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1

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

2

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pressure pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

3

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperature temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric temperature The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

4

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric moisture The moisture content of the air as indicated by several measurements including relative humidity, specific humidity, dewpoint, vapor pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, and water vapor density; note that precipitable water is a separate type. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

5

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric turbulence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

turbulence turbulence ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric turbulence High frequency velocity fluctuations that lead to turbulent transport of momentum, heat, mositure, and passive scalars, and often expressed in terms of variances and covariances. Categories Atmospheric State, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

6

ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Integrated Column Description An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The "other" Washington ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Credits to Credits to * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Outline Outline * A little philosophy

7

Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...HICKS, B.B., A SIMULATION OF THE EDDY ACCUMULATION...CLOSURES IN 2ND-ORDER MODELING, JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC...Their advantag-es are rapid response, linear output...the measurement and modeling of surface fluxes are...the appli-cation of automated conditional sampling...

W. F. Dabberdt; D. H. Lenschow; T. W. Horst; P. R. Zimmerman; S. P. Oncley; A. C. Delany

1993-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

8

Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.  

SciTech Connect

The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not

10

Instantaneous Measurement of Nonlocal Variables Lev Vaidman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Instantaneous Measurement of Nonlocal Variables Lev Vaidman 1 School of Physics and Astronomy variables related to two or more separate sites can be measured instantaneously, except for a finite time of the measurement. It is a verification measurement: it yields reliably the eigenvalues of the nonlocal variables

Vaidman, Lev

11

Simulating Random Natural Variability in Time-Varying Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simulating Random Natural Variability in Time-Varying Atmospheric Simulating Random Natural Variability in Time-Varying Atmospheric Concentrations of Toxic Gas from Pipeline Ruptures Speaker(s): David J. Wilson Date: February 4, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Jeiwon Deputy Random time series are found everywhere in nature. The Brownian motion of small particles; the price of assets (stocks) in financial markets; the diffusion of individual molecules through a membrane; the ballistic deposition of nano-particles onto a lattice substrate; and the time-varying concentration fluctuations at a point downwind from a pollution source all have a common dynamic description. All are stochastic processes where the local rate of change of the variable has a natural drift back to some equilibrium state, combined with a random fluctuating component. We will

12

An Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia S. M. Sakerin, F. V. Dorofeev, D. M. Kabanov, V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, V. V. Polkin, V. P. Shmargunov, S. A. Terpugova, S. A. Turchinovich, and V. N. Uzhegov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction The instrumentation complex is described, which has been prepared for radiative experiments in the region of Tomsk (West Siberia). The complex consists of three groups of devices to measure (a) the characteristics of the total downward radiation; (b) the most variable components of the atmospheric transparency directly affecting the income of radiation (aerosol optical depth [AOD], total content of water vapor, ozone, etc.); and (c) aerosol and meteorological parameters of the near-ground layer of the

13

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Argonne scientists study climate change 1 of 22 Argonne scientists study climate change The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science provided $60 million in ARRA funding for climate research to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a DOE national user facility that has been operating climate observing sites around the world for nearly two decades. These sites help scientists study clouds and their influence on the sun's radiant energy, which heats our planet. Above is one of the purchases: the Vaisala Present Weather Detector. It optically measures visibility, present weather, precipitation intensity, and precipitation type. It provides a measure of current weather conditions by combining measurements from three

14

Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species CDIAC's data collection includes measurements of the following climate-relevant chemical species. A summary of recent greenhouse gas concentrations is also available. To determine how compounds are named, see the CDIAC "Name that compound" page. Butane (C4H10) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Isotopes Carbon Monoxide (CO) Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Chlorofluorocarbons Chloroform (CHCl3) Deuterium (2H) Ethane (C2H6) Ethyl Nitrate (C2H5ONO2) Ethyne (C2H2) Fluoroform (CHF3) Halogenated Compounds (modern records) Halons (fluorocarbons) Hydrogen (H2) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) i-Propyl Nitrate (C3H7ONO2) Methane (CH4) Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) Methyl Chloride (CH3Cl) Methyl Chloroform (CH3CCl3)

15

Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, June 2002.  

SciTech Connect

ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite--Beginning in July, all three ARM sites (Southern Great Plains [SGP], North Slope of Alaska, and Tropical Western Pacific; Figure 1) will participate in the AIRS Validation IOP. This three-month intensive operational period (IOP) will validate data collected by the satellite-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) recently launched into space. On May 4, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Aqua, the second spacecraft in the Earth Observing System (EOS) series. The EOS satellites monitor Earth systems including land surfaces, oceans, the atmosphere, and ice cover. The first EOS satellite, named Terra, was launched in December 1999. The second EOS satellite is named Aqua because its primary focus is understanding Earth's water cycle through observation of atmospheric moisture, clouds, temperature, ocean surface, precipitation, and soil moisture. One of the instruments aboard Aqua is the AIRS, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA agency. The AIRS Validation IOP complements the ARM mission to improve understanding of the interactions of clouds and atmospheric moisture with solar radiation and their influence on weather and climate. In support of satellite validation IOP, ARM will launch dedicated radiosondes at all three ARM sites while the Aqua satellite with the AIRS instrument is orbiting overhead. These radiosonde launches will occur 45 minutes and 5 minutes before selected satellite overpasses. In addition, visiting scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will launch special radiosondes to measure ozone and humidity over the SGP site. All launches will generate ground-truth data to validate satellite data collected simultaneously. Data gathered daily by ARM meteorological and solar radiation instruments will complete the validation data sets. Data from Aqua-based instruments, including AIRS, will aid in weather forecasting, climate modeling, and greenhouse gas studies. These instruments will provide more accurate, detailed global observations of weather and atmospheric parameters that will, in turn, improve the accuracy and quality of weather forecasts. A satellite-based instrument is cost-effective because it can provide continuous global measurements, eliminating isolated yet costly weather balloon releases. Aqua, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California (Figure 2), carries six state-of-the-art instruments that measure various water vapor parameters: (1) AIRS, which measures atmospheric temperature and humidity, land and sea surface temperatures, cloud properties, and radiative energy flux; (2) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, which measures atmospheric temperature and humidity during both cloudy and cloud-free periods; (3) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer, which measures cloud properties, radiative energy flux, precipitation rates, land surface wetness, sea ice, snow cover, sea surface temperature, and wind fields; (4) Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, which measures radiative energy flux; (5) Humidity Sounder for Brazil, which measures atmospheric humidity by using a passive scanning microwave radiometer; and (6) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, which measures cloud properties, radiative energy flux, aerosol properties, land cover and land use change, vegetation dynamics, land surface temperature, fire occurrence, volcanic effects, sea surface temperature, ocean color, snow cover, atmospheric temperature and humidity, and sea ice. The data-gathering capabilities of the Aqua instruments will provide an unprecedented view of atmosphere-land interactions (Figure 3). The availability of more frequent, more accurate global measurements of important atmospheric parameters will both improve our capabilities for short-term weather forecasting and lead to a better understanding of climate variability and climate change. Simultaneous measurements of many parameters will allow scientists to study complicated forcings and feedbacks of the atmosphere, which can be

Holdridge, D. J.

2002-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

16

Thomson scattering measurements in atmospheric plasma jets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electron temperature and electron density in a dc plasma jet at atmospheric pressure have been obtained using Thomson laser scattering. Measurements performed at various scattering angles have revealed effects that are not accounted for by the standard scattering theory. Differences between the predicted and experimental results suggest that higher order corrections to the theory may be required, and that corrections to the form of the spectral density function may play an important role.

G. Gregori; J. Schein; P. Schwendinger; U. Kortshagen; J. Heberlein; E. Pfender

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sawyer, J. Wayne (Hampton, VA); Hess, John R. (Ashton, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Radar Measurement of the Upper Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of the Upper Atmosphere James C. G...two decades large radars have...of the upper atmosphere. These radars...ionospheric plasma, all as functions...ionospheric plasma by detection...is wasted. Atmospheric radar scientists...305 m and an area of 73,000...frequency of 430 MHz. The radar...

James C. G. Walker

1979-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

19

High-resolution terahertz atmospheric water vapor continuum measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-resolution terahertz atmospheric water vapor continuum measurements David M. Slocum,* Thomas M such as pollution monitoring and the detection of energetic chemicals using remote sensing over long path lengths through the atmosphere. Although there has been much attention to atmospheric effects over narrow

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

20

Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Style Guide Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility March 2013 Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility March 2013 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research March 2013 ii Contents 1.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Acronyms and Abbreviations ............................................................................................................... 1 2.1 Usage ............................................................................................................................................ 1

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Interannual ENSO variability forced through coupled atmosphere-ocean feedback loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 2000; Power and Colman, 2006]. In this paper, we explore the extent to which baroclinic ocean Rossby1 Interannual ENSO variability forced through coupled atmosphere-ocean feedback loops Amy Solomon 1 feedback to, and significantly impact, the Tropics through ocean Rossby waves. We use an atmospheric

Solomon, Amy

22

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, November 2002.  

SciTech Connect

Fall 2002 Intensive Operation Periods: Single Column Model and Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle--In an Intensive Operation Period (IOP) on November 3-23, 2002, researchers at the SGP CART site are collecting a detailed data set for use in improving the Single Column Model (SCM), a scaled-down climate model. The SCM represents one vertical column of air above Earth's surface and requires less computation time than a full-scale global climate model. Researchers first use the SCM to efficiently improve submodels of clouds, solar radiation transfer, and atmosphere-surface interactions, then implement the results in large-scale global models. With measured values for a starting point, the SCM predicts atmospheric variables during prescribed time periods. A computer calculates values for such quantities as the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface and predicts how clouds will evolve and interact with incoming light from the sun. Researchers compare the SCM's predictions with actual measurements made during the IOP, then adjust the submodels to make predictions more reliable. A second IOP conducted concurrently with the SCM IOP involves high-altitude, long-duration aircraft flights. The original plan was to use an unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV), but the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aircraft Proteus will be substituted because all UAVs have been deployed elsewhere. The UAV is a small, instrument-equipped, remote-control plane that is operated from the ground by a computer. The Proteus is a manned aircraft, originally designed to carry telecommunications relay equipment, that can be reconfigured for uses such as reconnaissance and surveillance, commercial imaging, launching of small space satellites, and atmospheric research. The plane is designed for two on-board pilots in a pressurized cabin, flying to altitudes up to 65,000 feet for as long as 18 hours. The Proteus has a variable wingspan of 77-92 feet and is 56 feet long. The plane can carry up to 7,260 pounds of equipment, making it a versatile research tool. The Proteus is making measurements at the very top of the cirrus cloud layer to characterize structures of these clouds. These new measurements will provide more accurate, more abundant data for use in improving the representation of clouds in the SCM. 2002-2003 Winter Weather Forecast--Top climate forecasters at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Climate Prediction Center say that an El Nino condition in the tropical Pacific Ocean will influence our winter weather this year. Although this El Nino is not as strong as the event of the 1997-1998 winter season, the United States will nevertheless experience some atypical weather. Strong impacts could be felt in several areas. Nationally, forecasters are predicting warmer-than-average temperatures over the northern tier of states and wetter-than-average conditions in the southern tier of states during the 2002-2003 winter season. Kansas residents should expect warmer and wetter conditions, while Oklahoma will be wetter than average.

Holdridge, D. J.

2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

23

Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements Tim Arnolda,1's radiative budget; however, our understand- ing of its atmospheric burden and emission rates has been limited together with an atmo- spheric model and inverse method, we estimate that the global emissions of NF3

Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

24

Simple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

'' and spatial variations of gaseous dry N deposition (i.e., nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3)), thoughSimple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds Heather E. Golden the effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on surface water quality requires accurate accounts

Elliott, Emily M.

25

Laboratory measurements and modeling of trace atmospheric species  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trace species play a major role in many physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the impact of each species requires a combination of laboratory exper- imentation, field measurements, ...

Sheehy, Philip M. (Philip Michael)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Low-frequency variability and heat transport in a low-order nonlinear coupled ocean-atmosphere model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formulate and study a low-order nonlinear coupled ocean-atmosphere model with an emphasis on the impact of radiative and heat fluxes and of the frictional coupling between the two components. This model version extends a previous 24-variable version by adding a dynamical equation for the passive advection of temperature in the ocean, together with an energy balance model. The bifurcation analysis and the numerical integration of the model reveal the presence of low-frequency variability (LFV) concentrated on and near a long-periodic, attracting orbit. This orbit combines atmospheric and oceanic modes, and it arises for large values of the meridional gradient of radiative input and of frictional coupling. Chaotic behavior develops around this orbit as it loses its stability; this behavior is still dominated by the LFV on decadal and multi-decadal time scales that is typical of oceanic processes. Atmospheric diagnostics also reveals the presence of predominant low- and high-pressure zones, as well as of a subtropical jet; these features recall realistic climatological properties of the oceanic atmosphere. Finally, a predictability analysis is performed. Once the decadal-scale periodic orbits develop, the coupled system's short-term instabilities --- as measured by its Lyapunov exponents --- are drastically reduced, indicating the ocean's stabilizing role on the atmospheric dynamics. On decadal time scales, the recurrence of the solution in a certain region of the invariant subspace associated with slow modes displays some extended predictability, as reflected by the oscillatory behavior of the error for the atmospheric variables at long lead times.

Stéphane Vannitsem; Jonathan Demaeyer; Lesley De Cruz; Michael Ghil

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Bragg scattering measurement of atmospheric plasma decay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The decay processes of the plasma layers generated by two intersecting microwave pulses in 1 torr dry air are investigated by Bragg scattering method. The results of measurement show that the electrons decay i...

Y. S. Zhang; S. P. Kuo

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Modelled and observed variability of the atmospheric circulation the Peruvian Current System: 2000-2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the characteristics of the local equatorward atmospheric circulation. Resolving the mesoscale variability of the heat Mesoscale Model (MM5) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) that were run over the Peruvian Current System (PCS) [0N-19°S; 83°W-68°W] from November 2000- October 2005. Wind data as derived from

29

Posters Objective Analysis Schemes to Monitor Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data in Near Real-Time  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 Posters Objective Analysis Schemes to Monitor Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data in Near Real-Time M. Splitt University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma Recent work in this area by Charles Wade (1987) lays out the groundwork for monitoring data quality for projects with large networks of instruments such as the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Wade generated objectively analyzed fields of meteorological variables (temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind) and then compared the objectively analyzed value at the sensor location with the value produced by the sensor. Wade used a Barne's objective analysis scheme to produce objective data values for a given meteorological variable (q) in two- dimensional space. The objectively analyzed value should

30

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tropical Warm Pool Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment General Description The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) was a collaborative effort led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Beginning January 21 and ending February 14, 2006, the experiment was conducted in the region near the ARM Climate Research Facility in Darwin, Northern Australia. This permanent facility is fully equipped with sophisticated instruments for measuring cloud and other atmospheric properties to provide a long-term record of continuous observational data. Measurements obtained from the other experiment components (explained below) will complement this dataset to provide a detailed description of the tropical atmosphere.

31

Internal variability of the tropical Pacific ocean Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Internal variability of the tropical Pacific ocean M. Jochum Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary model of the tropical Pacific ocean is analyzed to quantify the interannual variability caused by internal variability of ocean dynamics. It is found that along the Pacific cold tongue internal variability

Jochum, Markus

32

Impact of Atmospheric Chromatic Effects on Weak Lensing Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current and future imaging surveys will measure cosmic shear with statistical precision that demands a deeper understanding of potential systematic biases in galaxy shape measurements than has been achieved to date. We use analytic and computational techniques to study the impact on shape measurements of two atmospheric chromatic effects for ground-based surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST): (i) atmospheric differential chromatic refraction (DCR) and (ii) wavelength dependence of seeing. We investigate the effects of using the point spread function (PSF) measured with stars to determine the shape of a galaxy that has a different spectral energy distribution (SED) than the stars. For (i), we extend a study by Plazas & Bernstein based on analytic calculations that show that DCR leads to significant biases in galaxy shape measurements for future surveys, if not corrected. For (ii), we find that the wavelength dependence of seeing leads to significant bia...

Meyers, Joshua E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

LR Roeder

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

An Open-path Laser Transmissometer for Atmospheric Extinction Measurements  

SciTech Connect

A transmissometer is an optical instrument which measures transmitted intensity of monochromatic light over a fixed pathlength. Prototype of a simple laser transmissometer has been developed for transmission (or extinction) measurements through suspended absorbers and scatterers in the atmosphere over tens of meters. Instrument consists of a continuous green diode pumped solid state laser, transmission optics, photodiode detectors and A/D data acquisition components. A modulated laser beam is transmitted and subsequently reflected and returned to the unit by a retroreflecting mirror assembly placed several tens of meters away. Results from an open-path field measurement of the instrument are described.

Chandran, P. M. Satheesh; Krishnakumar, C. P.; Varma, Ravi [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut, Kerala 673 601 (India); Yuen, Wangki; Rood, Mark J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States)

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

35

CSIRO GASLAB Network: Individual Flask Measurements of Atmospheric Trace  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GASLAB Network GASLAB Network CSIRO GASLAB Network: Individual Flask Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Gases (April 2003) data Data Investigators L.P. Steele, P.R. Krummel, and R.L. Langenfelds Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) DOI 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1021 Data are available for four atmospheric trace gases at nine stationary sites and one moving platform (aircraft over Cape Grim, Tasmania, and Bass Strait, between the Australian continent and Tasmania). The trace gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen (H2). Measurements of δ13C from CO2 are also included in this database. The nine stationary sites are, from north to south: Alert, Canada; Shetland Islands, Scotland; Estevan Point, Canada; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Cape Ferguson,

36

Spectral Variability from the Patchy Atmospheres of T and Y Dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brown dwarfs of a variety of spectral types have been observed to be photometrically variable. Previous studies have focused on objects at the L/T transition, where the iron and silicate clouds in L dwarfs break up or dissipate. However, objects outside of this transitional effective temperature regime also exhibit variability. Here, we present models for mid-late T dwarfs and Y dwarfs. We present models that include patchy salt and sulfide clouds as well as water clouds for the Y dwarfs. We find that for objects over 375 K, patchy cloud opacity would generate the largest amplitude variability within near-infrared spectral windows. For objects under 375 K, water clouds also become important and generate larger amplitude variability in the mid-infrared. We also present models in which we perturb the temperature structure at different pressure levels of the atmosphere to simulate hot spots. These models show the most variability in the absorption features between spectral windows. The variability is strongest a...

Morley, Caroline V; Fortney, Jonathan J; Lupu, Roxana

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Distinguishing the effects of internal and forced atmospheric variability in climate networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fact that the Earth climate is a highly complex dynamical system is well-known. In the last few decades a lot of effort has been focused on understanding how climate phenomena in one geographical region affects the climate of other regions. Complex networks are a powerful framework for identifying climate interdependencies. To further exploit the knowledge of the links uncovered via the network analysis (for, e.g., improvements in prediction), a good understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying these links is required. Here we focus in understanding the role of atmospheric variability, and construct climate networks representing internal and forced variability. In the connectivity of these networks we assess the influence of two main indices, NINO3.4 and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), by calculating the networks from time-series where these indices were linearly removed. We find that the connectivity of the forced variability network is heavily affected by ``El Ni\\~no'': removing the NINO3.4 index yields a general loss of connectivity; even teleconnections between regions far away from the equatorial Pacific ocean are lost, suggesting that these regions are not directly linked, but rather, are indirectly interconnected via ``El Ni\\~no'', particularly on interannual time scales. On the contrary, in the internal variability network (independent of sea surface temperature forcing) we find that the links are significantly affected by NAO with a maximum in intra-annual time scales. While the strongest non-local links found are those forced by the ocean, we show that there are also strong teleconnections due to internal atmospheric variability.

J. Ignacio Deza; Cristina Masoller; Marcelo Barreiro

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

40

DOE/ER-0441 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Plan - February 1990  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan ARM Program Plan Forward In 1978 the Department of Energy initiated the Carbon Dioxide Research Program to address climate change from the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Over the years the Program has studied the many facets of the issue, from the carbon cycle, the climate diagnostics, the vegetative effects, to the societal impacts. The Program is presently the Department's principal entry in the U.S. Global Change Research Program coordinated by the Committee on Earth Sciences (CES) of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). The recent heightened concern about global warming from an enhanced greenhouse effect has prompted the Department to accelerate the research to improve predictions of climate change. The emphasis is on

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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41

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, January 2000  

SciTech Connect

The subject of this newsletter is the ARM unmanned aerospace vehicle program. The ARM Program's focus is on climate research, specifically research related to solar radiation and its interaction with clouds. The SGP CART site contains highly sophisticated surface instrumentation, but even these instruments cannot gather some crucial climate data from high in the atmosphere. The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense joined together to use a high-tech, high-altitude, long-endurance class of unmanned aircraft known as the unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV). A UAV is a small, lightweight airplane that is controlled remotely from the ground. A pilot sits in a ground-based cockpit and flies the aircraft as if he were actually on board. The UAV can also fly completely on its own through the use of preprogrammed computer flight routines. The ARM UAV is fitted with payload instruments developed to make highly accurate measurements of atmospheric flux, radiance, and clouds. Using a UAV is beneficial to climate research in many ways. The UAV puts the instrumentation within the environment being studied and gives scientists direct measurements, in contrast to indirect measurements from satellites orbiting high above Earth. The data collected by UAVs can be used to verify and calibrate measurements and calculated values from satellites, therefore making satellite data more useful and valuable to researchers.

Sisterson, D.L.

2000-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

42

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1-March 31, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

43

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

44

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1-March 31, 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

45

Spatial and diurnal variability in reactive nitrogen oxide chemistry as reflected in the isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exchange between gas-phase precursors and variability in reactive nitrogen sources. These findings product of NOx in the atmosphere. Due to its exceptionally high solubility in water, nitrate is rapidly deSpatial and diurnal variability in reactive nitrogen oxide chemistry as reflected in the isotopic

46

Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Variability in Measured Space Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes David Roberts National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kerylyn Lay EnerNOC (formerly of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-58059 March 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes David Roberts National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kerylyn Lay EnerNOC (formerly of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

47

Southeast Pacific atmospheric composition and variability sampled along 20?S during VOCALS-REx  

SciTech Connect

The VAMOS Ocean-Climate-Atmosphere-Land Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was conducted from 15 October to 15 November 2008 in the South East Pacific region to investigate interactions between land, sea and atmosphere in this unique tropical eastern ocean environment and to improve the skill of global and regional models in representing the region. This study synthesises selected aircraft, ship and surface site observations from VOCALS-REx to statistically summarise and characterise the atmospheric composition and variability of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and Free Troposphere (FT) along the 20{sup o} S parallel between 70{sup o} W and 85{sup o} W. Significant zonal gradients in mean MBL sub-micron aerosol particle size and composition, carbon monoxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide were seen over the campaign, with a generally more variable and polluted coastal environment and a less variable, more pristine remote maritime regime. Gradients are observed to be associated with strong gradients in cloud droplet number. The FT is often more polluted in terms of trace gases than the MBL in the mean; however increased variability in the FT composition suggests an episodic nature to elevated concentrations. This is consistent with a complex vertical interleaving of airmasses with diverse sources and hence pollutant concentrations as seen by generalised back trajectory analysis, which suggests contributions from both local and long-range sources. Furthermore, back trajectory analysis demonstrates that the observed zonal gradients both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere are characteristic of marked changes in airmass history with distance offshore - coastal boundary layer airmasses having been in recent contact with the local land surface and remote maritime airmasses having resided over ocean for in excess of ten days. Boundary layer composition to the east of 75{sup o} W was observed to be dominated by coastal emissions from sources to the west of the Andes, with evidence for diurnal pumping of the Andean boundary layer above the height of the marine capping inversion. The climatology presented here aims to provide a valuable dataset to inform model simulation and future process studies, particularly in the context of aerosol-cloud interaction and further evaluation of dynamical processes in the SEP region for conditions analogous to those during VOCALS-REx.

Allen, G.; Kleinman, L.; Coe, H.; Clarke, A.; Bretherton, C.; Wood, R.; Abel, S. J.; Barrett, P.; Brown, P.; George, R.; Freitag, S.; McNaughton, C.; Howell, S.; Shank, L.; Kapustin, V.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Toniazzo, T.; Krejci, R.; Fochesatto, J.; Shaw, G.; Krecl, P.; Brooks, B.; McKeeking, G.; Bower, K. N.; Williams, P. I.; Crosier, J.; Crawford, I.; Connolly, P.; Covert, D.; Bandy, A. R.

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

48

Measuring Nighttime Atmospheric Opacity Using Images From the Mars Exploration Rovers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the requirements for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by KERI MARIE BEAN MEASURING NIGHTTIME ATMOSPHERIC OPACITY USING IMAGES FROM THE MARS EXPLORATION ROVERS Approved by: Research Advisor: Mark...&M University Research Advisor: Dr. Mark Lemmon Department of Atmospheric Sciences Atmospheric opacity, otherwise known as optical depth, is the measurement of the amount of radiation reaching the surface through the atmosphere. The spatial and temporal...

Bean, Keri M

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

49

Variability Analysis of Complex Networks Measures based on Stochastic Distances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex networks can model the structure and dynamics of different types of systems. It has been shown that they are characterized by a set of measures. In this work, we evaluate the variability of complex networks measures face to perturbations and, for this purpose, we impose controlled perturbations and quantify their effect. We analyze theoretical models (random, small-world and scale-free) and real networks (a collaboration network and a metabolic networks) along with the shortest path length, vertex degree, local cluster coefficient and betweenness centrality measures. In such analysis, we propose the use of three stochastic quantifiers: the Kullback-Leibler divergence and the Jensen-Shannon and Hellinger distances. The sensitivity of these measures was analyzed with respect to the following perturbations: edge addition, edge removal, edge rewiring and node removal, all of them applied at different intensities. The results reveal that the evaluated measures are influenced by these perturbations. Additio...

Cabral, Raquel; Ramírez, Jaime

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

51

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric pressure measurements Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University Collection: Engineering ; Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 8 CHAPTER 2. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 2.1 MEASURING...

52

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Specific Measurement Categories  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The ARM Program gathers a wide variety of measurements from many different sources. Each day, the Data Archive stores and distributes large quantities of data collected from these sources. Scientists then use these data to research atmospheric radiation balance and cloud feedback processes, which are critical elements of global climate change. The huge archive of ARM data can be organized by measurement categories into six "collections:" Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State, Cloud Properties, Radiometric, and Surface Properties. Clicking on one of the measurement categories leads to a page that breaks that category down into sub-categories. For example, "Aerosols" is broken down into Microphysical and Chemical Properties (with 9 subsets) and Optical and Radiative Properties (with 7 subsets). Each of the subset links, in turn, leads to detailed information pages and links to specific data streams. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

53

Atmospheric radiation measurement unmanned aerospace vehicle (ARM-UAV) program  

SciTech Connect

ARM-UAV is part of the multi-agency U.S. Global Change Research Program and is addressing the largest source of uncertainty in predicting climatic response: the interaction of clouds and the sun`s energy in the Earth`s atmosphere. An important aspect of the program is the use of unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) as the primary airborne platform. The ARM-UAV Program has completed two major flight series: The first series conducted in April, 1994, using an existing UAV (the General Atomics Gnat 750) consisted of eight highly successful flights at the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. The second series conducted in September/October, 1995, using two piloted aircraft (Egrett and Twin Otter), featured simultaneous measurements above and below clouds and in clear sky. Additional flight series are planned to continue study of the cloudy and clear sky energy budget in the Spring and Fall of 1996 over the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Bolton, W.R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

LR Roeder

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Measurement of Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations with IceCube  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the first statistically significant detection of neutrino oscillations in the high-energy regime (>20??GeV) from an analysis of IceCube Neutrino Observatory data collected in 2010 and 2011. This measurement is made possible by the low-energy threshold of the DeepCore detector (?20??GeV) and benefits from the use of the IceCube detector as a veto against cosmic-ray-induced muon background. The oscillation signal was detected within a low-energy muon neutrino sample (20–100 GeV) extracted from data collected by DeepCore. A high-energy muon neutrino sample (100 GeV–10 TeV) was extracted from IceCube data to constrain systematic uncertainties. The disappearance of low-energy upward-going muon neutrinos was observed, and the nonoscillation hypothesis is rejected with more than 5? significance. In a two-neutrino flavor formalism, our data are best described by the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters |?m322|=(2.3-0.5+0.6)×10-3??eV2 and sin?2(2?23)>0.93, and maximum mixing is favored.

M. G. Aartsen et al. (IceCube Collaboration)

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

56

Earth Rotation as a Proxy for Interannual Variability in Atmospheric Circulation, 1860-Present  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modern atmospheric and geodetic datasets have demonstrated that changes in the axial component of the atmosphere's angular momentum and in the rotation rate of the solid earth are closely coupled on time scales of up to several years. We ...

David A. Salstein; Richard D. Rosen

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Roles of Indian and Pacific Ocean air–sea coupling in tropical atmospheric variability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sea surface temperature (SST) variations include negative feedbacks from the atmosphere, whereas SST anomalies are specified in stand-alone atmospheric general circulation simulations. Is the SST forced response ...

Renguang Wu; Ben P. Kirtman

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

A Climatological measurement methods This appendix describes the methods of climatological variable measurement at the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as the total energy received as radiation per unit surface area tangential to the earths surface. As mentioned-wave A sensor used to measure the energy flux density of short-wave radiation is referred to as a pyranometerA Climatological measurement methods This appendix describes the methods of climatological variable

59

Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen trifluoride (NF[subscript 3]) has potential to make a growing contribution to the Earth’s radiative budget; however, our understanding of its atmospheric burden and emission rates has been limited. Based on a ...

Ivy, Diane J.

60

Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability: Preprint  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Measurement and Modeling of Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability Preprint M. Sengupta To be presented at SOLAR 2011 Raleigh, North Carolina May 17-21, 2011 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5500-51105 April 2011 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and Alliance retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures P. Varanasi and Q. Zou Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York Introduction Water vapor is undoubtedly the most dominant greenhouse gas in the terrestrial atmosphere. In the two facets of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program research, atmospheric remote sensing (air-borne as well as Cloud and Radiation Testbed [CART] site-based) and modeling of atmospheric radiation, the spectrum of water vapor, ranging from the microwave to the visible wavelengths, plays a significant role. Its spectrum has been the subject of many studies throughout the last century. Therefore, it is natural to presume it should be fairly well established by now. However, the need for a

62

Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements  

SciTech Connect

The OH- and O3- initiated oxidations of isoprene, which is one of the primary volatile organic compounds produced by vegetation, are a major source of atmospheric formaldehyde and other oxygenated organics, yet little quantitative IR data exists for isoprene. We thus report absorption coefficients and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600 - 6500 cm-1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298 and 323 K in a 19.96 cm path length cell at 0.112 cm-1 resolution, using a Bruker 66V FTIR. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven pressures at each temperature.

Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Guenther, Alex B.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Johnson, Timothy J.

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

63

Experimental Investigations of the Lean Blowout Limit of Different Syngas Mixtures in an Atmospheric, Premixed, Variable-Swirl Burner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental Investigations of the Lean Blowout Limit of Different Syngas Mixtures in an Atmospheric, Premixed, Variable-Swirl Burner ... The observed higher LBO limit of the diluted generic syngas could be due to the effect of N2 addition on the adiabatic flame temperature (Figure 18) and burning velocity of the generic syngas. ... The LSI does not need to undergo significant alteration to operate with the hydrocarbon fuels but needs further studies for adaptation to burn dild. ...

Parisa Sayad; Alessandro Schönborn; Jens Klingmann

2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

64

Interannual Atmospheric Variability Affects Continental Ice Sheet Simulations on Millennial Time Scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To inform the ongoing development of earth system models that aim to incorporate interactive ice, the potential impact of interannual variability associated with synoptic variability and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) at the Last Glacial ...

Michael S. Pritchard; Andrew B. G. Bush; Shawn J. Marshall

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Measurements of atmospheric water vapor above Mauna Kea using an infrared radiometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of atmospheric water vapor above Mauna Kea using an infrared radiometer David A in atmospheric water vapor that distort the phase coherence of incoming celestial signals. The signal received water vapor, this paper presents results obtained with a second generation IRMA operating at the James

Naylor, David A.

66

Robust Shot Noise Measurement for Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study a practical method to monitor in real-time the behavior of a Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution (CVQKD) system, and especially the shot noise measurement procedure, for the presence of an eavesdropper. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics of a CVQKD system depends strongly on a shot noise estimate since this quantity affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e. noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks rely on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept-and-resend eavesdropping strategy, notably by targeting the calibration of the system, the saturation of the homodyne detection device or the wavelength dependency of some optical components. We describe a new countermeasure that consists in fairly general statistical tests build on top of an existing real-time shot-noise measurement technique and show that it is able to defeat all these attacks.

Sébastien Kunz-Jacques; Paul Jouguet

2014-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

67

Ten Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). 1. Introduction Water vapor is the key atmosphericTen Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to Deep Convection ZHENGZHAO LUO, DIETER KLEY,* AND RICHARD H. JOHNSON

Lombardi, John R.

68

The Development of Measurement Techniques to Identify and Characterize Dusts and Ice Nuclei in the Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nucleation mechanisms. The work presented here discusses new instrumentation and methods to measure and identify both the optical scattering properties and ice nucleation properties of atmospherically relevant dusts. The Texas A&M University Continuous Flow...

Glen, Andrew

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate (CSSEFARMBE)  

SciTech Connect

The Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) project is working to improve the representation of the hydrological cycle in global climate models, critical information necessary for decision-makers to respond appropriately to predictions of future climate. In order to accomplish this objective, CSSEF is building testbeds to implement uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques to objectively calibrate and diagnose climate model parameterizations and predictions with respect to local, process-scale observations. In order to quantify the agreement between models and observations accurately, uncertainty estimates on these observations are needed. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program takes atmospheric and climate related measurements at three permanent locations worldwide. The ARM VAP called the ARM Best Estimate (ARMBE) [Xie et al., 2010] collects a subset of ARM observations, performs quality control checks, averages them to one hour temporal resolution, and puts them in a standard format for ease of use by climate modelers. ARMBE has been widely used by the climate modeling community as a summary product of many of the ARM observations. However, the ARMBE product does not include uncertainty estimates on the data values. Thus, to meet the objectives of the CSSEF project and enable better use of this data with UQ techniques, we created the CSSEFARMBE data set. Only a subset of the variables contained in ARMBE is included in CSSEFARMBE. Currently only surface meteorological observations are included, though this may be expanded to include other variables in the future. The CSSEFARMBE VAP is produced for all extended facilities at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site that contain surface meteorological equipment. This extension of the ARMBE data set to multiple facilities at SGP allows for better comparison between model grid boxes and the ARM point observations. In the future, CSSEFARMBE may also be created for other ARM sites. As each site has slightly different instrumentation, this will require additional development to understand the uncertainty characterization associated with instrumentation at those sites. The uncertainty assignment process is implemented into the ARM program’s new Integrated Software Development Environment (ISDE) so that many of the key steps can be used in the future to screen data based on ARM Data Quality Reports (DQRs), propagate uncertainties when transforming data from one time scale into another, and convert names and units into NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) standards. These processes are described in more detail in the following sections.

Riihimaki, Laura D.; Gaustad, Krista L.; McFarlane, Sally A.

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

70

Ozonesonde measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Billings, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Ozonesonde instruments were prepared and released at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site located near Billings, Oklahoma. Ozone sensors, associated radiosondes, balloons, and other parts and pieces required for the ozone observations were provided by WFF on a reimbursable arrangement with ANL. Observations were scheduled daily at 1,700 UTC beginning on September 22, 1995. Attempts to maintain this schedule were frustrated by a few simultaneous operations involving different electronic devices in use resulting in considerable rf noise. Since radiosondes are necessarily low-cost instruments their reception is particularly susceptible to noisy rf fields. Overall, however, 36 ozonesonde flights were made with the last observation occurring on November 1, 1995. Ozone data were processed on-site through the ground-station software and preliminary data delivered to Mike Splitt at the ARM site.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation and Transient Dynamics during the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Changes in atmospheric CO2 variability during the twenty-first century may provide insight about ecosystem responses to climate change and have implications for the design of carbon monitoring programs. This paper describes changes in the three-...

Gretchen Keppel-Aleks; James T. Randerson; Keith Lindsay; Britton B. Stephens; J. Keith Moore; Scott C. Doney; Peter E. Thornton; Natalie M. Mahowald; Forrest M. Hoffman; Colm Sweeney; Pieter P. Tans; Paul O. Wennberg; Steven C. Wofsy

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Evaluation of the Multi-scale Modeling Framework Using Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

SciTech Connect

One of the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is to provide long-term observations for evaluating and improving cloud and radiation treatment in global climate models. Unfortunately, the traditional parametric approach of diagnosing cloud and radiation properties for gridcells that are tens to hundreds kilometers across from large-scale model fields is not well suited for comparison with time series of ground based observations at selected locations. A recently emerging approach called a multi-scale modeling framework (MMF) has shown promise to bridge the scale gap. The MMF consists of a two-dimensional or small three-dimensional cloud resolving model (CRM) embedded into each grid column of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM), thereby computing cloud properties at a scale that is more consistent with observations. We present a comparison of data from two ARM sites, one at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) in Oklahoma and one at Nauru Island in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region, with output from both the CAM and MMF. Two sets of one year long simulations are considered: one using climatological sea surface temperatures (SST) and another using 1999 SST. Each set includes a run with the MMF as well as the CAM run with traditional or standard cloud and radiation treatment. Time series of cloud fraction, precipitation intensity, and downwelling solar radiation flux at the surface are statistically analyzed. For the TWP site, nearly all parameters of frequency distributions of these variables from the MMF run are shown to be more consistent with observation than those from the CAM run. This change is attributed to the improved representation of convective clouds in the MMF compared to the conventional climate model. For the SGP, the MMF shows little to no improvement in predicting the same quantities. Possible causes of this lack of improvement are discussed.

Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Marchand, Roger T.; Khairoutdinov, Marat

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Evaluation of the Multi-Scale Modeling Framework using Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

SciTech Connect

One of the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was to provide long-term observations for evaluation of cloud and radiation treatment in global climate models. Unfortunately, traditional parametric approach of diagnosing cloud and radiation properties from large-scale model fields is not well suited for comparison with observed time series at selected locations. A recently emerging approach called the multi-scale modeling framework (MMF) has shown promise to bridge the gap. MMF consists of a two-dimensional cloud system resolving model (CSRM) embedded into each CAM grid column of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM), thereby computing cloud properties at a scale that is more consistent with observations. Because the approach is computationally expensive only limited simulations have been carried out. In this presentation, we will present a comparison of data from two ARM sites, one at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) in Oklahoma and one at Nauru island in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region, with output from both CAM and MMF. Two sets of one year long simulations are considered: one using climatological sea surface temperatures (SST) and another using 1999 SST. Each set includes a run with MMF as well as CAM run with traditional or standard cloud and radiation treatment. Time series of cloud fraction, precipitation intensity, and downwelling solar radiation flux at the surface are statistically analyzed. For the TWP site, nearly all parameters of frequency distributions of these variables from MMF run are shown to be more consistent with observation than those from CAM run. For the SGP, the improvements are marginal.

Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Marchand, Roger T.; Khairoutdinov, Marat

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Posters Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Posters Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Aerosols R. A. Ferrare and K. D. Evans (a) Hughes STX Corporation Lanham, Maryland S. H. Melfi and D. N. Whiteman NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland The principal objective of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is to develop a better understanding of the atmospheric radiative balance in order to improve the parameterization of radiative processes in general circulation models (GCMs) which are used to study climate change. Meeting this objective requires detailed measurements of both water vapor and aerosols since these atmospheric constituents affect the radiation balance directly, through scattering and absorption of solar and

75

Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...12), or engine combustion (16...mass, we draw fundamental conclusions of atmospheric...particles from diesel combustion by using combined...Properties of jet engine combustion particles...of carbon and diesel soot particles...vehicle with a diesel oxidation catalyst . J...Boubel RW ( 1994 ) Fundamentals of Air Pollution...

Renyi Zhang; Alexei F. Khalizov; Joakim Pagels; Dan Zhang; Huaxin Xue; Peter H. McMurry

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Assessment of Modes of Interannual Variability of Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation in CMIP5 Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An assessment is made of the modes of interannual variability in the seasonal mean summer and winter Southern Hemisphere (SH) 500-hPa geopotential height in the twentieth century in models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) ...

Simon Grainger; Carsten S. Frederiksen; Xiaogu Zheng

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Venus: Mass, Gravity Field, Atmosphere, and Ionosphere as Measured by the Mariner 10 Dual-Frequency Radio System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...KLIORE, A.J., ATMOSPHERE OF MARS FROM MARINER-9...MEASUREMENTS OF PULSED PLASMA STREAMS FROM SUN...C., VENUS - ATMOSPHERIC MOTION AND STRUCTURE...measurements of planetary atmospheres and ionospheres...range-modu-lated 2115-Mhz signal is transmitted...are available in printed and plotted form...

H. T. Howard; G. L. Tyler; G. Fjeldbo; A. J. Kliore; G. S. Levy; D. L. Brunn; R. Dickinson; R. E. Edelson; W. L. Martin; R. B. Postal; B. Seidel; T. T. Sesplaukis; D. L. Shirley; C. T. Stelzried; D. N. Sweetnam; A. I. Zygielbaum; P. B. Esposito; J. D. Anderson; I. I. Shapiro; R. D. Reasenberg

1974-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

78

Estimating the Atmospheric Water Vapor Content from Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The differential absorption technique for estimating columnar water vapor values from the analysis of sunphotometric measurements with wide- and narrowband interferential filters centered near 0.94 ?m is discussed and adapted. Water vapor line ...

Artemio Plana-Fattori; Michel Legrand; Didier Tanré; Claude Devaux; Anne Vermeulen; Philippe Dubuisson

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Seasonal measurements of acetone and methanol: Abundances and implications for atmospheric budgets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 2002] and photochemical produc- tion from hydrocarbon precursors. Methanol is often the most abundantSeasonal measurements of acetone and methanol: Abundances and implications for atmospheric budgets December 2005; published 21 February 2006. [1] Acetone and methanol have been measured hourly at a rural

Cohen, Ronald C.

80

Comparing radial velocities of atmospheric lines with radiosonde measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......30km u m1 0.01 E-W wind component, east positive v m1 0.01 N-S wind component, north positive...mesoscale models [MM5 (4), WRF (5), MesoNH (6...model augmented by some local weather stations. Details...KAMM) and compare with wind measurements taken at......

P. Figueira; F. Kerber; A Chacon; C. Lovis; N. C. Santos; G. Lo Curto; M. Sarazin; F. Pepe

2012-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Plots and Figures  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

ARM Program data is available in daily diagnostic plots that can be easily grouped into daily, weekly, monthly, and even yearly increments. By visualizing ARM data in thumbnail-sized data plots, users experience highly-browsable subsets of data available at the Data Archive including complimentary data products derived from data processed by ARM. These thumbnails allow users to quickly scan for a particular type of condition, like a clear day or a day with persistent cirrus. From a diagnostics perspective, the data plots assist in looking for missing data, for data exceeding a particular range, or for loading multiple variables (e.g., shortwave fluxes and precipitation), and to determine whether a certain science or data quality condition is associated with some other parameter (e.g., high wind or rain).[taken from http://www.arm.gov/data/data_plots.stm] Several interfaces and tools have been developed to make data plots easy to generate and manipulate. For example, the NCVWeb is an interactive NetCDF data plotting tool that ARM users can use to plot data as they order it or to plot regular standing data orders. It allows production of detailed tables, extraction of data, statistics output, comparison plotting, etc. without the need for separate visualization software. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data plots are free for viewing and downloading.

82

What measures climate? A variety of variables including their variability and extreme values determine climate for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climate zones? The sun is the ultimate power source for the climate "machine". The uneven distribution conditions. Typical variables to consider are temperature (maximum, miniumum), precipitation (includes rain, sleet, snow, hail, etc), sunlight/cloudiness, wind, humidity, ice cover, sea temperature, etc... Many

Allan, Richard P.

83

Lightweight Integrated Optical Sensor for Atmospheric Measurements on Mobile Platforms  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Phase I program was to develop a novel open path sensor platform technology based on integration of semiconductor waveguides with efficient optoelectronic components on a monolithic platform. The successful Phase I effort resulted in demonstration of a novel optical resonator structure based on semiconductor high contrast gratings (HCGs) that will enable implementation of an ultra-compact, low-power gas sensor suitable for use on mobile platforms. Extensive numerical modeling was performed to design a device optimized for measuring CO2 at a wavelength for which a laser was available for proof of concept. Devices were fabricated and tested to match the target wavelength, angle, and operating temperature. This demonstration is the first implementation of HCGs at the wavelengths of interest and shows the flexibility of the proposed architecture for gas sensing applications. The measured cavity Q was lower than anticipated due to fabrication process challenges. The PSI and UC Berkeley team has identified solutions to these challenges and will produce optimized devices in a Phase II program where a prototype sensor will be fabricated and tested.

Parameswaran, Krishnan R. [Physical Sciences Inc.

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

84

Atmospheric Pressure Humid Argon DBD Plasma for the Application of Sterilization -Measurement and Simulation of Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric Pressure Humid Argon DBD Plasma for the Application of Sterilization - Measurement, sterilization I. INTRODUCTION Non-thermal plasma technology at atmospheric pressure using oxygen of atmospheric pressure non-thermal argon plasma produced by a variety of techniques has recently begun

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger for the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) operates at non-permanent sites selected by the ARM Program. Sometimes these sites can become permanent ARM sites, as was the case with Graciosa Island in the Azores. It is now known as the Eastern North Atlantic permanent site. In January 2006 the AMF deployed to Niamey, Niger, West Africa, at the Niger Meteorological Office at Niamey International Airport. This deployment was timed to coincide with the field phases and Special Observing Periods of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). The ARM Program participated in this international effort as a field campaign called "Radiative Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST).The primary purpose of the Niger deployment was to combine an extended series of measurements from the AMF with those from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) Instrument on the Meteosat operational geostationary satellite in order to provide the first well-sampled, direct estimates of the divergence of solar and thermal radiation across the atmosphere. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Niamey are available via a link from ARM's Niamey, Niger site information page. Other data can be found at the related websites mentioned above and in the ARM Archive. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

86

Proceedings of the third Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) science team meeting  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1993 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held in Morman, Oklahoma. To put these papers in context, it is useful to consider the history and status of the ARM Program at the time of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project, pollution levels in the Paris area due to concentrated activity have become a major health issue. CurrentMeasurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS AT WASTE TREATMENT LAGOON-ATMOSPHERIC INTERFACE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- izers, emission from soils, biomass burning, and domestic animal waste (Bouwman et al., 1997MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS AT WASTE TREATMENT LAGOON-ATMOSPHERIC INTERFACE animals ( 32 Tg N -1yr-1). Waste storage and treatment lagoons are used to treat the excreta of hogs

Aneja, Viney P.

89

Cloud features and zonal wind measurements of Saturn's atmosphere as observed by Cassini/VIMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cloud features and zonal wind measurements of Saturn's atmosphere as observed by Cassini/VIMS D. S Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), focusing on the meteorology of the features seen in the 5 mm spectral window. We present VIMS mosaics and discuss the morphology and general

Choi, David S.

90

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

91

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 14171423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 1417­1423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7 � 108 cm�3

Yu, Fangqun

92

SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS OF MIDDLE ATMOSPHERIC IMPACTS BY SOLAR PROTON EVENTS IN SOLAR CYCLE 23  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS OF MIDDLE ATMOSPHERIC IMPACTS BY SOLAR PROTON EVENTS IN SOLAR CYCLE 23 C. H) Abstract. Solar cycle 23 was extremely active with seven of the largest twelve solar proton events (SPEs for several months past the solar events in the winter polar regions because of the enhanced NOy. Keywords

Jackman, Charles H.

93

A software framework for developing measurement applications under variable requirements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A framework for easily developing software for measurement and test applications under highly and fast-varying requirements is proposed. The framework allows the software quality in terms of flexibility usability and maintainability to be maximized. Furthermore the development effort is reduced and finalized by relieving the test engineer of development details. The framework can be configured for satisfying a large set of measurement applications in a generic field for an industrial test division a test laboratory or a research center. As an experimental case study the design the implementation and the assessment inside the application to a measurement scenario of magnettesting at the European Organization for Nuclear Research is reported.

Pasquale Arpaia; Marco Buzio; Lucio Fiscarelli; Vitaliano Inglese

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

The Multiply Scattering Effect on the Energy Measurement of UHE Cosmic Rays using Atmospheric Fluorescence Technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Point sources in the atmosphere are surrounded by aureole because of atmospheric scattering. The properties of the time-dependent aureole radiance are calculated by use of a Monte Carlo approach and an iterative method. Since the aureole is particularly important in the ultraviolet, which is the region the Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) cosmic ray experiment using the air fluorescence technique like Fly's Eye or High-Resolution-Fly's-Eye(HiRes) are set in. The effect of the multiply scatteing on the energy measurement is studied.

Xingzhi Zhang

2000-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

95

Experience in Measuring Backbone Traffic Variability: Models, Metrics, Measurements and Meaning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was specifically motivated by the question: to what extent does traffic variability justify the M. Roughen, A

Fisher, Kathleen

96

Constraints on the atmospheric circulation and variability of the eccentric hot Jupiter Xo-3b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report secondary eclipse photometry of the hot Jupiter XO-3b in the 4.5 ?m band taken with the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We measure individual eclipse depths and center of eclipse times for ...

Wong, Ian

97

Atmospheric CO2> Record from In Situ Measurements at K-Puszta, Hungary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

K-Puszta, Hungary K-Puszta, Hungary Atmospheric CO2 Record from In Situ Measurements at K-Puszta, Hungary graphics Graphics data Data Investigator László Haszpra Hungarian Meteorological Service, Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Department for Analysis of Atmospheric Environment, H-1675, P.O. Box 39, Budapest, Hungary Period of Record 1981-1997 Location The K-puszta regional background air pollution monitoring station was established in a clearing in a mixed forest on the Hungarian Great Plain in the middle of the Carpathian Basin. K-puszta is as free from direct pollution as possible in the highly industrialized, densely populated central Europe. Because of the growing vegetation, the station was moved in September 1993 to a larger clearing, also at the same elevation,

98

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from In Situ Measurements at Baring Head  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Baring Head Baring Head Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from In Situ Measurements at Baring Head graphics Graphics data Data Investigators M.R. Manning, A.J. Gomez, K.P. Pohl National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Ltd., Climate Division, Gracefield Road, Gracefield, P.O. Box 31-311, Lower Hutt, New Zealand Period of Record 1970-93 Methods Determinations of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios are made using a Siemens Ultramat-3 nondispersive infrared (NDIR) gas analyzer. The NDIR CO2 analyzer is connected via a gas manifold consisting of stainless steel tubing and computer-controlled solenoid switches to 12 gas cylinders and 2 sample air lines. The NDIR analyzer compares ambient air CO2 mixing ratios relative to known CO2 mixing ratios in tanks of compressed reference gases.

99

Experimental Verification of a Mass Measurement Device under Zero Gravity with a Prismatic Variable Stiffness Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new method to measure the mass of an object in microgravity is proposed in this paper. The proposed method uses a new system that consists of a prismatic variable stiffness mechanism and an actuator. The obj...

Ryota Ishibashi; Ryuta Ozawa; Sadao Kawamura

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from In Situ Measurements at Mt. Cimone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mt. Cimone Mt. Cimone Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from In Situ Measurements at Mt. Cimone graphics Graphics data Data Investigators Tiziano Colombo and Riccardo Santaguida Italian Meteorological Service, Via delle Ville, 100-41029 Sestola (MO), Italy Period of Record 1979-1997 Methods Continuous atmospheric CO2 measurements have been carried out at Mt. Cimone since 1979. Since December 1988, air samples have also been collected approximately once per week in a pair of 2-L, electropolished, stainless steel cylindrical flasks. From 1979 until December 1988, a Hartmann and Braun URAS-2T NDIR gas analyzer was used for CO2 determinations. Currently, CO2 determinations are made through the use of a Siemens Ultramat-5E NDIR gas analyzer. Water vapor is eliminated by passing the air through a U-tube

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Radiocarbon Measurements of Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds:? Quantifying the Biogenic Contribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability to obtain quality (interpretable) [14C]VOC measurements however relies on additional factors:? (1) transferring individual VOCs to the measurement system in a manner that preserves their original relative concentrations in the atmosphere (recovery), (2) quantifying limitations in the VOC isolation process (bias), and 3) quantifying chemical and isotopic contamination (blanks). ... The fM results for the VOC fractions from calibration mixtures and ambient samples are corrected for CO2 contamination using eq 2, where ?BLK in this case is defined as in which mCO2 is the carbon mass of residual atmospheric CO2 following LiOH treatment plus the carbon mass of CO2 contamination from the O2 used for VOC oxidation, and mREC is the total recovered carbon (Table 3). ... During pressurized sampling of humid air, water will be condensed in the canisters. ...

George A. Klouda; Charles W. Lewis; Reinhold A. Rasmussen; George C. Rhoderick; Robert L. Sams; Robert K. Stevens; Lloyd A. Currie; Douglas J. Donahue; A. J. Timothy Jull; Robert L. Seila

1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

102

EPR-Steering measure for two-mode continuous variable states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steering is a manifestation of quantum correlations that embodies the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. While there have been recent attempts to quantify steering, continuous variable systems remained elusive. We introduce a steering measure for two-mode continuous variable systems that is valid for arbitrary states. The measure is based on the violation of an optimized variance test for the EPR paradox, and admits a computable and experimentally friendly lower bound only depending on the second moments of the state, which reduces to a recently proposed quantifier of steerability by Gaussian measurements. We further show that Gaussian states are extremal with respect to our measure, minimizing it among all continuous variable states with fixed second moments. As a byproduct of our analysis, we generalize and relate well-known EPR-steering criteria. Finally an operational interpretation is provided, as the proposed measure is shown to quantify the optimal guaranteed key rate in semi-device independent qua...

Kogias, Ioannis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

EPR-Steering measure for two-mode continuous variable states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steering is a manifestation of quantum correlations that embodies the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. While there have been recent attempts to quantify steering, continuous variable systems remained elusive. We introduce a steering measure for two-mode continuous variable systems that is valid for arbitrary states. The measure is based on the violation of an optimized variance test for the EPR paradox, and admits a computable and experimentally friendly lower bound only depending on the second moments of the state, which reduces to a recently proposed quantifier of steerability by Gaussian measurements. We further show that Gaussian states are extremal with respect to our measure, minimizing it among all continuous variable states with fixed second moments. As a byproduct of our analysis, we generalize and relate well-known EPR-steering criteria. Finally an operational interpretation is provided, as the proposed measure is shown to quantify the optimal guaranteed key rate in semi-device independent quantum key distribution.

Ioannis Kogias; Gerardo Adesso

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

104

High Accuracy 14C Measurements for Atmospheric CO2 Samples from the South  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Isotopes » CIO 14C Measurements Carbon Isotopes » CIO 14C Measurements High Accuracy 14C Measurements for Atmospheric CO2 Samples from the South Pole and Point Barrow, Alaska by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry graphics South Pole Graphics graphics Pt. Barrow Graphics data South Pole Digital Data - Trends Only data South Pole Digital Data - Complete Data data Pt. Barrow Digital Data - Trends Only data Pt. Barrow Digital Data - Complete Data Investigators H. A. J. Meijer, M. H. Pertuisot and J. van der Plicht Centrum voor Isotopen Onderzook (Center for Isotope Research, CIO) University of Groningen The Netherlands http://www.rug.nl/ees/onderzoek/cio/index Period of Record: 1984-1992 Methods Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to obtain 14CO2 measurements from flasks collected at the South Pole and Point Barrow, Alaska, USA, at

105

Measurement of the charge ratio of atmospheric muons with the CMS detector  

SciTech Connect

We present a measurement of the ratio of positive to negative muon fluxes from cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere, using data collected by the CMS detector both at ground level and in the underground experimental cavern at the CERN LHC. Muons were detected in the momentum range from 5 GeV/c to 1 TeV/c. The surface flux ratio is measured to be 1.2766 \\pm 0.0032(stat.) \\pm 0.0032 (syst.), independent of the muon momentum, below 100 GeV/c. This is the most precise measurement to date. At higher momenta the data are consistent with an increase of the charge ratio, in agreement with cosmic ray shower models and compatible with previous measurements by deep-underground experiments.

Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

XAFS Measurements under Atmospheric Pressure in the Soft X-ray Region  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a compact experimental set-up for X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements in He at atmospheric pressure (AP) in the soft X-ray region and used it for Mg and Cl K-edge XAFS measurements of MgCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2{center_dot}}6H{sub 2}O. The spectra of MgCl{sub 2{center_dot}}6H{sub 2}O measured in He at AP were significantly different from those measured in vacuum. This suggests the importance of performing soft X-ray XAFS experiments under AP to obtain reliable spectra from hydrated compounds.

Nakanishi, Koji; Ohta, Toshiaki [SR center, Ritsumeikan University, Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577 (Japan); Yagi, Shinya [School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

107

Ten Years of Development of Equipment for Measurement of Atmospheric Radioactive Xenon for the Verification of the CTBT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric measurement of radioactive xenon isotopes (radioxenon) plays ... is one of the key components of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban ... method is largely based on a well-dev...

Matthias Auer; Timo Kumberg; Hartmut Sartorius…

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Electron density and temperature measurement by continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The electron-atom neutral bremsstrahlung continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized plasmas is investigated for electron density and temperature diagnostics. The continuum spectrum in 450–1000?nm emitted from the argon atmospheric pressure plasma is found to be in excellent agreement with the neutral bremsstrahlung formula with the electron-atom momentum transfer cross-section given by Popovi?. In 280–450?nm, however, a large discrepancy between the measured and the neutral bremsstrahlung emissivities is observed. We find that without accounting for the radiative H{sub 2} dissociation continuum, the temperature, and density measurements would be largely wrong, so that it should be taken into account for accurate measurement.

Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaeyoung [5771 La Jolla Corona Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

109

DOE/SC-ARM-020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

20 20 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1-September 30, 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

110

DOE/SC-ARM-12-021 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1-September 30, 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

111

DOE/SC-ARM-13-020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1-September 30, 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

112

ECG-Derived Respiration: Comparison and New Measures for Respiratory Variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ECG-Derived Respiration: Comparison and New Measures for Respiratory Variability Devy Widjaja1 During ECG recording, several methods can be applied to derive a respiratory signal from the ECG (EDR signal). In this paper 4 EDR methods, including ECG filtering, R and RS amplitude based techniques

113

3 Canopy microclimate measurement This chapter presents methods general to the measurement of climate variables at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to maximize data capture and improve signal quality assessment. Duplicate measurements were usually recorded.1. For measurements that did not vary spatially (e.g. incoming solar radiation on a clear day), a single measurement-2 s-1 72 24 Air temperature 0.243 1.5 °C 2 3 Net Radiation 5.174 12 W m-2 14 3 Global short-wave 1

114

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. Scientists are using the information obtained from the permanent SGP site to improve cloud and radiative models and parameterizations and, thereby, the performance of atmospheric general circulation models used for climate research. More than 30 instrument clusters have been placed around the SGP site. The locations for the instruments were chosen so that the measurements reflect conditions over the typical distribution of land uses within the site. The continuous observations at the SGP site are supplemented by intensive observation periods, when the frequency of measurements is increased and special measurements are added to address specific research questions. During such periods, 2 gigabytes or more of data (two billion bytes) are generated daily. SGP data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/ http. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

115

The effect of regional ocean-atmosphere coupling on the long-term variability in the Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model is applied to highlight the ... decadal and longer time scales) in the Pacific Ocean. We are interested in the effect of ... processes. The control run successfully simulate...

Lin Feng ? ?; Dexing Wu ???; Xiaopei Lin ???…

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Manacapuru, Brazil for the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON) Field Campaign  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Amazon rain forest in Brazil is the largest broadleaf forest in the world, covering 7 million square kilometers of the Amazon Basin in South America. It represents over half of the planet’s remaining rain forests, and comprises the most biodiverse tract of tropical rain forest on the planet. Due to the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest, the area has a strong impact on the climate in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the intricacies of the natural state of the Amazon rain forest, the Green Ocean Amazon, or GOAMAZON, field campaign is a two-year scientific collaboration among U.S. and Brazilian research organizations. They are conducting a variety of different experiments with dozens of measurement tools, using both ground and aerial instrumentation, including the ARM Aerial Facility's G-1 aircraft. For more information on the holistic view of the campaign, see the Department of Energy’s GOAMAZON website. As a critical component of GOAMAZON, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will obtain measurements near Manacapuru, south of Manaus, Brazil, from January to December 2014. The city of Manaus, with a population of 3 million, uses high-sulfur oil as their primary source of electricity. The AMF site is situated to measure the atmospheric extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the nearby cities’ pollution plume, as it regularly intersects with the site. Along with other instrument systems located at the Manacapuru site, this deployment will enable scientists to study how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

117

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site is a permanent site providing data about cloud and radiative processes at high latitudes. These data are being used to refine models and parameterizations as they relate to the Arctic. Centered at Barrow and extending to the south (to the vicinity of Atqasuk), west (to the vicinity of Wainwright), and east (towards Oliktok), the NSA site has become a focal point for atmospheric and ecological research activity on the North Slope. Approximately 300,000 NSA data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

118

An atmospheric muon neutrino disappearance measurement with the MINOS far detector  

SciTech Connect

It is now widely accepted that the Standard Model assumption of massless neutrinos is wrong, due primarily to the observation of solar and atmospheric neutrino flavor oscillations by a small number of convincing experiments. The MINOS Far Detector, capable of observing both the outgoing lepton and associated showering products of a neutrino interaction, provides an excellent opportunity to independently search for an oscillation signature in atmospheric neutrinos. To this end, a MINOS data set from an 883 live day, 13.1 kt-yr exposure collected between July, 2003 and April, 2007 has been analyzed. 105 candidate charged current muon neutrino interactions were observed, with 120.5 {+-} 1.3 (statistical error only) expected in the absence of oscillation. A maximum likelihood analysis of the observed log(L/E) spectrum shows that the null oscillation hypothesis is excluded at over 96% confidence and that the best fit oscillation parameters are sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} = 0.95{sub -0.32} and {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} = 0.93{sub -0.44}{sup +3.94} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}. This measurement of oscillation parameters is consistent with the best fit values from the Super-Kamiokande experiment at 68% confidence.

Gogos, Jeremy Peter; /Minnesota U.; ,

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

A change in the relationship between tropical central Pacific SST variability and the extratropical atmosphere around 1990  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interannual variability in the Hadley circulation and itswith a strengthening Hadley circulation after 1990.NPO, Walker circulation, Hadley circulation 1. Introduction

Yu, J-Y; Lu, M-M; Kim, S. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

ARMlUnmanned Air VehiclelSatelites The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement  

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ARMlUnmanned Air VehiclelSatelites ARMlUnmanned Air VehiclelSatelites The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Program: An Overview P. A. Crowley Environmental Sciences Division U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. J. Vitko, Jr. Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA 94550 Introduction for leased UA V operation over the next year. Examples include, but are not limited to, the existing Gnat 750-45, with its 7-8 km ceiling, as well as the planned FY93 demonstration of two 20 km capable UA Vs-the Perseus- B and the Raptor. Thus the funding of some initial flights and the availability of leased UAVs will enable us to start up the ARM-UAV program. Additional funding will be required to continue this program. Interim Science Team This paper and the one that follows describe the start-up

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

An inversion technique for the retrieval of single-point emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...retrieval of single-point emissions from atmospheric...Atmospheric Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology...for the retrieval of point sources of atmospheric...the seven runs of the Indian Institute of Technology...of identification of point sources has raised much...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Atmosphere and Ionosphere of Venus from the Mariner V S-Band Radio Occultation Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...georef;1968059704 atmosphere ionosphere Mariner 5...English United States 1968 Atmosphere and ionosphere of venus...com-parison (between 423.3 Mhz and S-band, for example...the superrefractive atmosphere, are fea-tures of...magnetopause, and plasma-pause due to the solar...

Arvydas Kliore; Gerald S. Levy; Dan L. Cain; Gunnar Fjeldbo; S. I. Rasool

1967-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

123

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii for the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) Field Campaign (an AMF2 Deployment)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

From October 2012 through September 2013, the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed on the container ship Spirit, operated by Horizon Lines, for the Marine ARM GPCI* Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. During approximately 20 round trips between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, AMF2 obtained continuous on-board measurements of cloud and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; surface meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric profiles from weather balloons launched every six hours. During two two-week intensive observational periods in January and July 2013, additional instruments were deployed and balloon soundings were be increased to every three hours. These additional data provided a more detailed characterization of the state of the atmosphere and its daily cycle during two distinctly different seasons. The primary objective of MAGIC was to improve the representation of the stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition in climate models. AMF2 data documented the small-scale physical processes associated with turbulence, convection, and radiation in a variety of marine cloud types.

124

Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM`s highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM`s experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

Patrinos, A.A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ellingson, R.G. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM's highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM's experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

Patrinos, A.A. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Ellingson, R.G. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric radiation measurement Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applied Science Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 22 CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric gases in Summary:...

127

DOE research on atmospheric aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric aerosols are the subject of a significant component of research within DOE`s environmental research activities, mainly under two programs within the Department`s Environmental Sciences Division, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). Research activities conducted under these programs include laboratory experiments, field measurements, and theoretical and modeling studies. The objectives and scope of these programs are briefly summarized. The ARM Program is the Department`s major research activity focusing on atmospheric processes pertinent to understanding global climate and developing the capability of predicting global climate change in response to energy related activities. The ARM approach consists mainly of testing and improving models using long-term measurements of atmospheric radiation and controlling variables at highly instrumented sites in north central Oklahoma, in the Tropical Western Pacific, and on the North Slope of Alaska. Atmospheric chemistry research within DOE addresses primarily the issue of atmospheric response to emissions from energy-generation sources. As such this program deals with the broad topic known commonly as the atmospheric source-receptor sequence. This sequence consists of all aspects of energy-related pollutants from the time they are emitted from their sources to the time they are redeposited at the Earth`s surface.

Schwartz, S.E.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

A Portable Eddy Covariance System for the Measurement of Ecosystem–Atmosphere Exchange of CO2, Water Vapor, and Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To facilitate the study of flux heterogeneity within a region, the authors have designed and field-tested a portable eddy covariance system to measure exchange of CO2, water vapor, and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. The ...

D. P. Billesbach; M. L. Fischer; M. S. Torn; J. A. Berry

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Organic and Elemental Carbon Measurements during ACE-Asia Suggest a Longer Atmospheric Lifetime for Elemental Carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Additional measurements made aboard the ship and used in this analysis include concentrations of SO2 and total particle number (27), O3 (28), CO (29), and radon (30). ... This research is a contribution to the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program (IGBP) and is part of the IGAC Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE). ...

H.-J. Lim; B. J. Turpin; L. M. Russell; T. S. Bates

2003-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

130

Venus: Ionosphere and Atmosphere as Measured by Dual-Frequency Radio Occultation of Mariner V  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of the upper atmosphere. In addition...and 423.3 Mhz were trans-mitted...interplanetary plasma meas-urements...the amount of plasma along the path...and values larger or smaller than...its neutral atmosphere; (iii) possible...140 , and this area had been out...defocusing at 423.3 Mhz due to the dense...

Mariner Stanford Group

1967-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

131

An empirical analysis of the spatial variability of atmospheric CO2: Implications for inverse analyses and space-borne sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analyses and space-borne sensors J. C. Lin,1 C. Gerbig,1 B. C. Daube,1 S. C. Wofsy,1 A. E. Andrews,2 S. A observations and spatial averages simulated by models or observed from space-borne sensors surface fluxes or to validate space-borne sensors. We empirically derive the spatial variability

Lin, John Chun-Han

132

Atmospheric CO2 Record from In Situ Measurements at Amsterdam Island  

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Amsterdam Island Amsterdam Island Atmospheric CO2 Record from In Situ Measurements at Amsterdam Island graphics Graphics data Data Investigators A. Gaudry, V. Kazan, and P. Monfray Centre des Faibles Radioactivités, Laboratoire de Modélisation du Climat et de l'Environnement, Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, Bâtiment 709, Orme des Merisiers, 91191-Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France Period of Record 1980-95 Methods Until 1993 air samples were collected continuously through an air intake located at the top of a tower, 9 m above ground and 65 m above mean sea level. Since 1994, the intake has been situated 20 m above ground and 76 m above mean sea level. The tower is located at the north-northwest end of the island on the edge of a 55 m cliff. The air is dried by means of a cryogenic water trap at -60°C. Until 1990, determinations of CO2 were made

133

Surface summertime radiative forcing by shallow cumuli at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site  

SciTech Connect

Although shallow cumuli are common over large areas of the globe, their impact on the surface radiative forcing has not been carefully evaluated. This study addresses this shortcoming by analyzing data from days with shallow cumuli collected over eight summers (2000-2007) at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (collectively ACRF) Southern Great Plains site. During periods with clouds, the average shortwave and longwave radiative forcings are 45.5 W m-2 and +11.6 W m-2, respectively. The forcing has been defined so that a negative (positive) forcing indicates a surface cooling (warming). On average, the shortwave forcing is negative, however, instances with positive shortwave forcing are observed approximately 20% of the time. These positive values of shortwave forcing are associated with three-dimensional radiative effects of the clouds. The three-dimensional effects are shown to be largest for intermediate cloud amounts. The magnitude of the three-dimensional effects decreased with averaging time, but it is not negligibly small even for large averaging times as long as four hours.

Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Mills Jr., David L.

2011-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

134

Measurement of Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations with a High-Density Detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an experiment to test the hypothesis that the reported anomaly on atmospheric neutrino fluxes is due to nu_mu nu_x oscillations. It will rely both on a disappearance technique, exploiting the method of the dependence of the event rate on L/E, which was recently shown to be effective for detection of neutrino oscillation and measurement of the oscillation parameters, and on an appearance technique, looking for an excess of muon-less events at high energy produced by upward-going tau neutrinos. The detector will consist of iron planes interleaved by limited streamer tubes. The total mass will be about 30 kt. The possibility of recuperating most of the instrumentation from existing detectors allows to avoid R&D phases and to reduce construction time. In four years of data taking, this experiment will be sensitive to oscillations nu_mu nu_x with Delta m^2 > 10^-4 eV^2 and a mixing near to maximal, and answer the question whether nu_x is a sterile or a tau neutrino.

A. Curioni; G. Mannocchi; L. Periale; P. Picchi; F. Pietropaolo; S. Ragazzi

1998-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

135

Remote Sensing and Sea-Truth Measurements of Methane Flux to the Atmosphere (HYFLUX project)  

SciTech Connect

A multi-disciplinary investigation of distribution and magnitude of methane fluxes from seafloor gas hydrate deposits in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted based on results obtained from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing and from sampling conducted during a research expedition to three sites where gas hydrate occurs (MC118, GC600, and GC185). Samples of sediments, water, and air were collected from the ship and from an ROV submersible using sediments cores, niskin bottles attached to the ROV and to a rosette, and an automated sea-air interface collector. The SAR images were used to quantify the magnitude and distribution of natural oil and gas seeps that produced perennial oil slicks on the ocean surface. A total of 176 SAR images were processed using a texture classifying neural network algorithm, which segmented the ocean surface into oil-free and oil-covered water. Geostatistical analysis indicates that there are a total of 1081 seep formations distributed over the entire Gulf of Mexico basin. Oil-covered water comprised an average of 780.0 sq. km (sd 86.03) distributed with an area of 147,370 sq. km. Persistent oil and gas seeps were also detected with SAR sampling on other ocean margins located in the Black Sea, western coast of Africa, and offshore Pakistan. Analysis of sediment cores from all three sites show profiles of sulfate, sulfide, calcium and alkalinity that indicated anaerobic oxidation of methane with precipitation of authigenic carbonates. Difference among the three sampling sites may reflect the relative magnitude of methane flux. Methane concentrations in water column samples collected by ROV and rosette deployments from MC118 ranged from {approx}33,000 nM at the seafloor to {approx}12 nM in the mixed layer with isolated peaks up to {approx}13,670 nM coincident with the top of the gas hydrate stability field. Average plume methane, ethane, and propane concentrations in the mixed layer are 7, 630, and 9,540 times saturation, respectively. Based on the contemporaneous wind speeds at this site, contemporary estimates of the diffusive fluxes from the mixed layer to the atmosphere for methane, ethane, and propane are 26.5, 2.10, and 2.78 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}d, respectively. Continuous measurements of air and sea surface concentrations of methane were made to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution of the diffusive net sea-to-air fluxes. The atmospheric methane fluctuated between 1.70 ppm and 2.40 ppm during the entire cruise except for high concentrations (up to 4.01 ppm) sampled during the end of the occupation of GC600 and the transit between GC600 and GC185. Results from interpolations within the survey areas show the daily methane fluxes to the atmosphere at the three sites range from 0.744 to 300 mol d-1. Considering that the majority of seeps in the GOM are deep (>500 m), elevated CH{sub 4} concentrations in near-surface waters resulting from bubble-mediated CH4 transport in the water column are expected to be widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.

Ian MacDonald

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

136

Abstract--Heart rate variability (HRV) is frequently used to measure autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. However,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 of 4 Abstract--Heart rate variability (HRV) is frequently used to measure autonomic nervous frequency (HF) ratio with little change in mean heart rate. Results suggest that nicotine affects both components may yield erroneous results. Keywords--Autonomic regulation, heart rate variability, Lomb

137

Location and prediction of storms from measurement of atmospherics at different frequencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Earth?, Proc. I.R.E., vol. 19, p. 145;: January, 1931. 75. L. W. Austin, "Radio Atmospheric Disturbances and Solar Ac? tivity?, Proc. I.R.E., vol. 15, pp. 837-842; October, 1927. 76. J. K. McNeely and P. J. Konkle, ?Locating Radio Interference... atmospherics from a distant thun? derstorm, with his receiver tuned to 14*6 meters* Many investiga? tions2' C A 8# 9* n * 20* 26' 27* 28 have shown that the atmospher- 29 30ics increase as the frequency is decreased* Mr. Harold Norinder* * and Messers* B* V...

Canterbury, Samuel Luther

1945-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

2014-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

139

Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 51855196 FTIR measurements of functional groups and organic mass in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 aircraft during the passing efficiency of a low, with higher Al/Ca ratios in the boundary layer. Organic compounds were present in high and low dust conditions or may condense onto pre- existing particles. Partly as a result of this vapor-to- particle conversion

Russell, Lynn

140

Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere: Further interpretations of collocated aircraft measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere: Further interpretations of collocated%) of this enhanced cloud absorption occurs at wavelengths 680 nm, and that the observed cloud absorption does stated, the purpose of ARESE was to address the issue of cloud shortwave (SW) absorption. Do clouds

Zender, Charles

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Analyses of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) multiple data sets for studying cloud absorption Z. Li and A. P. Trishchenko Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada H. W. Barker Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada from aircraft observations was 37% of the incoming solar irradiance, almost twice that of model

Li, Zhanqing

142

Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

Mace, Gerald

143

A new measure of acceleration of heart rate: dependence on age and comparison with time domain conventional heart rate variability measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new measure of acceleration of heart rate: dependence on age and comparison with time domain conventional heart rate variability measures Giuseppe Germanò, M.D., Gianfranco Piccirillo, M.D., *Camillo We introduce a new index, Acceleration Ratio (AR), in order to investigate the dependence of Heart

Cammarota, Camillo

144

Measurement of the atmospheric neutrino energy spectrum from 100 GeV to 400 TeV with IceCube  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A measurement of the atmospheric muon neutrino energy spectrum from 100 GeV to 400 TeV was performed using a data sample of about 18?000 up-going atmospheric muon neutrino events in IceCube. Boosted decision trees were used for event selection to reject misreconstructed atmospheric muons and obtain a sample of up-going muon neutrino events. Background contamination in the final event sample is less than 1%. This is the first measurement of atmospheric neutrinos up to 400 TeV, and is fundamental to understanding the impact of this neutrino background on astrophysical neutrino observations with IceCube. The measured spectrum is consistent with predictions for the atmospheric ??+?¯? flux.

R. Abbasi et al. (IceCube Collaboration)

2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

145

A passive measurement of dissociated atom densities in atmospheric pressure air discharge plasmas using vacuum ultraviolet self-absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a method for determining the dissociation degree of atmospheric pressure air discharges by measuring the self-absorption characteristics of vacuum ultraviolet radiation from O and N atoms in the plasma. The atom densities are determined by modeling the amount of radiation trapping present in the discharge, without the use of typical optical absorption diagnostic techniques which require external sources of probing radiation into the experiment. For an 8.0?mm spark discharge between needle electrodes at atmospheric pressure, typical peak O atom densities of 8.5?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} and peak N atom densities of 9.9?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} are observed within the first ?1.0?mm of plasma near the anode tip by analyzing the OI and NI transitions in the 130.0–132.0?nm band of the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum.

Laity, George [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Applied Science and Technology Maturation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Fierro, Andrew; Dickens, James; Neuber, Andreas [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Frank, Klaus [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Friedrich–Alexander University at Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

146

Retrieval of optical and microphysical properties of ice clouds using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

)????????????????.33 b. North Slope of Alaska (NSA)???????????????...49 6. CONCLUSIONS????????????????????????58 REFERENCES????????????????????????..60 VITA????????????????????????????.?.63 vii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Comparison of the computed phase function... Smith?s method and expanded it to the 1800-3000 cm -1 wavenumber region, which he referred to as the Band II region (note that the region used by Smith et al. (1993) is referred to as the Band I region). DeSlover and Smith (1999) used the Atmospheric...

Kinney, Jacqueline Anne

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Atmospheric Measurements of Submicron Aerosols at the California-Mexico Border and in Houston, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory POAs Primary Organic Aerosols SEMARNAT Secretaria del Medio Ambiente Recursos Naturales SHARP Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors SSA Single Scattering Albedo SOAs Secondary Organic Aerosols... quality and climate. Historically, the region has exceeded both the US EPA National Ambient Air Quality (NAAQS) and Mexico?s Secretaria del Medio Ambiente Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT) air standards, stimulating a united interest. When comparing...

Levy, Misti E

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

148

Diode laser-based sensor system for long-path absorption measurements of atmospheric concentration and near-IR molecular spectral parameters  

SciTech Connect

Line-locked near-IR diode lasers and a simple retroreflector/telescope system were used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituents over long atmospheric paths. The experimental configuration used in preliminary measurements of atmospheric water vapor and oxygen with AlGaAs diode lasers is presented. A prototype field sensor system currently under development shares the same basic configuration but incorporates interchangeable AlGaAs and InGaAsP diode-laser modules for monitoring a variety of atmospheric gases.

Goldstein, N.; Lee, J.; Adler-Golden, S.M.; Bien, F.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Specific Instruments Used in the ARM Program  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

ARM is known for its comprehensive set of world-class, and in some cases, unique, instruments available for use by the global scientific community. In addition to the ARM instruments, the ARM Climate Research Facility identifies and acquires a wide variety of data including model, satellite, and surface data, from "external instruments," to augment the data being generated within the program. External instruments belong to organizations that are outside of the ARM Program. Field campaign instruments are another source of data used to augment routine observations. The huge archive of ARM data can be organized by instrument categories into twelve "collections:" Aerosols, Airborne Observations, Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric Profiling, Cloud Properties, Derived Quantities and Models, Ocean Observations, Radiometric, Satellite Observations, Surface Meteorology, Surface/Subsurface Properties, and Other. Clicking on one of the instrument categories leads to a page that breaks that category down into sub-categories. For example, "Atmospheric Profiling" is broken down into ARM instruments (with 11 subsets), External Instruments (with 6 subsets), and Field Campaign Instruments (with 42 subsets). Each of the subset links, in turn, leads to detailed information pages and links to specific data streams. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading.

150

Towards an extension of 1905 relativistic dynamics with a variable rest mass measuring potential energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From a rigorous historic analysis of 1686 I. Newton and 1905 A. Einstein works where the last derived the universal mass-energy relationship, it is concluded that rest mass measures potential energy. From the same formula used to obtain that relation, it is derived the ratio Total Energy/Potential Energy is equal to the gamma relativistic factor. It is derived a formula for the variation of a body rest mass with its position in a gravity field, explaining with it the behavior of an atomic clock. It is revised the bodies free fall in a gravitational field, finding that a constant total mass is equal to the gravitational mass, while the variable rest mass is equal to the inertial mass, maintaining all an identical behavior independent of their masses. A revision of the E\\"otv\\"os experiment concludes that it is unable to detect the found difference between inertial and gravitational mass. Applying the extended 1905 relativistic dynamics to Mercury, its perihelion shift is determined; it is concluded with the convenience to continue its development, what can imply a revision of Physics since 1905 with important results in the unification of natural forces and other open problems.

Rafael A. Valls Hidalgo-Gato

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

In situ measurements of gas/particle-phase transitions for atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...abundance, as compared to an ambient run (i.e., gas-phase and particle-phase...carbon number. Because n-alkanes are straight chained, and have very low polarity, they do not enter the particle...Diurnal and seasonal variability of gasoline-related volatile organic compound emissions...

Brent J. Williams; Allen H. Goldstein; Nathan M. Kreisberg; Susanne V. Hering

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Measurement of Reactive Hydroxyl Radical Species Inside the Biosolutions During Non-thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Bombardment onto the Solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet could generate various kinds of radicals ... The electron temperature and ion density for this non-thermal plasma jet have been measured to be about...13 cm?3 in this e...

Yong Hee Kim; Young June Hong; Ku Youn Baik…

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

A 25-month database of stratus cloud properties generated from ground-based measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Site  

SciTech Connect

A 25-month database of the macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties of isolated and overcast low-level stratus clouds has been generated using a newly developed parameterization and surface measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement central facility in Oklahoma. The database (5-min resolution) includes two parts: measurements and retrievals. The former consist of cloud base and top heights, layer-mean temperature, cloud liquid water path, and solar transmission ratio measured by a ground-based lidar/ceilometer and radar pair, radiosondes, a microwave radiometer, and a standard Eppley precision spectral pyranometer, respectively. The retrievals include the cloud-droplet effective radius and number concentration and broadband shortwave optical depth and cloud and top-of-atmosphere albedos. Stratus without any overlying mid or high-level clouds occurred most frequently during winter and least often during summer. Mean cloud-layer altitudes and geometric thicknesses were higher and greater, respectively, in summer than in winter. Both quantities are positively correlated with the cloud-layer mean temperature. Mean cloud-droplet effective radii range from 8.1 {mu}m in winter to 9.7 {mu}m during summer, while cloud-droplet number concentrations during winter are nearly twice those in summer. Since cloud liquid water paths are almost the same in both seasons, cloud optical depth is higher during the winter, leading to greater cloud albedos and lower cloud transmittances. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union.

Dong, Xiquan [Meteorology Department, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)] [Meteorology Department, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States); Minnis, Patrick [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (United States)] [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (United States); Ackerman, Thomas P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, DOE, Richland, Washington (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, DOE, Richland, Washington (United States); Clothiaux, Eugene E. [Department of Meteorology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park (United States)] [Department of Meteorology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park (United States); Mace, Gerald G. [Meteorology Department, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)] [Meteorology Department, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States); Long, Charles N. [Department of Meteorology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park (United States)] [Department of Meteorology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park (United States); Liljegren, James C. [Ames Laboratory, DOE, Ames, Iowa (United States)] [Ames Laboratory, DOE, Ames, Iowa (United States)

2000-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

154

Long Range Weather Prediction III: Miniaturized Distributed Sensors for Global Atmospheric Measurements  

SciTech Connect

We continue consideration of ways-and-means for creating, in an evolutionary, ever-more-powerful manner, a continually-updated data-base of salient atmospheric properties sufficient for finite differenced integration-based, high-fidelity weather prediction over intervals of 2-3 weeks, leveraging the 10{sup 14} FLOPS digital computing systems now coming into existence. A constellation comprised of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 9} small atmospheric sampling systems--high-tech superpressure balloons carrying early 21st century semiconductor devices, drifting with the local winds over the meteorological spectrum of pressure-altitudes--that assays all portions of the troposphere and lower stratosphere remains the central feature of the proposed system. We suggest that these devices should be active-signaling, rather than passive-transponding, as we had previously proposed only for the ground- and aquatic-situated sensors of this system. Instead of periodic interrogation of the intra-atmospheric transponder population by a constellation of sophisticated small satellites in low Earth orbit, we now propose to retrieve information from the instrumented balloon constellation by existing satellite telephony systems, acting as cellular tower-nodes in a global cellular telephony system whose ''user-set'' is the atmospheric-sampling and surface-level monitoring constellations. We thereby leverage the huge investment in cellular (satellite) telephony and GPS technologies, with large technical and economic gains. This proposal minimizes sponsor forward commitment along its entire programmatic trajectory, and moreover may return data of weather-predictive value soon after field activities commence. We emphasize its high near-term value for making better mesoscale, relatively short-term weather predictions with computing-intensive means, and its great long-term utility in enhancing the meteorological basis for global change predictive studies. We again note that adverse impacts of weather involve continuing costs of the order of 1% of GDP, a large fraction of which could be retrieved if high-fidelity predictions of two weeks forward applicability were available. These {approx}$10{sup 2} B annual savings dwarf the <$1 B costs of operating a rational, long-range weather prediction system of the type proposed.

Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Wood, L

2001-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

155

Long Range Weather Prediction III: Miniaturized Distributed Sensors for Global Atmospheric Measurements  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

We continue consideration of ways-and-means for creating, in an evolutionary, ever-more-powerful manner, a continually-updated data-base of salient atmospheric properties sufficient for finite differenced integration-based, high-fidelity weather prediction over intervals of 2-3 weeks, leveraging the 10{sup 14} FLOPS digital computing systems now coming into existence. A constellation comprised of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 9} small atmospheric sampling systems--high-tech superpressure balloons carrying early 21st century semiconductor devices, drifting with the local winds over the meteorological spectrum of pressure-altitudes--that assays all portions of the troposphere and lower stratosphere remains the central feature of the proposed system. We suggest that these devices should be active-signaling, rather than passive-transponding, as we had previously proposed only for the ground- and aquatic-situated sensors of this system. Instead of periodic interrogation of the intra-atmospheric transponder population by a constellation of sophisticated small satellites in low Earth orbit, we now propose to retrieve information from the instrumented balloon constellation by existing satellite telephony systems, acting as cellular tower-nodes in a global cellular telephony system whose ''user-set'' is the atmospheric-sampling and surface-level monitoring constellations. We thereby leverage the huge investment in cellular (satellite) telephony and GPS technologies, with large technical and economic gains. This proposal minimizes sponsor forward commitment along its entire programmatic trajectory, and moreover may return data of weather-predictive value soon after field activities commence. We emphasize its high near-term value for making better mesoscale, relatively short-term weather predictions with computing-intensive means, and its great long-term utility in enhancing the meteorological basis for global change predictive studies. We again note that adverse impacts of weather involve continuing costs of the order of 1% of GDP, a large fraction of which could be retrieved if high-fidelity predictions of two weeks forward applicability were available. These{approx}$10{sup 2} B annual savings dwarf the<$1 B costs of operating a rational, long-range weather prediction system of the type proposed.

Teller, E.; Leith, C.; Canavan, G.; Wood, L.

2001-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

156

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Point Reyes, California for the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Project  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Point Reyes National Seashore, on the California coast north of San Francisco, was the location of the first deployment of the DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The ARM Program collaborated with the U.S. Office of Naval Research and DOE's Aerosol Science Program in the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) project. Their objectives were to collect data from cloud/aerosol interactions and to improve understanding of cloud organization that is often associated with patches of drizzle. Between March and September 2005, the AMF and at least two research aircraft were used to collect data.

157

EXPLORING IO'S ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION WITH APEX: FIRST MEASUREMENT OF {sup 34}SO{sub 2} AND TENTATIVE DETECTION OF KCl  

SciTech Connect

The composition of Io's tenuous atmosphere is poorly constrained. Only the major species SO{sub 2} and a handful of minor species have been positively identified, but a variety of other molecular species should be present, based on thermochemical equilibrium models of volcanic gas chemistry and the composition of Io's environment. This paper focuses on the spectral search for expected yet undetected molecular species (KCl, SiO, S{sub 2}O) and isotopes ({sup 34}SO{sub 2}). We analyze a disk-averaged spectrum of a potentially line-rich spectral window around 345 GHz, obtained in 2010 at the APEX 12 m antenna. Using different models assuming either extended atmospheric distributions or a purely volcanically sustained atmosphere, we tentatively measure the KCl relative abundance with respect to SO{sub 2} and derive a range of 4 × 10{sup –4}-8 × 10{sup –3}. We do not detect SiO or S{sub 2}O and present new upper limits on their abundances. We also present the first measurement of the {sup 34}S/{sup 32}S isotopic ratio in gas phase on Io, which appears to be twice as high as the Earth and interstellar medium reference values. Strong lines of SO{sub 2} and SO are also analyzed to check for longitudinal variations of column density and relative abundance. Our models show that, based on their predicted relative abundance with respect to SO{sub 2} in volcanic plumes, both the tentative KCl detection and SiO upper limit are compatible with a purely volcanic origin for these species.

Moullet, A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA-22902 (United States); Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R. [LESIA-Observatoire de Paris, 5 place J. Janssen, F-92195 Meudon CEDEX (France); Gurwell, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA-02138 (United States); Black, J. H [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Butler, B. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM-87801 (United States)

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

158

Cloud Features and Zonal Wind Measurements of Saturn's Atmosphere as Observed by Cassini/VIMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an analysis of data about Saturn's atmosphere from Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), focusing on the meteorology of the features seen in the 5-micron spectral window. We present VIMS mosaics and discuss the morphology and general characteristics of the features backlit by Saturn's thermal emission. We have also constructed a zonal wind profile from VIMS feature tracking observation sequences using an automated cloud feature tracker. Comparison with previously constructed profiles from Voyager and Cassini imaging data reveals broad similarities, suggesting minimal vertical shear of the zonal wind. However, areas of apparent wind shear are present in the VIMS zonal wind profile at jet stream cores. In particular, our analysis shows that the equatorial jet reaches speeds exceeding 450 m/s, similar to speeds obtained during the Voyager era. This suggests that recent inferences of relatively slower jet speeds of ~275-375 m/s are confined to the upper troposphere and that the dee...

Choi, David S; Brown, Robert H; 10.1029/2008JE003254

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

DOE/SC-ARM-13-007 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1-March 31, 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the...

160

MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT TRANSFER TO HELIUM II AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IN A CONFINED GEOMETRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

groove and a thermometer (Lake Shore Cryotronics "carbonis measured with a thermometer (of the same type as on thethe heated surface. Thermometer read out and heater control

Warren, R.P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

162

Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 33153331 Measurement and analysis of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; Hydrogen sulfide; Swine barns; CAFOs 1. Introduction Changes in livestock production methods in the USAtmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 3315­3331 Measurement and analysis of ammonia and hydrogen, where NH3­N ¼ (14 17)NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were measured from a finishing swine confinement

Aneja, Viney P.

163

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program - unmanned aerospace vehicle: The follow-on phase  

SciTech Connect

Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) demonstration flights (UDF) are designed to provide an early demonstration of the scientific utility of UAVs by using an existing UAV and instruments to measure broadband radiative flux profiles under clear sky conditions. UDF is but the first of three phases of ARM-UAV. The second phase significantly extends both the UAV measurement techniques and the available instrumentation to allow both multi-UAV measurements in cloudy skies and extended duration measurements in the tropopause. These activities build naturally to the third and final phase, that of full operational capability, i.e., UAVs capable of autonomous operations at 20-km altitudes for multiple days with a full suite of instrumentation for measuring radiative flux, cloud properties, and water vapor profiles.

Vitko, J. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

A measurement of the atmospheric neutrino flux and oscillation parameters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Through-going muon events are analyzed as a function of their direction of travel through the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Based on simulations and previous measurements, muons with a zenith angle of 1 < cos([theta]zenith) ...

Sonley, Thomas John

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Development of All-fiber Coherent Doppler Lidar to Measure Atmosphere Wind Speed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An all-fiber pulsed coherent Doppler lidar is developed to measure wind profiles. The maximum horizontal and vertical range for wind speed is 4.2km and 2km with speed accuracy of...

Liu, Jiqiao; Chen, Weibiao; Zhu, Xiaopeng

166

Gas temperature and electron temperature measurements by emission spectroscopy for an atmospheric microplasma  

SciTech Connect

A microplasma suitable for material processing at atmospheric pressure in argon and argon-oxygen mixtures is being studied here. The microplasma is ignited by a high voltage dc pulse and sustained by low power (1-5 W) at 450 MHz. the mechanisms responsible for sustaining the microplasma require a more detailed analysis, which will be the subject of further study. Here it is shown that the microplasma is in nonequilibrium and appears to be in glow mode. The effect of power and oxygen content is also analyzed in terms of gas temperature and electron temperature. Both the gas temperature and the electron temperature have been determined by spectral emission and for the latter a very simple method has been used based on a collisional-radiative model. It is observed that power coupling is affected by a combination of factors and that prediction and control of the energy flow are not always straightforward even for simple argon plasmas. Varying gas content concentration has shown that oxygen creates a preferential energy channel towards increasing the gas temperature. Overall the results have shown that combined multiple diagnostics are necessary to understand plasma characteristics and that spectral emission can represent a valuable tool for tailoring microplasma to specific processing requirements.

Mariotti, Davide; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto [Nanoarchtectonics Research Center (NARC), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Damage measurements on the NWTC direct-drive, variable-speed test bed  

SciTech Connect

The NWTC (National Wind Technology Center) Variable-Speed Test Bed turbine is a three-bladed, 10-meter, downwind machine that can be run in either fixed-speed or variable-speed mode. In the variable-speed mode, the generator torque is regulated, using a discrete-stepped load bank to maximize the turbine`s power coefficient. At rated power, a second control loop that uses blade pitch to maintain rotor speed essentially as before, i.e., using the load bank to maintain either generator power or (optionally) generator torque. In this paper, the authors will use this turbine to study the effect of variable-speed operation on blade damage. Using time-series data obtained from blade flap and edge strain gauges, the load spectrum for the turbine is developed using rainflow counting techniques. Miner`s rule is then used to determine the damage rates for variable-speed and fixed-speed operation. The results illustrate that the controller algorithm used with this turbine introduces relatively large load cycles into the blade that significantly reduce its service lifetime, while power production is only marginally increased.

Sutherland, H.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlin, P.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Measuring the period of the delta Scuti variable U1425-01208594 in Cassiopeia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The variability of U1425-01208594 was recently discovered by Schmidtobreick et al, who suggested that it is a member of the delta Scuti family of pulsating stars. Photometry conducted by the authors revealed a period of 0.06695(8) d and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.014 mag.

Jeremy Shears; David Boyd; Steve Brady; Ian Miller; Roger Pickard

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Shouxian, China for the Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

In a complex ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment, monitoring data was collected at four locations in China during 2008. The various sites are located in regions with different climate regimes and with high aerosol loadings of different optical, physical, and chemical properties. Measurements obtained at all the AMF sites during the 8-month deployment in China will help scientists to validate satellite-based findings, understand the mechanisms of the aerosol indirect effects in the region, and examine the roles of aerosols in affecting regional climate and atmospheric circulation, with a special focus on the impact of the East Asian monsoon system. As with other collections from the ARM Mobile Facility, the datasets are available from the ARM Archive. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

170

O{sub 2} rotational temperature measurements in an atmospheric air microdischarge by radar resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization  

SciTech Connect

Nonintrusive spatially resolved rotational temperature measurements in an atmospheric air microdischarge are presented. The measurements were based on coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering (Radar) from resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of molecular oxygen. The open air DC microdischarge source operated in a stable 'normal-glow' mode and pin-to-pin electrodes spaced 1.3 mm apart. The second harmonic of a tunable dye laser beam was focused between the two electrodes and scanned between 286 and 288 nm. Coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering was used to collect the two-photon rotational spectra of O{sub 2} at C{sup 3}{Pi}(v = 2) Leftwards-Arrow X{sup 3}{Sigma}(v Prime = 0) transitions. The Boltzmann plots from analyses of the O{sub 2} rotational lines determined local rotational temperatures at various axial locations between the electrodes. The molecular oxygen rotational temperature varied from {approx}1150 K to {approx}1350 K within the discharge area. The measurements had an accuracy of {approx}{+-}50 K.

Sawyer, Jordan; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Zhili [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 (United States); Adams, Steven F. [Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RQQE), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7919 (United States)] [Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RQQE), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7919 (United States)

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

171

Measurement of Atmospheric Sea Salt Concentration in the Dry Storage Facility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Spent nuclear fuel coming from a Japanese nuclear power plant is stored in the interim storage facility before reprocessing. There are two types of the storage methods which are wet and dry type. In Japan, it is anticipated that the dry storage facility will increase compared with the wet type facility. The dry interim storage facility using the metal cask has been operated in Japan. In another dry storage technology, there is a concrete overpack. Especially in USA, a lot of concrete overpacks are used for the dry interim storage. In Japan, for the concrete cask, the codes of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the governmental technical guidelines are prepared for the realization of the interim storage as well as the code for the metal cask. But the interim storage using the concrete overpack has not been in progress because the evaluation on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the canister is not sufficient. Japanese interim storage facilities would be constructed near the seashore. The metal casks and concrete overpacks are stored in the storage building in Japan. On the other hand, in USA they are stored outside. It is necessary to remove the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel in the cask from the storage building. Generally, the heat is removed by natural cooling in the dry storage facility. Air including the sea salt particles goes into the dry storage facility. Concerning the concrete overpack, air goes into the cask body and cools the canister. Air goes along the canister surface and is in contact with the surface directly. In this case, the sea salt in the air attaches to the surface and then there is the concern about the occurrence of the SCC. For the concrete overpack, the canister including the spent fuel is sealed by the welding. The loss of sealability caused by the SCC has to be avoided. To evaluate the SCC for the canister, it is necessary to make clear the amount of the sea salt particles coming into the storage building and the concentration on the canister. In present, the evaluation on that point is not sufficient. In this study, the concentration of the sea salt particles in the air and on the surface of the storage facility are measured inside and outside of the building. For the measurement, two sites of the dry storage facility using the metal cask are chosen. This data is applicable for the evaluation on the SCC of the canister to realize the interim storage using the concrete overpack. (authors)

Masumi Wataru; Hisashi Kato; Satoshi Kudo; Naoko Oshima; Koji Wada [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry - CRIEPI (Japan); Hirofumi Narutaki [Electric Power Engineering Systems Co. Ltd. (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Atmospheric Amines and Ammonia Measured with a Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS)  

SciTech Connect

We report ambient measurements of amines and ammonia with a fast response chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) in a Southeastern U.S. forest in Alabama and a moderately polluted Midwestern site during the summer. In the Alabama forest, mostly C3-amines (from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 2 ppbv) were detected on a daily basis. C3-amines and ammonia showed similar diurnal trends and temperature and wind direction dependences, and were not associated with transported CO and SO2 plumes. Consistent with temperature dependences, amine and ammonia in the gas and aerosol phases showed opposite diurnal trends, indicating gas-to-particle partitioning of amines and ammonia. Temperature dependences also imply reversible processes of amines and ammonia evaporation from soil surfaces in daytime and deposition of amines and ammonia to soil surfaces at nighttime. Various amines (C1-C6) at the pptv level were observed in the transported biomass burning plumes, showing that biomass burning can be a substantial source of amines in the Southeast U.S. At the moderately polluted Kent site, higher concentrations of amines (C1-C6, from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 6 ppbv) were detected. Diurnal variations of C1- to C3-amines and ammonia were correlated with the ambient temperature. C4- to C6-amines showed abrupt increases during the nighttime, suggesting that they were emitted from local sources. These abundant amines and ammonia may in part explain the frequent new particle formation events reported from Kent. Lower amine concentrations at the rural forested site highlight the importance of constraining anthropogenic sources of amines.

You, Y.; Kanawade, V. P.; de Gouw, J. A.; Guenther, Alex B.; Madronich, Sasha; Sierra-Hernandez, M. R.; Lawler, M.; Smith, James N.; Takahama, S.; Ruggeri, G.; Koss, A.; Olson, K.; Baumann, K.; Weber, R. J.; Nenes, A.; Guo, H.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Porcelli, L.; Brune, W. H.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Lee, S.-H

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

173

Atmospheric Chemistry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

competencies Atmospheric Chemistry Atmospheric Chemistry is the study of the composition of the atmosphere, the sources and fates of gases and particles in air, and changes induced...

174

Dose measurements behind reduced shielding at the Texas A&M University variable energy cyclotron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the relative count rates of the detectors after irradiation can be used to estimate the spectral dis- tribution of the neutron field, while the absolute activity of the detector is a measure of exposure (Ce69). This technique is useful in measuring neutron... be measured simultaneously in high flux areas in the vault and in low flux areas outside the reduced shielding. The detector normally utilized in the spherical remmeter is a lithium iodide, europium activated (LiI(Eu)) scintillation type thermal neutron...

Kay, Douglas Carey

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

175

Workshop review: Management of data collected in GRAMP (Gulf Region Atmospheric Measurement Program). Held in Boulder, Colorado on July 22-24, 1991. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

The demolition and subsequent burning of the Kuwait oil fires was a senseless act of destruction that has threatened public health, damaged the environment, and may possibly cause short or longer term changes in regional and global climate. Many nations responded to this disaster by offering aid and by rushing teams into the affected area to make measurements that would assess the impact of the fires. The following report summarizes a workshop that was held July 24-26, 1991 at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to discuss a plan to gather all the atmospheric measurements that are being made in the Gulf region and make them available for general dissemination. The workshop was initiated by the World Meteorological Organization and co-sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Organization.

Baumgardner, D.; Friesen, R.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Dimension Reduction with Gene Expression Data Using Targeted Variable Importance Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and we refer to it as the TMLE-VIM procedure. 1. Obtain theResults: We propose a TMLE-VIM dimension reduction procedureimportance measurement (VIM) in the frame work of targeted

Wang, Hui; van der Laan, Mark J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Measurement of the orbital and superhump periods of the eclipsing cataclysmic variable SDSS J170213.26+322954.1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The orbital period of the eclipsing cataclysmic variable SDSS J170213.26+322954.1 has been measured as 0.10008215+/-0.00000001d using observations of eclipses during the first recorded superoutburst in October 2005 together with eclipses observed in quiescence in July 2003. This period puts the system in the centre of the period gap. Observation of superhumps during the October 2005 outburst with a period of 0.10496+/-0.00015d confirms this to be a UGSU-type system with a period excess of 4.9%.

David Boyd; Arto Oksanen; Arne Henden

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

Thomas K. Gaisser

2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

179

Radon in atmospheric studies: a review  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of the isotopes of radon in space and time, their physical characteristics, and their behavior in the dynamics of the atmosphere have presented challenges for many decades. /sup 220/Rn, /sup 222/Rn and their daughters furnish a unique set of tracers for the study of transport and mixing processes in the atmosphere. Appropriate applications of turbulent diffusion theory yield general agreement with measured profiles. Diurnal and seasonal variations follow patterns set by consideration of atmospheric stability. /sup 222/Rn has been used successfully in recent studies of nocturnal drainage winds and cumulus convection. Good results have been obtained using /sup 222/Rn and its long-lived /sup 210/Pb daughter as tracers in the study of continent-to-ocean and ocean-to-continent air mass trajectories, /sup 220/Rn (thoron) because of its short half-life of only 55 seconds has been used to measure turbulent diffusion within the first few meters of the earth's surface and to study the influence of meteorological variables on the rate of exhalation from the ground. Radon daughters attach readily to atmospheric particulate matter which makes it possible to study these aerosols with respect to size spectra, attachment characteristics, removal by gravitation and precipitation, and residence times in the troposphere. The importance of ionization by radon and its daughters in the lower atmosphere and its effect on atmospheric electrical parameters is well known. Knowledge of the mobility and other characteristics of radon daughter ions has led to applications in the study of atmospheric electrical environments under fair weather and thunderstorm conditions and in the formation of condensation nuclei. The availability of increasingly sophisticated analytical tools and atmospheric measurement systems can be expected to add much to our understanding of radon and its daughters as trace components of the atmospheric environment in the years ahead.

Wilkening, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

The Variability of LateType Stars' Diameters Measured Using MidInfrared Interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a , D. D. S. Hale b , and C. H. Townes a a Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 b and a narrow bandpass appear to be optimum for penetrating the dust and gas and obtaining a representative description can be found in Hale et al. (2000). 2 Baselines up to 56 m were used to measure visibilities of ff

California at Berkeley, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement  

SciTech Connect

To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

U U r r b b a a n n A A t t m m o o s s p p h h e e r r i i c c O O b b s s e e r r v v a a t t o o r r y y ( ( U U A A O O ) ) F F i i r r s s t t P P l l a a n n n n i i n n g g W W o o r r k k s s h h o o p p - - A A t t t t e e n n d d e e e e s s 2 2 7 7 - - 2 2 8 8 J J a a n n u u a a r r y y , , 2 2 0 0 0 0 3 3 ****************************************************************** Sean Ahearn Hunter College North Bldg., 10 th Floor New York City, NY sca@everest.hunter.cuny.edu (W) 212-772-5327 Robert Bornstein San Jose State University Dept. of Meteorology San Jose, CA 951920-0104 pblmodel@hotmail.com (W) 408-924-5205 (F) 408-924-5191 David Brown Argonne National Lab 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 dbrown@anl.gov (W) 608-442-1249 Michael Brown LANL, Drop Point 19S, SM-30 Bikini Atoll Road Group D4-MS F604 Los Alamos, NM 87545 mbrown@lanl.gov (W) 505- 667-1788

183

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

models. As an important factor in growing crops, soil moisture dictates a farmer's success or failure. Too much soil moisture can drown out croplands and cause flooding,...

184

Kinematic measures and stroke rate variability in elite female 200-m swimmers in the four swimming techniques: Athens 2004 Olympic semi-finalists and French National  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Kinematic measures and stroke rate variability in elite female 200-m swimmers in the four of this work was to study stroke rate variability in elite female swimmers (200-m events, all four techniques semi-finalists (group N, n=64). Since swimming speed (V) is the product of stroke rate (SR) and stroke

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Large horizontal gradients in atmospheric CO at the synoptic scale as seen by spaceborne Measurements of Pollution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis, parcel trajectory modeling, and global three- dimensional by the warm conveyor belt ahead of the cold front and the clean air transported from the Atlantic

Jones, Dylan

186

Source Term Estimation of Radioxenon Released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactors Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. Atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) of plumes of noble gases and particulates were performed soon after the accident to determine plausible detection locations of any radioactive releases to the atmosphere. We combine sampling data from multiple International Modeling System (IMS) locations in a new way to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of the releases. Dilution factors from the modeled plume at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of 133-Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This approach estimates that 59% of the 1.24×1019 Bq of 133-Xe present in the reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a three day period. Source term estimates from combinations of detection sites have lower spread than estimates based on measurements at single detection sites. Sensitivity cases based on data from four or more detection locations bound the source term between 35% and 255% of available xenon inventory.

Eslinger, Paul W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Biegalski, S. [Univ. of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Bowyer, Ted W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooper, Matthew W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hoffman, Ian [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Korpach, E. [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Yi, Jing [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Miley, Harry S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ungar, R. Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); White, Brian [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Woods, Vincent T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

ARM - PI Product - Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsAtmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & ProductsAtmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux 1997.01.01 - 2010.12.31 Site(s) NSA SGP TWP General Description This data product contains atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

188

Seasonal and ENSO variability in global ocean phytoplankton chlorophyll derived from 4 years of SeaWiFS measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a possible 184 modes, which explain 67% of the total temporal variability associated with the global meanSeasonal and ENSO variability in global ocean phytoplankton chlorophyll derived from 4 years of Sea and other sources of phytoplankton variability on global scales, which is an important component

Yoder, James S.

189

Meson cascade in the atmosphere, uncertainties in calculating the fluxes of high-energy muons, and data of direct measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new calculation of the atmospheric fluxes of cosmic-ray hadrons and muons in the energy range 10–104...GeV is performed on the basis of the method for solving nuclear-cascade equations with allowance for a nons...

A. A. Kochanov; T. S. Sinegovskaya; S. I. Sinegovsky

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Biomass Gasification with Air in an Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed. Effect of Six Operational Variables on the Quality of the Produced Raw Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Variables analyzed are equivalence ratio (from 0.20 to 0.45), temperatures of the gasifier bed (750?850 °C) and of its freeboard (500?600 °C), H/C ratio in the feed, use of secondary air (10% of the overall) in the freeboard, and addition (2?5 wt %) of a calcined dolomite mixed with the biomass used as the feedstock. ... Biomass has a density 2?5 times lower than silica sand, used as the fluidizing medium in the bed. ... The particle size for the silica sand in the bed is important. ...

Ian Narváez; Alberto Orío; Maria P. Aznar; José Corella

1996-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

191

Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program  

SciTech Connect

The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

192

Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahlers, M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Almela, A.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Nicolas /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation emitted by the earth. This instrument is onboard a European Union geostationary weather satellite launched in December 2005; it is collecting data over Niamey and the...

194

The atmosphere of Venus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The investigations of Venus take a special position in planetary researches. It was just the atmosphere of Venus where first measurements in situ were carried out by means of the equipment delivered by a space pr...

V. I. Moroz

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Musical Atmospherics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE characteristics of audio musical atmospherics which are obtained when an ... musical atmospherics which are obtained when an audio amplifier is placed in a long line or aerial have been discussed from time to ...

T. L. ECKERSLEY

1935-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

196

GAMS program used to estimate capacity with the hyperbolic graph efficiency measure, with variable returns to scale and undesirable outputs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. "Estimating Capacity and Efficiency in Fisheries with Undesirable Outputs." VIMS Marine resource Report N(obs) weights gamma(obs,var) ; POSITIVE Variable weight, gamma; EQUATIONS CONSTR1(GOUTPUT, OBS) DEA constraint

197

Isotopic Ratio Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using a 4.3 ?m Pulsed Quantum Cascade Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report CO2 isotopic ratios (13C, 18O) measured in air using a pulsed quantum cascade laser at 2310 cm-1. Performance is...

Nelson, David; McManus, John B; Zahniser, Mark S; Tuzson, Bela; Emmenegger, Lukas

198

Light extinction in the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric aerosol particles originating from natural sources, such as volcanos and sulfur-bearing gas emissions from the oceans, and from human sources, such as sulfur emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, strongly affect visual air quality and are suspected to significantly affect radiative climate forcing of the planet. During the daytime, aerosols obscure scenic vistas, while at night they diminish our ability to observe stellar objects. Scattering of light is the main means by which aerosols attenuate and redistribute light in the atmosphere and by which aerosols can alter and reduce visibility and potentially modify the energy balance of the planet. Trends and seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol loading, such as column-integrated light extinction or optical depth, and how they may affect potential climate change have been difficult to quantify because there have been few observations made of important aerosol optical parameters, such as optical depth, over the globe and over time and often these are of uneven quality. To address questions related to possible climate change, there is a pressing need to acquire more high-quality aerosol optical depth data. Extensive deployment of improved solar radiometers over the next few years will provide higher-quality extinction data over a wider variety of locations worldwide. An often overlooked source of turbidity data, however, is available from astronomical observations, particularly stellar photoelectric photometry observations. With the exception of the Project ASTRA articles published almost 20 years ago, few of these data ever appear in the published literature. This paper will review the current status of atmospheric extinction observations, as highlighted by the ASTRA work and augmented by more recent solar radiometry measurements.

Laulainen, N.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

PIV Measurements in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer within and above a Mature Corn Canopy. Part I: Statistics and Energy Flux  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements just within and above a mature corn canopy have been performed to clarify the small-scale spatial structure of the turbulence. The smallest resolved scales are about 15 times the Kolmogorov length ...

R. van Hout; W. Zhu; L. Luznik; J. Katz; J. Kleissl; M. B. Parlange

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Preliminary Results from Long-Term Measurements of Atmospheric Moisture in the Marine Boundary Layer in the Gulf of Mexico*  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements of boundary layer moisture have been acquired from Rotronic MP-100 sensors deployed on two National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys in the northern Gulf of Mexico from June through November 1993. For one sensor that was retrieved ...

Laurence C. Breaker; David B. Gilhousen; Lawrence D. Burroughs

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Black Forest Germany for the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to other sites as determined. In 2007 the AMF operated in the Black Forest region of Germany as part of the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Scientists studied rainfall resulting from atmospheric uplift (convection) in mountainous terrain, otherwise known as orographic precipitation. This was part of a six -year duration of the German Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) Program. COPS was endorsed as a Research and Development Project by the World Weather Research Program. This program was established by the World Meteorological Organization to develop improved and cost-effective forecasting techniques, with an emphasis on high-impact weather. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Black Forest are available via a link from ARM's Black Forest site information page. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and the data files in the ARM Archive are free for viewing and downloading.

202

Measurement of the (n, H3) Cross Section in Nitrogen and Its Relationship to the Tritium Production in the Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrogen gas is irradiated by fast neutrons from a U235 fission plate and tritium is produced. The tritium is identified and counted by two different methods: (1) The gas is put into a cloud chamber where the H3 electrons are identified by their range and counted; (2) hydrogen is separated from nitrogen by its passage through palladium and is then counted in a Geiger counter. The average cross section for fission neutrons with energy sufficient to make the reaction proceed [4.4 Mev is (11±2)×10-27 cm2].This cross section combined with cosmic-ray neutron data gives an H3 production rate of between 0.10/cm2 sec and 0.20/cm2 sec averaged over the earth. Cosmic-ray stars eject H3 at a rate estimated between 0.30/cm2 sec and 0.70/cm2 sec. These two processes maintain a world reservoir of 50 to 110 million curies of H3. This H3 production leads to a mean escape time of He3 from the atmosphere of about 5 million years. This is consistent with a temperature at the base of the exosphere of 1500°K.

E. L. Fireman

1953-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Atmospheric Neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

Thomas K. Gaisser

2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

204

Fusing ground measurements and satellite-derived products for the construction of climatological maps in atmosphere optics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fusing ground measurements and satellite-derived products for the construction of climatological turbidity factor, remote sensing, resampling ABSTRACT: Climatological maps (gridded data) of optical). The problem is that such climatological maps only exist at low spatial resolution. A resampling of the maps

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Continuous Measurements of Atmospheric Ar/N2 as a Tracer of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

........................... 31 2.3 Results ................................................. 34 2.3.1 Comparison of station measurements and model predictions ....................... 34 2.3.2 Station-station comparisons ........................................... 74 #12;v 3.2 The seasonal cycle in (Ar/N2): A transient model of air-sea gas flux

Keeling, Ralph

206

U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

Heath, G.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Small Interannual Variability of Global Atmospheric Hydroxyl  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Nicosia 1645, Cyprus. The oxidizing capacity...air pollution and natural influences. We show...methane and other trace gases oxidized primarily...observations of additional gases oxidized primarily...from a variety of natural and anthropogenic...changes in trace-gas emissions with smoothed...

S. A. Montzka; M. Krol; E. Dlugokencky; B. Hall; P. Jöckel; J. Lelieveld

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

208

Performance Variability  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Variability Variability of Highly Parallel Architectures William T.C. Kramer 1 and Clint Ryan 2 1 Department of Computing Sciences, University of California at Berkeley and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2 Department of Computing Sciences, University of California at Berkeley Abstract. The design and evaluation of high performance computers has concentrated on increasing computational speed for applications. This performance is often measured on a well configured dedicated sys- tem to show the best case. In the real environment, resources are not always dedicated to a single task, and systems run tasks that may influ- ence each other, so run times vary, sometimes to an unreasonably large extent. This paper explores the amount of variation seen across four large distributed memory systems in a systematic manner. It then

209

Validation of Surface Retrieved Cloud Optical Properties with in situ Measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) South Great Plains Site  

SciTech Connect

The surface inferred cloud optical properties from a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer have been validated against the in situ measurements during the second ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE II) field campaign at the ARM South Great Plains (SGP) site. On the basis of eight effective radius profiles measured by the in situ Forward Spectra Scattering Probe (FSSP), our retrieved cloud effective radii for single-layer warm water clouds agree well with in situ measurements, within 5.5%. The sensitivity study also illustrates that for this case a 13% uncertainty in observed liquid water path (LWP, 20 g/m2) results in 1.5% difference in retrieved cloud optical depth and 12.7% difference in referred cloud effective radius, on average. The uncertainty of the LWP measured by the microwave radiometer (MWR) is the major contributor to the uncertainty of retrieved cloud effective radius. Further, we conclude that the uncertainty of our inferred cloud optical properties is better than 5% for warm water clouds based on a surface closure study, in which cloud optical properties inferred from narrowband irradiances are applied to a shortwave model and the modeled broadband fluxes are compared to a surface pyranometer.

Min, Qilong; Duan, M.; Marchand, Roger T.

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

210

Sensitive multi-photon nonlinear laser spectroscopic methods for isotope analysis in atmospheric and environmental applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measurements in atmospheric pressure plasma. However, nonean atmospheric radio-frequency inductively coupled plasma (atmospheric atomizer. Also, the inductively coupled plasma

Lyons, Wendy Jean

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Measurement of charged-particle event shape variables in inclusive ?(s)=7??TeV proton-proton interactions with the ATLAS detector  

The measurement of charged-particle event shape variables is presented in inclusive inelastic pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The observables studied are the transverse thrust, thrust minor, and transverse sphericity, each defined using the final-state charged particles’ momentum components perpendicular to the beam direction. Events with at least six charged particles are selected by a minimum-bias trigger. In addition to the differential distributions, the evolution of each event shape variable as a function of the leading charged-particle transverse momentum, charged-particle multiplicity, and summed transverse momentum is presented. Predictions from several Monte Carlo models show significant deviations from data.

Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, A. K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bittner, B.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Atmospheric Dynamics of Exoplanets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres has come of age in the last decade, as astronomical techniques now allow for albedos, chemical abundances, temperature profiles and maps, rotation periods and even wind speeds to be measured. Atmospheric dynamics sets the background state of density, temperature and velocity that determines or influences the spectral and temporal appearance of an exoplanetary atmosphere. Hot exoplanets are most amenable to these characterization techniques; in the present review, we focus on highly-irradiated, large exoplanets (the "hot Jupiters"), as astronomical data begin to confront theoretical questions. We summarize the basic atmospheric quantities inferred from the astronomical observations. We review the state of the art by addressing a series of current questions and look towards the future by considering a separate set of exploratory questions. Attaining the next level of understanding will require a concerted effort of constructing multi-faceted, multi-wavelength dat...

Heng, Kevin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Atmospheric tritium  

SciTech Connect

Research progress for the year 1979 to 1980 are reported. Concentrations of tritiated water vapor, tritium gas and tritiated hydrocarbons in the atmosphere at selected sampling points are presented. (ACR)

Oestlund, H.G.; Mason, A.S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Measurable energy savings of installing variable frequency drives for cooling towers’ fans, compared to dual speed motors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In recent years the building management system (BMS) controllers have been used to control the operation of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system in addition to lighting and some electrical equipment in order to save energy. In the water cooled system, the BMS controls the operation process of the cooling towers (CTs) fans of dual speed motors to maintain a constant leaving water temperature for different cooling loads and different ambient wet bulb temperature (WBT). This paper presents the effect of installing variable frequency drives (VFDs) for \\{CTs\\} fans in Kuwait during summer season on energy savings compared to dual speed control. The results have shown that with VFD mode, the reduction in water consumption was over 13% compared to the commonly used dual speed mode. More importantly, the combined power for the chillers and the \\{CTs\\} fans for the same amount of cooling produced were reduced by 5.8% in the VFD mode.

E. Al-Bassam; R. Alasseri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

The development and application of a questionnaire designed to measure pre-existing, process, and outcome variables in the productivity measurement and enhancement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measurement: 1. Takes guesswork out of observation about productivity 2. Assists in the efficient conduct of operations. 3. Facilitates communication between members of the organization. 4. Aids in evaluating progress toward improving productivity. 5...

Decuir, Arlette Desha

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Instrumental Requirements for Global Atmospheric Chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC CH2O, O3, AND NO2...AIRBORNE MEASUREMENTS OF ATMOSPHERIC OH, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL...HYDROGEN-CHLORIDE AND WATER AT ANTARCTIC STRATOSPHERIC...TOON, O.B., CONDENSATION OF HNO3 AND HCL IN...requirements for global atmospheric chemistry. | The field...

D. L. Albritton; F. C. Fehsenfeld; A. F. Tuck

1990-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

217

Recent variability of the solar spectral irradiance and its impact on climate modelling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lack of long and reliable time series of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) measurements makes an accurate quantification of solar contributions to recent climate change difficult. Whereas earlier SSI observations and models provided a qualitatively consistent picture of the SSI variability, recent measurements by the SORCE satellite suggest a significantly stronger variability in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range and changes in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands in anti-phase with the solar cycle. A number of recent chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations have shown that this might have significant implications on the Earth's atmosphere. Motivated by these results, we summarize here our current knowledge of SSI variability and its impact on Earth's climate. We present a detailed overview of existing SSI measurements and provide thorough comparison of models available to date. SSI changes influence the Earth's atmosphere, both directly, through changes in shortwave (SW) heating and therefore, temp...

Ermolli, I; de Wit, T Dudok; Krivova, N A; Tourpali, K; Weber, M; Unruh, Y C; Gray, L; Langematz, U; Pilewskie, P; Rozanov, E; Schmutz, W; Shapiro, A; Solanki, S K; Woods, T N

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first calibrated high-frequency, high-precision, in situ atmospheric and archived air measurements of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) have been made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric ...

Muhle, J.

219

Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation.  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation, we conduct a literature study of the best experimental and theoretical data available for thin and thick atmospheres on THz radiation propagation from 0.1 to 10 THz. We determined that for thick atmospheres no data exists beyond 450 GHz. For thin atmospheres data exists from 0.35 to 1.2 THz. We were successful in using FASE code with the HITRAN database to simulate the THz transmission spectrum for Mauna Kea from 0.1 to 2 THz. Lastly, we successfully measured the THz transmission spectra of laboratory atmospheres at relative humidities of 18 and 27%. In general, we found that an increase in the water content of the atmosphere led to a decrease in the THz transmission. We identified two potential windows in an Albuquerque atmosphere for THz propagation which were the regions from 1.2 to 1.4 THz and 1.4 to 1.6 THz.

Wanke, Michael Clement; Mangan, Michael A.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Remote Sensing and In-Situ Observations of Arctic Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds Acquired During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle Participation  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (ARM) uninhabited aerospace vehicle (UAV) program aims to develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for a new class of high altitude, long endurance UAVs while supporting the climate community with valuable data sets. Using the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft, ARM UAV participated in Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), obtaining unique data to help understand the interaction of clouds with solar and infrared radiation. Many measurements obtained using the Proteus were coincident with in-situ observations made by the UND Citation. Data from M-PACE are needed to understand interactions between clouds, the atmosphere and ocean in the Arctic, critical interactions given large-scale models suggest enhanced warming compared to lower latitudes is occurring.

McFarquhar, G.M.; Freer, M.; Um, J.; McCoy, R.; Bolton, W.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Intraseasonal variability in South America recorded in stable water isotopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intraseasonal variability in South America recorded in stable water isotopes Christophe Sturm,1 cores (South America) has illustrated the key role such archives can play in past climate South America, highlighting the internal atmospheric variability, as opposed to external forcing

Sturm, Christophe "Kristof"

222

The changing atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

The chemistry of the atmosphere is changing, in large measure because of gases emitted by such human activities as farming, manufacturing, and the combustion of fossil fuels. The deleterious effects are increasingly evident; they may well become worse in the years ahead. This paper discusses the pollutants and the environmental perturbations with which they are associated. The authors believe the solution to the earth's environmental problems lies in a truly global effort.

Graedel, T.E.; Crutzen, P.J.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

The Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chemistry Tracers of Diesel Exhaust Emissions and Measurements of Trace gas and Aerosol properties.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chemistry Tracers of Diesel Exhaust exhaust experiment It has previously been difficult to identify the emissions of diesel exhaust until reactive with organic compounds such as alkanes which are present in diesel exhaust emissions. The reaction

Collins, Gary S.

224

Doubling of atmospheric methane supported  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric methane over the past 27,000 years was measured by analyzing air trapped in glacial ice in Greenland and Antarctica. Atmospheric concentrations were stable over that period until about 200 years b.p. In the last 200 years they have more than doubled. This change in concentration is correlated with the increase in human population; the implications for climate modification are discussed. 1 figure, 3 references.

Kerr, R.A.

1984-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

225

DOE/EA-1193: Environmental Assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Artic Ocean Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site (February 1997)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

u. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY u. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT - The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed (ARM/CART), North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean. The purpose of the ARM/CART program is to collect and analyze atmospheric data for the development and validation of global climate change models. The program involves construction of several small facilities and operation of sensing equipment. The EA analyzes the impacts on land use, tundra, air quality, cultura.l resources, socioeconomics, and wildlife. Separate studies (summarized in the EA) were also conducted to ensure that the operation of the facilities would not

226

Developing Model Constraints on Northern Extra-Tropical Carbon Cycling Based on measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to perform CO2 data syntheses and modeling activities to address two central questions: 1) how much has the seasonal cycle in atmospheric CO2 at northern high latitudes changed since the 1960s, and 2) how well do prognostic biospheric models represent these changes. This project also supported the continuation of the Scripps time series of CO2 isotopes and concentration at ten baseline stations distributed globally.

Keeling, Ralph [UCSD-SIO

2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

227

First Wideband Measurement (100-1400 cm-1) of the Atmospheric Emission Spectrum with an Uncooled FT Instrument (Including the Detector Unit) Operating at Stratospheric Balloon Altitude  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Earth radiation budget experiments, one missing measurement is the spectrally resolved OLR below 400cm-1. The first spectral measurement down to 100cm-1,...

Palchetti, Luca

228

Monitoring variability of multivariate processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper focuses on determining changes in process variability of multivariate processes. The problem is compounded by the fact that any of the elements in the variance-covariance matrix of variables could change, leading to a change in the process variability. While it may not be feasible to maintain individual control charts for each element of the variance-covariance matrix, some aggregate measure of the variability criteria could be monitored to initially determine if a change has occurred in the process variability. A couple of aggregate measures are proposed and the performance of these suggested measures is explored through a simulation procedure. Compared to the traditional method, which monitors the determinant of the variance-covariance matrix, these alternatives perform well. The performance measure used is the mean time to first detection of a change in the process variability.

Amitava Mitra; Mark Clark

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Earth and Atmospheric Sciences | More Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Forensics Climate & Environment Sensors and Measurements Chemical & Engineering Materials Computational Earth Science Systems Modeling Geographic Information Science and Technology Materials Science and Engineering Mathematics Physics More Science Home | Science & Discovery | More Science | Earth and Atmospheric Sciences SHARE Earth and Atmospheric Sciences At ORNL, we combine our capabilities in atmospheric science, computational science, and biological and environmental systems science to focus in the cross-disciplinary field of climate change science. We use computer models to improve climate change predications and to measure the impact of global warming on the cycling of chemicals in earth systems. Our Climate Change Science Institute uses models to explore connections among atmosphere,

230

Electron density measurements of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal N2 plasma jet by Stark broadening and irradiance intensity methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma jet excited by high frequency alternating current using nitrogen is developed and the electron density in the active region of this plasma jet is investigated by two different methods using optical emission spectroscopy Stark broadening and irradiance intensity method. The irradiance intensity method shows that the average electron density is about 1020/m3 which is slightly smaller than that by the Stark broadening method. However the trend of the change in the electron density with input power obtained by these two methods is consistent.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

232

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

233

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

234

Measurements of Sea Surface Height Variability in the Eastern South Atlantic from Pressure Sensor-Equipped Inverted Echo Sounders: Baroclinic and Barotropic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Variability in sea surface height (SSH) can be decomposed into two contributions: one from changes in mass in the water column (barotropic) and the other from purely steric changes (baroclinic). Both contributions can be ...

Baker-Yeboah, Sheekela

235

Data Quality of Quality Measurement Experiments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data Quality of Quality Measurement Experiments Data Quality of Quality Measurement Experiments S. Bottone and S. Moore Mission Research Corporation Santa Barbara, California Introduction Quality Measurement Experiments (QME) are a special class of Value-Added Products (VAP). QMEs add value to Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program datastreams by providing for continuous assessment of the quality of incoming data based on internal consistency checks, comparisons between independent similar measurements, or comparisons between measurements and modeled results. Like any datastream, QME datastreams need to be checked for data quality. For each QME, we analyze a representative sample of files from the ARM data archive to determine 'typical' values of the QME variables. We then design outlier tests, specific to each variable, to be applied to

236

Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

localization that limits the present measurements. The knowledge thus gained will have input not only to fusion research, but to may ques- tions of basic plasma physics....

237

Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the Department of Physics & Astronomy. Chapel Hill 2005 Approved: A. E. Champagne, Advisor J. C. Blackmon, Reader C. Iliadis, Reader ABSTRACT Ryan P. Fitzgerald: Measurement of...

238

Radon-222 Daughter Concentrations in Uranium Mine Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... undertaken to measure the concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in uranium mine atmospheres at various radon daughter concentration levels, and to determine the amount of 210Pb in the mine atmosphere ... atmosphere relative to that which would be produced from the decay of the short-lived radon daughters deposited in the lungs. Radium-226 was also measured in air so as ...

RICHARD L. BLANCHARD

1969-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

239

What we can learn from atmospheric neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physics potential of future measurements of atmospheric neutrinos is explored. Observation of $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ driven sub-dominant effects and $\\theta_{13}$ driven large matter effects in atmospheric neutrinos can be used to study the deviation of $\\theta_{23}$ from maximality and its octant. Neutrino mass hierarchy can be determined extremely well due to the large matter effects. New physics can be constrained both in standard atmospheric neutrino experiments as well as in future neutrino telescopes.

Sandhya Choubey

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

240

Temperature measurement of an atmospheric pressure arc discharge plasma jet using the diatomic CN (B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}-X {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}, violet system) molecular spectra  

SciTech Connect

The CN (B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}-X {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}) molecular emission spectrum is used to measure both the vibrational and rotational temperatures in atmospheric pressure arc jet discharges. The vibrational and rotational temperature effects on the synthetic diatomic molecular spectra were investigated from the (v{sup '},v{sup ''})=(0,0) band to the (5,5) band. The temperatures obtained from the synthetic spectra compared with the experimental result of a low-frequency arc discharge show a vibrational temperature of (4250-5010) K and a rotational temperature of (3760-3980) K for the input power in the range of (80-280) W. As the (0,0) band is isolated from other vibrational transition bands, determination of the rotational temperature is possible based only on the (0,0) band, which simplifies the temperature measurement. From the result, it was found that the CN molecular spectrum can be used as a thermometer for atmospheric pressure plasmas containing carbon and nitrogen.

Moon, Se Youn; Kim, D. B.; Gweon, B.; Choe, W. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Instrument Development and Measurements of the Atmospheric Pollutants Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrate Radical, and Nitrous Acid by Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy and Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. , A method of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxidedetermination of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in theDOAS) have measured nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrate

Medina, David Salvador

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Radio Frequency Signals in Jupiter's Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...IMAGE OF A LARGE UPWARD ELECTRICAL-DISCHARGE...RINNERT K , HDB ATMOSPHERIC ELEC 27 ( 1995...MEASUREMENTS OF THE RF CHARACTERISTICS...JUPITER PLASMA-WAVE OBSERVATIONS...OBSERVATIONS OF UPPER ATMOSPHERIC OPTICAL FLASHES...Solar and thermal radiation...relatively large at the beginning...and about non-radiative...sensitive area of 6...

L. J. Lanzerotti; K. Rinnert; G. Dehmel; F. O. Gliem; E. P. Krider; M. A. Uman; J. Bach

1996-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

243

Some challenges of middle atmosphere data assimilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some challenges of middle atmosphere data assimilation 1234567 89A64BC7DEF72B4 8629EEC7C72DEEE5.1256/qj.05.87 Some challenges of middle atmosphere data assimilation By S. POLAVARAPU1,2, T. G. SHEPHERD2 Data assimilation is employed at operational weather forecast centres to combine measurements and model

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

244

The Radon Content of the Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... MEASUREMENTS of the radon content of the atmosphere were made so long ago as 1905 by Eve1-2 in ... whole seemed to support the original suggestion of Elster and Geitel6 in 1903 that the radon in the atmosphere arises mainly from the soil. These workers noted that the highest ...

W. ANDERSON; W. V. MAYNEORD; R. C. TURNER

1954-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

245

Implications of the In?Situ Measured Mass Absorption Cross Section of Organic Aerosols in Mexico City on the Atmospheric Energy Balance, Satellite Retrievals, and Photochemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The absorption of short wave incoming solar radiation by the organic component of aerosols has been examined by using data from the MCMA?2003 and the 2006 MILAGRO field campaigns. Both field efforts took place in and around Mexico City. Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) was derived as a function of wavelength (300–870 nm) by combining irradiance measurements from a Multi?Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and spectrally resolved actinic flux measurements by spectroradiometry with a radiative transfer model (TUV). In addition organic aerosol mass measured by a surface deployed aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer was used to estimate the Mass Absorption Cross?section (MAC) of Organic Carbon (OC). It was found that the MAC for OC is about 10.5? m 2 / g at 300 nm and falls close to zero at about 500 nm; these values are roughly consistent with previous MAC estimates of OC and present first in?situ observations of this quantity.

B. Dix; J. C. Barnard; R. Volkamer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Azores Global Atmosphere Monitoring Complex 1. INTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the accuracy of European weather forecasts. Today, they provide a unique base for studies of atmospheric levels. Measurements in the free troposphere (FT) are particularly useful, because trace gas and particle

Honrath, Richard E.

247

Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

Crawford, T.V.

2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

248

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) is a unique research facility for studying the planetary boundary layer and for testing and calibrating atmospheric sensors. The facility includes a 300 m tower instrumented with fast- and slow-response ...

J. C. Kaimal; J. E. Gaynor

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

8, 10691088, 2008 Atmospheric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

into the atmosphere (Molina et al., 1974; Farman et al., 1985) has led to an interna- tional effort to replace

Boyer, Edmond

250

The Upper Atmosphere Observatory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with *the plasma frethe progress...explorcreated an even larger number of...the upper atmosphere and ionosphere...the upper atmosphere. For this...ionospheric plasma motion simul-taneously...field is large, the horizontal...resolved. The atmospheric gravity waves...simul-taneously at a large number of...two regions plasma drifts separated...

J. V. Evans

1972-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

251

The Upper Atmosphere Observatory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...DATA, JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND TERRESTRIAL...IN NEAR-EARTH PLASMA, SPACE SCIENCE...INVESTIGATION OF WHISTLING ATMOSPHERICS, PHILOSOPHICAL...TRANSPOLAR EXOSPHERIC PLASMA .1. PLASMASPHERE...dynamics of the upper atmosphere. For this purpose...the ionospheric plasma motion simul-taneously...

J. V. Evans

1972-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

252

5, 60416076, 2005 Atmospheric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

opportunity to examine atmospheric oxidation in a megacity that has more pollution than typical USACPD 5, 6041­6076, 2005 Atmospheric oxidation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area T. R. Shirley et.atmos-chem-phys.org/acpd/5/6041/ SRef-ID: 1680-7375/acpd/2005-5-6041 European Geosciences Union Atmospheric Chemistry

Boyer, Edmond

253

Variability of the Australian Monsoon and Precipitation Trends at Darwin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An atmospheric classification for northwestern Australia is used to define periods of monsoon activity and investigate the interannual and intraseasonal variability of the Australian monsoon, as well as long-term precipitation trends at Darwin. ...

Stuart Evans; Roger Marchand; Thomas Ackerman

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Analysis of Cloud Variability and Sampling Errors in Surface and Satellite Mesurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Cloud Variability and Sampling Errors in Analysis of Cloud Variability and Sampling Errors in Surface and Satellite Measurements Z. Li, M. C. Cribb, and F.-L. Chang Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland A. P. Trishchenko and Y. Luo Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Introduction Radiation measurements have been widely employed for evaluating cloud parameterization schemes and model simulation results. As the most comprehensive program aiming to improve cloud parameteri- zation schemes, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has an essential goal to make observations on the scale of a general circulation model gridbox, so as to define the physics underlying some of the important parameterizations in the general circulation models used in climate change

255

Posters Comparisons of Brightness Temperature Measurements and Calculations Obtained  

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Posters Comparisons of Brightness Temperature Measurements and Calculations Obtained During the Spectral Radiance Experiment Y. Han, J. B. Snider, and E. R. Westwater National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories/Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado S. H. Melfi National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland R. A. Ferrare Hughes STX Corporation Lanham, Maryland Introduction In radiometric remote sensing of the atmosphere, the ability to calculate radiances from underlying state variables is fundamental. To infer temperature and water vapor profiles from satellite- or ground-based radiometers, one must determine cloud-free regions and then calculate clear-sky radiance emerging from the top of the earth's

256

8, 215243, 2008 Enhanced variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for assessing the impact of ozone on human health, vegetation, and climate. Long- term measurements from East Introduction Ozone is one of the key species in the atmosphere. It absorbs both solar UV and terres-20 trial IR radiation, therefore protects living organisms at the Earth's surface against the harmful solar UV radiation

Boyer, Edmond

257

Experimental evidence for the role of ions in particle nucleation under atmospheric conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric (Hoppel et al. 1994...Variable concentrations of water vapour (H2O), ozone...circulating deionized water through a GoreTex tube...STP) through an ozone generator. Both the flows containing...few Pascals above the atmospheric pressure and a stable...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites  

SciTech Connect

Well-known cloud-screening algorithms, which are designed to remove cloud-contaminated aerosol optical depths (AOD) from AOD measurements, have shown great performance at many middle-to-low latitude sites around the world. However, they may occasionally fail under challenging observational conditions, such as when the sun is low (near the horizon) or when optically thin clouds with small spatial inhomogeneity occur. Such conditions have been observed quite frequently at the high-latitude Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. A slightly modified cloud-screening version of the standard algorithm is proposed here with a focus on the ARM-supported Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) data. The modified version uses approximately the same techniques as the standard algorithm, but it additionally examines the magnitude of the slant-path line of sight transmittance and eliminates points when the observed magnitude is below a specified threshold. Substantial improvement of the multi-year (1999-2012) aerosol product (AOD and its Angstrom exponent) is shown for the NSA sites when the modified version is applied. Moreover, this version reproduces the AOD product at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which was originally generated by the standard cloud-screening algorithms. The proposed minor modification is easy to implement and its application to existing and future cloud-screening algorithms can be particularly beneficial for challenging observational conditions.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Koontz, Annette S.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Barnard, James C.

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

259

On the practice of dichotomization of quantitative variables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The authors examine the practice of dichotomization of quantitative measures, wherein relationships among variables are examined after 1 or more variables have been converted to dichotomous variables by splitting the sample ...

MacCallum, R. C.; Zhang, S.; Preacher, K. J.; Rucker, D. D.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

AtmosphericAtmospheric Composition Introduction The division investigates the atmospheric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

development on observation side was the installation of an ozone observation station in Surinam in close co-operation with the Surinam Meteorological Service. Processes in the tropical regions are important for the global climate and the global atmospheric composition. The participation in Indoex (Indian Ocean Experiment) and this Surinam

Haak, Hein

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ListAtmospheric Heat Budget Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About...

262

Detection of surface mobility of poly (2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorostyrene) films by in situ variable-temperature ToF-SIMS and contact angle measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Poly (2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorostyrene) (5FPS) was prepared by bulk radical polymerization. The spin-cast films of this polymer were analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) at various temperatures ranging from room temperature to 120 °C. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the ToF-SIMS data revealed a transition temperature (TT) at which the surface structure of 5FPS was rearranged. A comparison between the results of the PCA of ToF-SIMS spectra obtained on 5FPS and polystyrene (PS) indicate that the pendant groups of 5FPS and PS moved in exactly opposite directions as the temperature increased. More pendant groups of 5FPS and PS migrated from the bulk to the surface and verse versa, respectively, as the temperature increased. These results clearly support the view that the abrupt changes in the normalized principal component 1 value was caused by the surface reorientation of the polymers and not by a change in the ion fragmentation mechanism at temperatures above the TT. Contact angle measurement, which is another extremely surface sensitive technique, was used to monitor the change in the surface tension as a function of temperature. A clear TT was determined by the contact angle measurements. The TT values determined by contact angle measurements and ToF-SIMS were very similar.

Yi Fu; Yiu-Ting R. Lau; Lu-Tao Weng; Kai-Mo Ng; Chi-Ming Chan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

AT 750: Climate dynamics: Atmospheric variability Textbook: No textbook required.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 6. The writing projects include an in-depth review of the research topics discussed in class will cover a second "hot" topic in the field of climate dynamics. The goal of the class is to develop carbon and tropospheric ozone. Nature, 485, 350­354, doi:10.1038/nature11097. Arblaster J.M. and G

264

Atmospheric Circulation Effects on Wind Speed Variability at Turbine Height  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mean monthly wind speed at 70 m above ground level is investigated for 11 sites in Minnesota for the period 1995–2003. Wind speeds at these sites show significant spatial and temporal coherence, with prolonged periods of above- and below-normal ...

Katherine Klink

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY CHEM 406 / 606 (cross listed as ATM606) Overview and Schedule ----Spring 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cycles and measurement techniques for atmospheric pollutants; study of important impacts to the atmosphere which result from anthropogenic emissions of pollutants, including acid rain, the "greenhouse in the atmosphere for climate, human health, and ecosystem health · Air pollution and atmospheric removal

Wagner, Diane

266

Conference on Atmospheric Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE half-yearly Conference of representatives of local authorities and other organisations co-operating with the Department of Scientific ... of atmospheric pollution was held in the offices of the Department on May 25. The Conference received from Dr. G. M. B. Dobson, chairman of the Atmospheric Pollution ...

1936-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Convective and Orographically...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of precipitation. These data will be combined with coincident radar, aircraft, and satellite data to improve how clouds and precipitation in low-mountain regions are...

268

Atmospheric Concentrations of CO2 from Mauna Loa, Hawaii  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Concentrations of CO2 from Mauna Loa, Hawaii Atmospheric Concentrations of CO2 from Mauna Loa, Hawaii The graphs on this page are generated from data taken from "Trends in Carbon Dioxide" page on the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) website. The NOAA website presents monthly and weekly atmospheric CO2 concentrations measured at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. It offers weekly and monthly data, additional graphs, analysis, descriptions of how the data are collected, and an animation of historical changes in atmospheric CO2. Mauna Loa constitutes the longest record of direct measurements of CO2 in the atmosphere. The measurents were started by C. David Keeling of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in March of 1958. Recent Monthly Average CO2

269

Atmospheric Pollution Research 1 (2010) 220228 Atmospheric Pollution Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric Pollution Research 1 (2010) 220228 Atmospheric Pollution Research www in modeling of the associated multiphase processes. Iron redox species are important pollutants. The oxidative capacity of the atmospheric cloud water decreases when dissolution is included

Boyer, Edmond

270

FOAM: Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FOAM: Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model FOAM: Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model FOAM: Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model FOAM is a fully coupled, mixed-resolution, general circulation model designed for high-throughput (simulated years per day) while still providing a good simulated mean climate and simulated variability. FOAM uses the combination of a low resolution (R15) atmosphere model, a highly efficient medium-resolution ocean model, and distributed memory parallel processing to achieve high throughput on relatively modest numbers of processors (16-64). The quality of the simulated climate compares well with higher resolution models. No flux corrections are used. FOAM's intended purpose is to study long-term natural variability in the climate system. FOAM is also well suited for paleoclimate applications. FOAM is highly

271

Atmospheric Physics and Earth Observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...has been used by atmospheric modelers as a vertical...Ackerman, in Atmospheric Physics from Spacelab...shut-tle allows recovery of the film, we...dry nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. To avoid water condensation on the optical...

M. HERSÉ

1984-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

272

Nature: Earth's Atmosphere and Beyond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nature: Earth's Atmosphere and Beyond ... The column summarizes research articles from Nature that report on anthropogenic activities and natural phenomena that influence the chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere. ...

Sabine Heinhorst; Gordon Cannon

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program: Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program -- Final Report. Part 1: The lower atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work done between FY91 and FY95 for the lower atmospheric portion of the joint Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program (ARSAP) within the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). The work focused on (1) developing new measurement capabilities and (2) measuring atmospheric heating in a well-defined layer and then relating it to cloud properties an water vapor content. Seven new instruments were develop3ed for use with Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs) as the host platform for flux, radiance, cloud, and water vapor measurements. Four major field campaigns were undertaken to use these new as well as existing instruments to make critically needed atmospheric measurements. Scientific results include the profiling of clear sky fluxes from near surface to 14 km and the strong indication of cloudy atmosphere absorption of solar radiation considerably greater than predicted by extant models.

Tooman, T.P. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Exploratory Systems Technology Dept.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

SRNL EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT RELEASES  

SciTech Connect

Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release.

Koffman, L; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Addis, R

2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

275

Correlated spectral variability in brown dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Models of brown dwarf atmospheres suggest they exhibit complex physical behaviour. Observations have shown that they are indeed dynamic, displaying small photometric variations over timescales of hours. Here I report results of infrared (0.95-1.64 micron) spectrophotometric monitoring of four field L and T dwarfs spanning timescales of 0.1-5.5 hrs, the goal being to learn more about the physical nature of this variability. Spectra are analysed differentially with respect to a simultaneously observed reference source in order to remove Earth-atmospheric variations. The variability amplitude detected is typically 2-10%, depending on the source and wavelength. I analyse the data for correlated variations between spectral indices. This approach is more robust than single band or chisq analyses, because it does not assume an amplitude for the (often uncertain) noise level (although the significance test still assumes a shape for the noise power spectrum). Three of the four targets show significant evidence for cor...

Bailer-Jones, C A L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Acidbase chemical reaction model for nucleation rates in the polluted atmospheric boundary layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973; f Sustainable Energy Systems Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley agreement with measurements from Mexico City and Atlanta. amines | atmospheric aerosol | climate forcing

277

Compact range for variable-zone measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector.

Burnside, Walter D. (Columbus, OH); Rudduck, Roger C. (Columbus, OH); Yu, Jiunn S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Compact range for variable-zone measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector. 2 figs.

Burnside, W.D.; Rudduck, R.C.; Yu, J.S.

1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

279

Title of Document: VARIABILITY OF THE GREAT PLAINS LOW-LEVEL JET: LARGE SCALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Title of Document: VARIABILITY OF THE GREAT PLAINS LOW-LEVEL JET: LARGE SCALE CIRCULATION Nigam, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Variability of the Great Plains Low-Level Jet Plains precipitation variability, and together, account for ~75% of the variance. Ocean basin centered

Maryland at College Park, University of

280

Ch.6 Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

difference in air pressure. #12;Measure Air Pressure-- Mercury Barometer ·Seal the glass tube at one end of latitude. Meridional flows Zonal flows #12;Learning Objective Two: Air Pressure #12;Air Pressure Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area exerted against a surface by the weight of air above

Pan, Feifei

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Article Atmospheric Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

© The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp © The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp *Corresponding author (email: luchunsong110@gmail.com) Article Atmospheric Science February 2013 Vol.58 No.4-5: 545  551 doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5556-6 A method for distinguishing and linking turbulent entrainment mixing and collision-coalescence in stratocumulus clouds LU ChunSong 1,2* , LIU YanGang 2 & NIU ShengJie 1 1 Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics and Environment of China Meteorological Administration, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China; 2 Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York 11973, USA

282

BNL | Atmospheric Systems Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program created to advance process-level understanding of the key interactions among aerosols, clouds, precipitation, radiation, dynamics, and thermodynamics, with the ultimate goal of reducing the uncertainty in global and regional climate simulations and projections. General areas of research at BNL under this program include studies of aerosol and cloud lifecycles, and cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions. Contact Robert McGraw, 631.344.3086 aerosols Aerosol Life Cycle The strategic focus of the Aerosol Life Cycle research is observation-based process science-examining the properties and evolution of atmospheric aerosols. Observations come from both long-term studies conducted by the

283

Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

Helling, Christiane

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Pre/post-strike atmospheric assessment system (PAAS)  

SciTech Connect

The Pre/Post-Strike Atmospheric Assessment System was proposed to show the importance of local meteorological conditions in the vicinity of a site suspected of storing or producing toxic agents and demonstrate a technology to measure these conditions, specifically wind fields. The ability to predict the collateral effects resulting from an attack on a facility containing hazardous materials is crucial to conducting effective military operations. Our study approach utilized a combination of field measurements with dispersion modeling to better understand which variables in terrain and weather were most important to collateral damage predictions. To develop the PAAS wind-sensing technology, we utilized a combination of emergent and available technology from micro-Doppler and highly coherent laser systems. The method used for wind sensing is to probe the atmosphere with a highly coherent laser beam. As the beam probes, light is back-scattered from particles entrained in the air to the lidar transceiver and detected by the instrument. Any motion of the aerosols with a component along the beam axis leads to a Doppler shift of the received light. Scanning in a conical fashion about the zenith results in a more accurate and two-dimensional measurement of the wind velocity. The major milestones in the benchtop system development were to verify the design by demonstrating the technique in the laboratory, then scale the design down to a size consistent with a demonstrator unit which could be built to take data in the field. The micro-Doppler heterodyne system we developed determines absolute motion by optically mixing a reference beam with the return signal and has shown motion sensitivity to better than 1 cm/s. This report describes the rationale, technical approach and laboratory testing undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a system to provide local meteorological data and predict atmospheric particulate motion. The work described herein was funded by the Laboratory Science and Technology Office as a part of the 1996 Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Peglow, S. G., LLNL; Molitoris, J. D., LLNL

1997-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

285

The Chemistry of Methane Remediation by a Non?thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The destruction of methane by a non?thermal plasma in atmospheric pressure gas streams of nitrogen with variable ... determined by on?line FTIR spectroscopy and the plasma chemistry is interpreted using kinetic m...

Kirsty J. Pringle; J. Christopher Whitehead…

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Modeling the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature Perturbations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current region of the Southern Ocean using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and the U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale ...

Natalie Perlin; Simon P. de Szoeke; Dudley B. Chelton; Roger M. Samelson; Eric D. Skyllingstad; Larry W. O’Neill

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Dynamics of Planetary Atmospheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pressure (bars) N2 82%; Ar 12%; CH4 6%CO2 96.5%; N2 3.5%Atmospheric composition 26177Orbital inclination (1992) orbiter ­ Winds from cloud-tracking and probe drifts ­ IR temperatures, solar-fixed tides, polar-Huygens mission (from 2005) ­ Doppler wind descent profile ­ IR temperature and composition maps ­ Visible, IR

Read, Peter L.

289

Physics/Oceanography 4520/5520 A Introduction to Atmospheric Science Final Exam December 10, 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) (ii) Give an example of climate variability that is internally generated within the atmosphere. (2Physics/Oceanography 4520/5520 A Introduction to Atmospheric Science Final Exam December 10, 2007 1. The existence of the stratospheric Brewer-Dobson circulation was originally inferred from water vapor

Folkins, Ian

290

An overview of atmospheric deposition chemistry over the Alps: present status and long-term trends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the major chemical variables in response to changes in the atmospheric emission of pollutants; (iii) discussAn overview of atmospheric deposition chemistry over the Alps: present status and long-term trends, Switzerland 3 Department of Hydrobiology Applied to Water Pollution, CNR Water Research Institute, 20047

Mailhes, Corinne

291

Atmospheric Science and Climate Research [EVS Program Area]  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Science and Climate Research Atmospheric Science and Climate Research EVS research, combined with portable, high-performance climate and weather applications, offers a unique look at the complexities of a dynamic planet. In an ever-changing, dynamic climate, we measure, model, and analyze atmospheric processes that are vital to understanding our planet. Our measurement capabilities range from remote sensing and surface meteorology instruments to instrumentation designed to quantify the land-atmosphere exchange of energy, water, and greenhouse gases. Modeling capabilities begin with regional-scale climate, air quality, and aerosol modeling and extend to global chemical transport models, general circulation models of the atmosphere, models of the biosphere, and coupled Earth system models.

292

Deriving emissions time series from sparse atmospheric mole fractions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A growth-based Bayesian inverse method is presented for deriving emissions of atmospheric trace species from temporally sparse measurements of their mole fractions. This work is motivated by many recent studies that have ...

Rigby, Matthew

293

ATMOSPHERIC ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch40 (1996) 223-259  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud hydrometeors (water drops, ice particles, and, particularlyATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch40 (1996) 223-259 Simulations of drop fall turbulence. The model permits us to generate different realizations of the random velocity field component

Mark, Pinsky

294

Differential atmospheric tritium sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

1987-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

295

Differential atmospheric tritium sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Optimized low-level liquid scintillation spectroscopy of 35S for atmospheric and biogeochemical chemistry applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for resolving atmospheric processes that...serve as cloud condensation nuclei affecting...measurements of atmospheric species such as...35 S in lake water (17). Our...inconsistent recovery of Ba35SO4...in 2008. Atmospheric SO2 was collected...rainwater and lake water. Anal Chem...

Lauren A. Brothers; Gerardo Dominguez; Anna Abramian; Antoinette Corbin; Ben Bluen; Mark H. Thiemens

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Numerical simulation of interannual and interdecadal variability of surface wind over the tropical Pacific  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A global atmospheric general circulation model (L9R15 AGCMs) forced by COADS SST was integrated from 1945 to 1993. Interannual and interdecadal variability of the simulated surface wind over the tropical Pacific ...

Wu Ai-ming; Zhao Yong-ping; Bai Xue-zhi…

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

On the Variability of Antarctic Circumpolar Current Fronts Inferred from 1992–2011 Altimetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) fronts, defined as water mass boundaries, have been known to respond to large-scale atmospheric variabilities, especially the Southern Hemisphere annular mode (SAM) and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ...

Yong Sun Kim; Alejandro H. Orsi

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Impact of Variable-Resolution Meshes on Midlatitude Baroclinic Eddies Using CAM-MPAS-A  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of a variable-resolution mesh on simulated midlatitude baroclinic eddies in idealized settings are examined. Both aquaplanet and Held–Suarez experiments are performed using the Model for Prediction Across Scales-Atmosphere (MPAS-A) ...

Sara A. Rauscher; Todd D. Ringler

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Southern hemisphere regional precipitation and climate variability : extremes trends and predictability.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This PhD thesis investigates the relative importance of oceanic and atmospheric influences on extremes, long-term trends, and seasonal to interannual variability of precipitation for different… (more)

Ummenhofer, Caroline C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Present and Future Modes of Low Frequency Climate Variability  

SciTech Connect

This project addressed area (1) of the FOA, “Interaction of Climate Change and Low Frequency Modes of Natural Climate Variability”. Our overarching objective is to detect, describe and understand the changes in low frequency variability between model simulations of the preindustrial climate and simulations of a doubled CO2 climate. The deliverables are a set of papers providing a dynamical characterization of interannual, decadal, and multidecadal variability in coupled models with attention to the changes in this low frequency variability between pre-industrial concentrations of greenhouse gases and a doubling of atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The principle mode of analysis, singular vector decomposition, is designed to advance our physical, mechanistic understanding. This study will include external natural variability due to solar and volcanic aerosol variations as well as variability internal to the climate system. An important byproduct is a set of analysis tools for estimating global singular vector structures from the archived output of model simulations.

Cane, Mark A.

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

302

ORISE: Climate and Atmospheric Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate and Atmospheric Research Climate and Atmospheric Research Capabilities Overview U.S. Climate Reference Network U.S. Historical Climate Network Contact Us Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Climate and Atmospheric Research The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) partners with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD) to conduct climate research focused on issues of national and global importance. Research is performed with personnel support from ORISE's Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification (IEAV) programs, as well as in collaboration with scientists and engineers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and numerous other organizations, government agencies, universities and private research institutions.

303

Ecosystem-Atmosphere Exchange of Carbon, Water and Energy over a Mixed Deciduous Forest in the Midwest  

SciTech Connect

During the project period we continued to conduct long-term (multi-year) measurements, analysis, and modeling of energy and mass exchange in and over a deciduous forest in the Midwestern United States, to enhance the understanding of soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange of carbon. At the time when this report was prepared, results from nine years of measurements (1998 - 2006) of above canopy CO2 and energy fluxes at the AmeriFlux site in the Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA (see Table 1), were available on the Fluxnet database, and the hourly CO2 fluxes for 2007 are presented here (see Figure 1). The annual sequestration of atmospheric carbon by the forest is determined to be between 240 and 420 g C m-2 a-1 for the first ten years. These estimates are based on eddy covariance measurements above the forest, with a gap-filling scheme based on soil temperature and photosynthetically active radiation. Data gaps result from missing data or measurements that were rejected in qua)lity control (e.g., during calm nights). Complementary measurements of ecological variables (i.e. inventory method), provided an alternative method to quantify net carbon uptake by the forest, partition carbon allocation in each ecosystem components, and reduce uncertainty on annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Biometric datasets are available on the Fluxnext database since 1998 (with the exclusion of 2006). Analysis for year 2007 is under completion.

Danilo Dragoni; Hans Peter Schmid; C.S.B. Grimmond; J.C. Randolph; J.R. White

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

304

Lightning, atmospheric electricity and climate change  

SciTech Connect

Temperature records indicate that a global warming of 0.5{minus}0.7{degrees}C has occurred over the past century (Hansen and Lebedeff, 1987). Whether this trend is a result of increased trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere, or simply a result of natural variability; is still not known. These temperature trends are derived from thousands of observations worldwide. However, these observations are concentrated largely over continental areas, and then mainly in the northern hemisphere`s populated regions. This northern hemisphere continental bias results in large uncertainties in estimates of global temperature trends. Due to the increasing evidence that the present buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere may result in an additional global warming of 1-5{degrees}C by the year 2050 (IPCC, 1990), it is increasingly important to find afternative methods to monitor fluctuations in global surface temperatures. As shown by two recent studies (Williams, 1992; Price, 1993), the global atmospheric electric circuit may provide a promising afternative for monitoring future climate change.

Price, C.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric trace gas Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemistry and Physics Discussions Trace gas measurements from... ., Rinsland, C. P., Stiller, G. P., and Zander, R.: On the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas......

306

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric infrared sounder Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

humidity profiles which are also measurable by a microwave sounder... on a geosynchronous satellite. The proposed microwave sounder could provide sensing of atmospheric...

307

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric exposure chambers Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atmospheric exposure chambers Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Dynamic Chamber System to Measure Gaseous Compounds Emissions...

308

Temporal Variability of Aerosol Properties during TCAP: Impact on Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect

Ground-based remote sensing and in situ observations of aerosol microphysical and optical properties have been collected during summertime (June-August, 2012) as part of the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/), which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (http://www.arm.gov/). The overall goal of the TCAP field campaign is to study the evolution of optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol transported from North America to the Atlantic and their impact on the radiation energy budget. During TCAP, the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed on Cape Cod, an arm-shaped peninsula situated on the easternmost portion of Massachusetts (along the east coast of the United States) and that is generally downwind of large metropolitan areas. The AMF site was equipped with numerous instruments for sampling aerosol, cloud and radiative properties, including a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), and a three-wavelength nephelometer. In this study we present an analysis of diurnal and day-to-day variability of the column and near-surface aerosol properties obtained from remote sensing (MFRSR data) and ground-based in situ measurements (SMPS, APS, and nephelometer data). In particular, we show that the observed diurnal variability of the MFRSR aerosol optical depth is strong and comparable with that obtained previously from the AERONET climatology in Mexico City, which has a larger aerosol loading. Moreover, we illustrate how the variability of aerosol properties impacts the direct aerosol radiative forcing at different time scales.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 10, PAGES 1519-1522, MAY 15, 2000 The impact of rising atmospheric CO2 on simulated sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atlantic sys- tem. The presence of sea ice also impacts the heat budget through its insulation of the ocean atmospheric CO2 on simulated sea ice induced thermohaline circulation variability Marika M. Holland1 , Aaron J atmospheric CO2 lev- els on the sea ice induced low frequency variability of the North Atlantic climate

310

Atmospheric Methane at Cape Meares, Oregon, U.S.A.: A High-Resolution Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Methane » Atmospheric Trace Gases » Methane » Atmospheric Methane, Cape Meares Atmospheric Methane at Cape Meares, Oregon, U.S.A.: A High-Resolution Data Base for the Period 1979-1992 DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1007 data Data (DB1007) Investigators M. A. K. Khalil and R. A. Rasmussen Description This data base presents continuous automated atmospheric methane (CH4) measurements taken at the atmospheric monitoring facility in Cape Meares, Oregon, by the Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology. The Cape Meares data represent some 119,000 individual atmospheric methane measurements carried out during 1979-1992. Analysis of ambient air (collected 12 to 72 times daily) was carried out by means of an automated sampling and measurement system, using the method of gas chromatography and

311

Correlated spectral variability in brown dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Models of brown dwarf atmospheres suggest they exhibit complex physical behaviour. Observations have shown that they are indeed dynamic, displaying small photometric variations over timescales of hours. Here I report results of infrared (0.95-1.64 micron) spectrophotometric monitoring of four field L and T dwarfs spanning timescales of 0.1-5.5 hrs, the goal being to learn more about the physical nature of this variability. Spectra are analysed differentially with respect to a simultaneously observed reference source in order to remove Earth-atmospheric variations. The variability amplitude detected is typically 2-10%, depending on the source and wavelength. I analyse the data for correlated variations between spectral indices. This approach is more robust than single band or chisq analyses, because it does not assume an amplitude for the (often uncertain) noise level (although the significance test still assumes a shape for the noise power spectrum). Three of the four targets show significant evidence for correlated variability. Some of this can be associated with specific features including Fe, FeH, VO and KI, and there is good evidence for intrinsic variability in water and possibly also methan. Yet some of this variability covers a broader spectral range which would be consistent with dust opacity variations. The underlying common cause is plausibly localized temperature or composition fluctuations caused by convection. Looking at the high signal-to-noise ratio stacked spectra we see many previously identified spectral features of L and T dwarfs, such as KI, NaI, FeH, water and methane. In particular we may have detected methane absorption at 1.3-1.4 micron in the L5 dwarf SDSS 0539-0059.

C. A. L. Bailer-Jones

2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

312

NOTE / NOTE Variability in organic matter lost by combustion in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) to the atmosphere through combustion of biomass. An estimated 1470 ± 59 km2 of peatland burns annually in boreal libère du carbone (C) directement dans l'atmosphère par la combustion de biomasse. AnnuellementNOTE / NOTE Variability in organic matter lost by combustion in a boreal bog during the 2001

Benscoter, Brian W.

313

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows |...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building...

314

Atmospheric Chemistry of Dichlorvos  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric Chemistry of Dichlorvos ... In the positive ion mode, protonated water hydrates (H3O+(H2O)n) generated by the corona discharge in the chamber diluent air were responsible for the protonation of analytes, and the ions that were mass analyzed were mainly protonated molecules ([M + H]+) and their protonated homo- and heterodimers. ... Methyl nitrite, 2-propyl nitrite and N2O5 were prepared and stored as described previously,(8, 10) and O3 in O2 diluent was generated using a Welsbach T-408 ozone generator. ...

Sara M. Aschmann; Ernesto C. Tuazon; William D. Long; Roger Atkinson

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

The Atmospheric Circulation and Observable Properties of Non-Synchronously Rotating Hot Jupiters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the feasibility of observationally constraining the rotation rate of hot Jupiters, planets that are typically assumed to have been tidally locked into synchronous rotation. We use a three-dimensional General Circulation Model to solve for the atmospheric structure of two hot Jupiters (HD 189733b and HD 209458b), assuming rotation periods that are 0.5, 1, or 2 times their orbital periods (2.2 and 3.3 days, respectively), including the effect of variable stellar heating. We compare two observable properties: 1) the spatial variation of flux emitted by the planet, measurable in orbital phase curves, and 2) the net Doppler shift in transmission spectra of the atmosphere, which is tantalizingly close to being measurable in high-resolution transit spectra. Although we find little difference between the observable properties of the synchronous and non-synchronous models of HD 189733b, we see significant differences when we compare the models of HD 209458b. In particular, the slowly rotating model of HD 2094...

Rauscher, E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

317

Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Thigpen, Larry T. (Angier, NC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Atmospheric studies in complex terrain: a planning guide for future studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to assist the US Department of Energy in Conducting its atmospheric studies in complex terrain (ASCOT0 by defining various complex terrain research systems and relating these options to specific landforms sites. This includes: (1) reviewing past meteorological and diffusion research on complex terrain; (2) relating specific terrain-induced airflow phenomena to specific landforms and time and space scales; (3) evaluating the technical difficulty of modeling and measuring terrain-induced airflow phenomena; and (4) avolving severdal research options and proposing candidate sites for continuing and expanding field and modeling work. To evolve research options using variable candidate sites, four areas were considered: site selection, terrain uniqueness and quantification, definition of research problems and research plans. 36 references, 111 figures, 20 tables.

Orgill, M.M.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

EMSL: Science: Atmospheric Aerosol Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Atmospheric Aerosol Systems atmospheric logo Nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC Observed nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC, showed evidence of being formed by reactions that transform carbonyls into imines. The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model parameterization to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations and develop a predictive understanding of climate. By elucidating the role of natural and anthropogenic regional and global climate forcing mechanisms, EMSL can provide DOE and others with the ability to develop cost-effective strategies to monitor, control and mitigate them.

320

ARM - Evolution of the Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

provides clues as to the composition of the early atmosphere. Volcanic emissions include nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and trace gases such as argon. Although oxygen,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Submitted to Journal of Physical Oceanography Sea Surface Temperature Variability Along the Path of the Antarctic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

level pressure and air-sea heat fluxes. It is found that a significant fraction of SST variability) and remote forcing by ENSO. The physical mechanisms rely on the interplay between atmospheric variability the South Pa- cific, inducing surface heat fluxes (Fs) and Ekman heat advection (Fek) anomalies. A simple

Czaja, Arnaud

322

FY 2010 Second Quarter Report Evaluation of the Liu-Daum-McGraw (LDM) Drizzle Threshold Parameterization using Measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study (VOCALS) Field Campaign  

SciTech Connect

Metric for Quarter 2: Evaluate LDM (Liu, Daum, McGraw) drizzle threshold parameterization for a range of cloud conditions by comparing the threshold function computed using measurements of cloud droplet number concentration and cloud liquid water content to measurements of drizzle droplet number concentrations and/or drizzle water content.

McGraw, R; Kleinman, LI; Springston, SR; Daum, PH; Senum, G; Wang, J

2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

323

Variable Frequency Drives  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How BPA Supports VFDs Rebates are available from your utility for Variable Frequency Drives on pumps 20hp or greater and storage fans.. Energy savings from VFDs vary and can...

324

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6 Atmospheric and Oceanic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Atmospheric Pressure Profile #12;© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Measure Air Pressure--Mercury Barometer · Seal Education, Inc. Learning Objectives · Define the concept of air pressure. · Describe instruments used to measure air pressure. · Define wind. · Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds

Pan, Feifei

325

ORISE: Capabilities in Climate and Atmospheric Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities Capabilities ORISE partners with NOAA to operate climate monitoring network U.S. Climate Reference Network (CRN) station in Hawaii The U.S. Climate Reference Network (CRN) consists of 121 stations throughout the continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii and Canada. The stations use highly accurate and reliable sensors and gauges to measure temperature, wind speed and precipitation. The network allows scientists to study the climate of an area over sustained periods, from 50 to 100 years. Pictured here is a CRN station at the Mauna Loa Slope Observatory in Hawaii. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) works closely with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD) to perform lower

326

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

Johnson, Robert E.

327

Determining neutrino oscillation parameters from atmospheric muon neutrino disappearance with three years of IceCube DeepCore data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a measurement of neutrino oscillations via atmospheric muon neutrino disappearance with three years of data of the completed IceCube neutrino detector. DeepCore, a region of denser instrumentation, enables the detection and reconstruction of atmospheric muon neutrinos between 10\\,GeV and 100\\,GeV, where a strong disappearance signal is expected. The detector volume surrounding DeepCore is used as a veto region to suppress the atmospheric muon background. Neutrino events are selected where the detected Cherenkov photons of the secondary particles minimally scatter, and the neutrino energy and arrival direction are reconstructed. Both variables are used to obtain the neutrino oscillation parameters from the data, with the best fit given by $\\Delta m^2_{32}=2.72^{+0.19}_{-0.20}\\times 10^{-3}\\,\\mathrm{eV}^2$ and $\\sin^2\\theta_{23} = 0.53^{+0.09}_{-0.12}$ (normal mass hierarchy assumed). The results are compatible and comparable in precision to those of dedicated oscillation experiments.

Aartsen, M G; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Anderson, T; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Brown, A M; Brunner, J; Buzinsky, N; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Classen, L; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eichmann, B; Eisch, J; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gier, D; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Gretskov, P; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hellwig, D; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Jurkovic, M; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kheirandish, A; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Koob, A; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kriesten, A; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kroll, M; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larsen, D T; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meli, A; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Middlemas, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Paul, L; Penek, Ö; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Pütz, J; Quinnan, M; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Rees, I; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rodrigues, J P; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sander, H -G; Sandroos, J; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Teši?, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallraff, M; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Whitehorn, N; Wichary, C; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zoll, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

VOCALS (VAMOS* Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) is an international CLIVAR program the major goal of which is to develop and promote scientific activities leading to improved understanding of the Southeast Pacific (SEP) coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system on diurnal to inter-annual timescales. The principal program objectives are: 1) the improved understanding and regional/global model representation of aerosol indirect effects over the SEP; 2) the elimination of systematic errors in the region of coupled atmospheric-ocean general circulation models, and improved model simulations and predictions of the coupled climate in the SEP and global impacts of the system variability. VOCALS is organized into two tightly coordinated components: 1) a Regional Experiment (VOCALSREx), and 2) a Modeling Program (VOCALS-Mod). Extended observations (e.g. IMET buoy, satellites, EPIC/PACS cruises) will provide important additional contextual datasets that help to link the field and the modeling components. The coordination through VOCALS of observational and modeling efforts (Fig. 3) will accelerate the rate at which field data can be used to improve simulations and predictions of the tropical climate variability [Copied from the Vocals Program Summary of June 2007, available as a link from the VOCALS web at http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/vocals/]. The CLIVAR sponsored program to under which VOCALS falls is VAMOS, which stands for Variability of the American Monsoon Systems.

Wood, Robert (VOCALS-REx PI, University of Washington); Bretherton, Christopher (GEWEX/GCSS Representative, University of Washington); Huebert, Barry (SOLAS Representative, University of Hawaii); Mechoso, Roberto C. (VOCALS Science Working Group Chair, UCLA); Weller, Robert (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

329

Transport of Atmospheric Aerosol by Gap Winds in the Columbia River Gorge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Typical diurnal wind patterns and their relationship to transport of atmospheric aerosol in the Columbia River gorge of Oregon and Washington are addressed in this paper. The measurement program included measurements of light scattering by ...

Mark C. Green; Jin Xu; Narendra Adhikari

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Sound Waves in the Atmosphere at Infrasonic Frequencies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various geophysical processes generate sound waves in the atmosphere. Some typical sources are auroral discharges in the upper atmosphere tornadoes and severe storms surface waves on the oceans volcanic explosions earthquakes and atmospheric oscillations arising from unstable wind flow at the tropopause. Man?made sources include powerful explosions and the shock waves from vehicles moving at supersonic speeds at altitudes below about 125 km. The components of sound?wave energy at infrasonic frequencies (oscillation periods >1.0 sec) are propagated for large distances (thousands of kilometers) over the earth's surface with very little loss of energy from absorption by viscosity and heat conduction. But the propagation depends strongly on (a) the horizontally stratified temperature structure of the atmosphere (b) the influence of gravity at oscillation periods greater than the atmospheric resonance period ?300 sec and (c) the nonuniform distribution of atmospheric winds. The microphones and electroacoustical apparatus at an infrasonics observation station e.g. the one at Washington D. C. measure (1) the amplitude and waveform of incident sound pressure (2) the direction of local propagation of the wave (3) the horizontal trace velocity and (4) the distribution of sound wave energy at various oscillation frequencies. Researches on propagation require observational data from a network of stations separated geographically by large distances coupled with theoretical analysis of sound propagation to arrive at useful results on the acoustics of the atmosphere.

Richard K. Cook

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Atmospheric model intercomparison project: Monsoon simulations  

SciTech Connect

The simulation of monsoons, in particular the Indian summer monsoon, has proven to be a critical test of a general circulation model`s ability to simulate tropical climate and variability. The Monsoon Numerical Experimentation Group has begun to address questions regarding the predictability of monsoon extremes, in particular conditions associated with El Nino and La Nina conditions that tend to be associated with drought and flood conditions over the Indian subcontinent, through a series of seasonal integrations using analyzed initial conditions from successive days in 1987 and 1988. In this paper the authors present an analysis of simulations associated with the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP), a coordinated effort to simulate the 1979--1988 decade using standardized boundary conditions with approximately 30 atmospheric general circulation models. The 13 models analyzed to date are listed. Using monthly mean data from these simulations they have calculated indices of precipitation and wind shear in an effort to access the performance of the models over the course of the AMIP decade.

Sperber, K.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison; Palmer, T.N. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading (United Kingdom)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Clear Skies S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

S. A. Clough S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, MA 02139 The objective of this research effort is to develop radiative transfer models that are consistent with Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program spectral radiance measurements for clear and cloudy atmospheres. Our approach is to develop the model physics and related databases with a line-by-line model in the context of available spectral radiance measurements. The line-by- line mode! then functions as an intermediate standard to both develop and validate rapid radiative transfer models appropriate to GCM applications. consistent with downlooking data taken with the high spectral resolution interferometer sounder (HIS) (Smith et al. 1983) from 20 km and with simultaneous data taken

333

Density measurements Viscosity measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density measurements Viscosity measurements Temperature measurements Pressure measurements Flow rate measurements Velocity measurements Sensors How to measure fluid flow properties ? Am´elie Danlos Ravelet Experimental methods for fluid flows: an introduction #12;Density measurements Viscosity

Ravelet, Florent

334

The ARM Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI): Status and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The ARM Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI): Status and The ARM Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI): Status and Preliminary Assessments of Instrument Deployments in 2006 Dedecker, Ralph University of Wisconsin Demirgian, Jack Argonne National Laboratory Knuteson, Robert University Of Wisconsin Revercomb, Henry University of Wisconsin-Madison Tobin, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Instruments One of the key operational instruments at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) is the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). This instrument provides the ARM program with surface-based observations of infrared spectrally resolved radiance from a vertically directed cone with better than 1% accuracy. The data from

335

The Atmospheric Monitoring Strategy for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique (IACT) is unusual in astronomy as the atmosphere actually forms an intrinsic part of the detector system, with telescopes indirectly detecting very high energy particles by the generation and transport of Cherenkov photons deep within the atmosphere. This means that accurate measurement, characterisation and monitoring of the atmosphere is at the very heart of successfully operating an IACT system. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the next generation IACT observatory with an ambitious aim to improve the sensitivity of an order of magnitude over current facilities, along with corresponding improvements in angular and energy resolution and extended energy coverage, through an array of Large (23m), Medium (12m) and Small (4m) sized telescopes spread over an area of order ~km$^2$. Whole sky coverage will be achieved by operating at two sites: one in the northern hemisphere and one in the southern hemisphere. This proceedings will cover the characterisation of...

Daniel, M K

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Data Analysis Methods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Data Analysis Methods R. O. Knuteson, W. L. Smith, S. A. Ackerman, H. E. Revercomb, H. Woolf, and H. Howell Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction Data from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Inter- ferometer (AERI) have been analyzed for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Fourier Transform Data Analysis Tools science team project under the direction of William L. Smith of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The data consist of observations of the downwelling infrared emission at the surface from gaseous atmospheric constituents and from cloud and particulate aerosols. The observations are at 0.5 cm-1 spectral resolution over the

337

O3-NOx-VOC sensitivity and NOx-VOC indicators in Paris: Results from models and Atmospheric Pollution Over  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from the Atmospheric Pollution Over the Paris Area campaign near Paris, with special attention Composition and Structure: Pollution--urban and regional (0305); 0365 Atmospheric Composition and Structure-VOC indicators in Paris: Results from models and Atmospheric Pollution Over the Paris Area (ESQUIF) measurements

Menut, Laurent

338

Variable Frequency Pump Drives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-frequency electric motor drive. What is happenin9 with variable frequency driven pun,ps is a classical illustration that evolution in technical products takes place not only because of changes in the processes served by these products, or because of innovations...-pole 3550 rpm squirrel caqe induction motor became available in the early 1930s that high pressure pumps operating at that speed could be buil t. And now, in the 1980s, the development of the solid-state, variable frequency electric motor drive...

Karassik, I. J.; Petraccaro, L. L.; McGuire, J. T.

339

Fluxes of methane between landfills and the atmosphere: Natural and engineered controls  

SciTech Connect

Field measurement of landfill methane emissions indicates natural variability spanning more than 2 seven orders of magnitude, from approximately 0.0004 to more than 4000 g m{sub -2} day{sup -1}. This wide range reflects net emissions resulting from production (methanogenesis), consumption (methanotrophic oxidation), and gaseous transport processes. The determination of an {open_quotes}average{close_quotes} emission rate for a given field site requires sampling designs and statistical techniques which consider spatial and temporal variability. Moreover, particularly at sites with pumped gas recovery systems, it is possible for methanotrophic microorganisms in aerated cover soils to oxidize all of the methane from landfill sources below and, additionally, to oxidize methane diffusing into cover soils from atmospheric sources above. In such cases, a reversed soil gas concentration gradient is observed in shallow cover soils, indicating bidirectional diffusional transport to the depth of optimum methane oxidation. Rates of landfill methane oxidation from field and laboratory incubation studies range up to 166 g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} among the highest for any natural setting, providing an effective natural control on net emissions. Estimates of worldwide landfill methane emissions to the atmosphere have ranged from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup -1}, differing mainly in assumed methane yields from estimated quantities of landfilled refuse. At highly controlled landfill sites in developed countries, landfill methane is often collected via vertical wells or horizontal collectors. Recovery of landfill methane through engineered systems can provide both environmental and energy benefits by mitigating subsurface migration, reducing surface emissions, and providing an alternative energy resource for industrial boiler use, on-site electrical generation, or upgrading to a substitute natural gas.

Bogner, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Meadows, M. [ETSU, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Czepiel, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

DISTRIBUTION OF CO{sub 2} IN SATURN'S ATMOSPHERE FROM CASSINI/CIRS INFRARED OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the CO{sub 2} distribution in Saturn's atmosphere based on analysis of infrared spectral observations of Saturn made by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer aboard the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft was launched in 1997 October, inserted in Saturn's orbit in 2004 July, and has been successfully making infrared observations of Saturn, its rings, Titan, and other icy satellites during well-planned orbital tours. The infrared observations, made with a dual Fourier transform spectrometer in both nadir- and limb-viewing modes, cover spectral regions of 10-1400 cm{sup –1}, with the option of variable apodized spectral resolutions from 0.53 to 15 cm{sup –1}. An analysis of the observed spectra with well-developed radiative transfer models and spectral inversion techniques has the potential to provide knowledge of Saturn's thermal structure and composition with global distributions of a series of gases. In this paper, we present an analysis of a large observational data set for retrieval of Saturn's CO{sub 2} distribution utilizing spectral features of CO{sub 2} in the Q-branch of the ?{sub 2} band, and discuss its possible relationship to the influx of interstellar dust grains. With limited spectral regions available for analysis, due to low densities of CO{sub 2} and interference from other gases, the retrieved CO{sub 2} profile is obtained as a function of a model photochemical profile, with the retrieved values at atmospheric pressures in the region of ?1-10 mbar levels. The retrieved CO{sub 2} profile is found to be in good agreement with the model profile based on Infrared Space Observatory measurements with mixing ratios of ?4.9 × 10{sup –10} at atmospheric pressures of ?1 mbar.

Abbas, M. M.; LeClair, A. [NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Woodard, E.; Young, M.; Stanbro, M. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Flasar, F. M.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bjoraker, G.; Brasunas, J.; Jennings, D. E. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kunde, V. G., E-mail: Mian.M.Abbas@nasa.gov, E-mail: Andre.C.LeClair@nasa.gov, E-mail: eaw0009@uah.edu, E-mail: mcs0001@uah.edu, E-mail: youngmm@uah.edu, E-mail: f.m.flasar@nasa.gov, E-mail: virgil.g.kunde@gsfc.nasa.gov [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Collaboration: and the Cassini/CIRS team

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Observing chemistry of atmospheric particles | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Observing chemistry of atmospheric particles Observing chemistry of atmospheric particles Review article reached the International Reviews in Physical Chemistry most read list NULL...

342

Impact of Closing Canada’s Largest Point-Source of Mercury Emissions on Local Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(29) Solar radiation measurements at the airport were initiated in August 2010. ... Steffen, A.; Schroeder, W. Standard Operating Procedures for Total Gaseous Mercury Measurements—Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Network (CAMNet); Environment Canada: Toronto, Canada, 1999. ...

Chris S. Eckley; Matthew T. Parsons; Rachel Mintz; Monique Lapalme; Maxwell Mazur; Robert Tordon; Robert Elleman; Jennifer A. Graydon; Pierrette Blanchard; Vincent St Louis

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

343

Sub-daily Statistical Downscaling of Meteorological Variables Using Neural Networks  

SciTech Connect

A new open source neural network temporal downscaling model is described and tested using CRU-NCEP reanal ysis and CCSM3 climate model output. We downscaled multiple meteorological variables in tandem from monthly to sub-daily time steps while also retaining consistent correlations between variables. We found that our feed forward, error backpropagation approach produced synthetic 6 hourly meteorology with biases no greater than 0.6% across all variables and variance that was accurate within 1% for all variables except atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and precipitation. Correlations between downscaled output and the expected (original) monthly means exceeded 0.99 for all variables, which indicates that this approach would work well for generating atmospheric forcing data consistent with mass and energy conserved GCM output. Our neural network approach performed well for variables that had correlations to other variables of about 0.3 and better and its skill was increased by downscaling multiple correlated variables together. Poor replication of precipitation intensity however required further post-processing in order to obtain the expected probability distribution. The concurrence of precipitation events with expected changes in sub ordinate variables (e.g., less incident shortwave radiation during precipitation events) were nearly as consistent in the downscaled data as in the training data with probabilities that differed by no more than 6%. Our downscaling approach requires training data at the target time step and relies on a weak assumption that climate variability in the extrapolated data is similar to variability in the training data.

Kumar, Jitendra [ORNL] [ORNL; Brooks, Bjørn-Gustaf J. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Observed and modeled relationships among Arctic climate variables Yonghua Chen, James R. Miller, and Jennifer A. Francis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in our understanding of these processes. In addition to the traditional approach of validating individual variables with observed fields, we demonstrate that a comparison of covariances among interrelated and Atmospheric Dynamics: Polar meteorology; 3359 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Radiative processes; 9315

Aires, Filipe

345

Radon Content of the Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... preliminary work. The absence of levels of a higher order suggests that the contribution of radon from this source does not represent a significant addition to the total atmospheric level. ... Domestic 0.70

W. ANDERSON; R. C. TURNER

1956-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

346

Earth's early atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cores from which greenhouse gases have been measured. Camp Century and Dye 3 are from Greenland, the other cores are from...temperature (g cm-2Year (in) ~~~~(00) yr1) Camp Century 1387 1966 1885-24 32 Dye 3 2037 1981 2480-19.6...

JF Kasting

1993-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

347

Introduction The Atmospheric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

it is hoped that this species can be retrieved from ACE. Carbon tetrachloride Since the discovery of the ozone has had an impact. The first near global distribution of carbon tetrachloride [1] was obtained from ACE occultation measurements (see below). Low altitude carbon tetrachloride VMRs (volume mixing ratios

348

Laser Atmospheric Studies with VERITAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a calibrated laser pulse propagates through the atmosphere, the amount of Rayleigh-scattered light arriving at the VERITAS telescopes can be calculated precisely. This technique was originally developed for the absolute calibration of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray fluorescence telescopes but is also applicable to imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). In this paper, we present two nights of laser data taken with the laser at various distances away from the VERITAS telescopes and compare it to Rayleigh scattering simulations.

C. M. Hui; for the VERITAS collaboration

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

349

Modelling the Effect of Ocean Waves on the Atmospheric and Ocean Boundary Layers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ocean waves, in addition to generating direct forces on fixed and floating offshore wind generator structures, also have significant indirect effects via their influence on the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers above and below the water surface. In the atmospheric boundary layer the waves act as roughness elements, influencing the turbulent flow and the vertical wind speed profile, and induce oscillatory motions in the airflow. Spray droplets from breaking wave crests enhance structure corrosion, and may lead to icing under low-temperature conditions. Below the water surface, the air-sea momentum flux and mechanical energy flux, mediated by the waves and wave-generated turbulence, affect the vertical profiles of ocean current, temperature, and salinity. Effects include modifying the structural forces and dynamics, and the movement and dispersion of marine organisms, pollutants, and air bubbles generated by breaking waves, with consequences for fouling, corrosion, and environmental impact. Measurement of relevant airflow and ocean dynamical variables is also challenging, as near the water surface it is often necessary to use instruments mounted on moving measurement platforms. Modelling such boundary-layer effects is a complex task, as a result of feedbacks between the airflow, wave field, current field, and turbulence in the atmosphere and the ocean. We present results from a coupled model study of the North Sea and Norwegian Sea area. We employ a mesoscale atmosphere model (WRF) and a spectral wave model (WAM), running simultaneously and coupled using the open-source coupler MCEL which can interpolate between different model grids and time steps. To investigate the ocean boundary layer, one-dimensional model experiments were performed for an idealized Ekman layer and for locations in the North Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and the northern Pacific, using a version of the GOTM turbulence model, modified to take wave dynamics into account. Results show how the wave field alters the ocean's aerodynamic roughness and the air–sea momentum flux, depending on the relation between the surface wind speed and the propagation speed of the wave crests (the wave age). These effects will feed back into the airflow, wind speed and turbulence profile in the boundary layer. The ocean dynamics experiments showed results which compare favourably with field observations from the LOTUS3 and PROVESS experiments in the north Atlantic and North Sea, and Ocean Weather Station Papa in the Pacific Ocean.

Alastair D. Jenkins; Mostafa Bakhoday Paskyabi; Ilker Fer; Alok Gupta; Muralidhar Adakudlu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

ARM - Measurement - Precipitation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsPrecipitation govMeasurementsPrecipitation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitation All liquid or solid phase aqueous particles that originate in the atmosphere and fall to the earth's surface. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer LDIS : Laser Disdrometer MWRHF : Microwave Radiometer - High Frequency

351

ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF RADIOXENON  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive xenon (radioxenon) is produced by the fissioning of nuclear material, either via neutron-induced or spontaneous fission, and also via neutron activation of xenon gas and other reactions. The most abundant xenon isotopes in the atmosphere are 131mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe, having been measured at several locations in the northern hemisphere associated with reactor operation, medical isotope production, and more recently associated with the spontaneous fission of 240Pu from the legacy materials at plutonium production facility in Hanford, Washington. Radioactive xenon measurement at levels near the average atmospheric level (1-10 mBq/m3) is a “specialty” measurement, requiring specialized collection, separation, and nuclear measurement techniques. This paper describes the political and scientific drivers for making radioxenon measurements, background sources, and current techniques for these measurements.

Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.

2007-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

352

Biological sources and sinks of methane in tropical habitats and tropical atmospheric chemistry. Doctoral thesis  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this study include: two methods for measuring methane emission from a tropical lake; methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama; methane emission from wetlands in central Panama; consumption of atmospheric methane in soils of central Panama: effects of agricultural development; a seasonal study of soil-atmosphere methane, carbon dioxide, and 222Rn flux in a tropical moist forest; and the effects of tropical deforestation on global and regional atmospheric chemistry.

Keller, M.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

On Correction of Diffuse Radiation Measured by MFRSR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measured by MFRSR T. B. Zhuravleva Institute of Atmospheric Optics, SB RAS Tomsk, Russia M. A. Sviridenkov and P. P. Anikin A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, RAS...

354

ARM - Measurement - Cloud top height  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud top height For a given cloud or cloud layer, the highest level of the atmosphere where...

355

ARM - Field Campaign - ASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared govCampaignsASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology 2008.07.08 - 2008.07.18 Lead Scientist : Michael Howard For data sets, see below. Description Goals of assist were to intercompare radiance spectra and profile retrievals from a new AERI-like instrument, called "ASSIST" with the SGP site AERI(s) and calculations from Radiosondes measurements. * To bring the ASSIST instrument to the SGP ACRF and perform simultaneous measurements of the sky radiation with those from the AERI. * On relatively cloud-free days, release a special radiosonde at the

356

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

Variable depth core sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Variable laser attenuator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

Foltyn, S.R.

1987-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

360

Variable depth core sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Atmospheric Chemistry, Modeling, and Biogeochemistry of Mercury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

activities that release mercury to the atmosphere include coal burning, industrial processes, waste incine

362

Measurement of the atmospheric reactivity of emissions from gasoline and alternative-fueled vehicles: Assessment of available methodologies. Part 1. Indoor smog chamber study of reactivity. Final report for the first year, January 1-December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A set of multiple indoor smog chambers were used to measure the increase in smog formation (smog = NO oxidation + O3 formation) from a series of individual test volatile organic compounds (VOC`s), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), when they were added to a standard urban mixture and irradiated for 10-12 hours with a solar simulator. The chambers and the mixtures were designed to simulate the Carter incremental reactivity concept that is being used in California. The test compounds covered a wide range of mechanistic uncertainties and predicted reactivities (reactivity is the increase in smog divided by the amount of test compound added). Also, the chambers were used to test the recently developed Integrated Empirical Rate (IER) Model which predicts that the smog formation of a mixture is constant and independent of NOx in the so-called light-limited regime.

Kelly, N.A.; Wang, P.; Japar, S.M.; Hurley, M.D.; Wallington, T.J.

1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

363

Spectrophotometric Resolution of Stellar Atmospheres with Microlensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microlensing is a powerful tool for studying stellar atmospheres because as the source crosses regions of formally infinite magnification (caustics) the surfaceof the star is resolved, thereby allowing one to measure the radial intensity profile, both photometrically and spectroscopically. However, caustic crossing events are relatively rare, and monitoring them requires intensive application of telescope resources. It is therefore essential that the observational parameters needed to accurately measure the intensity profile are quantified. We calculate the expected errors in the recovered radial intensity profile as a function of the unlensed flux, source radius, spatial resolution the recovered intensity profile, and caustic crossing time for the two principle types of caustics: point-mass and binary lenses. We demonstrate that for both cases there exist simple scaling relations between these parameters and the resultant errors. We find that the error as a function of the spatial resolution of the recovered profile, parameterized by the number of radial bins, increases as $N_R^{3/2}$, considerably faster than the naive $N_R^{1/2}$ expectation. Finally, we discuss the relative advantages of binary caustic-crossing events and point-lens events. Binary events are more common, easier to plan for, and provide more homogeneous information about the stellar atmosphere. However, a sub-class of point-mass events with low impact parameters can provide dramatically more information provided that they can be recognized in time to initiate observations.

B. Scott Gaudi; Andrew Gould

1998-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

364

Modeling of atmospheric corrosion behavior of weathering steel in sulfur dioxide-polluted atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric corrosion resistance of carbon steel (CS) and high-phosphorus weathering steel (WS, Acr-Ten A) was compared after exposure for up to 6 years in Taiwan. In an industrial atmosphere, corrosion kinetics of WS after 3 years of exposure deviated from behavior predicted by the well-known bilogarithmic law. This deviation was simulated using a laboratory accelerated test under cyclic wet/dry conditions with addition of 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). In-situ electrochemical impedance measurements also were carried out in a modified three-electrode cell covered by a thin electrolyte layer to investigate corrosion behavior of WS in SO{sub 2}-polluted environments. Three impedance models were proposed to explain the characteristic corrosion behavior of WS in various stages of exposure.

Wang, J.H.; Shih, H.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wei, F.I. [China Steel Corp., Kaoshiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Paleopressure of Mars' atmosphere from small ancient1 craters2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measurements18 are required45 #12; 3 to determine the history of Mars' atmosphere. Wind erosion rivers to flow early in Mars history,12 which was affected by P via direct and indirect greenhouse can remove >90% of the kinetic energy of >240 kg30 impactors7 ; Titan's paucity of small craters

Kite, Edwin

366

ARM - Measurement - Isotope ratio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsIsotope ratio govMeasurementsIsotope ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Isotope ratio Ratio of stable isotope concentrations. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Field Campaign Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Datastreams FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes

367

Detailed Atmosphere Modeling for the Neutron Star 1E1207.4–5209: Evidence of Oxygen/Neon Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a comprehensive investigation of the two broad absorption features observed in the X-ray spectrum of the neutron star 1E1207.4-5209 based on a recent analysis of the 260 ks XMM-Newton data by Mori et al. Expanding on earlier work by Hailey & Mori, we have examined all previously proposed atmospheric models for 1E1207.4-5209. Using our atomic code, which rapidly solves Schrödinger's equation for arbitrary ions in strong magnetic field, we have systematically constructed atmospheric models by calculating polarization-dependent LTE opacities and addressed all the physics relevant to strongly magnetized plasmas. We have been able to rule out virtually all atmospheric models because they either do not sustain an ionization balance consistent with the claimed atmosphere composition or because they predict line strengths and line widths that are inconsistent with the data. Only oxygen or neon atmospheres at B ~ 1012 G provide self-consistent atmospheric solutions of the appropriate ionization balance that also have line widths, strengths, and energies consistent with the observations. The observed features are likely composed of several bound-bound transition lines from highly ionized oxygen/neon, and they are broadened primarily by motional Stark effects and magnetic field variation over the line-emitting region. Further considerations of plausible mechanisms for the formation of a mid-Z atmosphere likely rule out neon atmospheres and have important implications for the fallback mechanism in supernova ejecta. Future high-resolution spectroscopy missions such as Constellation-X will be able to resolve predicted substructure in the absorption features and will measure magnetic field strength and gravitational redshift independently to better than 10% accuracy.

Kaya Mori; Charles J. Hailey

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Increasing atmospheric burden of ethanol in the United States J. A. de Gouw,1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasing atmospheric burden of ethanol in the United States J. A. de Gouw,1,2 J. B. Gilman,1,2 A; revised 25 June 2012; accepted 1 July 2012; published 4 August 2012. [1] The use of ethanol 10% ethanol. In accordance with this increased use, atmospheric measurements of volatile organic

Goldstein, Allen

369

A rapid and precise method for sampling and determining the oxygen isotope ratio of atmospheric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2002; Accepted 1 March 2002 A quantitative method for cryogenically sampling atmospheric water vapor recovery of a vaporized, known, 18 O water standard to 0.2% precision. Copyright # 2002 John Wiley & Sons differentially affect both the concentration and isotope ratio of atmospheric water vapor.5,8,9 Measurements

Ehleringer, Jim

370

QUANTIFYING ORGANIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENT EDDY MOTION USING NONLINEAR TIME SERIES ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the exchange rates of mass and energy between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere. Around the world measurements of carbon and energy exchange between the vegetation and the atmosphere (Kaiser, 1998). It has layer (ASL). Within the ASL, the flow statistics are typically one-dimensional and well described

Katul, Gabriel

371

Terahertz atmospheric attenuation and continuum effects David M. Slocum,*a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Terahertz atmospheric attenuation and continuum effects David M. Slocum,*a Thomas M. Goyette such as pollution monitoring and detection of energetic chemicals are of particular interest. Although there has been much attention to atmospheric effects over narrow frequency windows, accurate measurements across

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

372

CDIAC Atmospheric Pressure Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Pressure CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Pressure Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; through 1990 Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of sea-level pressure Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; some through most recent month

373

National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NARAC TOC NARAC TOC The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center, NARAC, provides tools and services to the Federal Government, that map the probable spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC provides atmospheric plume predictions in time for an emergency manager to decide if taking protective action is necessary to protect the health and safety of people in affected areas. Located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NARAC is a national support and resource center for planning, real-time assessment, emergency response, and detailed studies of incidents involving a wide variety of hazards, including nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological, and natural emissions. In an emergency situation (if lives are at risk), event-specific NARAC

374

CDIAC Atmospheric Moisture Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Moisture Atmospheric Moisture CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Moisture Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of dew point depression (combined with air temperature) Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Regional Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Six- and Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 Former U.S.S.R. Stations (CDIAC NDP-048) V. Razuvaev et al. Surface stations; 6- and 3-hourly observations of relative humidity, vapor pressure, humidity deficit, and dew point temperature Varies by station; through 2000

375

Chemical modeling of exoplanet atmospheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The past twenty years have revealed the diversity of planets that exist in the Universe. It turned out that most of exoplanets are different from the planets of our Solar System and thus, everything about them needs to be explored. Thanks to current observational technologies, we are able to determine some information about the atmospheric composition, the thermal structure and the dynamics of these exoplanets, but many questions remain still unanswered. To improve our knowledge about exoplanetary systems, more accurate observations are needed and that is why the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) is an essential space mission. Thanks to its large spectral coverage and high spectral resolution, EChO will provide exoplanetary spectra with an unprecedented accuracy, allowing to improve our understanding of exoplanets. In this work, we review what has been done to date concerning the chemical modeling of exoplanet atmospheres and what are the main characteristics of warm exoplanet atmospheres, which a...

Venot, Olivia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

atmospheric pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description (Abstract):Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords atmospheric pressure climate NASA SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 46 MiB)

377

Report of the Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Working Group  

SciTech Connect

The highest priority of the Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Experiment Working Group is the development of a real-time, precision experiment that measures the pp solar neutrino flux. A measurement of the pp solar neutrino flux, in comparison with the existing precision measurements of the high energy {sup 8}B neutrino flux, will demonstrate the transition between vacuum and matter-dominated oscillations, thereby quantitatively testing a fundamental prediction of the standard scenario of neutrino flavor transformation. The initial solar neutrino beam is pure {nu}{sub e}, which also permits sensitive tests for sterile neutrinos. The pp experiment will also permit a significantly improved determination of {theta}{sub 12} and, together with other solar neutrino measurements, either a measurement of {theta}{sub 13} or a constraint a factor of two lower than existing bounds. In combination with the essential pre-requisite experiments that will measure the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux with a precision of 5%, a measurement of the pp solar neutrino flux will constitute a sensitive test for non-standard energy generation mechanisms within the Sun. The Standard Solar Model predicts that the pp and {sup 7}Be neutrinos together constitute more than 98% of the solar neutrino flux. The comparison of the solar luminosity measured via neutrinos to that measured via photons will test for any unknown energy generation mechanisms within the nearest star. A precise measurement of the pp neutrino flux (predicted to be 92% of the total flux) will also test stringently the theory of stellar evolution since the Standard Solar Model predicts the pp flux with a theoretical uncertainty of 1%. We also find that an atmospheric neutrino experiment capable of resolving the mass hierarchy is a high priority. Atmospheric neutrino experiments may be the only alternative to very long baseline accelerator experiments as a way of resolving this fundamental question. Such an experiment could be a very large scale water Cerenkov detector, or a magnetized detector with flavor and antiflavor sensitivity. Additional priorities are nuclear physics measurements which will reduce the uncertainties in the predictions of the Standard Solar Model, and similar supporting measurements for atmospheric neutrinos (cosmic ray fluxes, magnetic fields, etc.). We note as well that the detectors for both solar and atmospheric neutrino measurements can serve as multipurpose detectors, with capabilities of discovering dark matter, relic supernova neutrinos, proton decay, or as targets for long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments.

Back, H.; Bahcall, J.N.; Bernabeu, J.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowles, T.; Calaprice, F.; Champagne, A.; Freedman, S.; Gai, M.; Galbiati, C.; Gallagher, H.; Gonzalez-Garcia, C.; Hahn, R.L.; Heeger, K.M.; Hime, A.; Jung, C.K.; Klein, J.R.; Koike, M.; Lanou, R.; Learned, J.G.; Lesko, K.T.; Losecco, J.; Maltoni, M.; Mann, A.; McKinsey, D.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Pena-Garay, C.; Petcov, S.T.; Piepke, A.; Pitt, M.; Raghavan, R.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Scholberg, K.; Sobel, H.W.; Takeuchi, T.; Vogelaar, R.; Wolfenstein, L.

2004-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

378

SIO 217a Atmospheric and Climate Sciences I: Atmospheric Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Radiant Energy. Radiative Transfer. Transport.) 10-Oct W 3 More Transfer Processes 15-Oct M 4 4 Gas. Equation of State. Hydrostatic Equilibrium.) 3-Oct W 2 2.11 First and Second Laws and Characteristics. Precipitation Processes. Radiative Transfer in a Cloudy Atmosphere. Fogs, Stratus

Russell, Lynn

379

Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery Linked Environments for Atmospheric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unidata Program Center #12;Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery The Team: 9 institutions and 105 MethodologyTraditional NWP Methodology STATIC OBSERVATIONS Radar Data Mobile Mesonets Surface Observations Satellites The Process is Entirely Prescheduled and Serial; It Does NOT Respond to the Weather! The Process

380

Trends and Inferred Emissions of Atmospheric High Molecular Weight Perfluorocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 36 Northern Hemisphere and 468F18. Based on our observations, the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these high12, 0.27 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. Newly measured infrared absorption

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381

Climatology of extratropical atmospheric wave packets in the northern hemisphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Planetary and synoptic scale wave-packets represents one important component of the atmospheric large-scale circulation. These dissipative structures are able to rapidly transport eddy kinetic energy, generated locally (e.g. by baroclinic conversion), downstream along the upper tropospheric flow. The transported energy, moving faster than individual weather systems, will affect the development of the next meteorological system on the leading edge of the wave packet, creating a chain of connections between systems that can be far apart in time and space, with important implications on predictability. In this work we present a different and novel approach to investigate atmospheric variability, based on the objective recognition of planetary and synoptic wave packets. We have developed an objective tracking algorithm which allows to extract relevant statistical properties of the wave trains as a function of their dominant wavelength. We have applied the algorithm to the daily analysis (every 12h) from 1958-2009...

Grazzini, Federico

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Wintertime measurements of stratospheric HNO[sub 3] as part of the ISY polar ozone project  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric infrared emission has been recorded with a scanning variable-filter radiometer on eight stratospheric balloon flights at Alert, inside the arctic vortex, from Dec. 1991 to Mar. 1992. The radiometer and the data analysis for the determination of the altitude distribution of nitric acid vapour are described. The time development of the nitric acid altitude profile at Alert is presented. A sudden change in the profile and vertical column density appears to be associated with the mid-January stratospheric warming. There is good overall agreement between these results and other arctic winter measurements. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Fast, H.; McElroy, C.T.; Wardle, D.I. (Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada)); Rosen, J.M. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States))

1993-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

383

Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 17431758 Impact of urban heat island on regional atmospheric pollution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants over the Paris region. One anticyclonic episode from Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Regional atmospheric pollution; Urban area micrometeorology are large sources of atmospheric pollutants. Their spatial distribution and their temporal evolution can

Ribes, Aurélien

384

Continuous-variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian mixed states  

SciTech Connect

Many different quantum-information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding, and entanglement-based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is, however, hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order nonlinearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne measurements, and classical communication to distill the entanglement, and we find that by using this method the entanglement can be probabilistically increased for some specific non-Gaussian noise channels.

Dong Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1/Bau 24, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Building 309, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Heersink, Joel; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1/Bau 24, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Optics, Information and Photonics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Str. 7/B2, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Filip, Radim [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17 Listopadu 50, CZ-77200 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Andersen, Ulrik L. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Building 309, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

PHP: Constructs and Variables Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHP: Constructs and Variables Introduction This document describes: 1. the syntax and types of variables, 2. PHP control structures (i.e., conditionals and loops), 3. mixed-mode processing, 4. how to use one script from within another, 5. how to define and use functions, 6. global variables in PHP, 7

Vander Zanden, Brad

386

Variable path length spectrophotometric probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact, variable pathlength, fiber optic probe for spectrophotometric measurements of fluids in situ. The probe comprises a probe body with a shaft having a polished end penetrating one side of the probe, a pair of optic fibers, parallel and coterminous, entering the probe opposite the reflecting shaft, and a collimating lens to direct light from one of the fibers to the reflecting surface of the shaft and to direct the reflected light to the second optic fiber. The probe body has an inlet and an outlet port to allow the liquid to enter the probe body and pass between the lens and the reflecting surface of the shaft. A linear stepper motor is connected to the shaft to cause the shaft to advance toward or away from the lens in increments so that absorption measurements can be made at each of the incremental steps. The shaft is sealed to the probe body by a bellows seal to allow freedom of movement of the shaft and yet avoid leakage from the interior of the probe.

O'Rourke, Patrick E. (157 Greenwood Dr., Martiney, GA 30907); McCarty, Jerry E. (104 Recreation Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Haggard, Ricky A. (1144 Thornwood Drive, North Augusta, SC 29891)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Heart rate variability in mice with coronary heart disease  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat fluctuation of the heart rate, is a non-invasive test that measures the autonomic regulation of the heart. Assessment of HRV has been shown to predict the risk of mortality ...

Zapanta, Laurence (Laurence F.)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 2014-2015  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 2014-2015 Graduate Student Handbook followed a Code of Honor, which is stated in this very simple verse: An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal that knowledge for the benefit of society. Our most fundamental mission is to help students at all levels, from

389

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

13, 90179049, 2013 Stable atmospheric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 13, 9017­9049, 2013 Stable atmospheric methane in the 2000s I. Pison et al. Title Page Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands 3 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands 4 Vrije Universiteit, Department of Systems Ecology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands 5

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 14951508, 2003 www.atmos-chem-phys.org/acp/3/1495/ Atmospheric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Physics Trace gas measurements from infrared satellite for chemistry and climate applications C. Clerbaux1 that impact on the chemical composi- tion of the atmosphere and on the climate forcing: H2O, CO2, N2O, CH4, CFCs, O3, and CO. The atmospheric abundances obtained from the analysis of IMG/ADEOS measurements

392

MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL VARIABILITY ATLAS OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS  

SciTech Connect

Optical and near-infrared variability is a well-known property of young stellar objects. However, a growing number of recent studies claim that a considerable fraction of them also exhibit mid-infrared flux changes. With the aim of studying and interpreting variability on a decadal timescale, here we present a mid-infrared spectral atlas containing observations of 68 low- and intermediate-mass young stellar objects. The atlas consists of 2.5-11.6 {mu}m low-resolution spectra obtained with the ISOPHOT-S instrument on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between 1996 and 1998, as well as 5.2-14.5 {mu}m low-resolution spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph instrument on board the Spitzer Space Telescope between 2004 and 2007. The observations were retrieved from the ISO and Spitzer archives and were post-processed interactively by our own routines. For those 47 objects where multi-epoch spectra were available, we analyze mid-infrared spectral variability on annual and/or decadal timescales. We identify 37 variable candidate sources. Many stars show wavelength-independent flux changes, possibly due to variable accretion rates. In several systems, all exhibiting 10 {mu}m silicate emission, the variability of the 6-8 {mu}m continuum, and the silicate feature exhibit different amplitudes. A possible explanation is variable shadowing of the silicate-emitting region by an inner disk structure of changing height or extra silicate emission from dust clouds in the disk atmosphere. Our results suggest that mid-infrared variability, in particular, the wavelength-dependent changes, is more ubiquitous than was known before. Interpreting this variability is a new possibility for exploring the structure of the disk and its dynamical processes.

Kospal, A. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Abraham, P.; Kun, M.; Moor, A. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Acosta-Pulido, J. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Dullemond, C. P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Henning, Th.; Leinert, Ch. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Turner, N. J., E-mail: akospal@rssd.esa.int [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Expression of Interest: The Atmospheric Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutron tagging in Gadolinium-doped water may play a significant role in reducing backgrounds from atmospheric neutrinos in next generation proton-decay searches using megaton-scale Water Cherenkov detectors. Similar techniques might also be useful in the detection of supernova neutrinos. Accurate determination of neutron tagging efficiencies will require a detailed understanding of the number of neutrons produced by neutrino interactions in water as a function of momentum transferred. We propose the Atmospheric Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE), designed to measure the neutron yield of atmospheric neutrino interactions in gadolinium-doped water. An innovative aspect of the ANNIE design is the use of precision timing to localize interaction vertices in the small fiducial volume of the detector. We propose to achieve this by using early production of LAPPDs (Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors). This experiment will be a first application of these devices demonstrating their feasibility for Wate...

Anghel, I; Bergevin, M; Davies, G; Di Lodovico, F; Elagin, A; Frisch, H; Hill, R; Jocher, G; Katori, T; Learned, J; Northrop, R; Pilcher, C; Ramberg, E; Sanchez, M C; Smy, M; Sobel, H; Svoboda, R; Usman, S; Vagins, M; Varner, G; Wagner, R; Wetstein, M; Winslow, L; Yeh, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Atmospheric aerosol monitoring at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

SciTech Connect

For a ground based cosmic-ray observatory the atmosphere is an integral part of the detector. Air fluorescence detectors (FDs) are particularly sensitive to the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere. These aerosols, consisting mainly of clouds and dust, can strongly affect the propagation of fluorescence and Cherenkov light from cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers. The Pierre Auger Observatory has a comprehensive program to monitor the aerosols within the atmospheric volume of the detector. In this paper the aerosol parameters that affect FD reconstruction will be discussed. The aerosol monitoring systems that have been deployed at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be briefly described along with some measurements from these systems.

Cester, R.; Chiosso, M.; Chirin, J.; Clay, R.; Dawson, B.; Fick, B.; Filipcic, A.; Garcia, B.; Grillo, A.; Horvat, M.; Iarlori, M.; Malek, M.; Matthews, J.; Matthews,; Melo, D.; Meyhandan, R.; Mostafa, M.; Mussa, R.; Prouza, M.; Raefert, B.; Rizi, V.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Expression of Interest: The Atmospheric Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutron tagging in Gadolinium-doped water may play a significant role in reducing backgrounds from atmospheric neutrinos in next generation proton-decay searches using megaton-scale Water Cherenkov detectors. Similar techniques might also be useful in the detection of supernova neutrinos. Accurate determination of neutron tagging efficiencies will require a detailed understanding of the number of neutrons produced by neutrino interactions in water as a function of momentum transferred. We propose the Atmospheric Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE), designed to measure the neutron yield of atmospheric neutrino interactions in gadolinium-doped water. An innovative aspect of the ANNIE design is the use of precision timing to localize interaction vertices in the small fiducial volume of the detector. We propose to achieve this by using early production of LAPPDs (Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors). This experiment will be a first application of these devices demonstrating their feasibility for Water Cherenkov neutrino detectors.

I. Anghel; J. F. Beacom; M. Bergevin; G. Davies; F. Di Lodovico; A. Elagin; H. Frisch; R. Hill; G. Jocher; T. Katori; J. Learned; R. Northrop; C. Pilcher; E. Ramberg; M. C. Sanchez; M. Smy; H. Sobel; R. Svoboda; S. Usman; M. Vagins; G. Varner; R. Wagner; M. Wetstein; L. Winslow; M. Yeh

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

396

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Measurements of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurements of atmospheric water vapor over the oceans Measurements of atmospheric water vapor over the oceans Szczodrak, Malgorzata University of Miami Minnett, Peter University of Miami Feltz, Wayne University of Wisconsin Atmospheric water vapor is an important part of the Earth's hydrological cycle and plays a crucial role in many aspects of the climate system. The main source of the atmospheric moisture are the oceans, but the information we have about the distribution of atmospheric water vapor over the oceans is based on a relatively sparse distribution of radiosonde profiles, or on satellite-based measurements from microwave radiometers. The Marine-Atmosphere Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) is a sea-going instrument that measures spectra of atmospheric infrared emission with ~10 minute temporal resolution. These spectra can be used to retrieve profiles

397

Wind Direction Dependence of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Turbulence Parameters in the Urban Roughness Sublayer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A variety of atmospheric boundary layer parameters are examined as a function of wind direction in both urban and suburban settings in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, derived from measurements during the Joint Urban 2003 field campaign. Heterogeneous ...

Cheryl Klipp

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Differential laser absorption spectroscopy of uranium in an atmospheric pressure laser-induced plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A two-beam differential laser absorption technique is used to measure U238 absorption spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios in an atmospheric pressure laser-induced plasma....

Taylor, N R; Phillips, M C

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Recent progress in high precision atmospheric trace gas instruments using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report results from high precision spectroscopic instruments for atmospheric trace gases using with mid-IR quantum cascade lasers. Numerous gases can be measured with 1s absorption...

McManus, John B; Zahniser, Mark; Nelson, David; McGovern, Ryan; Agnese, Mike

400

Lidar-Observed Stress Vectors and Veer in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study demonstrates that a pulsed wind lidar is a reliable instrument for measuring angles between horizontal vectors of significance in the atmospheric boundary layer. Three different angles are considered: the wind turning, the angle between ...

Jacob Berg; Jakob Mann; Edward G. Patton

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Characteristics of wind speed and wind direction in the atmospheric boundary layer on the southern coast of Bulgaria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The characteristics of wind speed and wind direction in the boundary atmospheric layer measured ... meteorological station. The sodar measurement data on wind parameters at different heights in different months ....

M. A. Novitskii; L. K. Kulizhnikova…

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF BROWN DWARFS AND DIRECTLY IMAGED GIANT PLANETS  

SciTech Connect

A variety of observations provide evidence for vigorous motion in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets. Motivated by these observations, we examine the dynamical regime of the circulation in the atmospheres and interiors of these objects. Brown dwarfs rotate rapidly, and for plausible wind speeds, the flow at large scales will be rotationally dominated. We present three-dimensional, global, numerical simulations of convection in the interior, which demonstrate that at large scales, the convection aligns in the direction parallel to the rotation axis. Convection occurs more efficiently at high latitudes than low latitudes, leading to systematic equator-to-pole temperature differences that may reach ?1 K near the top of the convection zone. The interaction of convection with the overlying, stably stratified atmosphere will generate a wealth of atmospheric waves, and we argue that, as in the stratospheres of planets in the solar system, the interaction of these waves with the mean flow will cause a significant atmospheric circulation at regional to global scales. At large scales, this should consist of stratified turbulence (possibly organizing into coherent structures such as vortices and jets) and an accompanying overturning circulation. We present an approximate analytic theory of this circulation, which predicts characteristic horizontal temperature variations of several to ?50 K, horizontal wind speeds of ?10-300 m s{sup –1}, and vertical velocities that advect air over a scale height in ?10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} s. This vertical mixing may help to explain the chemical disequilibrium observed on some brown dwarfs. Moreover, the implied large-scale organization of temperature perturbations and vertical velocities suggests that near the L/T transition, patchy clouds can form near the photosphere, helping to explain recent observations of brown-dwarf variability in the near-IR.

Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1629 University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kaspi, Yohai, E-mail: showman@lpl.arizona.edu [Center for Planetary Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

403

Is Salinity Variability a Benthic Disturbance?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include: salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, and depth (Monatgna and Kalke 1992, 1995). Measurements were collected both at depth (0.1 m above bay bottom) and at the surface using a sonde... IS SALINITY VARIABILITY A BENTHIC DISTURBANCE? A Thesis by AMANDA D. VAN DIGGELEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University and the Graduate Faculty of The Texas A&M University – Corpus...

Van Diggelen, Amanda

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

404

Passive landfill gas emission – Influence of atmospheric pressure and implications for the operation of methane-oxidising biofilters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A passively vented landfill site in Northern Germany was monitored for gas emission dynamics through high resolution measurements of landfill gas pressure, flow rate and composition as well as atmospheric pressure and temperature. Landfill gas emission could be directly related to atmospheric pressure changes on all scales as induced by the autooscillation of air, diurnal variations and the passage of pressure highs and lows. Gas flux reversed every 20 h on average, with 50% of emission phases lasting only 10 h or less. During gas emission phases, methane loads fed to a connected methane oxidising biofiltration unit varied between near zero and 247 g CH4 h?1 m?3 filter material. Emission dynamics not only influenced the amount of methane fed to the biofilter but also the establishment of gas composition profiles within the biofilter, thus being of high relevance for biofilter operation. The duration of the gas emission phase emerged as most significant variable for the distribution of landfill gas components within the biofilter.

Julia Gebert; Alexander Groengroeft

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK 2011-2012 WELCOME Welcome to the Graduate on the fundamentals of Earth system processes related to land and atmosphere and their coupled interactions. Students

Minnesota, University of

406

Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK 2012-2013 WELCOME Welcome to the Graduate on the fundamentals of Earth system processes related to land and atmosphere and their coupled interactions. Students

Minnesota, University of

407

Lifetimes and time scales in atmospheric chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...such as for years with extensive forest fires. Moving beyond atmospheric chemistry, extension of this approach to Earth system models could yield surprises. The coupling across different components of the chemistry-climate system, such as atmospheric...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

15 - Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the various methods and equipments used in the measurement of liquids and gases in pipelines. Streams that transport mixed natural gas liquids require the use of mass measurement to accurately account for the volume of the components, which make up the mix. Mass measurement eliminates the effects of non-ideal mixing and the need for compressibility factors. The measurement system that provides basic simplicity, reliability, wide acceptance, and the capability of handling variable mix streams without breaking new frontiers in measurement methods is the orifice flow measuring element with online density meter and microprocessor flow computer. The orifice is a static device generally inert to the measured fluid conditions, and calibration consists of simple dimensional measurement and conformance to specified physical tolerances. The second element, the density meter, is an external unit that is easily isolated from the flowing stream for calibration, inspection, and maintenance. The relative insensitivity of CO2 density to small changes in pressure in the primary flow to the orifice meters permits locating the density meter upstream of the meter manifold, thereby serving several meters. The microprocessor flow computer, or third element of the system, is essential to achieve the advantages of integrated mass flow, which comes from the ability of the computer to make computations in essentially "real time." A development program to improve the overall uncertainty of orifice metering was initiated by Shell Pipeline Corporation. The program's goal was to develop an economical method for proving ethylene orifice meters under actual operating conditions. Shell's ethylene systems are operated in the dense phase fluid region due to lower transportation costs. The ethylene meter stations operate in two regions, the dense-phase fluid and single-phase gas regions.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Surface Modification by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Improved Bonding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composites using atmospheric plasma treatment. J. Appl.of polymer surfaces: atmospheric plasma versus vacuum plasmaA. Morgan, The effect of atmospheric plasma treatment on the

Williams, Thomas Scott

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists  

SciTech Connect

DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

Paul H. Wine

1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

411

Atmospheric considerations for the CTA site search  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the next high-energy gamma-ray observatory. Selection of the sites, one in each hemisphere, is not obvious since several factors have to be taken into account. Among them, and probably the most crucial, are the atmospheric conditions. Since July 2012, the site working group has deployed automatic ground based instrumentation (ATMOSCOPE) on all the candidate sites. Due to the limited time span available from ground based data, long term weather forecast models become necessary tools for site characterization. It is then of prime importance to validate the models by comparing it to the ATMOSCOPE measurements. We will describe the sources of data (ATMOSCOPE, weather forecasting model and satellite data) for the site evaluation and how they will be used and combined.

Vincent, Stephane

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Atmospheric transmittance model for photosynthetically active radiation  

SciTech Connect

A parametric model of the atmospheric transmittance in the PAR band is presented. The model can be straightforwardly applied for calculating the beam, diffuse and global components of the PAR solar irradiance. The required inputs are: air pressure, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide column content, Ångström's turbidity coefficient and single scattering albedo. Comparison with other models and ground measured data shows a reasonable level of accuracy for this model, making it suitable for practical applications. From the computational point of view the calculus is condensed into simple algebra which is a noticeable advantage. For users interested in speed-intensive computation of the effective PAR solar irradiance, a PC program based on the parametric equations along with a user guide are available online at http://solar.physics.uvt.ro/srms.

Paulescu, Marius; Stefu, Nicoleta; Gravila, Paul; Paulescu, Eugenia; Boata, Remus; Pacurar, Angel; Mares, Oana [Physics Department, West University of Timisoara, V Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Pop, Nicolina [Department of Physical Foundations of Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara, V Parvan 2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Calinoiu, Delia [Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Politehnica University of Timisoara, Mihai Viteazu 1, 300222 Timisoara (Romania)

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

413

Model Atmospheres for Low Field Neutron Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute model atmospheres and emergent spectra for low field (Bsolar abundance and iron atmospheres. We compare our results to high field magnetic atmospheres, available only for hydrogen. An application to apparently thermal flux from the low field millisecond pulsar PSR J0437--4715 shows that H atmospheres fit substantially better than Fe models. We comment on extension to high fields and the implication of these results for neutron star luminosities and radii.

Mohan Rajagopal; Roger Romani

1995-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

414

On the energy content of the atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vertical profiles of the content of sensible heat, potential energy, and latent heat in the atmosphere between...

Stefan L. Hastenrath

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical comprising: (a) contacting a liquid phase atmospheric sample with a chemiluminescent compound which luminesces on contact with hydroperoxyl radical; (b) determining luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample; and (c) comparing said luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample to a standard luminescence intensity for hydroperoxyl radical. An apparatus for automating the method is also included.

Springston, Stephen R. (Upton, NY); Lloyd, Judith (Westbury, NY); Zheng, Jun (Stony Brook, NY)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

416

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility - annual report 2004  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ER-ARM-0403 ER-ARM-0403 3 Table of Contents Program Overview ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 The Role of Clouds in Climate .................................................................................................................................... 4 ARM Science Goals ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 ARM Climate Research Facility: Successful Science Program Leads to User Facility Designation ................................ 5 Sites Around the World Enable Real Observations .......................................................................................................

417

In-Flight Measurements of Freestream Atmospheric Turbulence Intensities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Page Fig. 1 Picture output from FLIR SC3000 ..................................................................... 9 Fig. 2 Picture output from FLIR SC8000. .................................................................. 10 Fig. 3 Total... with the FLIR SC3000 IR camera. The solution to this was a Magma PCI-PCICMA bridge. While using the PCI based DAQ system, a Magma 4-slot PCI-PCICMA bridge was used, but once the DAQ system was upgraded to the USB system a Magma 2-slot PCI-PCICMA bridge...

Fanning, Joshua 1987-

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

418

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Products from Principal Investigators  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Office of Biological and Environmental Research in DOE's Office of Science is responsible for the ARM Program. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

419

Hybrid Microfabricated Device for Field Measurement of Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is also now generally agreed that forthcoming major volcanic eruptions will sensitively monitored for increasing sulfur gas emissions as indicated by increasing seismic activity. ... (12)?Fish, B. R.; Durham, J. L. Environ. ...

Shin-Ichi Ohira; Kei Toda; Shin-Ichiro Ikebe; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

2002-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

420

Session Papers Quality Measurement Experiments Within the Atmospheric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rundecks to an HP9000 model 735 where the model calculations are actually performed. Upon completion, the output files are transferred back to the Experiment Center and ingested...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...RADIATIVE-TRANSFER DUE TO ATMOSPHERIC WATER-VAPOR - GLOBAL...giving rise to atmospheric mo-tions that...heat release by condensation as moist air...and because the atmospheric motions that...to thE1tfrof water in a leaky bucket...

J. Hansen; D. Johnson; A. Lacis; S. Lebedeff; P. Lee; D. Rind; G. Russell

1981-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

422

Space plasma influences on the Earth's atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Lond. A (2003) Space plasma and the Earth's atmosphere 129 0.2 0.6 1.0...Lond. A (2003) Space plasma and the Earth's atmosphere 131 the size and the...satellites probing the space-plasma and atmospheric environments, they provide...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Predicting Future Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Predicting future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels...1978012175 air atmosphere biosphere carbon...Predicting future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels...re-quired 5-Mhz bandwidth, which...synchronization rate of 16 khz and the picture...the interstellar plasma. For UHF frequencies...

U. Siegenthaler; H. Oeschger

1978-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

424

Impacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

anthropogenic carbon dioxide may result from this atmospheric nitrogen fertilization, leading to a decreaseImpacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the Open Ocean R. A. Duce,1 * J. LaRoche,2 K quantities of atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen entering the open ocean could account for up to about

Ward, Bess

425

Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

than red light. #12;The Electromagnetic Spectrum 8% 47% 45% 100% solar radiation #12;Blue Sky, Red;Energy Pathways #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Atmosphere or performing any work. #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Transmission

Pan, Feifei

426

Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

Smith, Arthur P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

ATS621, Fall 2013 Atmospheric Chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ATS621, Fall 2013 Atmospheric Chemistry Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10 ­ 10:50, 212B ACRC) 491-8587 Teaching Assistant: Lauren Potter Atmospheric Chemistry Bldg., Room 11 Lepotter, transport, chemistry and deposition impact atmospheric chemical composition; 2) Explain the chemical

428

ATS621, Fall 2014 Atmospheric Chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ATS621, Fall 2014 Atmospheric Chemistry Monday and Wednesday, 9 ­ 9:50, 212B ACRC Instructor: Prof) Understand quantitatively how emissions, transport, chemistry and deposition impact atmospheric chemical to Atmospheric Chemistry, D.J. Jacob Princeton University Press, 1999 PDF versions of the chapters can

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

429

Evaluation of Health Risks of Atmospheric Pollutants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4 5- (DRAFT) Evaluation of Health Risks of Atmospheric Pollutants Guy Landrieu INERIS Institut, Stuttgart : Germany (1995)" #12;INERIS: Evaluation of health risks of atmospheric pollutants (DRAFT may 1995) Evaluation of health risks of atmospheric pollutants Summary 1 Introduction 2 Background 3 Harmfulness

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Modelling the Climatic Response to Solar Variability [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Gerard J.-C. Pecker The Sun, the primary energy source...perturbations in the global surface temperature. A hierarchy of zero- to...measurements of the sea-surface temperature made since 1860. Changes...irradiance modulate the amount and distribution of atmospheric ozone, which...

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Atmospheric Sciences Program Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (MEAS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

atmospheric chemistry/air quality, boundary layer and air pollution meteorology, regional/global climatology MODELING OF MULTIPLE AIR POLLUTANTS AT URBAN AND REGIONAL SCALES Our atmosphere is a complex systemAtmospheric Sciences Program Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (MEAS) (http

Parker, Matthew D. Brown

432

30 Planet Earth Winter 2010 Understanding changes in the global atmospheric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to measure, report and verify carbon emissions and sequestration from land-use projects and policies, rather than from measuring levels of emissions in the atmosphere. The importance of reducing emissions with the instruments available? Paul Palmer, Hartmut Bösch and Andy Kerr explore the science and politics of measuring

Palmer, Paul

433

Stability in the Plant Communities of the Park Grass Experiment: The Relationships between Species Richness, Soil pH and Biomass Variability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...between Species Richness, Soil pH and Biomass Variability Mike E. Dodd Jonathan Silvertown...of species number and soil reaction on biomass variability in a suite of comparable plant communities. Biomass variability was measured by calculating...

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Northern Hemisphere Modes of Variability and the Timing of Spring in Western North America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by controlling the number and intensity of warm days. There is also a regionwide trend in spring advancement to the atmosphere via carbon and water cycling (Schwartz 1992). Both phenoclimatic indicators (indices based in the biological world may be organized by certain modes of climate variability. If the state of these modes can

435

Pacific Ocean Contribution to the Asymmetry in Eastern Indian Ocean Variability CAROLINE C. UMMENHOFER*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pacific Ocean Contribution to the Asymmetry in Eastern Indian Ocean Variability CAROLINE C is restricted to the Indian or Pacific Ocean only, support the interpretation of forcing mechanisms for large Indian Ocean atmospheric forcing versus remote influences from Pacific wind forcing: low events develop

Ummenhofer, Caroline C.

436

Reduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration Jung-Eun Lee1*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA 2. Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State exhibit low intraseasonal precipitation variability despite high annual-mean precipitation. Analyzing simulations of the NCAR atmospheric model coupled to the Community Land Model with and without transpiration

Neelin, J. David

437

Measurement-Measurement-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Internet Measurement- System A Measurement- System B Control System GPS Satellite GPS Satellite GPS Receiver GPS Receiver 2) measurement 3) data1) command Methodology for One-way IP Performance Measurement This paper proposes a methodology for measurement of one-way IP performance metrics such as one-way delay

Jeong, Jaehoon "Paul"

438

ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY ESTIMATION USING SATELLITE PRECISION ORBIT EPHEMERIDES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The current atmospheric density models are not capable enough to accurately model the atmospheric density, which varies continuously in the upper atmosphere mainly due to the changes in solar and geomagnetic activity. Inaccurate atmospheric modeling...

Arudra, Anoop Kumar

2011-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

439

Triclosan: Source Attribution, Urinary Metabolite Levels and Temporal Variability in Exposure Among Pregnant Women in Canada .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??OBJECTIVE: To measure urinary triclosan levels and their variability across pregnancy, and to identify sources of triclosan exposure among Canadian pregnant women. METHODS: Single spot… (more)

Weiss, Lorelle D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Radioactive contamination of atmospheric dust over southeastern New Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aerosol particle samples were collected at three sites located near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a deep underground nuclear waste-storage facility, and they were analyzed to investigate the spatial and temporal variations in the concentrations of selected radionuclides and inorganic substances. The activities of 238Pu, 239,240Pu,241Pu and 241Am were determined by alpha spectrometry following a series of chemical separations, and the concentrations of Al, U and Th were determined in a separate set of samples by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. There was no evidence for impacts of the WIPP on radionuclide activity concentrations. Rather, the activities of both naturally-occurring (U and Th) and man-made (241Am and 239,240Pu) radionuclides in the aerosols peaked in spring and tracked the loadings of Al, an indicator of mineral dust. More than half of the variability in the 239,240Pu at the sampling site closest to the WIPP could be explained by the seasonal cycles of atmospheric dust. For U and Th, the predictive value of Al was even higher: 66% to over 90% of the variance in these nuclides could be explained by their relationship to dust. Extrapolation of the data to a global scale suggests that ?0.02% of the total 239,240Pu from nuclear weapons’ fallout currently recirculates between the earth and atmosphere each year. In terms of monitoring releases from nuclear facilities, the results presented here demonstrate that elemental data provide information directly relevant to understanding causes for variability in the activities of atmospheric radionuclides.

Richard Arimoto; Joel L. Webb; Marsha Conley

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Final report for the project "Improving the understanding of surface-atmosphere radiative interactions by mapping surface reflectance over the ARM CART site" (award DE-FG02-02ER63351)  

SciTech Connect

Surface spectral reflectance (albedo) is a fundamental variable affecting the transfer of solar radiation and the Earth’s climate. It determines the proportion of solar energy absorbed by the surface and reflected back to the atmosphere. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified surface albedo among key factors influencing climate radiative forcing. Accurate knowledge of surface reflective properties is important for advancing weather forecasting and climate change impact studies. It is also important for determining radiative impact and acceptable levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which makes this work strongly linked to major scientific objectives of the Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Most significant accomplishments of eth project are listed below. I) Surface albedo/BRDF datasets from 1995 to the end of 2004 have been produced. They were made available to the ARM community and other interested users through the CCRS public ftp site ftp://ftp.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ad/CCRS_ARM/ and ARM IOP data archive under “PI data Trishchenko”. II) Surface albedo properties over the ARM SGP area have been described for 10-year period. Comparison with ECMWF data product showed some deficiencies in the ECMWF surface scheme, such as missing some seasonal variability and no dependence on sky-conditions which biases surface energy budget and has some influence of the diurnal cycle of upward radiation and atmospheric absorption. III) Four surface albedo Intensive Observation Period (IOP) Field Campaigns have been conducted for every season (August, 2002, May 2003, February 2004 and October 2004). Data have been prepared, documented and transferred to ARM IOP archive. Nine peer-reviewed journal papers and 26 conference papers have been published.

Alexander P. Trishchenko; Yi Luo; Konstantin V. Khlopenkov, William M. Park; Zhanqing Li; Maureen Cribb

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

442

ARM - Measurement - Trace gas concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Trace gas concentration The amount per unit volume of trace gases other than carbon dioxide, ozone and water vapor, typically measured in conjunction with in situ aerosol measurements, e.g. carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO : Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

443

ARM - Measurement - Horizontal wind  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsHorizontal wind govMeasurementsHorizontal wind ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Horizontal wind The horizontal wind in terms of either speed and direction, or the zonal (u) and meridional (v) components. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer

444

ARM - Measurement - Vertical velocity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsVertical velocity govMeasurementsVertical velocity ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Vertical velocity The component of the velocity vector, along the local vertical. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System KAZR : Ka ARM Zenith Radar MMCR : Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radar SODAR : Mini Sound Detection and Ranging

445

The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH[subscript 4]), nitrous oxide (N[subscript 2]O) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF[subscript 6]) from Darjeeling, India are presented from December 2011 (CH[subscript 4])/March ...

Chatterjee, A.

446

Selection automatique de variables pertinentes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S´election automatique de variables pertinentes Vers la d´ecouverte de nouvelles modalit´es sensori-motrices corr´elations entre ses variables sensori-motrices afin d'apprendre `a r´esoudre sa t^ache d

Boyer, Edmond

447

Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, W. L. Smith, F. A. Best, and R. G. Dedecker University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin H. B. Howell National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Systems Design and Applications Branch Madison, Wisconsin Introduction Accurate and spectrally detailed observations of the thermal emission from radiatively important atmospheric gases, aerosols, and clouds are now being provided to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data base by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) prototype at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site. Spectra over the range from 520 to 3000 cm -1 (3 to 19 microns) with a resolution of 0.5 cm

448

Atmospheric Correction of Satellite Signal in Solar Domain: Impact of Improved Molecular Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Correction of Satellite Signal in Solar Atmospheric Correction of Satellite Signal in Solar Domain: Impact of Improved Molecular Spectroscopy A. P. Trishchenko Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada B. Hwang Intermap Technologies Corp. Calgary, Canada Z. Li University of Maryland and The Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center College Park, Maryland Introduction Atmospheric correction of satellite measurements is a major step in the retrieval of surface reflective properties. It involves removing the effect of gaseous absorption as well as correcting for the effect of an atmospheric molecular and particulate scattering. In the past few years, there has been significant advancement in our knowledge of the absorbing properties of various atmospheric radiatively active

449

Computational study of atmospheric transfer radiation on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiative transfer models explain and predict interaction between solar radiation and the different elements present in the atmosphere, which are responsible for energy attenuation. In Colombia there have been neither measurements nor studies of atmospheric components such as gases and aerosols that can cause turbidity and pollution. Therefore satellite images cannot be corrected radiometrically in a proper way. When a suitable atmospheric correction is carried out, loss of information is avoided, which may be useful for discriminating image land cover. In this work a computational model was used to find radiative atmospheric attenuation (300 1000nm wavelength region) on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia) in order to conduct an adequate atmospheric correction.

Delgado-Correal, Camilo; Castaño, Gabriel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Measurements from Cirrus Clouds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Measurements from Cirrus Clouds K. Ivanova, H. N. Shirer, and E. E. Clothiaux Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The state variables of the atmosphere exhibit correlations at various spatial and temporal scales. These correlations are crucial for understanding short- and long-term trends in climate. Cirrus clouds are important phenomena in the troposphere affecting climate. To improve future parameterization of cirrus clouds in climate models, we must understand the cloud properties and how they change within the cloud. We consider fluctuations of cloud radar signals obtained at isodepths within cirrus clouds

451

ARCADE - Atmospheric Research for Climate and Astroparticle DEtection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The characterization of the optical properties of the atmosphere in the near UV, in particular the tropospheric aerosol stratification, clouds optical depth and spatial distribution are common in the field of atmospheric physics, due to aerosol effect on climate, and also in cosmic rays physics, for a correct reconstruction of energy and longitudinal development of showers. The goal of the ARCADE project is the comparison of the aerosol attenuation measurements obtained with the typical techniques used in cosmic ray experiments (side-scattering measurement, elastic LIDAR and Raman LIDAR) in order to assess the systematic errors affecting each method providing simultaneous observations of the same air mass with different techniques. For this purpose we projected a LIDAR that is now under construction: it will use a 355 nm Nd:YAG laser and will collect the elastic and the N2 Raman back-scattered light. For the side-scattering measurement we will use the Atmospheric Monitoring Telescope, a facility owned by the ...

Buscemi, M; Cilmo, M; Coco, M; Ferrarese, S; Guarino, F; Tonachini, A S; Valore, L; Wiencke, L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Atmospheric chemistry of automotive fuel additives: Diisopropyl ether  

SciTech Connect

To quantify the atmospheric reactivity of diisopropyl ether (DIPE), we have conducted a study of the kinetics and mechanism of reaction 1: OH + DIPE {r_arrow} products. Kinetic measurements of reaction 1 were made using both relative (at 295 K) and absolute techniques (over the temperature range 240-440 K). Rate data from both techniques can be represented by the following: k{sub 1} = (2.2{sub -0.8}{sup +14}) x 10{sup -12} exp[(445 {plus_minus} 145)/T] cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1}. At 298 K, k{sub 1} = 9.8 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1}. The products of the simulated atmospheric oxidation of DIPE were identified using FT-IR spectroscopy; isopropyl acetate and HCHO were the main products. The atmospheric oxidation of DIPE can be represented by i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}O-i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7} + OH + 2NO {r_arrow} HCHO + i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OC(O)CH{sub 3} + HO{sub 2} + 2NO{sub 2}. Our kinetic and mechanistic data were incorporated into a 1-day simulation of atmospheric chemistry to quantify the relative incremental reactivity of DIPE. Results are compared with other oxygenated fuel additives. 30 refs., 9 figs.

Wallington, T.J.; Andino, J.M.; Potts, A.R. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)] [and others

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

SciTech Connect

A {gamma}-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250 C at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region there between. A jet of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

Selwyn, G.S.

1999-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

454

Prediction of Chinese coal ash fusion temperatures in Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

The ash fusion temperatures (AFTs) of 21 typical Chinese coal ash samples and 60 synthetic ash samples were measured in Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres. The computer software package FactSage was used to calculate the temperatures corresponding to different proportions of the liquid phase and predict the phase equilibria of synthetic ash samples. Empirical liquidus models were derived to correlate the AFTs under both Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres of 60 synthetic ash samples, with their liquidus temperatures calculated by FactSage. These models were used to predict the AFTs of 21 Chinese coal ash samples in Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres, and then the AFT differences between the atmospheres were analyzed. The results show that, for both atmospheres, there was an apparently linear correlation and good agreement between the AFTs of synthetic ash samples and the liquidus temperatures calculated by FactSage (R > 0.89, and {sigma} < 30{sup o}C). These models predict the AFTs of coal ash samples with a high level of accuracy (SE < 30{sup o}C). Because the iron oxides in coal ash samples fused under a H{sub 2} atmosphere are reduced to metallic iron and lead to changes of mineral species and micromorphology, the AFTs in a H{sub 2} atmosphere are always higher than those with an Ar atmosphere. 34 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Wen J. Song; Li H. Tang; Xue D. Zhu; Yong Q. Wu; Zi B. Zhu; Shuntarou Koyama [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Time dependences of atmospheric Carbon dioxide fluxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere is critical for predictions regarding future climate changes. A simple mass conservation analysis presented here generates tight estimations for the atmosphere's retention time constant. The analysis uses a leaky integrator model that combines the observed deficit (only less than 40% of CO2 produced from combustion of fossil fuels is actually retained in the atmosphere, while more than 60% is continuously shed) with the exponential growth of fossil fuel burning. It reveals a maximum characteristic time of less than 23 year for the transfer of atmospheric CO2 to a segregation sink. This time constant is further constrained by the rapid disappearance of 14C after the ban of atmospheric atomic bomb tests, which provides a lower limit of 18 years for this transfer. The study also generates evaluations of other CO2 fluxes, exchange time constants and volumes exchanged. Analysis of large harmonic oscillations of atmospheric CO2 concentration, often neglected in th...

DeSalvo, Riccardo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

ARM - Measurement - Virtual temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsVirtual temperature govMeasurementsVirtual temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Virtual temperature The virtual temperature Tv = T(1 + rv/{epsilon}), where rv is the mixing ratio, and {epsilon} is the ratio of the gas constants of air and water vapor ( 0.622). Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems MWRP : Microwave Radiometer Profiler RWP : Radar Wind Profiler

457

Natural Climate Variability Michael Ghil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

periodic (often called quasi-periodic) variations in Earth's orbit around the Sun affect the intensity-gas concentrations in the atmosphere, such as that of carbon dioxide (CO2), will increase surface temperatures through the greenhouse effect (see Projection of Future Changes in Climate, Volume 1). This temperature

Ghil, Michael

458

Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric ...

Velasco, Erik

459

Absolute calibration of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A calibrated laser pulse propagating through the atmosphere produces a flash of Rayleigh scattered light with an intensity that can be calculated very accurately when atmospheric conditions are good. This is used in a technique developed for the absolute calibration of ultra high energy cosmic ray fluorescence telescopes, and it can also be applied to imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). In this paper we present the absolute calibration system being constructed and tested for the VERITAS project.

N. Shepherd; J. H. Buckley; O. Celik; J. Holder; S. LeBohec; H. Manseri; F. Pizlo; M. Roberts

2005-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

460

Variability, interaction and change in the atmosphere–ocean–ecology system of the Western Indian Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...all. In a symposium on the Indian Ocean over 30 years ago, David...sea level? Why do most modern Indian Ocean reefs only thinly veneer...survival over long time-scales) point to the importance of long-term...regeneration. In the Western Indian Ocean, studies are in place...

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Atmospheric structure and variability in areas of convective storms determined from 3-h rawinsonde data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

changes in TTI determined from charts in Fig. 58. . 101 60 61 62 Cumulative frequency distributions of changes in TTI in AVE II . . ~ . . . . . ~ Surface analysis at 2100 GMT, 11 May 1974 Satellite and radar composite at 2200 GMT, 11 May 1974 102... change in the probability of convective activity by a factor of 8 or more in 3 h. Between 30% and 60% of the total changes in parameters associated with convective activity over a 12-h period is shown to take place during a 3-h period. These large...

Wilson, Gregory Sims

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

462

Interannual Atmospheric Variability Affects Continental Ice Sheet Simulations on Millennial Time Scales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

well as cooling at the southeast margin of the ice sheet. Fdue to cooling over the North Ameri- can and Eurasian icetide ice sheet margin resulting in a 1°C cooling over the

Pritchard, Michael S; Bush, Andrew B. G; Marshall, Shawn J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Atmospheric controls on northeast Pacific temperature variability and change, 1900–2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of daily surface map analyses from various...10-m height) winds, boundary-layer...with 20CR surface winds, include near-surface...temperatures and vertical velocities. Linear regression was...Stoelinga MT Albright MD Mass CF ( 2010 ) A new look...observed heat-flux and wind stress anomalies . Clim Dyn 9...

James A. Johnstone; Nathan J. Mantua

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Interannual Atmospheric Variability Affects Continental Ice Sheet Simulations on Millennial Time Scales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wu, P. , and W. R. Peltier, 1982: Viscous gravitationalG. K. C. Clarke, and W. R. Peltier, 2000: Gla- ciologicalTech. Rep. 2, 17 pp. Peltier, W. R. , 1985: The LAGEOS

Pritchard, Michael S; Bush, Andrew B. G; Marshall, Shawn J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Multiscale dynamics of atmospheric and oceanic variability in the climate system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Filtering) for Numerical Weather Prediction models wereNumerical Weather Prediction (NWP) in meteorology, caused ocean models

Subramanian, Aneesh C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Recent trends in atmospheric methyl bromide: analysis of post-Montreal Protocol variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2003) caution that their bio- fuel emission estimates couldthe Yevich and Logan (2003) bio- fuel emissions to CH 3 Br

Yvon-Lewis, S. A; Saltzman, E. S; Montzka, S. A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in the tropical atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CM2.1 GISS-AOM GISS-EH GISS-ER INM-CM3.0 IPSL-CM4 MIROC3.2(GISS-AOM, two; GISS-EH, ?ve; GISS-ER, ?ve); the Center forCM2.1 GISS-AOM GISS-EH GISS-ER INM-CM3.0 IPSL-CM4 MIROC3.2(

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Rapid communication Atmospheric dust variability from Arabia and China over the last 500,000 years  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

while teaching a physics class. http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/faraday/index.html Would, hydro-electric generators and transformers operation. += sL dS t D JdlH *Mention some examples on the charges. http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/electricmotor.htm http://micro

Rohling, Eelco

469

Chlordanes in the Mid-Atlantic Atmosphere:? New Jersey 1997?1999  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To characterize the atmospheric dynamics and behavior of chlordane compounds in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, atmospheric concentrations were measured in 1997?1999 at three New Jersey locations as part of the New Jersey Atmospheric Deposition Network (NJADN) project. ... The Jersey City site is located within 500 m of a major interstate highway and is situated on the grounds of Liberty State Park in the middle of a major urban/industrial setting 3 km west of lower Manhattan. ...

John H. Offenberg Eric D. Nelson; Cari L. Gigliotti; Steven J. Eisenreich

2004-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

470

Measuring Cost Variability in Provision of Transit Service  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W. , and S. R. Mundle. Peak-Base Cost Allocation Models. In29–33. Reilly, J. M. Transit Costs During Peak and Off-PeakHow to Allocate Bus Route Costs. Transit, Vol. 5, No. 2,

Taylor, Brian D.; Garrett, Mark; Iseki, Hiroyuki

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Measuring the performance and intrinsic variability of evolved circuits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparison between conventional and multi-objective Cartesian Genetic Programming evolved designs for a 2-bit adder and a 2-bit multiplier. Each design is converted from a gate-level schematic to a transistor level implementation, ...

James Alfred Walker; James A. Hilder; Andy M. Tyrrell

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Variability in the Measurement of Hospital-wide Mortality Rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the substantially different results we observed among methods may reflect flaws in the fundamental hypothesis that hospital-wide mortality is a valid metric for the quality of hospital care. Our study also does not rule out the possibility that the estimation of hospital-wide mortality rates on the... This study showed that four commonly used methods to calculate hospitals' risk-adjusted rates of death produced different results. The same hospitals were classified as having higher-than-expected mortality by one method and lower-than-expected mortality by other methods.

Shahian D.M.Wolf R.E.Iezzoni L.I.Kirle L.Normand S.-L.T.

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

473

NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities The Atmospheric Processing platform in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated tools for depositing, processing, and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. In particular, this platform focuses on different methods to deposit ("write") materials onto a variety of substrates and then further process into optoelectronic materials using rapid thermal processing. You can read more on the rationale for developing this platform and its capabilities. Contact Maikel van Hest for more details on these capabilities. The Atmospheric Processing platform will allow deposition in any sequence and is applicable to activities in all Technology Roadmaps, which include

474

Atmospheric Pressure Discharges: Traveling Wave Plasma Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microwave sustained, atmospheric pressure plasmas are finding an increasing number of applications ... interest in the developing and investigating of appropriate plasma sources [1, 2].

Z. Zakrzewski; M. Moisan

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

12.815 Atmospheric Radiation, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to the physics of atmospheric radiation and remote sensing including use of computer codes. Radiative transfer equation including emission and scattering, spectroscopy, Mie theory, and numerical solutions. ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

476

Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat flux, and wind power input to the ocean. Geophys. Res.Powers and Stoelinga (2000). They developed a comprehensive atmosphere-ocean-

Seo, Hyodae

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat flux, and wind power input to the ocean. Geophys. Res.Powers and Stoelinga (2000). They developed a comprehensive atmosphere-ocean-

Seo, Hyodae

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Atmosphere to Electrons Program Overview Presentation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation provides an introduction to the Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) initiative, including objectives, program areas, and a general timeline of activities.

479

Altitude and latitude variations in avionics SEU and atmospheric neutron flux  

SciTech Connect

The direct cause of single event upsets in SRAMs at aircraft altitudes by the atmospheric neutrons has previously been documented. The variation of the in-flight SEU rate with latitude is demonstrated by new data over a wide range of geographical locations. New measurements and models of the atmospheric neutron flux are also evaluated to characterize its variation with altitude, latitude and solar activity.

Normand, E.; Baker, T.J. (Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil consumption of atmospheric methane plays an important secondary role in regulating the atmospheric CH4 budget, next to the dominant loss mechanism involving reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Here we used a ...

Zhuang, Qianlai

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "measurement variable atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Harvard University #12;Site Descrip>on · Mixed hardwood and conifer forest · 40Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site Petersham, MA Evan Goldman interannual variability and long-term trends in fluxes and forest physiological responses

482

Improved sample size determination for attributes and variables sampling  

SciTech Connect

Earlier INMM papers have addressed the attributes/variables problem and, under conservative/limiting approximations, have reported analytical solutions for the attributes and variables sample sizes. Through computer simulation of this problem, we have calculated attributes and variables sample sizes as a function of falsification, measurement uncertainties, and required detection probability without using approximations. Using realistic assumptions for uncertainty parameters of measurement, the simulation results support the conclusions: (1) previously used conservative approximations can be expensive because they lead to larger sample sizes than needed; and (2) the optimal verification strategy, as well as the falsification strategy, are highly dependent on the underlying uncertainty parameters of the measurement instruments. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Calibrations of filter radiometers for determination of atmospheric optical depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric optical depths are determined by relating ground-based measurements of direct solar radiation to the extraterrestrial value, I0, that a filter radiometer would read outside the atmosphere. Usually I0 is determined by the Langley extrapolation technique from a high-altitude site, where clear and highly stable atmospheric conditions may be found. Alternatively, I0 can be measured in situ from a stratospheric balloon experiment. We have employed both methods and found agreement to better than 1 %. Filter radiometers tend to change over time, especially when used operationally outdoors. Absolute calibrations in the laboratory are used to monitor the radiometric stability of filter radiometers at the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD/WRC, Switzerland). A spectral calibration facility based on a calibrated trap detector from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany) is used to relate the filter radiometer to an accurate and long-term traceable standard. An FEL-lamp-based standard, previously used for several years, was compared with the new trap standard via a filter radiometer at four wavelengths between 368 nm and 862 nm and revealed a systematic difference of the order of 5 %. The link between radiometric and I0 calibration is the value of the extraterrestrial solar spectrum at the filter radiometer wavelengths which can be determined from these two calibrations and compared with published values.

Ch Wehrli

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

High resolution properties of the marine atmospheric boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) participated in the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) by fielding a water-vapor Raman lidar on board the Research Vessel Vickers. The lidar measured water vapor concentration from the surface to lower tropospheric altitudes in order to support the CEPEX goal of evaluating a hypothesis regarding feedback mechanisms for global circulation models. This report describes some of the features observed within the marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and the lower troposphere. Data was collected continuously 24 hours per day over the equatorial Pacific from March 8th to March 2 1st of 1993 while in route between Guadalcanal and Christmas Island (the transect was at approximately 2{degree} south latitude). The lidar collected vertical transects of water vapor concentration up to 10 km during night operations and 4 km in the day. The vertical lidar profiles of water vapor were produced by summing the data over a period up to 600 seconds. The water-vapor Raman lidar measured the properties of the marine ABL as well as the lower and mid-troposphere. From the lidar water vapor profiles, ``images`` of water vapor concentration versus altitude and date or sea surface temperature will be produced along with other products such as latent heat fluxes. The Raman water vapor lidar data will be used to better understand the role of transport and exchange at the ocean-atmosphere interface and throughout the marine atmosphere.

Cooper, D.; Cottingame, W.; Eichinger, W.; Forman, P.; Lebeda, C.; Poling, D.; Thorton, R.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate June 2013. [1] Soil consumption of atmospheric methane plays an important secondary role in regulating). Here we used a process-based biogeochemistry model to quantify soil consumption during the 20th and 21

486

Atmospheric Science The Earth's atmosphere, a layered sphere of gas extending  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

division study the composition, structure, chemical, and physical processes of the Earth's atmosphere. The division's four interrelated groups focus on satellite, airborne, and ground-based observations processes such as atmospheric dynamics, chemistry, and radiation on Earth and other planets. Our atmospheric

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

487

TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION OF ATMOSPHERICALLY DEPOSITED ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS AT HIGH ELEVATION IN YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK, CALIFORNIA, USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be transported tens of kilometers and deposited in adjacent mountains in many parts of the world. Atmospherically guidelines or critical thresholds in both parks. A general pattern of difference between Yosemite and Sequoia to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Variability of chemical concentrations among sites, between sampling

Knapp, Roland

488

A model study of the impact of magnetic field structure on atmospheric composition during solar proton events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model study of the impact of magnetic field structure on atmospheric composition during solar is possible into regions that are at the moment effectively shielded by the Earth's magnetic field. A two (process, timescale, magnetostratigraphy); 1650 Global Change: Solar variability; 2716 Magnetospheric

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

489

Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

Wang, Chunzai

490

Technical Sessions B. E. Manner National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

B. E. Manner B. E. Manner National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Wave Propagation Laboratory 130ulder, CO 80303 The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) pirog ram goals are ambitious, and its schedule is demanding. Many of the instruments, proposed for operations at the first Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site as early alS 1992 represent emerging technology and exist only as :special research prototypes. Therefore, an important preparatory step for ARM was an intensive field project in Colorado in 1991 to assess the suitability of instruments an(j tech- niques for profiling the thermodynamic and kinematic structure of the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The field work was designed to provide ARM with a head start by gathering practical information for the desigln and

491

ARM - Measurement - Advective tendency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsAdvective tendency govMeasurementsAdvective tendency ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Advective tendency The large-scale advective tendency of temperature and moisture used to force SCMs and CSRMs, derived from constrained variational analysis. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments ECMWFDIAG : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model

492

Secure Quantum Key Distribution using Continuous Variables of Single Photons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We analyze the distribution of secure keys using quantum cryptography based on the continuous variable degree of freedom of entangled photon pairs. We derive the information capacity of a scheme based on the spatial entanglement of photons from a realistic source, and show that the standard measures of security known for quadrature-based continuous variable quantum cryptography (CV-QKD) are inadequate. A specific simple eavesdropping attack is analyzed to illuminate how secret information may be distilled well beyond the bounds of the usual CV-QKD measures.

Lijian Zhang; Christine Silberhorn; Ian A. Walmsley

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

493

Global Thermodynamic Atmospheric Modeling: Search for NewHeterogeneous Reactions  

SciTech Connect

This article demonstrates quantitatively how far reactions are from chemical equilibrium over the full space of a two-dimensional atmospheric model. This method could be used with data where an instrument-equipped aircraft measures numerous species simultaneously, An atmospheric reaction is displaced from equilibrium by solar radiation and relocation of species by atmospheric motions. One purpose of this study is to seek additional stratospheric or tropospheric gas-phase chemical reactions that might undergo heterogeneous catalysis. Hypothetical cases can be rapidly screened in terms of their thermodynamic potential to react under measured or modeled atmospheric conditions of temperature and local species concentrations. If a reaction is interesting, is slow in the gas phase, and has a high thermodynamic tendency to react, it is a good candidate for a laboratory study to seek a heterogeneous catalyst, if the reaction is thermodynamically unfavorable, there is no catalyst that can cause the reaction to occur. If a reaction is thermodynamically favored to occur but also endothermic, it will tend to be slow at stratospheric temperatures. We find, as expected, that four heterogeneous reactions important in causing the Antarctic ''ozone hole'' have high thermodynamic tendencies to occur under atmospheric conditions, but one of these is only weakly thermodynamically allowed in some regions of the atmosphere. The reaction of SO2 and HNO3 to form HONO has a high thermodynamic potential to occur, is a well-known laboratory reaction at ice temperature, and may occur in nitric acid-rich sulfate aerosols. Throughout the troposphere and stratosphere, we find that formaldehyde has an extremely high thermodynamic potential to reduce nitric acid. Formaldehyde is known to stick to and remain in sulfuric acid solution, where it adds water to form H2C(OH)(2). Near room-temperature H2C(OH)(2) reacts with nitric acid in a two-step mechanism to form two molecules of HONO, but the rate of this process under conditions of stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosols is unknown.

Fairbrother, D.H.; Sullivan, D.S.D.; Johnston, H.S.

1997-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

494

Performance Engineering in the Community Atmosphere Model  

SciTech Connect

The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is the atmospheric component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and is the primary consumer of computer resources in typical CCSM simulations. Performance engineering has been an important aspect of CAM development throughout its existence. This paper briefly summarizes these efforts and their impacts over the past five years.

Worley, P; Mirin, A; Drake, J; Sawyer, W

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

495

Predicting Future Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...re-quired 5-Mhz bandwidth...interstellar plasma. For UHF frequencies of 500 Mhz, this amounts...chang-ing the atmospheric carbon dioxide...in the polar areas. Although...The shaded area indicates the...per-missible atmospheric CO2 level might...emission rates are largest between 2000...

U. Siegenthaler; H. Oeschger

1978-01-27T23:59:59.000Z