National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for measurement variable surface

  1. Spatial Variability of Surface Irradiance Measurements at the Manus ARM Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Long, Charles N.

    2014-05-16

    The location of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site on Manus island in Papua New Guinea was chosen because it is very close the coast, in a geographically at, near-sea level area of the island, minimizing the impact of local island effects on the meteorology of the measurements [Ackerman et al., 1999]. In this study, we confirm that the Manus site is in deed less impacted by the island meteorology than slightly inland by comparing over a year of broadband surface irradiance and ceilometer measurements and derived quantities at the standard Manus site and a second location 7 km away as part of the AMIE-Manus campaign. The two sites show statistically similar distributions of irradiance and other derived quantities for all wind directions except easterly winds, when the inland site is down wind from the standard Manus site. Under easterly wind conditions, which occur 17% of the time, there is a higher occurrence of cloudiness at the down wind site likely do to land heating and orographic effects. This increased cloudiness is caused by shallow, broken clouds often with bases around 700 m in altitude. While the central Manus site consistently measures a frequency of occurrence of low clouds (cloud base height less than 1200 m) about 25+4% regardless of wind direction, the AMIE site has higher frequencies of low clouds (38%) when winds are from the east. This increase in low, locally produced clouds causes an additional -20 W/m2 shortwave surface cloud radiative effect at the AMIE site in easterly conditions than in other meteorological conditions that exhibit better agreement between the two sites.

  2. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  3. Measurement of the absolute penetration depth and surface resistance of superconductors and normal metals with the variable spacing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    , the complex conductivity, 1 i 2 , is a fundamental quantity which theories of superconductivity are able is important because it yields valuable information about intrin- sic charge carrier density, pairing state measured as a function of tem- perature, applied magnetic field, doping, or impurity concen- tration. Here

  4. Compressional wave character in gassy, near-surface sediments in southern Louisiana determined from variable frequency cross-well, borehole logging, and surface seismic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, L.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fasnacht, T. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Velocity and attenuation data were used to test theoretical equations describing the frequency dependence of compressional wave velocity and attenuation through gas-rich sediments in coastal Louisiana. The cross-well data were augmented with velocities derived from a nearby seismic refraction station using a low-frequency source. Energy at 1 and 3 kHz was successfully transmitted over distances from 3.69 to 30 m; the 5 and 7-kHz data were obtained only at distances up to 20 m. Velocity tomograms were constructed for one borehole pair and covered a depth interval of 10--50 m. Results from the tomographic modeling indicate that gas-induced low velocities are present to depths of greater than 40 m. Analysis of the velocity dispersion suggests that gas-bubble resonance must be greater than 7 kHz, which is above the range of frequencies used in the experiment. Washout of the boreholes at depths above 15 m resulted in a degassed zone containing velocities higher than those indicated in both nearby refraction and reflection surveys. Velocity and attenuation information were obtained for a low-velocity zone centered at a depth of approximately 18 m. Measured attenuations of 1.57, 2.95, and 3.24 dB/m for the 3-, 5-, and 7-kHz signals, respectively, were modeled along with the velocity data using a silt-clay sediment type. Density and porosity data for the model were obtained from the geophysical logs; the bulk and shear moduli were estimated from published relationships. Modeling results indicate that gas bubbles measuring 1 mm in diameter occupy at least 25% to 35% of the pore space.

  5. Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sawyer, J. Wayne (Hampton, VA); Hess, John R. (Ashton, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

  6. GLOBAL PATTERN OF MESOSCALE VARIABILITY IN SEA SURFACE HEIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Alexey

    GLOBAL PATTERN OF MESOSCALE VARIABILITY IN SEA SURFACE HEIGHT AND ITS DYNAMICAL CAUSES Alexey separate the mesoscale variability of sea surface heights into its spatial and temporal components of mesoscale variability in different areas to dynamical causes. Major portion of it can be explained

  7. Tools for measuring surface cleanliness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  8. Variable-Temperature Critical-Current Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. F. Goodrich; T. C. Stauffer

    2009-05-19

    This is the final report of a three year contract that covered 09/19/2005 to 07/14/2008. We requested and received a no cost time extension for the third year, 07/15/2007 to 07/14/2008, to allow DoE to send us funds if they became available during that year. It turned out that we did not receive any funding for the third year. The following paper covers our variable-temperature critical-current measurements. We made transport critical-current (Ic) measurements on commercial multifilamentary Nb3Sn strands at temperatures (T) from 4 to 17 K and magnetic fields (H) from 0 to 14 T. One of the unique features of our measurements is that we can cover a wide range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to over 700 A.

  9. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  10. SMALL-SCALE VARIABILITY IN SEA SURFACE HEIGHTS AND SURFACE WINDS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ERRORS IN OCEAN MODELS AND OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Alexey

    SMALL-SCALE VARIABILITY IN SEA SURFACE HEIGHTS AND SURFACE WINDS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ERRORS IN OCEAN on dispersion relationship of planetary waves 4. Small-scale variability in surface winds and sea surface of model and observational data sets. Imperfect parameterization of the small-scale variability (SSV

  11. Measurement uncertainty in surface flatness measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. L. Thang

    2011-11-29

    Flatness of a plate is a parameter has been put under consideration for long time. Factors influencing the accuracy of this parameter have been recognized and examined carefully but placed scatterringly. Beside that those reports have not been always in harmonization with Guide for expression of uncertainty measurement (GUM). Furthermore, mathematical equations describing clearly the flatness measurement have not been seen in those reports also. We have collected those influencing factors for systematic reference purpose, re-written the equation describing the profile measurement of the plate topography, and proposed an equation for flatness determination. An illustrative numerical example will be also shown.

  12. Hydrologic Variability of Small, Northern Michigan Lakes Measured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Notre Dame, University of

    different forms and units, they all require some measure of the input of water from the watershed. The hydraulic residence time is difficult to mea- sure directly and is usually inferred from other measurementsHydrologic Variability of Small, Northern Michigan Lakes Measured by the Addition of Tracers

  13. Irrational Dynamical Variables and the Measurement Problem in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Engelhardt

    2015-07-08

    The quantum mechanical measurement process is considered. A hypothetical concept of irrational dynamical variables is proposed. A possible definition of measurement is discussed along with a mathematical method to calculate experimental result probabilities. The postulates of quantum mechanics are analyzed and modified. Thought experiments and implications are considered.

  14. Quasar Variability Measurements With SDSS Repeated Imaging and POSS Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z Ivezic; R. H. Lupton; M. Juric; S. Anderson; P. B. Hall; G. T. Richards; C. M. Rockosi; D. E. Vanden Berk; E. L. Turner; G. R. Knapp; J. E. Gunn; D. Schlegel; M. A. Strauss; D. P. Schneider

    2004-04-26

    We analyze the properties of quasar variability using repeated SDSS imaging data in five UV-to-far red photometric bands, accurate to 0.02 mag, for 13,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. The observed time lags span the range from 3 hours to over 3 years, and constrain the quasar variability for rest-frame time lags of up to two years, and at rest-frame wavelengths from 1000 Ang. to 6000 Ang. We demonstrate that 66,000 SDSS measurements of magnitude differences can be described within the measurement noise by a simple function of only three free parameters. The addition of POSS data constrains the long-term behavior of quasar variability and provides evidence for a turn-over in the structure function. This turn-over indicates that the characteristic time scale for optical variability of quasars is of the order 1 year.

  15. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodmansee, Donald E. (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  16. MESOSCALE VARIABILITIES IN SEA SURFACE CURRENT FIELDS DERIVED THROUGH MULTI-SENSOR TRACKING OF SEA SURFACE FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamburg,.Universität

    MESOSCALE VARIABILITIES IN SEA SURFACE CURRENT FIELDS DERIVED THROUGH MULTI-SENSOR TRACKING OF SEA have already shown that it is possible to derive mesoscale sea surface current fields by tracking of the `global' currents. 1. INTRODUCTION The investigation of mesoscale turbulent sea surface currents

  17. Ground surface temperatures in Canada: Spatial and temporal variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    show that the ground has warmed about 0.7 K in the last 100 years. Spatial variability is significant temperatures in Canada: Spatial and temporal variability, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(10), 1499, doi:10.1029/2003GL inferred from geothermal data have shown that the study of perturbations to the Earth's energy balance

  18. Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy balance within a coupled soilvegetationatmosphere system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, Pierre

    Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy balance within a coupled propagation of the harmonics in order to differentiate between the response of the system to forcing, P., J. Polcher, and D. Entekhabi (2011), Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy

  19. Quantifying and relating land-surface and subsurface variability in permafrost environments using lidar and surface geophsical datasets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan S [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gangodagmage, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dafflon, B [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Wainwright, H [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Peterson, J [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gusmeroli, A [University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Ulrich, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Wu, Yuxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rowland, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tweedie, Craig [University of Texas, El Paso; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of permafrost dynamics and its critical impact on climate feedbacks warrant continued development of advanced high-latitude terrestrial ecosystem characterization and monitoring approaches. In this study, we explore the value of remote sensing and surface geophysical data for characterizing land surface and subsurface properties and their linkages in an Alaskan Coastal Plain ecosystem. We base our study on data collected at the end of the 2011 growing season in the Barrow Environmental Observatory, where a nested suite of measurements were collected within a polygon-dominated region including: surface ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic, and electrical resistance tomography data; thaw depth, soil temperature and moisture content, soil texture, soil carbon and nitrogen content, and major and trace cations. Previously-collected lidar data were also available for the study. Analysis of the datasets, individually and in combination, revealed the utility of the methods for characterizing critical land-surface and subsurface properties and associated spatial zonation. Lidar analysis was performed to extract geomorphic metrics (such as slope, curvature, and directed distance of polygons), which potentially indicate drainage potential and permafrost deformation state. Cluster analysis of these lidar-obtained attributes suggested that the land surface can be grouped into three spatially coherent zones, each having a dominant geomorphic expression including: a high centered polygon zone, a low centered polygon zone and a transitional zone. Comparison of the geophysical attributes from radar, electrical resistance tomography, and electromagnetic data with point measurements suggests that the surface geophysical data can provide very high-resolution information about subsurface properties that affect ecosystem feedbacks to climate, such as thaw depth and moisture content. Cluster analysis suggested that the geophysical attributes also varied spatially in a systematic way, suggesting the presence of three laterally distinct subsurface zones. Analysis of zone-based subsurface point measurements suggests that the geophysically-defined zones have unique distributions of hydrological, thermal, and geochemical properties and that the subsurface (geophysically-based) and land-surface (lidar-based) zonation is consistent. Although the close linkage between land surface (polygonal geomorphology) and subsurface (active layer) variability revealed through our study is not surprising, to our knowledge this is the first study to document such relationships using high resolution and non-invasive approaches. This study suggests the potential of using coincident lidar and surface geophysical measurements to quantify land surface and subsurface properties (respectively) and their linkages, which are likely to play a role in terrestrial ecosystem evolution and feedbacks to climate. These findings open the way for future research focused on using combined geophysical and remote sensing datasets to estimate subsurface and land-surface properties in high resolution and over large regions as is needed for process understanding and numerical model initialization in high latitude terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. Robust Shot Noise Measurement for Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sébastien Kunz-Jacques; Paul Jouguet

    2015-01-17

    We study a practical method to measure the shot noise in real time in Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution (CVQKD) systems. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics depends strongly on this quantity since it affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e. noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks relying on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept and resend strategy were proposed. Here, we provide experimental evidence that our method can defeat the saturation attack and the wavelength attack.

  1. Surface freshwater storage and variability in the Amazon basin from multi-satellite observations, 19932007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    surface water storage variations for 1993­2007 are presented, showing a strong seasonal and interannualSurface freshwater storage and variability in the Amazon basin from multi-satellite observations a hypsographic curve approach to estimate surface freshwater storage variations over the Amazon basin combining

  2. Variability of modal parameters measured on the Alamosa Canyon Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cornwell, P.J.; Straser, E.G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). J.A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center

    1996-12-31

    A significant amount of work has been reported in technical literature regarding the use of changes in modal parameters to identify the location and extent of damage in structures. Curiously absent, and critically important to the practical implementation of this work, is an accurate characterization of the natural variability of these modal parameters caused by effects other than damage. To examine this issue, a two-lane, seven-span, composite slab-on-girder bridge near the town of Truth or Consequences in southern New Mexico was tested several times over a period of nine months. Environmental effects common to this location that could potentially produce changes in the measured modal properties include changes in temperature, high winds, and changes to the supporting soil medium. In addition to environmental effects, variabilities in modal testing procedures and data reduction can also cause changes in the identified dynamic properties of the structure. In this paper the natural variability of the frequencies and mode shapes of the Alamosa Canyon bridge that result from changes in time of day when the test was performed, amount of traffic, and environmental conditions will be discussed. Because this bridge has not been in active use throughout the testing period, it is assumed that any change in the observed modal properties are the result of the factors listed above rather than deterioration of the structure itself.

  3. Measurements of an expanding surface flashover plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J. R., E-mail: john.harris@colostate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    A better understanding of vacuum surface flashover and the plasma produced by it is of importance for electron and ion sources, as well as advanced accelerators and other vacuum electronic devices. This article describes time-of-flight and biased-probe measurements made on the expanding plasma generated from a vacuum surface flashover discharge. The plasma expanded at velocities of 1.2–6.5?cm/?s, and had typical densities of 10{sup 10}–10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?3}. The expansion velocity of the plasma leading edge often exhibited a sharp increase at distances of about 50?mm from the discharge site. Comparison with biased-probe data suggests that, under most conditions, the plasma leading edge was dominated by negative ions, with the apparent increase in velocity being due to fast H{sup ?} overtaking slower, heavier ions. In some cases, biased-probe data also showed abrupt discontinuities in the plasma energy distribution co-located with large changes in the intercepted plasma current, suggesting the presence of a shock in the leading edge of the expanding plasma.

  4. String method in collective variables: Minimum free energy paths and isocommittor surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Den Eijnden, Eric

    York University, New York, New York 10012 Giovanni Ciccottid INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica in the free energy. Provided that the number of collective variables is large enough, the new techniqueString method in collective variables: Minimum free energy paths and isocommittor surfaces Luca

  5. A Climatological measurement methods This appendix describes the methods of climatological variable measurement at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -wave radiation correspond to those emitted by a body with a temperature equivalent to that of the earths surface followed a direct path from the sun to the observer, while the path of diffuse radiation will have been varies, the two measures may only be compared directly if the irradiance distribution at all relevant

  6. Remote Measurement of Surface Compliance Distribution Using Ultrasound Radiation Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    . In the experiments, the distribution of the surface compliance comparable to the human skin was successfully measuredRemote Measurement of Surface Compliance Distribution Using Ultrasound Radiation Pressure Masahiro broadcasting. Our system is composed of an ultrasound phased array generating acoustic radiation pressure

  7. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  8. Coaxial Noncontact Surface Compliance Distribution Measurement for Muscle Contraction Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    and the displacement measurement. In experiments, required measurement time for human skin in vivo in a moving a coaxial noncontact surface compliance distribution measurement method for sensing human muscle contraction. Our measurement system is based on pressurization to a target object by acoustic radiation pressure

  9. ARM: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Yan Shi; Laura Riihimaki

    1994-01-07

    Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

  10. ARM: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Yan Shi; Laura Riihimaki

    Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

  11. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Surface Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The GeospatialSolar EnergyDeviceVoltageSurface

  12. Decadal variability of sea surface temperatures off North Iceland over the last Marie-Alexandrine Sicrea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Decadal variability of sea surface temperatures off North Iceland over the last 2000 yrs Marie@lsce.cnrsgif.fr; Yiou@cea.fr b University of Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. jeir@hi.is c Department of Earth millennia at unprecedented temporal resolution (2 to 5 years), from a marine core located off North Iceland

  13. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

    2007-06-01

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

  14. Concerning the variability of beta-decay measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Sturrock; E. Fischbach; A. Parkhomov; J. D. Scargle; G. Steinitz

    2015-10-20

    Many experiments have been carried out to study the beta-decay rates of a variety of nuclides, and many - but not all - of these experiments yield evidence of variability of these rates. While there is as yet no accepted theory to explain patterns in the results, a number of conjectures have been proposed. We discuss three prominent conjectures (which are not mutually exclusive) - that variability of beta-decay rates may be due to (a) environmental influences, (b) solar neutrinos, and (c) cosmic neutrinos. We find evidence in support of each of these conjectures.

  15. Surface moisture measurement system operation and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-11

    The purpose of this manual is to provide detailed operating instructions for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS).In addition, operating instructions for the Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS) are included. These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  16. What measures climate? A variety of variables including their variability and extreme values determine climate for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    climate zones? The sun is the ultimate power source for the climate "machine". The uneven distribution conditions. Typical variables to consider are temperature (maximum, miniumum), precipitation (includes rain, sleet, snow, hail, etc), sunlight/cloudiness, wind, humidity, ice cover, sea temperature, etc... Many

  17. Violation of Continuous-Variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering with Discrete Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneeloch, James

    In this Letter, we derive an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequality for continuous-variable systems using only experimentally measured discrete probability distributions and details of the measurement ...

  18. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SNOW DEPTH MEASUREMENTS AT TWO MOUNTAIN PASS SNOW TELEMETRY STATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    THESIS SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SNOW DEPTH MEASUREMENTS AT TWO MOUNTAIN PASS SNOW SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SNOW DEPTH MEASUREMENTS AT TWO MOUNTAIN PASS SNOW TELEMETRY STATIONS Much of the Western United States relies heavily on spring snow melt runoff to meet its industrial, agricultural

  19. Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D.; Lay, K.

    2013-03-01

    This report discusses the observed variability in indoor space temperature in a set of 60 homes located in Florida, New York, Oregon, and Washington. Temperature data were collected at 15-minute intervals for an entire year, including living room, master bedroom, and outdoor air temperature (Arena, et. al). The data were examined to establish the average living room temperature for the set of homes for the heating and cooling seasons, the variability of living room temperature depending on climate, and the variability of indoor space temperature within the homes. The accuracy of software-based energy analysis depends on the accuracy of input values. Thermostat set point is one of the most influential inputs for building energy simulation. Several industry standards exist that recommend differing default thermostat settings for heating and cooling seasons. These standards were compared to the values calculated for this analysis. The data examined for this report show that there is a definite difference between the climates and that the data do not agree well with any particular standard.

  20. Instantaneous measurements of nonlocal variables in relativistic quantum theory (a review)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew J. Lake

    2015-05-17

    This article reviews six historically important papers in the development of the theory of measurement for nonlocal variables in quantum mechanics, with special emphasis the non violation of relativistic causality. Spanning more than seventy years, we chart the major developments in the field from the declaration, by Landau and Peierls in 1931, that measurement of nonlocal variables was impossible in the relativistic regime to the demonstration, by Vaidman in 2003, that all such variables \\emph{can} be measured instantaneously without violation of causality through an appropriate act of "measurement", albeit not of a standard projective (Von Neumann) type.

  1. Field measurements of ammonia volatilization from surface applications of nitrogen fertilizers to a calcareous soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hargrove, W. L

    1977-01-01

    , according to Mortland (1958), ". . . the conflicting nature of the data on losses of ammonia from soils. . . does not necessarily represent in- consistency but arises from the multitude of variables affecting ammonia sorption. Variations in techniques...FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION FROM SURFACE APPLICATIONS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZERS TO A CALCAREOUS SOIL A Thesis by WILLIAM LEONARD HARGROVE, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in Partial fulfillment...

  2. The Search for Cosmological Black Holes: A Surface Brightness Variability Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata

    2000-04-04

    Recently it has been suggested that the majority of dark matter in the universe resides in the form of Jupiter mass black holes distributed cosmologically. This population makes itself apparent by microlensing high redshift quasars and introducing pronounced variability into their observed light curves. While several arguments dismissing this hypothesis have been presented, a conclusive observational test is, alas, sadly lacking. In this paper we investigate the effect of a cosmologically distributed population of microlensing masses on galaxies at low to intermediate redshift. The magnification of bright stars in these galaxies leads to small, but observable, fluctuations in their surface brightness. The variability time scale for Jupiter-mass lensing objects is of the order of a few months and this population may be detected through a future space-based monitoring campaign of a field containing $z \\sim 0.5$ galaxies. The monitoring of galactic surface brightness will provide an effective test of the nature of dark matter on cosmological scales.

  3. Engineering QND measurements for continuous variable quantum information processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteo G A Paris

    2002-10-03

    A novel scheme to realize the whole class of quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements of a field quadrature is suggested. The setup requires linear optical components and squeezers, and allows optimal QND measurements of quadratures, which minimize the information gain versus state disturbance trade-off.

  4. Yield stress and elasticity influence on surface tension measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loren Jørgensen; Marie Le Merrer; Hélène Delanoë-Ayari; Catherine Barentin

    2015-06-04

    We have performed surface tension measurements on carbopol gels of different concentrations and yield stresses. Our setup, based on the force exerted by a capillary bridge on two parallel plates, allows to measure an effective surface tension of the complex fluid and to investigate the influence of flow history. More precisely the effective surface tension measured after stretching the bridge is always higher than after compressing it. The difference between the two values is due to the existence of a yield stress in the fluid. The experimental observations are successfully reproduced with a simple elasto-plastic model. The shape of successive stretching-compression cycles can be described by taking into account the yield stress and the elasticity of the gel. We show that the surface tension $\\gamma_{LV}$ of yield stress fluids is the mean of the effective surface tension values only if the elastic modulus is high compared to the yield stress. This work highlights that thermodynamical quantities measurements are challenged by the fluid out-of-equilibrium state implied by jamming, even at small scales where the shape of the bridge is driven by surface energy. Therefore setups allowing deformation in opposite directions are relevant for measurements on yield stress fluids.

  5. Ion Beam Analysis Of Silicon-Based Surfaces And Correlation With Surface Energy Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing Qian; Herbots, N.; Hart, M.; Bradley, J. D.; Wilkens, B. J.; Sell, D. A.; Culbertson, R. J.; Whaley, S. D. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Sell, Clive H.; Kwong, Henry Mark Jr. [Associated Retina Consultants, 7600 N 15th Street, Suite 155, Phoenix, AZ 85020 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The water affinity of Si-based surfaces is quantified by contact angle measurement and surface free energy to explain hydrophobic or hydrophilic behavior of silicone, silicates, and silicon surfaces. Surface defects such as dangling bonds, surface free energy including Lewis acid-base and Lifshitz-van der Waals components are discussed. Water nucleation and condensation is further explained by surface topography. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM) provides statistical analysis of the topography of these Si-based surfaces. The correlation of the above two characteristics describes the behavior of water condensation at Si-based surfaces. Surface root mean square roughness increasing from several A ring to several nm is found to provide nucleation sites that expedite water condensation visibly for silica and silicone. Hydrophilic surfaces have a condensation pattern that forms puddles of water while hydrophobic surfaces form water beads. Polymer adsorption on these surfaces alters the water affinity as well as the surface topography, and therefore controls condensation on Si-based surfaces including silicone intraocular lens (IOL). The polymer film is characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in conjunction with 4.265 MeV {sup 12}C({alpha}, {alpha}){sup 12}C, 3.045 MeV {sup 16}O({alpha},{alpha}){sup 16}O nuclear resonance scattering (NRS), and 2.8 MeV elastic recoil detection (ERD) of hydrogen for high resolution composition and areal density measurements. The areal density of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) film ranges from 10{sup 18} atom/cm{sup 2} to 10{sup 19} atom/cm{sup 2} gives the silica or silicone surface a roughness of several A ring and a wavelength of 0.16{+-}0.02 {mu}m, and prevents fogging by forming a complete wetting layer during water condensation.

  6. Gallium surface diffusion on GaAs (001) surfaces measured by crystallization dynamics of Ga droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bietti, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.bietti@mater.unimib.it; Somaschini, Claudio; Esposito, Luca; Sanguinetti, Stefano [L–NESS and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, I–20125 Milano (Italy); Fedorov, Alexey [L–NESS and CNR–IFN, via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy)

    2014-09-21

    We present accurate measurements of Ga cation surface diffusion on GaAs surfaces. The measurement method relies on atomic force microscopy measurement of the morphology of nano–disks that evolve, under group V supply, from nanoscale group III droplets, earlier deposited on the substrate surface. The dependence of the radius of such nano-droplets on crystallization conditions gives direct access to Ga diffusion length. We found an activation energy for Ga on GaAs(001) diffusion E{sub A}=1.31±0.15 eV, a diffusivity prefactor of D?=0.53(×2.1±1) cm² s?¹ that we compare with the values present in literature. The obtained results permit to better understand the fundamental physics governing the motion of group III ad–atoms on III–V crystal surfaces and the fabrication of designable nanostructures.

  7. Surface photovoltage measurements and finite element modeling of SAW devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, Christine

    2012-03-01

    Over the course of a Summer 2011 internship with the MEMS department of Sandia National Laboratories, work was completed on two major projects. The first and main project of the summer involved taking surface photovoltage measurements for silicon samples, and using these measurements to determine surface recombination velocities and minority carrier diffusion lengths of the materials. The SPV method was used to fill gaps in the knowledge of material parameters that had not been determined successfully by other characterization methods. The second project involved creating a 2D finite element model of a surface acoustic wave device. A basic form of the model with the expected impedance response curve was completed, and the model is ready to be further developed for analysis of MEMS photonic resonator devices.

  8. Surface temperature and spectral measurements at Santiaguito lava dome, Guatemala

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, William I.

    Surface temperature and spectral measurements at Santiaguito lava dome, Guatemala Steve T. M, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, USA Otoniel Matias INSIVUMEH, Guatemala City, Guatemala Received 4 June 2004; revised 23 July 2004; accepted 20 September 2004; published 13 October 2004

  9. Wind turbine impacts on HF radar ocean surface measurements in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyatt, Lucy

    Wind turbine impacts on HF radar ocean surface measurements in Liverpool Bay Alice Robinson School. The characterisation of the wind turbine interference is assessed and the radar cross section estimated. The modulation with wind turbine interference in a HF radar footprint are made. #12;Contents Contents iv List of Tables vii

  10. Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles J. Ronald V. Zaneveld-parallel assumption. We show that the Gershun equation is valid if the irradiance is averaged over a sufficiently in which horizontal gradients of irradiance in the presence of waves are much larger than vertical

  11. A step towards Mobile Arsenic measurement for surface waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villiers, C. A.; Lapsley, M. C.; Hall, E. A. H.

    2015-02-25

    is also demonstrated using a mobile phone camera to record the measurement, producing a detection limit of 5 ?M. However, copper remains the main interferent of concern. Water-soluble CdTe QDs show little sensitivity to As3+ even with a GSH surface...

  12. Vibration Analysis of Wiresaw Manufacturing Processes and Wafer Surface Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kao, Imin

    Vibration Analysis of Wiresaw Manufacturing Processes and Wafer Surface Measurements I. Kao (PI), S. Wei, F-P. Chiang Department of Mechanical Engineering, SUNY Stony Brook, NY 11794-2300 Abstract the yield per crystal and to reduce the cost. In this paper, the vibration model of wiresaw system

  13. Direct Measurement of the Surface Tension of Nanobubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that when the nanobubble contact line is pinned to a penetrating tip the interface behaves like a Hookean spring with spring constant proportional to the nanobubble surface tension. Atomic force microscope (AFM) data for several nanobubbles and solutions are analysed and yield surface tensions in the range 0.04--0.05 N/m (compared to 0.072 N/m for saturated water), and supersaturation ratios in the range 2--5. These are the first direct measurements of the surface tension of a supersaturated air-water interface. The results are consistent with recent theories of nanobubble size and stability, and with computer simulations of the surface tension of a supersaturated solution.

  14. Direct Measurement of the Surface Tension of Nanobubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phil Attard

    2015-05-09

    It is shown that when the nanobubble contact line is pinned to a penetrating tip the interface behaves like a Hookean spring with spring constant proportional to the nanobubble surface tension. Atomic force microscope (AFM) data for several nanobubbles and solutions are analysed and yield surface tensions in the range 0.04--0.05 N/m (compared to 0.072 N/m for saturated water), and supersaturation ratios in the range 2--5. These are the first direct measurements of the surface tension of a supersaturated air-water interface. The results are consistent with recent theories of nanobubble size and stability, and with computer simulations of the surface tension of a supersaturated solution.

  15. Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability and Associated Physical Controls of Near-Surface Soil Moisture in Different Hydro-Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Champa

    2013-05-06

    Near-surface soil moisture is a key state variable of the hydrologic cycle and plays a significant role in the global water and energy balance by affecting several hydrological, ecological, meteorological, geomorphologic, ...

  16. Response of tropical sea surface temperature, precipitation, and tropical cyclone-related variables to changes in global and local forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobel, Adam

    A single-column model is used to estimate the equilibrium response of sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation, and several variables related to tropical cyclone (TC) activity to changes in both local and global forcing. ...

  17. Fingerprints of anthropogenic and natural variability in global-mean surface temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, J.M.; Zhang, Yuan

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis designed to detect greenhouse warming by distinguishing between temperature rises induced by increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and those induced by background variability that are present without changes in atmospheric composition. The strategy is based on the surface temperature field. At each observation time, the projection of the anomalous temperature field on the presumed anthropogenic fingerprint is removed in order to obtain a temperature deviation field; i.e., the temperature anomalies in the phase space orthogonal to the anthropogenic fingerprint, which are presumed to be entirely natural. The time series of the expansion coefficients of the fingerprint a(t) is then regressed on this temperature deviation field to identify the axis in the orthogonal phase space along which the variations are most strongly correlated, and an index n(t) of the temporal variations along that axis is generated. The index a(t) is then regressed upon n(t) and the resulting least squares fit is regarded as the component of a(t) that can be ascribed to natural causes. The analysis was performed for monthly global surface temperature anomaly fields for the period 1900-95. Results indicate that two well defined patterns of natural variability contribute to variations in global mean temperature: the synthetic cold ocean-warm land (COWL) pattern and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In domains that include surface air temperature over Eurasia and North America, the COWL pattern tends to be dominant. The ENSO signature emerges as the pattern most strongly linearly correlated with global sea surface temperature and with tropospheric layer-averaged temperatures. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Correlation of seismotectonic variables and GPS strain measurements in western Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Thomas H.

    Correlation of seismotectonic variables and GPS strain measurements in western Turkey Ali Osman O Mediterranean and western Turkey area. This analysis was conducted in three tectonic subdivisions corresponding measurements in western Turkey, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11306, doi:10.1029/2004JB003101. 1. Introduction [2

  19. Estimation of confidence levels for physiology variables measured by a vital signs detection system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estimation of confidence levels for physiology variables measured by a vital signs detection system Quantifying the accuracy of physiological data measured by a Vital Signs Detection System (VSDS) plays a key,2 The Vital Signs Detection System (VSDS) tested by the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine

  20. Measurements of water surface snow lines in classical protoplanetary disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blevins, Sandra M; Banzatti, Andrea; Zhang, Ke; Najita, Joan R; Carr, John S; Salyk, Colette; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    We present deep Herschel-PACS spectroscopy of far-infrared water lines from a sample of four protoplanetary disks around solar-mass stars, selected to have strong water emission at mid-infrared wavelengths. By combining the new Herschel spectra with archival Spitzer-IRS spectroscopy, we retrieve a parameterized radial surface water vapor distribution from 0.1-100 AU using two-dimensional dust and line radiative transfer modeling. The surface water distribution is modeled with a step model comprising of a constant inner and outer relative water abundance and a critical radius at which the surface water abundance is allowed to change. We find that the four disks have critical radii of $\\sim 3-11$ AU, at which the surface water abundance decreases by at least 5 orders of magnitude. The measured values for the critical radius are consistently smaller than the location of the surface snow line, as predicted by the observed spectral energy distribution. This suggests that the sharp drop-off of the surface water abu...

  1. Diurnal variability of upper ocean temperatures from microwave satellite measurements and Argo profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    measurements. [3] Satellites measure SST at the surface of the ocean. Infrared satellite sensors measure. Data pairs with time separations of up to Æ3 h are used to evaluate systematic differences between a net impact on the climate sys- tem. The objective of this study is to evaluate the character

  2. Surface-resistance measurements using superconducting stripline resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hafner, Daniel; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc, E-mail: scheffl@pi1.physik.uni-stuttgart.de [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)] [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    We present a method to measure the absolute surface resistance of conductive samples at a set of GHz frequencies with superconducting lead stripline resonators at temperatures 1–6 K. The stripline structure can easily be applied for bulk samples and allows direct calculation of the surface resistance without the requirement of additional calibration measurements or sample reference points. We further describe a correction method to reduce experimental background on high-Q resonance modes by exploiting TEM-properties of the external cabling. We then show applications of this method to the reference materials gold, tantalum, and tin, which include the anomalous skin effect and conventional superconductivity. Furthermore, we extract the complex optical conductivity for an all-lead stripline resonator to find a coherence peak and the superconducting gap of lead.

  3. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  4. MEASURING THE GLOBAL OCEAN SURFACE CIRCULATION WITH SATELLITE AND IN SITU OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , resolve eddy kinetic energy, coastal processes, and deploying ancillary sensors for surface salinity and scatterometer winds, have provided a detailed resolution of the global sea surface velocity (SSV) and its and temporal variability of the global surface currents from satellite sea surface topography and vector wind

  5. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  6. Fission fragment mass reconstruction from Si surface barrier detector measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Velkovska; R. L. McGrath

    1999-07-12

    A method for plasma delay and pulse-height defect corrections for Si surface barrier detectors (SBD) is presented. Based on known empirical formulae, simple approximations involving the measured time-of-flight (TOF) and energy of the ions were found and a mass reconstruction procedure was developed. The procedure was applied for obtaining the fission fragment mass and angular distributions from the $^{64}$ Ni+$^{197}$Au reaction at 418 MeV and 383 MeV incident energy using an array of eight SBDs.

  7. Surface Energy Balance Measurements Above an Exurban Residential Neighbourhood of Kansas City, Missouri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balogun, Ahmed A.; Adegoke, Jimmy O.; Vezhapparambu, Sajith; Mauder, Matthias; McFadden, Joseph P.; Gallo, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    ARTICLE Surface Energy Balance Measurements Above an Exurbanmeasurements of urban energy balances generally have beenuxes · Urban surface energy balance 1 Introduction Rapid

  8. Surface Energy Balance Measurements Above an Exurban Residential Neighbourhood of Kansas City, Missouri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balogun, Ahmed A.; Adegoke, Jimmy O.; Vezhapparambu, Sajith; Mauder, Matthias; McFadden, Joseph P.; Gallo, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    9421-3 ARTICLE Surface Energy Balance Measurements Above anmeasurements of urban energy balances generally have beenuxes · Urban surface energy balance 1 Introduction Rapid

  9. Efficient measurement-based quantum computing with continuous-variable systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Ohliger; Jens Eisert

    2012-07-09

    We present strictly efficient schemes for scalable measurement-based quantum computing using continuous-variable systems: These schemes are based on suitable non-Gaussian resource states, ones that can be prepared using interactions of light with matter systems or even purely optically. Merely Gaussian measurements such as optical homodyning as well as photon counting measurements are required, on individual sites. These schemes overcome limitations posed by Gaussian cluster states, which are known not to be universal for quantum computations of unbounded length, unless one is willing to scale the degree of squeezing with the total system size. We establish a framework derived from tensor networks and matrix product states with infinite physical dimension and finite auxiliary dimension general enough to provide a framework for such schemes. Since in the discussed schemes the logical encoding is finite-dimensional, tools of error correction are applicable. We also identify some further limitations for any continuous-variable computing scheme from which one can argue that no substantially easier ways of continuous-variable measurement-based computing than the presented one can exist.

  10. Variability of the polar stratospheric vortex and its impact on surface climate patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheshadri, Aditi

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates various aspects of the variability of the stratospheric polar vortex and the effect of this variability on tropospheric weather and climate patterns on various timescales. In the first part of this ...

  11. A NEW COSMOLOGICAL DISTANCE MEASURE USING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS X-RAY VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franca, Fabio La; Bianchi, Stefano; Branchini, Enzo; Matt, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy); Ponti, Gabriele, E-mail: lafranca@fis.uniroma3.it [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2014-05-20

    We report the discovery of a luminosity distance estimator using active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We combine the correlation between the X-ray variability amplitude and the black hole (BH) mass with the single-epoch spectra BH mass estimates which depend on the AGN luminosity and the line width emitted by the broad-line region. We demonstrate that significant correlations do exist that allow one to predict the AGN (optical or X-ray) luminosity as a function of the AGN X-ray variability and either the H? or the Pa? line widths. In the best case, when the Pa? is used, the relationship has an intrinsic dispersion of ?0.6 dex. Although intrinsically more disperse than supernovae Ia, this relation constitutes an alternative distance indicator potentially able to probe, in an independent way, the expansion history of the universe. With respect to this, we show that the new mission concept Athena should be able to measure the X-ray variability of hundreds of AGNs and then constrain the distance modulus with uncertainties of 0.1 mag up to z ? 0.6. We also discuss how our estimator has the prospect of becoming a cosmological probe even more sensitive than the current supernovae Ia samples by using a new dedicated wide-field X-ray telescope able to measure the variability of thousands of AGNs.

  12. An Investigation into the Spatial Variability of Near-Surface Air Temperatures in the Detroit, Michigan, Metropolitan Region*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Daniel G.

    An Investigation into the Spatial Variability of Near-Surface Air Temperatures in the Detroit. This study focused on the air temperatures in the Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan region during the summer portions of Detroit experienced decreased temperatures during afternoons. 1. Introduction In 2010, more

  13. Eddy current nondestructive testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample utilizing Walsh functions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Libby, Hugo L. (Richland, WA); Hildebrand, Bernard P. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    An eddy current testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample generates a signal which varies with variations in such characteristics. A signal expander samples at least a portion of this generated signal and expands the sampled signal on a selected basis of square waves or Walsh functions to produce a plurality of signal components representative of the sampled signal. A network combines these components to provide a display of at least one of the characteristics of the sample.

  14. Role of Climate Variability in Modulating the Surface Water and Groundwater Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Sankar

    levels with El Niño/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, NINO3.4, shows that interannual variability between JAS groundwater levels and JAS NINO3.4 is not statistically significant. Precipitation forecasts exists on the association between low-frequency climatic variability [e.g., El Niño/Southern Oscillation

  15. Measuring Edinburgh’s Surface Urban Heat Island 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackinnon, Kerr A H

    2013-10-27

    This project investigated Edinburgh’s surface urban heat island (SUHI) in relation to land cover and land use. Thermal channels of Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+ and ASTER imagery captured between 1999 and 2011 provide land surface temperatures (LST...

  16. Correlation Between Opacity and Surface Water Vapor Pressure Measurements at Rio Frio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    Correlation Between Opacity and Surface Water Vapor Pressure Measurements at Rio Frio M.A. Holdaway 1, 1996 Abstract We use the surface water vapor pressure measured by weather stations at 4060 m opacity. The surface water vapor pressure is inverted some 20% of the time at night and some 35

  17. INFORMATION ON MEMBRANES DERIVED FROM ELECTRICAL SURFACE CHARGE MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tenforde, Tom S.

    2012-01-01

    V/cm) for fi cell lines derived from both Swiss and Balb 148 INFORMATION ON MEMBRANES DERIVED FROM ELECTRICAL SURFACEINFORMATION ON MEMBRANES DERIVED FROM ELECTRICAL SURFACE

  18. Relationships between Pacific and Atlantic ocean sea surface temperatures and U.S. streamflow variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piechota, Thomas C.

    Relationships between Pacific and Atlantic ocean sea surface temperatures and U.S. streamflow March 2006; published 19 July 2006. [1] An evaluation of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean sea surface by an interdecadal-temporal evaluation for the Pacific (Atlantic) Ocean based on the phase of the Pacific Decadal

  19. Bubble behavior in subcooled flow boiling on surfaces of variable wettability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tow, Emily W

    2012-01-01

    Flow boiling is important in energy conversion and thermal management due to its potential for very high heat fluxes. By improving understanding of the conditions leading to bubble departure, surfaces can be designed that ...

  20. Interannual variability of surface energy exchange depends on stand age in a boreal forest fire chronosequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Heping; Randerson, James T

    2008-01-01

    LIU AND RANDERSON: BOREAL FOREST FIRE AND ENERGY EXCHANGE2006), The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming,pathways by which boreal forest fire influences the surface

  1. A variable capacitor made from single crystal silicon fracture surface pairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprunt, Alexander D. (Alexander Dalziel), 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Complementary and nano-smooth single-crystal-silicon surfaces have been fabricated by deliberately fracturing a weakened portion of a larger structure whose flexural mechanism refines and concentrates an externally applied ...

  2. MEASURING X-RAY VARIABILITY IN FAINT/SPARSELY SAMPLED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allevato, V.; Paolillo, M.; Papadakis, I.; Pinto, C.

    2013-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of the normalized excess variance of variability process characterized by a ''red-noise'' power spectral density (PSD), as in the case of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We perform Monte Carlo simulations of light curves, assuming both a continuous and a sparse sampling pattern and various signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns). We show that the normalized excess variance is a biased estimate of the variance even in the case of continuously sampled light curves. The bias depends on the PSD slope and on the sampling pattern, but not on the S/N. We provide a simple formula to account for the bias, which yields unbiased estimates with an accuracy better than 15%. We show that the normalized excess variance estimates based on single light curves (especially for sparse sampling and S/N < 3) are highly uncertain (even if corrected for bias) and we propose instead the use of an ''ensemble estimate'', based on multiple light curves of the same object, or on the use of light curves of many objects. These estimates have symmetric distributions, known errors, and can also be corrected for biases. We use our results to estimate the ability to measure the intrinsic source variability in current data, and show that they could also be useful in the planning of the observing strategy of future surveys such as those provided by X-ray missions studying distant and/or faint AGN populations and, more in general, in the estimation of the variability amplitude of sources that will result from future surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  3. Systems and Methods for Integrated Emissivity and Temperature Measurement of a Surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  4. Development of a time-variable nuclear pulser for half life measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Domienikan, Claudio; Carvalhaes, Roberto P. M.; Genezini, Frederico A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP. P.O. Box 11049, Sao Paulo, 05422-970 (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this work a time-variable pulser system with an exponentially-decaying pulse frequency is presented, which was developed using the low-cost, open-source Arduino microcontroler plataform. In this system, the microcontroller produces a TTL signal in the selected rate and a pulse shaper board adjusts it to be entered in an amplifier as a conventional pulser signal; both the decay constant and the initial pulse rate can be adjusted using a user-friendly control software, and the pulse amplitude can be adjusted using a potentiometer in the pulse shaper board. The pulser was tested using several combinations of initial pulse rate and decay constant, and the results show that the system is stable and reliable, and is suitable to be used in half-life measurements.

  5. Measurement of surface tension and viscosity by open capillary techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye,Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM), Yost,Frederick G. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An open-channel capillary is provided, having preferably a v-shaped groove in a flat wettable surface. The groove has timing marks and a source marker in which the specimen to be tested is deposited. The time of passage between the timing marks is recorded, and the ratio of surface tension .gamma. to viscosity .mu. is determined from the equation given below: ##EQU1## where h.sub.0 is the groove depth, .alpha. is the groove angle, .theta. is the liquid/solid contact angle, and t is the flow time. It has been shown by the

  6. Derivation of global hyperspectral resolution surface emissivity spectra from advanced infrared sounder radiance measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    Derivation of global hyperspectral resolution surface emissivity spectra from advanced infrared 9 July 2008; published 6 August 2008. [1] The global IR surface emissivity spectra are very. In this study, global IR surface emissivity spectra have been generated by using AIRS radiance measurements from

  7. Measuring Method of a Surface Property inside the Pore: Application of Kelvin's equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amano, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Surface analyses inside the nanopore, micropore, and a very narrow pipe are important topics for development of the chemical engineering. Here, we propose a measuring method which evaluates the surface coverage of the chemically modified pore surface and the corrosion rate of the inner surface of the narrow pipe, etc. The method uses Kelvin's equation that expresses saturated vapor pressure of a liquid in the pore (pipe). The surface coverage and the corrosion rate are calculated by measuring saturated vapor pressure of the liquid in the pore and the pipe, respectively. In this letter, we explain the concept of the method briefly.

  8. Finite element analysis of surface-stress effects in the Si lattice-parameter measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasso, Carlo; Massa, Enrico; Mana, Giovanni; Kuetgens, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    A stress exists in solids surfaces, similarly to liquids, also if the underlying bulk material is stress-free. This paper investigates the surface stress effect on the measured value of the Si lattice parameter used to determine the Avogadro constant by counting Si atoms. An elastic-film model has been used to provide a surface load in a finite element analysis of the lattice strain of the x-ray interferometer crystal used to measure the lattice parameter. Eventually, an experiment is proposed to work a lattice parameter measurement out so that there is a visible effect of the surface stress.

  9. A new measure of acceleration of heart rate: dependence on age and comparison with time domain conventional heart rate variability measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cammarota, Camillo

    A new measure of acceleration of heart rate: dependence on age and comparison with time domain conventional heart rate variability measures Giuseppe Germanò, M.D., Gianfranco Piccirillo, M.D., *Camillo We introduce a new index, Acceleration Ratio (AR), in order to investigate the dependence of Heart

  10. Seasonally Resolved Surface Water (delta)14C Variability in the Lombok Strait: A Coralline Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guilderson, T P; Fallon, S J; Moore, M D; Schrag, D P; Charles, C D

    2008-04-23

    We have explored surface water mixing in the Lombok Strait through a {approx}bimonthly resolved surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C time-series reconstructed from a coral in the Lombok Strait that spans 1937 through 1990. The prebomb surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C average is -60.5{per_thousand} and individual samples range from -72{per_thousand} to 134{per_thousand}. The annual average post-bomb maximum occurs in 1973 and is 122{per_thousand}. The timing of the post-bomb maximum is consistent with a primary subtropical source for the surface waters in the Indonesian Seas. During the post-bomb period the coral records regular seasonal cycles of 5-20{per_thousand}. Seasonal high {Delta}{sup 14}C occur during March-May (warm, low salinity), and low {Delta}{sup 14}C occur in September (cool, higher salinity). The {Delta}{sup 14}C seasonality is coherent and in phase with the seasonal {Delta}{sup 14}C cycle observed in Makassar Strait. We estimate the influence of high {Delta}{sup 14}C Makassar Strait (North Pacific) water flowing through the Lombok Strait using a two endmember mixing model and the seasonal extremes observed at the two sites. The percentage of Makassar Strait water varies between 16 and 70%, and between 1955 and 1990 it averages 40%. During La Nina events there is a higher percentage of Makassar Strait (high {Delta}{sup 14}C) water in the Lombok Strait.

  11. Sensitivity of global tropical climate to land surface processes: Mean state and interannual variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Hsi-Yen; Xiao, Heng; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang

    2013-03-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of global tropical climate to land surface processes (LSP) using an atmospheric general circulation model both uncoupled (with prescribed SSTs) and coupled to an oceanic general circulation model. The emphasis is on the interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes, which have first order influence on the surface energy and water budgets. The sensitivity to those processes is represented by the differences between model simulations, in which two land surface schemes are considered: 1) a simple land scheme that specifies surface albedo and soil moisture availability, and 2) the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model (SSiB), which allows for consideration of interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical process. Observational datasets are also employed to assess the reality of model-revealed sensitivity. The mean state sensitivity to different LSP is stronger in the coupled mode, especially in the tropical Pacific. Furthermore, seasonal cycle of SSTs in the equatorial Pacific, as well as ENSO frequency, amplitude, and locking to the seasonal cycle of SSTs are significantly modified and more realistic with SSiB. This outstanding sensitivity of the atmosphere-ocean system develops through changes in the intensity of equatorial Pacific trades modified by convection over land. Our results further demonstrate that the direct impact of land-atmosphere interactions on the tropical climate is modified by feedbacks associated with perturbed oceanic conditions ("indirect effect" of LSP). The magnitude of such indirect effect is strong enough to suggest that comprehensive studies on the importance of LSP on the global climate have to be made in a system that allows for atmosphere-ocean interactions.

  12. Validation of an UV inversion algorithm using satellite and surface measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    Validation of an UV inversion algorithm using satellite and surface measurements Pucai Wang UV-B radiation using both spectral and broadband measurements [Webb et al., 1997; Bigelow et al et al., 1995]. Ground-based instruments provide in situ measurements of current and historical UV

  13. Global Drifter Program (GDP) Drifting buoy measurements of Sea Surface Temperature,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Drifter Program (GDP) Drifting buoy measurements of Sea Surface Temperature, Mixed Layer Currents, Atmospheric Pressure and Winds http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/phod/dac/gdp.html 26th Data Buoy: the principal component of the Global Surface Drifting Buoy Array, a branch of NOAA's Global Ocean Observing

  14. Stress-dependent surface reactions and implications for a stress measurement technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Stress-dependent surface reactions and implications for a stress measurement technique H. H. Yua stress, the elastic energy adds to the driving force of the reaction, and may cause the surface to roughen. This phenomenon has recently led to a novel experimental technique to determine the stress state

  15. Validating MODIS land surface temperature products using long-term nighttime ground measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Shunlin

    Validating MODIS land surface temperature products using long-term nighttime ground measurements, provides multiple land surface temperature (LST) products on a daily basis. However, these products have LST products, MOD11_L2 (version 4) and MOD07_L2 (version 4), using the FLUXNET and Carbon Europe

  16. Method and apparatus for monitoring and measuring the surface tension of a fluid using fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Bernard M. (Oak Park, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL); Bohanon, Thomas M. (Evanston, IL); Mikrut, John M. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A non-contact method and apparatus for measuring and monitoring the surface of a fluid using fiber optics and interferometric detection to permit measurement mechanical characteristics' fluid surfaces. The apparatus employs an alternating electric field gradient for generating a capillary wave on the surface of the fluid. A fiber optic coupler and optical fiber directs a portion of a laser beam onto the surface of the fluid, another portion of the laser beam onto the photo sensor, and directs light reflected from the surface of the fluid onto the photo sensor. The output of the photo sensor is processed and coupled to a phase sensitive detector to permit measurement of phase shift between the drive signal creating the capillary wave and the detected signal. This phase shift information is then used to determine mechanical properties of the fluid surface such as surface tension, surface elasticity, and surface inhomogeneity. The resulting test structure is easily made compact, portable, and easy to align and use.

  17. Method and apparatus for monitoring and measuring the surface tension of a fluid using fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Ketterson, J.B.; Bohanon, T.M.; Mikrut, J.M.

    1994-04-12

    A non-contact method and apparatus are described for measuring and monitoring the surface of a fluid using fiber optics and interferometric detection to permit measurement of mechanical characteristics of fluid surfaces. The apparatus employs an alternating electric field gradient for generating a capillary wave on the surface of the fluid. A fiber optic coupler and optical fiber directs a portion of a laser beam onto the surface of the fluid, another portion of the laser beam onto the photo sensor, and directs light reflected from the surface of the fluid onto the photo sensor. The output of the photo sensor is processed and coupled to a phase sensitive detector to permit measurement of phase shift between the drive signal creating the capillary wave and the detected signal. This phase shift information is then used to determine mechanical properties of the fluid surface such as surface tension, surface elasticity, and surface inhomogeneity. The resulting test structure is easily made compact, portable, and easy to align and use. 4 figures.

  18. Time-resolved photoelectrochemical measurements on surface-modified n- and p-InP electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, R.L.; Dempsey, P.F.; Sammells, A.F.

    1986-11-01

    Time-resolved photoelectrochemical measurements following illumination with a pulsed laser source have been performed on surface-modified n- and p-InP photoelectrodes. The rate of the initial fast transient photopotential decay was shown to be sensitive to the nature of the surface modification used. The chemisorption of Ru ions onto the n-InP surface reduced the rapid initial decay of the transient photopotential response observed on the unmodified n-InP surface. It is proposed that Ru/sup 3+/ chemisorption may effectively reduce surface trap density at the interface region. For p-InP either unmodified or modified by Co, Rh, Pt, Pb, Rh/Pt, or Co/Pt, the transient photopotential decay exhibited a two segment response. The fast initial decay was found dependent on the previous surface treatment of the p-InP electrode. The second slower decay, however, was found independent of previous surface treatments.

  19. Synthesis of murdochite-type Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} with variable specific surface areas and the application in methane oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taguchi, Hideki; Tahara, Shohei; Okumura, Mikoto; Hirota, Ken

    2014-07-01

    To synthesize a murdochite-type Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} with variable specific surface areas, an oxalate precursor was calcined at 350–500 °C in flowing argon, and the calcined sample was heated to 600 °C in air. The lattice constant of the Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} did not depend on the calcination temperature of the precursor, while the specific surface area decreased from 8.4 m{sup 2}/g to 2.6 m{sup 2}/g when increasing the calcination temperature of the precursor. The methane (CH{sub 4}) oxidation data indicated that the temperature corresponding to the 50% conversion (T{sub 50%}) of Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} calcined at 350 °C or 400 °C was lower than that of all other Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} specimens. However, the intrinsic conversion of Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} calcined at 350 °C, which is defined as conversion per specific surface area, was half of that of all other Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} specimens. The degree of crystallinity and catalytic performance of the Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} calcined at 400 °C were high. - Graphical abstract: The conversion of CH{sub 4} into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O on Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8}, which was heated at 600 °C in air after the calcination of the precursor at 350 °C, 400 °C, 450 °C, or 500 °C in flowing argon, was measured. Since the specific surface area was strongly affected by the calcination temperature of the precursor, intrinsic conversion (IC) was defined as conversion per the specific surface area. For comparison, the IC value on Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} synthesized by the direct calcination of the precursor at 600 °C in air is plotted. - Highlights: • The oxalate precursor was calcined at 350–500 °C in flowing argon. • Murdochite-type Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} was obtained by heating the calcined sample in air. • The specific surface area of Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} varied with the calcination temperature. • The degree of crystallinity and catalysis of Ni{sub 6}MnO{sub 8} calcined at 400 °C were high.

  20. Vol.49, No.4, 455/460 2013 Remote Measurement of Surface Compliance Distribution Using Convergent Ultrasound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    displays. Our measurement system is composed of an ultrasound phased array generating acoustic radiation. The distribution of the surface compliance comparable to the human skin was successfully measured for a flat object surface in the experiments. Key Words: noncontact measurement, surface compliance distribution, hardness

  1. Validation of satellite observed thermal emission with in-situ measurements over an urban surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunderle, Stefan

    Validation of satellite observed thermal emission with in-situ measurements over an urban surface: Meteorology applied to urban pollution problems). Besides very detailed field measurements of the structure and validations of thermal satellite imagery are conducted in rural, mostly homogeneous areas (Sobrino et al

  2. Surface excess properties from energy transport measurements during water evaporation Fei Duan and C. A. Ward*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Charles A.

    Surface excess properties from energy transport measurements during water evaporation Fei Duan condi- tions, accounts for as little as 50% of the energy required to evaporate water at the measured 2004; revised manuscript received 21 March 2005; published 2 November 2005 When water evaporates

  3. Damage measurements on the NWTC direct-drive, variable-speed test bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, H.J.; Carlin, P.W.

    1998-12-31

    The NWTC (National Wind Technology Center) Variable-Speed Test Bed turbine is a three-bladed, 10-meter, downwind machine that can be run in either fixed-speed or variable-speed mode. In the variable-speed mode, the generator torque is regulated, using a discrete-stepped load bank to maximize the turbine`s power coefficient. At rated power, a second control loop that uses blade pitch to maintain rotor speed essentially as before, i.e., using the load bank to maintain either generator power or (optionally) generator torque. In this paper, the authors will use this turbine to study the effect of variable-speed operation on blade damage. Using time-series data obtained from blade flap and edge strain gauges, the load spectrum for the turbine is developed using rainflow counting techniques. Miner`s rule is then used to determine the damage rates for variable-speed and fixed-speed operation. The results illustrate that the controller algorithm used with this turbine introduces relatively large load cycles into the blade that significantly reduce its service lifetime, while power production is only marginally increased.

  4. Method and apparatus for measuring surface contour on parts with elevated temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horvath, Mark S. (Canton, MI); Nance, Roy A. (McMurray, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fodor, George (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method and apparatus for measuring the surface contour of a test piece, such as the bow of a radioactive fuel rod, which is completely immersed in water. The invention utilizes ultrasonic technology and is capable of measuring surface contours of test pieces which are at a higher temperature than the surrounding water. The presence of a test piece at a higher temperature adversely affects the distance measurements by causing thermal variations in the water near the surface of the test piece. The contour measurements depend upon a constant temperature of the water in the path of the ultrasonic wave to provide a constant acoustical velocity (the measurement is made by the time of flight measurement for an ultrasonic wave). Therefore, any variations of water temperature near the surface will introduce errors degrading the measurement. The present invention overcomes these problems by assuring that the supply of water through which the ultrasonic waves travel is at a predetermined and constant temperature.

  5. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  6. Measurements and modeling of surface waves in drilled shafts in rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinski, M.E.; Stokoe, K.H. II; Roesset, J.M.; Cheng, D.S.

    1999-07-01

    Seismic testing was conducted in the WIPP facility in November 1994 by personnel from the Geotechnical Engineering Center at the University of Texas at Austin. Surface wave measurements were made in horizontal drilled shafts in rock salt to characterize the stiffness of the rock around the shafts. The Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves (SASW) method was used to determine dispersion curves of surface wave velocity versus wavelength. Dispersion curves were measured for surface waves propagating axially and circumferentially in the shafts. Surface wave velocities determined from axial testing increased slightly with increasing wavelength due to the cylindrical geometry of the shafts. On the other hand, surface wave velocities determined from circumferential testing exhibited a completely different type of geometry-induced dispersion. In both instances, finite-element forward modeling of the experimental dispersion curves revealed the presence of a thin, slightly softer disturbed rock zone (DRZ) around the shafts. This phenomenon has been previously confirmed by crosshole and other seismic measurements and is generally associated with relaxation of the individual salt crystals after confirming stress is relieved by excavation.

  7. Seasonal and interannual variability of North American isoprene emissions as determined by formaldehyde column measurements from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    by formaldehyde column measurements from space Dorian S. Abbot,1 Paul I. Palmer,1 Randall V. Martin,2 Kelly V June 2003; published 5 September 2003. [1] Formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured from space by solar UV of North American isoprene emissions as determined by formaldehyde column measurements from space, Geophys

  8. Gaussian interferometric power as a measure of continuous variable non-Markovianity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonardo A. M. Souza; Himadri Shekhar Dhar; Manabendra Nath Bera; Pietro Liuzzo-Scorpo; Gerardo Adesso

    2015-07-21

    We investigate the non-Markovianity of continuous variable Gaussian quantum channels through the evolution of an operational metrological quantifier, namely the Gaussian interferometric power, which captures the minimal precision that can be achieved using bipartite Gaussian probes in a black-box phase estimation setup, where the phase shift generator is \\emph{a priori} unknown. We observe that the monotonicity of the Gaussian interferometric power under the action of local Gaussian quantum channels on the ancillary arm of the bipartite probes is a natural indicator of Markovian dynamics; consequently, its breakdown for specific maps can be used to construct a witness and an effective quantifier of non-Markovianity. In our work, we consider two paradigmatic Gaussian models, the damping master equation and the quantum Brownian motion, and identify analytically and numerically the parameter regimes that give rise to non-Markovian dynamics. We then quantify the degree of non-Markovianity of the channels in terms of Gaussian interferometric power, showing in particular that even nonentangled probes can be useful to witness non-Markovianity. This establishes an interesting link between the dynamics of bipartite continuous variable open systems and their potential for optical interferometry. The results are an important supplement to the recent research on characterization of non-Markovianity in continuous variable systems.

  9. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Surface-Mounted One-Dimensional Flat Gages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the net heat flux normal to a surface using flat gages mounted onto the surface. Conduction heat flux is not the focus of this standard. Conduction applications related to insulation materials are covered by Test Method C 518 and Practices C 1041 and C 1046. The sensors covered by this test method all use a measurement of the temperature difference between two parallel planes normal to the surface to determine the heat that is exchanged to or from the surface in keeping with Fourier’s Law. The gages operate by the same principles for heat transfer in either direction. 1.2 This test method is quite broad in its field of application, size and construction. Different sensor types are described in detail in later sections as examples of the general method for measuring heat flux from the temperature gradient normal to a surface (1). Applications include both radiation and convection heat transfer. The gages have broad application from aerospace to biomedical en...

  10. Waste-surface mapping of the Fernald K-65 silos using a structured light measurement system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Dinkins, M.A.; Rowe, J.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Selleck, C.B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jacoboski, D.L. (Westinghouse Environmental Management Co., Fernald, OH (United States))

    1992-10-01

    A remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, charge-coupled-device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The structured light sources were deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces and surface maps were obtained. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness.

  11. Waste-surface mapping of the Fernald K-65 silos using a structured light measurement system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Dinkins, M.A.; Rowe, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Selleck, C.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jacoboski, D.L. [Westinghouse Environmental Management Co., Fernald, OH (United States)

    1992-10-01

    A remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics & Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, charge-coupled-device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The structured light sources were deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces and surface maps were obtained. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness.

  12. Variability of aerosol optical properties derived from in situ aircraft measurements during ACE-Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Antony

    , and Cameron S. McNaughton Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Received 29 and artifacts are characterized using in-flight measurements of particle-free air and measurements dominant components, fine-mode pollution and coarse-mode mineral dust, were observed to vary independently

  13. Temporal variability of the trade wind inversion: Measured with a boundary layer vertical profiler. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grindinger, C.M.

    1992-05-01

    This study uses Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) data, from the summer of 1991, to show a boundary layer wind profiler can be used to measure the trade wind inversion. An algorithm has been developed for the profiler that objectively measures the depth of the moist oceanic boundary layer. The Hilo inversion, measured by radiosonde, is highly correlated with the moist oceanic boundary layer measured by the profiler at Paradise Park. The inversion height on windward Hawaii is typically 2253 + or - 514 m. The inversion height varies not only on a daily basis, but on less than an hourly basis. It has a diurnal, as well as a three to four day cycle. There appears to be no consistent relationship between inversion height and precipitation. Currently, this profiler is capable of making high frequency (12 minute) measurements of the inversion base variation, as well as other features.

  14. A sapphire loaded TE011 cavity for surface impedance measurements: design, construction, and commissioning status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Phillips; G. K. Davis; J. R. Delayen; J. P. Ozelis; T. Plawski; H. Wang; G. Wu

    2005-07-10

    In order to measure the superconducting surface properties of niobium that are of interest to SRF applications, a facility which utilizes a Nb cavity operating in the TE011 mode at 7.65 GHz which provides a well-defined RF field on a disk shaped sample has been designed and fabricated. The RF losses due to the sample's surface impedance are determined by using a calorimetric technique. The system has the capability to measure such properties as Rs,(T), and penetration depth, which can then be correlated with surface properties and preparation processes. The design, fabrication, and results from initial commissioning operations will be discussed, along with the near term sample evaluation program.

  15. Evaluation of "all weather" microwave-derived land surface temperatures with in situ CEOP measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of "all weather" microwave-derived land surface temperatures with in situ CEOP conditions. Ts estimates from infrared satellite observations can only be derived under clear sky. Passive from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager measurements, with a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25°, at least

  16. Methods for measuring work surface illuminance in adaptive solid state lighting networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methods for measuring work surface illuminance in adaptive solid state lighting networks Byungkun, MA 02139, USA ABSTRACT The inherent control flexibility implied by solid-state lighting ­ united with the rich details offered by sensor networks ­ prompts us to rethink lighting control. In this research, we

  17. Langmuir 1995,11, 4383-4385 4383 Surface Plasmon Resonance Permits in Situ Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrksich, Milan

    Langmuir 1995,11, 4383-4385 4383 Surface Plasmon Resonance Permits in Situ Measurement of Protein. Whitesides" Department of Chemistry, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 Received June 5, 1995. In Final Form: August 14, 1995@ This paper demonstrates that surfaceplasmon resonance (SPR)spectroscopy can

  18. Surface-Layer Wind and Turbulence Profiling from LIDAR: Theory and Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface-Layer Wind and Turbulence Profiling from LIDAR: Theory and Measurements Régis DANIELIAN (Vestas Wind System) Hans Ejsing JØRGENSEN (Wind Energy Department, Risø. Contact: haej@risoe.dk) Torben MIKKELSEN (Wind Energy Department, Risø. Contact: tomi@risoe.dk) Jacob MANN (Wind Energy Department, Risø

  19. Measurements of instantaneous heat flux to metal and ceramic surfaces in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.C.; Borman, G.L.

    1987-02-01

    The effects of surface materials and extent of insulation on the heat transfer to the head of an open-chamber diesel were studied. A large instrumentation plug designed to incorporate plates of various materials on the gas-side surface was utilized with a special research head. Instantaneous rates of heat transfer to the plate gas-side surface were measured. Measurement results obtained with a zirconia plate and an insulated metal plate are compared to data for an inunsulated metal plate. The insulation of the metal plate increased its gas-side surface temperature over the uninsulated case by about the same amount achieved with a 6.35-mm-thick zirconia plate. The magnitude of the surface temperature swing for zirconia is not as high as expected from conduction theory, but is substantially higher than that for the uninsulated metal. Significant reductions of steady-state heat fluxes were achieved with both the zirconia and the insulated metal compared to the uninsulated metal.

  20. In situ measurement of surface potential developed on MgO thin film surface under ion irradiation using ion scattering spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagatomi, T.; Kuwayama, T.; Takai, Y.; Yoshino, K.; Morita, Y.; Kitagawa, M.; Nishitani, M.

    2009-11-15

    The application of ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) to the in situ measurement of the surface potential developed on an insulator surface under positive ion irradiation was investigated. The ISS spectra measured for a MgO film of 600 nm thickness on a Si substrate by the irradiation of 950 eV He{sup +} ions revealed that the surface is positively charged by approximately 180 V. For accurate measurement of the surface potential, a correction to take into account the angular deflection of primary ions induced by the high surface potential is required. The dependence of the surface potential on the sample temperature revealed that no charging is induced above 700 deg. C, indicating that accumulated charges can be removed by heating to 700 deg. C. From the measurement of the ion-induced secondary electron yield using a collector electrode located in front of the sample surface, the surface potential and ion-induced secondary electron yield were found to be strongly affected by the experimental setup. Secondary electrons produced by the impact of slow positive secondary ions, the maximum energy of which corresponds to the surface potential, play an important role when the bias voltage applied to the collector electrode is positively high for the present experimental setup. The surface potential developed on the surface of MgO films of 600 and 200 nm thickness was measured in situ, revealing that the amount of accumulated charges and the time required to attain the steady state of charging are slightly dependent on the beam current of primary ions and strongly dependent on the thickness of the MgO film. The present results confirmed that the application of ISS has high potential for investigating charging phenomena and the secondary electron emission from insulator surfaces under positive ion irradiation.

  1. Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2006-12-15

    To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Measurements of Antenna Surface for Millimeter-Wave Space Radio Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Doi, Akihiro; Sato, Eiichi

    2011-01-01

    In the construction of a space radio telescope, it is essential to use materials with a low noise factor and high mechanical robustness for the antenna surface. We present the results of measurements of the reflection performance of two candidates for antenna surface materials for use in a radio telescope installed in a new millimeter-wave astronomical satellite, ASTRO-G. To estimate the amount of degradation caused by fluctuations in the thermal environment in the projected orbit of the satellite, a thermal cycle test was carried out for two candidates, namely, copper foil carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and aluminum-coated CFRP. At certain points during the thermal cycle test, the reflection loss of the surfaces was measured precisely by using a radiometer in the 41-45 GHz band. In both candidates, cracks appeared on the surface after the thermal cycle test, where the number density of the cracks increased as the thermal cycle progressed. The reflection loss also increased in proportion to the number...

  3. Elemental Analyses of Hanford Surface Neutron Moisture Measurement Calibration Standard Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, W.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    Elemental analyses have been performed on twenty samples taken from the moisture standards prepared to use in performing experimental calibrations of the surface neutron moisture measurement system. These standards consisted of mixtures of sand, hydrated alumina, and boron carbide. Elemental analyses were performed primarily to discover the quantities of any strong thermal neutron absorbers that may have been present in the mixture in unknown trace quantities.

  4. Soot surface temperature measurements in pure and diluted flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry Yelverton, T.L.; Roberts, W.L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Campus Box 7910, North Carolina State University, 3211 Broughton Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Soot surface temperature was measured in laminar jet diffusion flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures. The soot surface temperature was measured in flames at one, two, four, and eight atmospheres with both pure and diluted (using helium, argon, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide individually) ethylene fuels with a calibrated two-color soot pyrometry technique. These two dimensional temperature profiles of the soot aid in the analysis and understanding of soot production, leading to possible methods for reducing soot emission. Each flame investigated was at its smoke point, i.e., at the fuel flow rate where the overall soot production and oxidation rates are equal. The smoke point was chosen because it was desirable to have similar soot loadings for each flame. A second set of measurements were also taken where the fuel flow rate was held constant to compare with earlier work. These measurements show that overall flame temperature decreases with increasing pressure, with increasing pressure the position of peak temperature shifts to the tip of the flame, and the temperatures measured were approximately 10% lower than those calculated assuming equilibrium and neglecting radiation. (author)

  5. In-situ surface composition measurements of CuGaSe{sub 2} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fons, P.; Yamada, A.; Niki, S.; Oyanagi, H.

    1998-12-31

    Two CuGaSe{sub 2} films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy onto GaAs (001) substrates with varying Cu/Ga flux ratios under Se overpressure conditions. Growth was interrupted at predetermined times and the surface composition was measured using Auger electron spectroscopy after which growth was continued. After growth, the film composition was analyzed using voltage dependent electron microprobe spectroscopy. Film structure and morphology were also analyzed using x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The film with a Cu/Ga ratio larger than unity showed evidence of surface segregation of a second Cu-rich phase with a Cu/Se composition ratio slightly greater than unity. A second CuGaSe{sub 2} film with a Cu/Ga ratio of less than unity showed no change in surface composition with time and was also consistent with bulk composition measurements. Diffraction measurements indicated a high concentration of twins as well as the presence of domains with mixed c and a axes in the Ga-rich film. The Cu-rich films by contrast were single domain and had a narrower mosaics. High sensitivity scans along the [001] reciprocal axis did not exhibit any new peaks not attributable to either the substrate or the CuGaSe{sub 2} thin film.

  6. A theory for calculating the surface-adsorbate bond dissociation energy from collision-induced desorption threshold measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levis, Robert J.

    .' As with all thermal methods, a TDS ex- periment is constrained to measure the activation energy of the pathway. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS ) is the current technique used for measuring surface bond energies methods for determining the surface-adsorbate bond energy are of limited value for constructing the PES

  7. A study of the variation in certain blood characteristics and their relationship to other measurable variables in dairy cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Troy Belton

    1956-01-01

    vo in vo o vo co co df HOOrl ? ? ? ?O Cj> o o ?C'J CS 00 CD 8VD VO 00c ^ o o MEASURABLE VARIABLES IN DAIRY CATTLE A Dissertation . By Troy Belton Patterson, Jr. ##? Submitted...

  8. Measurement of the curvature of a surface using parallel light beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chason, E.H.; Floro, J.A.; Seager, C.H.; Sinclair, M.B.

    1999-06-15

    Apparatus is disclosed for measuring curvature of a surface wherein a beam of collimated light is passed through a means for producing a plurality of parallel light beams each separated by a common distance which then reflect off the surface to fall upon a detector that measures the separation of the reflected beams of light. This means can be an etalon and the combination of a diffractive element and a converging lens. The curvature of the surface along the line onto which the multiple beams fall can be calculated from this information. A two-dimensional map of the curvature can be obtained by adding a second etalon (or a second combination of a diffractive element and a converging lens) which is rotated 90[degree] about the optical axis relative to the first etalon and inclined at the same angle. The second etalon creates an individual set of parallel light beams from each of the individual beams created by the first etalon with the sets of parallel light beams from the second etalon rotated 90[degree] relative to the line onto which the single set of parallel beams from the first etalon would have fallen. 5 figs.

  9. Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

    1997-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interfeometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Thomas J. (Maumee, OH); Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  11. Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1997-04-22

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  12. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-05-09

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  13. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akagi, Sheryl; Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, Gavin; Sullivan, Amy; Lee, Taehyoung; Kredenweis, Sonia; Urbanski, Shawn; Reardon, James; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Weise, David

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured the trace gas emission factors from 7 prescribed fires in South Carolina, U.S. using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analyses. The fires were intended to emulate high-intensity burns as they were lit during the dry season and in most cases represented stands that had not been treated with prescribed burns in 10+ years, if at all. A total of 97 trace gas species are reported here from both airborne and ground-based platforms making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements included the first data for a suite of monoterpene compounds emitted via distillation of plant tissues during real fires. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of ~0.40% of CO (molar basis), ~3.9% of NMOC (molar basis), and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis), suggests that they impacted post-emission formation of ozone, aerosol, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes. The variability in the terpene emissions in South Carolina (SC) fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the emitted gas-phase non-methane organic compounds was surprisingly different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that the slightly different ecosystems, time of year and the precursor variability all contributed to the variability in plume chemistry observed in this study and in the literature. The ?HCN/?CO emission ratio, however, is fairly consistent at 0.9 ± 0.06 % for airborne fire measurements in coniferous-dominated ecosystems further confirming the value of HCN as a good biomass burning indicator/tracer. The SC results also support an earlier finding that C3-C4 alkynes may be of use as biomass burning indicators on the time-scale of hours to a day. It was possible to measure the chemical evolution of the plume on four of the fires and significant ozone (O3) formation (?O3/?CO from 10-90%) occurred in all of these plumes. Slower O3 production was observed on a cloudy day with low co-emissions of NOx and the fastest O3 production was observed on a sunny day when the plume almost certainly incorporated significant additional NOx by passing over the Columbia, SC metropolitian area. Due to rapid plume dilution, it was only possible to acquire high quality downwind data for two other species (formaldehyde and methanol) on two of the fires. In all four cases significant increases were observed. This is likely the first direct observation of post-emission methanol production in biomass burning plumes and the precursors likely included terpenes.

  14. Heating rate and electrode charging measurements in a scalable, microfabricated, surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. T. C. Allcock; T. P. Harty; H. A. Janacek; N. M. Linke; C. J. Ballance; A. M. Steane; D. M. Lucas; R. L. Jarecki Jr.; S. D. Habermehl; M. G. Blain; D. Stick; D. L. Moehring

    2011-05-24

    We characterise the performance of a surface-electrode ion "chip" trap fabricated using established semiconductor integrated circuit and micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microfabrication processes which are in principle scalable to much larger ion trap arrays, as proposed for implementing ion trap quantum information processing. We measure rf ion micromotion parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the trap electrodes, and find that on-package capacitors reduce this to heating rate for a single trapped ion. The performance of this trap is found to be comparable with others of the same size scale.

  15. Preliminary Analysis of Surface Radiation Measurement Data Quality at the SGP Extended Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w1.½tankSurface Radiation Measurement

  16. TransCom N[subscript 2]O model inter-comparison – Part 1: Assessing the influence of transport and surface fluxes on tropospheric N[subscript 2]O variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, R. L.

    We present a comparison of chemistry-transport models (TransCom-N2O) to examine the importance of atmospheric transport and surface fluxes on the variability of N2O mixing ratios in the troposphere. Six different models ...

  17. Understanding the long-term variability of African dust transport across the Atlantic as recorded in both Barbados surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    in both Barbados surface concentrations and large-scale Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) optical performed at Barbados since 1966, along with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Meteosat dust years of common operation. This demonstrates that the Barbados dust record is representative of the year

  18. Measurement and image processing evaluation of surface modifications of dental implants G4 pure titanium created by different techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulutsuz, A. G.; Demircioglu, P. Bogrekci, I.; Durakbasa, M. N.

    2015-03-30

    Foreign substances and organic tissue interaction placed into the jaw in order to eliminate tooth loss involves a highly complex process. Many biological reactions take place as well as the biomechanical forces that influence this formation. Osseointegration denotes to the direct structural and functional association between the living bone and the load-bearing artificial implant's surface. Taking into consideration of the requirements in the manufacturing processes of the implants, surface characterizations with high precise measurement techniques are investigated and thus long-term success of dental implant is emphasized on the importance of these processes in this study. In this research, the detailed surface characterization was performed to identify the dependence of the manufacturing techniques on the surface properties by using the image processing methods and using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for morphological properties in 3D and Taylor Hobson stylus profilometer for roughness properties in 2D. Three implant surfaces fabricated by different manufacturing techniques were inspected, and a machined surface was included into the study as a reference specimen. The results indicated that different surface treatments were strongly influenced surface morphology. Thus 2D and 3D precise inspection techniques were highlighted on the importance for surface characterization. Different image analyses techniques such as Dark-light technique were used to verify the surface measurement results. The computational phase was performed using image processing toolbox in Matlab with precise evaluation of the roughness for the implant surfaces. The relationship between the number of black and white pixels and surface roughness is presented. FFT image processing and analyses results explicitly imply that the technique is useful in the determination of surface roughness. The results showed that the number of black pixels in the image increases with increase in surface roughness.

  19. A solution of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics by using a variable hidden in Newtonian mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jae-Hyung Myung

    2012-03-29

    The problem of a correct description of the physical phenomena of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is solved by using a variable hidden in Newtonian mehcanics.

  20. Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

    2003-11-06

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

  1. Supplemental Tables Supplemental Table 1. Test statistics for all response variables measured in clam and control mesocosms in 2009 and 2010. All results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Supplemental Tables Supplemental Table 1. Test statistics for all response variables measured chlorophyll a for Run 2, 2010. Test statistics are given in Supplemental Table 1. #12;SF 3. Mean (±SE) water = Clam treatment, run 1). Test statistics are given in Supplemental Table 1. #12;SF 5. Mean (±SE

  2. Measurement of charged-particle event shape variables in inclusive ?(s)=7??TeV proton-proton interactions with the ATLAS detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Frank E.

    The measurement of charged-particle event shape variables is presented in inclusive inelastic pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The observables studied are the transverse ...

  3. Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2003-10-03

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

  4. SU-E-T-44: Angular Dependence of Surface Dose Enhancement Measured On Several Inhomogeneities Using Radiochromic EBT3 Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, A; Schoenfeld, A; Poppinga, D; Chofor, N; Poppe, B [University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg (Germany); Pius Hospital Oldenburg, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The quantification of the relative surface dose enhancement in dependence on the angle of incidence and the atomic number Z of the surface material. Methods: Experiments were performed with slabs made of aluminum, titanium, copper, silver, dental gold and lead. The metal slabs with equal sizes of 1.0×8.0×8.8mm{sup 3} were embedded in an Octavius 4D phantom (PTW Freiburg, Germany). Radiochromic EBT3 films were used to measure the surface dose for angles of incidence ranging from 0° to 90°. The setup with the metals slabs at the isocenter was irradiated with acceleration voltages of 6MV and 10MV. Water reference measurements were taken under equal conditions. Results: The surface dose enhancement is highest for angles of incidence below 30° and drops significantly for higher. The surface dose enhancement produced by lead and dental gold at 6MV showed a peak of 65%. At 90°, the surface dose enhancement dropped to 15% for both materials. The surface dose enhancements for silver, copper, titanium and aluminum were 45%, 32%, 22% and 12% at 0°, respectively. At an angle of incidence of 80°, the values dropped to 22%, 18%, 12% und 6%. The values for 10MV were very similar. Lead and dental gold showed peaks of 65% und 60%. Their values dropped to 18% at an angle of 90°. The surface dose enhancements for silver, copper, titanium and aluminum were 45%, 30%, 20% and 8% at 0°. At 80° the values dropped to 30%, 20%, 12% and 5%. A dependence of the magnitude of the surface dose enhancement on the atomic number of the surface material can be seen, which is in consistence with literature. Conclusion: The results show that the surface dose enhancements near implant materials with high Z-values should be taken into consideration in radio therapy, even when the angle of incidence is flat.

  5. Temporal variability of the elemental composition of African dust measured in trade wind aerosols at Barbados and Miami

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    at Barbados and Miami John Michael Trapp, Frank J. Millero, Joseph M. Prospero University of Miami variability of the elemental composition of aerosol samples collected in the Trade Winds at Barbados and Miami

  6. Rock Joint Surfaces Measurement and Analysis of Aperture Distribution under Different Normal and Shear Loading Using GIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharifzadeh, Mostafa; Esaki, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Geometry of the rock joint is a governing factor for joint mechanical and hydraulic behavior. A new method of evaluating aperture distribution based on measurement of joint surfaces and three dimensional characteristics of each surface is developed. Artificial joint of granite surfaces are measured,processed, analyzed and three dimensional approaches are carried out for surface characterization. Parameters such as asperity's heights, slope angles, and aspects distribution at micro scale,local concentration of elements and their spatial localization at local scale are determined by Geographic Information System (GIS). Changes of aperture distribution at different normal stresses and various shear displacements are visualized and interpreted. Increasing normal load causes negative changes in aperture frequency distribution which indicates high joint matching. However, increasing shear displacement causes a rapid increase in the aperture and positive changes in the aperture frequency distribution which could be ...

  7. Measurement of spin-flip probabilities for ultracold neutrons interacting with nickel phosphorus coated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Tang; E. R. Adamek; A. Brandt; N. B. Callahan; S. M. Clayton; S. A. Currie; T. M. Ito; M. Makela; Y. Masuda; C. L. Morris; R. Pattie Jr.; J. C. Ramsey; D. J. Salvat; A. Saunders; A. R. Young

    2015-10-23

    We report a measurement of the spin-flip probabilities for ultracold neutrons interacting with surfaces coated with nickel phosphorus. For 50 $\\mu$m thick nickel phosphorus coated on stainless steel, the spin-flip probability per bounce was found to be $\\beta_{\\rm NiP\\;on\\;SS} = (3.3^{+1.8}_{-5.6}) \\times 10^{-6}$. For 50 $\\mu$m thick nickel phosphorus coated on aluminum, the spin-flip probability per bounce was found to be $\\beta_{\\rm NiP\\;on\\;Al} = (3.6^{+2.1}_{-5.9}) \\times 10^{-6}$. For the copper guide used as reference, the spin flip probability per bounce was found to be $\\beta_{\\rm Cu} = (6.7^{+5.0}_{-2.5}) \\times 10^{-6}$. Nickel phosphorus coated stainless steel or aluminum provides a solution when UCN guides that have a high Fermi potential and are low-cost, mechanically robust, and non-depolarizing are needed.

  8. Contact angle measurements and wetting behavior of inner surfaces of pipelines exposed to heavy crude oil and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    crude oil and water RonaldoG.dosSantos a , Rahoma S. Mohamed a,F , Antonio C. Bannwart b , Watson Loh c alternative for the transportation of heavy crude oils. The lubricating effect of the aqueous film leads of such surfaces by crude oils through contact angle measurements in systems containing heavy oil/aqueous phase

  9. In-situ, high-frequency P-Wave velocity measurements within 1 m of the Earth’s surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Gregory S.; Steeples, Don W.; Schmeissner, Chris M.

    1999-03-01

    Seismic P-wave velocities in near?surface materials can be much slower than the speed of sound waves in air (normally 335 m/s or 1100 ft/s). Difficulties often arise when measuring these low?velocity P-waves because of interference by the air wave...

  10. Surface Emissivity Impact on Temperature and Moisture Soundings from Hyperspectral Infrared Radiance Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    Surface Emissivity Impact on Temperature and Moisture Soundings from Hyperspectral Infrared June 2010, in final form 13 December 2010) ABSTRACT An accurate land surface emissivity (LSE the emissivities are fixed in the retrieval process. The results also confirm that the simultaneous retrieval

  11. NEC Hazardous classification and compliance regarding the surface moisture monitor measurement system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bussell, J.H., WHC

    1996-06-12

    The National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, and National Fire Protection Association requirements for use of Surface Moisture Monitor Systems in classified locations are discussed. The design and configuration of the surface moisture monitor are analyzed with respect to how they comply with requirements of the National Electrical Code requirements, articles 500-504.

  12. Apparatus and procedure to characterize the surface quality of conductors by measuring the rate of cathode emission as a function of surface electric field strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mestayer, Mac; Christo, Steve; Taylor, Mark

    2014-10-21

    A device and method for characterizing quality of a conducting surface. The device including a gaseous ionizing chamber having centrally located inside the chamber a conducting sample to be tested to which a negative potential is applied, a plurality of anode or "sense" wires spaced regularly about the central test wire, a plurality of "field wires" at a negative potential are spaced regularly around the sense, and a plurality of "guard wires" at a positive potential are spaced regularly around the field wires in the chamber. The method utilizing the device to measure emission currents from the conductor.

  13. Interaction Forces Measured Using AFM between Colloids and Surfaces Coated with Both Dextran and Protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a large proportion of polysaccharides. Proteins released by bacteria into solution can be rapidly adsorbed at a surface and can promote bacterial adhesion and the continuous secretion of proteins by bacteria during

  14. COMPARISON OF MODIS AND MISR-DERIVED SURFACE ALBEDO WITH IN SITU MEASUREMENTS IN GREENLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

    visible and near infrared (NIR) data from sensors such as the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution to spectral signatures for high- resolution snow albedo retrievals. This study evaluates snow surface albedo

  15. A framework for comparing geomechanical models of InSAR-measured surface deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Laplante, Neil Edward James

    2011-01-01

    High-quality Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) surface deformation data for field sites around the world has become widely available over the past decade. Geomechanical models based on InSAR data occur ...

  16. Evanescent wave and video microscopy methods for directly measuring interactions between surface-immobilized biomolecules 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everett, William Neil

    2009-05-15

    -specific protein-protein interactions between surface immobilized cadherin fragments demonstrate the potential utility of this experimental system and these methods. Additionally, quantum dot-modified colloids were synthesized and evanescent wave...

  17. Mapping of the EQ-5D index from clinical outcome measures and demographic variables in patients with coronary heart disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Kimberley A.; Dyer, Matthew T.; Buxton, Martin J.; Sharples, Linda D.

    2010-06-04

    of study [13]. Such models could be used to predict the EQ-5D index in cases where it was not administered. Mapping of the EQ-5D index requires development of multiple variable regres- sion models that predict the EQ-5D index with the mini- mum amount... :54 http://www.hqlo.com/content/8/1/54 Page 3 of 13 point score according to the amount of exercise required to bring on angina from 0 (no angina even on strenuous or prolonged physical exertion) to IV (angina with mini- mal exertion or at rest...

  18. Best Practices in Grid Integration of Variable Wind Power: Summary of Recent US Case Study Results and Mitigation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J. Charles (UWIG); Parsons, B.; (NREL), Acker, T.; (NAU), Milligan, M.; (NREL), Zavadil, R.

    2010-01-22

    This paper will summarize results from a number of utility wind integration case studies conducted recently in the US, and outline a number of mitigation measures based on insights from those studies.

  19. The development and application of a questionnaire designed to measure pre-existing, process, and outcome variables in the productivity measurement and enhancement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decuir, Arlette Desha

    1997-01-01

    The ProMES questionnaire was developed to assess individuals' experiences as they relate to the implementation of the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System. The questionnaire, which resulted in a total of 30 subscales that assess...

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring surface density of explosive and inert dust in stratified layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Perlee, Henry E. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1988-01-01

    A method for determining the surface density of coal dust on top of rock dust or rock dust on top of coal dust is disclosed which comprises directing a light source at either a coal or rock dust layer overlaying a substratum of the other, detecting the amount of light reflected from the deposit, generating a signal from the reflected light which is converted into a normalized output (V), and calculating the surface density from the normalized output. The surface density S.sub.c of coal dust on top of rock dust is calculated according to the equation: S.sub.c =1/-a.sub.c ln(V) wherein a.sub.c is a constant for the coal dust particles, and the surface density S.sub.r of rock dust on top of coal dust is determined by the equation: ##EQU1## wherein a.sub.r is a constant based on the properties of the rock dust particles. An apparatus is also disclosed for carrying out the method of the present invention.

  1. Measuring Thickness Changes in Thin Films Due to Chemical Reaction by Monitoring the Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutenberg, Andrew

    to the study of lithium-ion batteries. Recently metallic alloys M ~M Si, Sn, Al, etc.! have been proposed force microscope, expansion and contraction, Li-ion battery, surface roughness, thin film thickness as possible negative electrode materials for lithium-ion bat- teries ~Yang et al., 1996; Idota et al., 1997

  2. Dynamic surface displacement measurement in 1-3 and 1-1-3 piezocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    stimulus. The deformation of each constituent depends on the relative compliance of the ceramic and matrix results in a composite with 1-1-3 connectivity. In the current investigation, dynamic surface hydrostatic performance over a homogeneous piezo- ceramic. In a 1-3 piezocomposite, the piezoceramic rod

  3. Interpolation of surface radiative temperature measured from polar orbiting satellites to a diurnal cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Menglin

    for the clear-sky (cloud free) conditions are presented. This cloud-free version of algorithm is evaluated using this temperature and that of the overlying air. Over land, this difference and hence the energy fluxes are maintained by net radiative forcing minus changes in heat storage of the surface. Thus fluxes of sensible

  4. The detection of carbon dioxide leaks using quasi-tomographic laser absorption spectroscopy measurements in variable wind

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Levine, Z. H.; Pintar, A. L.; Dobler, J.; Blume, N.; Braun, M.; Zaccheo, T. S.; Pernini, T. G.

    2015-11-24

    Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (LAS) has been used over the last several decades for the measurement of trace gasses in the atmosphere. For over a decade, LAS measurements from multiple sources and tens of retroreflectors have been combined with sparse-sample tomography methods to estimate the 2-D distribution of trace gas concentrations and underlying fluxes from pointlike sources. In this work, we consider the ability of such a system to detect and estimate the position and rate of a single point leak which may arise as a failure mode for carbon dioxide storage. The leak is assumed to be at a constantmore »rate giving rise to a plume with a concentration and distribution that depend on the wind velocity. We demonstrate the ability of our approach to detect a leak using numerical simulation and a preliminary measurement.« less

  5. Time-resolved measurement of single pulse femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kafka, K R P; Li, H; Yi, A; Cheng, J; Chowdhury, E A

    2015-01-01

    Time-resolved diffraction microscopy technique has been used to observe the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) from the interaction of a single femtosecond laser pulse (pump) with a nano-scale groove mechanically formed on a single-crystal Cu substrate. The interaction dynamics (0-1200 ps) was captured by diffracting a time-delayed, frequency-doubled pulse from nascent LIPSS formation induced by the pump with an infinity-conjugate microscopy setup. The LIPSS ripples are observed to form sequentially outward from the groove edge, with the first one forming after 50 ps. A 1-D analytical model of electron heating and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation induced by the interaction of incoming laser pulse with the groove edge qualitatively explains the time-evloution of LIPSS formation.

  6. Direct measurements of ensemble particle and surface interactions on homogeneous and patterned substrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Hung-Jen

    2006-08-16

    range particle-particle attraction and recovery of the expected DLVO particle-wall interactions for all concentrations examined. The possible influence of charge heterogeneity and particle size polydispersity on measured distribution functions...

  7. Micro- and Nanoscale Measurement Methods for Phase Change Heat Transfer on Planar and Structured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buongiorno, Jacopo

    In this opinion piece, we discuss recent advances in experimental methods for characterizing phase change heat transfer. We begin with a survey of techniques for high-resolution measurements of temperature and heat flux ...

  8. Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S.C.; Torn, M.S.; Fischer, M.L.; Billesbach, D.P.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-08-15

    Characterizing net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) of CO{sub 2} and sensible and latent heat fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes is difficult, yet critical given expected changes in climate and land use. We report here a measurement and modeling study designed to improve our understanding of surface to atmosphere gas exchanges under very heterogeneous land cover in the mostly agricultural U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP). We combined three years of site-level, eddy covariance measurements in several of the dominant land cover types with regional-scale climate data from the distributed Mesonet stations and Next Generation Weather Radar precipitation measurements to calibrate a land surface model of trace gas and energy exchanges (isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM)). Yearly variations in vegetation cover distributions were estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index and compared to regional and subregional vegetation cover type estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture census. We first applied ISOLSM at a 250 m spatial scale to account for vegetation cover type and leaf area variations that occur on hundred meter scales. Because of computational constraints, we developed a subsampling scheme within 10 km 'macrocells' to perform these high-resolution simulations. We estimate that the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility SGP region net CO{sub 2} exchange with the local atmosphere was -240, -340, and -270 gC m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (positive toward the atmosphere) in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, with large seasonal variations. We also performed simulations using two scaling approaches at resolutions of 10, 30, 60, and 90 km. The scaling approach applied in current land surface models led to regional NEE biases of up to 50 and 20% in weekly and annual estimates, respectively. An important factor in causing these biases was the complex leaf area index (LAI) distribution within cover types. Biases in predicted weekly average regional latent heat fluxes were smaller than for NEE, but larger than for either ecosystem respiration or assimilation alone. However, spatial and diurnal variations of hundreds of W m{sup -2} in latent heat fluxes were common. We conclude that, in this heterogeneous system, characterizing vegetation cover type and LAI at the scale of spatial variation are necessary for accurate estimates of bottom-up, regional NEE and surface energy fluxes.

  9. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Thomas J. (Maumee, OH); Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-04-25

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  11. Production and measurement of engineered surfaces for inertial confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hatch, Douglas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-19

    Inertial Confinement Fusion uses the optical energy from a very high power laser to implode spherical capsules that contain a fuel mixture of deuterium and tritium. The capsules are made of either Beryllium, plastic, or glass and range from 0.1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. As a capsule implodes, thereby compressing the fuel to reach nuclear fusion conditions, it achieves temperatures of millions of degrees Centigrade and very high pressures. In this state, the capsule materials act like fluids and often a low density fluidic material will push on a higher density material which can be a very unstable condition depending upon the smoothness of the interface between the two materials. This unstable condition is called a hydrodynamic instabillity which results in the mixing of the two materials. If the mixing occurs between the fuel and a non-fuel material, it can stop the fusion reaction just like adding significant amounts of water to gasoline can stop the operation of an automobile. Another region in the capsule where surface roughness can cause capsule performance degradation is at a joint. For instance, many capsules are made of hemispheres that are joined together. If the joint surfaces are too rough, then there will an effective reduction in density at the joint. This density reduction can cause a non-uniform implosion which will reduce the fusion energy coming out of the capsule.

  12. Investigating Inertial Measurement Units for Spatial Awareness in Multi-Surface Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurer, Frank

    evaluated the applicability and usability of the SmartCube IMU, developed at the Alberta Center for Advanced and orientation measurements returned by the SmartCube? And whether it is a feasible alternative to sensor fusion was created to communicate spatial data from the SmartCube, and act as a device to send content. Users were

  13. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Diurnal variability of upper ocean temperatures from1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    . Infrared satellite sensors measure34 the very surface of the ocean, the "skin", while microwave sensors is to evaluate30 the character of diurnal variability of the upper ocean. The analysis makes use of Argo31

  14. Time interval measurement device based on surface acoustic wave filter excitation, providing 1 ps precision and stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panek, Petr; Prochazka, Ivan [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Chaberska 57, 182 51 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2007-09-15

    This article deals with the time interval measurement device, which is based on a surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter as a time interpolator. The operating principle is based on the fact that a transversal SAW filter excited by a short pulse can generate a finite signal with highly suppressed spectra outside a narrow frequency band. If the responses to two excitations are sampled at clock ticks, they can be precisely reconstructed from a finite number of samples and then compared so as to determine the time interval between the two excitations. We have designed and constructed a two-channel time interval measurement device which allows independent timing of two events and evaluation of the time interval between them. The device has been constructed using commercially available components. The experimental results proved the concept. We have assessed the single-shot time interval measurement precision of 1.3 ps rms that corresponds to the time of arrival precision of 0.9 ps rms in each channel. The temperature drift of the measured time interval on temperature is lower than 0.5 ps/K, and the long term stability is better than {+-}0.2 ps/h. These are to our knowledge the best values reported for the time interval measurement device. The results are in good agreement with the error budget based on the theoretical analysis.

  15. Measurement of surface emission flux rates for volatile organic compounds at Technical Area 54

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trujillo, V.; Morgenstern, M.; Krier, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gilkeson, R. [Weirich and Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The survey described in this report was conducted to estimate the mass of volatile organic compounds venting to the atmosphere from active and inactive waste disposal sites at Technical Area 54. A large number of nonintrusive passive sample collection devices were placed on the ground surface for 72 hours to characterize an area of approximately 150 acres. Results provided an indication of the boundary location of the known volatile organic plume, plume constituents, and isolated high concentration areas. The data from this survey enhanced existing data from a limited number of monitor wells currently used for plume surveillance. Results indicate that the estimated mass emission to the atmosphere is orders of magnitude lower than what is considered a small flux rate at a spill site or a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act landfill and is far below the threshold limit established by the State of New Mexico as an air quality concern.

  16. Analysis of the aerosol-cloud interactions from aircraft, surface measurements, and cloud parcel model during the March 2000 IOP at the ARM SGP site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    model during the March 2000 IOP at the ARM SGP site Delene, D. J. (a), Dong, X. (a), Chen, Y. (b (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data Aerosol MeasurementsAerosol Measurements years of continuous surface aerosol measurements from the Department of Energy's ARM SGP Cloud

  17. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)-based elongation measurements in Advanced Test Reactor high temperature irradiation testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-02-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. These materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high temperature irradiations. Currently, such changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The labor and time to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To resolve these issues, an instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated in pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant conditions in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop this testing capability. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper focuses on efforts to design and evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL).

  18. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)-based elongation measurements in Advanced Test Reactor high temperature irradiation testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-02-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. These materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high temperature irradiations. Currently, such changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The labor and time to remove, examine and return irradiated samples for each measurement make this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To resolve these issues, an instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated under pressurized water reactor coolant conditions in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop this testing capability. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper focuses on efforts to design and evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory.

  19. Universal deformation of soft substrates near a contact line and the direct measurement of solid surface stresses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Yonglu Che; John. S. Wettlaufer; Larry A. Wilen; Eric R. Dufresne

    2012-10-25

    Droplets deform soft substrates near their contact lines. Using confocal microscopy, we measure the deformation of silicone gel substrates due to glycerol and fluorinated-oil droplets for a range of droplet radii and substrate thicknesses. For all droplets, the substrate deformation takes a universal shape close to the contact line that depends on liquid composition, but is independent of droplet size and substrate thickness. This shape is determined by a balance of interfacial tensions at the contact line and provides a novel method for direct determination of the surface stresses of soft substrates. Moreover, we measure the change in contact angle with droplet radius and show that Young's law fails for small droplets when their radii approach an elastocapillary length scale. For larger droplets the macroscopic contact angle is constant, consistent with Young's law.

  20. On eddy accumulation with limited conditional sampling to measure air-surface exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesely, M.L.; Hart, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of turbulence data collected at a height of 12.3 m above grasslands was carried out to illustrate some of the limitations and possible improvements in methods to compute vertical fluxes of trace substances by the eddy accumulation technique with conditional sampling. The empirical coefficient used in the technique has a slight dependence on atmospheric stability, which can be minimized by using a threshold vertical velocity equal to approximately 0.75{sigma}{sub w}, below which chemical sampling is suspended. This protocol results in a smaller chemical sample but increases the differences in concentrations by approximately 70%. For effective conditional sampling when mass is being accumulated in a trap or reservoir, the time of sampling during updrafts versus downdrafts should be measured and used to adjust estimates of the mean concentrations.

  1. Multiscale Variability of the River Runoff System in China and Its Long-Term Link to Precipitation and Sea Surface Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Yongkang

    and Sea Surface Temperature YONGKANG XUE,*, SHUFEN SUN,# K.-M. LAU,@ JINJUN JI,*, ISABELLE POCCARD,* RENHE with precipitation and sea surface temperature (SST) at the continental scale. Monthly mean data from 72 runoff­north dipole anomaly patterns for the first two runoff EOF's spatial distributions have been identified

  2. Contrasting Surface Ozone and Particulate Matter measurements with meteorological conditions in South Florida and its possible impacts on the number of Asthma cases: Five years of correlations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Contrasting Surface Ozone and Particulate Matter measurements with meteorological conditions, wind speed and direction), and air quality indicators (ozone O3 and particulate matter PM2.5) are presented in this study. Surface Ozone and Particulate Matter have been both important triggers of asthma

  3. Airborne Flux Measurements of BVOCs above Californian Oak Forests: Experimental Investigation of Surface and Entrainment Fluxes, OH Densities, and Damkohler Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    of Surface and Entrainment Fluxes, OH Densities, and Damkohler Numbers T. KARL,*,1 P. K. MISZTAL,# H. H of the isoprene is oxidized in the PBL with entrainment fluxes of about 10% compared to the corresponding surface fluxes. Entrainment velocities of 1­10 cm s21 were measured. The authors present implications for parame

  4. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: • Winds: 10 meters • Temperature and Relative Humidity: 2 meters • Barometric Pressure: 1 meter. Depending upon the geographical location, different models and types of sensors may be used to measure the core variables due to the conditions experienced at those locations. Most sites have additional sensors that measure other variables that are unique to that site or are well suited for the climate of the location but not at others.

  5. TransCom model simulations of CH? and related species: linking transport, surface flux and chemical loss with CH? variability in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patra, P. K.

    A chemistry-transport model (CTM) intercomparison experiment (TransCom-CH?) has been designed to investigate the roles of surface emissions, transport and chemical loss in simulating the global methane distribution. Model ...

  6. Absorption of gas-phase atomic hydrogen by Si,,100...: Effect of surface atomic structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    measure- ments. The clean surface was prepared by outgassing for 12 h at 900 K and flash annealing to 1350 by a variable leak valve. To remove impurities such as hydrocarbons and water in the gas delivery line, a liquid

  7. Measurement of the Proton-Air Cross Section with Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector and Surface Array in Hybrid Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. U. Abbasi; M. Abe; T. Abu-Zayyad; M. Allen; R. Anderson; R. Azuma; E. Barcikowski; J. W. Belz; D. R. Bergman; S. A. Blake; R. Cady; M. J. Chae; B. G. Cheon; J. Chiba; M. Chikawa; W. R. Cho; T. Fujii; M. Fukushima; T. Goto; W. Hanlon; Y. Hayashi; N. Hayashida; K. Hibino; K. Honda1; D. Ikeda; N. Inoue; T. Ishii; R. Ishimori; H. Ito; D. Ivanov; C. C. H. Jui; K. Kadota; F. Kakimoto; O. Kalashev; K. Kasahara; H. Kawai; S. Kawakami; S. Kawana; K. Kawata; E. Kido; H. B. Kim; J. H. Kim; J. H. Kim; S. Kitamura; Y. Kitamura; V. Kuzmin; Y. J. Kwon; J. Lan1; S. I. Lim; J. P. Lundquist; K. Machida; K. Martens; T. Matsuda; T. Matsuyama; J. N. Matthews; M. Minamino; K. Mukai; I. Myers; K. Nagasawa; S. Nagataki1; T. Nakamura; T. Nonaka; A. Nozato; S. Ogio; J. Ogura; M. Ohnishi; H. Ohoka; K. Oki; T. Okuda; M. Ono; A. Oshima; S. Ozawa; I. H. Park; M. S. Pshirkov; D. C. Rodriguez; G. Rubtsov; D. Ryu; H. Sagawa; N. Sakurai; A. L. Sampson; L. M. Scott; P. D. Shah; F. Shibata; T. Shibata; H. Shimodaira; B. K. Shin; J. D. Smith; P. Sokolsky; R. W. Springer; B. T. Stokes; S. R. Stratton; T. A. Stroman; T. Suzawa; M. Takamura; M. Takeda; R. Takeishi; A. Taketa; M. Takita; Y. Tameda; H. Tanaka; K. Tanaka; M. Tanaka; S. B. Thomas; G. B. Thomson; P. Tinyakov; I. Tkachev; H. Tokuno; T. Tomida; S. Troitsky; Y. Tsunesada; K. Tsutsumi; Y. Uchihori; S. Udo; F. Urban; G. Vasiloff; T. Wong; R. Yamane; H. Yamaoka; K. Yamazaki; J. Yang; K. Yashiro; Y. Yoneda; S. Yoshida; H. Yoshii; R. Zollinger; Z. Zundel

    2015-05-07

    In this work we are reporting on the measurement of the proton-air inelastic cross section $\\sigma^{\\rm inel}_{\\rm p-air}$ using the Telescope Array (TA) detector. Based on the measurement of the $\\sigma^{\\rm inel}_{\\rm p-air}$ the proton-proton cross section $\\sigma_{\\rm p-p}$ value is also determined at $\\sqrt{s} = 95$ TeV. Detecting cosmic ray events at ultra high energies with Telescope Array enables us to study this fundamental parameter that we are otherwise unable to access with particle accelerators. The data used in this report is collected over five years using hybrid events observed by the Middle Drum fluorescence detector together with the surface array detector. The value of the $\\sigma^{\\rm inel}_{\\rm p-air}$ is found to be equal to $ 567.0 \\pm 70.5 [{\\rm Stat.}] ^{+25}_{-29} [{\\rm Sys.}]$ mb. The total proton-proton cross section is subsequently inferred from Glauber Formalism and Block, Halzen and Stanev QCD inspired fit and is found to be equal to $170_{-44}^{+48} [{\\rm Stat.}] \\pm _{-19}^{+17} [{\\rm Sys.}] $mb.

  8. Measurement of the Proton-Air Cross Section with Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector and Surface Array in Hybrid Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbasi, R U; Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Chae, M J; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, W R; Fujii, T; Fukushima, M; Goto, T; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Honda1, K; Ikeda, D; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ito, H; Ivanov, D; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kawata, K; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, J H; Kitamura, S; Kitamura, Y; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lan1, J; Lim, S I; Lundquist, J P; Machida, K; Martens, K; Matsuda, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Minamino, M; Mukai, K; Myers, I; Nagasawa, K; Nagataki1, S; Nakamura, T; Nonaka, T; Nozato, A; Ogio, S; Ogura, J; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Okuda, T; Ono, M; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D C; Rubtsov, G; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T A; Suzawa, T; Takamura, M; Takeda, M; Takeishi, R; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Urban, F; Vasiloff, G; Wong, T; Yamane, R; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yashiro, K; Yoneda, Y; Yoshida, S; Yoshii, H; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z

    2015-01-01

    In this work we are reporting on the measurement of the proton-air inelastic cross section $\\sigma^{\\rm inel}_{\\rm p-air}$ using the Telescope Array (TA) detector. Based on the measurement of the $\\sigma^{\\rm inel}_{\\rm p-air}$ the proton-proton cross section $\\sigma_{\\rm p-p}$ value is also determined at $\\sqrt{s} = 95$ TeV. Detecting cosmic ray events at ultra high energies with Telescope Array enables us to study this fundamental parameter that we are otherwise unable to access with particle accelerators. The data used in this report is collected over five years using hybrid events observed by the Middle Drum fluorescence detector together with the surface array detector. The value of the $\\sigma^{\\rm inel}_{\\rm p-air}$ is found to be equal to $ 567.0 \\pm 70.5 [{\\rm Stat.}] ^{+25}_{-29} [{\\rm Sys.}]$ mb. The total proton-proton cross section is subsequently inferred from Glauber Formalism and Block, Halzen and Stanev QCD inspired fit and is found to be equal to $170_{-44}^{+48} [{\\rm Stat.}] \\pm _{-19}^{+1...

  9. Measurement of the Proton-Air Cross Section with Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector and Surface Array in Hybrid Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. U. Abbasi; M. Abe; T. Abu-Zayyad; M. Allen; R. Anderson; R. Azuma; E. Barcikowski; J. W. Belz; D. R. Bergman; S. A. Blake; R. Cady; M. J. Chae; B. G. Cheon; J. Chiba; M. Chikawa; W. R. Cho; T. Fujii; M. Fukushima; T. Goto; W. Hanlon; Y. Hayashi; N. Hayashida; K. Hibino; K. Honda; D. Ikeda; N. Inoue; T. Ishii; R. Ishimori; H. Ito; D. Ivanov; C. C. H. Jui; K. Kadota; F. Kakimoto; O. Kalashev; K. Kasahara; H. Kawai; S. Kawakami; S. Kawana; K. Kawata; E. Kido; H. B. Kim; J. H. Kim; J. H. Kim; S. Kitamura; Y. Kitamura; V. Kuzmin; Y. J. Kwon; J. Lan; S. I. Lim; J. P. Lundquist; K. Machida; K. Martens; T. Matsuda; T. Matsuyama; J. N. Matthews; M. Minamino; K. Mukai; I. Myers; K. Nagasawa; S. Nagataki; T. Nakamura; T. Nonaka; A. Nozato; S. Ogio; J. Ogura; M. Ohnishi; H. Ohoka; K. Oki; T. Okuda; M. Ono; A. Oshima; S. Ozawa; I. H. Park; M. S. Pshirkov; D. C. Rodriguez; G. Rubtsov; D. Ryu; H. Sagawa; N. Sakurai; A. L. Sampson; L. M. Scott; P. D. Shah; F. Shibata; T. Shibata; H. Shimodaira; B. K. Shin; J. D. Smith; P. Sokolsky; R. W. Springer; B. T. Stokes; S. R. Stratton; T. A. Stroman; T. Suzawa; M. Takamura; M. Takeda; R. Takeishi; A. Taketa; M. Takita; Y. Tameda; H. Tanaka; K. Tanaka; M. Tanaka; S. B. Thomas; G. B. Thomson; P. Tinyakov; I. Tkachev; H. Tokuno; T. Tomida; S. Troitsky; Y. Tsunesada; K. Tsutsumi; Y. Uchihori; S. Udo; F. Urban; G. Vasiloff; T. Wong; R. Yamane; H. Yamaoka; K. Yamazaki; J. Yang; K. Yashiro; Y. Yoneda; S. Yoshida; H. Yoshii; R. Zollinger; Z. Zundel

    2015-08-31

    In this work we are reporting on the measurement of the proton-air inelastic cross section $\\sigma^{\\rm inel}_{\\rm p-air}$ using the Telescope Array (TA) detector. Based on the measurement of the $\\sigma^{\\rm inel}_{\\rm p-air}$ the proton-proton cross section $\\sigma_{\\rm p-p}$ value is also determined at $\\sqrt{s} = 95_{-8}^{+5}$ TeV. Detecting cosmic ray events at ultra high energies with Telescope Array enables us to study this fundamental parameter that we are otherwise unable to access with particle accelerators. The data used in this report is the hybrid events observed by the Middle Drum fluorescence detector together with the surface array detector collected over five years. The value of the $\\sigma^{\\rm inel}_{\\rm p-air}$ is found to be equal to $567.0 \\pm 70.5 [{\\rm Stat.}] ^{+29}_{-25} [{\\rm Sys.}]$ mb. The total proton-proton cross section is subsequently inferred from Glauber Formalism and Block, Halzen and Stanev QCD inspired fit and is found to be equal to $170_{-44}^{+48} [{\\rm Stat.}] _{-17}^{+19} [{\\rm Sys.}] $mb.

  10. ARM - Measurement - Surface albedo

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotal downwellingalbedo ARM Data

  11. ARM - Measurement - Surface condition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotal downwellingalbedo ARM

  12. Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T.

    2013-07-01

    There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink{sup R} technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO{sup TM} automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated sampler. In addition, automated rain gauges will be tied into this technology for immediate notification of rain at storm-water locations further enhancing the automation of environmental data collection. These technological improvements at SRS have led to data-quality improvements while reducing the field technician time in the field and costs for maintaining the traditional environmental monitoring applications. (authors)

  13. H. J. Sutherland and P. W. Carlin, "Damage Measurements on the NWTC Direct-Drive, Variable-Speed Test Bed," 1998 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, AIAA/ASME, 1998,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado 80401 Abstract The NWTC (National Wind Technology Center-Speed Test Bed," 1998 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, AIAA/ASME, 1998, pp. 315-322. DAMAGE MEASUREMENTS ON THE NWTC DIRECT-DRIVE, VARIABLE-SPEED TEST BED* Herbert J. Sutherland Wind Energy Department Sandia

  14. Bed topography and the development of forced bed surface patches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    stress field, calculated from velocity measurements and with a quasithreedimensional hydraulic model (Fa which we made measurements of local nearbed velocity and sediment transport. The bed developedSTMECH), displayed substantial variability across the bar unit. Bed surface grain size did not correlate with local

  15. Variable path length spectrophotometric probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, Patrick E. (157 Greenwood Dr., Martiney, GA 30907); McCarty, Jerry E. (104 Recreation Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Haggard, Ricky A. (1144 Thornwood Drive, North Augusta, SC 29891)

    1992-01-01

    A compact, variable pathlength, fiber optic probe for spectrophotometric measurements of fluids in situ. The probe comprises a probe body with a shaft having a polished end penetrating one side of the probe, a pair of optic fibers, parallel and coterminous, entering the probe opposite the reflecting shaft, and a collimating lens to direct light from one of the fibers to the reflecting surface of the shaft and to direct the reflected light to the second optic fiber. The probe body has an inlet and an outlet port to allow the liquid to enter the probe body and pass between the lens and the reflecting surface of the shaft. A linear stepper motor is connected to the shaft to cause the shaft to advance toward or away from the lens in increments so that absorption measurements can be made at each of the incremental steps. The shaft is sealed to the probe body by a bellows seal to allow freedom of movement of the shaft and yet avoid leakage from the interior of the probe.

  16. Dispersive response of atoms trapped near the surface of an optical nanofiber with applications to QND measurement and spin squeezing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaodong Qi; Ben Q. Baragiola; Poul S. Jessen; Ivan H. Deutsch

    2015-09-18

    We study the strong coupling between photons and atoms that can be achieved in an optical nanofiber geometry when the interaction is dispersive. While the Purcell enhancement factor for spontaneous emission into the guided mode does not reach the strong-coupling regime for individual atoms, one can obtain high cooperativity for ensembles of a few thousand atoms due to the tight confinement of the guided modes and constructive interference over the entire chain of trapped atoms. We calculate the dyadic Green's function, which determines the scattering of light by atoms in the presence of the fiber, and thus the phase shift and polarization rotation induced on the guided light by the trapped atoms. The Green's function is related to a full Heisenberg-Langevin treatment of the dispersive response of the quantized field to tensor polarizable atoms. We apply our formalism to quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of the atoms via polarimetry. We study shot-noise-limited detection of atom number for atoms in a completely mixed spin state and the squeezing of projection noise for atoms in clock states. Compared with squeezing of atomic ensembles in free space, we capitalize on unique features that arise in the nanofiber geometry including anisotropy of both the intensity and polarization of the guided modes. We use a first principles stochastic master equation to model the squeezing as function of time in the presence of decoherence due to optical pumping. We find a peak metrological squeezing of ~5 dB is achievable with current technology for ~2500 atoms trapped 180 nm from the surface of a nanofiber with radius a=225 nm.

  17. Relative efficiency of land surface energy balance components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateni, S. M.

    [1] The partitioning of available energy into dissipative fluxes over land surfaces is dependent on the state variable of the surface energy balance (land surface temperature) and the state variable of the surface water ...

  18. Remote Measurement of Cognitive Stress via Heart Rate Variability Daniel McDuff1, Sarah Gontarek2 and Rosalind Picard1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (HRV). We show that changes in physiological parameters during cognitive stress can be captured of the face of the participant. Significantly higher normalized low frequency HRV components and breathing Heart rate variability (HRV) is a commonly used mea- sure of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity

  19. Smoke over haze: Comparative analysis of satellite, surface radiometer, and airborne in situ measurements of aerosol optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    measurements of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing over the eastern United States Brian Vant column closure between narrow and broadband measurements and calculations. Citation: Vant-Hull, B., Z. Li

  20. Cataclysmic Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Connon Smith

    2007-01-23

    Cataclysmic variables are binary stars in which a relatively normal star is transferring mass to its compact companion. This interaction gives rise to a rich range of behaviour, of which the most noticeable are the outbursts that give the class its name. Novae belong to the class, as do the less well known dwarf novae and magnetic systems. Novae draw their energy from nuclear reactions, while dwarf novae rely on gravity to power their smaller eruptions. All the different classes of cataclysmic variable can be accommodated within a single framework and this article will describe the framework, review the properties of the main types of system and discuss models of the outbursts and of the long-term evolution.

  1. Arctic and Antarctic diurnal and seasonal variations of snow albedo from multiyear Baseline Surface Radiation Network measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xianwei; Zender, Charles S

    2011-01-01

    With constant SZA and solar radiation and extreme low airof long?term solar radiation measurements from two BSRNand direct and diffuse solar radiation used here. We thank

  2. Hydrologic assessment of an urban variable source watershed in the northeast United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Hydrologic assessment of an urban variable source watershed in the northeast United States Zachary by considering the impact of impervious surfaces, hydraulic control structures (detention basins), and land use and interflows increased accordingly. Both modeled and measured distributed results indicated that the more

  3. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform in Houston, Texas: Trends and Tracers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, Martin C

    2014-05-08

    and traffic counts except during variable working hours. To assign measured fluxes to local sources, we tested a bulk flux footprint model (Kormann and Meixner model) designed for uniform emission surface areas in this urban, heterogeneous landscape. Tracer...

  4. Surface Tension of Seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nayar, Kishor Govind

    New measurements and a reference correlation for the surface tension of seawater at atmospheric pressure are presented in this paper. Surface tension of seawater was measured across a salinity range of 20 ? S ? 131 g/kg ...

  5. Results of the measurement survey of elevation and environmental media in surface impoundments 3513 (B) and 3524 (A) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, M.E.; Rose, D.A.; Brown, K.S.; Coe, R.H.C. III; Lawrence, J.D.; Winton, W.

    1998-07-01

    A measurement survey of the elevation and environmental media in impoundments 3513 (B) and 3524 (A) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during April 1998. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Life Sciences Division of ORNL at the request of Bechtel Jacobs Company. Measurement activities were conducted at selected locations in order to determine the depth and appearance of the sediment and describe the clay underlying the impoundments prior to remediation. The survey was a follow-up to a previous elevation survey. The survey included the following: collection of sediment/clay cores from selected locations in each impoundment; measurement and documentation of the elevation at the water surface, at the top of sediment, at the top of clay, and at the bottom of each core; visual inspection of each core by a soil scientist to confirm the presence of clay and not material such as fly ash and soda lime compacted over the last 50 years; measurement and documentation of the background beta-gamma radiation level at the time and location of collection of each core, the highest beta-gamma level along the sediment portion of each core, and the highest beta-gamma level along the clay portion of each core; measurement and documentation of the length of the clay and of the sediment portion of each core; photographic documentation of each core; and replacement of each core in the impoundment.

  6. A Combined Near-field Scanning Microwave Microscope and Transport Measurement System for Characterizing Dissipation in Conducting and High-Tc Superconducting Films at Variable Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dizon, Jonathan Reyes

    2009-04-28

    , on the other hand, focused early efforts on using their coaxial resonator-type probe to image a sample?s ferroelectric domains by measuring the variations in the dielectric constant [Gao 1998]. Periodic ferroelectric domain structures in crystals have found..., on the other hand, focused early efforts on using their coaxial resonator-type probe to image a sample?s ferroelectric domains by measuring the variations in the dielectric constant [Gao 1998]. Periodic ferroelectric domain structures in crystals have found...

  7. Surface impedance measurements of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin films in stripline resonators. (Reannouncement with new availability information). Meeting speech

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oates, D.E.; Anderson, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Measurements of the rf surface impedance Zs of superconductors as a function of frequency, temperature, and rf magnetic field are of great interest because they yield information on many fundamental physical parameters of the material such as penetration depth, coherence length, energy gap, and electron mean free path. They are also important for practical applications of superconductors at rf frequencies because the value of the surface resistance determines the losses in the superconductor. Loss occurs at rf frequencies and finite temperatures because the penetration of the magnetic field into the material produces an electric field which couples to the normal unpaired electrons, leading to ohmic losses. At dc the electric field is zero and there are no losses.

  8. Sensitivity study of borehole-to-surface and crosswell electromagnetic measurements acquired with energized steel casing to water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    with energized steel casing to water displacement in hydrocarbon-bearing layers David Pardo1 , Carlos Torres is energized with a finite-size sole- noid antenna located along the axis of the borehole. Measure- ments more recent work concerning energized steel casing, in which an ar- ray of steel-casing segments

  9. Fermi surface measurements in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-x and La sub 1. 874 Sr sub. 126 CuO sub 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, R.H.; Sterne, P.A.; Solal, F.; Fluss, M.J. ); Haghighi, H.; Kaiser, J.H.; Rayner, S.L.; West, R.N. ); Liu, J.Z; Shelton, R. ); Kojima, H. ); Kitazawa, K. )

    1991-06-25

    We report new, ultra high precision measurements of the electron-positron momentum spectra of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} and La{sub 1.874}Sr{sub 126}CuO{sub 4}. The YBCO experiments were performed on twin free, single crystals and show discontinuities with the symmetry of the Fermi surface of the CuO chain bands. Conduction band and underlying features in LSCO share the same symmetry and can only be separated with the aid of LDA calculations. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Approach to the surface characteristics of the H and H -LaT forms of cation-exchange resins by measurement of the heat of immersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, T.; Uematsu, T.

    1985-11-07

    Surface characteristics of H and its multivalent cation-exchanged resins, which have been used as catalysts, were probed by measurement of the heats of immersion in 1-nitropropane, n-hexane, and water. It was found that the electrostatic field strengths (F) calculated from the heats of immersion in 1-nitropropane and n-hexane increased with increasing ratios of the exchanged multivalent cation (LaT ) in the univalent form (H ) cation-exchange resin. This tendency was also observed in the differences in F between the LaT exchanged resins and H form of the resin by using the calorimetric data obtained from the heats of immersion in water. These results suggest that the exchanged LaT ion does not homogeneously interact with three univalent anionic sites (SO3 ) of the cation-exchange resin, but interacts with only two SO3 ions, that is, the LaT ion is localized on the surface of the resin. The difference in F obtained from the heats of immersion into water was found to be useful as a simple and rapid criterion of the surface characteristics of the cation-exchange resins. 18 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  11. MEASUREMENTS OF PAST 14C LEVELS AND 13C/12C RATIOS IN THE SURFACE WATERS OF THE WORLD'S SUBPOLAR OCEANS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T A

    2010-04-22

    Under this project we have developed methods that allow the reconstruction of past {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean by measuring the {sup 14}C contents of archived salmon scales. The overall goal of this research was to reduce of the uncertainty in the uptake of fossil CO{sub 2} by the oceans and thereby improve the quantification of the global carbon cycle and to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs), with their three dimensional global spatial coverage and temporal modeling capabilities, provide the best route to accurately calculating the total uptake of CO{sub 2} by the oceans and, hence, to achieving the desired reduction in uncertainty. {sup 14}C has played, and continues to play, a central role in the validation of the OGCMs calculations, particularly with respect to those model components which govern the uptake of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and the transport of this carbon within the oceans. Under this project, we have developed time-series records of the {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of three areas of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean. As the previously available data on the time-history of oceanic surface water {sup 14}C levels are very limited, these time-series records provide significant new {sup 14}C data to constrain and validate the OGCMs.

  12. Snowpack spatial variability: towards understanding its effect on remote sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Hans-Peter

    Snowpack spatial variability: towards understanding its effect on remote sensing measurements spatial variability: towards understanding its effect on remote sensing mea- surements and snow slope large errors in these basin estimates. Remote sensing measurements offer a promising alternative, due

  13. SANS and Contrast Variation Measurement of the Different Contributions to the Total Surface Area in PBX 9501 as a Function of Pressing Intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mang, Joseph T.; Hjelm, Rex P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2006-07-28

    We have used small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in conjunction with the method of contrast variation to measure the surface area (SHB, SHV, and SBV) associated with the three interfaces (HMX-binder (HB), HMX-voids (HV) and binder-voids (BV)) in pressed pellets of PBX 9501 (95% HMX and 5% binder, by weight). These interfaces are of interest as they may influence the transmission of microstresses and hot spot formation under shock conditions. Because of the difficulty in making measurements, little is known about the microstructure of pressed PBX 9501 parts and thus how it is affected by processing. Here, we explore the effect of varying the pressing intensity on the PBX 9501 microstructure and in particular, how the three interfaces (HB, HV and BV) are affected. Disk-shaped samples of PBX 9501 were die-pressed with applied pressures ranging between 5,000 and 29,000 psi. SANS measurements were performed on 4-5 pellets at each pressure. Analysis of the SANS data indicates systematic changes in SHB, SHV, and SBV with applied pressure.

  14. A Climatology of Fair-Weather Cloud Statistics at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Site: Temporal and Spatial Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Gustafson, William I.

    2006-03-30

    In previous work, Berg and Stull (2005) developed a new parameterization for Fair-Weather Cumuli (FWC). Preliminary testing of the new scheme used data collected during a field experiment conducted during the summer of 1996. This campaign included a few research flights conducted over three locations within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. A more comprehensive verification of the new scheme requires a detailed climatology of FWC. Several cloud climatologies have been completed for the ACRF SGP, but these efforts have focused on either broad categories of clouds grouped by height and season (e.g., Lazarus et al. 1999) or height and time of day (e.g., Dong et al. 2005). In these two examples, the low clouds were not separated by the type of cloud, either stratiform or cumuliform, nor were the horizontal chord length (the length of the cloud slice that passed directly overhead) or cloud aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of the cloud thickness to the cloud chord length) reported. Lane et al. (2002) presented distributions of cloud chord length, but only for one year. The work presented here addresses these shortcomings by looking explicitly at cases with FWC over five summers. Specifically, we will address the following questions: •Does the cloud fraction (CF), cloud-base height (CBH), and cloud-top height (CTH) of FWC change with the time of day or the year? •What is the distribution of FWC chord lengths? •Is there a relationship between the cloud chord length and the cloud thickness?

  15. Measuring the structure of thin soft matter films under confinement: A surface-force type apparatus for neutron reflection, based on a flexible membrane approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, Wiebe M. de; Mears, Laura L. E.; Richardson, Robert M.; Cosgrove, Terence; Prescott, Stuart W.; Dalgliesh, Robert M.

    2012-11-15

    A unique surface force type apparatus that allows the investigation of a confined thin film using neutron reflection is described. The central feature of the setup consists of a solid substrate (silicon) and a flexible polymer membrane (Melinex{sup Registered-Sign }). We show that inflation of the membrane against the solid surface provides close and even contact between the interfaces over a large surface area. Both heavy water and air can be completely squeezed out from between the flexible film and the solid substrate, leaving them in molecular contact. The strength of confinement is controlled by the pressure used to inflate the membrane. Dust provides a small problem for this approach as it can get trapped between membrane and substrate to prevent a small part of the membrane from making good contact with the substrate. This results in the measured neutron reflectivity containing a small component of an unwanted reflection, between 10% and 20% at low confining pressures (1 bar) and between 1% and 5% at high confining pressures (5 bar). However, we show that this extra signal does not prevent good and clear information on the structure of thin films being extracted from the neutron reflectivity. The effects of confinement are illustrated with data from a poly(vinyl pyrollidone) gel layer in water, a polyelectrolyte multilayer in water, and with data from a stack of supported lipid-bilayers swollen with D{sub 2}O vapor. The data demonstrates the potential of this apparatus to provide information on the structure of thin films under confinement for a known confining pressure.

  16. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 4. 2. Measurement of surface-air movements associated with atomic blasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rados, R.M.; Bogert, J.C.; Haig, T.O.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to record continuous measurements of the surface winds in the vicinity of an atomic blast immediately prior to the blast, during passage of the shock wave, and immediately after the blast with special regard to the blast-induced afterwind following local dissipation of the shock wave. From the data obtained, it was concluded that following an atomic explosion there are two specific causes of air-mass movement. One is related to the shock phenomenon and the other to the rising fireball. It can also be concluded that the heated-thermopile-type and strain-gage-type anemometers could be developed to yield more complete data on the air-mass movement at ground level following an atomic explosion.

  17. ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARM Data Discovery Browse

  18. ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotal downwelling

  19. ARM - Measurement - Surface energy balance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotal downwellingalbedo ARMenergy

  20. ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotal downwellingalbedo ARMenergyskin

  1. CAN COSMIC-RAY NUCLEON MEASUREMENTS BE USED TO SCALE PRODUCTION RATES OF COSMOGENIC NUCLIDES?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zreda, Marek

    CAN COSMIC-RAY NUCLEON MEASUREMENTS BE USED TO SCALE PRODUCTION RATES OF COSMOGENIC NUCLIDES variability of nuclide production rates on the earth's surface. Direct measurements of cosmic-ray fluxes have spatial variations of cosmic-ray neu- tron intensity and production rates of in-situ cosmogenic nuclides

  2. Variable Frequency Pump Drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karassik, I. J.; Petraccaro, L. L.; McGuire, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    variable flow operation, Fig. 2 variable system head, the objective of the latter being to maintain pump flow within an optimum range while accommodating a wide variation in system head. VARYING OPERATING CAPACITY OPERATING CAPACITY? N, RANGE HEAD...-rotor motors and variable speed devices have slip losses that significantly reduce the savings that accrue by operating pumps at variable speed. Steam turbine drives may not always be the most practical or economic solution. The variable frequency...

  3. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnside, Walter D. (Columbus, OH); Rudduck, Roger C. (Columbus, OH); Yu, Jiunn S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector.

  4. Benchmarking Variable Cost Performance in an Industrial Power Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, J. F.; Bailey, W. F.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most perplexing problems for industrial power plants committed to improving competitiveness is measuring variable cost performance over time. Because variable costs like fuel and electricity represent the overwhelming majority of power...

  5. Measuring Complementary Electronic Structure Properties of both Deposited and Gas Phase Clusters using STM, UPS, and PES: Size-Selected Clusters on Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, Kit H.

    2014-03-05

    In this project, we studied size-selected cluster interactions with surfaces, with other clusters on surfaces, and with external stimuli. These studies focused on mobility as a function of cluster size, surface morphologies as a function of composition and coverage, ion-induced modification and reactivity of clusters as a function of composition, the structural evolution of cluster cuboids culminating in the characterization of theoretically-predicted “baby crystal” clusters, and unusual fractal pattern formation due to deposition.

  6. The "mean king's problem" with continuous variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso Botero; Yakir Aharonov

    2007-10-16

    We present the solution to the "mean king's problem" in the continuous variable setting. We show that in this setting, the outcome of a randomly-selected projective measurement of any linear combination of the canonical variables x and p can be ascertained with arbitrary precision. Moreover, we show that the solution is in turn a solution to an associated "conjunctive" version of the problem, unique to continuous variables, where the inference task is to ascertain all the joint outcomes of a simultaneous measurement of any number of linear combinations of x and p.

  7. Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces Fion S. Yeung, Jacob Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, Ophelia K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwoka

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    displays LCDs are conventionally aligned by rubbing of a polyimide PI layer. Pretilt angles of 0 alignment surface based on a random distribution of vertical and hori- zontal polyimide domains.5 is also very strong, being comparable to ordinary rubbed polyimides. In fact, ordinary polyimides

  8. Ashtekar's variables without spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schucker

    2009-06-26

    Ashtekar's variables are shown to arise naturally from a 3+1 split of general relativity in the Einstein-Cartan formulation. Thereby spinors are exorcised.

  9. 20.2 / F. S. Y. Yeung 20.2: New Results on Nano-Textured Surfaces Alignment Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a polyimide (PI) layer. Pretilt angles can be produced in the range of 00 -100 and 850 - 900 from commercial) and vertical (V) polyimide. We show that such surfaces can indeed provide variable pretilt angles between 00 and 900 . The measured anchoring energy is very strong and is comparable to ordinary rubbed polyimide

  10. Submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research, September 1996 Surface Airsea Fluxes and Upper Ocean Heat Budget at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    was obtained from the CTD data, surface fluxes, and assumptions about solar radiative absorption with depth of the budget. The results show variability typical of the tropics: low winds (LW) with maximum solar radiation were made with the Integrated Sounding System (ISS) with ancillary measurements of long­wave radiation

  11. Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Peters

    2005-05-04

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

  12. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Thigpen, Larry T. (Angier, NC)

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  13. PV output variability modeling using satellite imagery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.

    2010-11-01

    High frequency irradiance variability measured on the ground is caused by the formation, dissipation, and passage of clouds in the sky. If we can identify and associate different cloud types/patterns from satellite imagery, we may be able to predict irradiance variability in areas lacking sensors. With satellite imagery covering the entire U.S., this allows for more accurate integration planning and power flow modeling over wide areas. Satellite imagery from southern Nevada was analyzed at 15 minute intervals over a year. Methods for image stabilization, cloud detection, and textural classification of clouds were developed and tested. High Performance Computing parallel processing algorithms were also investigated and tested. Artificial Neural Networks using imagery as inputs were trained on ground-based measurements of irradiance to model the variability and were tested to show some promise as a means for predicting irradiance variability.

  14. Continuous Variable Quantum Information Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrik L. Andersen; Gerd Leuchs; Christine Silberhorn

    2010-08-20

    Observables of quantum systems can posses either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses the continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system either for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments in the field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum informational system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection stage where CV information is measured using homodyne detection or photon counting.

  15. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal...

  16. Linking Siberian Snow Cover to Precursors of Stratospheric Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Judah

    Previous research has linked wintertime Arctic Oscillation (AO) variability to indices of Siberian snow cover and upward wave activity flux in the preceding fall season. Here, daily data are used to examine the surface and ...

  17. This study focuses on the methodology of generating and measuring HONO to study its potential formation from self-cleaning surfaces such as TiO2.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Vehicle emissions, when oxidized in the presence of NOx and sunlight, produce photochemical air pollution as a photocatalyst to oxidize surface absorbed compounds. It has been proposed that air pollution can be reduced pollution by increasing the formation arte of HO radical. The oxidation of VOCs by TiO2 can lead

  18. Pearle's Hidden-Variable Model Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard D. Gill

    2015-05-19

    Pearle (1970) gave an example of a local hidden variables model which exactly reproduced the singlet correlations of quantum theory, through the device of data-rejection: particles can fail to be detected in a way which depends on the hidden variables carried by the particles and on the measurement settings. If the experimenter computes correlations between measurement outcomes of particle pairs for which both particles are detected, he is actually looking at a subsample of particle pairs, determined by interaction involving both measurement settings and the hidden variables carried in the particles. We correct a mistake in Pearle's formulas (a normalization error) and more importantly show that the model is more simple than first appears. We illustrate with visualisations of the model and with a small simulation experiment, with code in the statistical programming language R included in the paper. Open problems are discussed.

  19. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  20. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  1. Variable frequency photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Jing-Hai; Li, Hong; Chen, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed a new one-dimensional variable frequency photonic crystals (VFPCs), and calculated the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution of VFPCs with and without defect layer, and considered the effect of defect layer and variable frequency function on the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution. We have obtained some new characteristics for the VFPCs, which should be help to design a new type optical devices.

  2. Improving parameter estimation and water table depth simulation in a land surface model using GRACE water storage and estimated base flow data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Syed, T. H

    2010-01-01

    spatially variable water and energy balance processes, Waterdistributed land surface water and energy balance model, J.

  3. Hit from both sides: tracking industrial and volcanic plumes in Mexico City with surface measurements and OMI SO2 retrievals during the MILAGRO field campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Foy, B.

    Large sulfur dioxide plumes were measured in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO field campaign. This paper seeks to identify the sources of these plumes and the meteorological processes that affect ...

  4. Research Papers Seasonal variability of chlorophyll a in the Mid-Atlantic Bight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    presumably replenishes nutrients to the surface waters on the MAB shelf. Thermal stratification re). In temperate seas, seasonal phytoplankton variability has been related to stratification, destratification

  5. Are non-magnetic mechanisms such as temporal solar diameter variations conceivable for an irradiance variability?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. P. Rozelot; S. Lefebvre; S. Pireaux; A. Ajabshirizadeh

    2006-01-05

    Irradiance variability has been monitored from space for more than two decades. Even if data are coming from different sources, it is well established that a temporal variability exists which can be set to as approximately 0.1%, in phase with the solar cycle. Today, one of the best explanation for such an irradiance variability is provided by the evolution of the solar surface magnetic fields. But if some 90 to 95% can be reproduced, what would be the origin of the 10 to 5% left? Non magnetic effects are conceivable. In this paper we will consider temporal variations of the diameter of the Sun as a possible contributor for the remaining part. Such an approach imposes strong constraints on the solar radius variability. We will show that over a solar cycle, variations of no more than 20 mas of amplitude can be considered. Such a variability (far from what is reported by observers conducting measurements by means of ground-based solar astrolabes) may explain a little part of the irradiance changes not explained by magnetic features. Further requirements are needed that may help to reach a conclusion. Dedicated space missions are necessary (for example PICARD, GOLF-NG or SDO, scheduled for a launch around 2008); it is also proposed to reactivate SDS flights for such a purpose.

  6. UONPR No. 1, Elk Hills, 26R Reservoir, Elk Hills oil and gas field, Kern County, California: Management Review: Surface operations and measurements of production and injection volumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Evans, Carey and Crozier was given the task to conduct a Management Review of the Surface Operations of the 26R Reservoir in UONPR No. 1, Elk Hills field, Kern County, California. The MER strategy for this reservoir is to maintain pressure, and toward this end, gas injection volumes are scheduled to amount to 110% of calculated withdrawals. In spite of this, however, reservoir pressure continues to decline. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to determine if, and to what extent, field operating practices and accounting procedures may be contributing to this dilemma and to make appropriate recommendations pertaining to correcting any deficiencies which may have been found.

  7. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

    2013-12-31

    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  8. INVARIANT RADON MEASURES ON MEASURED LAMINATION SPACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamenstädt, Ursula

    INVARIANT RADON MEASURES ON MEASURED LAMINATION SPACE URSULA HAMENST¨ADT Abstract. Let S be an oriented surface of genus g 0 with m 0 punctures and 3g - 3 + m 2. We classify all Radon measures class group MCG(S) naturally acts on ML as a group of homeomorphisms preserving a Radon measure

  9. Variable Refrigerant Flow HVAC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, S.

    2013-01-01

    Variable refrigerant flow technology HVAC CATEE 2013 San Antonio, TX ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 What is the acronym VRF? ? Variable Refrigerant Flow Operates like a... heat pump utilizing VFD Inverter Compressors and LEV’s Unlike conventional commercial and residential HVAC systems in the USA The predominate method of cooling and heating in the world ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

  10. Variables Affecting Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation of High-Velocity Flyer Plate Impact Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaram, Deepak S [UNLV; Trabia, Mohamed [UNLV; O'Toole, Brendan [UNLV; Hixson, Robert S [NSTec

    2014-01-23

    This paper describes our work to characterize the variables affecting the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method in the LS-DYNA package for simulating high-velocity flyer plate impact experiments. LS-DYNA simulations are compared with one-dimensional experimental data of an oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper flyer plate impacting another plate of the same material. The comparison is made by measuring the velocity of a point on the back surface of the impact plate using the velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) technique.

  11. 3, 18091850, 2006 groundwater-surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HESSD 3, 1809­1850, 2006 Measuring groundwater-surface water interactions: a review E. Kalbus et al System Sciences Measuring methods for groundwater, surface water and their interactions: a review E;HESSD 3, 1809­1850, 2006 Measuring groundwater-surface water interactions: a review E. Kalbus et al

  12. Thermoacoustic tomography with variable sound speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plamen Stefanov; Gunther Uhlmann

    2009-05-30

    We study the mathematical model of thermoacoustic tomography in media with a variable speed for a fixed time interval, greater than the diameter of the domain. In case of measurements on the whole boundary, we give an explicit solution in terms of a Neumann series expansion. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness and stability when the measurements are taken on a part of the boundary.

  13. Thermoacoustic tomography with variable sound speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanov, Plamen

    2009-01-01

    We study the mathematical model of thermoacoustic tomography in media with a variable speed for a fixed time interval, greater than the diameter of the domain. In case of measurements on the whole boundary, we give an explicit solution in terms of a Neumann series expansion. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness and stability when the measurements are taken on a part of the boundary.

  14. Group Work: Global warming & natural variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    Group Work: Global warming & natural variability Left: Global annual temperature departure from://skepticalscience.com/foster-and-rahmstorf-measure-global-warming-signal.html 2013 2012 2011 #12;: 1963-1964, 1982-83, 1991-93 1. How do these events affect the global annual temperature and can you

  15. Variable thrust cartridge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-11-07

    The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.

  16. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  17. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  18. Temporal and spatial variability of surface temperature over Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moninski, Anthony David

    1995-01-01

    equation (14) by a finite sum: ? P C(ro r&)(AA)iso(ri) = Aa4'a(r", ), i = 1, , N, (15) where the r", 's are the N individual grid points and AA, is an area element associated with the point r, . Thry further suggested that these elements iiiight...

  19. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  20. Variable laser attenuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  1. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  2. Exploring Multiwavelength AGN Variability with Swift Archival Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelbord, Jonathan; Grupe, Dirk; Berk, Dan Vanden; Wu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We are conducting an archival Swift program to measure multiwavelength variability in active galactic nuclei (AGN). This variability information will provide constraints on the geometry, physical conditions and processes of the structures around the central black holes that emit and reprocess the observed flux. Among our goals are: (1) to produce a catalog of type 1 AGN with time-resolved multi-wavelength data; (2) to characterize variability in the optical, UV and X-ay bands as well as changes in spectral slope; (3) to quantify the impact of variability on multi-wavelength properties; and (4) to measure correlated variability between bands. Our initial efforts have revealed a UVOT calibration issue that can cause a few percent of measured UV fluxes to be anomalously low, by up to 30%.

  3. Surface layering of liquids: The role of surface tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Shpyrko; Masafumi Fukuto; Peter Pershan; Ben Ocko; Ivan Kuzmenko; Thomas Gog; Moshe Deutsch

    2004-06-24

    Recent measurements show that the free surfaces of liquid metals and alloys are always layered, regardless of composition and surface tension; a result supported by three decades of simulations and theory. Recent theoretical work claims, however, that at low enough temperatures the free surfaces of all liquids should become layered, unless preempted by bulk freezing. Using x-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering measurements we show that there is no observable surface-induced layering in water at T=298 K, thus highlighting a fundamental difference between dielectric and metallic liquids. The implications of this result for the question in the title are discussed.

  4. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Daniel M. (Oliver Springs, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  5. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  6. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES IN FIELD SOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES IN FIELD SOILS J.M.H. Hendrickx, B. Borchers and J detection sensors are affected by soil properties such as water content, temperature, electrical measurements in the Netherlands, Panama, and New Mexico on spatial variability of soil water content. We also

  7. OS45G-07SHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE KUROSHIO EXTENSIONSHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE KUROSHIO EXTENSIONSHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE KUROSHIO EXTENSION Karen L. Tracey*, D. Randolph Watts, Kathleen A. Donohue and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    OS45G-07SHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE KUROSHIO EXTENSIONSHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE KUROSHIO EXTENSIONSHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE KUROSHIO EXTENSION Karen L by measured deep currents. Bottom pressures are leveled using time-mean near-bottom currents. Upper

  8. A Topography-Preserving Latent Variable Model with Learning Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    A Topography-Preserving Latent Variable Model with Learning Metrics Samuel Kaski and Janne grid to the input spa- ce. The mapping preserves the topography but measures local distances in terms

  9. Technical Sessions Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Over Contrasting Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. Coal StocksSuppliersmillion Technical SessionsM.

  10. Variable Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Gutterman; A. J. Lasley

    2008-08-31

    Many approaches exist to enable advanced mode, low temperature combustion systems for diesel engines - such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) or other HCCI-like combustion modes. The fuel properties and the quantity, distribution and temperature profile of air, fuel and residual fraction in the cylinder can have a marked effect on the heat release rate and combustion phasing. Figure 1 shows that a systems approach is required for HCCI-like combustion. While the exact requirements remain unclear (and will vary depending on fuel, engine size and application), some form of substantially variable valve actuation is a likely element in such a system. Variable valve actuation, for both intake and exhaust valve events, is a potent tool for controlling the parameters that are critical to HCCI-like combustion and expanding its operational range. Additionally, VVA can be used to optimize the combustion process as well as exhaust temperatures and impact the after treatment system requirements and its associated cost. Delphi Corporation has major manufacturing and product development and applied R&D expertise in the valve train area. Historical R&D experience includes the development of fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train on research engines as well as several generations of mechanical VVA for gasoline systems. This experience has enabled us to evaluate various implementations and determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. While a fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train system might be the 'ideal' solution technically for maximum flexibility in the timing and control of the valve events, its complexity, associated costs, and high power consumption make its implementation on low cost high volume applications unlikely. Conversely, a simple mechanical system might be a low cost solution but not deliver the flexibility required for HCCI operation. After modeling more than 200 variations of the mechanism it was determined that the single cam design did not have enough flexibility to satisfy three critical OEM requirements simultaneously, (maximum valve lift variation, intake valve opening timing and valve closing duration), and a new approach would be necessary. After numerous internal design reviews including several with the OEM a dual cam design was developed that had the flexibility to meet all motion requirements. The second cam added complexity to the mechanism however the cost was offset by the deletion of the electric motor required in the previous design. New patent applications including detailed drawings and potential valve motion profiles were generated and alternate two cam designs were proposed and evaluated for function, cost, reliability and durability. Hardware was designed and built and testing of sample hardware was successfully completed on an engine test stand. The mechanism developed during the course of this investigation can be applied by Original Equipment Manufacturers, (OEM), to their advanced diesel engines with the ultimate goal of reducing emissions and improving fuel economy. The objectives are: (1) Develop an optimal, cost effective, variable valve actuation (VVA) system for advanced low temperature diesel combustion processes. (2) Design and model alternative mechanical approaches and down-select for optimum design. (3) Build and demonstrate a mechanism capable of application on running engines.

  11. An examination of internally generated variability in long climate simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.K.; Kinter, J.L. III [Inst. of Global Environment and Society, Calverton, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    General circulation model experiments designed to estimate the magnitude and structure of internally generated variability and to help understand the mechanisms underlying this variability are described. The experiments consist of three multi-century integrations of a rhomboidal 15, 9 level, version of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies atmospheric general circulation model: a run with fixed sea surface temperatures and equinox solar radiation, a run with seasonally varying climatological sea surface temperatures and seasonally varying solar forcing, and a run with seasonally varying solar forcing in which the state of the ocean is predicted by a 3{degree} by 3{degree}, 16 vertical level, nearly global domain version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Modular Ocean Model. No flux correction is used in the coupled model integration. Selected surface fields of the three runs are compared to each other as well as to the observed climate. Statistical properties of variability on interannual time scales are compared between the runs. Evidence is presented that climate time scale variability in the simulations is produced by random weather time scale forcing due to the integrating effect of elements of the system with long memories. The importance of ocean variability for land climate variability is demonstrated and attributed to both the memory effect and coupled atmosphere-ocean instability. 40 refs., 23 figs.

  12. Multiwave imaging in an enclosure with variable wave speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastian Acosta; Carlos Montalto

    2015-04-10

    In this paper we consider the mathematical model of thermo- and photo-acoustic tomography for the recovery of the initial condition of a wave field from knowledge of its boundary values. Unlike the free-space setting, we consider the wave problem in a region enclosed by a surface where an impedance boundary condition is imposed. This condition models the presence of physical boundaries such as interfaces or acoustic mirrors which reflect some of the wave energy back into the enclosed domain. By recognizing that the inverse problem is equivalent to a statement of boundary observability, we use control operators to prove the unique and stable recovery of the initial wave profile from knowledge of boundary measurements. Since our proof is constructive, we explicitly derive a solvable equation for the unknown initial condition. This equation can be solved numerically using the conjugate gradient method. We also propose an alternative approach based on the stabilization of waves. This leads to an exponentially and uniformly convergent Neumann series reconstruction when the impedance coefficient is not identically zero. In both cases, if well-known geometrical conditions are satisfied, our approaches are naturally suited for variable wave speed and for measurements on a subset of the boundary.

  13. Programmable surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

    2012-01-01

    Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

  14. Strategies for Detecting Hidden Geothermal Systems by Near-Surface Gas Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2004-12-15

    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are those systems above which hydrothermal surface features (e.g., hot springs, fumaroles, elevated ground temperatures, hydrothermal alteration) are lacking. Emissions of moderate to low solubility gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, He) may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. Detection of anomalous gas emissions related to hidden geothermal systems may therefore be an important tool to discover new geothermal resources. This study investigates the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring in the subsurface and above ground in the near-surface environment to serve as a tool to discover hidden geothermal systems. We focus the investigation on CO2 due to (1) its abundance in geothermal systems, (2) its moderate solubility in water, and (3) the wide range of technologies available to monitor CO2 in the near-surface environment. However, monitoring in the near-surface environment for CO2 derived from hidden geothermal reservoirs is complicated by the large variation in CO2 fluxes and concentrations arising from natural biological and hydrologic processes. In the near-surface environment, the flow and transport of CO2 at high concentrations will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration show that CO2 concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are primarily controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, and microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include (1) the infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) for measurement of concentrations at point locations, (2) the accumulation chamber (AC) method for measuring soil CO2 fluxes at point locations, (3) the eddy covariance (EC) method for measuring net CO2 flux over a given area, (4) hyperspectral imaging of vegetative stress resulting from elevated CO2 concentrations, and (5) light detection and ranging (LIDAR) that can measure CO2 concentrations over an integrated path. Technologies currently in developmental stages that have the potential to be used for CO2 monitoring include tunable lasers for long distance integrated concentration measurements and micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) that can make widespread point measurements. To address the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring methodologies with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. Within the area targeted for geothermal exploration, point measurements of soil CO2 fluxes and concentrations using the AC method and a portable IRGA, respectively, and measurements of net surface flux using EC should be made. Also, the natural spatial and temporal variability of surface CO2 fluxes and subsurface CO2 concentrations should be quantified within a background area with similar geologic, climatic, and ecosystem characteristics to the area targeted for geothermal exploration. Statistical analyses of data collected from both areas should be used to guide sampling strategy, discern spatial patterns that may be indicative of geothermal CO2 emissions, and assess the presence (or absence) of geothermal CO2 within the natural background variability with a desired confidence level. Once measured CO2 concentrations and fluxes have been determined to be of anomalous geothermal origin with high confidence, more expensive vertical subsurface gas sampling and chemical and isotopic analyses can be undertaken. Integrated analysis of all measurements will d

  15. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element o one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels.

  16. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, R.K.

    1991-04-02

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element of one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities is disclosed. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels. 19 figures.

  17. Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janecek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Carlo program simulating light propagation in isotropic orTerms—Lambertian reflection, light collection, Monte Carloy-axis) and fraction specular light (right y- axis) for a

  18. Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janecek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office ofby the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of

  19. New Surface Meteorological Measurements at SGP,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolarNew scholarship supports returningNewStaff Research Physicists atNM,

  20. A Bayesian Approach to Assess the Importance of Crustal Corrections in Global Anisotropic Surface Wave Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Z; Beghein, C

    2015-01-01

    from measurements of surface wave phase velocity anomalies,boundary from surface wave dispersion data, J. Geophys.radially anisotropic surface wave tomography, J. Geophys.

  1. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production 1: TotalofSupplySurface Soil Surface Soil We

  2. On Surface Approximation using Developable Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, In-Kwon

    manufacturing, e.g. in shipbuilding. Keywords: computer aided design, computer aided manufacturing, surface ap- proximation, reverse engineering, surface of revolution, developable surface, shipbuilding. 2 #12

  3. Complex hydraulic and substrate variables limit freshwater mussel species richness and abundance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Caryn

    Complex hydraulic and substrate variables limit freshwater mussel species richness and abundance. We examined how substrate and complex hydraulic variables limit the distribution of freshwater mussels. We sampled mussels and measured substrate and hydraulic variables (at low and high flows) at 6

  4. A Prospective Study of Management and Litter Variables Associated with Cellulitis in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Randall

    A Prospective Study of Management and Litter Variables Associated with Cellulitis in California. Litter variables measured included E. coli and total gram-negative bacteria load (colony forming units/g dry matter), water activity, and pH. Management variables such as clean out, the number of flocks

  5. The effects of surface instabilities on laminar film condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstmann, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Heat transfer rates for laminar film condensation of Freon-1l3 were measured on the underside of horizontal surfaces, inclined surfaces, and vertical surfaces. Several distinct regimes of flow were observed. On the underside ...

  6. Influence of the Combustion Energy Release on Surface Accelerations of an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massey, Jeffery A; Eaton, Scott J; Wagner, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    Large cyclic variability along with increased combustion noise present in low temperature combustion (LTC) modes of internal combustion engines has driven the need for fast response, robust sensors for diagnostics and feedback control. Accelerometers have been shown as a possible technology for diagnostics and feedback control of advanced LTC operation in internal combustion engines. To make better use of this technology, an improved understanding is necessary of the effect of energy release from the combustion process on engine surface vibrations. This study explores the surface acceleration response for a single-cylinder engine operating with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. Preliminary investigation of the engine surface accelerations is conducted using a finite element analysis of the engine cylinder jacket along with consideration of cylindrical modes of the engine cylinder. Measured in-cylinder pressure is utilized as a load input to the FE model to provide an initial comparison of the computed and measured surface accelerations. Additionally, the cylindrical cavity resonant modes of the engine geometry are computed and the in-cylinder pressure frequency content is examined to verify this resonant behavior. Experimental correlations between heat release and surface acceleration metrics are then used to identify specific acceleration frequency bands in which characteristics of the combustion heat release process is detected with minimal structural resonant influence. Investigation of a metric capable of indicting combustion phasing is presented. Impact of variations in the combustion energy release process on the surface accelerations is discussed.

  7. FINAL REPORT: Reduction in Energy Consumption and Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Peters

    2005-05-24

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

  8. A simple hidden variable experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Neumaier

    2007-06-22

    An experiment is described which proves, using single photons only, that the standard hidden variables assumptions (commonly used to derive Bell inequalities) are inconsistent with quantum mechanics. The analysis is very simple and transparent. In particular, it demonstrates that a classical wave model for quantum mechanics is not ruled out by experiments demonstrating the violation of the traditional hidden variable assumptions.

  9. Surface wave chemical detector using optical radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2007-07-17

    A surface wave chemical detector comprising at least one surface wave substrate, each of said substrates having a surface wave and at least one measurable surface wave parameter; means for exposing said surface wave substrate to an unknown sample of at least one chemical to be analyzed, said substrate adsorbing said at least one chemical to be sensed if present in said sample; a source of radiation for radiating said surface wave substrate with different wavelengths of said radiation, said surface wave parameter being changed by said adsorbing; and means for recording signals representative of said surface wave parameter of each of said surface wave substrates responsive to said radiation of said different wavelengths, measurable changes of said parameter due to adsorbing said chemical defining a unique signature of a detected chemical.

  10. Photometric Stellar Variability in the Galactic Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Rafelski; A. M. Ghez; S. D. Hornstein; J. R. Lu; M. Morris

    2007-01-04

    We report the results of a diffraction-limited, photometric variability study of the central 5"x5" of the Galaxy conducted over the past 10 years using speckle imaging techniques on the W. M. Keck I 10 m telescope. Within our limiting magnitude of mK < 16 mag for images made from a single night of data, we find a minimum of 15 K[2.2 micron]-band variable stars out of 131 monitored stars. The only periodic source in our sample is the previously identified variable IRS 16SW, for which we measure an orbital period of 19.448 +- 0.002 days. In contrast to recent results, our data on IRS 16SW show an asymmetric phased light curve with a much steeper fall-time than rise-time, which may be due to tidal deformations caused by the proximity of the stars in their orbits. We also identify a possible wind colliding binary (IRS 29N) based on its photometric variation over a few year time-scale which is likely due to episodic dust production. None of the 4 LBV candidates in our sample show the characteristic large increase or decrease in luminosity, however, our time baseline is too short to rule them out as LBVs. Among the remaining variable stars, the majority are early-type stars and three are possibly variable due to line of sight extinction variations. For the 7 OB stars at the center of our field of view that have well-determined 3-dimensional orbits, we see no evidence of flares or dimming of their light, which limits the possibility of a cold, geometrically-thin inactive accretion disk around the supermassive black hole, Sgr A*.

  11. Tunable surface plasmon devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaner, Eric A. (Rio Rancho, NM); Wasserman, Daniel (Lowell, MA)

    2011-08-30

    A tunable extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) device wherein the tunability derives from controlled variation of the dielectric constant of a semiconducting material (semiconductor) in evanescent-field contact with a metallic array of sub-wavelength apertures. The surface plasmon resonance wavelength can be changed by changing the dielectric constant of the dielectric material. In embodiments of this invention, the dielectric material is a semiconducting material. The dielectric constant of the semiconducting material in the metal/semiconductor interfacial region is controllably adjusted by adjusting one or more of the semiconductor plasma frequency, the concentration and effective mass of free carriers, and the background high-frequency dielectric constant in the interfacial region. Thermal heating and/or voltage-gated carrier-concentration changes may be used to variably adjust the value of the semiconductor dielectric constant.

  12. Barnes-Evans relations for dwarfs with an application to the determination of distances to cataclysmic variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Beuermann

    2006-10-19

    Barnes-Evans type relations provide an empirical relationship between the surface brightness of stars and their color. They are widely used for measuring the distances to stars of known radii, as the Roche-lobe filling secondaries in cataclysmic variables (CVs). The calibration of the surface brightness of field dwarfs of near-solar metalicity with spectral types A0 to L8 covers all secondary spectral types detectable in CVs and related objects and will aid in the measurement of their distances. The calibrations are based on the radii of field dwarfs measured by the Infrared Flux Method and by interferometry. Published photometry is used and homogenized to the Cousins Rc and Ic and the CIT JHK photometric systems. The narrow band surface brightness at 7500A is based on our own and published spectrophotometry. Care is taken to select the dwarfs for near-solar metalicity, appropriate to CVs, and to avoid errors caused by unrecognized binarity. Relations are provided for the surface brightness in V, Rc, Ic, J, H, K and in a narrow band at 7500A as functions of V-K and of spectral type. The method is tested with selected CVs for which independent information on their distances is available. The observed spread in the radii of early M-dwarfs of given mass or luminosity and its influence on the distance measurements of CVs is discussed. As long as accurate trigonometric parallaxes are not routinely available for a large number of CVs, the surface brightness method remains a reliable means of determining distances to CVs in which a spectral signature of the secondary star can be discerned.

  13. Surface studies of niobium chemically polished under conditions for superconducting radiofrequency cavity production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui Tian; Michael Kelley; Charles Reece

    2005-11-14

    The performance of niobium superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities is strongly impacted by the topmost several nanometers of the active (interior) surface, especially by the final surface conditioning treatments. We examined the effect of the most commonly employed treatment, buffered chemical polishing (BCP), on polycrystalline niobium sheet over a range of realistic solution flow rates using electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD), stylus profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laboratory XPS and synchrotron (variable photon energy) XPS, seeking to collect statistically significant data sets. We found that the predominant general surface orientation is (100), but others are also present and at the atomic-level details of surface plane orientation are more complex. The post-etch surface exhibits micron-scale roughness, whose extent does not change with treatment conditions. The outermost surface consists of a few-nm thick layer of niobium pentoxide, whose thickness increases with solution flow rate to a maximum of 1.3 - 1.4 times that resulting from static solution. The standard deviation of the roughness measurements is ?? 30% and that of the surface composition is ?? 5%.

  14. Variable rate CELP speech coding using widely variable parameter updates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moodie, Myron L.

    1995-01-01

    Code-excited, linear prediction (CELP) has become an accepted method for low bit rate, high quality coding of digital speech. The success of fixed rate CELP schemes has led to increased interest in variable rate techniques ...

  15. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  16. Daily Time Step Simulation with a Priority Order Based Surface Water Allocation Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffpauir, Richard James

    2011-02-22

    Surface water availability models often use monthly simulation time steps for reasons of data availability, model parameter parsimony, and reduced computational time. Representing realistic streamflow variability, ...

  17. Measuring Cost Variability in Provision of Transit Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Brian D.; Garrett, Mark; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    include both operating costs and capital costs, though mostof semi?xed operating and capital-cost allocation generallyresearch, both operating and capital costs are combined, and

  18. Measuring Cost Variability in Provision of Transit Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Brian D.; Garrett, Mark; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    W. , and S. R. Mundle. Peak-Base Cost Allocation Models. In29–33. Reilly, J. M. Transit Costs During Peak and Off-PeakHow to Allocate Bus Route Costs. Transit, Vol. 5, No. 2,

  19. Influence of Mean State on Climate Variability at Interannual and Decadal Time Scales 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiaojie

    2013-05-17

    for many phenomena associated with variables that are nonlinear by definition, such as the vertical wind shear and surface wind speed. In the first part of this dissertation, the influence of mean flow and anomalous flow on vertical wind shear variability...

  20. Integrated Analysis for the Design of Reusable TPS based on Variable Transpiration Cooling for Hypersonic Cruise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    1 Integrated Analysis for the Design of Reusable TPS based on Variable Transpiration Cooling transpiration strategy. An equal amount of coolant usage has been imposed in order to compare the cooling the vehicle surfaces (variable transpiration) allows to selectively cool down the structure in the regions

  1. VARIABILITY OF NEARSURFACE ZOOPLANKTON OFF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, AS SHOWN BY TOWED-PUMP SAMPLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VARIABILITY OF NEAR·SURFACE ZOOPLANKTON OFF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, AS SHOWN BY TOWED-PUMP SAMPLING Cl of 1962. Samples were collected with a towed pump at a depth of 5 m. Allproximately 162 samples, each repl pump surveys re- llorted here were undertaken to obtain informa- tion on variability and trends

  2. Anyonic statistics with continuous variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jing Zhang; Changde Xie; Kunchi Peng; Peter van Loock

    2008-10-30

    We describe a continuous-variable scheme for simulating the Kitaev lattice model and for detecting statistics of abelian anyons. The corresponding quantum optical implementation is solely based upon Gaussian resource states and Gaussian operations, hence allowing for a highly efficient creation, manipulation, and detection of anyons. This approach extends our understanding of the control and application of anyons and it leads to the possibility for experimental proof-of-principle demonstrations of anyonic statistics using continuous-variable systems.

  3. A kinematic model for surface irrigation: An extension 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Bernard; Singh, Vijay P.

    1982-01-01

    The kinematic model for surface irrigation, reported previously by Sherman and Singh (1978), is extended. Depending upon the duration of irrigation and time variability of infiltration, three cases are distinguished. Explicit solutions are obtained...

  4. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1996-01-01

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  5. Final report for the project "Improving the understanding of surface-atmosphere radiative interactions by mapping surface reflectance over the ARM CART site" (award DE-FG02-02ER63351)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander P. Trishchenko; Yi Luo; Konstantin V. Khlopenkov, William M. Park; Zhanqing Li; Maureen Cribb

    2008-11-28

    Surface spectral reflectance (albedo) is a fundamental variable affecting the transfer of solar radiation and the Earth’s climate. It determines the proportion of solar energy absorbed by the surface and reflected back to the atmosphere. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified surface albedo among key factors influencing climate radiative forcing. Accurate knowledge of surface reflective properties is important for advancing weather forecasting and climate change impact studies. It is also important for determining radiative impact and acceptable levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which makes this work strongly linked to major scientific objectives of the Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Most significant accomplishments of eth project are listed below. I) Surface albedo/BRDF datasets from 1995 to the end of 2004 have been produced. They were made available to the ARM community and other interested users through the CCRS public ftp site ftp://ftp.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ad/CCRS_ARM/ and ARM IOP data archive under “PI data Trishchenko”. II) Surface albedo properties over the ARM SGP area have been described for 10-year period. Comparison with ECMWF data product showed some deficiencies in the ECMWF surface scheme, such as missing some seasonal variability and no dependence on sky-conditions which biases surface energy budget and has some influence of the diurnal cycle of upward radiation and atmospheric absorption. III) Four surface albedo Intensive Observation Period (IOP) Field Campaigns have been conducted for every season (August, 2002, May 2003, February 2004 and October 2004). Data have been prepared, documented and transferred to ARM IOP archive. Nine peer-reviewed journal papers and 26 conference papers have been published.

  6. Efficient Classical Simulation of Continuous Variable Quantum Information Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen D. Bartlett; Barry C. Sanders; Samuel L. Braunstein; Kae Nemoto

    2002-02-18

    We obtain sufficient conditions for the efficient simulation of a continuous variable quantum algorithm or process on a classical computer. The resulting theorem is an extension of the Gottesman-Knill theorem to continuous variable quantum information. For a collection of harmonic oscillators, any quantum process that begins with unentangled Gaussian states, performs only transformations generated by Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the canonical operators, and involves only measurements of canonical operators (including finite losses) and suitable operations conditioned on these measurements can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer.

  7. SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of thermal history. All of the normalized boron releases were less than 1 g/L. While all of the targeted glass compositions were predictable with respect to the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, a small number of the measured glass compositions were located outside of the lower prediction limit indicating poorer durability than what was actually measured. These unpredictable glasses were in the same lithium metaborate (LM) preparation block during the chemical analyses, which resulted in measured compositions that were not representative of the target compositions. A review of the data did not indicate a clear cause for the problem. Re-digestion and re-measurement of three glasses from this preparation block yielded glass compositions closer to the target values and predicted PCT responses within the PCCS model uncertainty. Therefore, it is believed that the glasses were correctly fabricated and the targeted compositions are closer representations of the true compositions. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable for the SB6/Frit 418 glass system. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable and/or acceptable with respect to the DWPF PCCS models. In addition, the inclusion of ThO{sub 2} was shown to have minimal impact on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses.

  8. Lina Galtieri: Top Mass Measurements. Aspen2010, January 17-23 1 Precision Top Mass Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galtieri, Lina

    for each mt value Maximize the likelihood for the entire sample. Examples of variables used: mt after measured quantities Incoming partons parton level quantities normalization acceptance Transfer functions

  9. Performance measurements at the SLS SIM beamline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flechsig, U.; Nolting, F.; Fraile Rodriguez, A.; Krempasky, J.; Quitmann, C.; Schmidt, T.; Spielmann, S.; Zimoch, D.

    2010-06-23

    The Surface/Interface: Microscopy beamline of the Swiss Light Source started operation in 2001. In 2007 the beamline has been significantly upgraded with a second refocusing section and a blazed grating optimized for high photon flux. Two Apple II type undulators with a plane grating monochromator using the collimated light scheme deliver photons with an energy from 90eV to about 2keV with variable polarization for the photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) as the primary user station. We measured a focus of (45x60) {mu}m({nu}xh) and a photon flux > 10{sup 12} photon/s for all gratings. Polarization switching within a few seconds is realized with the small bandpass of the monochromator and a slight detuning of the undulator.

  10. Characterization of Soil Water Content Variability and Soil Texture using GPR Groundwave Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Characterization of Soil Water Content Variability and Soil Texture using GPR Groundwave Techniques@ce.berkeley.edu ABSTRACT Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially

  11. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Headley, Daniel (Albuquerque, NM); Ramsey, Marc (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Jens (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  12. Seismicity on the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface fracture in the vicinity of active moulins

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Joughin, Ian; Behn, Mark D.; Das, Sarah; King, Matt A.; Stevens, Laura; Lizarralde, Dan

    2015-06-25

    We analyzed geophone and GPS measurements collected within the ablation zone of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during a ~35 day period of the 2011 melt season to study changes in ice deformation before, during, and after a supraglacial lake drainage event. During rapid lake drainage, ice flow speeds increased to ~400% of winter values, and icequake activity peaked. At times >7 days after drainage, this seismicity developed variability over both diurnal and longer periods (~10 days), while coincident ice speeds fell to ~150% of winter values and showed nightly peaks in spatial variability. Approximately 95% of all detected seismicitymore »in the lake basin and its immediate vicinity was triggered by fracture propagation within near-surface ice (« less

  13. Control device of an infinitely variable transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, H.

    1987-01-27

    An automatic control system is described for a toric type infinitely variable transmission of a running vehicle, the speed of which is changed by varying a gear ratio corresponding to a running mode of the vehicle selected by a driver. The transmission comprises coaxially disposed input and output shafts with input and output disks having toroidal surfaces and respectively secured to the input and output shafts, a traction roller engaged with the toroidal surfaces of the disks, and a trunnion rotatably supporting the traction roller on a rotary shaft. The trunnion is linearly movable in the direction of a pivot axis which is perpendicular to the rotary shaft of the traction roller and is pivotable around the pivot axis so that the gear ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft may be changed. The control system comprises: a hydraulic cylinder receiving an axial end of the trunnion; and a hydraulic circuit connecting the hydraulic cylinder with a hydraulic source, the hydraulic circuit including a solenoid valve. The valve has means for repeatedly opening and closing the valve at predetermined intervals and controlling hydraulic supply to the hydraulic cylinder and thereby controlling the linear movement of the trunnion in the direction of the pivot axis so as to vary the gear ratio.

  14. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences accounted for almost 87% of the cost difference. The sum of these differences could result in a $34 per acre cost difference for the fertilization. Because of these differences, better analysis or better sampling methods may need to be done, or more samples collected, to ensure that the soil measurements are truly representative of the field’s spatial variability.

  15. Information and noise in quantum measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holger F. Hofmann

    2000-03-30

    Even though measurement results obtained in the real world are generally both noisy and continuous, quantum measurement theory tends to emphasize the ideal limit of perfect precision and quantized measurement results. In this article, a more general concept of noisy measurements is applied to investigate the role of quantum noise in the measurement process. In particular, it is shown that the effects of quantum noise can be separated from the effects of information obtained in the measurement. However, quantum noise is required to ``cover up'' negative probabilities arising as the quantum limit is approached. These negative probabilities represent fundamental quantum mechanical correlations between the measured variable and the variables affected by quantum noise.

  16. Controlling surface contamination at SNO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stokstad, R.; Garcia, A.; Zlimen, I. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The ability of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector to measure the energy spectrum of the {sup 8}B solar neutrinos will depend on the background radiation arising from uranium and thorium contamination in the bulk material and on the surfaces of the detector. A principle surface contaminant is the ubiquitous dust found in the working nickel mine where the detector will be assembled. The thorium content of mine dust is about 6 ppm, which is a factor of 6 x 10{sup 6} greater than is present in the acrylic material that holds the heavy water. The result of this is that the detector cavity, 6800 feet underground and having a volume of about 9000 cubic meters, must become a dust-free cleanroom. (It will be one of the larger cleanrooms in the world, and certainly the lowest lying.) After an 18 month construction period, the amount of dust present on the surfaces of the detector must be less than 0.4 micrograms/cm{sup 2}. A variety of techniques has been developed to measure these small amounts of surface contamination. These will be described along with the measures planned to achieve the surface cleanliness requirements of the SNO detector.

  17. Internet Traffic Modeling Using the Index of Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    traffic models: the Two-State Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP) and the renewal process1 Internet Traffic Modeling Using the Index of Variability Georgios Y. Lazarou, Xiangdong Xia and is analytically tractable for many popular traffic models. Using this proposed measure, we then analyzed two

  18. Methodology for testing metal detectors using variables test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, D.D.; Murray, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    By extracting and analyzing measurement (variables) data from portal metal detectors whenever possible instead of the more typical ``alarm``/``no-alarm`` (attributes or binomial) data, we can be more informed about metal detector health with fewer tests. This testing methodology discussed in this report is an alternative to the typical binomial testing and in many ways is far superior.

  19. A review of Hurricane Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. "Balu"

    A review of Hurricane Variability Balu Nadiga, COSIM, LANL, Jun 2006 #12;#12;Key Sources · Kerry Emanuel · Webster 2005 · Elsner 1996 · NASA, NOAA, NCAR · Others #12;Hurricanes, Typhoons, Tropical (because rotation important) #12;Hurricanes: A few Comments · Acts as a heat engine, but with crucial fluid

  20. Phenotypic variability: underlying mechanisms and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    constraints on growth allocation between tree parts, which affects both primary production (through allocation to transpiring foliage) and net ecosystem production (through allocation to short- lived, easily decomposed fine is reflected in the huge variability in tree form and function across scales. It has been suggested

  1. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  2. MEASURING LENSING MAGNIFICATION OF QUASARS BY LARGE SCALE STRUCTURE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SDSS MaxBCG catalog. The Palomar-QUEST Variability Survey, reduced using the DeepSky pipeline, provides variability data for the sources. We measure the average quasar...

  3. Discovery of magnetic fields in three He variable Bp stars with He and Si spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Briquet; S. Hubrig; M. Schoeller; P. De Cat

    2006-10-18

    It is essential for the understanding of stellar structure models of high mass stars to explain why constant stars, non-pulsating chemically peculiar hot Bp stars and pulsating stars co-exist in the slowly pulsating B stars and beta Cephei instability strips. We have conducted a search for magnetic fields in the four Bp stars HD55522, HD105382, HD131120, and HD138769 which previously have been wrongly identified as slowly pulsating B stars. A recent study of these stars using the Doppler Imaging technique revealed that the elements He and Si are inhomogeneously distributed on the stellar surface, causing the periodic variability. Using FORS1 in spectropolarimetric mode at the VLT, we have acquired circular polarisation spectra to test the presence of a magnetic field in these stars. A variable magnetic field is clearly detected in HD55522 and HD105382, but no evidence for the existence of a magnetic field was found in HD131120. The presence of a magnetic field in HD138769 is suggested by one measurement at 3 sigma level. We discuss the occurence of magnetic B stars among the confirmed pulsating B stars and find strong magnetic fields of order kG and oscillations to be mutually exclusive.

  4. Discovery of magnetic fields in three He variable Bp stars with He and Si spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briquet, M; Schöller, M; De Cat, P

    2006-01-01

    It is essential for the understanding of stellar structure models of high mass stars to explain why constant stars, non-pulsating chemically peculiar hot Bp stars and pulsating stars co-exist in the slowly pulsating B stars and beta Cephei instability strips. We have conducted a search for magnetic fields in the four Bp stars HD55522, HD105382, HD131120, and HD138769 which previously have been wrongly identified as slowly pulsating B stars. A recent study of these stars using the Doppler Imaging technique revealed that the elements He and Si are inhomogeneously distributed on the stellar surface, causing the periodic variability. Using FORS1 in spectropolarimetric mode at the VLT, we have acquired circular polarisation spectra to test the presence of a magnetic field in these stars. A variable magnetic field is clearly detected in HD55522 and HD105382, but no evidence for the existence of a magnetic field was found in HD131120. The presence of a magnetic field in HD138769 is suggested by one measurement at 3 ...

  5. 5, 14691499, 2005 SCIAMACHY surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , CO2 and CH4. In our retrieval aerosols are neglected. Using synthetic measurements, we show retrievals of other species, e.g. H2O, CO, CO2, CH4, in order obtain volume mixing ratios (Buch- witz et al models. Therefore, surface pressure retrievals and their validation provide important insight

  6. Variable area fuel cell cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Borough, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell arrangement having cooling fluid flow passages which vary in surface area from the inlet to the outlet of the passages. A smaller surface area is provided at the passage inlet, which increases toward the passage outlet, so as to provide more uniform cooling of the entire fuel cell. The cooling passages can also be spaced from one another in an uneven fashion.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR CYLINDRICAL HYDRODYNAMIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Cris W.

    CHARACTERIZATION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR CYLINDRICAL HYDRODYNAMIC AND MIX across a variable density interface, that interface must be well characterized. There exist a number, characterizing, and affecting the surface roughness was driven by Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor work5

  8. Ammonia volatilization from soils with surface rice straw residue 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barghassa, Peyam

    1995-01-01

    rice straw vs. no straw, (NH4)2SO4 VS-urea, surface broadcast vs. deep placement of N, immediate flooding vs. delayed flooding. The treatments in the field consisted of all possible combinations of the following variables: surface rice straw vs...

  9. Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pokrywka, Robert J. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    2005-01-18

    A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

  10. Nanostructured surfaces for microfluidics and sensing applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Picraux, Samuel Thomas (Arizona State University); Piech, Marcin (United Technologies Corp.); Schneider, John F.; Vail, Sean (Arizona State University); Hayes, Mark A. (Arizona State University); Garcia, Anthony A.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Gust, D (Arizona State University); Yang, Dongqing (Arizona State University)

    2007-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the use of light to move liquids on a photoresponsive monolayer, providing a new method for delivering analyses in lab-on-chip environments for microfluidic systems. The light-driven motion of liquids was achieved on photoresponsive azobenzene modified surfaces. The surface energy components of azobenzene modified surfaces were calculated by Van Oss theory. The motion of the liquid was achieved by generation of a surface tension gradient by isomerization of azobenzene monolayers using UV and Visible light, thereby establishing a surface energy heterogeneity on the edge of the droplet. Contact angle measurements of various solvents were used to demonstrate the requirement for fluid motion.

  11. Modeled and measured albedo of surface snow over central Greenland M. Dumont1, C. M. Carmagnola1, F. Domine3,2, P. Wright4, M. Bergin5, J. Dibb6 ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and albedo during the compaign Solar incident zenith angle around 50 ° for all the measurements Radiance sensing retrieval algorithms using this modeling approach CONCLUSIONS & OUTLOOK References: · K. Stamnes

  12. Northerly surface wind events over the eastern North Pacific Ocean : spatial distribution, seasonality, atmospheric circulation, and forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Stephen V.

    2006-01-01

    D. (2005), California Wind Resources, CEC publication # CEC-level inversions with surface wind and temperature at PointD. W. Stuart (1986), Mesoscale wind variability near Point

  13. Variability Aware Network Utility Maximization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Network Utility Maximization (NUM) provides the key conceptual framework to study resource allocation amongst a collection of users/entities across disciplines as diverse as economics, law and engineering. In network engineering, this framework has been particularly insightful towards understanding how Internet protocols allocate bandwidth, and motivated diverse research on distributed mechanisms to maximize network utility while incorporating new relevant constraints, on energy/power, storage, stability, etc., for systems ranging from communication networks to the smart-grid. However when the available resources and/or users' utilities vary over time, a user's allocations will tend to vary, which in turn may have a detrimental impact on the users' utility or quality of experience. This paper introduces a generalized NUM framework which explicitly incorporates the detrimental impact of temporal variability in a user's allocated rewards. It explicitly incorporates tradeoffs amongst the mean and variability in ...

  14. Massive Variability Surveys from Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Briceno

    2003-04-03

    At the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory we are carrying out variability surveys spanning many hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, using an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning on a 1m Schmidt telescope. Among the initial efforts was a project to obtain the first moderately deep, homogeneous sample of young stars over an area of ~180sqr.deg. encompassing the entire Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formation. The results show that variability is a powerful technique to identify pre-main sequence populations, specially in sparse areas devoid of gas and dust. We are currently developing a massive database, equipped with web-based data mining tools, that will make our data and results available to the astronomical community.

  15. Method and system to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-09-17

    System and method to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system includes a sensor suite to measure respective plant input and output variables. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) receives sensed plant input variables and includes a dynamic model to generate a plurality of plant state estimates and a covariance matrix for the state estimates. A preemptive-constraining processor is configured to preemptively constrain the state estimates and covariance matrix to be free of constraint violations. A measurement-correction processor may be configured to correct constrained state estimates and a constrained covariance matrix based on processing of sensed plant output variables. The measurement-correction processor is coupled to update the dynamic model with corrected state estimates and a corrected covariance matrix. The updated dynamic model may be configured to estimate values for at least one plant variable not originally sensed by the sensor suite.

  16. Coastal Ocean Studies in Southern San Diego Using High-Frequency Radar Derived Surface Currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Yong

    2009-01-01

    high-frequency radar derived surface current measured andcoastal region Chapter 5 derived surface current by viib) vector current map derived from HF radars in southern San

  17. Coastal ocean studies in southern San Diego using high- frequency radar derived surface currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Yong

    2009-01-01

    high-frequency radar derived surface current measured andcoastal region Chapter 5 derived surface current by viib) vector current map derived from HF radars in southern San

  18. Ferrofluid surface and volume flows in uniform rotating magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elborai, Shihab M. (Shihab Mahmoud), 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Ferrofluid surface and volume effects in uniform dc and rotating magnetic fields are studied. Theory and corroborating measurements are presented for meniscus shapes and resulting surface driven flows, spin-up flows, and ...

  19. Effects of mineral aerosols on the summertime climate of southwest Asia: Incorporating subgrid variability in a dust emission scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcella, Marc Pace

    [1] Improvements in modeling mineral aerosols over southwest Asia are made to the dust scheme in a regional climate model by representing subgrid variability of both wind speed and surface roughness length. The new module ...

  20. Femtosecond surface plasmon interferometry with gold nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temnov, Vasily V.

    We measure the ultrafast electron dynamics in gold via ultrafast surface plasmon interferometry. A new plasmonic microinterferometer with tilted slit-groove pair is used to unambiguously determine changes of real and ...

  1. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk fluid.

  2. Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability in a Healthy Population: Influence of Age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability in a Healthy Population: Influence of Age S Vandeput1 , B Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Abstract Heart rate variability (HRV) measurements are used as markers of autonomic modulation of heart rate. Numerical noise titration was applied to a large healthy population

  3. Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Random Variables and Distribution Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Topic 7 Random Variables and Distribution Functions Distribution Functions 1 / 11 #12;Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Outline Definition of a Random

  4. Processing of Neutron Diffraction Data for Strain Measurement in Geological Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polsky, Yarom [ORNL] [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL] [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL] [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Dessieux Jr, Luc Lucius [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    : Conventional rock mechanics testing techniques typically involve the loading of samples and measurement of displacements or strains on the outer boundary of the specimen surface. Neutron diffraction based strain measurement techniques represent a unique and powerful tool for measuring the strain within geological materials under load. The structural variability and non-uniform crystallinity of geological materials, however, create many complexities in the intensity patterns that must be analyzed to quantify strains within the material. The attenuating and scattering properties of the pressure cell housing the sample further add difficulties to the data analysis. This paper describes the methods and processes used to process neutron scattering data for strain measurement in geological materials. It is intended to provide a primer for those in the rock mechanics community that are interested in utilizing this technique along with additional discussion of neutron diffraction experimental factors that may affect data quality.

  5. Improvements in Remote Cardio-Pulmonary Measurement Using a Five Band Digital Camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    variability measurements. In addition, the remotely measured HRV spectrograms closely matched those from of such cameras dramatically. Index Terms--heart rate variability (HRV), blood volume pulse (BVP-contact measurement of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) include: infant monitoring [1], detection

  6. Stragegies to Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Based on Monitoringand Analysis of CO2 in the Near-Surface Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-03-29

    We investigate the potential for CO2 monitoring in thenear-surface environment as an approach to exploration for hiddengeothermal systems. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration from a modelhidden geothermal system show that CO2 concentrations can reach highlevels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low CO2 fluxes.Therefore, subsurface measurements offer an advantage over above-groundmeasurements which are affected by winds that rapidly disperse CO2. Tomeet the challenge of detecting geothermal CO2 emissions within thenatural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach thatintegrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statisticalanalysis and modeling.

  7. Selection of Controlled Variables for a Natural Gas to Liquids Process Mehdi Panahi and Sigurd Skogestad*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    variables (CVs) for a natural gas to hydrocarbon liquids (GTL) process based on the idea of self,393 USD/h. Adding one, two, and three measurements and controlling measurement combinations decrease to the case when RTO is used. By using measurement combinations, the loss can often be decreased significantly

  8. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Environmental Data and Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    . Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Combustion-Based NOx Controls for Wall and Tangential Furnace Coal ................................................................................................................... 20 3. VARIABILITY AND UNCERTAINTY IN NOX EMISSION MEASUREMENTS.................. 29 3.1 GENERAL............................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 NOX REGULATIONS

  10. The Cloud Computing and Other Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borjon-Kubota, Martha Estela

    2011-01-01

    12. Fragments in Six 13. Cloud Computing 14. Phase 15.Note 48. Devoured vi Cloud Computing and other Variables I.CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE Cloud Computing and Other Variables A

  11. Measuring Stellar Limb Darkening by Gravitational Microlensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Heyrovsky

    2003-05-19

    Observations of microlensing transit events can be used to measure the limb darkening of the lensed star. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several microlensing light curve inversion methods. The method of choice in this work is inversion by means of decomposition of the stellar surface brightness profile. We construct an ideal basis by principal component analysis of brightness profiles obtained from model atmosphere calculations. Limb darkening approximations using such a basis are superior to those using standard power-law limb darkening laws. We perform a full analysis of simulated single-lens microlensing transit events including a detailed error analysis of the method. In realistic events with a low impact parameter the brightness profile of the source can be recovered with a relative accuracy of 2% from the center of the source disk to 0.9 of the disk radius. We show that in the particular case of the observed MACHO Alert 95-30 event the intrinsic complex variability of the lensed red giant hinders efforts to recover its surface features.

  12. Abstract--Estimating the dynamic state variables of a synchronous generator has been a long standing research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatasubramanian, Mani V.

    Abstract-- Estimating the dynamic state variables of a synchronous generator has been a long approximately the state variables of a synchronous generator, purely from terminal measurements measurements. Here, we deal with the problem of computing the dynamic internal state of a synchronous generator

  13. Measurements and Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Analytical Microscopy, Electro-Optical Characterization, Surface Analysis, and Cell and Module Performance.

  14. Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography with a variable ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plamen Stefanov

    2010-11-09

    ... a joint work with. Jianliang Qian, Gunther Uhlmann and Hongkai Zhao. Plamen Stefanov (Purdue University ). Thermoacoustic Tomography, Variable Speed.

  15. H\\alpha\\ Emission Variability in Active M Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Keaton J; Davenport, James R A; Hawley, Suzanne L; West, Andrew A; Rogel, Allen B

    2011-01-01

    We use ~12,000 spectra of ~3,500 magnetically active M0-M9 dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey taken at 10-15 minute intervals, together with ~300 spectra of ~60 M0-M8 stars obtained hourly with the Hydra multi-object spectrometer, to probe H\\alpha\\ variability on timescales of minutes to weeks. With multiple observations for every star examined, we are able to characterize fluctuations in H\\alpha emission as a function of activity strength and spectral type. Stars with greater magnetic activity (as quantified by L_H\\alpha/L_bol) are found to be less variable at all spectral types. We attribute this result to the stronger level of persistent emission in the high activity stars, requiring a larger heating event in order to produce measurable variability. We also construct H\\alpha\\ structure functions to constrain the timescale of variability. The more active objects with lower variability exhibit a characteristic timescale longer than an hour, likely due to larger, longer lasting heating events, while the...

  16. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules,...

  17. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, T.C.

    1986-12-23

    Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

  18. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Thomas C. (Raleigh, NC)

    1986-01-01

    Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

  19. Characterization and Surface Reactivity of Ferrihydrite Nanoparticles Assembled in Ferritin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Characterization and Surface Reactivity of Ferrihydrite Nanoparticles Assembled in Ferritin Gang of the nanoparticles were characterized by AFM and STM. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements suggested

  20. Climate variability according to triple saros gravity cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William R. Livingston

    2013-06-03

    I describe a climate model which corresponds directly to eclipse cycles. The theory is based upon a similarity between the 54 year triple saros eclipse period and the periodicity of drought. I argue that eclipse shadows are an indication of gravity cycles, and that variable lunar gravitation is the most significant aspect of the eclipse process. I reinforce the idea that lunar gravitational forcing has a profound effect on the water vapor in Earth's atmosphere, and can affect the density and location of clouds. I explore the possibility that decadal variability of ocean surface levels may be explained by triple saros gravity cycles. I point out that lunar gravitation was excluded from the most significant climate report of 2007, and that climate data contradictions have been overlooked by researchers. I focus on the value of data that has not been aggregated into global averages. I touch upon the history of global warming, and I offer predictions based upon 54 year climate periodicity.

  1. Effective Hydrodynamic Boundary Conditions for Corrugated Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mongruel, Anne; Asmolov, Evgeny S; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2012-01-01

    We report measurements of the hydrodynamic drag force acting on a smooth sphere falling down under gravity to a plane decorated with microscopic periodic grooves. Both surfaces are lyophilic, so that a liquid (silicone oil) invades the surface texture being in the Wenzel state. A significant decrease in the hydrodynamic resistance force as compared with that predicted for two smooth surfaces is observed. To quantify the effect of roughness we use the effective no-slip boundary condition, which is applied at the imaginary smooth homogeneous isotropic surface located at an intermediate position between top and bottom of grooves. Such an effective condition fully characterizes the force reduction measured with the real surface, and the location of this effective plane is related to geometric parameters of the texture by a simple analytical formula.

  2. UV variability and accretion dynamics in the young open cluster NGC 2264

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venuti, Laura; Irwin, Jonathan; Stauffer, John; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Cody, Ann Marie; Alencar, Silvia; Micela, Giuseppina; Flaccomio, Ettore; Peres, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We explore UV and optical variability signatures for several hundred members of NGC 2264 (3 Myr). We performed simultaneous u- and r-band monitoring over two full weeks with CFHT/MegaCam. About 750 young stars are probed; 40% of them are accreting. Statistically distinct variability properties are observed for accreting and non-accreting cluster members. The accretors exhibit a significantly higher level of variability than the non-accretors, especially in the UV. The amount of u-band variability correlates statistically with UV excess in disk-bearing objects, which suggests that accretion and star-disk interaction are the main sources of variability. Cool magnetic spots, several hundred degrees colder than the photosphere and covering from 5 to 30% of the stellar surface, appear to be the leading factor of variability for the non-accreting stars. In contrast, accretion spots, a few thousand degrees hotter than the photosphere and covering a few percent of the stellar surface, best reproduce the variability o...

  3. Mapping the U.S. West Coast surface circulation: A multiyear analysis of highfrequency radar observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    capability to monitor and understand coastal ocean dynamics and phenomenology through hourly surface current and reflected by shoreline curvature and bathymetry change and do not penetrate north of Point Conception surface currents resolve coastal surface ocean variability continuously across scales from submesoscale

  4. Development of the Flux-Adjusting Surface Data Assimilation System for Mesoscale Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    Development of the Flux-Adjusting Surface Data Assimilation System for Mesoscale Models KIRAN and temperature and for surface air temperature and water vapor mixing ratio for mesoscale models. In the FASDAS-field variables. The FASDAS is coupled to a land surface submodel in a three-dimensional mesoscale model and tests

  5. High-frequency surface acoustic wave propagation in nanaostructures characterized by coherent extreme ultraviolet beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siemens, M.

    2009-01-01

    measurement of surface acoustic waves in thin metal filmsthe generation of surface acoustic waves of high frequency,”and S. M. Cherif, “Surface acoustic waves in the ghz range

  6. Experimental & Numerical Investigation of Pool Boiling on Engineered Surfaces with Integrated Thin-flim Temperature Sensors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar

    2011-02-22

    The objective of this investigation is to measure and analyze surface temperature fluctuations in pool boiling. The surface temperature fluctuations were recorded on silicon surfaces with and without multi-walled carbon ...

  7. Level set methods to compute minimal surfaces in a medium with ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-06-06

    terms of area among all surfaces with periodic boundary conditions. Even though it ... Do the numerical results produce minimal surfaces that enter the exclusions orthogonally? ... We search for the surface with least area measured in this way.

  8. Evidence for Two Distinct Morphological Classes of Gamma-Ray Bursts from their Short Timescale Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Q. Lamb; C. Graziani; I. A. Smith

    1993-06-15

    We have analyzed the 241 bursts for which peak counts $\\C$ exist in the publicly available Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) catalog. Introducing peak counts in 1024 ms as a measure of burst brightness $\\B$ and the ratio of peak counts in 64 and 1024 ms as a measure of short timescale variability $\\V$, we find a statistically significant correlation between the brightness and the short timescale variability of \\g-ray bursts. The bursts which are smoother on short timescales are both faint and bright, while the bursts which are variable on short timescales are faint only, suggesting the existence of two distinct morphological classes of bursts.

  9. Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommars, Mark F. (Sparland, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

  10. Continuously variable focal length lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  11. Microlensing induced absorption line variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata

    2002-12-02

    Gravitational microlensing has proven to be a powerful probe of both the structure at the heart of quasars and the mass function of compact objects in foreground lenses. This paper examines the potential of gravitational microlensing in probing the scale of structure in absorbing material within the lensing galaxy. We find that, in this high optical depth regime, significant variations in the equivalent width of absorption features can be induced, although the details of these are dependent upon the scale of structure of the absorbing material. The paper concludes with an examination of the absorption line variability observed in the gravitationally lensed quasar PKS1830-211, demonstrating how this may indicate the presence of small scale structure in the cold molecular gas present within the lensing galaxy.

  12. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  13. Cepheid Variables and their Application to the Cosmological Distance Scale 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Samantha L

    2013-05-02

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3. DIFFERENCE IMAGING ANALYSIS OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVA HOST NGC 5584 FOR CEPHEID VARIABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.2 Observations and Data Reduction... and type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). This cosmological distance scale started with a geometric distance measurement of Cepheids, such as parallaxes by [5]. The Cepheid Period-Luminosity relation was characterized by [79] for use as a primary distance...

  14. Research equipment: Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gizeli, Electra

    Research equipment: Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices: Operating frequencies @50MHz, 104MHz, 110 outputs measuring the real-time change of the phase and amplitude of the acoustic wave. More specifically with Dissipation monitoring (QCM-D): Qsense D-300 for real-time acoustic measurements at low frequencies (5-35MHz

  15. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg).

  16. Effects of sulfate aerosol on the central Pennsylvania surface shortwave radiation budget. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guimond, P.W.

    1994-12-01

    Surface radiation measurements are taken simultaneously with measurements of meteorological variables including temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and visibility to evaluate the impact of sulfate haze on the surface radiation budget. A relationship is sought between flux losses due only to aerosol and relative humidity, visibility or both, with the goal of facilitating parameterization of sulfate hazes by climate modelers. At the same time, a rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) is compared with a more costly sun photometer to determine the feasibility of substituting the former for the latter in future research. It is found that depletion of surface radiation due to aerosol is typically ten to twenty percent of initial insolation, and that the losses can be correlated with zenith angle, relative humidity and optical depth. In the case of flux loss as a function of optical depth, the two are related in a nearly linear fashion. It is also discovered that the RSR has a predictable error owing to a wider field of view than the sun photometer, and can be used as a replacement for the former by correcting for the error.

  17. The dynamics of internal working surfaces in MHD jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabio De Colle; Alejandro Raga; Alejandro Esquivel

    2008-08-18

    The dynamical effects of magnetic fields in models of radiative, Herbig-Haro (HH) jets have been studied in a number of papers. For example, magnetized, radiative jets from variable sources have been studied with axisymmetric and 3D numerical simulations. In this paper, we present an analytic model describing the effect of a toroidal magnetic field on the internal working surfaces that result from a variability in the ejection velocity. We find that for parameters appropriate for HH jets the forces associated with the magnetic field dominate over the gas pressure force within the working surfaces. Depending on the ram pressure radial cross section of the jet, the magnetic field can produce a strong axial pinch, or, alternatively, a broadening of the internal working surfaces. We check the validity of the analytic model with axisymmetric numerical simulations of variable, magnetized jets.

  18. Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy of Sm-doped ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesse, Stephen; Morozovska, A. N.; Kalinin, Sergei V; Eliseev, E. A.; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; Tebano, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy has been used to study the electrochemical activity of Sm-doped ceria as a function of temperature and bias. The electrochemical strain microscopy hysteresis loops have been collected across the surface at different temperatures and the relative activity at different temperatures has been compared. The relaxation behavior of the signal at different temperatures has been also evaluated to relate kinetic process during bias induced electrochemical reactions with temperature and two different kinetic regimes have been identified. The strongly non-monotonic dependence of relaxation behavior on temperature is interpreted as evidence for water-mediated mechanisms.

  19. Near-Surface CO2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-01-19

    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are systems devoid of obvious surface hydrothermal manifestations. Emissions of moderate-to-low solubility gases may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. We investigate the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring below and above ground in the near-surface environment as an approach to exploration targeting hidden geothermal systems. We focus on CO2 because it is the dominant noncondensible gas species in most geothermal systems and has moderate solubility in water. We carried out numerical simulations of a CO2 migration scenario to calculate the magnitude of expected fluxes and concentrations. Our results show that CO2 concentrations can reach high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are predominantly controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include the infrared gas analyzer, the accumulation chamber method, the eddy covariance method, hyperspectral imaging, and light detection and ranging. To meet the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. The proposed monitoring plan initially focuses on rapid, economical, reliable measurements of CO2 subsurface concentrations and surface fluxes and statistical analysis of the collected data. Based on this analysis, are as with a high probability of containing geothermal CO2 anomalies can be further sampled and analyzed using more expensive chemical and isotopic methods. Integrated analysis of all measurements will determine definitively if CO2 derived from a deep geothermal source is present, and if so, the spatial extent of the anomaly. The suitability of further geophysical measurements, installation of deep wells, and geochemical analyses of deep fluids can then be determined based on the results of the near surface CO2 monitoring program.

  20. Surface CO2 leakage during the first shallow subsurface CO2 release experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2008-01-01

    numbered 0-6. Plots of F CO2 measured along the surface wellin Figure 2. Figure 2. Log F CO2 maps for measurements madeof soil CO 2 flux (F CO2 ). The surface leakage onset,

  1. Fluorinated silica microchannel surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy Jon

    2005-03-15

    A method for surface modification of microchannels and capillaries. The method produces a chemically inert surface having a lowered surface free energy and improved frictional properties by attaching a fluorinated alkane group to the surface. The coating is produced by hydrolysis of a silane agent that is functionalized with either alkoxy or chloro ligands and an uncharged C.sub.3 -C.sub.10 fluorinated alkane chain. It has been found that the extent of surface coverage can be controlled by controlling the contact time from a minimum of about 2 minutes to a maximum of 120 minutes for complete surface coverage.

  2. Top Quark Measurements in CMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efe Yazgan; for the CMS Collaboration

    2014-09-12

    Measurements involving top quarks provide important tests of QCD. A selected set of top quark measurements in CMS including the strong coupling constant, top quark pole mass, constraints on parton distribution functions, top quark pair differential cross sections, ttbar+0 and >0 jet events, top quark mass studied using various kinematic variables in different phase-space regions, and alternative top quark mass measurements is presented. The evolution of expected uncertainties in future LHC runs for the standard and alternative top quark mass measurements is also presented.

  3. Atomic filtering for hybrid continuous-variable/discrete-variable quantum optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joanna A. Zieli?ska; Federica A. Beduini; Vito Giovanni Lucivero; Morgan W. Mitchell

    2014-09-04

    We demonstrate atomic filtering of frequency-degenerate photon pairs from a sub-threshold optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The filter, a modified Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), achieves 70% peak transmission simultaneous with 57 dB out-of-band rejection and a 445 MHz transmission bandwidth. When applied to the OPO output, only the degenerate mode, containing one-mode squeezed vacuum, falls in the filter pass-band; all other modes are strongly suppressed. The high transmission preserves non-classical continuous-variable features, e.g. squeezing or non-gaussianity, while the high spectral purity allows reliable discrete-variable detection and heralding. Correlation and atomic absorption measurements indicate a spectral purity of 96% for the individual photons, and 98% for the photon pairs. These capabilities will enable generation of atom-resonant hybrid states, e.g. "Schr\\"odinger kittens" obtained by photon subtraction from squeezed vacuum, making these exotic states available for quantum networking and atomic quantum metrology applications.

  4. The role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed climate variability and global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, A.; Manabe, Syukuro

    1999-08-01

    To understand the role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed surface temperature variability, a version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled ocean-atmosphere model is integrated for 1,000 yr in two configurations, one with water vapor feedback and one without. To understand the role of water vapor feedback in global warming, two 500-yr integrations were also performed in which CO{sub 2} was doubled in both model configurations. The final surface global warming in the model with water vapor feedback is 3.38 C, while in the one without it is only 1.05 C. However, the model`s water vapor feedback has a larger impact on surface warming in response to a doubling of CO{sub 2} than it does on internally generated, low-frequency, global-mean surface temperature anomalies. Water vapor feedback`s strength therefore depends on the type of temperature anomaly it affects. Finally, the authors compare the local and global-mean surface temperature time series from both unperturbed variability experiments to the observed record. The experiment without water vapor feedback does not have enough global-scale variability to reproduce the magnitude of the variability in the observed global-mean record, whether or not one removes the warming trend observed over the past century. In contrast, the amount of variability in the experiment with water vapor feedback is comparable to that of the global-mean record, provided the observed warming trend is removed. Thus, the authors are unable to simulate the observed levels of variability without water vapor feedback.

  5. A Lesson Learned on Determination of Radionuclides on Metal Surface Fixed Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEZNARICH, H.K.

    2000-02-01

    A Measurement of fixed surface contamination required to determine classification as low-level or as transuranic waste.

  6. A spatially resolved retarding field energy analyzer design suitable for uniformity analysis across the surface of a semiconductor wafer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S.; Gahan, D. Hopkins, M. B.; Kechkar, S.; Daniels, S.

    2014-04-15

    A novel retarding field energy analyzer design capable of measuring the spatial uniformity of the ion energy and ion flux across the surface of a semiconductor wafer is presented. The design consists of 13 individual, compact-sized, analyzers, all of which are multiplexed and controlled by a single acquisition unit. The analyzers were tested to have less than 2% variability from unit to unit due to tight manufacturing tolerances. The main sensor assembly consists of a 300 mm disk to mimic a semiconductor wafer and the plasma sampling orifices of each sensor are flush with disk surface. This device is placed directly on top of the rf biased electrode, at the wafer location, in an industrial capacitively coupled plasma reactor without the need for any modification to the electrode structure. The ion energy distribution, average ion energy, and average ion flux were measured at the 13 locations over the surface of the powered electrode to determine the degree of spatial nonuniformity. The ion energy and ion flux are shown to vary by approximately 20% and 5%, respectively, across the surface of the electrode for the range of conditions investigated in this study.

  7. The Gini Coefficient as a Morphological Measurement of Strongly Lensed Galaxies in the Image Plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florian, Michael K; Gladders, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the morphology of strongly lensed galaxies is challenging because images of such galaxies are typically highly distorted. Lens modeling and source plane reconstruction is one approach that can provide reasonably undistorted images on which morphological measurements can be made, although at the expense of a highly spatially variable telescope PSF when mapped back to the source plane. Unfortunately, modeling the lensing mass is a time and resource intensive process, and in many cases there are too few constraints to precisely model the lensing mass. If, however, useful morphological measurements could be made in the image plane rather than the source plane, it would bypass this issue and obviate the need for a source reconstruction process. We examine the use of the Gini coefficient as one such measurement. Because it depends on the cumulative distribution of the light of a galaxy, but not the relative spatial positions, the fact that surface brightness is conserved by lensing means that th...

  8. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prato, L; Rice, E L; McLean, I S; Kirkpatrick, J D; Burgasser, A J; Kim, S S

    2015-01-01

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R~20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity precision of ~2 km/s, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1 sigma upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included 7 known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant radial velocity variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant ...

  9. Surface characterization based on optical phase shifting interferometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mello, Michael (Pasadena, CA), Rosakis; Ares J. (Altadena, CA)

    2011-08-02

    Apparatus, techniques and systems for implementing an optical interferometer to measure surfaces, including mapping of instantaneous curvature or in-plane and out-of-plane displacement field gradients of a sample surface based on obtaining and processing four optical interferograms from a common optical reflected beam from the sample surface that are relatively separated in phase by .pi./2.

  10. The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xie,Shaocheng; Qi, Tang

    2015-06-15

    The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (ARMBE2DGRID) data set merges together key surface measurements at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate data application. Data from the original site locations can be found in the ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) data set.

  11. The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xie,Shaocheng; Qi, Tang

    The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (ARMBE2DGRID) data set merges together key surface measurements at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate data application. Data from the original site locations can be found in the ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) data set.

  12. Fluorocarbons: Surface Free Energies and van der Waals Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    Letters Fluorocarbons: Surface Free Energies and van der Waals Interaction Calum J. Drummond surface free energies based on contact angle measurements with dispersive organic liquids depend of dispersive materials, the surface free energy per unit area of a solid organic material can be used

  13. Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces Alberto Favaro & Friedrich W. Hehl Outline Linear media Linear media-you. Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces: geometrical optics in dispersionless linear (meta)materials and vacuum, 19­23 November 2012 Email: favaro@thp.uni-koeln.de #12;Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces Alberto Favaro

  14. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith Edward (Kobe, JP); Moser, William Elliott (Peoria, IL); Roozenboom, Stephan Donald (Washington, IL); Knox, Kevin Jay (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  15. Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Gopal (Naperville, IL); Lewellen, John (Plainfield, IL); Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Vinokurov, Nikolai (Novosibirsk, RU)

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  16. Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    with data) mean. Jun-Jul-Aug (Northern Hemisphere summer) surface temperature anomalies relative to the base the notorious variability of local weather and climate from day to day and year to year? This question assumes-year base period. Below we will show

  17. Energetics of wind-driven barotropic variability in the Southern Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griesel, Alexa

    Energetics of wind-driven barotropic variability in the Southern Ocean by Wilbert Weijer1-frequency wind forcing. A constant-density, multi-layer model is forced with a band of stochastically varying wind stress. The focus is on the interplay between the surface layer and the interior circulation

  18. Observed low frequency variability of the Brazil Current front Gustavo Jorge Goni,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the Brazil Current front. Trends of eddy kinetic energy, sea height anomaly, sea surface temperature and windObserved low frequency variability of the Brazil Current front Gustavo Jorge Goni,1 Francis Bringas; published 29 October 2011. [1] The Brazil Current is a weak western boundary current, the southwest

  19. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

  20. Simulating solar power plant variability : a review of current methods.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lave, Matthew; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua S.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to be able to accurately simulate the variability of solar PV power plants for grid integration studies. We aim to inform integration studies of the ease of implementation and application-specific accuracy of current PV power plant output simulation methods. This report reviews methods for producing simulated high-resolution (sub-hour or even sub-minute) PV power plant output profiles for variability studies and describes their implementation. Two steps are involved in the simulations: estimation of average irradiance over the footprint of a PV plant and conversion of average irradiance to plant power output. Six models are described for simulating plant-average irradiance based on inputs of ground-measured irradiance, satellite-derived irradiance, or proxy plant measurements. The steps for converting plant-average irradiance to plant power output are detailed to understand the contributions to plant variability. A forthcoming report will quantify the accuracy of each method using application-specific validation metrics.

  1. Convolution Products of Probability Measures on a Compact Semigroup with Applications to Random Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budzban, Gregory

    Convolution Products of Probability Measures on a Compact Semigroup with Applications to Random of these conditions to random measures, defined here as the products of independent random variables taking values products of non-identical measures in countable discrete groups in [2]. In that work, they made use

  2. Rough surface reconstruction for ultrasonic NDE simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Wonjae; Shi, Fan; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Skelton, Elizabeth A.; Craster, Richard V.

    2014-02-18

    The reflection of ultrasound from rough surfaces is an important topic for the NDE of safety-critical components, such as pressure-containing components in power stations. The specular reflection from a rough surface of a defect is normally lower than it would be from a flat surface, so it is typical to apply a safety factor in order that justification cases for inspection planning are conservative. The study of the statistics of the rough surfaces that might be expected in candidate defects according to materials and loading, and the reflections from them, can be useful to develop arguments for realistic safety factors. This paper presents a study of real rough crack surfaces that are representative of the potential defects in pressure-containing power plant. Two-dimensional (area) values of the height of the roughness have been measured and their statistics analysed. Then a means to reconstruct model cases with similar statistics, so as to enable the creation of multiple realistic realizations of the surfaces, has been investigated, using random field theory. Rough surfaces are reconstructed, based on a real surface, and results for these two-dimensional descriptions of the original surface have been compared with those from the conventional model based on a one-dimensional correlation coefficient function. In addition, ultrasonic reflections from them are simulated using a finite element method.

  3. Superconducting surface impedance under radiofrequency field

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Binping P; Reece, Charles E; Kelley, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Based on BCS theory with moving Cooper pairs, the electron states distribution at 0K and the probability of electron occupation with finite temperature have been derived and applied to anomalous skin effect theory to obtain the surface impedance of a superconductor under radiofrequency (RF) field. We present the numerical results for Nb and compare these with representative RF field-dependent effective surface resistance measurements from a 1.5 GHz resonant structure.

  4. The Taiwanese-American occultation survey project stellar variability. III. Detection of 58 new variable stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishioka, R.; Wang, S.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Cook, K. H.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Marshall, S. L.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, J.-H.; Wen, C.-Y.; Alcock, C.; Protopapas, P.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F. B.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Kim, D.-W.; Rice, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey project is designed for the detection of stellar occultations by small-size Kuiper Belt Objects, and it has monitored selected fields along the ecliptic plane by using four telescopes with a 3 deg{sup 2} field of view on the sky since 2005. We have analyzed data accumulated during 2005-2012 to detect variable stars. Sixteen fields with observations of more than 100 epochs were examined. We recovered 85 variables among a total of 158 known variable stars in these 16 fields. Most of the unrecovered variables are located in the fields observed less frequently. We also detected 58 variable stars which are not listed in the International Variable Star Index of the American Association of Variable Star Observers. These variable stars are classified as 3 RR Lyrae, 4 Cepheid, 1 ? Scuti, 5 Mira, 15 semi-regular, and 27 eclipsing binaries based on the periodicity and the profile of the light curves.

  5. Search for Variable Stars in the WTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinfield, David J.

    Search for Variable Stars in the WTS Database Hristo Stoev Laboratory of Stellar Astrophysics of January 2010 at LAEX in Madrid, Spain #12;WTS Survey Release 0.1 Search for variable stars in the FOV Narrow down my selection only to one of the detectors ­ 15000 light curves #12;WTS Survey Release 0

  6. Variable orifice using an iris shutter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeman, Raymond (El Cerrito, CA); Brajkovich, Steven J. (Fremont, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A variable orifice forming mechanism utilizing an iris shutter arrangement adapted to control gas flow, conductance in vacuum systems, as a heat shield for furnace windows, as a beam shutter in sputtering operations, and in any other application requiring periodic or continuously-variable control of material, gas, or fluid flow.

  7. Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dechter, Rina

    Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa Dep. Llenguatges i Sistemes Inform#12ElimSearchS;k, a hybrid meta- algorithm that combines search and variable elimination. The param- eter S names from the constraint graph. We also provide experimental evidence that the hybrid algorithm can

  8. Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dechter, Rina

    Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa Dep. Llenguatges i Sistemes Inform of variables, reduces the search tree size. In this paper we introduce VarElimSearch(S;k), a hybrid meta the constraint graph. We also provide experimental evidence that the hybrid algorithm can outperform state

  9. Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

  10. Property Variability Stochastic Multiscale Analysis and Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    Property Variability Stochastic Multiscale Analysis and Design of Engine Disks N. Zabaras, B. Wen in nickel-based superalloy turbine disks. Issues: Property variability of turbine disk due to high-dimensional multiscale sources Rolls-Royce RB211- 535 turbofan Nickel-base superalloy turbine disk Superalloy

  11. Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-02-01

    In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

  12. Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term Variability of Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-08-23

    Worldwide interest in the deployment of photovoltaic generation (PV) is rapidly increasing. Operating experience with large PV plants, however, demonstrates that large, rapid changes in the output of PV plants are possible. Early studies of PV grid impacts suggested that short-term variability could be a potential limiting factor in deploying PV. Many of these early studies, however, lacked high-quality data from multiple sites to assess the costs and impacts of increasing PV penetration. As is well known for wind, accounting for the potential for geographic diversity can significantly reduce the magnitude of extreme changes in aggregated PV output, the resources required to accommodate that variability, and the potential costs of managing variability. We use measured 1-min solar insolation for 23 time-synchronized sites in the Southern Great Plains network of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and wind speed data from 10 sites in the same network to characterize the variability of PV with different degrees of geographic diversity and to compare the variability of PV to the variability of similarly sited wind. The relative aggregate variability of PV plants sited in a dense 10 x 10 array with 20 km spacing is six times less than the variability of a single site for variability on time scales less than 15-min. We find in our analysis of wind and PV plants similarly sited in a 5 x 5 grid with 50 km spacing that the variability of PV is only slightly more than the variability of wind on time scales of 5-15 min. Over shorter and longer time scales the level of variability is nearly identical. Finally, we use a simple approximation method to estimate the cost of carrying additional reserves to manage sub-hourly variability. We conclude that the costs of managing the short-term variability of PV are dramatically reduced by geographic diversity and are not substantially different from the costs for managing the short-term variability of similarly sited wind in this region.

  13. WIND VARIABILITY IN BZ CAMELOPARDALIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Kafka, S.; Robertson, J. W. E-mail: skafka@dtm.ciw.edu

    2013-02-01

    Sequences of spectra of the nova-like cataclysmic variable (CV) BZ Cam were acquired on nine nights in 2005-2006 in order to study the time development of episodes of wind activity known to occur frequently in this star. We confirm the results of Ringwald and Naylor that the P-Cygni absorption components of the lines mostly evolve from higher expansion velocity to lower velocity as an episode progresses. We also commonly find blueshifted emission components in the H{alpha} line profile, whose velocities and durations strongly suggest that they are also due to the wind. Curiously, Ringwald and Naylor reported common occurrences of redshifted H{alpha} emission components in their BZ Cam spectra. We have attributed these emission components in H{alpha} to occasions when gas concentrations in the bipolar wind (both front side and back side) become manifested as emission lines as they move beyond the disk's outer edge. We also suggest, based on changes in the P-Cygni profiles during an episode, that the progression from larger to smaller expansion velocities is due to the higher velocity portions of a wind concentration moving beyond the edge of the continuum light of the disk first, leaving a net redward shift of the remaining absorption profile. We derive a new orbital ephemeris for BZ Cam, using the radial velocity of the core of the He I {lambda}5876 line, finding P = 0.15353(4). Using this period, the wind episodes in BZ Cam are found to be concentrated near the inferior conjunction of the emission line source. This result helps confirm that the winds in nova-like CVs are often phase dependent, in spite of the puzzling implication that such winds lack axisymmetry. We argue that the radiation-driven wind in BZ Cam receives an initial boost by acting on gas that has been lifted above the disk by the interaction of the accretion stream with the disk, thereby imposing flickering timescales onto the wind events, as well as leading to an orbital modulation of the wind due to the non-axisymmetric nature of the stream/disk interaction. Simultaneous photometry and spectroscopy were acquired on three nights in order to test the possible connection between flickering continuum light and the strength of the front-side wind. We found strong agreement on one night, some agreement on another, and no agreement on the third. We suggest that some flickering events lead to only back-side winds which will not have associated P-Cygni profiles.

  14. Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution with a Noisy Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian S. Jacobsen; Tobias Gehring; Ulrik L. Andersen

    2015-07-06

    Existing experimental implementations of continuous-variable quantum key distribution require shot-noise limited operation, achieved with shot-noise limited lasers. However, loosening this requirement on the laser source would allow for cheaper, potentially integrated systems. Here, we implement a theoretically proposed prepare-and-measure continuous-variable protocol and experimentally demonstrate the robustness of it against preparation noise stemming for instance from technical laser noise. Provided that direct reconciliation techniques are used in the post-processing we show that for small distances large amounts of preparation noise can be tolerated in contrast to reverse reconciliation where the key rate quickly drops to zero. Our experiment thereby demonstrates that quantum key distribution with non-shot-noise limited laser diodes might be feasible.

  15. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation with non-Gaussian resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Albano, L.; Illuminati, F.

    2007-08-15

    We investigate continuous variable quantum teleportation using non-Gaussian states of the radiation field as entangled resources. We compare the performance of different classes of degaussified resources, including two-mode photon-added and two-mode photon-subtracted squeezed states. We then introduce a class of two-mode squeezed Bell-like states with one-parameter dependence for optimization. These states interpolate between and include as subcases different classes of degaussified resources. We show that optimized squeezed Bell-like resources yield a remarkable improvement in the fidelity of teleportation both for coherent and nonclassical input states. The investigation reveals that the optimal non-Gaussian resources for continuous variable teleportation are those that most closely realize the simultaneous maximization of the content of entanglement, the degree of affinity with the two-mode squeezed vacuum, and the, suitably measured, amount of non-Gaussianity.

  16. Diagnostic for two-mode variable valve activation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fedewa, Andrew M

    2014-01-07

    A method is provided for diagnosing a multi-mode valve train device which selectively provides high lift and low lift to a combustion valve of an internal combustion engine having a camshaft phaser actuated by an electric motor. The method includes applying a variable electric current to the electric motor to achieve a desired camshaft phaser operational mode and commanding the multi-mode valve train device to a desired valve train device operational mode selected from a high lift mode and a low lift mode. The method also includes monitoring the variable electric current and calculating a first characteristic of the parameter. The method also includes comparing the calculated first characteristic against a predetermined value of the first characteristic measured when the multi-mode valve train device is known to be in the desired valve train device operational mode.

  17. Spectral Type and Radial Velocity Variations in Three SRC Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncrieff, Kathleen E; Short, C Ian; Bennett, Philip D; Balam, David D; Griffin, Roger F

    2011-01-01

    SRC variables are M supergiants, precursors to Type II supernovae, that vary in brightness with moderately regular periods of order 100-1000 days. Although identified as pulsating stars that obey their own period-luminosity relation, few have been examined in enough detail to follow the temperature and spectral changes that they undergo during their long cycles. The present study examines such changes for several SRC variables revealed by CCD spectra obtained at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) during 2005-2009, as well as by archival spectra from the DAO (and elsewhere) for some stars from the 1960s to 1980s, and Cambridge radial velocity spectrometer measures for Betelgeuse. Described here is our classification procedure and information on the spectral type and radial velocity changes in three of the stars. The results provide insights into the pulsation mechanism in M supergiants.

  18. Calculations of Surface Thermal-Expansion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KENNER, VE; Allen, Roland E.

    1973-01-01

    expansion. At high temperatures, the results for the surface thermal expansion are in agreement with the prediction of an approximate model which we gave earlier, +surface/abu)k ?(3/4) & ur ) su f / (0 )b lk At lOW temperatureS, a,???e/ab?,k paSSeS thr... influence the shifts in the Bragg peaks which are observed experimentally, as has been found to be the case in other attempts to measure surface thermal expansion. A nonkinematical calculation of temperature effects in low-energy-electron diffraction from...

  19. Near-Infrared Photometric Variability of Stars Toward the Orion A Molecular Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John M. Carpenter; Lynne A. Hillenbrand; M. F. Skrutskie

    2001-02-26

    We present an analysis of J, H, and K time series photometry obtained with the southern 2MASS telescope over a 0.84 x 6 deg^2 region centered near the Orion Nebula Cluster. These data are used to establish the near-infrared variability properties of pre-main-sequence stars in Orion on time scales of 1-36 days, 2 months, and 2 years. A total of 1235 variable stars are identified, ~93% of which are associated with the Orion A molecular cloud. The variable stars exhibit a diversity of photometric behavior with time, including cyclic fluctuations, aperiodic day-to-day fluctuations, eclipses, slow drifts in brightness over one month, colorless variability, stars that become redder as they fade, and stars that become bluer as they fade. We examine rotational modulation of cool and hot star spots, variable obscuration from an inner circumstellar disk, and changes in the mass accretion rate and other properties in a circumstellar disk as possible origins of the variability. Cool spots can explain the variability characteristics in 56-77% of the stars, while the properties of the photometric fluctuations are more consistent with hot spots or extinction changes in at least 23% of the stars, and with variations in the disk mass accretion rate or inner disk radius in 1% of our sample. However, differences between the details of the observations and the details of variability predicted these models suggest either that another variability mechanism not considered here may be operative, or that the observed variability represents the net results of several of these phenomena. Analysis of the star count data indicates that the ONC is part of a larger area of enhanced stellar surface density which extends over a 0.4 x 2.4 deg^2 (3.4 x 20 pc^2) region containing 2700 stars brighter than K=14. (abridged version)

  20. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

    1996-11-12

    A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

  1. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-14

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  2. Surface modification to waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ); Ruzic, David N. (Kendall Park, NJ); Moore, Richard L. (Princeton, NJ); Cohen, Samuel A. (Pennington, NJ); Manos, Dennis M. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    A method of treating the interior surfaces of a waveguide to improve power transmission comprising the steps of mechanically polishing to remove surface protrusions; electropolishing to remove embedded particles; ultrasonically cleaning to remove any residue; coating the interior waveguide surfaces with an alkyd resin solution or electrophoretically depositing carbon lamp black suspended in an alkyd resin solution to form a 1.mu. to 5.mu. thick film; vacuum pyrolyzing the film to form a uniform adherent carbon coating.

  3. Surface modification to waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timberlake, J.R.; Ruzic, D.N.; Moore, R.L.; Cohen, S.A.; Manos, D.M.

    1982-06-16

    A method is described for treating the interior surfaces of a waveguide to improve power transmission comprising the steps of mechanically polishing to remove surface protrusions; electropolishing to remove embedded particles; ultrasonically cleaning to remove any residue; coating the interior waveguide surfaces with an alkyd resin solution or electrophoretically depositing carbon lamp black suspended in an alkyd resin solution to form a 1..mu.. to 5..mu.. thick film; vacuum pyrolyzing the film to form a uniform adherent carbon coating.

  4. Noncommutative Riemann Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Arnlind; Martin Bordemann; Laurent Hofer; Jens Hoppe; Hidehiko Shimada

    2007-11-16

    We introduce C-Algebras of compact Riemann surfaces $\\Sigma$ as non-commutative analogues of the Poisson algebra of smooth functions on $\\Sigma$. Representations of these algebras give rise to sequences of matrix-algebras for which matrix-commutators converge to Poisson-brackets as $N\\to\\infty$. For a particular class of surfaces, nicely interpolating between spheres and tori, we completely characterize (even for the intermediate singular surface) all finite dimensional representations of the corresponding C-algebras.

  5. Potential Reductions in Variability with Alternative Approaches to Balancing Area Cooperation with High Penetrations of Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Beuning, S.

    2010-08-01

    The work described in this report was performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (EERE DOE). This project is a joint project with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report evaluates the physical characteristics that improve the ability of the power system to absorb variable generation. It then uses evidence from electricity markets in the Eastern Interconnection of the United States to show how large, fast energy markets can help with integration. The concept of Virtual Balancing Area is introduced, a concept that covers a broad range of cooperative measures that can be undertaken by balancing areas to help manage variability.

  6. Interpretation of storage field well casing surface potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J.

    1987-01-01

    The shape of a well casing-to-soil potential gradient surface profile is influenced by many variables. Hence, the interpretation of such field data can be difficult. The paper illustrates how such factors as layered ground resistivity, polarization potential variations with depth, and external interference affect the profiles and, therefore, the interpretation of field data.

  7. The Effect of Rain on ERS Scatterometer Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    measurements in rainy conditions [1] [2]. In a raining area, rain striking the water surface creates splashThe Effect of Rain on ERS Scatterometer Measurements Congling Nie and David G. Long Department evidence of rain surface per- turbation in recent studies of surface radar backscatter, the rain effects

  8. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Morris S. (Richland, WA); Schuster, George J. (Kennewick, WA); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

  9. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, M.S.; Schuster, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1997-07-08

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part. 12 figs.

  10. Uncovering the intrinsic variability of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golkhou, Vahid Z.; Butler, Nathaniel R., E-mail: vgolkhou@asu.edu, E-mail: natbutler@asu.edu [Cosmology Initiative, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We develop a robust technique to determine the minimum variability timescale for gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves, utilizing Haar wavelets. Our approach averages over the data for a given GRB, providing an aggregate measure of signal variation while also retaining sensitivity to narrow pulses within complicated time series. In contrast to previous studies using wavelets, which simply define the minimum timescale in reference to the measurement noise floor, our approach identifies the signature of temporally smooth features in the wavelet scaleogram and then additionally identifies a break in the scaleogram on longer timescales as a signature of a true, temporally unsmooth light curve feature or features. We apply our technique to the large sample of Swift GRB gamma-ray light curves and for the first time—due to the presence of a large number of GRBs with measured redshift—determine the distribution of minimum variability timescales in the source frame. We find a median minimum timescale for long-duration GRBs in the source frame of ?t {sub min} = 0.5 s, with the shortest timescale found being on the order of 10 ms. This short timescale suggests a compact central engine (3 × 10{sup 3} km). We discuss further implications for the GRB fireball model and present a tantalizing correlation between the minimum timescale and redshift, which may in part be due to cosmological time dilation.

  11. Numerical study of variable lung ventilation strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yadav, Reena; Hiremath, Kirankumar; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is used for patients with a variety of lung diseases. Traditionally, ventilators have been designed to monotonously deliver equal sized breaths. While it may seem intuitive that lungs may benefit from unvarying and stable ventilation pressure strategy, recently it has been reported that variable lung ventilation is advantageous. In this study, we analyze the mean tidal volume in response to different `variable ventilation pressure' strategies. We found that uniformly distributed variability in pressure gives the best tidal volume as compared to that of normal, scale- free, log normal and linear distributions.

  12. Analysis of two basic variables of timeout 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zella, William Francis

    1974-01-01

    ANALYSIS OF TWO BASIC VARIABLES OF TIMEOUT A Thesis WILLIAM FRANCIS ZELLA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AaM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August l974 Major Subjects... Psychology ANALYSI QF TWQ BASIC VARIABLES CF TINEQU '. A Thesis V/ILLIAM FRANCIS ZELLA Approved as to s+yle and content bye Chairman of Commi, ee Head of De artment) (Membe Member) Member ABSTRACT Analysis of Two Basic Variables of Timeout. (August...

  13. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santala, Teuvo J. (Attleboro, MA)

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  14. Chemical Reactions at Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Henderson and Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-04-14

    Chemical reactions at surfaces underlie some of the most important processes of today, including catalysis, energy conversion, microelectronics, human health and the environment. Understanding surface chemical reactions at a fundamental level is at the core of the field of surface science. The Gordon Research Conference on Chemical Reactions at Surfaces is one of the premiere meetings in the field. The program this year will cover a broad range of topics, including heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry, surfaces in environmental chemistry and energy conversion, reactions at the liquid-solid and liquid-gas interface, electronic materials growth and surface modification, biological interfaces, and electrons and photons at surfaces. An exciting program is planned, with contributions from outstanding speakers and discussion leaders from the international scientific community. The conference provides a dynamic environment with ample time for discussion and interaction. Attendees are encouraged to present posters; the poster sessions are historically well attended and stimulate additional discussions. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for junior researchers (e.g. graduate students or postdocs) to present their work and interact with established leaders in the field.

  15. Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 43.5 billion years ago

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4­3.5 billion years ago 2007. [1] Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1­320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect due to variability in solar emission are small compared to this. In all cases surface radiation levels

  16. Forecasting Economic and Financial Variables with Global VARs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pesaran, M Hashem; Schuermann, Til; Smith, L Vanessa

    , was the price of crude oil. In the second version of the GVAR (DdPS) the money supply variable was dropped due to lack of a consistent measure across all countries, and a long-term interest rate was added to allow for simple yield curve relationships. Indeed... City, June 24-27, 2007 and at the Bank of England Research Workshop on Dynamic Factor Models held at the Bank of England, 8-10 October 2007. We are grateful for comments by the discussants James Stock and Domenico Giannone as well as to Frank Diebold...

  17. Variable reality : interacting with the virtual book

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Hye Soo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents Variable Reality, a wearable augmented reality-based system focused on creating a unique on-the-go reading experience that combines the readily accessible nature of digital books with the favorable ...

  18. Variable Speed Pumping for Level Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasel, M.

    1982-01-01

    analysis, and a brief discussion of variable frequency drive design considerations. Energy savings figures are based upon actual electricity costs at the plant involved. Process duty cycle and energy requirement levels were verified by a wattmeter...

  19. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    J Bradshaw, "SLate ’F~es’ Gasoline Tax So ~t Wdl Rise," TheVarlable-Rate State Gasoline Taxers Jeffrey Ang-Olson MartinVariable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes Jeffrey Ang-Olson

  20. Inserting Group Variables into Fluid Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Jackiw

    2004-10-28

    A fluid, like a quark-gluon plasma, may possess degrees of freedom indexed by a group variable, which retains its identity even in the fluid/continuum description. Conventional Eulerian fluid mechanics is extended to encompass this possibility.

  1. Continuously-Variable Series-Elastic Actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mooney, Luke M.

    Actuator efficiency is an important factor in the design of powered leg prostheses, orthoses, exoskeletons, and legged robots. A continuously-variable series-elastic actuator (CV-SEA) is presented as an efficient actuator ...

  2. Investigation of Variables Associated with Vaccine Acceptance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Lora L.

    2011-12-31

    Abstract The current study investigated the relationship between the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework, social variables, personality factors, and H1N1 flu vaccine acceptance. Four hundred thirty two undergraduate students completed online...

  3. Exploiting Variable Stiffness in Explosive Movement Tasks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijayakumar, Sethu

    with variable physical compliance, our methodology is able to exploit the energy storage capabilities of existing actuators (e.g., by exploiting the energy storage capabilities of such devices) [5]. Due

  4. Variable volume architecture : expanding the boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saheba, Asheshh (Asheshh Mohit), 1972-

    2001-01-01

    Research into the creation of a Variable Volume Architecture is explored through a series of proposals and projects. An argument is established to develop the means and methods of achieving an architecture of transformation. ...

  5. Bit Commitment with Quantum Continuous Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallette, Bruno

    protocol -Basic Unit 9 A B 1,0 1,0 B Unveil Phase 1,0 A 1,0 B 1,0 A 0 0 22' 1,0 22' 1,0 CommitBit Commitment with Quantum Continuous Variables Aikaterini Mandilara* 1 Paris 11 Paris 7 #12;Bit Commitment with Quantum Continuous Variables (a) with entanglement (b) or without 2 (a) A. Mandilara and N

  6. Quantum Measurements of Scattered Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Merkli; Mark Penney

    2015-03-20

    We investigate the process of quantum measurements on scattered probes. Before scattering, the probes are independent, but they become entangled afterwards, due to the interaction with the scatterer. The collection of measurement results (the history) is a stochastic process of dependent random variables. We link the asymptotic properties of this process to spectral characteristics of the dynamics. We show that the process has decaying time correlations and that a zero-one law holds. We deduce that if the incoming probes are not sharply localized with respect to the spectrum of the measurement operator, then the process does not converge. Nevertheless, the scattering modifies the measurement outcome frequencies, which are shown to be the average of the measurement projection operator, evolved for one interaction period, in an asymptotic state. We illustrate the results on a truncated Jaynes-Cummings model.

  7. Optimal Control Theory for Continuous Variable Quantum Gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebing Wu; Raj Chakrabarti; Herschel Rabitz

    2007-08-16

    We apply the methodology of optimal control theory to the problem of implementing quantum gates in continuous variable systems with quadratic Hamiltonians. We demonstrate that it is possible to define a fidelity measure for continuous variable (CV) gate optimization that is devoid of traps, such that the search for optimal control fields using local algorithms will not be hindered. The optimal control of several quantum computing gates, as well as that of algorithms composed of these primitives, is investigated using several typical physical models and compared for discrete and continuous quantum systems. Numerical simulations indicate that the optimization of generic CV quantum gates is inherently more expensive than that of generic discrete variable quantum gates, and that the exact-time controllability of CV systems plays an important role in determining the maximum achievable gate fidelity. The resulting optimal control fields typically display more complicated Fourier spectra that suggest a richer variety of possible control mechanisms. Moreover, the ability to control interactions between qunits is important for delimiting the total control fluence. The comparative ability of current experimental protocols to implement such time-dependent controls may help determine which physical incarnations of CV quantum information processing will be the easiest to implement with optimal fidelity.

  8. Measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willis, W.L.

    1980-10-01

    The discussion will be restricted to measurements of voltage and current. Also, although the measurements themselves should be as quantitative as possible, the discussion is rather nonquantitative. Emphasis is on types of instruments, how they may be used, and the inherent advantages and limitations of a given technique. A great deal of information can be obtained from good, clean voltage and current data. Power and impedance are obviously inherent if the proper time relationships are preserved. Often an associated, difficult-to-determine, physical event can be evaluated from the V-I data, such as a time-varying load characteristic, or the time of light emission, etc. The lack of active high voltage devices, such as 50-kV operational amplifiers, restricts measurement devices to passive elements, primarily R and C. There are a few more exotic techniques that are still passive in nature. There are several well-developed techniques for voltage measurements. These include: spark gaps; electrostatic meters; capacitive dividers; mixed RC dividers; and the electro-optic effect. Current is measured by either direct measurement of charge flow or by measuring the resulting magnetic field.

  9. Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

    2008-09-29

    Wildfire is a frequent perturbation in shrub steppe ecosystems, altering the flora, fauna, atmosphere, and soil of these systems. Research on the fire effects has focused mostly on natural ecosystems with essentially no attention on engineered systems like surface barriers. The scope of the project is to use a simulated wildfire to induce changes in an engineered surface barrier and document the effects on barrier performance. The main objective is to quantify the effects of burning and the resulting post-fire conditions on alterations in soil physical properties; hydrologic response, particularly the water balance; geochemical properties; and biological properties. A secondary objective is to use the lessons learned to maximize fire protection in the design of long-term monitoring systems based on electronic sensors. A simulated wildfire will be initiated, controlled and monitored at the 200-BP-1 barrier in collaboration with the Hanford Fire Department during the fall of 2008. The north half of the barrier will be divided into nine 12 x 12 m plots, each of which will be randomly assigned a fuel load of 2 kg m-2 or 4 kg m-2. Each plot will be ignited around the perimeter and flames allowed to carry to the centre. Any remaining unburned vegetation will be manually burned off using a drip torch. Progress of the fire and its effects will be monitored using point measurements of thermal, hydrologic, and biotic variables. Three measures of fire intensity will be used to characterize fire behavior: (1) flame height, (2) the maximum temperature at three vertical profile levels, and (3) total duration of elevated temperature at these levels. Pre-burn plant information, including species diversity, plant height, and canopy diameter will be measured on shrubs from the plots to be burned and from control plots at the McGee ranch. General assessments of shrub survival, recovery, and recruitment will be made after the fire. Near-surface soil samples will be collected pre- and post-burn to determine changes in the gravel content of the surface layer so as to quantify inflationary or deflationary responses to fire and to reveal the ability of the surface to resist post-fire erosive stresses. Measures of bulk density, water repellency, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity will be used to characterize changes in infiltration rates and water storage capacity following the fire. Samples will also be analyzed to quantify geochemical changes including changes in soil pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, and the concentration of macro nutrients (e.g. N, P, K) and other elements such as Na, Mg, Ca, that are critical to the post-fire recovery revegetation. Soil CO2 emissions will be measured monthly for one year following the burn to document post-fire stimulation of carbon turnover and soil biogenic emissions. Surface and subsurface temperature measurements at and near monitoring installations will be used to document fire effects on electronic equipment. The results of this study will be used to bridge the gaps in knowledge on the effects of fire on engineered ecosystems (e.g. surface barriers), particularly the hydrologic and biotic characteristics that govern the water and energy balance. These results will also support the development of practical fire management techniques for barriers that are compatible with wildfire suppression strategies. Furthermore, lessons learned will be use to develop installation strategies needed to protect electronic monitoring equipment from the intense heat of fire and the potential damaging effects of smoke and fire extinguishing agents. Such information is needed to better understand long-term barrier performance under extreme conditions, especially if site maintenance and operational funding is lost for activities such as barrier revegetation.

  10. Entropic Trapping of Particles at Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galen T. Pickett

    2015-05-22

    I consider the possibility that Gaussian random walk statistics are sufficient to trap nanoscopic additives at either a polymer interface or surface. When an additive particle goes to the free surface, two portions of the polymer surface energy behave quite differently. The purely enthalpic contribution increases the overall free energy when the additive protrudes above the level of the polymer matrix. The entropic part of the surface energy arising from constraints that segments near a surface can't cross it, is partly relaxed when the additive moves to the free surface. These two portions of the polymer surface energy determine the equilibrium wetting angle formed between the additive and the polymer matrix, the measurement of which in an experiment would allow an independent determination of each piece of the polymer surface energy.

  11. Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: II. Surface-based Duct Tracking Using Multiple Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: II. Surface-based Duct Tracking Using Multiple variability in tracking surface-based ducts in marine and coastal environments. The method tracks of the problem and evaporation duct tracking has been introduced in [1]. In previous studies, atmospheric

  12. Quantum chaos induced by measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Facchi; S. Pascazio; A. Scardicchio

    1999-06-16

    We study the dynamics of a "kicked" quantum system undergoing repeated measurements of momentum. A diffusive behavior is obtained for a large class of Hamiltonians, even when the dynamics of the classical counterpart is not chaotic. These results can be interpreted in classical terms by making use of a "randomized" classical map. We compute the transition probability for the action variable and consider the semiclassical limit.

  13. Enhanced surface hydrophobicity by coupling of surface polarity and topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhanced surface hydrophobicity by coupling of surface polarity and topography Nicolas organization and contact angle. We show that when the topography and polarity of the surface act in concert- ciated that the topography of a surface is important in deter- mining the degree of surface

  14. Asteroid Surface Geophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murdoch, Naomi; Schwartz, Stephen R; Miyamoto, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique micro-gravity environment that these bodies posses, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesised through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied using theoretical, numerical and experimental methods that often combine several scientific disciplines. These multiple approaches are now merging towards a further understanding of the geophysical states of the surfaces of asteroids. In this chapter we provide a concise summary of what the scientific community has learned so far about the surfaces of these small planetary bodies and the processes that have shaped them. We also discuss the state of the art in terms of experimental techniques and numerical simulations that...

  15. Entropy and surfaceness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casper, James Kyle

    1997-01-01

    The layer of the Earth's atmosphere which contains clouds and weather systems is a thin thermoregulatory surface. It maintains an exact energy budget between the Earth and the Sun. Recent work in theoretical physics is ...

  16. SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Y.R.

    2010-01-01

    B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Optics Lett. i, 393 See, for3, 1980 SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y.R. Shen, C.K. Chen, andde Janiero SURFRACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y. R. Shen, C. K. Chen,

  17. Surface wave interferometry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halliday, David Fraser

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns the application of seismic interferometry to surface waves. Seismic interferometry is the process by which the wavefield between two recording locations is estimated, resulting in new recordings at ...

  18. Structured surfaces for hemocompatibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrauth, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    The rise of micro- and nano-technologies has brought to light intriguing examples of scale-driven performance in a diverse array of fields. The quest to create highly hydrophobic surfaces is one such field. The application ...

  19. A surface ionization source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buzatu, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    The main part of the work described herein is the development and testing of a surface ionization source for use on a collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy apparatus. A description of the previously existing fast beam apparatus is given...

  20. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    index: Analysis and statistics. Solar Energy. 81, 195-206.Proc. of International Solar Energy World Congress, Kassel,irradiance variability. Solar Energy. 85, 1343-1353. Perez,

  1. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Kleissl, J. , 2013. Deriving cloud velocity from an array ofCloud Speed Impact on Solar Variability Scaling -this work, we determine from cloud speeds. Cloud simulator

  2. HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

    2006-10-02

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.

  3. Analysis and Evaluation For Equipment Performance by Surface Measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishizuka, K.; Aizawa, N.; Shibata, K.; Yonezawa, H.; Yamada, S.

    2006-01-01

    Many building owners and facility managers are deeply interested in both operation and maintenance costs related to a building's life cycle. Optimizing energy consumption and obtaining long equipment activity requires sophisticated management...

  4. Reconstruction of Sculptured Surface Coordinate Measuring Machines1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department Robert B. Roemer Chair/Dean Approved for the Graduate Council B. Gale Dick Dean of The Graduate found to be satisfactory. Chair: Samuel H. Drake Sanford G. Meek Thomas C. Henderson #12;THE UNIVERSITY

  5. Continuous surface ocean measurements of dissolved oxygen isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafelski, Lauren Elmegreen

    2012-01-01

    Cycles, Cassar, N. , Barnett, B. A. , Bender, M. L. ,M. B. , Bender, M. L. , and Barnett, B. A. , 2004: Net andM. B. , Bender, M. L. , Barnett, B. A. , Strutton, P. , and

  6. Report: Measuring the Attack Surfaces of Enterprise Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Jeannette M.

    risk of their software. Code quality improvement is a tra- ditional approach to mitigate security risk security and quality. 1 Introduction There is a growing demand for secure software as we are increasingly quality for improving software security and quality. The code quality improvement effort aims toward

  7. Continuous surface ocean measurements of dissolved oxygen isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafelski, Lauren Elmegreen

    2012-01-01

    S. , Barkan, E. , and Luz, B. , 2003: Effects of photores-Science, 123(3197), 574–576. Luz, B. , and Barkan, E. ,Chemistry, 70, 2737–2744. Luz, B. , Barkan, E. , Bender, M.

  8. Implementing Rational Surface Locations Measured From Thomson Scattering Into

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE- SPECIFIC SAVINGSImpactVisiting

  9. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  10. Surface Water Quality Standards 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Standards Team. This advisory group, with representation from water asso- ciations, the agricultural industry, engineering firms, environmental organizations, consumer groups and government entities, is working with TCEQ staff to review and possibly...SURFACE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AAs part of the ongoing program to manage Texaswater quality, the Texas Commission onEnvironmental Quality (TCEQ) is currently review- ing the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards, including the standards...

  11. Software Enabled Virtually Variable Displacement Pumps -Theoretical and Experimental Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    Software Enabled Virtually Variable Displacement Pumps - Theoretical and Experimental Studies the functional equivalent of a variable displacement pump. This approach combines a fixed displacement pump valve control, without many of the shortcomings of commercially available variable displacement pumps

  12. Arc Reversals in Hybrid Bayesian Networks with Deterministic Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinicioglu, Esma N.; Shenoy, Prakash P.

    2009-05-01

    This article discusses arc reversals in hybrid Bayesian networks with deterministic variables. Hybrid Bayesian networks contain a mix of discrete and continuous chance variables. In a Bayesian network representation, a continuous chance variable...

  13. The use of 'race' as a variable in biomedical research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efstathiou, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    be used as a variable in biomedical research but mainly toRace’ as a Variable in Biomedical Research A dissertationRace’ as a Variable in Biomedical Research…………. Manifest,

  14. Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Variable valve actuation with onoff IEGR pre-bump is...

  15. Interannual variability of surface energy exchange depends on stand age in a boreal forest fire chronosequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Heping; Randerson, James T

    2008-01-01

    stand age on the boreal forest energy balance, Agric. For.RANDERSON: BOREAL FOREST FIRE AND ENERGY EXCHANGE Johnstone,AND RANDERSON: BOREAL FOREST FIRE AND ENERGY EXCHANGE uous

  16. Pacific Ocean Pleistocene and Holocene surface temperature variability and implications for climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyez, Kelsey

    2012-01-01

    is original and that diagenesis did not alter these samples.deposited, we assume that diagenesis may not be a factor

  17. Pacific Ocean Pleistocene and Holocene surface temperature variability and implications for climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyez, Kelsey

    2012-01-01

    Mix et al. , 1999; Ostertag- Henning and Stax, 2000; SabinMix et al. , 1999; Ostertag-Henning and Stax, 2000; Sabin

  18. Accepted Manuscript Temporal and spatial variability of groundwater-surface water fluxes: Devel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    conventional Darcian flux based methods.12 Thermal parameters required to distinguish between conductive opment and application of an analytical method using temperature time series John Keery, Andrew Binley method using temperature time series, (2006), doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.12.003 This is a PDF file

  19. A comparison of variability of undisturbed and surface mined soils in Freestone County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bearden, Eddie Dean

    1984-01-01

    -collected on some sites during Narch, 1983. PEDON SAMPLING SCHEMES B 1 Meter x 1 Meter 2 Meters x 2 Meters Fig. 5--multiple sub-sampling schemes from pit (A) and compositing core samples (B) . 18 Laboratory Methods Bulk Sample Preparation All soil material...';:::. ";, . . ")': ( 5% (TEU) 6- ION (COMMON) 'H ~ II-20% (MANY) UNO. 2YR IOYR UND, 2YR ' IOVR ' UNO. ' 2YR IOYR UNO. = UNDISTOROEO 2 YR ? 2 YEAR OI. O MINE)OIL IO YR = IO YEAR OLD MINESOIL Fig. 11--Root percentage classes with observations (5 meters apart. ROO...

  20. Interannual variability of surface energy exchange depends on stand age in a boreal forest fire chronosequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Heping; Randerson, James T

    2008-01-01

    of shoot water potential and vapor pressure difference, Treeaspen and hazelnut to vapor pressure deficit in a borealmm/month), and (d) vapor pressure deficit (VPD; kPa) during

  1. Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy balance within a coupled soil-vegetation-atmosphere system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, P.

    [1] The response of a soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum model to incoming radiation forcing is investigated in order to gain insights into the coupling of soil and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) states and fluxes. The ...

  2. Interannual variability of surface energy exchange depends on stand age in a boreal forest fire chronosequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Heping; Randerson, James T

    2008-01-01

    Populus trem- uloides and Salix spp. ). The aspen had a meanvegetation included shrubs (Salix spp. , Ledum paustre, Rosa

  3. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF SURFACE WATER pCO2 AND SAMPLING STRATEGIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeney, Colm

    on wind speed. It should be noted that the sampling frequencies needed for investigation of governing is regulated by physical processes (i. e. solar energy input, sea-air heat exchanges and mixed layer thickness observations; and (2) to recommend sampling frequencies in space and time needed for estimating net sea-air CO2

  4. Free and forced tropical variability: role of the wind-evaporation-sea surface temperature (WES) feedback 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Salil

    2009-05-15

    of the equator over the Atlantic during El-Nino events. Comparative studies between Last GlacialMaximum (LGM) equivalent imposed northern hemispheric sea-ice experiments withthe WES-off model and the standard model indicate a dominant role for the WESfeedback...

  5. Analysis of Cloud Variability and Sampling Errors in Surface and Satellite Mesurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TAPropaneandAn OverviewCoalAnalysis of Cloud

  6. Software Productivity Measurement Using Multiple Size Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Doo-Hwan

    Software Productivity Measurement Using Multiple Size Measures Software Productivity MeasurementContents Introduction Background Related work Motivation Productivity measurement - Measurement model - Productivity measure construction - Productivity analysis Conclusion Discussion #12;Software Engineering Lab, KAIST 3

  7. Kepler and the long-period variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartig, Erich; Lebzelter, Thomas [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Cash, Jennifer [Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, South Carolina State University, P.O. Box 7024, Orangeburg, SC 29117 (United States); Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Mighell, Kenneth J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Walter, Donald K., E-mail: erich.hartig@univie.ac.at, E-mail: thomas.lebzelter@univie.ac.at, E-mail: jcash@physics.scsu.edu, E-mail: hinkle@noao.edu, E-mail: mighell@noao.edu, E-mail: dkw@physics.scsu.edu [Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, South Carolina State University, P.O. Box 7296, Orangeburg, SC 29117 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    High-precision Kepler photometry is used to explore the details of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) light curves. Since AGB variability has a typical timescale on the order of a year, we discuss at length the removal of long-term trends and quarterly changes in Kepler data. Photometry for a small sample of nine semi-regular (SR) AGB stars is examined using a 30 minute cadence over a period of 45 months. While undergoing long-period variations of many magnitudes, the light curves are shown to be smooth at the millimagnitude level over much shorter time intervals. No flares or other rapid events were detected on a sub-day timescale. The shortest AGB period detected is on the order of 100 days. All the SR variables in our sample are shown to have multiple modes. This is always the first overtone, typically combined with the fundamental. A second common characteristic of SR variables is shown to be the simultaneous excitation of multiple closely separated periods for the same overtone mode. Approximately half the sample had a much longer variation in the light curve, likely a long secondary period (LSP). The light curves were all well represented by a combination of sinusoids. However, the properties of the sinusoids are time variable, with irregular variations present at low levels. No non-radial pulsations were detected. It is argued that the LSP variation seen in many SR variables is intrinsic to the star and linked to multiple mode pulsation.

  8. Statistical properties of multi-epoch spectral variability of SDSS stripe 82 quasars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Minezaki, Takeo; Doi, Mamoru [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Kawaguchi, Toshihiro [Department of Physics and Information Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Sameshima, Hiroaki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Koshida, Shintaro, E-mail: mkokubo@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Center of Astro Engineering and Department of Electrical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the UV-optical (longward of Ly? 1216 Å) spectral variability of nearly 9000 quasars (0 < z < 4) using multi-epoch photometric data within the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The regression slope in the flux-flux space of a quasar light curve directly measures the color of the flux difference spectrum, then the spectral shape of the flux difference spectra can be derived by taking a careful look at the redshift dependence of the regression slopes. First, we confirm that the observed quasar spectrum becomes bluer when the quasar becomes brighter. We infer the spectral index of the composite difference spectrum as ?{sub ?}{sup dif}?+1/3 (in the form of f{sub ?}??{sup ?{sub ?}}), which is significantly bluer than that of the composite spectrum ?{sub ?}{sup com}??0.5. We also show that the continuum variability cannot be explained by accretion disk models with varying mass accretion rates. Second, we examine the effects of broad emission line variability on the color-redshift space. The variability of the 'Small Blue Bump' is extensively discussed. We show that the low-ionization lines of Mg II and Fe II are less variable compared to Balmer emission lines and high-ionization lines, and the Balmer continuum is the dominant variable source around ?3000 Å. These results are compared with previous studies, and the physical mechanisms of the variability of the continuum and emission lines are discussed.

  9. Development of In-Situ Fan Curve Measurement with One Airflow Measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Joo, I. S.; Song, L.; Liu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Fan airflow is the key parameter for air volume tracking control in variable air volume systems. One of the airflow measurement methods is to determine airflow using the fan speed, fan head, and fan curve. Both fan speed and fan head can be measured...

  10. Calibration of charge state conversion surfaces for neutral particle detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahlstroem, P.; Scheer, J. A.; Wurz, P.; Hertzberg, E.; Fuselier, S. A.

    2008-08-01

    Molecular oxygen and hydrogen ions were scattered off hydrogen terminated diamondlike carbon (DLC) charge state conversion surfaces at incident grazing angles. The energy range of the scattered particles was 390-1000 eV, and the surface roughness of the DLC surface was of the order of 1 A rms. For all surfaces almost equal angular scattering and negative ion fractions were found within the uncertainties of the measurement. This result supports the fact that charge state conversion with DLC surfaces is a reliable technology for neutral particle sensing instruments. Furthermore, these instruments can work in the laboratory as well as in the harsh environment on board a satellite.The surfaces measured here are used in the IBEX-lo sensor, a neutral particle sensing instrument on the NASA IBEX mission, which is scheduled for launch into orbit around Earth in July 2008.

  11. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Gabe V. (Las Cruces, NM); Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

  12. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various...

  13. Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements This tip sheet discusses...

  14. Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable optimization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable optimization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable...

  15. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature...

  16. Ocean color and atmospheric dimethyl sulfide: On their mesoscale variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matrai, Patricia A; Balch, William M; Cooper, David J; Saltzman, Eric S

    1993-01-01

    periods of' time, covering mesoscale Campbell, J. W. and W.Dimethyl Sulfide' On Their Mesoscale Variability PATRICIA A.Miami, Miami, Florida The mesoscale variability of dimethyl

  17. Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing variable lift, timing and duration to enable high efficiency engine combustion control Compact,...

  18. Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture SNL has 40+ years...

  19. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for...

  20. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Purdue prototype system Purdue prototype system...