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Multidecadal variability of the overturning circulation in presence of eddy turbulence.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At low resolution, idealized ocean circulation models forced by prescribed differential surface heat fluxes show spontaneous multidecadal variability depending critically on eddy diffusivity coefficients. The existence of this critical threshold ...

Thierry Huck; Olivier Arzel; Florian Sévellec

268

Spatial and temporal variability of major ocean currents and mesoscale eddies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A global picture of ocean current variability may be obtained by analyzing surface drift currents in terms of their mean and eddy ... both quantities are found in the western boundary currents and in the equatori...

Walter Düing

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Measuring Cost Variability in Provision of Transit Service  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

W. , and S. R. Mundle. Peak-Base Cost Allocation Models. In29–33. Reilly, J. M. Transit Costs During Peak and Off-PeakHow to Allocate Bus Route Costs. Transit, Vol. 5, No. 2,

Taylor, Brian D.; Garrett, Mark; Iseki, Hiroyuki

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Measuring the performance and intrinsic variability of evolved circuits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparison between conventional and multi-objective Cartesian Genetic Programming evolved designs for a 2-bit adder and a 2-bit multiplier. Each design is converted from a gate-level schematic to a transistor level implementation, ...

James Alfred Walker; James A. Hilder; Andy M. Tyrrell

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Variability in the Measurement of Hospital-wide Mortality Rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the substantially different results we observed among methods may reflect flaws in the fundamental hypothesis that hospital-wide mortality is a valid metric for the quality of hospital care. Our study also does not rule out the possibility that the estimation of hospital-wide mortality rates on the... This study showed that four commonly used methods to calculate hospitals' risk-adjusted rates of death produced different results. The same hospitals were classified as having higher-than-expected mortality by one method and lower-than-expected mortality by other methods.

Shahian D.M.Wolf R.E.Iezzoni L.I.Kirle L.Normand S.-L.T.

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

272

The Effect of surface morphology on the friction of Electrogalvanized sheet steel in forming processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect in the drawbead simulator test were evaluated for a set of commercially coated steels and a set of laboratory coated steels with underlying surfaces produced by laser textured, shot blast, and electro-discharge textured rolls. In general, surfaces with higher roughness (R{sub a} parameter) measured lower friction in the DBS tests. The requisite roughness amplitude necessary for low friction was moderated somewhat by having a more closely spaced roughness as described by the median wavelength, {lambda}m, of the power spectrum. This effect is due to interaction with the lubricant by the micro-roughness imparted by the galvanizing process. The lubricant tends to be retained better by the surfaces with the micro-roughness, thereby increasing the amount of elasto- and plasto-hydrodynamic support of the load. Other variables, such as large variations in thickness of the sheet can mask the effect of the surface by changing the actual distance of sliding contact during the DBS test. For tests where the amount of sliding is similar, the effect of roughness is significant. The friction measured for EG steels in the DBS test is dominated by deformation of the surface with plowing by the asperities of the tooling adding to that caused by the deformation. The size of the plow marks in the deformed surfaces corresponds to the roughness of the tooling and no significant evidence of wear particles was observed.

Skarpelos, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Coupled variability and air-sea interaction in the South Atlantic Andreas Sterl, Wilco Hazeleger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Tanimoto (1998) describe a pan-Atlantic SST pattern reaching from South Africa to Greenland. Most studiesCoupled variability and air-sea interaction in the South Atlantic Ocean Andreas Sterl, Wilco mechanisms involved in forcing and damping of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability in the South Atlantic

Haak, Hein

274

Transport and variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current south of Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transport and variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current south of Africa Sebastiaan Swart,1) of the ACC south of Africa. Surface dynamic height is derived from XBT data by establishing an empirical and variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current south of Africa, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C09014, doi:10

275

Wind- versus Eddy-Forced Regional Sea Level Trends and Variability in the North Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Regional sea level trend and variability in the Pacific Ocean have often been considered to be induced by low-frequency surface wind changes. In this study, we demonstrate that significant sea level trend and variability can also be generated by ...

Bo Qiu; Shuiming Chen; Lixin Wu; Shinichiro Kida

276

Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Harvard University #12;Site Descrip>on · Mixed hardwood and conifer forest · 40Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site Petersham, MA Evan Goldman interannual variability and long-term trends in fluxes and forest physiological responses

277

Improved sample size determination for attributes and variables sampling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Earlier INMM papers have addressed the attributes/variables problem and, under conservative/limiting approximations, have reported analytical solutions for the attributes and variables sample sizes. Through computer simulation of this problem, we have calculated attributes and variables sample sizes as a function of falsification, measurement uncertainties, and required detection probability without using approximations. Using realistic assumptions for uncertainty parameters of measurement, the simulation results support the conclusions: (1) previously used conservative approximations can be expensive because they lead to larger sample sizes than needed; and (2) the optimal verification strategy, as well as the falsification strategy, are highly dependent on the underlying uncertainty parameters of the measurement instruments. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

The effects of surface instabilities on laminar film condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat transfer rates for laminar film condensation of Freon-1l3 were measured on the underside of horizontal surfaces, inclined surfaces, and vertical surfaces. Several distinct regimes of flow were observed. On the underside ...

Gerstmann, Joseph

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

280

Secure Quantum Key Distribution using Continuous Variables of Single Photons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We analyze the distribution of secure keys using quantum cryptography based on the continuous variable degree of freedom of entangled photon pairs. We derive the information capacity of a scheme based on the spatial entanglement of photons from a realistic source, and show that the standard measures of security known for quadrature-based continuous variable quantum cryptography (CV-QKD) are inadequate. A specific simple eavesdropping attack is analyzed to illuminate how secret information may be distilled well beyond the bounds of the usual CV-QKD measures.

Lijian Zhang; Christine Silberhorn; Ian A. Walmsley

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The TAOS Project Stellar Variability II. Detection of 15 Variable Stars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey data - covering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred days - are a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (RA = 17{sup h} 30{sup m} 6.67{sup s}, Dec = 27 degrees, 17 minutes, 30 seconds, J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 square degree field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the lightcurves, 32 variables, 18 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, {delta} Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular and eclipsing binaries.

Mondal, S; Lin, C C; Zhang, Z W; Alcock, C; Axelrod, T; Bianco, F B; Byun, Y I; Coehlo, N K; Cook, K H; Dave, R; Kim, D W; King, S K; Lee, T; Lehner, M J; Lin, H C; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, J H; Wang, S Y; Wen, C Y

2010-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

282

Temporal Variability of Aerosol Properties during TCAP: Impact on Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ground-based remote sensing and in situ observations of aerosol microphysical and optical properties have been collected during summertime (June-August, 2012) as part of the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/), which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (http://www.arm.gov/). The overall goal of the TCAP field campaign is to study the evolution of optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol transported from North America to the Atlantic and their impact on the radiation energy budget. During TCAP, the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed on Cape Cod, an arm-shaped peninsula situated on the easternmost portion of Massachusetts (along the east coast of the United States) and that is generally downwind of large metropolitan areas. The AMF site was equipped with numerous instruments for sampling aerosol, cloud and radiative properties, including a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), and a three-wavelength nephelometer. In this study we present an analysis of diurnal and day-to-day variability of the column and near-surface aerosol properties obtained from remote sensing (MFRSR data) and ground-based in situ measurements (SMPS, APS, and nephelometer data). In particular, we show that the observed diurnal variability of the MFRSR aerosol optical depth is strong and comparable with that obtained previously from the AERONET climatology in Mexico City, which has a larger aerosol loading. Moreover, we illustrate how the variability of aerosol properties impacts the direct aerosol radiative forcing at different time scales.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Reading with fixed and variable character pitch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We compared the effects of fixed and variable (proportional) spacing on reading speeds and found variable pitch to yield better performance at medium and large character sizes and...

Arditi, Aries; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Grunwald, Ilana

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Modelling the Climatic Response to Solar Variability [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Gerard J.-C. Pecker The Sun, the primary energy source...perturbations in the global surface temperature. A hierarchy of zero- to...measurements of the sea-surface temperature made since 1860. Changes...irradiance modulate the amount and distribution of atmospheric ozone, which...

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Dielectric barrier discharge for surface treatment: application to selected polymers in film and fibre form  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we report and discuss a surface treatment method, using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) of random filamentary type. This offers a convenient, reliable and economic alternative for the controlled modification (so far, largely dependent on surface oxidation) of various categories of material surfaces. Remarkably uniform treatment and markedly stable modified surface properties result over the entire area of the test surfaces exposed to the discharge even at transit speeds simulating those associated with continuous on-line processing. The effects of air-DBD treatment on the surfaces of various polymer films and polymer-based fabrics were studied. The dielectric barrier concerned has been characterized in terms of the energy deposited by the discharge at the processing electrodes and the resultant modifications of the surface properties of the treated samples were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle/wickability measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the surface treatment parameters, such as the energy deposited by the discharge, the inter-electrode gap and the treatment time were examined and related to the post-treatment surface characteristics of the materials processed. Relationships between the processing parameters and the properties of the DBD treated samples were thus established. Of the three process variables investigated, the duration of the treatment was found to have a more significant effect on the surface modifications found than did the discharge energy or the inter-electrode gap. Very short air-DBD treatments (fractions of a second in duration) markedly and uniformly modified the surface characteristics for all the materials treated, to the effect that wettability, wickability and the level of oxidation of the surface appear to be increased strongly within the first 0.1–0.2 s of treatment. Any subsequent surface modification following longer treatment (>1.0 s) was less important. The modification of the surface properties also appears to be stable with time, as minimal recovery of the surface properties is shown on ageing post-treatment. The behaviour of the woven textile polymers examined was found to be very similar, under DBD treatment, to that of thin-film variants based on the same polymers. For the porous textile fabrics examined, rapid and efficient treatment (fractions of a second) on both sides of the treated samples was found to be ensured. Thereby the system regime used offers the attractive prospect of controlling the modification of non-compact materials of various texture, porosity, etc. The DBD described system thus provides a chemically mild and mechanically non-destructive means of altering surface properties targeting improved surface characteristics and potentially better application performance.

G Borcia; C A Anderson; N M D Brown

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Towards the Light Front Variables for High Energy Production Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scale invariant presentation of inclusive spectra in terms of light front variables is proposed. The variables introduced go over to the well-known scaling variables x_F = 2p_z/sqrt(s) and x_T=2p_T/sqrt{s} in the high p_z and high p_T limits respectively. So Some surface is found in the phase space of produced pi-mesons in the inclusive reaction anti p p -> pi+- X at 22.4 GeV/c, which separates two groups of particles with significantly different characteristics. In one of these regions a naive statistical model seems to be in a good agreement with data, whereas it fails in the second region. Key words: Light front, inclusive, hadron-hadron, electron-positron, relativistic heavy ions, deep inelastic.

N. S. Amaglobeli; S. M. Esakia; V. R. Garsevanishvili; G. O. Kuratashvili; N. K. Kutsidi; R. A. Kvatadze; Yu V. Tevzadze; T. P. Topuria

1997-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

287

Towards the Light Front Variables for High Energy Production Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scale invariant presentation of inclusive spectra in terms of light front variables is proposed. The variables introduced go over to the well-known scaling variables x_F = 2p_z/sqrt(s) and x_T=2p_T/sqrt{s} in the high p_z and high p_T limits respectively. So Some surface is found in the phase space of produced pi-mesons in the inclusive reaction anti p p -> pi+- X at 22.4 GeV/c, which separates two groups of particles with significantly different characteristics. In one of these regions a naive statistical model seems to be in a good agreement with data, whereas it fails in the second region. Key words: Light front, inclusive, hadron-hadron, electron-positron, relativistic heavy ions, deep inelastic.

Amaglobeli, N S; Garsevanishvili, V R; Kuratashvili, G O; Kutsidi, N K; Kvatadze, R A; Tevzadze, Yu V; Topuria, T P; Tevzadze, Yu V.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Testing for Deterministic Trends in Global Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Long-term variability in global sea surface temperature (SST) is often quantified by the slope from a linear regression fit. Attention is then focused on assessing the statistical significance of the derived slope parameter, but the adequacy of ...

Susana M. Barbosa

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical Indian Ocean using in situ data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The OSCAR (ocean surface current analysis real-time), which is a ... , has been evaluated in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in two different ways. First ... capture the variabilities of the well-known surface current

RAJESH SIKHAKOLLI; RASHMI SHARMA; SUJIT BASU; B S GOHIL…

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Mass Transportation on surfaces Ludovic Rifford  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mass Transportation on surfaces Ludovic Rifford Universit´e de Nice - Sophia Antipolis Ludovic Rifford Mass Transportation on surfaces #12;Monge quadratic transport in Rn Let µ0 and µ1 be probability measures with compact support in Rn . We call transport map from µ0 to µ1 any measurable map T : Rn Rn

Rifford, Ludovic

291

Performance measurements at the SLS SIM beamline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Surface/Interface: Microscopy beamline of the Swiss Light Source started operation in 2001. In 2007 the beamline has been significantly upgraded with a second refocusing section and a blazed grating optimized for high photon flux. Two Apple II type undulators with a plane grating monochromator using the collimated light scheme deliver photons with an energy from 90eV to about 2keV with variable polarization for the photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) as the primary user station. We measured a focus of (45x60) {mu}m({nu}xh) and a photon flux > 10{sup 12} photon/s for all gratings. Polarization switching within a few seconds is realized with the small bandpass of the monochromator and a slight detuning of the undulator.

Flechsig, U.; Nolting, F.; Fraile Rodriguez, A.; Krempasky, J.; Quitmann, C.; Schmidt, T.; Spielmann, S.; Zimoch, D. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Swiss Light Source, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

292

Final report for the project "Improving the understanding of surface-atmosphere radiative interactions by mapping surface reflectance over the ARM CART site" (award DE-FG02-02ER63351)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface spectral reflectance (albedo) is a fundamental variable affecting the transfer of solar radiation and the Earth’s climate. It determines the proportion of solar energy absorbed by the surface and reflected back to the atmosphere. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified surface albedo among key factors influencing climate radiative forcing. Accurate knowledge of surface reflective properties is important for advancing weather forecasting and climate change impact studies. It is also important for determining radiative impact and acceptable levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which makes this work strongly linked to major scientific objectives of the Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Most significant accomplishments of eth project are listed below. I) Surface albedo/BRDF datasets from 1995 to the end of 2004 have been produced. They were made available to the ARM community and other interested users through the CCRS public ftp site ftp://ftp.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ad/CCRS_ARM/ and ARM IOP data archive under “PI data Trishchenko”. II) Surface albedo properties over the ARM SGP area have been described for 10-year period. Comparison with ECMWF data product showed some deficiencies in the ECMWF surface scheme, such as missing some seasonal variability and no dependence on sky-conditions which biases surface energy budget and has some influence of the diurnal cycle of upward radiation and atmospheric absorption. III) Four surface albedo Intensive Observation Period (IOP) Field Campaigns have been conducted for every season (August, 2002, May 2003, February 2004 and October 2004). Data have been prepared, documented and transferred to ARM IOP archive. Nine peer-reviewed journal papers and 26 conference papers have been published.

Alexander P. Trishchenko; Yi Luo; Konstantin V. Khlopenkov, William M. Park; Zhanqing Li; Maureen Cribb

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

293

Operating Reserves and Variable Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Cosmological models with variable constants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The behavior of the constants, G,c,h,a,e,m and Lambda, considering them as variable, in the framework of a flat cosmological model with FRW symmetries described by a bulk viscous fluid and considering mechanisms of adiabatic matter creation are investigated. Within two models; one with radiation predominance and another of matter predominance, this behavior are studied.

J. A. Belinchon

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Climate monitoring with Earth radiation budget measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) and its geographical distribution is intimately linked with the earth’s climate and with the general circulation. We analyze 10 years of global Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements from 2000 to 2010 and 8 years of diurnally resolved Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) from 2004 to 2011 to illustrate this link and to verify if we can detect climate variability or systematic change. In response to the diurnal wave of solar heating three tropical convection maxima exist over South America Africa and around Indonesia. The Indonesian convection maximum is unstable due to a lack of a stabilizing land mass; this is the root cause of the El Ni?o/La Ni?a inter-annual variation with a global pattern of teleconnected variations through the general Walker circulation. Since 2000 a change in global dynamics seems to have occurred. There was a general strengthening of La Ni?a coinciding with a ‘break in global temperature rise’ and with an ‘eastern dimming’ i.e. an increase of aerosols over Asia. There is a resemblance to the period of ‘western dimming’ from 1945 to 1980 and a contrast with the period of global temperature rise and El Ni?o strengthening from 1980 to 2000. It is of paramount importance that the suspected link between the eastern dimming the strengthening of La Ni?a and the break in global temperature rise is thoroughly investigated. This can best be done by a move of a satellite of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) series over the Indian Ocean. MSG provides diurnally resolved measurements of the key variables of the ERB clouds and aerosols and of the auxiliary variables of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and static stability.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Variability in Automated Responses of Commercial Buildings and Industrial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumption of commercial buildings and industrial facilities (C&I facilities) during Demand Response (DR. Keywords: demand response, baseline models, load prediction, error analysis, variability, measurement in the past ­ either with relays that interrupt power to air conditioners and water heaters [1], [2

297

HEART RATE VARIABILITY AS DETERMINISM WITH JUMP STOCHASTIC PARAMETERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEART RATE VARIABILITY AS DETERMINISM WITH JUMP STOCHASTIC PARAMETERS JIONGXUAN ZHENG, JOE SKUFCA, AND ERIK BOLLT§ Abstract. We use measured heart rate information (RR intervals) to develop a one with persistence which causes the heart rate and rhythm system to wander about a bifurcation point. We propose

Bollt, Erik

298

Variable trim compressor – a new approach to variable compressor geometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Variable compressor geometry can be employed irrespective of the combustion process selected. It provides the capability of improving response behavior, reducing fuel consumption or cutting exhaust emissions from exhaust-gas turbocharged engines. Previous concepts on variable compressor geometries have been based on using inlet guide vanes to impart a swirl motion to the air that is fed to the compressor with the ultimate aim of enhancing the angle at which the flow of air enters the blade channel. This paper shows an inlet guide configuration that is based on a different operating principle. The inlet guide assembly shown here is designed in a way that minimizes any pressure losses even at high flow rates. Numerical studies were carried out using CFD to test the system's sensitivity. Based on these studies, a rigid conical element was then produced and the potential for increasing efficiency (up to 7% points) and shifting the surge line (up to 33%) verified on a turbocharger test bench. Finally, a design configuration is presented for a variable system.

P. Grigoriadis; S. Müller; A. Benz; M. Sens

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Surface and Porosity of Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The validity of adsorption methods of measuring specific surface areas of solids (and, in particular, of adsorbents) is limited by the characteristics of the porosity. Methods based on the concept of multilayer adsorption, like the BET method and de Boer's t-method, are applicable only to non-porous or coarsely porous (including mesoporous) adsorbents. There is no general method of calculating the surface area of microporous adsorbents from adsorption data. For the "crack" model of the micropores in carbon adsorbents we can calculate the size and the geometrical area of the micropores from the parameters of the adsorption equation given by the theory of the volume filling of micropores, using a standard vapour (benzene). Almost identical results are obtained by using the adsorption of water vapour, which forms continuous monolayers in the micropores because of the dominant role of the hydrogen bond in adsorption. The geometric surface of micropores in carbon adsorbents is not a measure of the adsorption capacity of the sample, which is determined by dispersion forces, but it is relevant in kinetics and catalysis. The presence of micropores in non-porous or coarsely porous adsorbents makes the measurement of surface area by the BET or the de Boer method physically meaningless. In this case we can use the t/F method of Dubinin and Kadlets, which gives a measure of the volume of micropores and of the specific surface of mesopores. Kistler and Kiselev's capillary condensation method gives similar values for the specific area of the mesopores. 23 references.

M M Dubinin

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Onset of surface superconductivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine the onset of superconductivity in the surface region of a metal. Surface effects are particularly important in systems with a short bulk coherence length {xi}{sub 0}. We show that, to the accuracy of the calculation, the surface transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital S}} equals the bulk transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital B}} if the electron-electron interaction is of the standard BCS form, i.e., a single attractive square well, extending up to some critical energy {omega}{sub 0} much smaller than the Fermi energy {var epsilon}{sub {ital F}}. If one takes into account, in addition, the repulsive part of the interaction extending beyond {omega}{sub 0} up to energies of order {var epsilon}{sub {ital F}}, then one may have {ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital S}}{gt}{ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital B}} in certain cases, although, due to restrictions imposed on the parameter values by various physical conditions, the relative increase of {ital T}{sub {ital c}} is very small, typically 10{sup {minus}3}, at least in the weak coupling limit. However, we also find a considerable gap enhancement, of order 20%, near the surface which could be of interest for critical-current measurements. Therefore we suggest an experimental reexamination of systems with short {xi}{sub 0}, i.e., superconducting degenerate semiconductors and the new high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} oxides in confined geometries where the surface-to-volume ratio is non-negligible.

Giamarchi, T.; Beal-Monod, M.T. (Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud 91405 Orsay, (France)); Valls, O.T. (Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, (France) Center for the Science and Application of Superconductivity, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Method and Appartus for Calibrating a Linear Variable Differential Transformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

Pokrywka, Robert J.

2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

302

Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

Pokrywka, Robert J. (North Huntingdon, PA)

2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

303

Massive Variability Surveys from Venezuela  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory we are carrying out variability surveys spanning many hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, using an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning on a 1m Schmidt telescope. Among the initial efforts was a project to obtain the first moderately deep, homogeneous sample of young stars over an area of ~180sqr.deg. encompassing the entire Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formation. The results show that variability is a powerful technique to identify pre-main sequence populations, specially in sparse areas devoid of gas and dust. We are currently developing a massive database, equipped with web-based data mining tools, that will make our data and results available to the astronomical community.

Cesar Briceno

2003-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

304

Chapter Seven - Variable speed drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary The electromechanical controllers are a kind of variable speed drives (VSDs) that are obsolete but are still in use because when a motor and a drive is combined, they become a power drive system (PDS). There are two ways of varying the speed of an induction motor, either by varying the motor slip or by varying the supply frequency. The preferred practice for electrical speed variation is to change the supply frequency with a variable frequency drive (VFD). Many other designs also have been developed. However, except the specialized applications, few are still in operation. A number of motor and drive manufacturers are now producing the integrated motor/VFD units. These units consist of a motor and a specially designed VFD, produced as a single package, with the VFD unit mounted variously on the top, side, or end of the motor.

Europump; Hydraulic Institute

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Review of Probability Random Variable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at close 4) Height of wheel going over a rocky road #12;3 Random Variable Non-examples 1) `Heads' or `Tails' on coin 2) Red or Black ball from urn But we can make these into RV's Basic Idea ­ don't know · Temperature · Wheel height #12;5 Given Continuous RV X... What is the probability that X = x0 ? Oddity : P

Fowler, Mark

306

Improvements of the Variable Thermal Resistance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A flat mounting unit with electronically variable thermal resistance [1] has been presented in the last year [2]. The design was based on a Peltier cell and the appropriate control electronics and software. The device is devoted especially to the thermal characterization of packages, e.g. in dual cold plate arrangements. Although this design meets the requirements of the static measurement we are intended to improve its parameters as the settling time and dynamic thermal impedance and the range of realized thermal resistance. The new design applies the heat flux sensor developed by our team as well [3], making easier the control of the device. This development allows even the realization of negative thermal resistances.

V. Szekely; S. Torok; E. Kollar

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

307

Surface Treatment by Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By this treatment, new hardenings of the surface can occur; the surface is higher alloyed by remelting, or layers...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of shapes of crystals are important: (i) growth shape and (ii) equilibrium shape Surface/interface energy surfaces. The joining of two phases creates an interface. (Two orientations of the same crystalline phase

Subramaniam, Anandh

309

Method and system to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

System and method to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system includes a sensor suite to measure respective plant input and output variables. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) receives sensed plant input variables and includes a dynamic model to generate a plurality of plant state estimates and a covariance matrix for the state estimates. A preemptive-constraining processor is configured to preemptively constrain the state estimates and covariance matrix to be free of constraint violations. A measurement-correction processor may be configured to correct constrained state estimates and a constrained covariance matrix based on processing of sensed plant output variables. The measurement-correction processor is coupled to update the dynamic model with corrected state estimates and a corrected covariance matrix. The updated dynamic model may be configured to estimate values for at least one plant variable not originally sensed by the sensor suite.

Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Dokucu, Mustafa

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

310

SUPER HARD SURFACED POLYMERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.

Mansur, Louis K [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhattacharya, R [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL] [ORNL; Clemons, Art [ORNL] [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, H B [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL] [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, E H [Consultant, Milpitas, CA] [Consultant, Milpitas, CA; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL] [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL] [ORNL; Rivard, John D [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Engineered Surface Barrier Monitoring Using Ground-Penetrating Radar, Time-Domain Reflectometry, and Neutron-Scattering Techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effective monitoring of surface barriers intended to isolate and protect waste from the accessible environment requires techniques to assess their performance. Quantifying drainage conditions at any point below the barrier is difficult because field-scale drainage measurements are not well suited for assessing spatial drainage heterogeneity. Measurements of water storage, however, can provide an indirect measure of impending drainage. We measured seasonal water content at a vegetated capillary barrier on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State to determine effective water-content monitoring methods. Measurements were made using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques. Simultaneous measurements using time-domain reflectometry (TDR) and neutron-scattering probe (NP) at multiple depths were used to determine the depth of influence of the GPR ground wave. The GPR depth of influence increased only slightly with decreasing moisture content, ranging from 33 cm to 37 cm. TDR measurements were made using permanently emplaced arrays, eliminating the need for repeated ground disturbance. All three methods showed similar seasonal responses, with the highest water contents observed during the winter months decreasing through the summer. Unlike TDR and NPs, which are point measurements, GPR exhibited much greater spatial variability across the barrier surface. Our results indicate that GPR, in conjunction with automated TDR depth profiles can provide an effective and minimally invasive method for providing high-resolution estimates of soil water content within an engineered barrier.

Strickland, Christopher E.; Ward, Anderson L.; Clement, William P.; Draper, Kathryn E.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Saturn's icy satellites and rings investigated by Cassini - VIMS. III. Radial compositional variability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the last few years Cassini-VIMS, the Visible and Infared Mapping Spectrometer, returned to us a comprehensive view of the Saturn's icy satellites and rings. After having analyzed the satellites' spectral properties (Filacchione et al. (2007a)) and their distribution across the satellites' hemispheres (Filacchione et al. (2010)), we proceed in this paper to investigate the radial variability of icy satellites (principal and minor) and main rings average spectral properties. This analysis is done by using 2,264 disk-integrated observations of the satellites and a 12x700 pixels-wide rings radial mosaic acquired with a spatial resolution of about 125 km/pixel. The comparative analysis of these data allows us to retrieve the amount of both water ice and red contaminant materials distributed across Saturn's system and the typical surface regolith grain sizes. These measurements highlight very striking differences in the population here analyzed, which vary from the almost uncontaminated and water ice-rich surfac...

Filacchione, G; Ciarniello, M; Clark, R N; Cuzzi, J N; Nicholson, P D; Cruikshank, D P; Hedman, M M; Buratti, B J; Lunine, J I; Soderblom, L A; Tosi, F; Cerroni, P; Brown, R H; McCord, T B; Jaumann, R; Stephan, K; Baines, K H; Flamini, E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

The characteristics of signal versus noise sst variability in the north pacific and the tropical pacific ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Total sea surface temperature (SST) in a coupled GCM is diagnosed by separating the variability into signal variance and noise variance. The signal and the noise is calculated from multi-decadal simulations from ...

Sang-Wook Yeh; Ben P. Kirtman

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Variable pressure operation: An assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the benefits, drawbacks, and technical issues of variable pressure operation (VPO) retrofit. Under VPO, turbine throttle pressure is reduced at low loads. This operating mode offers several significant advantages for units that cycle or operate at low loads for extended periods. Information used in the report was assembled from published sources, from major equipment manufacturers, and from utilities operating units under VPO in the US, Europe and Japan. The report also contains statistics of VPO use in this country and abroad. Design features of new units using VPO in Europe and Japan are presented to identify potential directions for future US designs incorporating VPO.

Kimel, E.; Kemeny, P.; Bierman, E.; Lagomarsino, J.; Clarke, D. (Burns and Roe, Inc., Oradell, NJ (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Natural Climate Variability Michael Ghil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

periodic (often called quasi-periodic) variations in Earth's orbit around the Sun affect the intensity-gas concentrations in the atmosphere, such as that of carbon dioxide (CO2), will increase surface temperatures through the greenhouse effect (see Projection of Future Changes in Climate, Volume 1). This temperature

Ghil, Michael

316

A group bridge approach for variable selection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......group bridge approach for variable...Actuarial Science, University...Department of Management Science, University...group bridge approach that is capable...group bridge approach for variable...Actuarial Science, University...Department of Management Science......

Jian Huang; Shuange Ma; Huiliang Xie; Cun-Hui Zhang

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Boussinesq systems in two space dimensions over a variable bottom for the generation and propagation of tsunami waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boussinesq systems in two space dimensions over a variable bottom for the generation.R.T.H., P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion, Greece Abstract Considered here are Boussinesq systems of equations of surface water wave theory over a variable bottom. A simplified such Boussinesq system is derived

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Variable Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 1.0 42.6 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 35.2 18.6 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 34.7 19.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 6.2 66.5 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 6.0 59.6 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 13.3 67.0 Natural Gas Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Constant $) (Table 7a) 30.7 26.1 Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Nominal $) (Table 7b) 30.0 27.1 Total Natural Gas Consumption (Table 8) 7.8 70.2 Natural Gas Production (Table 9) 7.1 66.0 Natural Gas Net Imports (Table 10) 29.3 69.7 Coal Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants (Constant $)** (Table 11a)

319

Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

320

Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.

Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Variable area light reflecting assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

Howard, T.C.

1986-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

322

Processing of Neutron Diffraction Data for Strain Measurement in Geological Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

: Conventional rock mechanics testing techniques typically involve the loading of samples and measurement of displacements or strains on the outer boundary of the specimen surface. Neutron diffraction based strain measurement techniques represent a unique and powerful tool for measuring the strain within geological materials under load. The structural variability and non-uniform crystallinity of geological materials, however, create many complexities in the intensity patterns that must be analyzed to quantify strains within the material. The attenuating and scattering properties of the pressure cell housing the sample further add difficulties to the data analysis. This paper describes the methods and processes used to process neutron scattering data for strain measurement in geological materials. It is intended to provide a primer for those in the rock mechanics community that are interested in utilizing this technique along with additional discussion of neutron diffraction experimental factors that may affect data quality.

Polsky, Yarom [ORNL] [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL] [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL] [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Dessieux Jr, Luc Lucius [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Multidimensional Characterization of Fibrillatory Wave Amplitude on Surface ECG to Describe Catheter Ablation Impact on Persistent Atrial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multidimensional Characterization of Fibrillatory Wave Amplitude on Surface ECG to Describe of principal component analysis (PCA), surface electrocardiogram (ECG) spatial diversity is exploited influences f- wave amplitude during the procedure as quantified by ECG inter-lead spatial variability

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

Information-Theoretic Methods for Identifying Relationships among Climate Variables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Information-theoretic quantities, such as entropy, are used to quantify the amount of information a given variable provides. Entropies can be used together to compute the mutual information, which quantifies the amount of information two variables share. However, accurately estimating these quantities from data is extremely challenging. We have developed a set of computational techniques that allow one to accurately compute marginal and joint entropies. These algorithms are probabilistic in nature and thus provide information on the uncertainty in our estimates, which enable us to establish statistical significance of our findings. We demonstrate these methods by identifying relations between cloud data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and data from other sources, such as equatorial pacific sea surface temperatures (SST).

Knuth, Kevin H; Rossow, William B

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Variable White Dwarf Data Tables  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Below, I give a brief explanation of the information in these tables. In all cases, I list the WD {number_sign}, either from the catalog of McCook {ampersand} Sion (1987) or determined by me from the epoch 1950 coordinates. Next, I list the most commonly used name (or alias), then I list the variable star designation if it is available. If not, I list the constellation name and a V** or?? depending on what the last designated variable star for that constellation is. I present epoch 2000 coordinates for all of the stars, which I precessed from the 1950 ones in most cases. I do not include proper motion effects; this is negligible for all except the largest proper motion DAV stars, such as L 19-2, BPM 37093, B 808, and G 29-38. Even in these cases, the error is no more than 30` in declination and 2 s in right ascension. I culled effective temperatures from the latest work (listed under each table); they are now much more homogeneous than before. I pulled the magnitude estimates from the appropriate paper, and they are mean values integrated over several cycles. The amplitude given is for the height of a typical pulse in the light curve. The periods correspond the dominant ones found in the light curve. In some cases, there is a band of power in a given period range, or the light curve is very complex, and I indicate this in the table. In the references, I generally list the paper with the most comprehensive pulsation analysis for the star in question. In some cases, there is more than one good reference, and I list them as well.

Bradley, P. A.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

ARM - Measurement - Precipitation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsPrecipitation govMeasurementsPrecipitation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitation All liquid or solid phase aqueous particles that originate in the atmosphere and fall to the earth's surface. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer LDIS : Laser Disdrometer MWRHF : Microwave Radiometer - High Frequency

327

Environmental Assisted Quantum Information Correction for Continuous Variables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum information protocols are inevitably affected by decoherence which is associated with the leakage of quantum information into an environment. In this paper we address the possibility of recovering the quantum information from an environmental measurement. We investigate continuous variable quantum information, and we propose a simple environmental measurement that under certain circumstances fully restores the quantum information of the signal state although the state is not reconstructed with unit fidelity. We implement the protocol for which information is encoded into conjugate quadratures of coherent states of light and the noise added under the decoherence process is of Gaussian nature. The correction protocol is tested using both a deterministic as well as a probabilistic strategy. The potential use of the protocol in a continuous variable quantum key distribution scheme as a means to combat excess noise is also investigated.

Metin Sabuncu; Radim Filip; Gerd Leuchs; Ulrik L. Andersen

2009-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

328

6230 surface treatment [n  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

constr. (Surfacing of manufactured stone products, metals, wood,...Specific term for surface treatment of stones with hammer and chisel tooling); syn. surfacing [n] (2);s tratamiento [m] de superfici...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Anomalous Roughening of Curvature-Driven Growth With a Variable Interface Window  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We studied the curvature-driven roughening of a disk domain pattern with a variable interface window. The relaxation of interface is driven by negative surface tension . When a domain boundary propagates radially at a constant rate, we found that evolution of interface roughness follows scaling dynamic behavior. The local growth exponents are substantially different from the global exponents. Curvature-driven roughening belongs to a new class of anomalous roughening dynamics. However, a different surface tension leads to different global exponents. This is different from that of interface evolution with a fixed-size window, which has universal exponent. The variable growth window leads to a new class of anomalous roughening dynamics.

Chen, Yong-Jun; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Anomalous Roughening of Curvature-Driven Growth With a Variable Interface Window  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We studied the curvature-driven roughening of a disk domain pattern with a variable interface window. The relaxation of interface is driven by negative surface tension . When a domain boundary propagates radially at a constant rate, we found that evolution of interface roughness follows scaling dynamic behavior. The local growth exponents are substantially different from the global exponents. Curvature-driven roughening belongs to a new class of anomalous roughening dynamics. However, a different surface tension leads to different global exponents. This is different from that of interface evolution with a fixed-size window, which has universal exponent. The variable growth window leads to a new class of anomalous roughening dynamics.

Yong-Jun Chen; Yuko Nagamine; Tomohiko Yamaguchi; Kenichi Yoshikawa

2012-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

331

LANL: Facility Focus, MST-6 Materials Surface Science Investigations Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

07-018 Spring 2007 07-018 Spring 2007 T he MST-6 Materials Surface Science Investigations Laboratory is home to a one-of-a-kind integrated instrument for surface science and materials research, allowing scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory the unique opportunity to perform coordinated research using ultra-high vacuum surface measurements, in situ reactions, and materials synthesis tools. Housed in the Materials Science Laboratory, the surface science instrument features an ultra-clean integrated system for surface analysis and in situ surface modification, thin film deposition, and surface gas reactions. This integrated system is used for analytical surface science; materials electronic

332

NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy: Methodology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy: Methodology Energy Technology (RET) projects. These climatological profiles are used for designing systems that have for implementing RETs, there are inherent problems in using them for resource assessment. Ground measurement

Firestone, Jeremy

333

Turning a surface superrepellent even to completely wetting liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...was for liquids with surface energy as small as {gamma...if {theta} Y ~ 0°. The green...represented by orange triangles and green squares, respectively...measurements, surface free energy and wettability determination of various...

Tingyi “Leo” Liu; Chang-Jin “CJ” Kim

2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

334

Measurements and Characterization (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Analytical Microscopy, Electro-Optical Characterization, Surface Analysis, and Cell and Module Performance.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Research equipment: Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the acoustic wave. More specifically, the equipment consists of: i. HP 4195A (10Hz-500MHz) ii. HP 8753ES (30kHz measurements on many SAW devices iii. Agilent E5061A (300kHz-1.5GHz) http Scientific Corp.): Atmospheric plasma etching, for surface cleaning, surface treatment and activation

Gizeli, Electra

336

surface science | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface science surface science Leads No leads are available at this time. Metal-Insulator Photocathode Heterojunction for Directed Electron Emission. Abstract: New photocathode...

337

Investigation into the Effect of Surface Treatment on the Wettability and the Bondability of Low Surface Energy Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental effort has been undertaken to examine the effect of surface treatment on various low surface energy thermoplastic materials to promote wettability and ... measurements were correlated with the bon...

J. P. Jeandrau

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Atomic filtering for hybrid continuous-variable/discrete-variable quantum optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate atomic filtering of frequency-degenerate photon pairs from a sub-threshold optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The filter, a modified Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), achieves 70% peak transmission simultaneous with 57 dB out-of-band rejection and a 445 MHz transmission bandwidth. When applied to the OPO output, only the degenerate mode, containing one-mode squeezed vacuum, falls in the filter pass-band; all other modes are strongly suppressed. The high transmission preserves non-classical continuous-variable features, e.g. squeezing or non-gaussianity, while the high spectral purity allows reliable discrete-variable detection and heralding. Correlation and atomic absorption measurements indicate a spectral purity of 96% for the individual photons, and 98% for the photon pairs. These capabilities will enable generation of atom-resonant hybrid states, e.g. "Schr\\"odinger kittens" obtained by photon subtraction from squeezed vacuum, making these exotic states available for quantum networking and atomic quantum metrology applications.

Joanna A. Zieli?ska; Federica A. Beduini; Vito Giovanni Lucivero; Morgan W. Mitchell

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

339

Time-resolved vibration measurement with temporal speckle pattern interferometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temporal speckle pattern interferometry (TSPI) is an optical measurement procedurefor measuring the displacement of rough technical surfaces. The time-dependent speckle

Kauffmann, Jochen; Tiziani, Hans J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, June 2002.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite--Beginning in July, all three ARM sites (Southern Great Plains [SGP], North Slope of Alaska, and Tropical Western Pacific; Figure 1) will participate in the AIRS Validation IOP. This three-month intensive operational period (IOP) will validate data collected by the satellite-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) recently launched into space. On May 4, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Aqua, the second spacecraft in the Earth Observing System (EOS) series. The EOS satellites monitor Earth systems including land surfaces, oceans, the atmosphere, and ice cover. The first EOS satellite, named Terra, was launched in December 1999. The second EOS satellite is named Aqua because its primary focus is understanding Earth's water cycle through observation of atmospheric moisture, clouds, temperature, ocean surface, precipitation, and soil moisture. One of the instruments aboard Aqua is the AIRS, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA agency. The AIRS Validation IOP complements the ARM mission to improve understanding of the interactions of clouds and atmospheric moisture with solar radiation and their influence on weather and climate. In support of satellite validation IOP, ARM will launch dedicated radiosondes at all three ARM sites while the Aqua satellite with the AIRS instrument is orbiting overhead. These radiosonde launches will occur 45 minutes and 5 minutes before selected satellite overpasses. In addition, visiting scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will launch special radiosondes to measure ozone and humidity over the SGP site. All launches will generate ground-truth data to validate satellite data collected simultaneously. Data gathered daily by ARM meteorological and solar radiation instruments will complete the validation data sets. Data from Aqua-based instruments, including AIRS, will aid in weather forecasting, climate modeling, and greenhouse gas studies. These instruments will provide more accurate, detailed global observations of weather and atmospheric parameters that will, in turn, improve the accuracy and quality of weather forecasts. A satellite-based instrument is cost-effective because it can provide continuous global measurements, eliminating isolated yet costly weather balloon releases. Aqua, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California (Figure 2), carries six state-of-the-art instruments that measure various water vapor parameters: (1) AIRS, which measures atmospheric temperature and humidity, land and sea surface temperatures, cloud properties, and radiative energy flux; (2) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, which measures atmospheric temperature and humidity during both cloudy and cloud-free periods; (3) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer, which measures cloud properties, radiative energy flux, precipitation rates, land surface wetness, sea ice, snow cover, sea surface temperature, and wind fields; (4) Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, which measures radiative energy flux; (5) Humidity Sounder for Brazil, which measures atmospheric humidity by using a passive scanning microwave radiometer; and (6) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, which measures cloud properties, radiative energy flux, aerosol properties, land cover and land use change, vegetation dynamics, land surface temperature, fire occurrence, volcanic effects, sea surface temperature, ocean color, snow cover, atmospheric temperature and humidity, and sea ice. The data-gathering capabilities of the Aqua instruments will provide an unprecedented view of atmosphere-land interactions (Figure 3). The availability of more frequent, more accurate global measurements of important atmospheric parameters will both improve our capabilities for short-term weather forecasting and lead to a better understanding of climate variability and climate change. Simultaneous measurements of many parameters will allow scientists to study complicated forcings and feedbacks of the atmosphere, which can be

Holdridge, D. J.

2002-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used the PACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe eight cataclysmic variables at 70 and 160 {mu}m. Of these eight objects, only AM Her was detected. We have combined the Herschel results with ground-based, Spitzer, and WISE observations to construct spectral energy distributions for all of the targets. For the two dwarf novae in the sample, SS Cyg and U Gem, we find that their infrared luminosities are completely dominated by their secondary stars. For the two highly magnetic 'polars' in our survey, AM Her and EF Eri, we find that their mid-infrared excesses, previously attributed to circumbinary dust emission, can be fully explained by cyclotron emission. The WISE light curves for both sources show large, orbitally modulated variations that are identically phased to their near-IR light curves. We propose that significant emission from the lowest cyclotron harmonics (n {<=} 3) is present in EF Eri and AM Her. Previously, such emission would have been presumed to be optically thick, and not provide significant orbitally modulated flux. This suggests that the accretion onto polars is more complicated than assumed in the simple models developed for these two sources. We develop a model for the near-/mid-IR light curves for WZ Sge with an L2 donor star that shows that the ellipsoidal variations from its secondary star are detected. We conclude that none of the targets surveyed have dusty circumbinary disks.

Harrison, Thomas E.; Hamilton, Ryan T. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Tappert, Claus [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile); Hoffman, Douglas I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Campbell, Ryan K., E-mail: tharriso@nmsu.edu, E-mail: rthamilt@nmsu.edu, E-mail: claus.tappert@uv.cl, E-mail: dhoffman@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: Ryan.Campbell@humobldt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Humboldt State University, 1 Harpst St., Arcata, CA 95521 (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Definition: Variable Peak Pricing | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Variable Peak Pricing Variable Peak Pricing Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Variable Peak Pricing Variable Peak Pricing (VPP) is a hybrid of time-of-use and real-time pricing where the different periods for pricing are defined in advance (e.g., on-peak=6 hours for summer weekday afternoon; off-peak= all other hours in the summer months), but the price established for the on-peak period varies by utility and market conditions.[1] Related Terms real-time pricing References ↑ https://www.smartgrid.gov/category/technology/variable_peak_pricing [[C LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ategory: Smart Grid Definitionssmart grid,off-peak,on-peak,smart grid, |Template:BASEPAGENAME]]smart grid,off-peak,on-peak,smart grid, Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Variable_Peak_Pricing&oldid=50262

343

Dark matter interacts with variable vacuum energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) scenario with two interacting components, dark matter and variable vacuum energy (VVE) densities, plus two decoupled components, one is a baryon term while the other behaves as a radiation component. We consider a linear interaction in the derivative dark component density. We apply the $\\chi^2$ method to the observational Hubble data for constraining the cosmological parameters and analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era for the model. It turns out that our model fulfills the severe bound of $\\Omega_{x}(z\\simeq 1100)measurements from Planck survey, the future constraints achievable by Euclid and CMBPol experiments, reported for the behavior of the dark energy at early times, and fulfills the stringent bound $\\Omega_{x}(z\\simeq 10^{10})<0.04$ at $2\\sigma$ level in the big-bang nucleosynthesis epoch. We also examine the cosmic age problem at high redshift associated with the old quasar APM 08279+5255 and estimate the age of the universe today.

Iván E. Sánchez G

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

344

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric turbulence  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

turbulence turbulence ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric turbulence High frequency velocity fluctuations that lead to turbulent transport of momentum, heat, mositure, and passive scalars, and often expressed in terms of variances and covariances. Categories Atmospheric State, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

345

Variable-Period Undulators for Synchrotron Radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

346

Multivector Functions of a Real Variable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is an introduction to the theory of multivector functions of a real variable. The notions of limit, continuity and derivative for these objects are given. The theory of multivector functions of a real variable, even being similar to the usual theory of vector functions of a real variable, has some subtle issues which make its presentation worhtwhile.We refer in particular to the derivative rules involving exterior and Clifford products, and also to the rule for derivation of a composition of an ordinary scalar function with a multivector function of a real variable.

A. M. Moya; V. V. Fernández; W. A. Rodrigues Jr

2002-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

347

Hybrid Bayesian Networks with Linear Deterministic Variables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conference (UAI-05), 2005, AUAI Press, Arlington, VA. 136 Y X Z Figure 2: A Bayesian Network Representation of the Mixed Distribution for X. this example, Y is a discrete variable with state space ? Y = {1,2,3}, Z is a real-valued variable, and X is a... conditionally deterministic variable whose condi- tional distribution is described as follows: X |{y,z} = y if y =1,2 and X |{y,z} = z if y =3. Potentials of the type described above are used in this paper to represent distributions of variables in hy- brid...

Cobb, Barry R.; Shenoy, Prakash P.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions L. Bird, M. Milligan, and D. Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NRELTP-6A20-60451 September...

349

ARM - Measurement - Sensible heat flux  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsSensible heat flux govMeasurementsSensible heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Sensible heat flux The time rate of flow for the energy transferred from a warm or hot surface to whatever is touching it, typically air. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station

350

vibration measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

vibration measurement ? Erschütterungsmessung, Schwingungsmessung f [Schwingungsmessungen dienen dazu, die Schwingungsanfälligkeit von Bauwerken realitätsnah zu erfassen

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

Charles Mendler

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Mesoscale Ocean Surface Current Structure Detected by High-Frequency Radar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The quality and vertical correlation scales of high-frequency (HF) radar-derived ocean surface current measurements from an ocean surface current radar (OSCR) are assessed by comparing surface to subsurface current observations from 11 June to 8 ...

Lynn K. Shay; Hans C. Graber; Duncan B. Ross; Rickey D. Chapman

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Journal of Environmental Management 86 (2008) 1426 Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Environmental Management 86 (2008) 14­26 Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology and environmental modeling for citrus pest management Qian Dua , Ni-Bin Changb causing pollution in surface water in Texas (Texas Environmental Profiles, 2005). As the Safe Drinking

Du, Jenny (Qian)

354

Deep-Sea Research II 50 (2003) 21832204 Temperature and salinity variability in the exit passages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-strait gradient in near-surface temperature and salinity through the outflow straits, except in Lombok StraitDeep-Sea Research II 50 (2003) 2183­2204 Temperature and salinity variability in the exit passages pressure gauges at each side of the straits, equipped with temperature and salinity sensors

Sprintall, Janet

355

Eddy kinetic energy and small-scale sea level height variability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the two are obtained for the long- and short-wave (compared to the grid scale) portions of the ocean power is established between the ocean near-surface geostrophic ki- netic energy and the small-scale variance of its an important dynamical attribute of the ocean, is often used to describe its mesoscale variability, or eddy

356

Integrated Analysis for the Design of Reusable TPS based on Variable Transpiration Cooling for Hypersonic Cruise  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the high dynamic pressure flight trajectories, generates surface temperatures for which the strength1 Integrated Analysis for the Design of Reusable TPS based on Variable Transpiration Cooling of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles presents formidable challenges. Reusable thermal protection systems (TPS

Texas at Arlington, University of

357

Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm for continuous variables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an idealized quantum continuous variable analog of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm which can be implemented on a perfect continuous variable quantum computer. Using the Fourier transformation and XOR gate appropriate for continuous spectra we show that under ideal operation to infinite precision that there is an infinite reduction in number of query calls in this scheme.

Arun K. Pati; Samuel L. Braunstein

2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

358

The Galex Ultraviolet Variability (GUVV) Catalog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present Version 1.0 of the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) ultraviolet variability catalog (GUVV) that contains information on 84 time-variable and transient sources gained with simultaneous near and far ultraviolet photometric observations. These time-variable sources were serendipitously revealed in the various 1.2 degree star fields currently being surveyed by the GALEX satellite in two ultraviolet bands (NUV 1750-2750A, FUV 1350-1750A) with limiting AB magnitudes of 23-25. The largest-amplitude variable objects presently detected by GALEX are M-dwarf flare stars, which can brighten by 5-10 mag in both the NUV and FUV bands during short duration (< 500s) outbursts. Other types of large-amplitude ultraviolet variable objects include ab-type RR Lyrae stars, which can vary periodically by 2-5mag in the GALEX FUV band. This first GUVV catalog lists galactic positions and possible source identifications in order to provide the astronomical community with a list of time-variable objects that can now be repeatedly observed at other wavelengths. We expect the total number of time-variable source detections to increase as the GALEX mission progresses, such that later version numbers of the GUVV catalog will contain substantially more variable sources.

Barry Y. Welsh; Jonathan M. Wheatley; Kenneth Heafield; Mark Seibert; Stanley E. Browne; Samir Salim; R. Michael Rich; Tom A. Barlow; Luciana Bianchi; Yong-Ik Byun; Jose Donas; Karl Forster; Peter G. Friedman; Timothy M. Heckman; Patrick N. Jelinsky; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Roger F. Malina; D. Christopher Martin; Bruno Milliard; Patrick Morrissey; Susan G. Neff; David Schiminovich; Oswald H. W. Siegmund; Todd Small; Alex S. Szalay; Ted K. Wyder

2005-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

359

Quantum Computing and Hidden Variables Scott Aaronson #  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum Computing and Hidden Variables Scott Aaronson # Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton of a hidden variable, then we could e#ciently solve problems that are believed to be intractable even powerful than the quantum computing model. PACS numbers: 03.65.Ta, 03.65.Ud, 03.67.Lx, 02.70.­c I

Aaronson, Scott

360

Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Surface modified spin-on xerogel films as interlayer dielectrics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SiO 2 -based xerogels are highly porous materials that may enhance the performance of microelectronicdevices due to their extremely low dielectric constants (?=1.36–2.2). Conventional xerogel and aerogel manufacturing techniques include an expensive and hazardous supercritical drying step to deposit crack free high porosity films. Ambient drying techniques have recently been developed and in this article we discuss how the process parameters in the ambient drying process affect the properties of a spin-coated film. Successful spin-on deposition of highly porous (>70%) thick (>1 ?m) crack-free xerogel films was accomplished using a solvent saturated atmosphere during spinning and aging. The saturated atmosphere allowed for the isolation of each processing step and a better understanding of the effects of process variable changes. The film porosity was controlled by varying the extent of silylation (surface modification) the aging time or the initial water/silane ratio. Fourier transform infrared spectra demonstrated that silylation of xerogel films helps eliminate bound moisture in these films and renders them hydrophobic. Finally the dielectric constants extrapolated from refractive index measurements were in good agreement with those obtained from our conventional electrical measurements.

S. V. Nitta; V. Pisupatti; A. Jain; P. C. Wayner Jr.; W. N. Gill; J. L. Plawsky

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable using the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, but were acceptable compared to the EA glass when tested. These glasses fell outside of the lower 95% confidence band, which demonstrates conservatism in the model. A few of the glasses fell outside of the upper 95% confidence band; however, these particular glasses have normalized release values that were much lower than the values of EA and should be of no practical concern. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable to the SB7b sludge system with a range of Na{sub 2}O concentrations blended with Frits 418 or 702. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable by the current DWPF PCCS models and/or acceptable with respect to the EA benchmark glass regardless of thermal history or compositional view.

Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

363

A variable-field permanent-magnet dipole for accelerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new concept for a variable-field permanent-magnet dipole has been developed and fabricated at Los Alamos. The application requires an extremely uniform dipole field in the magnet aperture and precision variability over a large operating range. An iron-core permanent- magnet design using a shunt that was specially shaped to vary the field in a precise and reproducible fashion with shunt position. The key to this design is in the shape of the shunt. The field as a function of shunt position is very linear from 90% of the maximum field to 20% of the minimum field. The shaped shunt also results in a small maximum magnetic force attracting the shunt to the yoke allowing a simple mechanical design. Calculated and measured results agree well for the magnet.

Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Barlow, D.B.; Meyer, R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

A variable-field permanent-magnet dipole for accelerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new concept for a variable-field permanent-magnet dipole has been developed and fabricated at Los Alamos. The application requires an extremely uniform dipole field in the magnet aperture and precision variability over a large operating range. An iron-core permanent- magnet design using a shunt that was specially shaped to vary the field in a precise and reproducible fashion with shunt position. The key to this design is in the shape of the shunt. The field as a function of shunt position is very linear from 90% of the maximum field to 20% of the minimum field. The shaped shunt also results in a small maximum magnetic force attracting the shunt to the yoke allowing a simple mechanical design. Calculated and measured results agree well for the magnet.

Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Barlow, D.B.; Meyer, R.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Diagnostic for two-mode variable valve activation device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for diagnosing a multi-mode valve train device which selectively provides high lift and low lift to a combustion valve of an internal combustion engine having a camshaft phaser actuated by an electric motor. The method includes applying a variable electric current to the electric motor to achieve a desired camshaft phaser operational mode and commanding the multi-mode valve train device to a desired valve train device operational mode selected from a high lift mode and a low lift mode. The method also includes monitoring the variable electric current and calculating a first characteristic of the parameter. The method also includes comparing the calculated first characteristic against a predetermined value of the first characteristic measured when the multi-mode valve train device is known to be in the desired valve train device operational mode.

Fedewa, Andrew M

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

366

Surface Chemical Dynamics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface Chemical Dynamics Surface Chemical Dynamics The goal of the Surface Chemical Dynamics Program is to elucidate the underlying physical processes that determine the products (selectivity) and yield (efficiency) of chemical transformations relevant to energy-related chemistry on catalytic and nanostructured surfaces. Achieving this end requires understanding the evolution of the reactant-molecule/surface complex as molecules adsorb, bonds dissociate, surface species diffuse, new bonds form and products desorb. The pathways and time scales of these processes are ultimately determined by a multidimensional potential energy surface that is a function of the geometric and electronic structures of the surface and the reactant, product, intermediate and transition-state molecular and atomic species.

367

surface chemistry | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface chemistry surface chemistry Leads No leads are available at this time. FeSSZ-13 as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics and FTIRMössbauer Spectroscopic Study....

368

Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

Hanrahan, Timothy P.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS CONCLUDING REMARKS DYNAMIC TRANSITIONS OF SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION H.Dijkstra T. Sengul S. Wang #12;SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS

Wang, Shouhong

370

Ion Surface Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ion Surface Engineering Southwest Research Institute® San Antonio, Texas surfaceengineering.swri.com #12;he ion surface engineering program at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI® ) is dedicated, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. SwRI's ion surface engineering activities include: s Thin

Chapman, Clark R.

371

Quantification of surface tension and internal pressure generated by single  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantification of surface tension and internal pressure generated by single mitotic cells Elisabeth of a liquid cell interior, the surface tension is related to the local curvature and the hydrostatic pressure measured confined cell shapes to shapes obeying Laplace's law with uniform surface tension and find

JĂĽlicher, Frank

372

Surface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 19931999  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and salinity of a fluid parcel. There is a marked surface density gradient across the ACC, with temperaturesSurface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 1993­1999 Alexis 2002. [1] Continuous surface temperature and salinity measurements have been collected onboard a supply

373

Surface characterization based on optical phase shifting interferometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus, techniques and systems for implementing an optical interferometer to measure surfaces, including mapping of instantaneous curvature or in-plane and out-of-plane displacement field gradients of a sample surface based on obtaining and processing four optical interferograms from a common optical reflected beam from the sample surface that are relatively separated in phase by .pi./2.

Mello, Michael (Pasadena, CA), Rosakis; Ares J. (Altadena, CA)

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

374

Measurement fundamentals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need to have accurate petroleum measurement is obvious. Petroleum measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, the Department of Revenue, and the motoring public. Furthermore, petroleum measurements are often used to detect operational problems or unwanted releases in pipelines, tanks, marine vessels, underground storage tanks, etc. Therefore, consistent, accurate petroleum measurement is an essential part of any operation. While there are several methods and different types of equipment used to perform petroleum measurement, the basic process stays the same. The basic measurement process is the act of comparing an unknown quantity, to a known quantity, in order to establish its magnitude. The process can be seen in a variety of forms; such as measuring for a first-down in a football game, weighing meat and produce at the grocery, or the use of an automobile odometer.

Webb, R.A. [Marathon Pipe Line Co., Findlay, OH (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Surface-integral formalism of deuteron stripping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this paper is to develop an alternative theory of deuteron stripping to resonance states based on the surface integral formalism of Kadyrov et al. [Ann. Phys. 324, 1516 (2009)] and continuum-discretized coupled channels (CDCC). First we demonstrate how the surface integral formalism works in the three-body model and then we consider a more realistic problem in which a composite structure of target nuclei is taken via optical potentials. We explore different choices of channel wave functions and transition operators and show that a conventional CDCC volume matrix element can be written in terms of a surface-integral matrix element, which is peripheral, and an auxiliary matrix element, which determines the contribution of the nuclear interior over the variable $r_{nA}$. This auxiliary matrix element appears due to the inconsistency in treating of the $n-A$ potential: this potential should be real in the final state to support bound states or resonance scattering and complex in the initial state to describe $n-A$ scattering. Our main result is formulation of the theory of the stripping to resonance states using the prior form of the surface integral formalism and CDCC method. It is demonstrated that the conventional CDCC volume matrix element coincides with the surface matrix element, which converges for the stripping to the resonance state. Also the surface representation (over the variable $r_{nA}$ of the stripping matrix element enhances the peripheral part of the amplitude although the internal contribution doesn't disappear and increases with increase of the deuteron energy. We present calculations corroborating our findings for both stripping to the bound state and the resonance.

A. M. Mukhamedzhanov; D. Y. Pang; C. A. Bertulani; A. S. Kadyrov

2014-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

376

Chapter 12 - Remote Measurements of Ocean Currents Using Satellite-Borne Altimeters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter begins with a discussion of the advantages of seawater motion mapping using satellite altimeters in establishing large as well as comparatively small circulation routes and in detecting and identifying major ocean gyres. This discussion is followed by a brief description of oceanic currents and associated features generated by sea surface slope as well as determination of seawater motion from sea surface slope measurements. Due attention is paid to the technological intricacies in realizing satellite altimetric measurements. These include correction of errors in satellite altimeter data, correction of satellite orbit errors, correction of geoid errors, and null methods for obtaining topographic height variability independent of geoid. Finally, evolution of satellite altimetry is addressed. Some images of the model-simulated mosaic of sea surface undulations arising from the presence of large-scale motions, eddies, and gyres are also given. Satellite altimetric images of the luxuriant sea surface motions such as western boundary currents and gyre systems are also included to kindle readers’ enthusiasm.

Antony Joseph

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

SURFACE ENERGY OF COATED PAPER: EFFECT OF CALENDERING CONDITIONS AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy(1-3) of a substrate can be defined as a measure of energy required to form a unit area of new, such as spreading coefficient(1,3) . The surface energy of a substrate can be estimated by measuring the contact on the surface of a substrate can be measured using the sessile drop method(3) and hence the surface energy

Fleming, Paul D. "Dan"

378

Surface Wind Regionalization over Complex Terrain: Evaluation and Analysis of a High-Resolution WRF Simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study analyzes the daily-mean surface wind variability over an area characterized by complex topography through comparing observations and a 2-km-spatial-resolution simulation performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model ...

Pedro A. Jiménez; J. Fidel González-Rouco; Elena García-Bustamante; Jorge Navarro; Juan P. Montávez; Jordi Vilŕ-Guerau de Arellano; Jimy Dudhia; Antonio Muńoz-Roldan

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Dynamical Adjustment of the Northern Hemisphere Surface Air Temperature Field: Methodology and Application to Observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of atmospheric circulation changes reflected in spontaneously-occurring sea-level pressure (SLP) anomalies upon surface air temperature (SAT) variability and trends is investigated using partial least squares (PLS) regression, a ...

Brian V. Smoliak; John M. Wallace; Pu Lin; Qiang Fu

380

Ocean Currents and Sea Surface Heights Estimated across the West Florida Shelf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The across-shelf structures of the ocean circulation and the associated sea surface height (SSH) variability are examined on the west Florida shelf (WFS) for the 3-yr interval from September 1998 to December 2001. Five sets of characteristic ...

Yonggang Liu; Robert H. Weisberg

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Coupled Impacts of the Diurnal Cycle of Sea Surface Temperature on the Madden–Julian Oscillation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study quantifies, from a systematic set of regional ocean–atmosphere coupled model simulations employing various coupling intervals, the effect of subdaily sea surface temperature (SST) variability on the onset and intensity of Madden–Julian ...

Hyodae Seo; Aneesh C. Subramanian; Arthur J. Miller; Nicholas R. Cavanaugh

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Intra-canopy variability of fruit growth rate in peach trees grafted on rootstocks with different vigour-control capacity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intra-canopy variability of fruit growth rate in peach trees grafted on rootstocks with different research was to study intra-canopy variability in fruit growth under conditions of low fruit-to- fruit vertically into five layers.The diameter of 12 fruit per canopy layer was measured early in the growing

DeJong, Theodore

383

Information and noise in quantum measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Even though measurement results obtained in the real world are generally both noisy and continuous, quantum measurement theory tends to emphasize the ideal limit of perfect precision and quantized measurement results. In this article, a more general concept of noisy measurements is applied to investigate the role of quantum noise in the measurement process. In particular, it is shown that the effects of quantum noise can be separated from the effects of information obtained in the measurement. However, quantum noise is required to “cover up” negative probabilities arising as the quantum limit is approached. These negative probabilities represent fundamental quantum-mechanical correlations between the measured variable and the variables affected by quantum noise.

Holger F. Hofmann

2000-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

384

GR via Characteristic Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reformulate the Einstein equations as equations for families of surfaces on a four-manifold. These surfaces eventually become characteristic surfaces for an Einstein metric (with or without sources). In particular they are formulated in terms of two functions on R4xS2, i.e. the sphere bundle over space-time, - one of the functions playing the role of a conformal factor for a family of associated conformal metrics, the other function describing an S2's worth of surfaces at each space-time point. It is from these families of surfaces themselves that the conformal metric - conformal to an Einstein metric - is constructed; the conformal factor turns them into Einstein metrics. The surfaces are null surfaces with respect to this metric.

Simonetta Frittelli; Carlos Kozameh; Ted Newman

1995-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

385

Hybrid permanent magnet and variable reluctance generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a hybrid electrical generator. It comprises: a permanent magnet generator having a permanent magnet rotor mounted on a shaft, the permanent magnet generator providing an output voltage over an operating range which falls in response to an increasing electrical load; a variable reluctance generator having a rotor mounted on the shaft with excitation of a stator of the variable reluctance generator being provided from the permanent magnet generator, the variable reluctance generator providing an output voltage which varies in response to an increasing electrical load over an operating range; and a voltage regulator, responsive to combined output voltages of the generators, for controlling the output voltage provided by the variable reluctance generator.

Vaidya, J.; Belanger, D.J.

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

386

Cluster States for Continuous-Variable Multipartite Entanglement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a new class of continuous-variable (CV) multipartite entangled states, the CV cluster states, which might be generated from squeezing and kerr-like interaction. The entanglement properties of these states are studied in terms of classical communication and local operations. The quantum teleportation network with cluster states is investigated. The graph states as the general forms of cluster states are presented, which may be used to generate CV Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states by simply local measurements and classical communication. A chain for one-dimensional example of cluster states can be readily experimentally produced only with squeezed light and beamsplitters.

Jing Zhang

2005-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

387

High efficiency pool filtering systems utilising variable frequency drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Over 1 year, private swimming pools in Australia will typically consume 1680 GWh of electricity, producing 2130 kt of CO2. Redesigning a pool's filtration system and using it more efficiently can reduce the energy use, and hence the CO2 production, by a significant amount. This paper describes experimental measurements carried out on a new design of pool pump system. Initial experiments using a variable frequency drive (VFD) with a standard, single phase pump/motor system have achieved energy savings of 40%. Utilising a VFD and a three phase pump/motor energy savings of 61% have been achieved, without degrading the system performance.

Z. Hameiri; T. Spooner; A.B. Sproul

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

ARM - Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement Instrument Sponsor Aircraft State PositionVelocity @ 10Hz Trimble DSM(tm) AAF PitchRollAzimuth Trimble Advanced Navigation System (TANS)10Hz AAF...

389

Shell Measures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Residential Commercial Commercial Industrial Lighting Energy Smart Grocer Program HVAC Program Shell Measures Commercial Kitchen & Food Service Equipment Plug Load New...

390

Buoyancy-generated variable-density turbulence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both a one-point (engineering) and a two-point (spectral) model are tested against numerical data. Deficiencies in these variable-density models are disucssed and modifications are suggested. Attention is restricted to turbulent interactions of two miscible, incompressible Newtonian fluids of different densities. Departures from the limits of validity of the Boussinesq approximation are examined. Results of the buoyancy-generated turbulence are compared with variable-density model predictions. 3 figs, 6 refs.

Sandoval, D.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Washington Univ. (United States); Clark, T.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Riley, J.J. [Washington Univ. (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Prctica 2. Anlisi descriptiva univariable: variables qualitatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nominal SEXO. Codificada de tipus "numèrica" amb valors 1 i 2. Aquests valors s'etiqueten amb: 1 `Hombre": (1) Seleccionem la variable sexo i la col·loquem al requadre de "Variables". D'aquesta manera obtenim: Frecuencias [Conjunto_de_datos1] C:\\Archivos de programa\\SPSS\\GSS93 reducido.sav Estadísticos sexo Sexo del

Castellana, NatĂ lia

392

Prctica 2. Anlisi descriptiva univariable: variables qualitatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nominal SEXO. Codificada de tipus "numèrica" amb valors 1 i 2. Aquests valors s'etiqueten amb: 1 `Hombre) Seleccionem la variable sexo i la col·loquem al requadre de "Variables". D'aquesta manera obtenim la taula de Estadísticos Sexo del entrevistado 1500 0 2 Válidos Perdidos N Moda sexo Sexo del entrevistado 641 42,7 42,7 42

Castellana, NatĂ lia

393

Rough surface reconstruction for ultrasonic NDE simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reflection of ultrasound from rough surfaces is an important topic for the NDE of safety-critical components, such as pressure-containing components in power stations. The specular reflection from a rough surface of a defect is normally lower than it would be from a flat surface, so it is typical to apply a safety factor in order that justification cases for inspection planning are conservative. The study of the statistics of the rough surfaces that might be expected in candidate defects according to materials and loading, and the reflections from them, can be useful to develop arguments for realistic safety factors. This paper presents a study of real rough crack surfaces that are representative of the potential defects in pressure-containing power plant. Two-dimensional (area) values of the height of the roughness have been measured and their statistics analysed. Then a means to reconstruct model cases with similar statistics, so as to enable the creation of multiple realistic realizations of the surfaces, has been investigated, using random field theory. Rough surfaces are reconstructed, based on a real surface, and results for these two-dimensional descriptions of the original surface have been compared with those from the conventional model based on a one-dimensional correlation coefficient function. In addition, ultrasonic reflections from them are simulated using a finite element method.

Choi, Wonjae; Shi, Fan; Lowe, Michael J. S. [UK Research Centre in NDE, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Skelton, Elizabeth A.; Craster, Richard V. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

394

ARM - Measurement - Soil heat flux  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

heat flux heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil heat flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dT/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the heat is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System External Instruments

395

Anisotropic surface tension of buckled fluid membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid sheets and fluid membranes exhibit buckling under lateral compression. Here, it is revealed that fluid membranes have anisotropic buckling surface tension contrary to solid sheets. Surprisingly, the surface tension perpendicular to the buckling direction shows stronger dependence than that parallel to it. Our theoretical predictions are supported by numerical simulations of a meshless membrane model. This anisotropic tension can be used to measure the membrane bending rigidity. It is also found phase synchronization occurs between multilayered buckled membranes.

Hiroshi Noguchi

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Superconducting surface impedance under radiofrequency field  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Based on BCS theory with moving Cooper pairs, the electron states distribution at 0K and the probability of electron occupation with finite temperature have been derived and applied to anomalous skin effect theory to obtain the surface impedance of a superconductor under radiofrequency (RF) field. We present the numerical results for Nb and compare these with representative RF field-dependent effective surface resistance measurements from a 1.5 GHz resonant structure.

Xiao, Binping [JLAB, William and Mary College; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [JLAB, William and Mary College

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Phenomenology of the CAH+ measure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The CAH+ measure regulates the infinite spacetime volume of the multiverse by constructing a surface of constant comoving apparent horizon (CAH) and then removing the future lightcones of all points on that surface (the latter prescription is referred to by the "+" in the name of the measure). This measure was motivated by the conjectured duality between the bulk of the multiverse and its future infinity and by the causality condition, requiring that the cutoff surfaces of the measure should be spacelike or null. Here we investigate the phenomenology of the CAH+ measure and find that it does not suffer from any known pathologies. The distribution for the cosmological constant Lambda derived from this measure is in a good agreement with the observed value, and the distribution for the number of inflationary e-foldings satisfies the observational constraint. The CAH+ measure does not exhibit any "runaway" behaviors at zero or negative values of Lambda, which have been recently shown to afflict a number of other measures.

Michael P. Salem; Alexander Vilenkin

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

398

Surface localized states and the Fermi contour of Pd(001)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Angle-resolved photoemission measurements of the surface localized electronic states of the clean Pd(001) surface are presented. Several surface localized levels were observed, in qualitative agreement with an existing surface band-structure calculation. In particular, a state was observed which crosses the Fermi level (EF) near the XŻ point of the surface Brillouin zone. The segment of the Fermi contour derived from this crossing lies largely within a gap in the projected bulk Fermi surface and is parallel to the Brillouin-zone edge. The nesting properties of this segment of the Fermi contour suggest the possibility of a fairly strong electronic coupling to phonon excitations.

G. S. Elliott, K. E. Smith, and S. D. Kevan

1991-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Surface charge in dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct measurements of the dielectric surface potential and its dynamics in asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators show that the charge builds up at the dielectric surface and extends far downstream of the plasma. The surface charge persists for a long time (tens of minutes) after the driving voltage has been turned off. For a sinusoidal voltage waveform, the dielectric surface charges positively. With the voltage waveform consisting of nanosecond pulses superimposed on a dc bias, the sign of the dielectric surface charge is the same as the sign (polarity) of the bias voltage. The surface charging significantly affects DBD plasma actuator performance.

Opaits, D. F.; Shneider, M. N.; Miles, Richard B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Likhanskii, A. V. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Macheret, S. O. [Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Palmdale, California 93599 (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Recent variability of the solar spectral irradiance and its impact on climate modelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The lack of long and reliable time series of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) measurements makes an accurate quantification of solar contributions to recent climate change difficult. Whereas earlier SSI observations and models provided a qualitatively consistent picture of the SSI variability, recent measurements by the SORCE satellite suggest a significantly stronger variability in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range and changes in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands in anti-phase with the solar cycle. A number of recent chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations have shown that this might have significant implications on the Earth's atmosphere. Motivated by these results, we summarize here our current knowledge of SSI variability and its impact on Earth's climate. We present a detailed overview of existing SSI measurements and provide thorough comparison of models available to date. SSI changes influence the Earth's atmosphere, both directly, through changes in shortwave (SW) heating and therefore, temp...

Ermolli, I; de Wit, T Dudok; Krivova, N A; Tourpali, K; Weber, M; Unruh, Y C; Gray, L; Langematz, U; Pilewskie, P; Rozanov, E; Schmutz, W; Shapiro, A; Solanki, S K; Woods, T N

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The Energy-Dependence of GRB Minimum Variability Timescales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We constrain the minimum variability timescales for 938 GRBs observed by the Fermi/GBM instrument prior to July 11, 2012. The tightest constraints on progenitor radii derived from these timescales are obtained from light curves in the hardest energy channel. In the softer bands -- or from measurements of the same GRBs in the hard X-rays from Swift -- we show that variability timescales tend to be a factor 2--3 longer. Applying a survival analysis to account for detections and upper limits, we find median minimum timescale in the rest frame for long-duration and short-duration GRBs of 45 ms and 10 ms, respectively. Fewer than 10% of GRBs show evidence for variability on timescales below 2 ms. These shortest timescales require Lorentz factors $\\gtrsim 400$ and imply typical emission radii $R \\approx 1 {\\times} 10^{14}$ cm for long-duration GRBs and $R \\approx 3 {\\times} 10^{13}$ cm for short-duration GRBs. We discuss implications for the GRB fireball model and investigate whether GRB minimum timescales evolve w...

Golkhou, V Zach; Littlejohns, Owen M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Variability in the North Atlantic Deep Western Boundary Current : upstream causes and downstream effects as observed at Line W  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The variability in the DWBC, its connection to the forcing in the northern North Atlantic and interaction with the Gulf Stream were explored from a combination of remote sensing and in-situ measurements in the western North ...

Peńa-Molino, Beatriz

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

Good, Morris S. (Richland, WA); Schuster, George J. (Kennewick, WA); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Surface structure of cleaved (001) USb2 single crystal surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have achieved what we believe to be the first atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images for a uranium compound USb2 taken at room temperature. The a, b, and c lattice parameters in the images confirm that the tetragonal USb2 crystals cleave on the (001) basal plane as expected. Our calculations indicate a symmetric cut between Sb planes to be the most favorable cleavage plane and U atoms to be responsible for most of the density of states measured by STM. Since the spacing between Sb atoms and between U atoms is the same, STM topography alone cannot unambiguously identify the surface atom species.

Chen, Shao-ping [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Surface Impedance in the Surface Superconducting State  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To enable a simple calculation of the microwave surface resistance, the surface superconducting state is approximated by a model in which a layer of uniform order parameter is considered superposed on the normal bulk. Appropriate values for the order parameter and thickness of this layer were chosen with the use of the numerical solutions of the Ginsburg-Landau equations by Fink and Kessinger. A Gorter-Casimir temperature dependence was used for the order parameter and the Maki temperature dependence for ?. Our experiments on Pb-In alloys at frequencies of 9.5, 23, and 55 Gc/sec are in good agreement with the calculations.

Allen Rothwarf; Jonathan I. Gittleman; Bruce Rosenblum

1967-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

406

Tools for Surface Analysis | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface analysis methods. Guides to surface analysis methods (see below) - (XPS, AES, SIMS, etc.) Data useful for surface analysis (see below) - (binding energies, sputter rates...

407

Anisotropic electric surface resistance of Cu(110)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electric surface resistance is measured without contacts by grazing incidence of p-polarized infrared (IR) radiation for the adsorbates CO and C2H4, which settle on top of the close packed atomic ridges of Cu(110) in the 1, -1, 0 direction. Surface resistance has only been observed for the IR electric currents in this direction. This can be explained by the assumption that IR induced currents in the 001 direction can only flow in the second and deeper layers of Cu(110). Therefore, in this direction, there is no friction with the adsorbates and hence no surface resistance.

A Otto; P Lilie; P Dumas; C Hirschmugl; M Pilling; G P Williams

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT OF SIMULTANEOUS OCEAN WIND AND CURRENT MEASUREMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT OF SIMULTANEOUS OCEAN WIND AND CURRENT MEASUREMENTS Ad Stoffelen, Jos de capability with sufficient accuracy for surface current estimation. Scatterometer Ocean Vector Wind (OVW-nadir measurement configuration. Sea surface current signature is one component of ocean surface motion. Several

Stoffelen, Ad

409

Surface Water Quality Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SURFACE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AAs part of the ongoing program to manage Texaswater quality, the Texas Commission onEnvironmental Quality (TCEQ) is currently review- ing the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards, including the standards... for contact recreation use. Preliminary public comment plus input from the Surface Water Quality Standards Advisory Work Group have provided guidance on options available for revising the standards, said Jim Davenport, leader of the TCEQ Water Quality...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Surface modification to waveguides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of treating the interior surfaces of a waveguide to improve power transmission comprising the steps of mechanically polishing to remove surface protrusions; electropolishing to remove embedded particles; ultrasonically cleaning to remove any residue; coating the interior waveguide surfaces with an alkyd resin solution or electrophoretically depositing carbon lamp black suspended in an alkyd resin solution to form a 1.mu. to 5.mu. thick film; vacuum pyrolyzing the film to form a uniform adherent carbon coating.

Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ); Ruzic, David N. (Kendall Park, NJ); Moore, Richard L. (Princeton, NJ); Cohen, Samuel A. (Pennington, NJ); Manos, Dennis M. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

The dynamics of variable-density turbulence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dynamics of variable-density turbulent fluids are studied by direct numerical simulation. The flow is incompressible so that acoustic waves are decoupled from the problem, and implying that density is not a thermodynamic variable. Changes in density occur due to molecular mixing. The velocity field, is in general, divergent. A pseudo-spectral numerical technique is used to solve the equations of motion. Three-dimensional simulations are performed using a grid size of 128{sup 3} grid points. Two types of problems are studied: (1) the decay of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, and (2) buoyancy-generated turbulence in a fluid with large density fluctuations. In the case of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, the overall statistical decay behavior, for the cases studied, is relatively unaffected by the presence of density variations when the initial density and velocity fields are statistically independent. The results for this case are in quantitative agreement with previous numerical and laboratory results. In this case, the initial density field has a bimodal probability density function (pdf) which evolves in time towards a Gaussian distribution. The pdf of the density field is symmetric about its mean value throughout its evolution. If the initial velocity and density fields are statistically dependent, however, the decay process is significantly affected by the density fluctuations. For the case of buoyancy-generated turbulence, variable-density departures from the Boussinesq approximation are studied. The results of the buoyancy-generated turbulence are compared with variable-density model predictions. Both a one-point (engineering) model and a two-point (spectral) model are tested against the numerical data. Some deficiencies in these variable-density models are discussed and modifications are suggested.

Sandoval, D.L.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

Cook, DR

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

413

Data Quality of Quality Measurement Experiments  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Data Quality of Quality Measurement Experiments Data Quality of Quality Measurement Experiments S. Bottone and S. Moore Mission Research Corporation Santa Barbara, California Introduction Quality Measurement Experiments (QME) are a special class of Value-Added Products (VAP). QMEs add value to Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program datastreams by providing for continuous assessment of the quality of incoming data based on internal consistency checks, comparisons between independent similar measurements, or comparisons between measurements and modeled results. Like any datastream, QME datastreams need to be checked for data quality. For each QME, we analyze a representative sample of files from the ARM data archive to determine 'typical' values of the QME variables. We then design outlier tests, specific to each variable, to be applied to

414

Kicked surface muon beams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility of splitting a surface muon beam into three separate components using an ... and could be very effectively used to provide muons to time differential ?SR experiments.

J. L. Beveridge

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

EMSL - ion surfaces  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surfaces en Physical Properties of Ambient and Laboratory-Generated Secondary Organic Aerosol. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsphysical-properties-ambient-and-laborato...

416

EMSL - surface chemistry  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface-chemistry en FeSSZ-13 as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics and FTIRMössbauer Spectroscopic Study. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

417

Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kleissl, J. , 2013. Deriving cloud velocity from an array ofCloud Speed Impact on Solar Variability Scaling -this work, we determine from cloud speeds. Cloud simulator

Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Software Enabled Virtually Variable Displacement Pumps -Theoretical and Experimental Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Software Enabled Virtually Variable Displacement Pumps - Theoretical and Experimental Studies the functional equivalent of a variable displacement pump. This approach combines a fixed displacement pump valve control, without many of the shortcomings of commercially available variable displacement pumps

Li, Perry Y.

419

The use of 'race' as a variable in biomedical research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be used as a variable in biomedical research but mainly toRace’ as a Variable in Biomedical Research A dissertationRace’ as a Variable in Biomedical Research…………. Manifest,

Efstathiou, Sophia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Photometric variability of the unique magnetic white dwarf GD356  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GD356 is a magnetic white dwarf (B = 13MG) that uniquely displays weak resolved Zeeman triplets of Halpha and Hbeta in emission. As such, GD356 may be the only known white dwarf with some kind of chromosphere, although accretion from the interstellar medium or more exotic mechanisms cannot be ruled out. Here, we report the detection of low amplitude (+/-~0.2%) near-sinusoidal photometric (V-band) variability in GD356, with a period of 0.0803 days (~115 minutes). We interpret this as the rotation period of the star. We model the variability with a dark spot (by analogy with star spots) covering 10% of the stellar surface. It seems likely that this spot is also the site of the Zeeman emission, requiring the presence of a temperature inversion. We show that the spot is never totally visible or obscured, and that both polar and equatorial spots produce good fits to the data when viewed at high and low inclination respectively.

C. S. Brinkworth; M. R. Burleigh; G. A. Wynn; T. R. Marsh

2003-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Managing variability in the IO performance of petascale storage systems.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant challenges exist for achieving peak or even consistent levels of performance when using IO systems at scale. They stem from sharing IO system resources across the processes of single large-scale applications and/or multiple simultaneous programs causing internal and external interference, which in turn, causes substantial reductions in IO performance. This paper presents interference effects measurements for two different file systems at multiple supercomputing sites. These measurements motivate developing a 'managed' IO approach using adaptive algorithms varying the IO system workload based on current levels and use areas. An implementation of these methods deployed for the shared, general scratch storage system on Oak Ridge National Laboratory machines achieves higher overall performance and less variability in both a typical usage environment and with artificially introduced levels of 'noise'. The latter serving to clearly delineate and illustrate potential problems arising from shared system usage and the advantages derived from actively managing it.

Wolf, Matthew; Zheng, Fang; Klasky, Scott; Schwan, Karsten; Oldfield, Ron A.; Lofstead, Gerald Fredrick, II; Liu, Qing; Kordenbrock, Todd

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Variable Temperature UHV STM/AFM | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of oxide materials, determining their properties is widely pursued both... Surface Chemistry of 2-Propanol on TiO2(110): Low and High Temperature Dehydration, Isotope...

423

HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

424

ARM - Measurement - Latent heat flux  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsLatent heat flux govMeasurementsLatent heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Latent heat flux The time rate of flow for the specific enthalpy difference between two phases of a substance at the same temperature, typically water. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station

425

Abstract Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CC + to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH...

426

A Measuring  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

clozapine. Relation to extrapyramidal side ffects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992; 49538-544. Smith M, Wolf AP, Brodie JD, et. al. Serial '*F-N- methylspiroperidol PET studies to measure...

427

Response Surfaces for Optimal Weight of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two levels of fidelity are used for minimum weight design of a composite bladestiffened panel subject to crack propagation constraints. The low fidelity approach makes use of an equivalent strain constraint calculated by a closed form solution for the stress intensity factor. The high fidelity approach uses the stress intensity factor directly as the constraint and computes it from the stress distribution around the crack. A number of panels were optimized by both approaches for different values of applied load, crack length, and blade height, and response surface approximations for optimal weight as function of these configuration variables were constructed. Computational cost, noise and accuracy for the results are compared.

Cracked Composite Panels; Melih Papila; Raphael T. Haftka

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Preventing Quantum Hacking in Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Security loopholes have been shown for discrete-variable Quantum Key Distribution (QKD). Here, we propose and provide experimental evidence of an attack targeting a continuous-variable...

Jouguet, Paul; Diamanti, Eleni; Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien

429

Impact of Real Field Diesel Quality Variability on Engine Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Real Field Diesel Quality Variability on Engine Emissions and Fuel Consumption Solutions for Onboard Optimisation Impact of Real Field Diesel Quality Variability on Engine...

430

Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change: A Guidance Manual...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to Climate Variability and Change: A Guidance Manual for Development Planning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Adaptation to Climate Variability and...

431

Microstructural Response of Variably Hydrated Ca-Rich Montmorillonite...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Microstructural Response of Variably Hydrated Ca-Rich Montmorillonite to Supercritical CO2. Microstructural Response of Variably Hydrated Ca-Rich Montmorillonite to Supercritical...

432

Pitch-variable blazed grating consisting of freestanding silicon beams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Theoretical analysis is presented for a pitch-variable blazed grating which consists of freestanding silicon beams. The pitch-variable blazed grating is implemented by combining...

Wang, Yongjin; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Hane, Kazuhiro

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for...

434

Nonmonotone line search methods with variable sample size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The nonmonotone line search framework is embedded with a variable sample size ... the line search combines well with the variable sample size scheme as.

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

435

Solutions for Interharmonics in Variable Speed Drives for LNG Plants:.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Variable speed drives can cause components of any frequency known as interharmonics. Large variable speed drives in the order of tens of megawatts can replace… (more)

Verhulst, M.P.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

INSTALLATION, COMMISSIONING AND TROUBLE SHOOTING OF VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis, the installation of variable frequency drive on board a ship is introduced briefly. In this particular study the variable frequency drive was… (more)

Kuituniemi, Santtu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements This tip sheet discusses...

438

Variable Renewable Energy: a Regulatory Roadmap (Fact Sheet)...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Variable Renewable Energy: a Regulatory Roadmap Research Highlights There is not a one-size-fits-all approach to the regulation of variable renewable energy (VRE), but...

439

Estimating climatological variability of solar energy production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A method is presented for estimating the climatological variability of yearly and monthly photovoltaic power production per 1 kWp of installed power. This quantity is computed for a specified portfolio of sources on the basis of historical data. Its climatological variability is derived from a simulation of 33 years of power production with hourly time step. Underlying meteorological variables are taken from the MERRA reanalysis for the years 1979–2011. Since the MERRA reanalysis is not a traditional data source for photovoltaic power modelling, various comparisons to available and more frequently used data sources are included. The method of estimation has the advantage of wide applicability due to the global coverage of the meteorological data.

Pavel Juruš; Kryštof Eben; Jaroslav Resler; Pavel Kr?; Ivan Kasanický; Emil Pelikán; Marek Brabec; Ji?í Hošek

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

VARIABILITY FLAGGING IN THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER PRELIMINARY DATA RELEASE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Preliminary Data Release Source Catalog contains over 257 million objects. We describe the method used to flag variable source candidates in the Catalog. Using a method based on the chi-square of single-exposure flux measurements, we generated a variability flag for each object, and have identified almost 460,000 candidate sources that exhibit significant flux variability with greater than {approx}7{sigma} confidence. We discuss the flagging method in detail and describe its benefits and limitations. We also present results from the flagging method, including example light curves of several types of variable sources including Algol-type eclipsing binaries, RR Lyr, W UMa, and a blazar candidate.

Hoffman, D. I.; Cutri, R. M.; Masci, F. J.; Fowler, J. W.; Marsh, K. A.; Jarrett, T. H., E-mail: dhoffman@ipac.caltech.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the U.S., a number of utilities are adopting higher penetrations of renewables, driven in part by state policies. While power systems have been designed to handle the variable nature of loads, the additional supply-side variability and uncertainty can pose new challenges for utilities and system operators. However, a variety of operational and technical solutions exist to help integrate higher penetrations of wind and solar generation. This paper explores renewable energy integration challenges and mitigation strategies that have been implemented in the U.S. and internationally, including forecasting, demand response, flexible generation, larger balancing areas or balancing area cooperation, and operational practices such as fast scheduling and dispatch.

Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Lew, D.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Variable pressure power cycle and control system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable pressure power cycle and control system that is adjustable to a variable heat source is disclosed. The power cycle adjusts itself to the heat source so that a minimal temperature difference is maintained between the heat source fluid and the power cycle working fluid, thereby substantially matching the thermodynamic envelope of the power cycle to the thermodynamic envelope of the heat source. Adjustments are made by sensing the inlet temperature of the heat source fluid and then setting a superheated vapor temperature and pressure to achieve a minimum temperature difference between the heat source fluid and the working fluid.

Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

443

Interannual variability of surface energy exchange depends on stand age in a boreal forest fire chronosequence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

grasslands, deciduous forests, and conifer for- ests) mayof boreal deciduous and conifer forests, Can. J. For. Res. ,succession evergreen conifer forests (typically $0.2) [Betts

Liu, Heping; Randerson, James T

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Wintertime sub-kilometer numerical forecasts of near-surface variables in the Canadian Rocky Mountains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems operational at many national centers are nowadays used at kilometer scale. The next generation of NWP models will provide forecasts at sub-kilometrer scale. Large impacts are expected in mountainous ...

Vincent Vionnet; Stéphane Bélair; Claude Girard; André Plante

445

Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in the tropical atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CM2.1 GISS-AOM GISS-EH GISS-ER INM-CM3.0 IPSL-CM4 MIROC3.2(GISS-AOM, two; GISS-EH, ?ve; GISS-ER, ?ve); the Center forCM2.1 GISS-AOM GISS-EH GISS-ER INM-CM3.0 IPSL-CM4 MIROC3.2(

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Extracting the Green's function from measurements of the energy flux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extracting the Green's function from measurements of the energy flux Roel Sniedera) Center for Wave in acoustics from measurements of the energy flux through an arbitrary closed surface surrounding both sources locations, rA and rB. In these experiments one first measures the total energy flux through a closed surface

Snieder, Roel

447

The sea surface directional wave spectrum and forward scattering from the sea surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An influence of the directional wave spectrum on acoustic forward scattering from the sea surface is difficult to measure. Here we present results of an experiment to measure vertical spatialcoherence from an acoustic path interacting once with the sea surface at two different angles with respect to the wave direction. The measurements were part of the Shallow-Water 2006 program that took place off the coast of New Jersey in August 2006. An acoustic source was deployed at depth 40 m and signals were recorded on a moored receiving system consisting of two 1.4 m long vertical line arrays centered at depths 25 and 50 m. Measurements were made over four source-receiver bearing angles separated by 90° during which sea surface conditions remained stable and characterized by an rms waveheight of 0.17 m and a mixed swell and wind-wave field originating from different directions. The measurements show a statistically significant difference depending on source-receiver bearing when the acoustic frequency is less than about 10 kHz; a result not observed at higher frequencies. This paper will present field observations along with modeling based on a rough surface parabolic wave equation utilizing synthetic sea surfaces. [Research supported by ONR Ocean Acoustics].

Peter H. Dahl; David R. Dall'Osto; William J. Plant

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

CLASIC Measurement Platforms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 4 SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms June 2007 Mark A. Miller, Principal Investigator and The CLASIC Steering Committee: Roni Avissar, Larry Berg, Sylvia Edgerton, Marc Fischer, Tom Jackson, Bill Kustas, Pete Lamb, Greg McFarquhar, Qilong Min, Beat Schmid, Margaret Torn, and Dave Turner Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research M.R. Miller et al., DOE/SC-ARM-0704 Contents 1. Introduction.............................................................................................................................1 2. Satellites..................................................................................................................................1

449

Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wildfire is a frequent perturbation in shrub steppe ecosystems, altering the flora, fauna, atmosphere, and soil of these systems. Research on the fire effects has focused mostly on natural ecosystems with essentially no attention on engineered systems like surface barriers. The scope of the project is to use a simulated wildfire to induce changes in an engineered surface barrier and document the effects on barrier performance. The main objective is to quantify the effects of burning and the resulting post-fire conditions on alterations in soil physical properties; hydrologic response, particularly the water balance; geochemical properties; and biological properties. A secondary objective is to use the lessons learned to maximize fire protection in the design of long-term monitoring systems based on electronic sensors. A simulated wildfire will be initiated, controlled and monitored at the 200-BP-1 barrier in collaboration with the Hanford Fire Department during the fall of 2008. The north half of the barrier will be divided into nine 12 x 12 m plots, each of which will be randomly assigned a fuel load of 2 kg m-2 or 4 kg m-2. Each plot will be ignited around the perimeter and flames allowed to carry to the centre. Any remaining unburned vegetation will be manually burned off using a drip torch. Progress of the fire and its effects will be monitored using point measurements of thermal, hydrologic, and biotic variables. Three measures of fire intensity will be used to characterize fire behavior: (1) flame height, (2) the maximum temperature at three vertical profile levels, and (3) total duration of elevated temperature at these levels. Pre-burn plant information, including species diversity, plant height, and canopy diameter will be measured on shrubs from the plots to be burned and from control plots at the McGee ranch. General assessments of shrub survival, recovery, and recruitment will be made after the fire. Near-surface soil samples will be collected pre- and post-burn to determine changes in the gravel content of the surface layer so as to quantify inflationary or deflationary responses to fire and to reveal the ability of the surface to resist post-fire erosive stresses. Measures of bulk density, water repellency, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity will be used to characterize changes in infiltration rates and water storage capacity following the fire. Samples will also be analyzed to quantify geochemical changes including changes in soil pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, and the concentration of macro nutrients (e.g. N, P, K) and other elements such as Na, Mg, Ca, that are critical to the post-fire recovery revegetation. Soil CO2 emissions will be measured monthly for one year following the burn to document post-fire stimulation of carbon turnover and soil biogenic emissions. Surface and subsurface temperature measurements at and near monitoring installations will be used to document fire effects on electronic equipment. The results of this study will be used to bridge the gaps in knowledge on the effects of fire on engineered ecosystems (e.g. surface barriers), particularly the hydrologic and biotic characteristics that govern the water and energy balance. These results will also support the development of practical fire management techniques for barriers that are compatible with wildfire suppression strategies. Furthermore, lessons learned will be use to develop installation strategies needed to protect electronic monitoring equipment from the intense heat of fire and the potential damaging effects of smoke and fire extinguishing agents. Such information is needed to better understand long-term barrier performance under extreme conditions, especially if site maintenance and operational funding is lost for activities such as barrier revegetation.

Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

450

Survey of Techniques for Measuring Currents near the Ocean Surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air-sea interaction studies of momentum, heat, and salt fluxes in the upper ocean require detailed knowledge of the mean and ... motions, however, make the slowly varying mean current component difficult to measu...

J. R. McCullough

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Analysis and Evaluation For Equipment Performance by Surface Measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many building owners and facility managers are deeply interested in both operation and maintenance costs related to a building's life cycle. Optimizing energy consumption and obtaining long equipment activity requires sophisticated management...

Ishizuka, K.; Aizawa, N.; Shibata, K.; Yonezawa, H.; Yamada, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

New imaging tool directly measures liquid surfaces | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for energy storage, environmental cleanup The schematic of a vacuum compatible aqueous SIMS device. Insert shows the secondary H- and Si- ion images of this aperture. A team of...

453

Surface Energy Balance on the Arctic Tundra: Measurements and Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The progress made in the Land–Atmosphere–Ice Interactions Flux Study over the past 4 yr to fully characterize the biophysical fluxes in the snow-free tundra ecosystem and their relationship to climate and climate change is described. This paper ...

A. H. Lynch; F. S. Chapin III; L. D. Hinzman; W. Wu; E. Lilly; G. Vourlitis; E. Kim

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

A new method to measure the acoustic surface impedance outdoors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Comparative Study Evaluation Studies Journal Article Validation Studies | Acoustics Algorithms Automobiles Construction Materials analysis Electric Impedance Materials Testing methods Models, Theoretical Noise, Transportation Radiation Monitoring......

S. Carpinello; Ph. L'Hermite; M. Bérengier; G. Licitra

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

de Sitter Extremal Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

Narayan, K

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Automatic Alignment of Genus-Zero Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new algorithm is presented that provides a constructive way to conformally warp a triangular mesh of genus zero to a destination surface with minimal metric deformation, as well as a means to compute automatically a measure of the geometric difference ... Keywords: Conformal mapping, mesh warping, Möbius transformation, nonrigid registration

Patrice Koehl; Joel Hass

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

An Exploratory Study of Variability in Safety  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Exploratory Study of Variability in Safety Culture among Clinician types and Patient Care of the current study was to (a) examine how different types of care providers viewed the safety culture of their unit, and (b) examine the relationship between hospital safety culture and patient satisfaction

von der Heydt, RĂĽdiger

458

SYNTHESIS: MODELING VARIABILITY AND CONSTRAINTS Rolf Carlson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SYNTHESIS: MODELING VARIABILITY AND CONSTRAINTS Rolf Carlson This is a modified version. Abstract This paper discusses some important topics in current speech synthesis research. Modeling of speaker characteristics and emotions are used as a examples of new trends in the speech synthesis field

Carlson, Rolf

459

Galactic Variable Sky with EGRET and GLAST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The characteristics of the largely-unidentified Galactic sources of gamma rays that were detected by EGRET are reviewed. Proposed source populations that may have the correct spatial, spectral, luminosity, and variability properties to be the origins of the EGRET sources are also presented. Finally, the prospects for studying Galactic gamma-ray sources with the GLAST LAT are reviewed.

Digel, S.W.; /SLAC

2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

460

TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Henry Throop (SwRI) John Bally (U. Colorado) #12;Takeaway: Photo-evaporation alters the disk structure in essentially unpredictable ways, because for disks formed at the same time in the same cluster. #12;30 Doradus: 100+ O/B stars Photo

Throop, Henry

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Heart Rate Variability Malvin Carl Teich  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heart Rate Variability Malvin Carl Teich Boston University and Columbia University http, Grasmere, UK, 2005 #12;CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE INABILITY OF HEART TO INCREASE CARDIAC OUTPUT IN PROPORTION of breath Swelling in legs General fatigue and weakness Clinical diagnostics: Ascultate heart Carotid pulse

Teich, Malvin C.

462

The QSO variability-luminosity-redshift relation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......to test Poissonian (or 'Christmas-tree') models for QSO variability...mean B-band luminosity in the light curve and a(LB) is its standard...comparison of the UV and optical light curves of NGC 4151 and 5548...spanning 16 yr. The rest-frame light curves are between 3.2 and......

Roberto Cid Fernandes; Jr; Itziar Aretxaga; Roberto Terlevich

1996-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

463

Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

Romberger, J.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Variable Light-Cone Theory of Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show how to reformulate Variable Speed of Light Theories (VSLT) in a covariant fashion as Variable Light-Cone Theories (VLCT) by introducing two vierbein bundles each associated with a distinct metric. The basic gravitational action relates to one bundle while matter propagates relative to the other in a conventional way. The variability of the speed of light is represented by the variability of the matter light-cone relative to the gravitational light-cone. The two bundles are related locally by an element M, of SL(4,R). The dynamics of the field M is that of a SL(4,R)-sigma model gauged with respect to local (orthochronous) Lorentz transformations on each of the bundles. Only the ``massless'' version of the model with a single new coupling, F, that has the same dimensions as Newton's constant $G_N$, is considered in this paper. When F vanishes the theory reduces to standard General Relativity. We verify that the modified Bianchi identities of the model are consistent with the standard conservation law for the matter energy-momentum tensor in its own background metric. The implications of the model for some simple applications are examined, the Newtonian limit, the flat FRW universe and the spherically symmetric static solution.

I. T. Drummond

1999-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

465

Variability viewpoint to describe reference architectures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reference architectures have emerged as a special type of software architecture that achieves well-recognized understanding of specific domains. Their purpose is therefore to be a guidance for the development, standardization, and evolution of systems ... Keywords: architecture description, reference architecture, variability

Milena Guessi; Flavio Oquendo; Elisa Yumi Nakagawa

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of diamond surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Second harmonic generation (SHG) and infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopies have been shown to be powerful and versatile for studying surfaces with submonolayer sensitivity. They have been used in this work to study bare diamond surfaces and molecular adsorption on them. In particular, infrared-visible SFG as a surface vibrational spectroscopic technique has been employed to identify and monitor in-situ surface bonds and species on the diamond (111) surface. The CH stretch spectra allow us to investigate hydrogen adsorption, desorption, abstraction, and the nature of the hydrogen termination. The C(111) surface dosed with atomic hydrogen was found to be in a monohydride configuration with the hydrogen atoms situated at top-sites. The ratio of the abstraction rate to the adsorption rate was appreciable during atomic hydrogen dosing. Kinetic parameters for thermal desorption of H on C(111) were determined showing a near first-order kinetics. For the fully H-terminated (111) surface, a large (110 cm{sup {minus}1}) anharmonicity and {approximately}19 psec lifetime were measured for the first-excited CH stretch mode. The bare reconstructed C(111)-(2 {times} l) surface showed the presence of CC stretch modes which were consistent with the Pandey {pi}-bonded chain structure. When exposed to the methyl radical, the SFG spectra of the C(111) surface showed features suggesting the presence of adsorbed methyl species. After heating to sufficiently high temperatures, they were converted into the monohydride species. Preliminary results on the hydrogen-terminated diamond (100) surface are also presented.

Chin, R.P.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

An investigation of the sub-grid variability of trace gases and aerosols for global climate modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One fundamental property and limitation of grid based models is their inability to identify spatial details smaller than the grid cell size. While decades of work have gone into developing sub-grid treatments for clouds and land surface processes in climate models, the quantitative understanding of sub-grid processes and variability for aerosols and their precursors is much poorer. In this study, WRF-Chem is used to simulate the trace gases and aerosols over central Mexico during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign, with multiple spatial resolutions and emission/terrain scenarios. Our analysis focuses on quantifying the sub-grid variability (SGV) of trace gases and aerosols within a typical global climate model grid cell, i.e. 75x75 km2. Our results suggest that a simulation with 3-km horizontal grid spacing adequately reproduces the overall transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols downwind of Mexico City, while 75-km horizontal grid spacing is insufficient to represent local emission and terrain-induced flows along the mountain ridge, subsequently affecting the transport and mixing of plumes from nearby sources. Therefore, the coarse model grid cell average may not correctly represent aerosol properties measured over polluted areas. Probability density functions (PDFs) for trace gases and aerosols show that secondary trace gases and aerosols, such as O3, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, are more likely to have a relatively uniform probability distribution (i.e. smaller SGV) over a narrow range of concentration values. Mostly inert and long-lived trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC, are more likely to have broad and skewed distributions (i.e. larger SGV) over polluted regions. Over remote areas, all trace gases and aerosols are more uniformly distributed compared to polluted areas. Both CO and O3 SGV vertical profiles are nearly constant within the PBL during daytime, indicating that trace gases are very efficiently transported and mixed vertically by turbulence. But, simulated horizontal variability indicates that trace gases and aerosols are not well mixed horizontally in the PBL. During nighttime the SGV for trace gases is maximum at the surface, and quickly decreases with height. Unlike the trace gases, the SGV of BC and secondary aerosols reaches a maximum at the PBL top during the day. The SGV decreases with distance away from the polluted urban area, has a more rapid decrease for long-lived trace gases and aerosols than for secondary ones, and is greater during daytime than nighttime. The SGV of trace gases and aerosols is generally larger than for meteorological quantities. Emissions can account for up to 50% of the SGV over urban areas such as Mexico City during daytime for less-reactive trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC. The impact of emission spatial variability on SGV decays with altitude in the PBL and is insignificant in the free troposphere. The emission variability affects SGV more significantly during daytime (rather than nighttime) and over urban (rather than rural or remote) areas. The terrain, through its impact on meteorological fields such as wind and the PBL structure, affects dispersion and transport of trace gases and aerosols and their SGV.

Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.

2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

468

NASA GISS Surface Temperature (GISTEMP) Analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NASA GISS Surface Temperature (GISTEMP) Analysis NASA GISS Surface Temperature (GISTEMP) Analysis DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.001 Graphics Graphics data Data Contributors Hansen, J.E.,1 R. Ruedy,2 M. Sato,3 and K. Lo2 1National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2SGT, Inc., 3Columbia University, Center for Climate Systems Research, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 USA Period of Record 1880-2012 (Anomalies are relative to the 1951-80 base period means.) Methods The NASA GISS Surface Temperature (GISTEMP) analysis provides a measure of the changing global surface temperature with monthly resolution for the period since 1880, when a reasonably global distribution of meteorological stations was established. The input data Hansen et al. use for the analysis, collected by many national meteorological services around the

469

Correlated spectral variability in brown dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Models of brown dwarf atmospheres suggest they exhibit complex physical behaviour. Observations have shown that they are indeed dynamic, displaying small photometric variations over timescales of hours. Here I report results of infrared (0.95-1.64 micron) spectrophotometric monitoring of four field L and T dwarfs spanning timescales of 0.1-5.5 hrs, the goal being to learn more about the physical nature of this variability. Spectra are analysed differentially with respect to a simultaneously observed reference source in order to remove Earth-atmospheric variations. The variability amplitude detected is typically 2-10%, depending on the source and wavelength. I analyse the data for correlated variations between spectral indices. This approach is more robust than single band or chisq analyses, because it does not assume an amplitude for the (often uncertain) noise level (although the significance test still assumes a shape for the noise power spectrum). Three of the four targets show significant evidence for correlated variability. Some of this can be associated with specific features including Fe, FeH, VO and KI, and there is good evidence for intrinsic variability in water and possibly also methan. Yet some of this variability covers a broader spectral range which would be consistent with dust opacity variations. The underlying common cause is plausibly localized temperature or composition fluctuations caused by convection. Looking at the high signal-to-noise ratio stacked spectra we see many previously identified spectral features of L and T dwarfs, such as KI, NaI, FeH, water and methane. In particular we may have detected methane absorption at 1.3-1.4 micron in the L5 dwarf SDSS 0539-0059.

C. A. L. Bailer-Jones

2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

470

Method of measuring a liquid pool volume  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

Garcia, Gabe V. (Las Cruces, NM); Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Symbolic Variable Elimination for Discrete and Continuous Graphical Models Scott Sanner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Symbolic Variable Elimination for Discrete and Continuous Graphical Models Scott Sanner NICTA & ANU, e.g., estimating the position and pose of entities from measurements in robotics, or radar track Intelligence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved. n xx1 ...x2 d 10 d 0 100 P(d) = P(x |d) = d x i i Figure 1

Sanner, Scott

472

DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF STIMULUS VARIABILITY AND LEARNERS' PRE-EXISTING PITCH PERCEPTION ABILITY IN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF STIMULUS VARIABILITY AND LEARNERS' PRE-EXISTING PITCH PERCEPTION ABILITY). Subjects' pre-training ability to identify the pitch patterns in a non-lexical context was also measured. Subjects with high pitch-identification ability learned more successfully than those with lower pitch

Gabrieli, John

473

Characterization of Soil Water Content Variability and Soil Texture using GPR Groundwave Techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content the soil water content is well character- ized across a field. In addition to crop yield, the quality JEEG, September 2010, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp. 93­110 #12;of some crops, such as wine grapes, partially

Hubbard, Susan

474

Graphical rule of transforming continuous-variable graph states by local homodyne detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphical rule, describing that any single-mode homodyne detection turns a given continuous-variable (CV) graph state into a new one, is presented. Employing two simple graphical rules: local complement operation and vertex deletion (single quadrature-amplitude $\\hat{x}$ measurement), the graphical rule for any single-mode quadrature component measurement can be obtained. The shape of CV weighted graph state may be designed and constructed easily from a given larger graph state by applying this graphical rule.

Jing Zhang

2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

475

Surfaces and roughening  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Some recent results in the application of statistical mechanics to surfaces are discussed. Only exactly soluable models are described. First, we consider phase separation below the critical temperature in unia...

D. B. Abraham

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Entropy and surfaceness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The layer of the Earth's atmosphere which contains clouds and weather systems is a thin thermoregulatory surface. It maintains an exact energy budget between the Earth and the Sun. Recent work in theoretical physics is ...

Casper, James Kyle

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Structured surfaces for hemocompatibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rise of micro- and nano-technologies has brought to light intriguing examples of scale-driven performance in a diverse array of fields. The quest to create highly hydrophobic surfaces is one such field. The application ...

Schrauth, Anthony J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Designing biomimetic antifouling surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...extreme environment where wave-swept rocky coasts place substantial hydrodynamic forces...2000) have been studied and modelled for flat surfaces using two- and three-dimensional...to biocorrosion, resulting in increased safety and financial concerns (Busalmen et al...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Bespoke Materials Surfaces  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bespoke Materials Surfaces Bespoke Materials Surfaces Background The Department of Energy (DOE) has established performance and efficiency goals for power generation systems which will improve the ability of the U.S. energy sector to produce electricity efficiently with less impact to the environment. Power systems showing the most promise for reaching these goals require corrosion resistance alloys able to perform at very high pressures and temperatures. Increasing both the

480

A mean field approach for computing solid-liquid surface tension for nanoscale interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A mean field approach for computing solid-liquid surface tension for nanoscale interfaces Chi are largely determined by the solid-liquid surface tension. This is especially true for nanoscale systems with high surface area to volume ratios. While experimental techniques can only measure surface tension

Nielsen, Steven O.

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481

Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance - Experimental Evaluation Of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance Title Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance - Experimental Evaluation Of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2011 Authors Singer, Brett C., William W. Delp, and Michael G. Apte Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley, CA Keywords energy analysis and environmental impacts department Abstract The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners. Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing more than $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from < 5 percent to roughly 100 percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above-the-range systems that do not cover the front burners.

482

Photorefractive holography for 2D mechanical vibrations measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report an efficient holographic setup for the real time measurement of 2D mechanical vibration modes in surfaces, based on the time-average holographic interferometry technique...

de Oliveira, Ivan; Frejlich, Jaime

483

Relationship between the shape of equilibrium magnetic surfaces and the magnetic field strength  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A local analysis of the magnetic field near an equilibrium magnetic surface shows that there is generally no relationship between the magnetic field strength and the shape of the surface. However, the relationship exists under additional requirements such as the absence of the toroidal current, symmetry conservation, and the conservation of the magnetic field strength distribution on the nearest surface. An equilibrium magnetic surface can be calculated by specifying three functions of two angular variables-the magnetic field strength, the periodic component of the magnetic potential, and the mean curvature of the surface.

Skovoroda, A. A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute (Russian Federation)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

484

An empirical analysis of the spatial variability of atmospheric CO2: Implications for inverse analyses and space-borne sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analyses and space-borne sensors J. C. Lin,1 C. Gerbig,1 B. C. Daube,1 S. C. Wofsy,1 A. E. Andrews,2 S. A observations and spatial averages simulated by models or observed from space-borne sensors surface fluxes or to validate space-borne sensors. We empirically derive the spatial variability

Lin, John Chun-Han

485

Modeling without categorical variables : a mixed-integer nonlinear program for the optimization of thermal insulation systems.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optimal design applications are often modeled by using categorical variables to express discrete design decisions, such as material types. A disadvantage of using categorical variables is the lack of continuous relaxations, which precludes the use of modern integer programming techniques. We show how to express categorical variables with standard integer modeling techniques, and we illustrate this approach on a load-bearing thermal insulation system. The system consists of a number of insulators of different materials and intercepts that minimize the heat flow from a hot surface to a cold surface. Our new model allows us to employ black-box modeling languages and solvers and illustrates the interplay between integer and nonlinear modeling techniques. We present numerical experience that illustrates the advantage of the standard integer model.

Abhishek, K.; Leyffer, S.; Linderoth, J. T.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Lehigh Univ.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

North Australian Sea Surface Temperatures and the El Nińo–Southern Oscillation in the CMIP5 Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aspects of the climate of Australia are linked to interannual variability of the sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to the north of the country. SST anomalies in this region have been shown to exhibit strong, seasonally varying links to ENSO and ...

Jennifer L. Catto; Neville Nicholls; Christian Jakob

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

The VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea survey: A first glance on stellar variability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) is an ESO public near-infrared variability survey of the Galactic bulge and an adjacent area of the southern mid-plane. It will produce a deep atlas in the ZYJHKs filters, and a Ks-band time-series database of ~10^9 point sources, among which >~10^6 are expected to be variable. One of VVV's immediate scientific goals is to provide accurate light curves of primary distance indicators, such as RR Lyrae stars, and utilize these data to produce a 3-D map of the surveyed area and, ultimately, trace the structure of the inner Galaxy. We give, based on the first ~1.5 years of the 5-yr-long survey, an early assessment on the basic properties and the overall quality of the VVV photometric time-series, and use these data to put an estimate of the fraction of variable stellar sources.

Dekany, I; Minniti, D

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Variables Affecting Economic Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy E. Lantz and S. Tegen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Presented at WINDPOWER 2008 Houston, Texas June 1-4, 2008 Conference Paper NREL/CP-500-43506 July 2008 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute â—Ź Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Midwest Research Institute (MRI), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337. Accordingly, the US Government and MRI retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

489

Thermodynamics in variable speed of light theories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The perfect fluid in the context of a covariant variable speed of light theory proposed by J. Magueijo is studied. On the one hand the modified first law of thermodynamics together with a recipe to obtain equations of state are obtained. On the other hand the Newtonian limit is performed to obtain the nonrelativistic hydrostatic equilibrium equation for the theory. The results obtained are used to determine the time variation of the radius of Mercury induced by the variability of the speed of light (c), and the scalar contribution to the luminosity of white dwarfs. Using a bound for the change of that radius and combining it with an upper limit for the variation of the fine structure constant, a bound on the time variation of c is set. An independent bound is obtained from luminosity estimates for Stein 2015B.

Racker, Juan [CONICET, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Avenida Bustillo 9500 (8400), San Carlos De Bariloche (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N (1900), La Plata (Argentina); Sisterna, Pablo [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350 (7600), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Vucetich, Hector [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N (1900), La Plata (Argentina)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

490

Correlated spectral variability in brown dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Models of brown dwarf atmospheres suggest they exhibit complex physical behaviour. Observations have shown that they are indeed dynamic, displaying small photometric variations over timescales of hours. Here I report results of infrared (0.95-1.64 micron) spectrophotometric monitoring of four field L and T dwarfs spanning timescales of 0.1-5.5 hrs, the goal being to learn more about the physical nature of this variability. Spectra are analysed differentially with respect to a simultaneously observed reference source in order to remove Earth-atmospheric variations. The variability amplitude detected is typically 2-10%, depending on the source and wavelength. I analyse the data for correlated variations between spectral indices. This approach is more robust than single band or chisq analyses, because it does not assume an amplitude for the (often uncertain) noise level (although the significance test still assumes a shape for the noise power spectrum). Three of the four targets show significant evidence for cor...

Bailer-Jones, C A L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

X-ray variability in M87  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the evidence for X-ray variability from the core and from knot A in the M87 jet based on data from two observations with the Einstein Observatory High Resolution Imager (HRI) and three observations with the ROSAT HRI. The core intensity showed a 16% increase in 17 months ('79-'80); a 12% increase in the 3 years '92 to '95; and a 17% drop in the last half of 1995. The intensity of knot A appears to have decreased by 16% between 92Jun and 95Dec. Although the core variability is consistent with general expectations for AGN nuclei, the changes in knot A provide constraints on the x-ray emission process and geometry. Thus we predict that the x-ray morphology of knot A will differ significantly from the radio and optical structure.

D. E. Harris; J. A. Biretta; W. Junor

1996-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

492

Variable aperture collimator for high energy radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is disclosed providing a variable aperture energy beam collimator. A plurality of beam opaque blocks are in sliding interface edge contact to form a variable aperture. The blocks may be offset at the apex angle to provide a non-equilateral aperture. A plurality of collimator block assemblies may be employed for providing a channel defining a collimated beam. Adjacent assemblies are inverted front-to-back with respect to one another for preventing noncollimated energy from emerging from the apparatus. An adjustment mechanism comprises a cable attached to at least one block and a hand wheel mechanism for operating the cable. The blocks are supported by guide rods engaging slide brackets on the blocks. The guide rods are pivotally connected at each end to intermediate actuators supported on rotatable shafts to change the shape of the aperture. A divergent collimated beam may be obtained by adjusting the apertures of adjacent stages to be unequal.

Hill, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

493

Thermodynamics in variable speed of light theories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The perfect fluid in the context of a covariant variable speed of light theory proposed by J. Magueijo is studied. On the one hand the modified first law of thermodynamics together with a recipe to obtain equations of state are obtained. On the other hand the Newtonian limit is performed to obtain the nonrelativistic hydrostatic equilibrium equation for the theory. The results obtained are used to determine the time variation of the radius of Mercury induced by the variability of the speed of light ($c$), and the scalar contribution to the luminosity of white dwarfs. Using a bound for the change of that radius and combining it with an upper limit for the variation of the fine structure constant, a bound on the time variation of $c$ is set. An independent bound is obtained from luminosity estimates for Stein 2015B.

Juan Racker; Pablo Sisterna; Hector Vucetich

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

494